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Sample records for bioactive glass ceramics

  1. Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics

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    de Aza, P. N.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1960´s, a great interest in the use of bioceramic materials for biomedical applications has been developed. In a previous paper, the authors reviewed crystalline bioceramic materials “sensus stricto”, it is to say, those ceramic materials, constituted for non-metallic inorganic compounds, crystallines and consolidates by thermal treatment of powders at high temperature. In the present review, the authors deal with those called bioactive glasses and glassceramics. Although all of them are also obtained by thermal treatment at high temperature, the first are amorphous and the second are obtained by devitrification of a glass, although the vitreous phase normally prevails on the crystalline phases. After an introduction to the concept of bioactive materials, a short historical review of the bioactive glasses development is made. Its preparation, reactivity in physiological media, mechanism of bonding to living tissues and mechanical strength of the bone-implant interface is also reported. Next, the concept of glass-ceramic and the way of its preparation are exposed. The composition, physicochemical properties and biological behaviour of the principal types of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic materials: Bioglass®, Ceravital®, Cerabone®, Ilmaplant® and Bioverit® are also reviewed. Finally, a short review on the bioactive-glass coatings and bioactive-composites and most common uses of bioactive-glasses and glass-ceramics are carried out too.

    Desde finales de los años sesenta, se ha despertado un gran interés por el uso de los materiales biocerámicos para aplicaciones biomédicas. En un trabajo previo, los autores hicieron una revisión de los denominados materiales biocerámicos cristalinos en sentido estricto, es decir, de aquellos materiales, constituidos por compuestos inorgánicos no metálicos, cristalinos y consolidados mediante tratamientos térmicos a altas temperaturas. En el presente trabajo, los autores

  2. A new bio-active glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, A.; Arif, I.; Suleman, M.; Hussain, K.; Shah, W.A.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1960 fine ceramics such as alumina have been used side by side with metallic materials for bone and joint replacement. They have high mechanical strength and are free from corrosion problem faced by metals. However they don't bond to the natural living bone and hence are called bio-inactive. This was followed by the development of bio-active glasses and glass-ceramics which bond to the natural bone but have low mechanical strength. In the present work a new bio-active glass-ceramic, based on CaO-SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 3/-MgO composition, has been developed which has mechanical strength compared to that of a bio-inactive glass ceramic and also bonds strongly to the natural bone. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals wollastanite and apatite phases in the glass ceramic. A new bio-active cement has also been developed which can be used to join broken pieces of bone or by itself at a filler. (author)

  3. Bioactive and inert dental glass-ceramics.

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    Montazerian, Maziar; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2017-02-01

    The global market for dental materials is predicted to exceed 10 billion dollars by 2020. The main drivers for this growth are easing the workflow of dentists and increasing the comfort of patients. Therefore, remarkable research projects have been conducted and are currently underway to develop improved or new dental materials with enhanced properties or that can be processed using advanced technologies, such as CAD/CAM or 3D printing. Among these materials, zirconia, glass or polymer-infiltrated ceramics, and glass-ceramics (GCs) are of great importance. Dental glass-ceramics are highly attractive because they are easy to process and have outstanding esthetics, translucency, low thermal conductivity, high strength, chemical durability, biocompatibility, wear resistance, and hardness similar to that of natural teeth, and, in certain cases, these materials are bioactive. In this review article, we divide dental GCs into the following two groups: restorative and bioactive. Most restorative dental glass-ceramics (RDGCs) are inert and biocompatible and are used in the restoration and reconstruction of teeth. Bioactive dental glass-ceramics (BDGCs) display bone-bonding ability and stimulate positive biological reactions at the material/tissue interface. BDGCs are suggested for dentin hypersensitivity treatment, implant coating, bone regeneration and periodontal therapy. Throughout this paper, we elaborate on the history, processing, properties and applications of RDGCs and BDGCs. We also report on selected papers that address promising types of dental glass-ceramics. Finally, we include trends and guidance on relevant open issues and research possibilities. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 619-639, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  5. Bioactive type glass-ceramics within incorporated aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volzone, C.; Stabile, F.M.; Ortiga, J.

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics are used as biomaterials for the reparation of bone tissue. They are prepared, generally, by bioglass of specific composition for each particular use. The aluminium addition in the formulation at very small quantities influences on the structural properties. Two glass-ceramics obtained by P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O-CaO-SiO 2 formulation within aluminium (0.5 % in Al 2 O 3 base) added through a reactive alumina and purified feldspar were analyzed. The results showed structural differences between both glass-ceramics. (author)

  6. [Cytocompatibility of two porous bioactive glass-ceramic in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Xiuli; Wang, Deping; Zhen, Lei

    2013-06-01

    To compare the cytocompatibility of two kinds porous bioactive glass-ceramic made by same raw materials. Apatite/wollastonite bioactive glass-ceramic (4006) were prepared by sol-gel method, and bioactive glass (45S5) were prepared by melting method. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultivated, differentiated and proliferated into osteoblasts, from a rabbit's marrow in the differentiatiofn culture medium with active function. The viability of BMSCs cultivated with extraction of these two kinds of biomaterial, which could represent the cytotoxicity effect of 4006 and 45S5 against BMSCs, was evaluated by the MTp assay. BMSCs were seeded and cocultivated with two kinds of biomaterial scaffolds respectively in vitro. The proliferation and biological properties of cells adhered to scaffolds were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), and a suitable cell amount for seeding on the scaffold was searched. There was no difference on the viability of BMSCs only cultured for one day by complete extract of 4006 and culture medium (P>0.05), but there was significant difference between them when the cells had been cultured for 3 days(Pglass-ceramic has good bioactivity and cytocompatibility. Therefore, it may have the potential to be a new cell vehicle for bone tissue engineering. And the suitable seeding cell amount of apatite/wollastonite bioactive glass-ceramic should be 2x10(7) cells.mL-1 or even more than that.

  7. EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING NATURAL MINERALS ON PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS

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    Franco Matias Stabile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two glass-ceramics composition were produced from natural minerals. Quartzes and feldspars were pre-selected on the basis of their purities studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and chemical analysis. Prepared compositions of glasses precursors were two different theoretical leucite (KAlSi₂O₆ /Bioglass 45S5 (L/Bg ratios. Transformations of raw materials mixtures and glass precursors were studied by differential thermal analyses. On the basis of thermal analysis results, glass ceramics were produced and characterized by XRD. Glass-ceramics were composed of two major crystalline phases, leucite and sodium calcium silicate. Bioactivity tests were performed submerging the glass-ceramics into simulated body fluid (SBF for different periods (1, 5 and 10 days. Bioactive behavior was monitored by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studied samples were found to be bioactive, in which hydroxyapatite layer was developed within 5 days of contact with SBF.

  8. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

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    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bioactive Glass and Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

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    Aldo R. Boccaccini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on the basis of melt-derived bioactive silicate glass compositions and relevant composite structures. Starting with an excerpt on the history of bioactive glasses, as well as on fundamental requirements for bone tissue engineering scaffolds, a detailed overview on recent developments of bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds will be given, including a summary of common fabrication methods and a discussion on the microstructural-mechanical properties of scaffolds in relation to human bone (structure-property and structure-function relationship. In addition, ion release effects of bioactive glasses concerning osteogenic and angiogenic responses are addressed. Finally, areas of future research are highlighted in this review.

  10. Plasma spraying of bioactive glass-ceramics containing bovine bone

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    Annamária Dobrádi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural bone derived glass-ceramics are promising biomaterials for implants. However, due to their price and weak mechanical properties they are preferably applied as coatings on load bearing implants. This paper describes result obtained by plasma spraying of bioactive glass-ceramics containing natural bone onto selected implant materials, such as stainless steel, alumina, and titanium alloy. Adhesion of plasma sprayed coating was tested by computed X-ray tomography and SEM of cross sections. The results showed defect free interface between the coating and substrate, without cracks or gaps. Dissolution rate of the coating in simulated body fluid (SBF was readily controlled by the bone additives (phase composition, as well as microstructure. The SBF treatment of the plasma sprayed coating did not influence the boundary between the coating and substrate.

  11. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Technical Education Faculty, Mersin University, 33480 Tarsus, Turkey. MS received 18 October 2005; revised 22 March 2006. Abstract. In this study, abrasive ... process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied ...

  12. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-01-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO 2 –Na 2 O–CaO–P 2 O 5 –FeO–Fe 2 O 3 and contains magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests show hydroxyapatite precipitates

  13. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verné, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruno, Matteo [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta [Traumatology Orthopedics and Occupational Medicine Dept., Università di Torino, Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cochis, Andrea [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Rimondini, Lia [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–FeO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and contains magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests

  14. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda-lime-silica waste glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak

    2014-04-01

    Soda-lime-silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Diopside-Fluorapatite-Wollastonite Based Bioactive Glasses and Glass-ceramics =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Ishu

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics are a class of biomaterials which elicit special response on their surface when in contact with biological fluids, leading to strong bonding to living tissue. This particular trait along with good sintering ability and high mechanical strength make them ideal materials for scaffold fabrication. The work presented in this thesis is directed towards understanding the composition-structure-property relationships in potentially bioactive glasses designed in CaO-MgO-P2O5-SiO2-F system, in some cases with added Na2O. The main emphasis has been on unearthing the influence of glass composition on molecular structure, sintering ability and bioactivity of phosphosilicate glasses. The parent glass compositions have been designed in the primary crystallization field of the pseudo-ternary system of diopside (CaO•MgO•2SiO2) - fluorapatite (9CaO•3P2O5•CaF2) - wollastonite (CaO•SiO2), followed by studying the impact of compositional variations on the structure-property relationships and sintering ability of these glasses. All the glasses investigated in this work have been synthesized via melt-quenching route and have been characterized for their molecular structure, sintering ability, chemical degradation and bioactivity using wide array of experimental tools and techniques. It has been shown that in all investigated glass compositions the silicate network was mainly dominated by Q2 units while phosphate in all the glasses was found to be coordinated in orthophosphate environment. The glass compositions designed in alkali-free region of diopside - fluorapatite system demonstrated excellent sintering ability and good bioactivity in order to qualify them as potential materials for scaffold fabrication while alkali-rich bioactive glasses not only hinder the densification during sintering but also induce cytotoxicity in vitro, thus, are not ideal candidates for in vitro tissue engineering. One of our bioglass compositions with low sodium

  17. Electrophoretic deposition of mesoporous bioactive glass on glass-ceramic foam scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Sonia; Baino, Francesco; Cauda, Valentina; Crepaldi, Marco; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Demarchi, Danilo; Onida, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the coating of 3-D foam-like glass-ceramic scaffolds with a bioactive mesoporous glass (MBG) was investigated. The starting scaffolds, based on a non-commercial silicate glass, were fabricated by the polymer sponge replica technique followed by sintering; then, electrophoretic deposition (EPD) was applied to deposit a MBG layer on the scaffold struts. EPD was also compared with other techniques (dipping and direct in situ gelation) and it was shown to lead to the most promising results. The scaffold pore structure was maintained after the MBG coating by EPD, as assessed by SEM and micro-CT. In vitro bioactivity of the scaffolds was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid and subsequent evaluation of hydroxyapatite (HA) formation. The deposition of a MBG coating can be a smart strategy to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, allowing the formation of nano-structured HA agglomerates within 48 h from immersion, which does not occur on uncoated scaffold surfaces. The mechanical properties of the scaffold do not vary after the EPD (compressive strength ~19 MPa, fracture energy ~1.2 × 10(6) J m(-3)) and suggest the suitability of the prepared highly bioactive constructs as bone tissue engineering implants for load-bearing applications.

  18. Characterization of the bioactive and mechanical behavior of dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Zahra; Bahrololoum, Mohammad E; Bagheri, Rafat; Shariat, Mohammad H

    2016-02-01

    Dental ceramics can be modified by bioactive glasses in order to develop apatite layer on their surface. One of the benefits of such modification is to prolong the lifetime of the fixed dental prosthesis by preventing the formation of secondary caries. Dental ceramic/sol-gel derived bioactive glass mixture is one of the options for this modification. In the current study, mixtures of dental ceramic/bioactive glass with different compositions were successfully produced. To evaluate their bioactive behavior, prepared samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid at various time intervals. The prepared and soaked specimens were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Since bioactive glasses have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of dental ceramics, 3-point bending tests were used to evaluate the flexural strength, flexural strain, tangent modulus of elasticity and Weibull modulus of the specimens in order to find the optimal relationship between mechanical and bioactive properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Recostruction of Extensive Acetabular Defects by Bioactive Glass Ceramics in Re-operations of Total Endoprostheses.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, K; Sponer, P

    1998-01-01

    The authors made 37 revisions on account of aseptic loosening of total endoprostheses of the hip joint using bioactive glass ceramics BAS-0 of Lasak Co. Prague. For reconstruction of large defects of the acetabulum they used a combination of different types of anti-protrusion metal baskets and granules from this material. In some instances the glass ceramic material was combined with autologous spongiosa. The longest follow-up period is over 4 years. In no instance loosening of the glass ceramic material occurred or its expulsion. All reconstructed sockets of hip joints were burdened by the patients from the third month after surgery. Harris Hip Score before operation was on average 52. During the last checkups of the patients it reached the level of 86. The authors mention complications associated with the procedure. The advantages and disadvantages of the procedure are discussed. Key words: bioactive glass ceramics, reconstruction of acetabular defect, aseptic loosening of endoprosthesis.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, bioactivity and antibacterial studies of silver doped calcium borosilicate glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alesh; Mariappan, C. R.

    2018-04-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics 45.8 mol% SiO- 45.8 CaO - 8.4 B2O3 doped with Ag2O were synthesized by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic nature of samples was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra reveal the probable stretching and bending vibration modes of silicate and borate groups. UV-Visible spectra reveal the presence of Ag+ ions and metallic Ag in the glass matrix for Ag2O doped ceramic sample. Biocompatibility of the glass nature of samples was studied by soaking of samples in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) with subsequent XRD studies. It was found that bone-like apatite formation on the glasses after soaked in DMEM. Antibacterial studies of glass ceramics powder against gram positive and negative microorganisms were carried out.

  1. Bioactivity of thermal plasma synthesized bovine hydroxyapatite/glass ceramic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoganand, C P; Selvarajan, V; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Cannillo, Valeria; Sola, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Bone injuries and failures often require the inception of implant biomaterials. Research in this area is receiving increasing attention worldwide. A variety of artificial bone materials, such as metals, polymeric materials, composites and ceramics, are being explored to replace diseased bones. Calcium phosphate ceramics are currently used as biomaterials for many applications in both dentistry and orthopedics. Bioactive silicate-based glasses show a higher bioactive behaviour than calcium phosphate materials. It is very interesting to study the mixtures of HA and silicate-based glasses. In the present study; natural bovine hydroxyapatite / SiO 2 -CaO-MgO glass composites were produced using the Transferred arc plasma (TAP) melting method. TAP melting route is a brisk process of preparation of glass-ceramics in which the raw materials are melted in the plasma and crystallization of the melt occurs while cooling down at a much faster rate in relatively short processing times compared to the conventional methods of manufacture of glass ceramics/composites. It is well known that; one essential step to the understanding of the biological events occurring at the bone tissue/material interface is the biological investigation by in vitro tests. Cell lines are commonly used for biocompatibility tests, and are very efficient because of their reproducibility and culture facility. In this study, we report the results of a study on the response of primary cultures of human fibroblast cells to TAP melted bioactive glass ceramics.

  2. COMPARISON OF BIOACTIVITY IN VITRO OF GLASS AND GLASS CERAMIC MATERIALS DURING SOAKING IN SBF AND DMEM MEDIUM

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    GABRIELA LUTIŠANOVÁ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the surface reactivity of two sets of glasses and glass ceramic materials belonging to the Li2O–SiO2–CaO–P2O5–CaF2 system. The in vitro bioactivity of coatings was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF and Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM soaking test in static regime for up to 28 days at 36.5°C in microincubator. The surface structure changes were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA methods. The functional groups of the silicate and phosphates were identified by infrared spectroscopy (IR. The crystal phases of the glasses and glass ceramics were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD. The results suggest the bioactivity behavior for all compositions of glasses as well as glass ceramic samples after 28 days in the SBF and DMEM medium. The surface characterization and in vitro tests revealed a few variations in the reactivity of the different glasses and glass ceramic samples in their pristine form. The best results show the samples of glass and glass ceramic samples with higher content of fluorapatite (FA. The use of the acellular culture medium DMEM resulted in a delay at the start of precipitation.

  3. Mechanochemically synthesized kalsilite based bioactive glass-ceramic composite for dental vaneering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pattem Hemanth; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-08-01

    Kalsilite glass-ceramic composites have been prepared by a mechanochemical synthesis process for dental veneering application. The aim of the present study is to prepare bioactive kalsilite composite material for application in tissue attachment and sealing of the marginal gap between fixed prosthesis and tooth. Mechanochemical synthesis is used for the preparation of microfine kalsilite glass-ceramic. Low temperature frit and bioglass have been prepared using the traditional quench method. Thermal, microstructural and bioactive properties of the composite material have been examined. The feasibility of the kalsilite to be coated on the base commercial opaque as well as the bioactive behavior of the coated specimen has been confirmed. This study indicates that the prepared kalsilite-based composites show similar structural, morphological and bioactive behavior to that of commercial VITA VMK95 Dentin 1M2.

  4. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Foam Scaffolds from ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Giulia; Vitale Brovarone, Chiara

    2018-01-01

    Highly porous bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds were effectively fabricated by an inorganic gel casting technique, based on alkali activation and gelification, followed by viscous flow sintering. Glass powders, already known to yield a bioactive sintered glass-ceramic (CEL2) were dispersed in an alkaline solution, with partial dissolution of glass powders. The obtained glass suspensions underwent progressive hardening, by curing at low temperature (40 °C), owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate) gel. As successful direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The developed cellular structures were later heat-treated at 900–1000 °C, to form CEL2 glass-ceramic foams, featuring an abundant total porosity (from 60% to 80%) and well-interconnected macro- and micro-sized cells. The developed foams possessed a compressive strength from 2.5 to 5 MPa, which is in the range of human trabecular bone strength. Therefore, CEL2 glass-ceramics can be proposed for bone substitutions. PMID:29495498

  5. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Foam Scaffolds from ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

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    Hamada Elsayed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds were effectively fabricated by an inorganic gel casting technique, based on alkali activation and gelification, followed by viscous flow sintering. Glass powders, already known to yield a bioactive sintered glass-ceramic (CEL2 were dispersed in an alkaline solution, with partial dissolution of glass powders. The obtained glass suspensions underwent progressive hardening, by curing at low temperature (40 °C, owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate gel. As successful direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The developed cellular structures were later heat-treated at 900–1000 °C, to form CEL2 glass-ceramic foams, featuring an abundant total porosity (from 60% to 80% and well-interconnected macro- and micro-sized cells. The developed foams possessed a compressive strength from 2.5 to 5 MPa, which is in the range of human trabecular bone strength. Therefore, CEL2 glass-ceramics can be proposed for bone substitutions.

  6. Preparation and biocompatibility evaluation of apatite/wollastonite-derived porous bioactive glass ceramic scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hua; Ye Xiaojian; Li Jiashun

    2009-01-01

    An apatite/wollastonite-derived (A/W) porous glass ceramic scaffold with highly interconnected pores was successfully fabricated by adding a plastic porosifier. The morphology, porosity and mechanical strength were characterized. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold with controllable pore size and porosity displayed open macropores. In addition, good in vitro bioactivity was found for the scaffold obtained by soaking it in simulated body fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured, expanded and seeded on the scaffold, and the adhesion and proliferation of MSCs were determined using MTT assay and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The results revealed that the scaffold was biocompatible and had no negative effects on the MSCs in vitro. The in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenicity were investigated by implanting both the pure scaffold and the MSC/scaffold construct in rabbit mandibles and studying histologically. The results showed that the glass ceramic scaffold exhibited good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. Moreover, the introduction of MSCs into the scaffold observably improved the efficiency of new bone formation, especially at the initial stage after implantation. However, the glass ceramic scaffold showed the same good biocompatibility and osteogenicity as the hybrid one at the later stage. These results indicate that porous bioactive scaffolds based on the original apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic fulfil the basic requirements of a bone tissue engineering scaffold.

  7. Multifunctional bioactive glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials with antibacterial properties for repair and regeneration of bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, João S; Gentile, Piergiorgio; Pires, Ricardo A; Reis, Rui L; Hatton, Paul V

    2017-09-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) and related glass-ceramic biomaterials have been used in bone tissue repair for over 30years. Previous work in this field was comprehensively reviewed including by their inventor Larry Hench, and the key features and properties of BGs are well understood. More recently, attention has focused on their modification to further enhance the osteogenic behaviour, or further compositional changes that may introduce additional properties, such as antimicrobial activity. Evidence is emerging that BGs and related glass-ceramics may be modified in such a way as to simultaneously introduce more than one desirable property. The aim of this review is therefore to consider the evidence that these more recent inorganic modifications to glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials are effective, and whether or not these new compositions represent sufficiently versatile systems to underpin the development of a new generation of truly multifunctional biomaterials to address pressing clinical needs in orthopaedic and dental surgery. Indeed, a number of classical glass compositions exhibited antimicrobial activity, however the structural design and the addition of specific ions, i.e. Ag + , Cu + , and Sr 2+ , are able to impart a multifunctional character to these systems, through the combination of, for example, bioactivity with bactericidal activity. In this review we demonstrate the multifunctional potential of bioactive glasses and related glass-ceramics as biomaterials for orthopaedic and craniofacial/dental applications. Therefore, it considers the evidence that the more recent inorganic modifications to glass and glass-ceramic biomaterials are able to impart antimicrobial properties alongside the more classical bone bonding and osteoconduction. These properties are attracting a special attention nowadays that bacterial infections are an increasing challenge in orthopaedics. We also focus the manuscript on the versatility of these systems as a basis to underpin

  8. TRIS buffer in simulated body fluid distorts the assessment of glass-ceramic scaffold bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohanová, Dana; Boccaccini, Aldo Roberto; Yunos, Darmawati Mohamad; Horkavcová, Diana; Březovská, Iva; Helebrant, Aleš

    2011-06-01

    The paper deals with the characterisation of the bioactive phenomena of glass-ceramic scaffold derived from Bioglass® (containing 77 wt.% of crystalline phases Na(2)O·2CaO·3SiO(2) and CaO·SiO(2) and 23 wt.% of residual glass phase) using simulated body fluid (SBF) buffered with tris-(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (TRIS). A significant effect of the TRIS buffer on glass-ceramic scaffold dissolution in SBF was detected. To better understand the influence of the buffer, the glass-ceramic scaffold was exposed to a series of in vitro tests using different media as follows: (i) a fresh liquid flow of SBF containing tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane; (ii) SBF solution without TRIS buffer; (iii) TRIS buffer alone; and (iv) demineralised water. The in vitro tests were provided under static and dynamic arrangements. SBF buffered with TRIS dissolved both the crystalline and residual glass phases of the scaffold and a crystalline form of hydroxyapatite (HAp) developed on the scaffold surface. In contrast, when TRIS buffer was not present in the solutions only the residual glassy phase dissolved and an amorphous calcium phosphate (Ca-P) phase formed on the scaffold surface. It was confirmed that the TRIS buffer primarily dissolved the crystalline phase of the glass-ceramic, doubled the dissolving rate of the scaffold and moreover supported the formation of crystalline HAp. This significant effect of the buffer TRIS on bioactive glass-ceramic scaffold degradation in SBF has not been demonstrated previously and should be considered when analysing the results of SBF immersion bioactivity tests of such systems. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, A. M.; Ouis, M. A.; Azooz, M. A.; ElBatal, H. A.; El-Bassyouni, G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680 cm-1 after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content.

  10. Role of SrO on the bioactivity behavior of some ternary borate glasses and their glass ceramic derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, A M; Ouis, M A; Azooz, M A; ElBatal, H A; El-Bassyouni, G T

    2016-01-05

    Borate glasses containing SrO substituting both CaO and NaO were prepared and characterized for their bioactivity or bone bonding ability. Glass ceramic derivatives were prepared by thermal heat treatment process. FTIR, XRD and SEM measurements for the prepared glass and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in sodium phosphate solution for one and two weeks were carried out. The appearance of two IR peaks within the range 550-680cm(-1) after immersion in phosphate solution indicates the formation of hydroxyapatite or equivalent Sr phosphate layer. X-ray diffraction data agree with the FTIR spectral analysis. The solubility test was carried out for both glasses and glass ceramics derivatives in the same phosphate solution. The introduction of SrO increases the solubility for both glasses and glass ceramics and this is assumed to be due to the formation of Sr phosphate which is more soluble than calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). SEM images reveal varying changes in the surfaces of glass ceramics after immersion according to the SrO content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioactivity, mechanical properties and drug delivery ability of bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds coated with a natural-derived polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, M; Viveiros, R; Philippart, A; Miola, M; Doumett, S; Baldi, G; Perez, J; Boccaccini, A R; Aguiar-Ricardo, A; Verné, E

    2017-08-01

    In this work, hybrid melanin-coated bioactive glass-ceramic multifunctional scaffolds were developed and characterized in terms of mechanical strength, in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) and ability to load ibuprofen. The coated scaffolds exhibited an accelerated bioactivity in comparison with the uncoated ones, being able of developing hydroxyapatite-like crystals after 7days soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Besides its positive influence on the scaffolds bioactivity, the melanin coating was able to enhance their mechanical properties, increasing the initial compressive strength by a factor of >2.5. Furthermore, ibuprofen was successfully loaded on this coating, allowing a controlled drug release of the anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of a novel bioactive glass-ceramic on dentinal tubule occlusion: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y; Liu, J; Li, X; Yin, W; He, T; Hu, D; Liao, Y; Yao, X; Wang, Y

    2015-03-01

    This in vitro study aimed to assess the ability and efficacy of HX-BGC, a novel bioactive glass-ceramic (SiO2-P2 O5-CaO-Na2 O-SrO), to reduce dentine tubule permeability. Dentine discs from human third molars were etched and randomly allocated into five groups: Group 1--distilled water; Group 2--Sensodyne Repair toothpaste (containing NovaMin®); Group 3--HX-BGC toothpaste (containing 7.5% HX-BGC); Group 4--control toothpaste (without HX-BGC); and Group 5--HX-BGC powder. Specimens were treated daily by brushing with an electric toothbrush for 20 seconds. Between daily treatments (7 days total), specimens were immersed in artificial saliva for 24 hours. Dentine permeability was measured at baseline, after the first treatment, after the first 24-hour immersion in artificial saliva and at the end of day 7. Dentine morphology and surface deposits were observed by scanning electron microscopy after one day and 7 days of treatment, respectively. Sensodyne Repair and bioactive glass-ceramic toothpaste significantly and immediately lowered dentine permeability. The HX-BGC powder group showed the highest reduction in dentine permeability after 7 days of treatment. The novel bioactive glass-ceramic material HX-BGC is effective in reducing dentine permeability by occluding open dentine tubules, indicating that HX-BGC may be a potential treatment for dentine hypersensitivity. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  13. Effect of Ti(+4) on in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of silicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Ikhram, Hafeez

    2016-12-01

    A novel glass-ceramic series in (48-x) SiO2-36 CaO-4 P2O5-12 Na2O-xTiO2 (where x=0, 3.5, 7, 10.5 and 14mol %) system was synthesized by crystallization of glass powders, obtained by melt quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) was used to study the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the as prepared glasses. The crystallization behaviour of glasses was analyzed under non-isothermal conditions, and qualitative phase analysis of glass-ceramics was made by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of synthesized glass-ceramics was studied in stimulated body fluid at 37°C under static condition for 24days. The formation of hydroxyl-carbonated apatite layer; evident of bioactivity of the material, was elucidated by XRD, FTIR, AAS, SEM and EDX analysis. The result showed that partial substitution of TiO2 with SiO2 negatively influenced bioactivity; it decreased with increase in concentration of TiO2. As Ti(+4) having stronger field strength as compared to Si(+4) so its replacement became the cause for reduction in degradation that in turn improved the chemical stability. The compressive strength was also enhanced with progress addition of TiO2 in the system. The antibacterial properties were examined against Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO2 in the system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of glass-ceramic/fibroin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachezar Radev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive composite materials were prepared by mixing 20 wt.% of silk fibroin (SF and 80 wt.% of glassceramics from CaO-SiO2-P2O5-MgO system. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was evaluated in 1.5 simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF in static conditions. The obtained samples before and after in vitro tests were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The changes in 1.5 SBF solutions after soaking the samples were evaluated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. MG63 osteosarcoma cells were used for the biological experiments. The obtained experimental data proved that the synthesized composites exhibit excellent in vitro bioactivity.

  15. Quenched/unquenched nano bioactive glass-ceramics: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity evaluation in Ringer’s solution with BSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabian Nima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the first attempt at changing cooling treatment of synthesizing method in order to investigate its effect on the physical properties of sol-gel derived nano bioactive glass-ceramic in the system 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 (wt.%. We hypothesized that the method of cooling may affect the properties of nano bioactive glass-ceramic. To test this hypothesis, two different method of cooling treatment was applied after calcinations in synthesizing method. Both quenched and unquenched nano bioactive glass-ceramics were soaked in Ringer’s solution with bovine serum albumin (BSA for bioactivity evaluation. The obtained samples were analyzed for their composition, crystalinity and morphology through X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, surface electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The SEM images showed that the morphology of nano bioactive glass-ceramics was completely changed by quenching process. Results of in vitro bioactivity evaluation revealed that the unquenched attains faster apatite formation ability than the quenched sample. Other properties of these two morphologically different nano bioactive glass-ceramics were strongly discussed.

  16. Bioactive glass-ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinyu; Cai, Shu; Dou, Ying; Xu, Guohua; Huang, Kai; Ren, Mengguo; Wang, Xuexin

    2012-10-01

    In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol-gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass-ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na2Ca2Si3O9, with the thickness of ∼1.0 μm, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (Ecorr) form -1.60 V to -1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (icorr) from 4.48 μA cm-2 to 0.16 μA cm-2, due to the protection provided by the glass-ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass-ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  17. Bioactive glass and glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerhardt, L.C.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, bioactive glasses have been used to fill and restore bone defects. More recently, this category of biomaterials has become an emerging research field for bone tissue engineering applications. Here, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds on

  18. The Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/Rice Husk Derived Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Naghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to fabricate a 3D scaffold using polycaprolactone (PCL and silicate based bioactive glass-ceramic (R-SBgC. Different concentrations of R-SBgC prepared from rice husk ash (RHA were combined with PCL to fabricate a composite scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS method. The products were then characterized using SEM and EDX. The results demonstrated that R-SBgC in PCL matrix produced a bioactive material which has highly porous structure with interconnected porosities. There appears to be a relationship between the increase in R-SBgC concentration and increased material density and compressive modulus; however, increasing R-SBgC concentration result in reduced scaffold porosity. In conclusion, it is possible to fabricate a PCL/bioactive glass-ceramic composite from processed rice husk. Varying the R-SBgC concentrations can control the properties of this material, which is useful in the development of the ideal scaffold intended for use as a bone substitute in nonload bearing sites.

  19. Bioactive glass-ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Xinyu [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cai Shu, E-mail: caishu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dou Ying [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu Guohua [Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Huang Kai; Ren Mengguo; Wang Xuexin [Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sol-gel derived 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was prepared on Mg alloy substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion resistance of glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy was markedly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The corrosion behavior of the coated sample varied due to the cracking of coating. - Abstract: In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass-ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol-gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass-ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9}, with the thickness of {approx}1.0 {mu}m, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (E{sub corr}) form -1.60 V to -1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) from 4.48 {mu}A cm{sup -2} to 0.16 {mu}A cm{sup -2}, due to the protection provided by the glass-ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass-ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass-ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  20. Dextran hydrogels incorporated with bioactive glass-ceramic: Nanocomposite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikpour, Parisa; Salimi-Kenari, Hamed; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood; Imani, Mohammad; Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Tayebi, Lobat

    2018-06-15

    A series of nanocomposite scaffolds comprised of dextran (Dex) and sol-gel derived bioactive glass ceramic nanoparticles (nBGC: 0-16 (wt%)) were fabricated as bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Scanning electron microscopy showed Dex/nBGC scaffolds were consisting of a porous 3D microstructure with an average pore size of 240 μm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy illustrated nBGC nanoparticles were homogenously distributed within the Dex matrix at low nBGC content (2 wt%), while agglomeration was observed at higher nBGC contents. It was found that the osmotic pressure and nBGC agglomeration at higher nBGC contents leads to increased water uptake, then reduction of the compressive modulus. Bioactivity of Dex/nBGC scaffolds was validated through apatite formation after submersion in the simulated body fluid. Dex/nBGC composite scaffolds were found to show improved human osteoblasts (HOBs) proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity with increasing nBGC content up to 16 (wt%) over two weeks. Owing to favorable physicochemical and bioactivity properties, the Dex/nBGC composite hydrogels can be offered as promising bioactive scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. MECHANISM OF BIOACTIVITY OF LS2-FA GLASS-CERAMICS IN SBF AND DMEM MEDIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA LUTIŠANOVÁ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of in vitro bioactivity of glass-ceramics in the Li2O–SiO2–CaO–P2O5–CaF2 (shorthand LS2-FA system immersed in two media (simulated body fluid (SBF and Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM are compared. Microprobe (EPMA and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM were used to detect the presence of a new phase on the surface and to characterize its layer. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP was used to monitor ion concentration changes in SBF with immersion time. The results show, that during the assay in vitro behaviour tests, the surface of the sample was partially dissolved and released of Si4+, Ca2+ and Li+ ions were released into the SBF medium. The results of surface characterization after in vitro tests revealed difference in the bioactivity of glass-ceramics with various time of immersion in SBF and DMEM. For the formation of an apatite-layer in an earlier testing period (1, 3 and 7 days, a pronounced difference was not observed between SBF and DMEM immersion. In the longer testing period in SBF (28 days, the apatite-layer was developed by periodic deposition of spherical bullets that covers the whole surface. The use of the acellular culture medium DMEM resulted in a delay at the start of precipitation.

  2. Bioactivity and cytotoxicity of glass and glass-ceramics based on the 3CaO·P₂O₅--SiO₂--MgO system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daguano, Juliana K M F; Rogero, Sizue O; Crovace, Murilo C; Peitl, Oscar; Strecker, Kurt; Dos Santos, Claudinei

    2013-09-01

    The mechanical strength of bioactive glasses can be improved by controlled crystallization, turning its use as bulk bone implants viable. However, crystallization may affect the bioactivity of the material. The aim of this study was to develop glass-ceramics of the nominal composition (wt%) 52.75(3CaO·P₂O₅)-30SiO₂-17.25MgO, with different crystallized fractions and to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity and bioactivity. Specimens were heat-treated at 700, 775 and 975 °C, for 4 h. The major crystalline phase identified was whitlockite, an Mg-substituted tricalcium phosphate. The evaluation of the cytotoxicity was carried out by the neutral red uptake methodology. Ionic exchanges with the simulated body fluid SBF-K9 acellular solution during the in vitro bioactivity tests highlight the differences in terms of chemical reactivity between the glass and the glass-ceramics. The effect of crystallinity on the rates of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation was followed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Although all glass-ceramics can be considered bioactive, the glass-ceramic heat-treated at 775 °C (V775-4) presented the most interesting result, because the onset for HCA formation is at about 24 h and after 7 days the HCA layer dominates completely the spectrum. This occurs probably due to the presence of the whitlockite phase (3(Ca,Mg)O·P₂O₅). All samples were considered not cytotoxic.

  3. Synthesis of bioactive and machinable miserite glass-ceramics for dental implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadaldin, Selma A; Dixon, S Jeffrey; Costa, Daniel O; Rizkalla, Amin S

    2013-06-01

    To synthesize and characterize machinable, bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) suitable for dental implant applications. A glass in the SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-CaF2-K2O-B2O3-La2O3 system was synthesized by wet chemical methods, followed by calcination, melting and quenching. Crystallization kinetics were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA). GC discs were produced by cold pressing of the glass powder and sintered using schedules determined by DTA. The crystalline phases and microstructure of GC samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Dynamic Young's modulus (E), true hardness (Ho), fracture toughness (KIC) and brittleness index (BI) were evaluated. Bioactivity was studied by examining the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the GC surfaces after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Attachment and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells were assessed in vitro. Miserite [KCa5(Si2O7)(Si6O15)(OH)F] was the main crystalline phase of the GC with additional secondary phases. Microstructural studies revealed interlocking lath-like crystalline morphology. E, Ho, and KIC values for the GCs were 96±3 GPa, 5.27±0.26 GPa and 4.77±0.27 MPa m(0.5), respectively. The BI was found to be 1.11±0.05 μm(-0.5), indicating outstanding machinability. An HA surface layer was formed on the GC surfaces when soaked in SBF, indicating potential bioactivity. MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited attachment, spreading and proliferation on GC surfaces, demonstrating excellent biocompatibility. We present a novel approach for the synthesis of miserite GC with the physical and biological properties required for non-metallic dental implant applications. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The In Vitro Bioactivity, Degradation, and Cytotoxicity of Polymer-Derived Wollastonite-Diopside Glass-Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda De Castro Juraski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ca-Mg silicates are receiving a growing interest in the field of bioceramics. In a previous study, wollastonite-diopside (WD glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by a new processing route, consisting of the heat treatment of a silicone resin embedding reactive oxide particles and a Ca/Mg-rich glass. The in vitro degradation, bioactivity, and cell response of these new WD glass-ceramics, fired at 900–1100 °C for 1 h, as a function of the Ca/Mg-rich glass content, are the aim of this investigation The results showed that WD glass-ceramics from formulations comprising different glass contents (70–100% at 900 °C, 30% at 1100 °C exhibit the formation of an apatite-like layer on their surface after immersion in SBF for seven days, thus confirming their surface bioactivity. The XRD results showed that these samples crystallized, mainly forming wollastonite (CaSiO3 and diopside (CaMgSi2O6, but combeite (Na2Ca2Si3O9 crystalline phase was also detected. Besides in vitro bioactivity, cytotoxicity and osteoblast adhesion and proliferation tests were applied after all characterizations, and the formulation comprising 70% glass was demonstrated to be promising for further in vivo studies.

  5. The In Vitro Bioactivity, Degradation, and Cytotoxicity of Polymer-Derived Wollastonite-Diopside Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juraski, Amanda De Castro; Dorion Rodas, Andrea Cecilia; Elsayed, Hamada; Bernardo, Enrico; Oliveira Soares, Viviane; Daguano, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    Ca-Mg silicates are receiving a growing interest in the field of bioceramics. In a previous study, wollastonite-diopside (WD) glass-ceramics were successfully prepared by a new processing route, consisting of the heat treatment of a silicone resin embedding reactive oxide particles and a Ca/Mg-rich glass. The in vitro degradation, bioactivity, and cell response of these new WD glass-ceramics, fired at 900–1100 °C for 1 h, as a function of the Ca/Mg-rich glass content, are the aim of this investigation The results showed that WD glass-ceramics from formulations comprising different glass contents (70–100% at 900 °C, 30% at 1100 °C) exhibit the formation of an apatite-like layer on their surface after immersion in SBF for seven days, thus confirming their surface bioactivity. The XRD results showed that these samples crystallized, mainly forming wollastonite (CaSiO3) and diopside (CaMgSi2O6), but combeite (Na2Ca2Si3O9) crystalline phase was also detected. Besides in vitro bioactivity, cytotoxicity and osteoblast adhesion and proliferation tests were applied after all characterizations, and the formulation comprising 70% glass was demonstrated to be promising for further in vivo studies. PMID:28772783

  6. DISSOLUTION BEHAVIOR OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS WITH DIFFERENT CaO/MgO RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD USMAN HASHMI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, powders of three different compositions, each having 34 SiO2-14.5 P2O5-1 CaF2-0.5 MgF (% wt and ratio of CaO/MgO varying from 11.5:1 to 1:11.5 were thoroughly mixed and melted under oxy-acetylene flame in a fire clay crucible that made the glass formation cheaper in time and cost. The melt of each composition was quenched in water to form three different glasses. Every glass was sintered at 950°C to form three glass ceramics named G1, G2 and G3 respectively. To study the dissolution behavior, each sample was immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF for 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 days at room temperature. Thin film XRD analysis revealed that the samples with larger CaO/MgO ratio exhibited better bioactivity. pH of SBF increased efficiently in case of G1 whereas in case of G2 and G3, this increase was slower due to greater amount of MgO. The concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Si ions were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. EDS analysis showed the increase in P and Ca ions and presence of C in G1 after 5 days immersion and after 10 days, in case of G2 indicating the higher formation rate of hydroxycarbonate Apatite layer in G1 as compared to G2 due to greater CaO/MgO ratio whereas in G3 Mg-hydroxycarbonate apatite (Ca(Mg5(CO3(PO43(OH (heneuite layer was recognized after 20 days showing the least bioactivity due to very large amount of Mg and the least CaO/MgO ratio.

  7. Kinetic neutron diffraction and SANS studies of phase formation in bioactive machinable glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, P M; Kilcoyne, S H; Bubb, N L; Ritter, C; Dewhurst, C D; Wood, D J

    2007-01-01

    Bioactive fluormica-fluorapatite glass-ceramic materials offer a very encouraging solution to the problem of efficient restoration and reconstruction of hard tissues. To produce material with the desired crystalline phases, a five-stage heat treatment must be performed. This thermal processing has a large impact on the microstructure and ultimately the final mechanical properties of the materials. We have examined the thermal processing of one of our most promising machinable biomaterials, using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering and neutron diffraction to study the nucleation and growth of crystallites. The processing route had already been optimized by studying the properties of quenched samples using x-ray diffraction, mechanical measurements and differential thermal analysis. However these results show that the heat treatment can be further optimized in terms of crystal nucleation, and we show that these techniques are the only methods by which a truly optimized thermal processing route may be obtained

  8. Investigating in vitro bioactivity and magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic fabricated using soda-lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, B., E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Zand Street, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, H. [Electroceramics Group, Materials Science and Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-04-01

    The main purpose of the current research is the production and characterization of a ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic prepared through the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass as the main raw material. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural, thermal and magnetic properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). The apatite surface layer formation was examined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium ion concentration in the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). VSM results revealed that with the addition of 5–20 wt% strontium hexaferrite to bioactive glass–ceramics, the ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramics with hysteresis losses between 7024 and 75,852 erg/g were obtained. The in vitro test showed that the onset formation time of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples was 14 days and after 30 days, this layer was completed. - Highlights: • A novel ferrimagnetic bioactive glass–ceramic was synthesized by an incorporation method. • The bioactive part was synthesized by the solid-state reaction method using soda-lime–silica waste glass. • The doping of SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} to Bioglass{sup ®} 45S5 glass–ceramic is likely to decrease bioactivity.

  9. Effect of various additives on microstructure, mechanical properties, and in vitro bioactivity of sodium oxide-calcium oxide-silica-phosphorus pentoxide glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2013-09-01

    The partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, or CaF2 for CaO in the Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 (45S5) system was conducted by the sol-gel method and a comparative study on structural, mechanical properties, and bioactivity of the glasses was reported. Based on thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, the gels were sintered with a suitable heat treatment procedure. The glass-ceramic properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and so on, and the bioactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by in vitro assays in simulated body fluid (SBF). Results indicate that with the partial substitution of MgO, TiO2, CaF2 for CaO in glass composition, the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics have been significantly improved. Furthermore, CaF2 promotes glass crystallization and the crystallization does not inhibit the glass-ceramic bioactivity. All samples possess bioactivity; however, the bioactivity of these glass-ceramics is quite different. Compared with 45S5, the introduction of MgO decreases the ability of apatite induction. The addition of TiO2 does not significantly improve the bioactivity, and the replacement of CaO by CaF2 shows a higher bioactivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Magnetic properties of bioactive glass-ceramics containing nanocrystalline zinc ferrite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajendra Kumar; Srinivasan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Glass-ceramics with finely dispersed zinc ferrite (ZnFe 2 O 4 ) nanocrystallites were obtained by heat treatment of x(ZnO,Fe 2 O 3 )(65-x)SiO 2 20(CaO,P 2 O 5 )15Na 2 O (6≤x≤21 mole%) glasses. X-ray diffraction patterns of the glass-ceramic samples revealed the presence of calcium sodium phosphate [NaCaPO 4 ] and zinc ferrite [ZnFe 2 O 4 ] as major crystalline phases. Zinc ferrite present in nanocrystalline form contributes to the magnetic properties of the glass-ceramic samples. Magnetic hysteresis cycles of the glass-ceramic samples were obtained with applied magnetic field sweeps of ±20 kOe and ±500 Oe, in order to evaluate the potential of these glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment of cancer. The evolution of magnetic properties in these samples, viz., from a partially paramagnetic to fully ferrimagnetic nature has been explored using magnetometry and X-ray diffraction studies. - Research highlights: → The glass-ceramics contain bone mineral and magnetic phases. → Calcium sodium phosphate and zinc ferrite nanocrystallites have been identified in all the sample. → With an increase in ZnO and Fe2O3 content, magnetic property of samples evolved from partially paramagnetic to fully ferrimagnetic nature. → Large magnetic hysteresis loops have been obtained for samples with high ZnO+Fe2O3 content.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of a calcium-phosphate glass-ceramics obtained by the sol-gel processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jmal, Nouha, E-mail: jmalnouha@gmail.com; Bouaziz, Jamel

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a calcium-phosphate glass-ceramics was successfully obtained by heat treatment of a mixture of 26.52 in wt.% of fluorapatite (Fap) and 73.48 in wt.% of 77S (77 SiO{sub 2}−14 CaO−9 P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in wt.%) gel. The calcium phosphate-glass-ceramics was prepared by sol-gel process with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), triethyl phosphate (TEP), calcium nitrate and fluorapatite. The synthesized powders were characterized by some commonly used tools such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), {sup 31}P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD). The obtained results seemed to confirm the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (Hap) nano-phase in the glass. Moreover, an in-vitro evaluation of the glass-ceramic was performed. In addition, to assess its bioactive capacity, it was soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The SEM, EDS and TF-XRD analyses showed the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the specimens after three days of immersion in SBF solution. The mechanical properties of the obtained material such as rupture strength, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were measured. In addition, the friction coefficient of calcium phosphate-glass-ceramics was tested. The values of the composite of rupture strength (24 MPa), Vickers hardness (214 Hv), Young's modulus (52.3 GPa), shear modulus (19 GPa) and friction coefficient (0.327) were obtained. This glass-ceramics can have useful applications in dental prostheses. Indeed, this material may have promising applications for implants because of its content of fluorine, the effective protector against dental caries. - Highlights: • A novel three phases Fap-Hap-glass-ceramics is prepared by sol–gel route. • Results showed a nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nano-phase in the glass.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and bioactivity of a calcium-phosphate glass-ceramics obtained by the sol-gel processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jmal, Nouha; Bouaziz, Jamel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a calcium-phosphate glass-ceramics was successfully obtained by heat treatment of a mixture of 26.52 in wt.% of fluorapatite (Fap) and 73.48 in wt.% of 77S (77 SiO 2 −14 CaO−9 P 2 O 5 in wt.%) gel. The calcium phosphate-glass-ceramics was prepared by sol-gel process with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), triethyl phosphate (TEP), calcium nitrate and fluorapatite. The synthesized powders were characterized by some commonly used tools such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 31 P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and thin-film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD). The obtained results seemed to confirm the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (Hap) nano-phase in the glass. Moreover, an in-vitro evaluation of the glass-ceramic was performed. In addition, to assess its bioactive capacity, it was soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The SEM, EDS and TF-XRD analyses showed the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the surface of the specimens after three days of immersion in SBF solution. The mechanical properties of the obtained material such as rupture strength, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus were measured. In addition, the friction coefficient of calcium phosphate-glass-ceramics was tested. The values of the composite of rupture strength (24 MPa), Vickers hardness (214 Hv), Young's modulus (52.3 GPa), shear modulus (19 GPa) and friction coefficient (0.327) were obtained. This glass-ceramics can have useful applications in dental prostheses. Indeed, this material may have promising applications for implants because of its content of fluorine, the effective protector against dental caries. - Highlights: • A novel three phases Fap-Hap-glass-ceramics is prepared by sol–gel route. • Results showed a nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite nano-phase in the glass. • Fap-Hap-glass-ceramics

  13. Effect of Ti{sup +4} on in vitro bioactivity and antibacterial activity of silicate glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, Madeeha, E-mail: madeehariaz2762@yahoo.com [Physics department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Zia, Rehana [Physics department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Saleemi, Farhat [Government University for Women, Sialkot (Pakistan); Hussain, Tousif [Centre of advance studies physics, Government College University, Lahore (Pakistan); Bashir, Farooq [Physics department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan); Ikhram, Hafeez [Pharmacy department, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-12-01

    A novel glass-ceramic series in (48-x) SiO{sub 2}-36 CaO-4 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-12 Na{sub 2}O-xTiO{sub 2} (where x = 0, 3.5, 7, 10.5 and 14 mol %) system was synthesized by crystallization of glass powders, obtained by melt quenching technique. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis (DSC) was used to study the non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of the as prepared glasses. The crystallization behaviour of glasses was analyzed under non-isothermal conditions, and qualitative phase analysis of glass-ceramics was made by X-ray diffraction. The in vitro bioactivity of synthesized glass-ceramics was studied in stimulated body fluid at 37 °C under static condition for 24 days. The formation of hydroxyl-carbonated apatite layer; evident of bioactivity of the material, was elucidated by XRD, FTIR, AAS, SEM and EDX analysis. The result showed that partial substitution of TiO{sub 2} with SiO{sub 2} negatively influenced bioactivity; it decreased with increase in concentration of TiO{sub 2}. As Ti{sup +4} having stronger field strength as compared to Si{sup +4} so its replacement became the cause for reduction in degradation that in turn improved the chemical stability. The compressive strength was also enhanced with progress addition of TiO{sub 2} in the system. The antibacterial properties were examined against Staphylococcus Epidermidis. Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO{sub 2} in the system. - Highlights: • The partial substitution of TiO{sub 2} with SiO{sub 2} negatively influenced bioactivity. • Ti cause reduction in degradation which in turn improved chemical stability. • Addition of TiO{sub 2} improved compressive strength of the material. • Strong antibacterial efficacy was observed with the addition of TiO{sub 2} in the system.

  14. Calcium phosphate glass-ceramics for bioactive coating on a β-titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, T.; Nogami, M.; Niinomi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The formation of a porous coating is the decisive feature for the bio-compatibility of silica-free calcium phosphate glass ceramics on alloy surfaces like the β-Ti structured Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr used in this work. The ceramic composition is highly important: 50CaO-40P 2 O 5 -7Na 2 O-3TiO 2 glass powder produces a pore-free coating unable to bind hydroxyapatite, whereas 60CaO-30P 2 O 5 -7Na 2 O-3TiO 2 glass incorporates pores from which a crystalline hydroxyapatite phase can grow over the surface from simulated body fluid (see Figure). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Calcium phosphate glass-ceramics for bioactive coating on a {beta}-titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasuga, T.; Nogami, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Niinomi, M. [Department of Production Systems Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tenpaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The formation of a porous coating is the decisive feature for the bio-compatibility of silica-free calcium phosphate glass ceramics on alloy surfaces like the {beta}-Ti structured Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr used in this work. The ceramic composition is highly important: 50CaO-40P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-7Na{sub 2}O-3TiO{sub 2} glass powder produces a pore-free coating unable to bind hydroxyapatite, whereas 60CaO-30P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-7Na{sub 2}O-3TiO{sub 2} glass incorporates pores from which a crystalline hydroxyapatite phase can grow over the surface from simulated body fluid (see Figure). (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  17. Sol-gel synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of copper and zinc-doped silicate bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Julian; Caviedes, Pablo; Palza, Humberto

    2015-03-11

    Metal doping of bioactive glasses based on ternary 60SiO2-36CaO-4P2O5 (58S) and quaternary 60SiO2-25CaO-11Na2O-4P2O5 (NaBG) mol% compositions synthesized using a sol-gel process was analyzed. In particular, the effect of incorporating 1, 5 and 10 mol% of CuO and ZnO (replacing equivalent quantities of CaO) on the texture, in vitro bioactivity, and cytocompatibility of these materials was evaluated. Our results showed that the addition of metal ions can modulate the textural property of the matrix and its crystal structure. Regarding the bioactivity, after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) undoped 58S and NaBG glasses developed an apatite surface layer that was reduced in the doped glasses depending on the type of metal and its concentration with Zn displaying the largest inhibitions. Both the ion release from samples and the ion adsorption from the medium depended on the type of matrix with 58S glasses showing the highest values. Pure NaBG glass was more cytocompatible to osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) than pure 58S glass as tested by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The incorporation of metal ions decreased the cytocompatibility of the glasses depending on their concentration and on the glass matrix doped. Our results show that by changing the glass composition and by adding Cu or Zn, bioactive materials with different textures, bioactivity and cytocompatibility can be synthesized.

  18. In vitro solubility and bioactivity of Sr and Mg co-doped calcium phosphate glass-ceramics derived from different heat-treatment temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shu; Li Jianxin; Xu Guohua; Li, Xudong; Ye Xiaojian; Jiang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Porous glass ceramics were prepared by controlled heat treatment process. ► A fast release of Mg ions has a great influence on the Ca/P ratio of the deposits. ► The chemical stability of the deposited apatite directly affects cell behavior. ► The glass ceramics heat-treated at 760 °C and 780 °C show less glass. ► The degradation rates are both compatible with cell growth and differentiation. - Abstract: CaO–P 2 O 5 –Na 2 O–SrO–MgO glass–ceramic system was prepared by controlled heat treatment process. Solubility and bioactivity of glass-ceramics were measured and evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) and cell culture medium respectively. The dissolution behavior of these glass-ceramics strongly depends on the amount and microstructure of the crystals precipitated by sintering treatment. Concerning the bioactivity, the onset of the apatite formation on the glass–ceramic system was directly dependent on the amount of bioactive glass amount which can be controlled using different temperatures of heat treatment. After immersing glass–ceramic in SBF, Mg ion as one of system composition can be released from residual glass and provides a high impact on the Ca/P ratio and chemical stability of the deposited apatite layer that directly affects cell attachment and proliferation in in vitro cell culture system. The glass ceramics heat-treated at 760 °C and 780 °C show less glass amount, and their degradation rates are both compatible with cell growth and differentiation.

  19. Negative effect of rapidly resorbing properties of bioactive glass-ceramics as bone graft substitute in a rabbit lumbar fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyup; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Seo, Jun-Hyuk; Lee, Do-Yoon; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics have the ability to directly bind to bones and have been widely used as bone graft substitutes due to their high osteoconductivity and biocompatibility. CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics are known to have good osteoconductivity and are used as bone graft extenders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the resorbing properties of glass-ceramics in bone fusion after producing and analyzing three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with high osteoconductivity that had enhanced resorption by having an increased B2O3 content. The three types of CaO-SiO2-P2O5-B2O3 glass-ceramics with B2O3 contents of 8.0, 9.0, and 9.5 weight % were designated and grouped as P20B80, P10B90, and P5B95, respectively. Glass-ceramic types were tested for fusion rates and bone formation by employing the lumbar 5-6 intertransverse process fusion model in 51 New Zealand male rabbits. Bioactivity was assessed by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). In vitro study results showed sufficient hydroxycarbonate apatite layer formation occurred for P20B80 in1 day, for P10B90 in 3 days, and for P5B95 in 5 days after soaking in SBF. For the rabbit lumbar spine posterolateral fusion model, the autograft group recorded a 100% fusion rate with levels significantly higher than those of P20B80 (29.4%), P10B90 (0%), and P5B95 (14.3%), with high resorbing properties. Resorbing property differences among the three glass-ceramic groups were not significant. Histological results showed new bone formation confirming osteoconductivity in all three types of glass-ceramics. Radiomorphometric results also confirmed the resorbing properties of the three glass-ceramic types. The high resorbing properties and osteoconductivity of porous glass-ceramics can be advantageous as no glass-ceramics remain in the body. However, their relatively fast rate of resorption in the body negatively affects their role as an osteoconductive scaffold as glass-ceramics are resorbed before bony fusion.

  20. Effect of ZrO(2) additions on the crystallization, mechanical and biological properties of MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Meng, X G; Chen, C Z

    2014-06-01

    A series of ZrO(2) doped MgO-CaO-SiO(2)-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) bioactive glass-ceramics were obtained by sintering method. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, morphology and structure of glass-ceramics were characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, micro-hardness and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of glass-ceramics were investigated. The in vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity tests were used to evaluate the bioactivity and biocompatibility of glass-ceramics. The sedimentation mechanism and growth process of apatites on sample surface were discussed. The results showed that the mainly crystalline phases of glass-ceramics were Ca(5)(PO4)3F (fluorapatite) and β-CaSiO(3). (β-wollastonite). m-ZrO(2) (monoclinic zirconia) declined the crystallization temperatures of glasses. t-ZrO(2) (tetragonal zirconia) increased the crystallization temperature of Ca(5)(PO4)(3)F and declined the crystallization temperature of β-CaSiO(3). t-ZrO(2) greatly increased the fracture toughness, bending strength and micro-hardness of glass-ceramics. The nanometer apatites were induced on the surface of glass-ceramic after soaking 28 days in SBF (simulated body fluid), indicating the glass-ceramic has good bioactivity. The in vitro cytotoxicity test demonstrated the glass-ceramic has no toxicity to cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Production and Characterization of Glass-Ceramic Materials for Potential Use in Dental Applications: Thermal and Mechanical Properties, Microstructure, and In Vitro Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Multicomponent silicate glasses and their corresponding glass-ceramic derivatives were prepared and tested for potential applications in dentistry. The glasses were produced via a melting-quenching process, ground and sieved to obtain fine-grained powders that were pressed in the form of small cylinders and thermally treated to obtain sintered glass-ceramic samples. X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out on the materials before and after sintering to detect the presence of crystalline phases. Thermal analyses, mechanical characterizations (assessment of bending strength, Young’s modulus, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness, and in vitro bioactivity tests in simulated body fluid were performed. On the basis of the acquired results, different potential applications in the dental field were discussed for the proposed glass-ceramics. The use of such materials can be suggested for either restorative dentistry or dental implantology, mainly depending on their peculiar bioactive and mechanical properties. At the end of the work, the feasibility of a novel full-ceramic bilayered implant was explored and discussed. This implant, comprising a highly bioactive layer expected to promote osteointegration and another one mimicking the features of tooth enamel, can have an interesting potential for whole tooth substitution.

  2. Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Scaffolds from Novel ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ and Sinter-Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Hamada; Rincón Romero, Acacio; Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Zavan, Barbara; Bernardo, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Highly porous wollastonite-diopside glass-ceramics have been successfully obtained by a new gel-casting technique. The gelation of an aqueous slurry of glass powders was not achieved according to the polymerization of an organic monomer, but as the result of alkali activation. The alkali activation of a Ca-Mg silicate glass (with a composition close to 50 mol % wollastonite—50 mol % diopside, with minor amounts of Na2O and P2O5) allowed for the obtainment of well-dispersed concentrated suspensions, undergoing progressive hardening by curing at low temperature (40 °C), owing to the formation of a C–S–H (calcium silicate hydrate) gel. An extensive direct foaming was achieved by vigorous mechanical stirring of partially gelified suspensions, comprising also a surfactant. The open-celled structure resulting from mechanical foaming could be ‘frozen’ by the subsequent sintering treatment, at 900–1000 °C, causing substantial crystallization. A total porosity exceeding 80%, comprising both well-interconnected macro-pores and micro-pores on cell walls, was accompanied by an excellent compressive strength, even above 5 MPa. PMID:28772531

  3. Toughening and functionalization of bioactive ceramic and glass bone scaffolds by biopolymer coatings and infiltration: a review of the last 5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippart, Anahí; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Fleck, Claudia; Schubert, Dirk W; Roether, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic scaffolds with high interconnected porosity based on bioactive glasses and ceramics are prime candidates for applications in bone tissue engineering. These materials however exhibit relatively low fracture strength and high brittleness. A simple and effective approach to improve the toughness is to combine the basic scaffold structure with polymer coatings or through the formation of interpenetrating polymer-bioactive ceramic microstructures. The polymeric phase can additionally serve as a carrier for growth factors and therapeutic drugs, thus adding biological functionalities. The present paper reviews the state-of-the art in the field of polymer coated and infiltrated bioactive inorganic scaffolds. Based on the notable combination of bioactivity, improved mechanical properties and drug or growth factor delivery capability, this scaffold type is a candidate for bone and osteochondral regeneration strategies. Remaining challenges for the improvement of the materials are discussed and opportunities to broaden the application potential of this scaffold type are also highlighted.

  4. Effect of sintering temperature variations on fabrication of 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramics using rice husk as a source for silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenakul, Wilaiwan; Tunkasiri, Tawee; Tongsiri, Natee; Pengpat, Kamonpan; Ruangsuriya, Jetsada

    2016-04-01

    45S5 bioactive glass is a highly bioactive substance that has the ability to promote stem cell differentiation into osteoblasts--the cells that create bone matrix. The aim of this work is to analyze physical and mechanical properties of 45S5 bioactive glass fabricated by using rice husk ash as its silica source. The 45S5 bioactive glass was prepared by melting the batch at 1300 °C for 3h. The samples were sintered at different temperatures ranging from 900 to 1050 °C with a fixed dwell-time of 2h. The phase transitions, density, porosity and microhardness values were investigated and reported. DTA analysis was used to examine the crystallization temperatures of the glasses prepared. We found that the sintering temperature had a significant effect on the mechanical and physical properties of the bioactive glass. The XRD showed that when the sintering temperature was above 650 °C, crystallization occurred and bioactive glass-ceramics with Na2Ca2Si3O9, Na2Ca4(PO4)2SiO4 and Ca3Si2O7 were formed. The optimum sintering temperature resulting in maximum mechanical values was around 1050 °C, with a high density of 2.27 g/cm(3), 16.96% porosity and the vicker microhardness value of 364HV. Additionally, in vitro assay was used to examine biological activities in stimulated body fluid (SBF). After incubation in SBF for 7 days, all of the samples showed formations of apatite layers indicating that the 45S5 bioactive glasses using rice husk as a raw material were also bioactive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  6. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, Saurabh

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics are a class of third generation biomaterials which elicit a special response on their surface when in contact with biological fluids, leading to strong bonding to living tissues. The purpose of the present study was to develop diopside based alkali-free bioactive glasses in order to achieve good sintering behaviour, high bioactivity, and a dissolution/ degradation rates compatible with the target applications in bone regeneration and tiss...

  7. Compositional and microstructural design of highly bioactive P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar D; Serbena, Francisco C; Hench, Larry L

    2012-01-01

    Bioactive glasses having chemical compositions between 1Na(2)O-2CaO-3SiO(2) (1N2C3S) and 1.5Na(2)O-1.5CaO-3SiO(2) (1N1C2S) containing 0, 4 and 6 wt.% P(2)O(5) were crystallized through two stage thermal treatments. By carefully controlling these treatments we separately studied the effects on the mechanical properties of two important microstructural features not studied before, crystallized volume fraction and crystal size. Fracture strength, elastic modulus and indentation fracture toughness were measured as a function of crystallized volume fraction for a constant crystal size. Glass-ceramics with a crystalline volume fraction between 34% and 60% exhibited a three-fold improvement in fracture strength and an increase of 40% in indentation fracture toughness compared with the parent glass. For the optimal crystalline concentration (34% and 60%) these mechanical properties were then measured for different grain sizes, from 5 to 21 μm. The glass-ceramic with the highest fracture strength and indentation fracture toughness was that with 34% crystallized volume fracture and 13 μm crystals. Compared with the parent glass, the average fracture strength of this glass-ceramic was increased from 80 to 210 MPa, and the fracture toughness from 0.60 to 0.95 MPa.m(1/2). The increase in indentation fracture toughness was analyzed using different theoretical models, which demonstrated that it is due to crack deflection. Fortunately, the elastic modulus E increased only slightly; from 60 to 70 GPa (the elastic modulus of biomaterials should be as close as possible to that of cortical bone). In summary, the flexural strength of our best material (215 MPa) is significantly greater than that of cortical bone and comparable with that of apatite-wollastonite (A/W) bioglass ceramics, with the advantage that it shows a much lower elastic modulus. These results thus provide a relevant guide for the design of bioactive glass-ceramics with improved microstructure. Copyright © 2011 Acta

  8. The crystallization behaviour and bioactivity of wollastonite glass-ceramic based on Na2O–K2O–CaO–SiO2–F glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Salman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns about the crystallization behaviour and in vitro bioactivity of a glass-ceramic prepared from a series of glasses in the Na2O–K2O–CaO–SiO2–F system. A minor amount of cerium oxide was also added instead of calcium oxide in some selective glass batches. The main crystalline phases, formed after the appropriate heat treatments, were wollastonite solid solution and pseudo-wollastonite-like phases. There is a preferential tendency for wollastonite (CaSiO3 to accommodate K, Na, F, and Ce ions in its structure forming wollastonite solid solution with variable formulas. The bioactivity of the resulting crystalline materials was examined in vitro by immersion in simulated body fluid at 37 °C. An increase of the surface bioactivity of glass-ceramic with the Na2O/K2O replacement was observed which is attributed to the augmentation solubility of the crystalline sample. On the other hand, the bioactivity of the crystalline sample with CeO2/CaO replacement was improved by the crystallization of pseudo-wollastonite phase together with wollastonite solid solution phase.

  9. Bioactivity and cell proliferation in radiopaque gel-derived CaO-P2O5-SiO2-ZrO2 glass and glass-ceramic powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Yekta, Bijan Eftekhari; Marghussian, Vahak Kaspari; Bellani, Caroline Faria; Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2015-10-01

    In this study, 10 mol% ZrO2 was added to a 27CaO-5P2O5-68SiO2 (mol%) base composition synthesized via a simple sol-gel method. This composition is similar to that of a frequently investigated bioactive gel-glass. The effects of ZrO2 on the in vitro bioactivity and MG-63 cell proliferation of the glass and its derivative polycrystalline (glass-ceramic) powder were investigated. The samples were characterized using thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Release of Si, Ca, P and Zr into simulated body fluid (SBF) was determined by inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Upon heat treatment at 1000 °C, the glass powder crystallized into an apatite-wollastonite-zirconia glass-ceramic powder. Hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) formation on the surface of the glass and glass-ceramic particles containing ZrO2 was confirmed by FTIR and SEM. Addition of ZrO2 to the base glass composition decreased the rate of HCA formation in vitro from one day to three days, and hence, ZrO2 could be employed to control the rate of apatite formation. However, the rate of HCA formation on the glass-ceramic powder containing ZrO2 crystal was equal to that in the base glassy powder. Tests with a cultured human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells revealed that the glass and glass-ceramic materials stimulated cell proliferation, indicating that they are biocompatible and are not cytotoxic in vitro. Moreover, zirconia clearly increased osteoblast proliferation over that of the Zr-free samples. This increase is likely associated with the lower solubility of these samples and, consequently, a smaller variation in the media pH. Despite the low solubility of these materials, bioactivity was maintained, indicating that these glassy and polycrystalline powders are potential candidates for bone graft substitutes and bone cements with

  10. The influence of phosphorus precursors on the synthesis and bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P 2O 5 sol-gel glasses and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Renato Luiz; Zanotto, Edgar Dutra

    2013-02-01

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics of the SiO(2)-CaO-P(2)O(5) system were synthesised by means of a sol-gel method using different phosphorus precursors according to their respective rates of hydrolysis-triethylphosphate (OP(OC(2)H(5))(3)), phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) and a solution prepared by dissolving phosphorus oxide (P(2)O(5)) in ethanol. The resulting materials were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and by in vitro bioactivity tests in acellular simulated body fluid. The different precursors significantly affected the main steps of the synthesis, beginning with the time required for gel formation. The most striking influence of these precursors was observed during the thermal treatments at 700-1,200 °C that were used to convert the gels into glasses and glass-ceramics. The samples exhibited very different mineralisation behaviours; especially those prepared using the phosphoric acid, which had a reduced onset temperature of crystallisation and an increased resistance to devitrification. However, all resulting materials were bioactive. The in vitro bioactivity of these materials was strongly affected by the heat treatment temperature. In general, their bioactivity decreased with increasing treatment temperature. For crystallised samples obtained above 900 °C, the bioactivity was favoured by the presence of two crystalline phases: wollastonite (CaSiO(3)) and tricalcium phosphate (α-Ca(3)(PO(4))(2)).

  11. Influence of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of ZrO2-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan-Cai; Wang, Dian-Gang; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Chen, Chuan-Zhong

    2014-09-01

    Zirconia-toughened MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramics are prepared using sintering techniques, and a series of heat treatment procedures are designed to obtain a glass-ceramic with improved properties. The crystallization behavior, phase composition, and morphology of the glass-ceramics are characterized. The bending strength, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, and microhardness of the glass-ceramics are investigated, and the effect mechanism of heat treatments upon the mechanical properties is discussed. The bioactivity of glass-ceramics is then evaluated using the in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) soaking test, and the mechanism whereby apatite forms on the glass-ceramic surfaces in the SBF solution is discussed. The results indicate that the main crystal phase of the G-24 sample undergoing two heat treatment procedures is Ca5(PO4)3F (fluorapatite), and those of the G-2444 sample undergoing four heat treatment procedures are Ca5(PO4)3F and β-CaSiO3 (β-wollastonite). The heat treatment procedures are found to greatly influence the mechanical properties of the glass-ceramic, and an apatite layer is induced on the glass-ceramic surface after soaking in the SBF solution.

  12. Bioactive and biocompatible copper containing glass-ceramics with remarkable antibacterial properties and high cell viability designed for future in vivo trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, R A; Magyari, K; Vulpoi, A; Trandafir, D L; Licarete, E; Todea, M; Ştefan, R; Voica, C; Vodnar, D C; Simon, S; Papuc, I; Baia, L

    2016-07-19

    In the present study our interest is focused on finding the efficiency of 60SiO2·(32 - x)CaO·8P2O5·xCuO (mol%) glass-ceramics, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 mol%, in terms of bioactivity, biocompatibility, antibacterial properties and cell viability in order to determine the most appropriate composition for their further use in in vivo trials. The sol-gel synthesized samples show a preponderantly amorphous structure with a few crystallization centers associated with the formation of an apatite and calcium carbonate crystalline phases. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra revealed slightly modified absorption bands due to the addition of copper oxide, while the information derived from the measurements performed by transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed the presence of ions and metallic copper species. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis indicated the presence of copper metallic species, in a reduced amount, only on the sample surface with the highest Cu content. Regarding in vitro assessment of bioactivity, the results obtained by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated the formation of a calcium phosphate layer on all investigated sample surfaces. The inhibitory effect of the investigated samples was more significant on the Pseudomonas aeruginosa than the Staphylococcus aureus strain, the sample with the lowest concentration of copper oxide (0.5 mol%) being also the most efficient in both bacterial cultures. This sample also exhibits a very good bactericidal activity, for the other samples it was necessary to use a higher quantity to inhibit and kill the bacterial species. The secondary structure of adsorbed albumin presents few minor changes, indicating the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The cell viability assay shows a good proliferation rate on samples with 0.5 and 1.5 mol% CuO, although all glass-ceramic samples exhibited a good in vivo

  13. Long-term conversion of 45S5 bioactive glass-ceramic microspheres in aqueous phosphate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hailuo; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Day, Delbert E; Huang, Wenhai

    2012-05-01

    The conversion of 45S5 glass and glass-ceramics to a hydroxyapatite (HA)-like material in vitro has been studied extensively, but only for short reaction times (typically glass-ceramic microspheres (designated 45S5c) in an aqueous phosphate solution. Microspheres of 45S5c (75-150 μm) were immersed for 10 years at room temperature (~25 °C) in K(2)HPO(4) solution with a concentration of 0.01 M or 1.0 M, and with a starting pH of 7.0 or 9.5. The reacted 45S5c microspheres and solutions were analyzed using structural and analytical techniques. Only 25-45 vol% of the 45S5c microspheres were converted to an HA-like material after the 10 year reaction. In solutions with a starting pH of 9.5, an increase in the K(2)HPO(4) concentration from 0.01 to 1.0 M resulted in a doubling of the volume of the microspheres converted to an HA-like material but had little effect on the composition of the HA-like product. In comparison, reaction of the 45S5c microspheres in the solution with a starting pH of 7.0 resulted in an HA-like product in the 0.01 M K(2)HPO(4) solution but a calcium pyrophosphate product, Ca(10)K(4)(P(2)O(7))(6).9H(2)O, in the 1.0 M solution. The consequences of these results for the long-term use of 45S5 glass-ceramics in biomedical applications are discussed.

  14. Porous SiO2 nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass-ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Indranee; De, Goutam; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2016-05-01

    A composite bioactive glass-ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Saurabh [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Goel, Ashutosh [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 (United States); Correia, Ana Filipa [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pascual, Maria J. [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio (CSIC), Kelsen 5, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won [Institute of Tissue Regeneration Engineering (ITREN) & College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330714 (Korea, Republic of); Ferreira, José M.F., E-mail: jmf@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, University of Aveiro, CICECO, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO–(19.24 − x) MgO–x ZnO–5.61 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–38.49 SiO{sub 2}–0.59 CaF{sub 2} (x = 2–10) have been synthesised by melt–quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1 h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content > 4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO. - Highlights: • The addition of zinc to glasses decreased T{sub g} and promoted crystallisation. • Zinc enhanced the sintering ability and increased mechanical strength by 36%. • The apatite formation ability decreased with increasing Zn contents. • Zinc stimulated mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner.

  16. Influence of ZnO/MgO substitution on sintering, crystallisation, and bio-activity of alkali-free glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, Saurabh; Goel, Ashutosh; Correia, Ana Filipa; Pascual, Maria J.; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Hae-Won; Ferreira, José M.F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the influence of partial replacement of MgO by ZnO on the structure, crystallisation behaviour and bioactivity of alkali-free bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs). A series of glass compositions (mol%): 36.07 CaO–(19.24 − x) MgO–x ZnO–5.61 P 2 O 5 –38.49 SiO 2 –0.59 CaF 2 (x = 2–10) have been synthesised by melt–quench technique. The structural changes were investigated by solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR), X-ray diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The sintering and crystallisation behaviours of glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. All the glass compositions exhibited good densification ability resulting in well sintered and mechanically strong GCs. The crystallisation and mechanical behaviour were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 850 °C for 1 h. Diopside was the primary crystalline phase in all the GCs followed by fluorapatite and rankinite as secondary phases. Another phase named petedunnite was identified in GCs with ZnO content > 4 mol. The proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) on GCs was revealed to be Zn-dose dependent with the highest performance being observed for 4 mol% ZnO. - Highlights: • The addition of zinc to glasses decreased T g and promoted crystallisation. • Zinc enhanced the sintering ability and increased mechanical strength by 36%. • The apatite formation ability decreased with increasing Zn contents. • Zinc stimulated mesenchymal stem cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner

  17. Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings prepared by pulsed laser deposition from RKKP targets (sol-gel vs melt-processing route)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rau, J.V., E-mail: giulietta.rau@ism.cnr.it [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Teghil, R. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Fosca, M. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); De Bonis, A. [Universita della Basilicata, Dipartimento di Chimica ' A.M. Tamburro' , Via dell' Ateneo Lucano, 10-85100 Potenza (Italy); CNR-IMIP U.O.S. di Potenza, Zona Industriale di Tito scalo (PZ) (Italy); Cacciotti, I.; Bianco, A. [Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, UR INSTM ' Roma Tor Vergata' , Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Rome (Italy); Albertini, V. Rossi [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere, 100-00133 Rome (Italy); Caminiti, R. [Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Dipartimento di Chimica, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5-00185 Rome (Italy); Ravaglioli, A. [Parco Torricelli delle Arti e delle Scienze, Via Granarolo, 64-48018 Faenza (Ra) (Italy)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings for bone tissue repair and regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pulsed Lased Deposition allowed congruent transfer of target composition to coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Target was prepared by sol-gel process suitable for compositional tailoring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titanium, widely used for orthopaedics and dental implants, was used as substrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The physico-chemical properties of the prepared coatings are reported. -- Abstract: The deposition of innovative glass-ceramic composition (i.e. RKKP) coatings by Pulsed Lased Deposition (PLD) technique is reported. RKKP was synthesised following two methodologies: melt-processing and sol-gel, the latter being particularly suitable to tailor the compositional range. The PLD advantage with respect to other deposition techniques is the congruent transfer of the target composition to the coating. The physico-chemical properties of films were investigated by Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Angular and Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, and Vickers microhardness. The deposition performed at 12 J/cm{sup 2} and 500 Degree-Sign C allows to prepare crystalline films with the composition that replicates rather well that of the initial targets. The 0.6 {mu}m thin melt-processing RKKP films, possessing the hardness of 25 GPa, and the 4.3 {mu}m thick sol-gel films with the hardness of 17 GPa were obtained.

  18. Bioactive glass-ceramic bone repair associated or not with autogenous bone: a study of organic bone matrix organization in a rabbit critical-sized calvarial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biguetti, Claudia Cristina; Cavalla, Franco; Tim, Carla Roberta; Saraiva, Patrícia Pinto; Orcini, Wilson; De Andrade Holgado, Leandro; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi

    2018-04-26

    The aim of the study was to analyze bone matrix (BMX) organization after bone grafting and repair using a new bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate ® ) associated or not with particulate autogenous bone graft. Thirty rabbits underwent surgical bilateral parietal defects and divided into groups according to the materials used: (C) control-blood clot, (BG) particulate autogenous bone, (BS) bioactive glass-ceramic, and BG + BS. After 7, 14, and 30 days post-surgery, a fragment of each specimen was fixed in - 80 °C liquid nitrogen for zymographic evaluation, while the remaining was fixed in 10% formalin for histological birefringence analysis. The results of this study demonstrated that matrix organization in experimental groups was significantly improved compared to C considering collagenous organization. Zymographic analysis revealed pro-MMP-2, pro-MMP-9, and active (a)-MMP-2 in all groups, showing gradual decrease of total gelatinolytic activity during the periods. At day 7, BG presented more prominent gelatinolytic activity for pro-MMP-2 and 9 and a-MMP-2, when compared to the other groups. In addition, at day 7, a 53% activation ratio (active form/[active form + latent form]) was evident in C group, 33% in BS group, and 31% in BG group. In general, BS allowed the production of a BMX similar to BG, with organized collagen deposition and MMP-2 and MMP-9 disponibility, permitting satisfactory bone remodeling at the late period. The evaluation of new bone substitute, with favorable biological properties, opens the possibility for its use as a viable and efficient alternative to autologous bone graft.

  19. In vitro evaluation of bioactivity of SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2-ZnO glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Saleemi, Farhat; Bashir, Farooq; Hossain, Tousif; Kayani, Zohra

    2014-09-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element that stimulates bone formation but it is also known as an inhibitor of apatite crystal growth. In this work addition of ZnO to SiO2-CaO-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 glass-ceramic system was made by conventional melt-quenching technique. DSC curves showed that the addition of ZnO moved the endothermic and exothermic peaks to lower temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis did not reveal any additional phase caused by ZnO addition and showed the presence of wollastonite and hydroxyapatite crystalline phases only in all the glass-ceramic samples. As bio-implant apatite forming ability is an essential condition, the surface reactivity of the prepared glass-ceramic specimens was studied in vitro in Kokubo's simulated body fluid (SBF) [1] with ion concentration nearly equal to human blood plasma for 30 days at 37 °C under static condition. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to study the changes in element concentrations in soaking solutions and XRD, FT-IR and SEM were used to elucidate surface properties of prepared glass-ceramics, which confirmed the formation of HCAp on the surface of all glass-ceramics. It was found that the addition of ZnO had a positive effect on bioactivity of glass-ceramics and made it a potential candidate for restoration of damaged bones.

  20. Magnetic and bioactivity evaluation of ferrimagnetic ZnFe 2O 4 containing glass ceramics for the hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M. U.; Alam, S.; Shamim, A.

    2010-02-01

    Glass ceramics of the composition xZnO·25Fe 2O 3·(40- x)SiO 2·25CaO·7P 2O 5·3Na 2O were prepared by the melt-quench method using oxy-acetylene flame. Glass-powder compacts were sintered at 1100 °C for 3 h and then rapidly cooled at -10 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed 3 prominent crystalline phases: ZnFe 2O 4, CaSiO 3 and Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) data at 10 KOe and 500 Oe showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and hence hysteresis area increased with the increase in ZnO content. Nano-sized ZnFe 2O 4 crystallites were of pseudo-single domain structure and thus coercivity increased with the increase in crystallite size. ZnFe 2O 4 exhibited ferrimagnetism due to the random distribution of Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ cations at tetrahedral A sites and octahedral B sites. This inversion/random distribution of cations was probably due to the surface effects of nano-ZnFe 2O 4 and rapid cooling of the material from 1100 °C (thus preserving the high temperature state of the random distribution of cations). Calorimetric measurements were carried out using magnetic induction furnace at 500 Oe magnetic field and 400 KHz frequency. The data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 26 W/g and 37 °C, respectively for the sample containing 10% ZnO. The samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3 weeks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD results confirmed the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite phase after immersion in SBF, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to the living tissues in physiological environment.

  1. Magnetic and bioactivity evaluation of ferrimagnetic ZnFe2O4 containing glass ceramics for the hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Saqlain A.; Hashmi, M.U.; Alam, S.; Shamim, A.

    2010-01-01

    Glass ceramics of the composition xZnO.25Fe 2 O 3 .(40-x)SiO 2 .25CaO.7P 2 O 5 .3Na 2 O were prepared by the melt-quench method using oxy-acetylene flame. Glass-powder compacts were sintered at 1100 deg. C for 3 h and then rapidly cooled at -10 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed 3 prominent crystalline phases: ZnFe 2 O 4 , CaSiO 3 and Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 . Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) data at 10 KOe and 500 Oe showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and hence hysteresis area increased with the increase in ZnO content. Nano-sized ZnFe 2 O 4 crystallites were of pseudo-single domain structure and thus coercivity increased with the increase in crystallite size. ZnFe 2 O 4 exhibited ferrimagnetism due to the random distribution of Zn 2+ and Fe 3+ cations at tetrahedral A sites and octahedral B sites. This inversion/random distribution of cations was probably due to the surface effects of nano-ZnFe 2 O 4 and rapid cooling of the material from 1100 deg. C (thus preserving the high temperature state of the random distribution of cations). Calorimetric measurements were carried out using magnetic induction furnace at 500 Oe magnetic field and 400 KHz frequency. The data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 26 W/g and 37 deg. C, respectively for the sample containing 10% ZnO. The samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3 weeks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD results confirmed the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite phase after immersion in SBF, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to the living tissues in physiological environment.

  2. In vivo biological performance of a novel highly bioactive glass-ceramic (Biosilicate®): A biomechanical and histomorphometric study in rat tibial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata N; Rennó, Ana Claudia; Ravagnani, Christian; Bossini, Paulo S; Mochiuti, Daniel; Jorgetti, Vanda; Driusso, Patricia; Peitl, Oscar; Zanotto, Edgar D; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Oishi, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate bone responses to a novel bioactive fully crystallized glass-ceramic of the quaternary system P(2)O(5)-Na(2)O-CaO-SiO(2) (Biosilicate®). Although a previous study demonstrated positive effects of Biosilicate® on in vitro bone-like matrix formation, its in vivo effect was not studied yet. Male Wistar rats (n = 40) with tibial defects were used. Four experimental groups were designed to compare this novel biomaterial with a gold standard bioactive material (Bioglass® 45S5), unfilled defects and intact controls. A three-point bending test was performed 20 days after the surgical procedure, as well as the histomorphometric analysis in two regions of interest: cortical bone and medullary canal where the particulate biomaterial was implanted. The biomechanical test revealed a significant increase in the maximum load at failure and stiffness in the Biosilicate® group (vs. control defects), whose values were similar to uninjured bones. There were no differences in the cortical bone parameters in groups with bone defects, but a great deal of woven bone was present surrounding Biosilicate® and Bioglass® 45S5 particulate. Although both bioactive materials supported significant higher bone formation; Biosilicate® was superior to Bioglass® 45S5 in some histomorphometric parameters (bone volume and number of osteoblasts). Regarding bone resorption, Biosilicate® group showed significant higher number of osteoclasts per unit of tissue area than defect and intact controls, despite of the non-significant difference in the osteoclastic surface as percentage of bone surface. This study reveals that the fully crystallized Biosilicate® has good bone-forming and bone-bonding properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Alkali-free bioactive glasses for bone regeneration =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Saurabh

    Bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics are a class of third generation biomaterials which elicit a special response on their surface when in contact with biological fluids, leading to strong bonding to living tissues. The purpose of the present study was to develop diopside based alkali-free bioactive glasses in order to achieve good sintering behaviour, high bioactivity, and a dissolution/ degradation rates compatible with the target applications in bone regeneration and tissue engineering. Another aim was to understand the structure-property relationships in the investigated bioactive glasses. In this quest, various glass compositions within the Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) - Fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F) - Tricalcium phosphate (3CaO•P2O5) system have been investigated. All the glasses were prepared by melt-quenching technique and characterized by a wide array of complementary characterization techniques. The glass-ceramics were produced by sintering of glass powders compacts followed by a suitable heat treatment to promote the nucleation and crystallization phenomena. Furthermore, selected parent glass compositions were doped with several functional ions and an attempt to understand their effects on the glass structure, sintering ability and on the in vitro bio-degradation and biomineralization behaviours of the glasses was made. The effects of the same variables on the devitrification (nucleation and crystallization) behaviour of glasses to form bioactive glass-ceramics were also investigated. Some of the glasses exhibited high bio-mineralization rates, expressed by the formation of a surface hydroxyapatite layer within 1-12 h of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. All the glasses showed relatively lower degradation rates in comparison to that of 45S5 Bioglass. Some of the glasses showed very good in vitro behaviour and the glasses co-doped with zinc and strontium showed an in vitro dose dependent behaviour. The as-designed bioactive glasses and glass-ceramic

  4. Low thermal expansion glass ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...

  5. Bioactivity of Y2O3 and CeO2 doped SiO2-SrO-Na2O glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placek, L M; Keenan, T J; Wren, A W

    2016-08-01

    The bioactivity of yttrium and cerium are investigated when substituted for Sodium (Na) in a 0.52SiO2-0.24SrO-0.24-xNa2O-xMO glass-ceramics (where x = 0.08 and MO = Y2O3 or CeO2). Bioactivity is monitored through pH and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry where pH of simulated body fluid ranged from 7.5 to 7.6 and increased between 8.2 and 10.0 after 14-day incubation with the glass-ceramic disks. Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) levels in simulated body fluid after incubation with yttrium and cerium containing disks show a continual decline over the 14-day period. In contrast, Con disks (not containing yttrium or cerium) caused the elimination of Ca in solution after 1 day and throughout the incubation period, and initially showed a decline in P levels followed by an increase at 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy confirmed the presence of Ca and P on the surface of the simulated body fluid-incubated disks and showed precipitates on Con and HCe (8 mol% cerium) samples. Cell viability of MC3T3 osteoblasts was not significantly affected at a 9% extract concentration. Optical microscopy after 24 h cell incubation with disks showed that Con samples do not support osteoblast or Schwann cell growth, while all yttrium and cerium containing disks have direct contact with osteoblasts spread across the wells. Schwann cells attached in all wells, but only showed spreading with the HY-S (8 mol% yttrium, heated to sintering temperature) and YCe (4 mol% yttrium and cerium) disks. Scanning electron microscopy of the compatible disks shows osteoblast and sNF96.2 Schwann cells attachment and spreading directly on the disk surfaces. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Magnetic and bioactivity evaluation of ferrimagnetic ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} containing glass ceramics for the hyperthermia treatment of cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Saqlain A., E-mail: saqlain007pk@hotmail.co [Biomaterials Lab, Department of Physics, GC University Lahore (Pakistan); Hashmi, M.U. [Biomaterials Lab, Department of Physics, GC University Lahore (Pakistan); Alam, S. [PITMAEM, PCSIR Lahore (Pakistan); Shamim, A. [Biomaterials Lab, Department of Physics, GC University Lahore (Pakistan)

    2010-02-15

    Glass ceramics of the composition xZnO.25Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.(40-x)SiO{sub 2}.25CaO.7P{sub 2}O{sub 5}.3Na{sub 2}O were prepared by the melt-quench method using oxy-acetylene flame. Glass-powder compacts were sintered at 1100 deg. C for 3 h and then rapidly cooled at -10 deg. C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed 3 prominent crystalline phases: ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, CaSiO{sub 3} and Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) data at 10 KOe and 500 Oe showed that saturation magnetization, coercivity and hence hysteresis area increased with the increase in ZnO content. Nano-sized ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} crystallites were of pseudo-single domain structure and thus coercivity increased with the increase in crystallite size. ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited ferrimagnetism due to the random distribution of Zn{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} cations at tetrahedral A sites and octahedral B sites. This inversion/random distribution of cations was probably due to the surface effects of nano-ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and rapid cooling of the material from 1100 deg. C (thus preserving the high temperature state of the random distribution of cations). Calorimetric measurements were carried out using magnetic induction furnace at 500 Oe magnetic field and 400 KHz frequency. The data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 26 W/g and 37 deg. C, respectively for the sample containing 10% ZnO. The samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 3 weeks. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and XRD results confirmed the growth of precipitated hydroxyapatite phase after immersion in SBF, suggesting that the ferrimagnetic glass ceramics were bioactive and could bond to the living tissues in physiological environment.

  7. Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Hans

    2005-01-01

    This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...

  8. Bioactive Glasses in Dentistry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasi Z

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses are silicate-based and can form a strong chemical bond with the tissues. These biomaterials are highly biocompatible and can form a hydroxyapatite layer when implanted in the body or soaked in the simulated body fluid. Due to several disadvantages, conventional glass processing method including melting of glass components, is replaced by sol-gel method with a large number of benefits such as low processing temperature, higher purity and homogeneity and therefore better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide range of applications, particularly in dentistry. These glasses can be used as particulates or monolithic shapes and porous or dense constructs in different applications such as remineralization or hypersensitivity treatment. Some properties of bioactive glasses such as antibacterial properties can be promoted by adding different elements into the glass. Bioactive glasses can also be used to modify different biocompatible materials that need to be bioactive. This study reviews the significant developments of bioactive glasses in clinical application, especially dentistry. Furthermore, we will discuss the field of bioactive glasses from beginning to the current developments, which includes processing methods, applications, and properties of these glasses.

  9. Glass Ceramic Formulation Data Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; McCloy, John S.; Vienna, John D.; Chung, Chul-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A glass ceramic waste form is being developed for treatment of secondary waste streams generated by aqueous reprocessing of commercial used nuclear fuel (Crum et al. 2012b). The waste stream contains a mixture of transition metals, alkali, alkaline earths, and lanthanides, several of which exceed the solubility limits of a single phase borosilicate glass (Crum et al. 2009; Caurant et al. 2007). A multi-phase glass ceramic waste form allows incorporation of insoluble components of the waste by designed crystallization into durable heat tolerant phases. The glass ceramic formulation and processing targets the formation of the following three stable crystalline phases: (1) powellite (XMoO4) where X can be (Ca, Sr, Ba, and/or Ln), (2) oxyapatite Yx,Z(10-x)Si6O26 where Y is alkaline earth, Z is Ln, and (3) lanthanide borosilicate (Ln5BSi2O13). These three phases incorporate the waste components that are above the solubility limit of a single-phase borosilicate glass. The glass ceramic is designed to be a single phase melt, just like a borosilicate glass, and then crystallize upon slow cooling to form the targeted phases. The slow cooling schedule is based on the centerline cooling profile of a 2 foot diameter canister such as the Hanford High-Level Waste canister. Up to this point, crucible testing has been used for glass ceramic development, with cold crucible induction melter (CCIM) targeted as the ultimate processing technology for the waste form. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) will conduct a scaled CCIM test in FY2012 with a glass ceramic to demonstrate the processing behavior. This Data Package documents the laboratory studies of the glass ceramic composition to support the CCIM test. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) measured melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, and crystallization behavior upon cooling to identify a processing window (temperature range) for melter operation and cooling profiles necessary to crystallize the targeted phases in the

  10. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  11. Towards the synthesis of an experimental bioactive dental ceramic. Part I: Crystallinity characterization and bioactive behavior evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudouri, O.-M. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, E. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, L.; Kantiranis, N. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lazaridis, N.K. [Chemistry Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, K.; Chatzistavrou, X. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, P. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-05-01

    An attachment between the dental ceramic and the surrounding marginal tissues in fixed prosthetic restorations could eliminate secondary carries prevalence. The development of dental ceramics with apatite forming ability could provide the biological surface required for selective spread and attachment of specific cell types able to promote tissue attachment. Dental ceramics/bioactive glass composites synthesized by the sol gel method have been previously reported to develop carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) in biomimetic solutions, requiring though a high amount of bioactive glass, which resulted in the compromise of their mechanical integrity. Thus, the aim of the present work was the synthesis and characterization of an experimental sol–gel derived dental ceramic with low amount of bioactive glass and the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the crystal structure and the in vitro apatite forming ability of the synthesized material. The results of this study indicated the successful sol–gel synthesis of an experimental dental ceramic containing low amount of bioactive glass that presented similar structural and morphological characteristics with a commercial feldspathic dental ceramic, while exhibiting in vitro bioactivity. The apatite forming ability of the experimental sol–gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic may trigger the appropriate cellular mechanisms towards the establishment of attachment with the surrounding connective tissue. This attachment could provide a barrier to oral bacteria penetration, prolonging the life expectation of the restorations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a bioactive sol–gel dental ceramic for fixed prosthetic restorations. • The sol–gel technique promoted the crystallization of

  12. Towards the synthesis of an experimental bioactive dental ceramic. Part I: Crystallinity characterization and bioactive behavior evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goudouri, O.-M.; Kontonasaki, E.; Papadopoulou, L.; Kantiranis, N.; Lazaridis, N.K.; Chrissafis, K.; Chatzistavrou, X.; Koidis, P.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    An attachment between the dental ceramic and the surrounding marginal tissues in fixed prosthetic restorations could eliminate secondary carries prevalence. The development of dental ceramics with apatite forming ability could provide the biological surface required for selective spread and attachment of specific cell types able to promote tissue attachment. Dental ceramics/bioactive glass composites synthesized by the sol gel method have been previously reported to develop carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) in biomimetic solutions, requiring though a high amount of bioactive glass, which resulted in the compromise of their mechanical integrity. Thus, the aim of the present work was the synthesis and characterization of an experimental sol–gel derived dental ceramic with low amount of bioactive glass and the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the crystal structure and the in vitro apatite forming ability of the synthesized material. The results of this study indicated the successful sol–gel synthesis of an experimental dental ceramic containing low amount of bioactive glass that presented similar structural and morphological characteristics with a commercial feldspathic dental ceramic, while exhibiting in vitro bioactivity. The apatite forming ability of the experimental sol–gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic may trigger the appropriate cellular mechanisms towards the establishment of attachment with the surrounding connective tissue. This attachment could provide a barrier to oral bacteria penetration, prolonging the life expectation of the restorations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a bioactive sol–gel dental ceramic for fixed prosthetic restorations. • The sol–gel technique promoted the crystallization of

  13. Inorganic glass ceramic slip rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossbrenner, E. W.; Cole, S. R.

    1972-01-01

    Prototypes of slip rings have been fabricated from ceramic glass, a material which is highly resistant to deterioration due to high temperature. Slip ring assemblies were not structurally damaged by mechanical tests and performed statisfactorily for 200 hours.

  14. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  15. Key role of the expression of bone morphogenetic proteins in increasing the osteogenic activity of osteoblast-like cells exposed to shock waves and seeded on bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, Giuliana; Martinasso, Germana; Baino, Francesco; Frairia, Roberto; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Canuto, Rosa A

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the role of shock wave-induced increase of bone morphogenetic proteins in modulating the osteogenic properties of osteoblast-like cells seeded on a bioactive scaffold was investigated using gremlin as a bone morphogenetic protein antagonist. Bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds, based on a silicate experimental bioactive glass developed at the Politecnico di Torino, were produced by the sponge replication method and used as porous substrates for cell culture. Human MG-63 cells, exposed to shock waves and seeded on the scaffolds, were treated with gremlin every two days and analysed after 20 days for the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers. Shock waves have been shown to induce osteogenic activity mediated by increased expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, type I collagen, BMP-4 and BMP-7. Cells exposed to shock waves plus gremlin showed increased growth in comparison with cells treated with shock waves alone and, conversely, mRNA contents of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly lower. Therefore, the shock wave-mediated increased expression of bone morphogenetic protein in MG-63 cells seeded on the scaffolds is essential in improving osteogenic activity; blocking bone morphogenetic protein via gremlin completely prevents the increase of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. The results confirmed that the combination of glass-ceramic scaffolds and shock waves exposure could be used to significantly improve osteogenesis opening new perspectives for bone regenerative medicine. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Exoelectron emission from magnesium borate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Takamichi; Yanagisawa, Hideo; Nakamichi, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu.

    1986-01-01

    Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) of a magnesium borate glass ceramics was investigated for its application to dosemetric use. It has been found that the TSEE glow patterns of the magnesium borate glass ceramics as well as a Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics depend on the kind of the radiation used and that the heat resistance of the magnesium borate glass ceramics is higher than that of the Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics. Therefore, the TSEE glow patterns of the magnesium borate glass ceramics indicate a possibility to be used as the dose measurement for each kind of radiation in the mixed radiation field. (author)

  17. Characterization of glass and glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Borchardt, J.; De, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Characteristics of solidified nuclear waste forms, glass and glass ceramic compositions and the properties (composition, thermal stability, crystallization, phase behavior, chemical stability, mechanical stability, and radiation effects) of glasses and glass ceramics are discussed. The preparation of glass ceramics may be an optional step for proposed vitrification plants if tailored glasses are used. Glass ceramics exhibit some improved properties with respect to glasses. The overall leach resistance is similar to that of glasses. An increased leach resistance may become effective for single radionuclides being hosted in highly insoluble crystal phases mainly when higher melting temperatures are applicable in order to get more leach resistant residual glass phases. The development of glass ceramic is going on. The technological feasibility is still to be demonstrated. The potential gain of stability when using glass ceramics qualifies the material as an alternative nuclear waste form

  18. Laser cladding of bioactive glass coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Quintero, F; Lusquiños, F; Pascual, M J; Boutinguiza, M; Durán, A; Pou, J

    2010-03-01

    Laser cladding by powder injection has been used to produce bioactive glass coatings on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates. Bioactive glass compositions alternative to 45S5 Bioglass were demonstrated to exhibit a gradual wetting angle-temperature evolution and therefore a more homogeneous deposition of the coating over the substrate was achieved. Among the different compositions studied, the S520 bioactive glass showed smoother wetting angle-temperature behavior and was successfully used as precursor material to produce bioactive coatings. Coatings processed using a Nd:YAG laser presented calcium silicate crystallization at the surface, with a uniform composition along the coating cross-section, and no significant dilution of the titanium alloy was observed. These coatings maintain similar bioactivity to that of the precursor material as demonstrated by immersion in simulated body fluid. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bone bonding ability of some borate bio-glasses and their corresponding glass-ceramic derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma H. Margha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ternary borate glasses from the system Na2O·CaO·B2O3 together with soda-lime-borate samples containing 5 wt.% of MgO, Al2O3, SiO2 or P2O5 were prepared. The obtained glasses were converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives by controlled heat treatment. X-ray diffraction was employed to investigate the separated crystalline phases in glass-ceramics after heat treatment of the glassy samples. The glasses and corresponding glass-ceramics after immersion in water or diluted phosphate solution for extended times were characterized by the grain method (adopted by several authors and recommended by ASTM and Fourier-transform infrared spectra to justify the formation of hydroxyapatite as an indication of the bone bonding ability. The influence of glass composition on bioactivity potential was discussed too.

  20. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: 84004@cch.org.tw [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  1. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Chen, H.T.; Huang, L.F.; Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F.; Chang, I.L.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  2. Glass ceramic seals to inconel

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollister, Howard L.; Reed, Scott T.

    1983-11-08

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65-80% SiO.sub.2, 8-16%, Li.sub.2 O, 2-8% , Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, 1-8% K.sub.2 O, 1-5% P.sub.2 O.sub.5 and 1.5-7% B.sub.2 O.sub.3, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to cause growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  3. Silver-containing mesoporous bioactive glass with improved antibacterial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Nicola; Cusano, Angela Maria; Causa, Filippo; Caputo, Domenico; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of a silver-containing mesoporous bioactive glass obtained by evaporation-induced self-assembly and successive thermal stabilization. Samples of the manufactured mesophase were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and N₂ adsorption/desorption at 77 K, revealing structural and textural properties similar to SBA-15 mesoporous silica. Glass samples used for bioactivity experiments were put in contact with a standardized, commercially available cell culture medium instead of lab-produced simulated body fluid, and were then characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All these analyses confirmed the development of a hydroxyl carbonate apatite layer on glass particles. Moreover, the investigated mesostructure showed a very good antibacterial effect against S. aureus strain, with a strong evidence of bactericidal activity already registered at 0.5 mg/mL of glass concentration. A hypothesis about the mechanism by which Ag affects the bacterial viability, based on the intermediate formation of crystalline AgCl, was also taken into account. With respect to what already reported in the literature, these findings claim a deeper insight into the possible use of silver-containing bioactive glasses as multifunctional ceramic coatings for orthopedic devices.

  4. Review of glass ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Glass ceramics are being considered for the immobilization of nuclear wastes to obtain a waste form with improved properties relative to glasses. Improved impact resistance, decreased thermal expansion, and increased leach resistance are possible. In addition to improved properties, the spontaneous devitrification exhibited in some waste-containing glasses can be avoided by the controlled crystallization after melting in the glass-ceramic process. The majority of the glass-ceramic development for nuclear wastes has been conducted at the Hahn-Meitner Institute (HMI) in Germany. Two of their products, a celsian-based (BaAl 3 Si 2 O 8 ) and a fresnoite-based (Ba 2 TiSi 2 O 8 ) glass ceramic, have been studied at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A basalt-based glass ceramic primarily containing diopsidic augite (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ) has been developed at PNL. This glass ceramic is of interest since it would be in near equilibrium with a basalt repository. Studies at the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in Japan have favored a glass-ceramic product based upon diopside (CaMgSi 2 O 6 ). Compositions, processing conditions, and product characterization of typical commercial and nuclear waste glass ceramics are discussed. In general, glass-ceramic waste forms can offer improved strength and decreased thermal expansion. Due to typcially large residual glass phases of up to 50%, there may be little improvement in leach resistance

  5. Light scattering in glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendy, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Glass-ceramic materials with microstructures comprised of dispersed nanocrystallites in a residual glass matrix show promise for many new technological applications. In particular, transparent glass-ceramics offer low thermal expansion and stability, in addition to the prospect of novel non-linear optical properties that can arise from the nanocrystallites. Good transparency requires low optical scattering and low atomic absorption. Light scattering in the glass-ceramic arises primarily from the glass-crystallite interface. The attenuation due to scattering (turbidity) will depend upon the difference in refractive index of the two phases and the size and distribution of nanocrystallites in the glass. Here we consider models of glass-ceramic structure formation and look at scattering in these model structures to increase our understanding of the transparency of glass-ceramics

  6. Metallizing of machinable glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigal, P.K.

    1976-02-01

    A satisfactory technique has been developed for metallizing Corning (Code 9658) machinable glass ceramic for brazing. Analyses of several bonding materials suitable for metallizing were made using microprobe analysis, optical metallography, and tensile strength tests. The effect of different cleaning techniques on the microstructure and the effect of various firing temperatures on the bonding interface were also investigated. A nickel paste, used for thick-film application, has been applied to obtain braze joints with strength in excess of 2000 psi

  7. Glass ceramic fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschek, O.; Paulitsch, P.

    1983-01-01

    As the correlation between mineralogical phase and chemical composition influences the type of application at different high temperatures, we studied the mineralogical phases of nine crystal glass fibres of the temperature ranges 1 150 degrees Celsius (Type 1), 1 400 degrees Celsius (Type 2) and 1 500 degrees Celsius (Type 3) at various high temperatures. The methods used in the study were microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis. The investigations showed that mullite forms in glassy fibres of the system Al 2 O 3 . SiO 2 from 850 degrees Celsius to 990 degrees Celsius as 2/1 mullite; 3/2 mullite appeared above 990 degrees Celsius besides the crystallization of cristobalite. Fibres with 95 per cent Al 2 O 3 include the phases delta-Al 2 O 3 and alpha- Al 2 O 3 and mullite. Delta- Al 2 O 3 is stable up to 1 100 degrees Celsius. Alpha-Al 2 O 3 and mullite are only stable phases at 1 400 degrees Celsius. These different crystal phases influence the quality of the technical fibre according to the stability field of glass and crystals. This study has determined that it is possible to identify different fibres from different productions by their mineralogical compositions and to relate them to the high temperature application

  8. Mechanical properties of bioactive glass putty formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gestel, N.A.P.; Geurts, J.A.P.; Hulsen, D.J.W.; Hofmann, S.; Ito, K.; van Rietbergen, B.; Arts, J.J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bioactive glass (BAG) has been studied widely and seems to be a very promising biomaterial in regeneration of large bone defects and osteomyelitis treatment, because of its bone bonding and antibacterial properties[1]-[5]. Its high stiffness could potentially also enable mechanical

  9. Corrosion mechanism and bioactivity of borate glasses analogue to Hench’s bioglass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Ouis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive borate glasses (from the system Na2O-CaO-B2O3-P2O5 and corresponding glass-ceramics as a new class of scaffold material were prepared by full replacement of SiO2 with B2O3 in Hench patented bioactive glass. The prepared samples were investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The DTA data were used to find out the proper heat treatment temperatures for preparation of the appropriate glass-ceramics with high crystallinity. The prepared crystalline glass-ceramics derivatives were examined by XRD to identify the crystalline phases that were precipitated during controlled thermal treatment. The FTIR spectroscopy was used to justify the formation of hydroxyapatite as an indication of the bioactivity potential or activity of the studied ternary borate glasses or corresponding glass-ceramics after immersion in aqueous phosphate solution. The corrosion results are interpreted on the basis of suggested recent views on the corrosion mechanism of such modified borate glasses in relation to their composition and constitution.

  10. Study of the mechanical stability and bioactivity of Bioglass(®) based glass-ceramic scaffolds produced via powder metallurgy-inspired technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccardi, Elena; Melli, Virginia; Catignoli, Gabriele; Altomare, Lina; Jahromi, Maryam Tavafoghi; Cerruti, Marta; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; De Nardo, Luigi

    2016-02-02

    Large bone defects are challenging to heal, and often require an osteoconductive and stable support to help the repair of damaged tissue. Bioglass-based scaffolds are particularly promising for this purpose due to their ability to stimulate bone regeneration. However, processing technologies adopted so far do not allow for the synthesis of scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties. Also, conventional sintering processes result in glass de-vitrification, which generates concerns about bioactivity. In this work, we studied the bioactivity and the mechanical properties of Bioglass(®) based scaffolds, produced via a powder technology inspired process. The scaffolds showed compressive strengths in the range of 5-40 MPa, i.e. in the upper range of values reported so far for these materials, had tunable porosity, in the range between 55 and 77%, and pore sizes that are optimal for bone tissue regeneration (100-500 μm). We immersed the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 28 d and analyzed the evolution of the scaffold mechanical properties and microstructure. Even if, after sintering, partial de-vitrification occurred, immersion in SBF caused ion release and the formation of a Ca-P coating within 2 d, which reached a thickness of 10-15 μm after 28 d. This coating contained both hydroxyapatite and an amorphous background, indicating microstructural amorphization of the base material. Scaffolds retained a good compressive strength and structural integrity also after 28 d of immersion (6 MPa compressive strength). The decrease in mechanical properties was mainly related to the increase in porosity, caused by its dissolution, rather than to the amorphization process and the formation of a Ca-P coating. These results suggest that Bioglass(®) based scaffolds produced via powder metallurgy-inspired technique are excellent candidates for bone regeneration applications.

  11. Wastes based glasses and glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbieri, L.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the inertization, recovery and valorisation of the wastes coming from municipal and industrial processes are the most important goals from the environmental and economical point of view. An alternative technology capable to overcome the problem of the dishomogeneity of the raw material chemical composition is the vitrification process that is able to increase the homogeneity and the constancy of the chemical composition of the system and to modulate the properties in order to address the reutilization of the waste. Moreover, the glasses obtained subjected to different controlled thermal treatments, can be transformed in semy-cristalline material (named glass-ceramics with improved properties with respect to the parent amorphous materials. In this review the tailoring, preparation and characterization of glasses and glass-ceramics obtained starting from municipal incinerator grate ash, coal and steel fly ashes and glass cullet are described.

    Realmente la inertización, recuperación y valorización de residuos que proceden de los procesos de incineración de residuos municipales y de residuos industriales son metas importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y económico. Una tecnología alternativa capaz de superar el problema de la heterogeneidad de la composición química de los materiales de partida es el proceso de la vitrificación que es capaz de aumentar la homogeneidad y la constancia de la composición química del sistema y modular las propiedades a fin de la reutilización del residuo. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de vitrificación en que los vidrios fueron sometidos a tratamientos térmicos controlados diferentes, de manera que se transforman en materiales semicristalinos (también denominados vitrocerámicos con mejores propiedades respecto a los materiales amorfos originales. En esta revisión se muestra el diseño, preparación y caracterización de vidrios y vitrocerámicos partiendo de

  12. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  13. Different in vitro behavior of two Ca3(PO42 based biomaterials, a glass-ceramic and a ceramic, having the same chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Guerrero-Lecuona

    2015-09-01

    The reactivity in simulated body fluid and Tris–HCl solutions was studied. Both materials showed bioactive behavior, but the glass-ceramic dissolved faster, releasing large proportion of Ca and P ions, which afterwards nucleated and precipitated. However, the ceramic was more stable under the same conditions in these solutions. Glass-ceramic composite has a more open structure and allowed the faster formation of a bone-like apatite layer than the ceramic.

  14. Characterization,Mechanical, and In Vitro Bioactivity Properties of Hydroxyapatite/Bioactive Glass Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Kahatan Sabree

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive ceramic materials can help bone reparation and regeneration by offering support to bone growth. Biological hydroxyapatite powder was prepared by burning animal bone followed by studying the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA/ (20wt.%, and 40wt.% of binary bioactive glass (70% SiO2- 30% CaO in order to evaluate the influence of composition on the compressive strength and hardness. HA-composite material exhibited increasing density, microhardness, and compressive strength with increasing amount of glass addition. X-ray diffraction after sintering at 1200°C showed no alter of HA to secondary phases while the hydroxyapatite/ bioactive glass composites contained a HA phase and different amounts of wollastonite phase, depending on the amount of bioglass added. In vitro tests, the samples were soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF for ten days in order to evaluate the change in compression strength, weight loss, and pH. The HA composite reinforced with 40 wt % bioglass showed highest compression strength, and lowest weight loss

  15. Radiopaque strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram eHöland

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals, was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2 – Al2O3 – Y2O3 – SrO – Na2O – K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O – P2O5 – F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: a Sr5(PO43F – leucite, KAlSi2O6 , b Sr5(PO43F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4 c Sr5(PO43F – pollucite, CsAlSiO4 , and nano-sized NaSrPO4, d Sr5(PO43F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4.The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needlelike morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needlelike Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism.The formation of leucite, pollucite and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  16. Oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolitsch, A.; Richter, E.; Wolf, M.

    1978-10-01

    A survey is given on the published works to study oxygen diffusion in glasses and ceramic materials in the last years. In the first part methods are described for the measurement of oxygen diffusion coefficients and in the second part the published reports on oxygen diffusion in glasses, ceramic and other oxides are discussed. The most important results are summarized in different tables. (author)

  17. Bioactivity evolution of the surface functionalized bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, Klára; Baia, Lucian; Vulpoi, Adriana; Simon, Simion; Popescu, Octavian; Simon, Viorica

    2015-02-01

    The formation of a calcium phosphate layer on the surface of the SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 glasses after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) generally demonstrates the bioactivity of these materials. Grafting of the surface by chemical bonding can minimize the structural changes in protein adsorbed on the surface. Therefore, in this study our interest was to evaluate the bioactivity and blood biocompatibility of the SiO2 -CaO-P2 O5 glasses after their surface modification by functionalization with aminopropyl-triethoxysilane and/or by fibrinogen. It is shown that the fibrinogen adsorbed on the glass surfaces induces a growing of the apatite-like layer. It is also evidenced that the protein content from SBF influences the growth of the apatite-like layer. Furthermore, the good blood compatibility of the materials after fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin adsorption is proved from the assessment of the β-sheet-β-turn ratio. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hierarchical Structures and Shaped Particles of Bioactive Glass and Its In Vitro Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Boonyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bioactive glass particles with controllable structure and porosity were prepared using dual-templating methods. Block copolymers used as one template component produced mesopores in the calcined samples. Polymer colloidal crystals as the other template component yielded either three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM products or shaped bioactive glass nanoparticles. The in vitro bioactivity of these bioactive glasses was studied by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF at body temperature (37°C for varying lengths of time and monitoring the formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of the bioactive glass. A considerable bioactivity was found that all of bioactive glass samples have the ability to induce the formation of an apatite layer on its surface when in contact with SBF. The development of bone-like apatite is faster for 3DOM bioactive glasses than for nanoparticles.

  19. Dissolution behavior of bioactive glass ceramics with different CaO/MgO ratios in SBF-K9 and r-SBF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Hashmi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we studied dissolution behavior of three glass ceramics samples each having 34 SiO2–14.5 P2O5–1 CaF2–0.5 MgF2 (%wt and ratio of CaO/MgO varying from 11.5:1 to 1:11.5 in conventional SBF (SBF-K9 and revised SBF (r-SBF that has ionic concentration exactly equal to that of human blood plasma. For that purpose, samples were immersed in fluids for different time periods upto 25 days. Thin film XRD analysis revealed the diffusive nature of the phases on the surfaces of samples after soaking for different time periods in r-SBF. It showed the poor precipitation and small thickness of the HCAp layer on the samples as compared to that in SBF-K9, thus indicating the fitness and sensitivity of r-SBF for in-vitro characterization of samples. AAS, FTIR and EDS revealed slow bonding rate on the surfaces of the samples in r-SBF than that in SBF-K9 that showed the dependence of bond formation on the composition of the materials as well as on the physiological fluid used for in-vitro characterization. The rate of HCAp formation was slower in r-SBF due to more competitive adsorption of CO3− ions to Ca and Mg ions owing to greater amount of CO3− in r-SBF than that in SBF-K9. It shows the importance of CO3− content in the physiological fluids for the in-vitro assessment of samples. So, r-SBF is recommended to be used for assessment of samples to clearly understand their behavior in-vivo.

  20. Antibacterial polylactic acid/chitosan nanofibers decorated with bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-fan; Akram, Muhammad; Alshemary, Ammarz [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@comsats.edu.pk [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • PLA/Chitosan nanofibers were coated with functional bioglass. • Polymer/ceramic composite fibers exhibited good in-vitro bioactivity. • Nanofibers coated with Ag doped bioglass exhibited good antibacterial activity. - Abstract: In this study, we have presented the structural and in vitro characterization of electrospun polylactic acid (PLA)/Chitosan nanofibers coated with cerium, copper or silver doped bioactive glasses (CeBG/CuBG/AgBG). Bead-free, smooth surfaced nanofibers were successfully prepared by using electrospinning technique. The nanocomposite fibers were obtained using a facile dip-coating method, their antibacterial activities against E. coliE. coli (ATCC 25922 strains) were measured by the disk diffusion method after 24 h of incubation at 37 °C. CeBG and CuBG decorated PLA/Chitosan nanofibers did not develop an inhibition zone against the bacteria. On the other hand, nanofibers coated with AgBG developed an inhibition zone against the bacteria. The as-prepared nanocomposite fibers were immersed in SBF for 1, 3 and 7 days in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for evaluation of in vitro bioactivity. All samples induced the formation of crystallites with roughly ruffled morphology and the pores of fibers were covered with the extensive growth of crystallites. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) composition analysis showed that the crystallites possessed Ca/P ratio close to 1.67, confirming the good in-vitro bioactivity of the fibers.

  1. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  2. Bioactive glass-based scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Will, J.; Gerhardt, L.C.; Boccaccini, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed to fill and restore bone defects, bioactive glasses are currently also being intensively investigated for bone tissue engineering applications. In this chapter, we review and discuss current knowledge on porous bone tissue engineering scaffolds made from bioactive silicate

  3. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  4. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...... and products of catalytic reactions can freely diffuse through open mesopores (2–40 nm). The formation mechanism of hierarchically structured porous bioactive glasses, the immobilization mechanism of enzyme and the catalysis mechanism of immobilized enzyme are then discussed. The novel nanostructure...

  5. An overview of the effects of thermal processing on bioactive glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellucci D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioglass® 45S5 is widely used in biomedical applications due to its ability to bond to bone and even to soft tissues. The sintering ability of Bioglass® powders is a key factor from a technological point of view, since its govern the production of advanced devices, ranging from highly porous scaffolds to functionalized coatings. Unfortunately this particular glass composition is prone to crystallize at the temperature required for sintering and this may impair the bioactivity of the original glass. For these reasons, a prerequisite to tailor the fabrication of Bioglass®-derived implants is to understand the interaction between sintering, crystallization and bioactivity. In this work the structural transformations which occur during the heat treatment of Bioglass® are reviewed and a special attention is paid to the sintering and crystallization processes. Moreover the bioactivity of the final glass-ceramics is discussed and some alternative glass formulations are reported.

  6. Ceramics and glasses for radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, G.

    1984-06-01

    Borosilicate glasses are mainly choosen for the confinement of fission products; industrial plants are either in operation (AVM) or in construction. Studies of ceramics as a matrix haven't received real application [fr

  7. Celsian Glass-Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Dicarlo, James A.

    1996-01-01

    Glass-ceramic matrix reinforced fiber composite materials developed for use in low dielectric applications, such as radomes. Materials strong and tough, exhibit low dielectric properties, and endure high temperatures.

  8. Formulation and synthesis by melting process of titanate enriched glass-ceramics and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advocat, T.; Fillet, C.; Lacombe, J.; Bonnetier, A.; McGlinn, P.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this work is to provide containment for the separated radionuclides in stable oxide phases with proven resistance to leaching and irradiation damage and in consequence to obtain a glass ceramic or a ceramic material using a vitrification process. Sphene glass ceramic, zirconolite glass ceramic and zirconolite enriched ceramic have been fabricated and characterized by XRD, SEM/EDX and DTA

  9. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. (paper)

  10. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2–Al2O3–Y2O3–SrO–Na2O–K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O–P2O5–F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F – leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F – pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F – Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite – pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal

  11. Radiopaque Strontium Fluoroapatite Glass-Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höland, Wolfram; Schweiger, Marcel; Dittmer, Marc; Ritzberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The controlled precipitation of strontium fluoroapatite crystals was studied in four base glass compositions derived from the SiO2-Al2O3-Y2O3-SrO-Na2O-K2O/Rb2O/Cs2O-P2O5-F system. The crystal phase formation of these glasses and the main properties of the glass-ceramics, such as thermal and optical properties and radiopacity were compared with a fifth, a reference glass-ceramic. The reference glass-ceramic was characterized as Ca-fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. The four strontium fluoroapatite glass-ceramics showed the following crystal phases: (a) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, (b) Sr5(PO4)3F - leucite, KAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, (c) Sr5(PO4)3F - pollucite, CsAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4, and (d) Sr5(PO4)3F - Rb-leucite, RbAlSi2O6, and nano-sized NaSrPO4. The proof of crystal phase formation was possible by X-ray diffraction. The microstructures, which were studied using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrated a uniform distribution of the crystals in the glass matrix. The Sr-fluoroapatites were precipitated based on an internal crystallization process, and the crystals demonstrated a needle-like morphology. The study of the crystal growth of needle-like Sr-fluoroapatites gave a clear evidence of an Ostwald ripening mechanism. The formation of leucite, pollucite, and Rb-leucite was based on a surface crystallization mechanism. Therefore, a twofold crystallization mechanism was successfully applied to develop these types of glass-ceramics. The main focus of this study was the controlled development of glass-ceramics exhibiting high radiopacity in comparison to the reference glass-ceramic. This goal could be achieved with all four glass-ceramics with the preferred development of the Sr-fluoroapatite - pollucite-type glass-ceramic. In addition to this main development, it was possible to control the thermal properties. Especially the Rb-leucite containing glass-ceramic showed the highest coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). These

  12. Bonding silicon nitride using glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobedoe, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon nitride has been successfully bonded to itself using magnesium-aluminosilicate glass and glass-ceramic. For some samples, bonding was achieved using a diffusion bonder, but in other instances, following an initial degassing hold, higher temperatures were used in a nitrogen atmosphere with no applied load. For diffusion bonding, a small applied pressure at a temperature below which crystallisation occurs resulted in intimate contact. At slightly higher temperatures, the extent of the reaction at the interface and the microstructure of the glass-ceramic joint was highly sensitive to the bonding temperature. Bonding in a nitrogen atmosphere resulted in a solution-reprecipitation reaction. A thin layer of glass produced a ''dry'', glass-free joint, whilst a thicker layer resulted in a continuous glassy join across the interface. The chromium silicide impurities within the silicon nitride react with the nucleating agent in the glass ceramic, which may lead to difficulty in producing a fine glass-ceramic microstructure. Slightly lower temperatures in nitrogen resulted in a polycrystalline join but the interfacial contact was poor. It is hoped that one of the bonds produced may be developed to eventually form part of a graded joint between silicon nitride and a high temperature nickel alloy. (orig.)

  13. Bioactive Glasses: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses caused a revolution in healthcare and paved the way for modern biomaterial-driven regenerative medicine. The first 45S5 glass composition, invented by Larry Hench fifty years ago, was able to bond to living bone and to stimulate osteogenesis through the release of biologically-active ions. 45S5-based glass products have been successfully implanted in millions of patients worldwide, mainly to repair bone and dental defects and, over the years, many other bioactive glass compositions have been proposed for innovative biomedical applications, such as soft tissue repair and drug delivery. The full potential of bioactive glasses seems still yet to be fulfilled, and many of today’s achievements were unthinkable when research began. As a result, the research involving bioactive glasses is highly stimulating and requires a cross-disciplinary collaboration among glass chemists, bioengineers, and clinicians. The present article provides a picture of the current clinical applications of bioactive glasses, and depicts six relevant challenges deserving to be tackled in the near future. We hope that this work can be useful to both early-stage researchers, who are moving with their first steps in the world of bioactive glasses, and experienced scientists, to stimulate discussion about future research and discover new applications for glass in medicine.

  14. Bioactive Glasses: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baino, Francesco; Hamzehlou, Sepideh; Kargozar, Saeid

    2018-03-19

    Bioactive glasses caused a revolution in healthcare and paved the way for modern biomaterial-driven regenerative medicine. The first 45S5 glass composition, invented by Larry Hench fifty years ago, was able to bond to living bone and to stimulate osteogenesis through the release of biologically-active ions. 45S5-based glass products have been successfully implanted in millions of patients worldwide, mainly to repair bone and dental defects and, over the years, many other bioactive glass compositions have been proposed for innovative biomedical applications, such as soft tissue repair and drug delivery. The full potential of bioactive glasses seems still yet to be fulfilled, and many of today's achievements were unthinkable when research began. As a result, the research involving bioactive glasses is highly stimulating and requires a cross-disciplinary collaboration among glass chemists, bioengineers, and clinicians. The present article provides a picture of the current clinical applications of bioactive glasses, and depicts six relevant challenges deserving to be tackled in the near future. We hope that this work can be useful to both early-stage researchers, who are moving with their first steps in the world of bioactive glasses, and experienced scientists, to stimulate discussion about future research and discover new applications for glass in medicine.

  15. Production of glass or glass-ceramic to metal seals with the application of pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael D.; Kramer, Daniel P.

    1987-11-10

    In a process for preparing a glass or glass-ceramic to metal seal comprising contacting the glass with the metal and heat-treating the glass and metal under conditions whereby the glass to metal seal is effected and, optionally, the glass is converted to a glass-ceramic, an improvement comprises carrying out the heat-treating step using hot isostatic pressing.

  16. ION EXCHANGE IN GLASS-CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Halsey Beall

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years ion-exchange in glasses has found a renewed interest with a lot of new development and research in industrial and academic labs and the commercialization of materials with outstanding mechanical properties. These glasses are now widely used in many electronic devices including hand-held displays and tablets. The exchange is generally conducted in a bath of molten salt below the transition temperature of the glass. The exchange at the surface of an alkali ion by a bigger one brings compressive stress at the surface. The mechanical properties are dependent on the stress level at the surface and the depth of penetration of the bigger ion. As compared to glasses, glass-ceramics have the interest to display a wide range of aspects (transparent to opaque and different mechanical properties (especially higher modulus and toughness. There has been little research on ion-exchange in glass-ceramics. In these materials the mechanisms are much more complex than in glasses because of their polyphasic nature: ion-exchange generally takes place mostly in one phase (crystalline phase or residual glass. The mechanism can be similar to what is observed in glasses with the replacement of an ion by another in the structure. But in some cases this ion-exchange leads to microstructural modifications (for example amorphisation or phase change.This article reviews these ion-exchange mechanisms using several transparent and opaque alumino-silicate glass-ceramics as examples. The effect of the ion exchange in the various glass-ceramics will be described, with particular emphasis on flexural strength.

  17. Modeling of Viscosity and Thermal Expansion of Bioactive Glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Saad B. H.

    2012-01-01

    The behaviors of viscosity and thermal expansion for different compositions of bioactive glasses have been studied. The effect of phosphorous pentoxide as a second glass former in addition to silica was investigated. Consequently, the nonlinear behaviors of viscosity and thermal expansion with respect to the oxide composition have been modeled. The modeling uses published data on bioactive glass compositions with viscosity and thermal expansion. -regression optimization technique has been uti...

  18. Cordierite Glass-Ceramics for Dielectric Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Mazatul Azwa Saiyed Mohd Nurddin; Selamat, Malek; Ismail, Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this project is to examine the potential of using Malaysian silica sand deposit as SiO2 raw material in producing cordierite glass-ceramics (2MgO-2Al2O3-5SiO2) for dielectric materials. Upgraded silica sands from Terengganu and ex-mining land in Perak were used in the test-works. The glass batch of the present work has a composition of 45.00% SiO2, 24.00% Al2O3, 15.00% MgO and 8.50% TiO2 as nucleation agent. From the differential thermal analysis results, the crystallization temperature was found to start around 900 deg. C. The glass samples were heat-treated at 900 deg. C and 1000 deg. C. The X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results showed glass-ceramics from Terengganu samples containing mainly cordierite and minor β-quartz crystals. However, glass-ceramics from ex-mining land samples contained mainly α-quartz and minor cordierite crystals. Glass-ceramics with different crystal phases exhibit different mechanical, dielectric and thermal properties. Based on the test works, both silica sand deposits, can be potentially used to produce dielectric material component

  19. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  20. Hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Estrup, Maja

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of the hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their degree of crystallisation has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses were achieved...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass was identified as augite. It was found that the hardness of the glass phase decreased slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreased....

  1. Polymerization kinetics of experimental bioactive composites containing bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Matej; Tarle, Zrinka; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2018-06-21

    To investigate the polymerization kinetics and the degree of conversion (DC) of experimental resin composites with varying amount of bioactive glass 45S5 (BG). Experimental resin composites based on a photo-curable Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin system were prepared. The composite series contained 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 wt% of BG and reinforcing fillers up to the total filler amount of 70 wt%. Composite specimens were light cured with 1,219 mW/cm 2 for 20 or 40 s and their DC was monitored during 5 min at the data collection rate of 2 s -1 using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The 5-min DC values for experimental composites were in the range of 42.4-55.9% and 47.3-57.9% for curing times of 20 and 40 s, respectively. The differences in the 5-min DC between curing times of 20 s or 40 s became more pronounced in materials with higher BG amount. Within both curing times, a decreasing trend of the 5-min DC values was observed with the increasing percentage of BG fillers. The maximum polymerization rate also decreased consistently with the increasing BG amount. Unsilanized BG fillers showed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on polymerization rate and the DC. Extending the curing time from 20 to 40 s showed a limited potential to improve the DC of composites with higher BG amount. The observed inhibitory effect of BG fillers on the polymerization of resin composites may have a negative influence on mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Sodium Is Not Essential for High Bioactivity of Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojing; Chen, Xiaohui; Brauer, Delia S.; Wilson, Rory M.; Law, Robert V.; Hill, Robert G.; Karpukhina, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that excellent bioactivity of glass can be achieved without the presence of an alkali metal component in glass composition. In vitro bioactivity of two sodium-free glasses based on the quaternary system SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2 with 0 and 4.5 mol% CaF2 content was investigated and compared with the sodium containing glasses with equivalent amount of CaF2. The formation of apatite after immersion in Tris buffer was followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), 31P and 19F solid state MAS-NMR. The dissolution study was completed by ion release measurements in Tris buffer. The results show that sodium free bioactive glasses formed apatite at 3 hours of immersion in Tris buffer, which is as fast as the corresponding sodium containing composition. This signifies that sodium is not an essential component in bioactive glasses and it is possible to make equally degradable bioactive glasses with or without sodium. The results presented here also emphasize the central role of the glass compositions design which is based on understanding of structural role of components and/or predicting the network connectivity of glasses. PMID:29271977

  3. Bioactive glass 45S5 from diatom biosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman A. Adams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A major draw-back to large scale production of bioactive glasses is the high cost of the standard silica precursor, usually tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS. The current study describes a novel sol–gel preparation of 45S5 bioactive glass using diatom biosilica from cultured cells of the diatom, Aulacoseira granulata as substitute to TEOS. The glass formed was characterized using mechanical tester, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Results showed that the glass possessed a compressive strength of 3.75 ± 0.18 and formed carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCA within 7 days in simulated body fluid (SBF, attributable to good surface chemistry. The performance of the glass was compared with that of those formed using TEOS. Diatom biosilica could be a potential economically friendly starting material for large scale fabrication of bioactive glasses.

  4. Proceedings of the national conference on functional glasses/glass-ceramics and ceramics: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This conference deals with issues relevant to functional glasses and glass ceramics which are technologically important materials for lasers, radioactive waste immobilization, radiation shielding, bio-glasses etc. It covers wide range of subjects and their applications right from managing the side effects of nuclear wastes and shielding the radiation, to sol-gel based bio-glass and its composites. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. In vitro bioactivity of polymer matrices reinforced with a bioactive glass phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oréfice Rodrigo L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Composites that can mimic the in vitro bioactive behavior of bioactive glasses were designed to fulfill two main features of bioactive glasses that are responsible for their high bond-to-bone rates: (1 capability of providing ions such as calcium and phosphate to the nearby environment and (2 ideal surface structure that allows fast heterogeneous precipitation of hydroxy-carbonate-apatite (HCA. The novel composites were prepared by incorporating bioactive glass particles into polymer matrices. The in vitro bioactivity test was performed by introducing samples into a buffered solution as well as into a simulated body fluid solution. FTIR was used to evaluate the kinetics of HCA (hydroxy-carbonate-apatite precipitation. The results showed that the obtained composites can supply ions, such as silicates and phosphates in rates and concentrations comparable or superior than bulk bioactive glasses. Moreover, the surface chemistry of the composites was altered to mimic the surface of bioactive glasses. It was demonstrated that the in vitro bioactivity of the composites was enhanced by chemically modifying polymer surfaces through the introduction of special alkoxysilane groups.

  6. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagan, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A glass-ceramic composition is described having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, and a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum. The composition is adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures between 900 and about 950 0 C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body

  7. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  8. calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 41; Issue 2. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of α -calcium sulphate hemihydrate and bioactive glass composites for their potential use in bone regeneration. YANYAN ZHENG CHENGDONG XIONG DUJUAN ZHANG LIFANG ZHANG. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 Article ID ...

  9. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance. © The

  10. Glass ceramic-to-metal seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1982-04-19

    A glass ceramic composition prepared by subjecting a glass composition comprising, by weight, 65 to 80% SiO/sub 2/, 8 to 16% Li/sub 2/O, 2 to 8% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 1 to 8% K/sub 2/O, 1 to 5% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ and 1.5 to 7% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, to the following processing steps of heating the glass composition to a temperature sufficient to crystallize lithium metasilicate therein, holding the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to dissolve the lithium metasilicate therein thereby creating cristobalite nucleii, cooling the glass composition and maintaining the composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to recrystallize lithium metasilicate therein, and thermally treating the glass composition at a temperature and for a time period sufficient to caus growth of cristobalite and further crystallization of lithium metasilicate producing a glass ceramic composition having a specific thermal expansion coefficient and products containing said composition.

  11. Joining Dental Ceramic Layers With Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saied, MA; Lloyd, IK; Haller, WK; Lawn, BR

    2011-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that glass-bonding of free-form veneer and core ceramic layers can produce robust interfaces, chemically durable and aesthetic in appearance and, above all, resistant to delamination. Methods Layers of independently produced porcelains (NobelRondo™ Press porcelain, Nobel BioCare AB and Sagkura Interaction porcelain, Elephant Dental) and matching alumina or zirconia core ceramics (Procera alumina, Nobel BioCare AB, BioZyram yttria stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, Cyrtina Dental) were joined with designed glasses, tailored to match thermal expansion coefficients of the components and free of toxic elements. Scanning electron microprobe analysis was used to characterize the chemistry of the joined interfaces, specifically to confirm interdiffusion of ions. Vickers indentations were used to drive controlled corner cracks into the glass interlayers to evaluate the toughness of the interfaces. Results The glass-bonded interfaces were found to have robust integrity relative to interfaces fused without glass, or those fused with a resin-based adhesive. Significance The structural integrity of the interfaces between porcelain veneers and alumina or zirconia cores is a critical factor in the longevity of all-ceramic dental crowns and fixed dental prostheses. PMID:21802131

  12. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Tripathi, Himanshu [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim [Immunobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India); Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO{sub 2} in Na{sub 2}O–CaO–SrO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO{sub 2} has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO{sub 2}. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • The substitution of SrO was done for SiO{sub 2} in Na{sub 2}O–CaO–SrO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–SiO{sub 2} bioactive glass. • Network connectivity significantly influenced on bioactivity and biocompatibility. • In vitro SBF studies showed enhanced HCA crystallinity on the glass surface. • The cell culture studies exhibited better cell compatibility and significant growth. • Density and elastic moduli increased with increasing concentration of strontia.

  13. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO 2 in Na 2 O–CaO–SrO–P 2 O 5 –SiO 2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO 2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO 2 . The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. - Highlights: • The substitution of SrO was done for SiO 2 in Na 2 O–CaO–SrO–P 2 O 5 –SiO 2 bioactive glass. • Network connectivity significantly influenced on bioactivity and biocompatibility. • In vitro SBF studies showed enhanced HCA crystallinity on the glass surface. • The cell culture studies exhibited better cell compatibility and significant growth. • Density and elastic moduli increased with increasing concentration of strontia.

  14. Antibacterial effects and dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Leppäranta, Outi; Munukka, Eveliina; Ylänen, Heimo; Viljanen, Matti K; Eerola, Erkki; Hupa, Mikko; Hupa, Leena

    2010-05-01

    Dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses was correlated with the antibacterial effects of the same glasses against sixteen clinically important bacterial species. Powdered glasses (<45 microm) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 48 h. The pH in the solution inside the glass powder was measured in situ with a microelectrode. After 2, 4, 27, and 48 h, the pH and concentration of ions after removing the particles and mixing the SBF were measured with a normal glass pH electrode and ICP-OES. The bacteria were cultured in broth with the glass powder for up to 4 days, after which the viability of the bacteria was determined. The antibacterial effect of the glasses increased with increasing pH and concentration of alkali ions and thus with increased dissolution tendency of the glasses, but it also depended on the bacterium type. The changes in the concentrations of Si, Ca, Mg, P, and B ions in SBF did not show statistically significant influence on the antibacterial property. Bioactive glasses showed strong antibacterial effects for a wide selection of aerobic bacteria at a high sample concentration (100 mg/mL). The antibacterial effects increased with glass concentration and a concentration of 50 mg/mL (SA/V 185 cm(-1)) was required to generate the bactericidal effects. Understanding the dissolution mechanisms of bioactive glasses is essential when assessing their antibacterial effects. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Enhanced bioactivity, biocompatibility and mechanical behavior of strontium substituted bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Hira, Sumit Kumar; Manna, Partha Pratim; Pyare, Ram; S P Singh

    2016-12-01

    Strontium contained biomaterials have been reported as a potential bioactive material for bone regeneration, as it reduces bone resorption and stimulates bone formation. In the present investigation, the bioactive glasses were designed to partially substitute SrO for SiO2 in Na2O-CaO-SrO-P2O5-SiO2 system. This work demonstrates that the substitution of SrO for SiO2 has got significant benefit than substitution for CaO in the bioactive glass. Bioactivity was assessed by the immersion of the samples in simulated body fluid for different intervals. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite layer was identified by X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The elastic modulus of the bioactive glasses was measured and found to increase with increasing SrO for SiO2. The blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated. In vitro cell culture studies of the samples were performed using human osteosarcoma U2-OS cell lines and found a significant improvement in cell viability and proliferation. The investigation showed enhancement in bioactivity, mechanical and biological properties of the strontia substituted for silica in glasses. Thus, these bioactive glasses would be highly potential for bone regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol–gel derived bioactive glass film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhijun, E-mail: mokuu@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Ji, Huijiao [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China); Hu, Xiaomeng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Teng, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China); Chen, Weibo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Qiu, Jianrong, E-mail: qjr@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescent Materials and Devices, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Zhang, Ming, E-mail: zhangming201201@126.com [College of Life Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310028 (China)

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol–gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  17. Investigation of bioactivity and cell effects of nano-porous sol-gel derived bioactive glass film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhijun; Ji, Huijiao; Hu, Xiaomeng; Teng, Yu; Zhao, Guiyun; Mo, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Chen, Weibo; Qiu, Jianrong; Zhang, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In orthopedic surgery, bioactive glass film coating is extensively studied to improve the synthetic performance of orthopedic implants. A lot of investigations have confirmed that nano-porous structure in bioactive glasses can remarkably improve their bioactivity. Nevertheless, researches on preparation of nano-porous bioactive glasses in the form of film coating and their cell response activities are scarce. Herein, we report the preparation of nano-porous bioactive glass film on commercial glass slide based on a sol-gel technique, together with the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity through immersion in simulated body fluid and monitoring the precipitation of apatite-like layer. Cell responses of the samples, including attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, were also investigated using BMSCS (bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) as a model. The results presented here provide some basic information on structural influence of bioactive glass film on the improvement of bioactivity and cellular effects.

  18. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 degrees C, a higher temperature (1450 degrees C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature

  19. Plutonium immobilization in glass and ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knecht, D.A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies, Idaho Falls (United States); Murphy, W.M. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Materials Research Society Nineteenth Annual Symposium on the Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management was held in Boston on November 27 to December 1, 1995. Over 150 papers were presented at the Symposium dealing with all aspects of nuclear waste management and disposal. Fourteen oral sessions and on poster session included a Plenary session on surplus plutonium dispositioning and waste forms. The proceedings, to be published in April, 1996, will provide a highly respected, referred compilation of the state of scientific development in the field of nuclear waste management. This paper provides a brief overview of the selected Symposium papers that are applicable to plutonium immobilization and plutonium waste form performance. Waste forms that were described at the Symposium cover most of the candidate Pu immobilization options under consideration, including borosilicate glass with a melting temperature of 1150 {degrees}C, a higher temperature (1450 {degrees}C) lanthanide glass, single phase ceramics, multi-phase ceramics, and multi-phase crystal-glass composites (glass-ceramics or slags). These Symposium papers selected for this overview provide the current status of the technology in these areas and give references to the relevant literature.

  20. Preparation of basalt-based glass ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHOVIL LOGAR

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Local and conventional raw materials–massive basalt from the Vrelo locality on Kopaonik mountain–have been used as starting materials to test their suitability for the production of glass-ceramics. Crystallization phenomena of glasses of the fused basalt rocks were studied by X-ray phase analysis, optical microscopy and other techniques. Various heat treatments were used, and their influences, on controlling the microstructures and properties of the products were studied with the aim of developing high strength glass-ceramic materials. Diopside CaMg(SiO32 and hypersthene ((Mg,FeSiO3 were identifies as the crystalline phases. The final products contained considerable amounts of a glassy phase. The crystalline size was in range of 8–480 mm with plate or needle shape. Microhardness, crashing strength and wears resistence of the glass-ceramics ranged from 6.5–7.5, from 2000–6300 kg/cm2 and from 0.1–0.2 g/cm, respectively.

  1. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  2. Electrical and thermal properties of lead titanate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, J.; Deshpande, V.K.

    2011-01-01

    Glass samples with composition of (50-X)PbO-(25+X)TiO 2 -25B 2 O 3 (where X=0, 5, 10 and 12.5 mol%) were prepared using conventional quenching technique. The glass transition temperature, T g and crystallization temperature T c were determined from the DTA. These glass samples were converted to glass ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The glass ceramic samples were characterized by XRD, SEM and dielectric constant measurements. The XRD results revealed the formation of ferroelectric lead titanate (PT) as a major crystalline phase in the glass ceramics. The density increases and the CTE decreases for all glass ceramics with increase in X (mol%). This may be attributed to increase in PT phase. The SEM results which show rounded crystallites of lead titanate, also supports other results. Hysteresis loops observed at room temperature confirms the ferroelectric nature of glass ceramics. The optimized glass ceramic sample exhibits high dielectric constant which is of technical importance. -- Research Highlights: →Lead titanate glass ceramics prepared by conventional quenching technique. →Lead titanate is a major crystalline phase in the glass ceramics. →The ferroelectric nature of glass ceramics is confirmed by the hysteresis study. →The high value of ε observed at room temperature is quite promising in the study.

  3. Glass enamel and glass-ceramic coatings for chemical apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Es'kov, A.S.; Oleinik, M.I.; Shabrova, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Among the known anticorrosion coatings used in chemical engineering, glass enamel base coatings are distinguished by such advantages as a high degree of continuity and chemical resistance. The paper describes basic principles for the creation of acid and alkali resistant glass enamel and ceramic coatings for chemical apparatus. As the result of investgations, glass enamel coatings with increased electrical conductivity and also experimental production compositions of chemical, temperature and radiation resistant coatings for protection of chemical equipment of 12Kh18N10T stainless steel have been developed. The coatings have successfully passed testing under service conditions. A new type of coating is short-term glass enamel, which may be recommended for use in chemical machinery manufacturing and other branches of industry in oxidation-free heating and forming of stainless steels

  4. Study of new CaO-SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 5/CaF/sub 2/ bioactive ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, A.; Arif, I.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Shah, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    A new bioactive glass ceramic having, composition 48CaO-32SiO/sub 2/-16P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-4CaF/sub 2/ has been developed and studied for its physical and biological properties. Like the natural bone in which spastic particles are reinforced by collagen, in the present glass-ceramic, fine grained ceramic particles embedded in a glass matrix. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals wollastonite and oxyfluorapatite as the crystalline part of the glass-ceramic. Scanning electron microscopy of the samples has been carried out to see the grain size and grain distribution. Bending and compressive strength of the glass ceramic have been carried out to measured and found to be 208.60 m.Pa and 788.61 M.Pa respectively. Growth of apatite layer, which is responsible for bonding the broken part of a natural bone, on a bioactive glass-ceramic in a simulated body fluid has been studied. A small rectangular piece of this glass-ceramic has also been implanted successfully in a dog's tibia. (author)

  5. Producing glass-ceramics from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boccaccini, A.R.; Rawlings, R.D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    An overview is given of recent research at the Department of Materials of Imperial College, London, UK, concerning the production of useful glass-ceramic products from industrial waste materials. The new work, using controlled crystallisation to improve the properties of vitrified products, could help to solve the problem of what to do with increasing amounts of slag, fly ash and combustion dust. The results show, that it is possible to produce new materials with interesting magnetic and constructive properties.

  6. Ceramic and glass radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Readey, D.W.; Cooley, C.R. (comps.)

    1977-01-01

    This report contains 14 individual presentations and 6 group reports on the subject of glass and polycrystalline ceramic radioactive waste forms. It was the general consensus that the information available on glass as a waste form provided a good basis for planning on the use of glass as an initial waste form, that crystalline ceramic forms could also be good waste forms if much more development work were completed, and that prediction of the chemical and physical stability of the waste form far into the future would be much improved if the basic synergistic effects of low temperature, radiation and long times were better understood. Continuing development of the polycrystalline ceramic forms was recommended. It was concluded that the leach rate of radioactive species from the waste form is an important criterion for evaluating its suitability, particularly for the time period before solidified waste is permanently placed in the geologic isolation of a Federal repository. Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the individual papers; the remaining two were previously abstracted.

  7. Effect of nitrogen and fluorine on mechanical properties and bioactivity in two series of bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Ahmed; Mercier, Cyrille; Tricoteaux, Arnaud; Hampshire, Stuart; Leriche, Anne; Follet, Claudine

    2013-07-01

    Bioactive glasses are able to bond to bone through formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite in body fluids, and fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses are of interest for both orthopaedic and, in particular, dental applications for caries inhibition. However, because of their poor strength their use is restricted to non-load-bearing applications. In order to increase their mechanical properties, doping with nitrogen has been performed on two series of bioactive glasses: series (I) was a "bioglass" composition (without P2O5) within the quaternary system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-Si3N4 and series (II) was a simple substitution of CaF2 for CaO in series (I) glasses keeping the Na:Ca ratio constant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the variation in nitrogen and fluorine content on the properties of these glasses. The density, glass transition temperature, hardness and elastic modulus all increased linearly with nitrogen content which indicates that the incorporation of nitrogen stiffens the glass network because N is mainly in 3-fold coordination with Si atoms. Fluorine addition significantly decreases the thermal property values but the mechanical properties of these glasses remain unchanged with fluorine. The combination of both nitrogen and fluorine in oxyfluoronitride glasses gives better mechanical properties at much lower melting temperatures since fluorine reduces the melting point, allows higher solubility of nitrogen and does not affect the higher mechanical properties arising from incorporation of nitrogen. The characterization of these N and F substituted bioactive glasses using (29)Si MAS NMR has shown that the increase in rigidity of the glass network can be explained by the formation of SiO3N, SiO2N2 tetrahedra and Q(4) units with extra bridging anions at the expense of Q(3) units. Bioactivity of the glasses was investigated in vitro by examining apatite formation on the surface of glasses treated in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion

  8. Preparation of mica/apatite glass-ceramics biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Sheng Xiaoxian; Dan Xiaohong; Xiang Qijun

    2006-01-01

    Glass-ceramics have become more and more important biomaterials. In this work mica glass/apatite composites with various compositions were prepared by casting and subsequent heat treatments. The effects of composition, phase constitution and crystallinity on mechanical properties, including elastic modulus and transverse rupture strength (TRS), were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analyses (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical tests. Results show that addition of apatite composition in mica glass accelerates the crystallization process and induces the formation of fluoroapatite phase, and the nucleation of apatite crystals occurs before that of mica crystals. The fuoroapatite in this work is needle-like, which is almost the same to that in human bone. The transverse rupture strength increases with the content of fluoroapatite and the crystallinity increasing, except that at a low apatite content the mechanical properties are lower than those of mica glass under the same processing conditions. The transverse rupture strength and elastic modulus obtained in this work fall in the range of those of human bone. SBF immersion test demonstrates good bioactivity of this biomaterial

  9. Sintering behavior of LZSA glass-ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rubem Klegues Montedo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The LZSA glass-ceramic system (Li2O-ZrO2-SiO2-Al2O 3 shows interesting properties, such as good chemical resistance, low thermal expansion, high abrasion resistance, and a low dielectric constant. However, in order to obtain a high performance material for specific applications, the sintering behavior must be better understood so that the porosity may be reduced and other properties improved. In this context, a sintering investigation for a specific LZSA glass-ceramic system composition was carried out. A 18.8Li2O-8.3ZrO2-64.2SiO2-8.7Al 2O3 glass was prepared by melting the solids, quenching the melt in water, and grinding the resulting solid in order to obtain a powder (3.68 μm average particle diameter. Subsequently, the glass powder was characterized (chemical analysis and determination of thermal properties and the sintering behavior was investigated using optical non-contact dilatometry measurements. The results showed that the crystallization process strongly reduced the sintering in the temperature interval from 785 to 940 °C, and a maximum thermal shrinkage of 15.4% was obtained with operating conditions of 1020 °C and 180 minutes.

  10. In Vitro Evaluation of Some Types of Ferrimagnetic Glass Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Abdel-Hameed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at studying the acceleration of the bioactive layer on the surface of ferrimagnetic glass ceramic with a basic composition 40Fe2O3–15P2O5–20SiO2–5TiO2 through the addition of 20% of different types of metal oxides like MgO or CaO or MnO or CuO or ZnO or CeO2. SEM, EDAX, and ICP were applied to present the results of the study. SEM and EDAX measurements indicated the presence of apatite layer formed on the surface of the prepared glass ceramics after immersion in SBF within 7 to 30 days. The investigation of the results clarified that the addition of CaO or ZnO accelerated the formation of apatite on the surfaces of the samples in the simulated body fluid faster than other metal oxides. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP analysis shows the evolution of ion extraction by the simulated body fluid solution (SBF with time in relation to the elemental composition.

  11. A review of glass-ionomers: From conventional glass-ionomer to bioactive glass-ionomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khoroushi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials used in the body, especially the materials used in various oral cavity regions should be stable and passive without any interactions with the body tissues or fluids. Dental amalgam, composite resins and dental cements are the materials of choice with such properties. The first attempts to produce active materials, which could interact with the human body tissues and fluids were prompted by the concept that fluoride-releasing materials exert useful effects in the body. The concept of using the "smart" materials in dentistry has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Conventional glass-ionomer (GI cements have a large number of applications in dentistry. They are biocompatible with the dental pulp to some extent. GI is predominantly used as cements in dentistry; however, they have some disadvantages, the most important of which is lack of adequate strength and toughness. In an attempt to improve the mechanical properties of the conventional GI, resin-modified glass-ionomers have been marketed, with hydrophilic monomers, such as hydroxyethyl methacrylated (HEMA. Some recent studies have evaluated GI with bioactive glass in its structure to validate the claims that such a combination will improve tooth bioactivity, regeneration capacity and restoration. There is ever-increasing interest in the application of bioactive materials in the dental field in an attempt to remineralize affected dentin. The aim of this review article is to evaluate these materials and their characteristics and applications.

  12. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S P

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1-X) SiO2--24.3 Na2O-26.9 CaO-2.6 P2O5, where X=0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400±5°C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predicting the glass transition temperature of bioactive glasses from their molecular chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert G; Brauer, Delia S

    2011-10-01

    A recently published paper (M.D. O'Donnell, Acta Biomaterialia 7 (2011) 2264-2269) suggests that it is possible to correlate the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of bioactive glasses with their molar composition, based on iterative least-squares fitting of published T(g) data. However, we show that the glass structure is an important parameter in determining T(g). Phase separation, local structural effects and components (intermediate oxides) which can switch their structural role in the glass network need to be taken into consideration, as they are likely to influence the glass transition temperature of bioactive glasses. Although the model suggested by O'Donnell works reasonably well for glasses within the composition range presented, it is oversimplified and fails for glasses outside certain compositional boundaries. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ponsot, In?s M. M. M.; Pontikes, Yiannis; Baldi, Giovanni; Chinnam, Rama K.; Detsch, Rainer; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Bernardo, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low te...

  15. Glass ceramic toughened with tetragonal zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefer, Keith D.; Michalske, Terry A.

    1986-01-01

    A phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic and a process for making it are disclosed. A mixture of particulate network-forming oxide, network-modifying oxide, and zirconium oxide is heated to yield a homogeneous melt, and this melt is then heat-treated to precipitate an appreciable quantity of tetragonal zirconia, which is retained at ambient temperature to form a phase transformation-toughened glass ceramic. Nucleating agents and stabilizing agents may be added to the mixture to facilitate processing and improve the ceramic's properties. Preferably, the mixture is first melted at a temperature from 1200.degree. to 1700.degree. C. and is then heat-treated at a temperature within the range of 800.degree. to 1200.degree. C. in order to precipitate tetragonal ZrO.sub.2. The composition, as well as the length and temperature of the heat-treatment, must be carefully controlled to prevent solution of the precipitated tetragonal zirconia and subsequent conversion to the monoclinic phase.

  16. Solidification of HLLW by glass-ceramic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguino, N.; Masuda, S.; Tsunoda, N.; Yamanaka, T.; Ninomiya, M.; Sakane, T.; Nakamura, S.; Kawamura, S.

    1979-01-01

    The compositions of glass-ceramics for the solidification of HLLW were studied, and the glass-ceramics in the diopside system was concluded to be the most suitable. Compared with the properties of HLW borosilicate glasses, those of diopside glass-ceramic were thought to be almost equal in leach rate and superior in thermal stability and mechanical strength. It was also found that the glass in this system can be crystallized simply by pouring it into a thermally insulated canister and then allowing it to cool to room temperature. 2 figures, 5 tables

  17. Thermal analysis and in vitro bioactivity of bioactive glass-alumina composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzistavrou, Xanthippi, E-mail: x.chatzistavrou@imperial.ac.uk [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kantiranis, Nikolaos, E-mail: kantira@geo.auth.gr [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana, E-mail: kont@dent.auth.gr [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, Konstantinos, E-mail: hrisafis@physics.auth.gr [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, Labrini, E-mail: lambrini@geo.auth.gr [School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, Petros, E-mail: pkoidis@dent.auth.gr [School of Dentistry, Department of Fixed Prosthesis and Implant Prosthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: a.boccaccini@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Imperial College, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Solid State Physics Section, Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-01-15

    Bioactive glass-alumina composite (BA) pellets were fabricated in the range 95/5-60/40 wt.% respectively and were heat-treated under a specific thermal treatment up to 950 {sup o}C. Control (unheated) and heat-treated pellets were immersed in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) for bioactivity testing. All pellets before and after immersion in SBF were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. All composite pellets presented bioactive response. On the surface of the heat-treated pellets the development of a rich biological hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer was delayed for one day, compared to the respective control pellets. Independent of the proportion of the two components, all composites of each group (control and heat-treated) presented the same bioactive response as a function of immersion time in SBF. It was found that by the applied methodology, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can be successfully applied in bioactive glass composites without obstructing their bioactive response. - Research Highlights: {yields} Isostatically pressed glass-alumina composites presented apatite-forming ability. {yields} The interaction with SBF resulted in an aluminium phosphate phase formation. {yields} The formation of an aluminium phosphate phase enhanced the in vitro apatite growth.

  18. Preparation and studies on surface modifications of calcium-silico-phosphate ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.; Dixit, A.; Singh, Sher; Jagannath,; Bhattacharya, S.; Prajapat, C.L.; Sharma, P.K.; Yusuf, S.M.; Tyagi, A.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    The structure and magnetic behaviour of 34SiO 2 -(45 - x) CaO-16P 2 O 5 -4.5 MgO-0.5 CaF 2 - x Fe 2 O 3 (where x = 5, 10, 15, 20 wt.%) glasses have been investigated. Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics are prepared by melt quench followed by controlled crystallization. The surface modification and dissolution behaviour of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid (SBF) have also been studied. Phase formation and magnetic behaviour have been studied using XRD and SQUID magnetometer. The room temperature Moessbauer study has been done to monitor the local environment around Fe cations and valence state of Fe ions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the surface modification in glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluid. Formation of bioactive layer in SBF has been ascertained using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SBF solutions were analyzed using an absorption spectrophotometer. The magnetic measurements indicated that all these glasses possess paramagnetic character and the [Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ ] ions ratio depends on the composition of glass and varied with Fe 2 O 3 concentration in glass matrix. In glass-ceramics saturation magnetization increases with increase in amount of Fe 2 O 3 . The nanostructure of hematite and magnetite is formed in the glass-ceramics with 15 and 20 wt.% Fe 2 O 3 , which is responsible for the magnetic property of these glass-ceramics. Introduction of Fe 2 O 3 induces several modifications at the glass-ceramics surface when immersed in SBF solution and thereby affecting the surface dissolution and the formation of the bioactive layer.

  19. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzola, Martina [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Corazzari, Ingrid [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Centro Interdipartimentale “G. Scansetti” per lo studio degli amianti e di altri particolati nocivi, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Torino (Italy); Prenesti, Enrico [Università degli Studi di Torino, Department of Chemistry, Via Pietro Giuria 7, Torino 10125 (Italy); Bertone, Elisa [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Vernè, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy); Ferraris, Sara [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino 10129 (Italy)

    2016-03-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Surface functionalization of bioactive glass with biomolecules has been optimized. • Biomolecules are present and active on the glass surface after functionalization. • Biomolecules affect deposition kinetics and morphology of hydroxyapatite. • Free radical scavenging activity is seen for the first time on bioactive glasses. - Abstract: Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  20. Understanding the structural drivers governing glass-water interactions in borosilicate based model bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone-Weiss, Nicholas; Pierce, Eric M; Youngman, Randall E; Gulbiten, Ozgur; Smith, Nicholas J; Du, Jincheng; Goel, Ashutosh

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant upsurge in the development of borate and borosilicate based resorbable bioactive glasses owing to their faster degradation rate in comparison to their silicate counterparts. However, due to our lack of understanding about the fundamental science governing the aqueous corrosion of these glasses, most of the borate/borosilicate based bioactive glasses reported in the literature have been designed by "trial-and-error" approach. With an ever-increasing demand for their application in treating a broad spectrum of non-skeletal health problems, it is becoming increasingly difficult to design advanced glass formulations using the same conventional approach. Therefore, a paradigm shift from the "trial-and-error" approach to "materials-by-design" approach is required to develop new-generations of bioactive glasses with controlled release of functional ions tailored for specific patients and disease states, whereby material functions and properties can be predicted from first principles. Realizing this goal, however, requires a thorough understanding of the complex sequence of reactions that control the dissolution kinetics of bioactive glasses and the structural drivers that govern them. While there is a considerable amount of literature published on chemical dissolution behavior and apatite-forming ability of potentially bioactive glasses, the majority of this literature has been produced on silicate glass chemistries using different experimental and measurement protocols. It follows that inter-comparison of different datasets reveals inconsistencies between experimental groups. There are also some major experimental challenges or choices that need to be carefully navigated to unearth the mechanisms governing the chemical degradation behavior and kinetics of boron-containing bioactive glasses, and to accurately determine the composition-structure-property relationships. In order to address these challenges, a simplified

  1. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, J.; Yu, N.; Caridade, S.G.; Luz, G.M.; Gomes, M.E.R.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting periodontal regeneration by physically blocking migration of epithelial cells. The present work proposes a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce a novel guided

  2. Application of ceramic and glass materials in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnabard, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic and glass are high temperature materials that can be used in many fields of application in nuclear industries. First, it is known that nuclear fuel UO 2 is a ceramic material. Also, ability to absorb neutrons without forming long lived radio-nuclides make the non-oxide ceramics attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants. Glass-ceramic materials are a new type of ceramic that produced by the controlled nucleation and crystallization of glass, and have several advantages such as very low or null porosity, uniformity of microstructure, high chemical resistance etc. over conventional powder processed ceramics. These ceramic materials are synthesized in different systems based on their properties and applications. In nuclear industries, those are resistant to leaching and radiation damage for thousands of years, Such as glass-ceramics designed for radioactive waste immobilization and machinable glass-ceramics are used. This article introduces requirements of different glass and ceramic materials used in nuclear power plants and have been focused on developments in properties and application of them

  3. Modelling the crystallisation of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Mouritz Nolsøe; Agersted, Karsten; Holm, Paul Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the potential use of a thermochemical software package (FactSage 6.2), in the design of alkaline earth boroaluminosilicate glass ceramics, experimental and modelled results on four glass ceramics were compared. Initially large discrepancies were found. These are described and related...

  4. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özarslan, Ali Can, E-mail: alicanozarslan@gmail.com; Yücel, Sevil, E-mail: syucel@yildiz.edu.tr

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Production of 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds from different silica sources • The effect of biosilica from rice hull ash on the bioactive glass scaffold • Sr additive impact on the bioactivity and biodegradability properties of scaffolds.

  5. Glass-ceramics: Their production from wastes - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlings, R.D.; Wu, J.P.; Boccaccini, A.R. [University of London, London (United Kingdom). Imperial College of Science & Technology, Dept. of Medicine

    2006-02-15

    Glass-ceramics are polycrystalline materials of fine microstructure that are produced by the controlled crystallisation (devitrification) of a glass. Numerous silicate based wastes, such as coal combustion ash, slag from steel production, fly ash and filter dusts from waste incinerators, mud from metal hydrometallurgy, different types of sludge as well as glass cullet or mixtures of them have been considered for the production of glass-ceramics. Developments of glass-ceramics from waste using different processing methods are described comprehensively in this review, covering R&D work carried out worldwide in the last 40 years. Properties and applications of the different glass-ceramics produced are discussed. The review reveals that considerable knowledge and expertise has been accumulated on the process of transformation of silicate waste into useful glass-ceramic products. These glass-ceramics are attractive as building materials for usage as construction and architectural components or for other specialised technical applications requiring a combination of suitable thermo-mechanical properties. Previous attempts to commercialise glass-ceramics from waste and to scale-up production for industrial exploitation are also discussed.

  6. Leaching behavior of glass ceramic nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1981-11-01

    Glass ceramic waste forms have been investigated as alternatives to borosilicate glasses for the immobilization of high-level radioactive waste at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Three glass ceramic systems were investigated, including basalt, celsian, and fresnoite, each containing 20 wt % simulated high-level waste calcine. Static leach tests were performed on seven glass ceramic materials and one parent glass (before recrystallization). Samples were leached at 90 0 C for 3 to 28 days in deionized water and silicate water. The results, expressed in normalized elemental mass loss, (g/m 2 ), show comparable releases from celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics. Basalt glass ceramics demonstrated the lowest normalized elemental losses with a nominal release less than 2 g/m 2 when leached in polypropylene containers. The releases from basalt glass ceramics when leached in silicate water were nearly identical with those in deionized water. The overall leachability of celsian and fresnoite glass ceramics was improved when silicate water was used as the leachant

  7. Current Progress in Bioactive Ceramic Scaffolds for Bone Repair and Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chengde; Deng, Youwen; Feng, Pei; Mao, Zhongzheng; Li, Pengjian; Yang, Bo; Deng, Junjie; Cao, Yiyuan; Shuai, Cijun; Peng, Shuping

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive ceramics have received great attention in the past decades owing to their success in stimulating cell proliferation, differentiation and bone tissue regeneration. They can react and form chemical bonds with cells and tissues in human body. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the application of bioactive ceramics for bone repair and regeneration. The review systematically summarizes the types and characters of bioactive ceramics, the fabrication methods for nanostructure and hierarchically porous structure, typical toughness methods for ceramic scaffold and corresponding mechanisms such as fiber toughness, whisker toughness and particle toughness. Moreover, greater insights into the mechanisms of interaction between ceramics and cells are provided, as well as the development of ceramic-based composite materials. The development and challenges of bioactive ceramics are also discussed from the perspective of bone repair and regeneration. PMID:24646912

  8. Eu-activated fluorochlorozirconate glass-ceramic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J. A.; Schweizer, S.; Henke, B.; Chen, G.; Woodford, J.; Newman, P. J.; MacFarlane, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    Rare-earth-doped fluorochlorozirconate (FCZ) glass-ceramic materials have been developed as scintillators and their properties investigated as a function of dopant level. The paper presents the relative scintillation efficiency in comparison to single-crystal cadmium tungstate, the scintillation intensity as a function of x-ray intensity and x-ray energy, and the spatial resolution (modulation transfer function). Images obtained with the FCZ glass-ceramic scintillator and with cadmium tungstate are also presented. Comparison shows that the image quality obtained using the glass ceramic is close to that from cadmium tungstate. Therefore, the glass-ceramic scintillator could be used as an alternative material for image formation resulting from scintillation. Other inorganic scintillators such as single crystals or polycrystalline films have limitations in resolution or size, but the transparent glass-ceramic can be scaled to any shape or size with excellent resolution

  9. Influence of fluoride additions on biological and mechanical properties of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H C; Wang, D G; Hu, J H; Chen, C Z

    2014-02-01

    Two series of Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glass-ceramics doped with NH4HF2 (G-NH4HF2) or CaF2 (G-CaF2) have been prepared by sol-gel method. The glass-ceramic phase composition and morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The mechanical properties and thermal expansion coefficient were measured by a microhardness tester, an electronic tensile machine and a thermal expansion coefficient tester. The structure difference between these two glass-ceramics was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and the in vitro bioactivity of the glass-ceramics was determined by in vitro simulated body fluid (SBF) immersion test. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test, systemic toxicity test and the implanted experiment in animals were used to evaluate the biocompatibility of the glass-ceramics. The mechanical properties of sample G-NH4HF2 are lower than that of sample G-CaF2, and the bioactivity of sample G-NH4HF2 is better than that of sample G-CaF2. The thermal expansion coefficients of these two glass-ceramics are all closer to that of Ti6Al4V. After 7 days of SBF immersion, apatites were induced on glass-ceramic surface, indicating that the glass-ceramics have bioactivity. The hemolysis test, in vitro cytotoxicity test and systemic toxicity test demonstrate that the glass-ceramics do not cause hemolysis reaction, and have no toxicity to cell and living animal. The implanted experiment in animals shows that bone tissue can form a good osseointegration with the implant after implantation for two months, indicating that the glass-ceramics are safe to serve as implants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Durability of feldspathic veneering ceramic on glass-infiltrated alumina ceramics after long-term thermocycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, A M M; Ozcan, M; Souza, R O A; Kojima, A N; Nishioka, R S; Kimpara, E T; Bottino, M A

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the bond strength durability of a feldspathic veneering ceramic to glass-infiltrated reinforced ceramics in dry and aged conditions. Disc shaped (thickness: 4 mm, diameter: 4 mm) of glass-infiltrated alumina (In-Ceram Alumina) and glass-infiltrated alumina reinforced by zirconia (In-Ceram Zirconia) core ceramic specimens (N=48, N=12 per groups) were constructed according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Veneering ceramic (VITA VM7) was fired onto the core ceramics using a mold. The core-veneering ceramic assemblies were randomly divided into two conditions and tested either immediately after specimen preparation (Dry) or following 30000 thermocycling (5-55 ºC±1; dwell time: 30 seconds). Shear bond strength test was performed in a universal testing machine (cross-head speed: 1 mm/min). Failure modes were analyzed using optical microscope (x20). The bond strength data (MPa) were analyzed using ANOVA (α=0.05). Thermocycling did not decrease the bond strength results for both In-Ceram Alumina (30.6±8.2 MPa; P=0.2053) and In-Ceram zirconia (32.6±9 MPa; P=0.3987) core ceramic-feldspathic veneering ceramic combinations when compared to non-aged conditions (28.1±6.4 MPa, 29.7±7.3 MPa, respectively). There were also no significant differences between adhesion of the veneering ceramic to either In-Ceram Alumina or In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (P=0.3289). Failure types were predominantly a mixture of adhesive failure between the veneering and the core ceramic together with cohesive fracture of the veneering ceramic. Long-term thermocycling aging conditions did not impair the adhesion of the veneering ceramic to the glass-infiltrated alumina core ceramics tested.

  11. Bioactivity and properties of a dental adhesive functionalized with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) and bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Marta; Hohlfeld, Lisa; Thanh, Loan Tao; Biehl, Ralf; Lühmann, Nicole; Mohn, Dirk; Wiegand, Annette

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effect of infiltrating a commercial adhesive with nanosized bioactive glass (BG-Bi) particles or methacryl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) on material properties and bioactivity. An acetone-based dental adhesive (Solobond Plus adhesive, VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was infiltrated with nanosized bioactive glass particles (0.1 or 1wt%), or with monofunctional or multifunctional POSS particles (10 or 20wt%). Unfilled adhesive served as control. Dispersion and hydrodynamic radius of the nanoparticles were studied by dynamic light scattering. Set specimens were immersed for 28days in artificial saliva at 37°C, and surfaces were mapped for the formation of calcium phospate (Ca/P) precipitates (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Viscosity (rheometry) and the structural characteristic of the networks were studied, such as degree of conversion (FTIR spectroscopy), sol fraction and water sorption. POSS particles showed a good dispersion of the particles for both types of particles being smaller than 3nm, while the bioactive glass particles had a strong tendency to agglomerate. All nanoparticles induced the formation of Ca/P precipitates. The viscosity of the adhesive was not or only slightly increased by POSS particle addition but strongly increased by the bioactive glass particles. The degree of conversion, water sorption and sol fraction showed a maintained or improved network structure and properties when filled with BG-Bi and multifunctional POSS, however, less polymerization was found when loading a monofunctional POSS. Multifunctional POSS may be incorporated into dental adhesives to provide a bioactive potential without changing material properties adversely. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic Glass Ceramics by Sintering of Borosilicate Glass and Inorganic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inès M. M. M. Ponsot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ceramics and glass ceramics based on industrial waste have been widely recognized as competitive products for building applications; however, there is a great potential for such materials with novel functionalities. In this paper, we discuss the development of magnetic sintered glass ceramics based on two iron-rich slags, coming from non-ferrous metallurgy and recycled borosilicate glass. The substantial viscous flow of the glass led to dense products for rapid treatments at relatively low temperatures (900–1000 °C, whereas glass/slag interactions resulted in the formation of magnetite crystals, providing ferrimagnetism. Such behavior could be exploited for applying the obtained glass ceramics as induction heating plates, according to preliminary tests (showing the rapid heating of selected samples, even above 200 °C. The chemical durability and safety of the obtained glass ceramics were assessed by both leaching tests and cytotoxicity tests.

  13. Development of glass ceramics for the incorporation of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.K.; Luckscheiter, B.; Lutze, W.; Malow, G.; Schiewer, E.

    1976-01-01

    Spontaneous devitrification of fission-product-containing borosilicate glasses can be avoided by controlled crystallization after melting. Glass ceramics have been developed from a vitrified simulated waste and further improvement of product properties was achieved. In particular perovskite, h-celsian, diopside and eucryptite glass ceramics were prepared. These contained leach resistant host phases which exhibited considerable enrichment of long-lived fission products. All products showed increased impact resistance, but the thermal expansion was only slightly improved

  14. The effect of variation in physical properties of porous bioactive glass on the expression and maintenance of the osteoblastic phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effah Kaufmann, Elsie Akosua Biraa

    Revision surgery to replace failed hip implants is a significant health care issue that is expected to escalate as life expectancy increases. A major goal of revision surgery is to reconstruct femoral intramedullary bone-stock loss. To address this problem of bone loss, grafting techniques are widely used. Although fresh autografts remain the optimal material for all forms of surgery seeking to restore structural integrity to the skeleton, it is evident that the supply of such tissue is limited. In recent years, calcium phosphate ceramics have been studied as alternatives to autografts and allografts. The significant limitations associated with the use of biological and synthetic grafts have led to a growing interest in the in vitro synthesis of bone tissue. The approach is to synthesize bone tissue in vitro with the patient's own cells, and use this tissue for the repair of bony defects. Various substrates including metals, polymers, calcium phosphate ceramics and bioactive glasses, have been seeded with osteogenic cells. The selection of bioactive glass in this study is based on the fact that this material has shown an intense beneficial biological effect which has not been reproduced by other biomaterials. Even though the literature provides extensive data on the effect of pore size and porosity on in vivo bone tissue ingrowth into porous materials for joint prosthesis fixation, the data from past studies cannot be applied to the use of bioactive glass as a substrate for the in vitro synthesis of bone tissue. First, unlike the in vivo studies in the literature, this research deals with the growth of bone tissue in vitro. Second, unlike the implants used in past studies, bioactive glass is a degradable and resorbable material. Thus, in order to establish optimal substrate characteristics (porosity and pore size) for bioactive glass, it was important to study these parameters in an in vitro model. We synthesized porous bioactive glass substrates (BG) with varying

  15. Laser Machining and In Vitro Assessment of Wollastonite-Tricalcium Phosphate Eutectic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity and ingrowth of ceramic implants is commonly enhanced by a suitable interconnected porous network. In this work, the laser machining of CaSiO3‒Ca3(PO42 biocompatible eutectic glass-ceramics and glasses was studied. For this purpose, 300 µm diameter craters were machined by using pulsed laser radiation at 532 nm with a pulsewidth in the nanosecond range. Machined samples were soaked in simulated body fluid for 2 months to assess the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the laser machined areas. The samples were manufactured by the laser floating zone technique using a CO2 laser. Morphology, composition and microstructure of the machined samples were described by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and micro-Raman Spectroscopy.

  16. Mechanical properties of zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E; Elnaghy, Amr M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recently introduced zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic. Two types of CAD/CAM glass-ceramics (Vita Suprinity (VS); zirconia reinforced lithium silicate and IPS e.max CAD (IC); lithium disilicate) were used. Fracture toughness, flexural strength, elastic modulus, hardness, brittleness index, and microstructures were evaluated. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Weibull analysis of flexural strength data was also performed. VS had significantly higher fracture toughness (2.31±0.17MPam(0.5)), flexural strength (443.63±38.90MPa), elastic modulus (70.44±1.97GPa), and hardness (6.53±0.49GPa) than IC (Pglass-ceramic revealed significantly a higher brittleness index (2.84±0.26μm(-1/2)) (lower machinability) than IC glass-ceramic (Pglass-ceramic revealed a lower probability of failure and a higher strength than IC glass-ceramic according to Weibull analysis. The VS zirconia reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramic revealed higher mechanical properties compared with IC lithium disilicate glass-ceramic. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  18. In Vitro Bioactivity and Antimicrobial Tuning of Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles Added with Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M.; Ruby Priscilla, S.; Kavitha, K.; Manivasakan, P.; Rajendran, V.; Kulandaivelu, P.

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications. PMID:25276834

  19. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  20. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  1. Crystallization and properties of a spodumene-willemite glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, A.M.; Li, M.; Dali, D.L. Mao; Liang, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Spodumene-willemite glass ceramics were produced by replacement of Al 2 O 3 in lithium aluminium silicate by ZnO. With replacement of Al 2 O 3 by ZnO, the batch melting temperature, glass transition temperature (T g ) and crystallization temperature (T p ) all decreased. The main crystalline phases precipitated were eucriptite, β-spodumene and willemite (Zn 2 SiO 4 ). All compositions of glass ceramics showed bulk crystallization. As ZnO content increased, the grain sizes and thermal expansion coefficients increased, while the flexural strength and fracture toughness of the glass-ceramics increased first, and then decreased. The mechanical properties were correlated with crystallization and morphology of glass ceramics

  2. Valorization of sugarcane bagasse ash: producing glass-ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, S R; Magalhães, R S; Arenales, A; Souza, A E; Romero, M; Rincón, J M

    2014-02-15

    Some aluminosilicates, for example mullite and wollastonite, are very important in the ceramic and construction industries. The most significant glass-ceramic for building applications has wollastonite as the main crystal phase. In this work we report on the use of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce glass-ceramics with silicates as the major crystalline phases. The glasses (frits) were prepared by mixing ash, limestone (calcium and magnesium carbonates) and potassium carbonate as the fluxing agent. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the chemical composition of the glasses and their crystallization was assessed by using thermal analysis (DTA/DSC/TGA) and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that glass-ceramic material can be produced with wollastonite as the major phase, at a temperature lower than 900 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fiber glass-bioactive glass composite for bone replacing and bone anchoring implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallittu, Pekka K; Närhi, Timo O; Hupa, Leena

    2015-04-01

    Although metal implants have successfully been used for decades, devices made out of metals do not meet all clinical requirements, for example, metal objects may interfere with some new medical imaging systems, while their stiffness also differs from natural bone and may cause stress-shielding and over-loading of bone. Peer-review articles and other scientific literature were reviewed for providing up-dated information how fiber-reinforced composites and bioactive glass can be utilized in implantology. There has been a lot of development in the field of composite material research, which has focused to a large extent on biodegradable composites. However, it has become evident that biostable composites may also have several clinical benefits. Fiber reinforced composites containing bioactive glasses are relatively new types of biomaterials in the field of implantology. Biostable glass fibers are responsible for the load-bearing capacity of the implant, while the dissolution of the bioactive glass particles supports bone bonding and provides antimicrobial properties for the implant. These kinds of combination materials have been used clinically in cranioplasty implants and they have been investigated also as oral and orthopedic implants. The present knowledge suggests that by combining glass fiber-reinforced composite with particles of bioactive glass can be used in cranial implants and that the combination of materials may have potential use also as other types of bone replacing and repairing implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Correlation of Pore Size and Bioactivity of Spray-Pyrolyzed Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jen Chou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available SiO2–CaO–P2O5-based mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs were synthesized by spray pyrolysis in this study. Three commonly used non-ionic tri-block copolymers (L121, P123, and F127 with various lengths of hydrophilic chains were applied as structural templates to achieve different pore sizes. A mesoporous structure was observed in each as-prepared specimen, and the results showed that the L121-treated MBG had the largest pore size. The results of bioactivity tests indicated that the growth of hydroxyapatite is related to the pore size of the materials.

  5. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, C.P. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950 0 C to about 1100 0 C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO 2 , from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al 2 O 3 , from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li 2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P 2 O 5

  6. Precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.; Paul, H.; Scattergood, R.O.

    1988-12-01

    A new research initiative will be undertaken to investigate the effect of machine parameters and material properties on precision diamond grinding of ceramics and glass. The critical grinding depth to initiate the plastic flow-to-brittle fracture regime will be directly measured using plunge-grind tests. This information will be correlated with machine parameters such as wheel bonding and diamond grain size. Multiaxis grinding tests will then be made to provide data more closely coupled with production technology. One important aspect of the material property studies involves measuring fracture toughness at the very short crack sizes commensurate with grinding damage. Short crack toughness value`s can be much less than the long-crack toughness values measured in conventional fracture tests.

  7. Glass-ceramic composition for hermetic seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Jr., Clifford P.

    1979-01-01

    The invention relates to a glass-ceramic composition having a high fracture strength adaptable for hermetically sealing to chromium bearing iron or nickel base alloys at temperatures of between about 950.degree. C to about 1100.degree. C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body, comprising from about 55 to about 65 weight percent SiO.sub.2, from about 0 to about 5 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, from about 6 to about 11 weight % Li.sub.2 O, from about 25 to about 32 weight percent BaO, from about 0.5 to about 1.0 weight percent CoO and from about 1.5 to about 3.5 weight percent P.sub.2 O.sub.5.

  8. Low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denry, Isabelle; Holloway, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorapatite glass-ceramics have been shown to be excellent candidates as scaffold materials for bone grafts, however, scaffold production by sintering is hindered by concurrent crystallization of the glass. Our goal was to investigate the effect of Ca/Al ratio on the sintering behavior of Nb-doped fluorapatite-based glasses in the SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-MgO-Na2O-K2O-CaO-CaF2 system. Glass compositions with Ca/Al ratio of 1 (A), 2 (B), 4 (C) and 19 (D) were prepared by twice melting at 1525°C for 3h. Glasses were either cast as cylindrical ingots or ground into powders. Disc-shaped specimens were prepared by either sectioning from the ingots or powder-compacting in a mold, followed by heat treatment at temperatures ranging between 700 and 1050°C for 1h. The density was measured on both sintered specimens and heat treated discs as controls. The degree of sintering was determined from these measurements. XRD showed that fluorapatite crystallized in all glass-ceramics. A high degree of sintering was achieved at 775°C for glass-ceramic D (98.99±0.04%), and 900°C for glass-ceramic C (91.31±0.10). Glass-ceramics A or B were only partially sintered at 1000°C (63.6±0.8% and 74.1±1.5%, respectively). SEM revealed a unique microstructure of micron-sized spherulitic fluorapatite crystals in glass-ceramics C and D. Increasing the Ca/Al ratio promoted low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics, which are traditionally difficult to sinter. PMID:24252652

  9. Low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denry, Isabelle; Holloway, Julie A

    2014-02-01

    Fluorapatite glass-ceramics have been shown to be excellent candidates as scaffold materials for bone grafts, however, scaffold production by sintering is hindered by concurrent crystallization of the glass. Objective, our goal was to investigate the effect of Ca/Al ratio on the sintering behavior of Nb-doped fluorapatite-based glasses in the SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-MgO-Na2O-K2O-CaO-CaF2 system. Methods, glass compositions with Ca/Al ratio of 1 (A), 2 (B), 4 (C) and 19 (D) were prepared by twice melting at 1525°C for 3h. Glasses were either cast as cylindrical ingots or ground into powders. Disk-shaped specimens were prepared by either sectioning from the ingots or powder-compacting in a mold, followed by heat treatment at temperatures ranging between 700 and 1050°C for 1h. The density was measured on both sintered specimens and heat treated discs as controls. The degree of sintering was determined from these measurements. Results and Significance XRD showed that fluorapatite crystallized in all glass-ceramics. A high degree of sintering was achieved at 775°C for glass-ceramic D (98.99±0.04%), and 900°C for glass-ceramic C (91.31±0.10). Glass-ceramics A or B were only partially sintered at 1000°C (63.6±0.8% and 74.1±1.5%, respectively). SEM revealed a unique microstructure of micron-sized spherulitic fluorapatite crystals in glass-ceramics C and D. Increasing the Ca/Al ratio promoted low temperature sintering of fluorapatite glass-ceramics, which are traditionally difficult to sinter. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apatite glass-ceramics: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duminis, Tomas; Shahid, Saroash; Hill, Robert Graham

    2016-12-01

    This article is a review of the published literature on apatite glass-ceramics (GCs). Topics covered include crystallization mechanisms of the various families of the apatite GCs and an update on research and development on apatite GCs for applications in orthopedics, dentistry, optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid-liquid phase separation. Careful control of the base glass composition and heat-treatment conditions, which determine the nature and morphology of the crystal phases in the GC can produce GC materials with exceptional thermal, mechanical, optical and biological properties. The GCs reviewed for orthopedic applications exhibit suitable mechanical properties and can chemically bond to bone and stimulate its regeneration. The most commercially successful apatite GCs are those developed for dental veneering. These materials exhibit excellent translucency and clinical esthetics, and mimic the natural tooth mineral. Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications in optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. One of the drawbacks of the commercial apatite GCs used in orthopedics is the lack of resorbability, therefore the review provides a direction for future research in the field.

  11. Surface functionalization of 3D glass-ceramic porous scaffolds for enhanced mineralization in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Sara; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Bretcanu, Oana; Cassinelli, Clara; Vernè, Enrica

    2013-04-01

    Bone reconstruction after tissue loosening due to traumatic, pathological or surgical causes is in increasing demand. 3D scaffolds are a widely studied solution for supporting new bone growth. Bioactive glass-ceramic porous materials can offer a three-dimensional structure that is able to chemically bond to bone. The ability to surface modify these devices by grafting biologically active molecules represents a challenge, with the aim of stimulating physiological bone regeneration with both inorganic and organic signals. In this research work glass ceramic scaffolds with very high mechanical properties and moderate bioactivity have been functionalized with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The material surface was activated in order to expose hydroxyl groups. The activated surface was further grafted with ALP both via silanization and also via direct grafting to the surface active hydroxyl groups. Enzymatic activity of grafted samples were measured by means of UV-vis spectroscopy before and after ultrasonic washing in TRIS-HCl buffer solution. In vitro inorganic bioactivity was investigated by soaking the scaffolds after the different steps of functionalization in a simulated body fluid (SBF). SEM observations allowed the monitoring of the scaffold morphology and surface chemical composition after soaking in SBF. The presence of ALP enhanced the in vitro inorganic bioactivity of the tested material.

  12. The Influence of Na and Ti on the In Vitro Degradation and Bioactivity in 58S Sol-Gel Bioactive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirong Ni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Na and Ti on the in vitro degradation and bioactivity in the 58S bioactive glass. The degradation was evaluated through the activation energy of Si ion release from bioactive glasses and the weight loss of bioactive glasses in Tris-HCl buffer solution. The in vitro bioactivity of the bioactive glasses was investigated by analysis of apatite-formation ability in the simulated body fluid (SBF. The results showed that Na in the 58S glass accelerated the dissolution rate of the glass, whereas Ti in the 58S glass slowed down the rate of glass solubility. Bioactivity tests showed that Na in glass increased the apatite-forming ability in SBF. In contrast, Ti in glass retards the apatite formation at the initial stage of SBF soaking but does not affect the growth of apatite after long periods of soaking.

  13. Glass-ceramics as building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rincón, J. María

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics are materials composed as any ceramic material by several crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous or vitreous matrix, but their manufacture process implies the controlled devitrification or nucleation and growth of phases from an original glass. The original shape of the original glass molded by conventional methods is carried out by using pressing and sintering followed by crystallization steps. By both processing routes are obtained transparent and/or opaque materials, with or without colours, which after adequate control and design of composition and microstructure have numerous domestic and architectonic applications. They can be used as pavements or wall coatings and in various decorative elements. In fact, their use is very extensive in east-European, American and Asian (Japan countries in constructions for covering large surfaces. The greater advantage of the glass-ceramic process is that due to the own process of vitrification allows the incorporation in their structure of a wide range of compositions from mining and industrial residues, such as red muds, ashes, fangos, scraps... which they can in this way not only be inertizated, but furthermore it be converted without risk for the environment into products useful in construction applications, offering to the architect and to the decorator a new range of "eco-materials" with multiple complementary possibilities of the already existing architectural materials in the market.

    Los productos o materiales vitrocerámicos se componen, como cualquier material de tipo cerámico, de una o varias fases cristalinas embebidas en una matriz amorfa o vítrea, pero cuyo proceso de fabricación implica la desvitrificación o nucleación y cristalización controlada de un vidrio original o de partida. En el proceso de obtención de estos materiales se puede conservar la forma original conferida al vidrio de partida por los métodos convencionales de moldeado de vidrios

  14. Initial Examination of Low Velocity Sphere Impact of Glass Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    This report summarizes US Army TARDEC sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) sphere impact testing of two materials from the lithium aluminosilicate family reinforced with different amounts of ceramic particulate, i.e., glass-ceramic materials, SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-G1 and SCHOTT Resistan{trademark}-L. Both materials are provided by SCHOTT Glass (Duryea, PA). This work is a follow-up to similar sphere impact studies completed by the authors on PPG's Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass and SCHOTT BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. A gas gun or a sphere-drop test setup was used to produce controlled velocity delivery of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) spheres against the glass ceramic tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the glass-ceramics were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between sphere and target material. Quasistatic spherical indentation was also performed on both glass ceramics and their contact damage responses were compared to those of soda-lime silicate and borosilicate glasses. Lastly, variability of contact damage response was assessed by performing spherical indentation testing across the area of an entire glass ceramic tile. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Resistan{trademark}-L glass ceramic required the highest velocity of sphere impact for damage to initiate. Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass was second best, then Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and then BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass. (2) Glass-ceramic Resistan{trademark}-L also required the largest force to initiate ring crack from quasi-static indentation. That ranking was followed, in descending order, by Starphire{reg_sign} soda-lime silicate glass, Resistan{trademark}-G1 glass ceramic, and BOROFLOAT{reg_sign} borosilicate glass

  15. Physicochemical properties and bioactivity of freeze-cast chitosan nanocomposite scaffolds reinforced with bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhaghgouy, Masoud; Zamanian, Ali; Shahrezaee, Mostafa; Masouleh, Milad Pourbaghi

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds were prepared by freeze casting method through blending constant chitosan concentration with different portions of synthesized bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) image showed that the particles size of bioactive glass (64SiO2.28CaO.8P2O5) prepared by sol-gel method was approximately less than 20 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis showed proper interfacial bonding between BGNPs and chitosan polymers. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images depicted a unidirectional structure with homogenous distribution of BGNPs among chitosan matrix associated with the absence of pure chitosan scaffold's wall pores after addition of only 10 wt.% BGNPs. As the BGNP content increased from 0 to 50 wt.%, the compressive strength and compressive module values increased from 0.034 to 0.419 MPa and 0.41 to 10.77 MPa, respectively. Biodegradation study showed that increase in BGNP content leads to growth of weight loss amount. The in vitro biomineralization studies confirmed the bioactive nature of all nanocomposites. Amount of 30 wt.% BGNPs represented the best concentration for absorption capacity and bioactivity behaviors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, D. S.

    1991-01-01

    Proof test diagrams for Zerodur glass-ceramics are calculated from available fracture mechanics data. It is shown that the environment has a large effect on minimum time-to-failure as predicted by proof test diagrams.

  17. Glass/Ceramic Composites for Sealing Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2007-01-01

    A family of glass/ceramic composite materials has been investigated for use as sealants in planar solid oxide fuel cells. These materials are modified versions of a barium calcium aluminosilicate glass developed previously for the same purpose. The composition of the glass in mole percentages is 35BaO + 15CaO + 5Al2O3 + 10B2O3 + 35SiO2. The glass seal was found to be susceptible to cracking during thermal cycling of the fuel cells. The goal in formulating the glass/ ceramic composite materials was to (1) retain the physical and chemical advantages that led to the prior selection of the barium calcium aluminosilicate glass as the sealant while (2) increasing strength and fracture toughness so as to reduce the tendency toward cracking. Each of the composite formulations consists of the glass plus either of two ceramic reinforcements in a proportion between 0 and 30 mole percent. One of the ceramic reinforcements consists of alumina platelets; the other one consists of particles of yttria-stabilized zirconia wherein the yttria content is 3 mole percent (3YSZ). In preparation for experiments, panels of the glass/ceramic composites were hot-pressed and machined into test bars.

  18. In vitro biocompatibility of a ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic for hyperthermia application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretcanu, Oana; Miola, Marta [Applied Science and Technology Department, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bianchi, Claudia L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Milan, Via Golgi 19, 20133 Milan (Italy); Marangi, Ida; Carbone, Roberta [Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. (Italy); Corazzari, Ingrid [Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); “G. Scansetti” Interdepartmental Centre for Studies on Asbestos and other Toxic Particulates, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cannas, Mario [Department of Medical Science, Human Anatomy, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara (Italy); Verné, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Applied Science and Technology Department, Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2017-04-01

    Ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics containing magnetite crystals were developed for hyperthermia applications of solid neoplastic tissue. The present work is focused on in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility of these materials, before and after soaking in a simulated body fluid (SBF). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and pH measurements were employed in glass-ceramic characterisation. The free-radical mediated reactivity of the glass-ceramic was evaluated by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spin trapping. Cell adhesion and proliferation tests were carried out by using 3T3 murine fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity was performed by qualitative evaluation of human bone osteosarcoma cells U2OS cell line. The results show that almost two times more 3T3 cells proliferated on the samples pre-treated in SBF, compared with the untreated specimens. Moreover a decrease of confluence was observed at 48 and 72 h for U2OS cells exposed to the untreated glass-ceramic, while the powder suspensions of glass-ceramic pre-treated in SBF did not influence the cell morphology up to 72 h of exposition. The untreated glass-ceramic exhibited Fenton-like reactivity, as well as reactivity towards formate molecule. After pre-treatment with SBF the reactivity towards formate was completely suppressed. The concentration of iron released into the SBF solution was below 0.1 ppm at 37 °C, during one month of soaking. The different in vitro behaviour of the samples before and after SBF treatment has been correlated to the bioactive glass-ceramic surface modifications as detected by morphological, structural and compositional analyses. - Highlights: • In vitro characterization of a ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic has been performed, before and after treatment in SBF. • The SBF pre-treatment stimulates the cellular function and acts as a surface activation process, increasing cells activity. • Pre-treatment with SBF

  19. Abrasive wear of enamel by bioactive glass-based toothpastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Asad; Mneimne, Mohammed; Zou, Li Fong; Hill, Robert G; Gillam, David G

    2014-10-01

    To determine the abrasivity of a 45S5 bioactive glass based toothpaste on enamel as a function of the particle size and shape of the glass. 45S5 glass was synthesized ground and sieved to give various particle sized fractions toothpastes and their tooth brush abrasivity measured according to BS EN ISO11609 methodology. Enamel loss increased with increasing particle size. The percussion milled powder exhibited particles that had sharp edges and the pastes were significantly more abrasive than the pastes made with round ball milled powders. One interesting observation made during the present study was that there was preferential wear of the enamel at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ), particularly with the coarse particle sized pastes.

  20. In Vitro Evaluation the Influence of Glass-Ceramic Degradation Products on Osteoblast Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa K. Sabree

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine focuses on using biomaterials as three-dimensional (3D porous scaffolds, specifically designed to mimic the nature of host tissue and hence to promote cell growth and tissue regeneration. 3D bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds are one of the most frequently studied types of scaffolds for bone tissue engineering because of their excellent bioactivity and potential for stimulating osteogenesis and angiogenesis. For such purposes, porous 3D 70%SiO2-30%CaO bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds with three different pore sizes and identical porosity are used in present study to investigate In vitro, the effect of pore size on the degradation rate of scaffold which is achieved through examining changes in the composition of the immersion solution(SBF, simulated body fluid, and to investigate the action of released ions from the bioactive glass-ceramic scaffold during soaking process on osteoblast cells The results confirmed that all three scaffolds behaved in a similar manner and the ions release from the three scaffolds were of comparable concentration, which may be attributable to the identical porosity for all the scaffolds in addition to the using static immersion which delays ions diffusion. The pH of culture media increased from 7.6 to 8.2 after one day soaking. The optical microscopy images demonstrated that high ion concentration (Si, Ca, P in the culture medium could have a negative effect on the cells and induce cell death, while low concentration of ionic dissolution products induces osteoblast proliferation in dilute culture medium.

  1. Electronic Conductivity of Vanadium-Tellurite Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Yue, Yuanzheng; Bragatto, Caio B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the electronic conductivity of 2TeO2-V2O5 glass-ceramics with crystallinity ranging from 0 to 100 wt.%, i.e., from entirely amorphous to completely crystalline. The glass is prepared by the melt quenching technique, and the crystal is prepared by subsequent heat...... spectroscopy. We find similar activation energies for both glass and crystal, implying that they have similar conduction mechanisms, i.e., thermally activated hopping. The electronic conductivity of 2TeO2-V2O5 glass is about one order of magnitude higher than that of the corresponding crystal......, and a percolation phenomenon occurs at a glass fraction of 61 wt.%, increasing from a lower conductivity in the crystal to a higher conductivity in the glass. We explain the behavior of electronic conduction in the 2TeO2-V2O5 glass-ceramics by considering constriction effects between particles as well...

  2. Investigating the addition of SiO₂-CaO-ZnO-Na₂O-TiO₂ bioactive glass to hydroxyapatite: Characterization, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatongchai, Chokchai; Placek, Lana M; Curran, Declan J; Towler, Mark R; Wren, Anthony W

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) is widely investigated as an implantable material for hard tissue restoration due to its osteoconductive properties. However, hydroxyapatite in bulk form is limited as its mechanical properties are insufficient for load-bearing orthopedic applications. Attempts have been made to improve the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite, by incorporating ceramic fillers, but the resultant composite materials require high sintering temperatures to facilitate densification, leading to the decomposition of hydroxyapatite into tricalcium phosphate, tetra-calcium phosphate and CaO phases. One method of improving the properties of hydroxyapatite is to incorporate bioactive glass particles as a second phase. These typically have lower softening points which could possibly facilitate sintering at lower temperatures. In this work, a bioactive glass (SiO2-CaO-ZnO-Na2O-TiO2) is incorporated (10, 20 and 30 wt%) into hydroxyapatite as a reinforcing phase. X-ray diffraction confirmed that no additional phases (other than hydroxyapatite) were formed at a sintering temperature of 560 ℃ with up to 30 wt% glass addition. The addition of the glass phase increased the % crystallinity and the relative density of the composites. The biaxial flexural strength increased to 36 MPa with glass addition, and there was no significant change in hardness as a function of maturation. The pH of the incubation media increased to pH 10 or 11 through glass addition, and ion release profiles determined that Si, Na and P were released from the composites. Calcium phosphate precipitation was encouraged in simulated body fluid with the incorporation of the bioactive glass phase, and cell culture testing in MC-3T3 osteoblasts determined that the composite materials did not significantly reduce cell viability. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Bending strength of glass-ceramics based on 3CaO.P2O5-SiO2-MgO glass system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguano, J.K.M.F.; Suzuki, P.A.; Santos, C.; Fernandes, M.H.V.; Elias, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the Modulus of Rupture of bioactive glass-ceramic based on 3CaO.P 2 O 5 -SiO 2 -MgO system was investigated, aiming its use in bone-restorations. The mechanical property was correlated with microstructural and crystallographic features of this material. High-purity starting-powders, CaCO 3 , SiO 2 , MgO, Ca (H 2 PO 4 ).H 2 O, were used in this study. The powders were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio, using planetary ball-mill. The suspensions were dried, sieved and melted at 1600 deg C, for 4h. The casting ones were cooled quickly until annealing temperature 700 deg C, in which remained for 2h, with controlled cooling-rate until ambient temperature. Bulks of glass were heat-treated with temperatures varying between 700 deg C and 1100 deg C, for 4h, being after that, cooled at 3 deg C/min. Bioactive glass and glass-ceramic were characterized by HRXRD (high resolution X-ray diffraction), where whitlockite was main phase. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy. Modulus of Rupture was determined by four-point bending testing using specimens of 1.5 x 2 x 25 mm and glasses presented strength near to 70MPa, while glass ceramics treated at 975 deg C-4h, presented bending strength of 120MPa. (author)

  4. Manufacture, characterisation and properties of novel fluorcanasite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollington, Sarah; van Noort, Richard

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manufacture and characterisation of different compositions of fluorcanasite glass-ceramics with reduced fluorine content and to assess their mechanical and physical properties. Three compositional variations (S80, S81 and S82) of a fluorcanasite glass were investigated. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified crystallisation temperatures and phases. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) determined the element composition in the glass-ceramics. Different heat treatments [2 h nucleation and either 2 or 4 h crystallisation] were used for the glasses. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examined the microstructure of the cerammed glass. The chemical solubility, biaxial flexural strength, fracture toughness, hardness and brittleness index of S81 and S82 fluorcanasite were investigated with lithium disilicate (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) as a commercial comparison. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparison tests (Pglasses. XRD analysis confirmed fluorcanasite formation with the S81 and S82 compositions, with the S82 (2+2h) showing the most prominent crystal structure. The chemical solubility of the glass-ceramics was significantly different, varying from 2565 ± 507 μg/cm(2) for the S81 (2+2 h) to 722 ± 177 μg/cm(2) for the S82 (2+2 h) to 37.4 ± 25.2 μg/cm(2) for the lithium disilicate. BFS values were highest for the S82 (2+2 h) composition (250 ± 26 MPa) and lithium disilicate (266 ± 37 MPa) glass-ceramics. The fracture toughness was higher for the S82 compositions, with the S82 (2+2h) attaining the highest value of 4.2 ± 0.3 MPa m(1/2)(P=0.01). The S82 (2+2 h) fluorcanasite glass-ceramic had the lowest brittleness index. The S82 (2+2 h) fluorcanasite glass-ceramic has acceptable chemical solubility, high biaxial flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness. A novel glass-ceramic has been developed with potential as a restorative material. The

  5. In vitro bioactivity behavior of modified multicomponent borate glasses containing dopants of Ag2O, CuO, CeO2 or V2O5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M. A.; ElBatal, F. H.; Ghoneim, N. A.

    2018-02-01

    Some multi-component borate glasses containing dopants of Ag2O, CuO, CeO2 or V2O5 were prepared. Multi-characterization techniques were carried out to investigate their bioactivity, corrosion weight loss after immersion in phosphate solution. Controlled thermal heat-treatment by two-step technique was done to convert the prepared glasses to their corresponding glass-ceramic derivatives. X-ray diffraction analysis was performed to identify the crystalline phases formed by thermal treatment. Infrared absorption of glasses and glass-ceramics reveal vibrational bands due to combined main triangular and tetrahedral borate groups in their specific wavenumbers besides some sharing of phosphate group. After immersion in the phosphate solution, two extra characteristic peaks are generated indicating the bioactivity of the studied glasses and glass-ceramics through the formation of calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). X-ray diffraction data indicate the formation of crystalline phases which are variable with the introduced dopants. The main crystalline phase identified is calcium borate together with some other phases some of which contain phosphate ions. These data indicate that the presence of CaO and P2O5 initiates phase separation and subsequent crystallization of the parent and doped glasses. Weight loss data indicate that glass-ceramics are obviously durable than the parent glasses. SEM micrographs of glass-ceramics before immersion show multiconstituent crystalline phases due to the basic chemical composition consisting of multicomponent mixed alkali and alkaline earth oxides beside P2O5 and with the main B2O3 constituent. After immersion, the crystalline phases are identified to be more distinct in different shapes because of the multi-composition involved.

  6. Effect of ZnO on phase emergence, microstructure and surface modifications of calcium phosphosilicate glass/glass-ceramics having iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, K.; Dixit, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Jagannath [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Deo, M.N. [High Pressure Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kothiyal, G.P., E-mail: gpkoth@barc.gov.in [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2010-03-01

    The effect of ZnO on phase emergence and microstructure properties of glass and glass-ceramics with composition 25SiO{sub 2}-50CaO-15P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-(10 - x)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-xZnO (where x = 0, 2, 5, 7 mol%) has been studied. They have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface modifications of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid have been studied using Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR), XPS and SEM. Results have shown a decrease in the fraction of non-bridging oxygen with increase in zinc oxide content. Emergence of crystalline phases in glass-ceramics at different heat treatment temperatures was studied using XRD. When glass is heat treated at 800 deg. C calcium phosphate, hematite and magnetite are developed as major phases in the glass-ceramics samples with ZnO up to 5 mol%. In addition to these, calcium silicate (Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}) phase is also observed when glass is heat treated at 1000 deg. C. The microstructure of the glass-ceramics heat treated at 800 deg. C exhibits the formation of nano-size (40-50 nm) grains. On heat treatment at 1000 deg. C crystallites grow to above 50 nm size and more than one phase are observed in the microstructure. The formation of thin flake-like structure with coarse particles is observed at high zinc oxide concentration (x = 7 mol%). In vitro studies have shown the surface modifications and formation of Ca-P-rich layer on the glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF) for different durations. The bioactive response was found to depend on ZnO content.

  7. Effect of ZnO on phase emergence, microstructure and surface modifications of calcium phosphosilicate glass/glass-ceramics having iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.; Dixit, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Jagannath; Deo, M.N.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of ZnO on phase emergence and microstructure properties of glass and glass-ceramics with composition 25SiO 2 -50CaO-15P 2 O 5 -(10 - x)Fe 2 O 3 -xZnO (where x = 0, 2, 5, 7 mol%) has been studied. They have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface modifications of these glass-ceramics in simulated body fluid have been studied using Fourier transform infrared reflection spectroscopy (FTIR), XPS and SEM. Results have shown a decrease in the fraction of non-bridging oxygen with increase in zinc oxide content. Emergence of crystalline phases in glass-ceramics at different heat treatment temperatures was studied using XRD. When glass is heat treated at 800 deg. C calcium phosphate, hematite and magnetite are developed as major phases in the glass-ceramics samples with ZnO up to 5 mol%. In addition to these, calcium silicate (Ca 3 Si 2 O 7 ) phase is also observed when glass is heat treated at 1000 deg. C. The microstructure of the glass-ceramics heat treated at 800 deg. C exhibits the formation of nano-size (40-50 nm) grains. On heat treatment at 1000 deg. C crystallites grow to above 50 nm size and more than one phase are observed in the microstructure. The formation of thin flake-like structure with coarse particles is observed at high zinc oxide concentration (x = 7 mol%). In vitro studies have shown the surface modifications and formation of Ca-P-rich layer on the glass-ceramics when immersed in simulated body fluids (SBF) for different durations. The bioactive response was found to depend on ZnO content.

  8. Proceedings of the national symposium on materials and processing: functional glass/glass-ceramics, advanced ceramics and high temperature materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.; Sahu, A.K.; Viswanadham, C.S.; Ramanathan, S.; Hubli, R.C.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2012-10-01

    With the development of materials science it is becoming increasingly important to process some novel materials in the area of glass, advanced ceramics and high temperature metals/alloys, which play an important role in the realization of many new technologies. Such applications demand materials with tailored specifications. Glasses and glass-ceramics find exotic applications in areas like radioactive waste storage, optical communication, zero thermal expansion coefficient telescopic mirrors, human safety gadgets (radiation resistance windows, bullet proof apparels, heat resistance components etc), biomedical (implants, hyperthermia treatment, bone cement, bone grafting etc). Advanced ceramic materials have been beneficial in biomedical applications due to their strength, biocompatibility and wear resistance. Non-oxide ceramics such as carbides, borides, silicides, their composites, refractory metals and alloys are useful as structural and control rod components in high temperature fission/ fusion reactors. Over the years a number of novel processing techniques like selective laser melting, microwave heating, nano-ceramic processing etc have emerged. A detailed understanding of the various aspects of synthesis, processing and characterization of these materials provides the base for development of novel technologies for different applications. Keeping this in mind and realizing the need for taking stock of such developments a National Symposium on Materials and Processing -2012 (MAP-2012) was planned. The topics covered in the symposium are ceramics, glass/glass-ceramics and metals and materials. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  9. Rare earth ion controlled crystallization of mica glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garai, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Basudeb, E-mail: basudebk@cgcri.res.in

    2016-09-05

    In understanding the effects of rare earth ions to control the crystallization and microstructure of alkaline boroaluminosilicate system, the CeO{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped K{sub 2}O−MgO−B{sub 2}O{sub 3}−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−SiO{sub 2}−F glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching at 1550 °C. Higher density (2.82–3.06 g cm{sup −3}) and thermal stability (glass phase) is experiential on addition of rare earth content, which also affects in increasing the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub c}). Decrease of thermal expansion in glasses with rare earth ion content is maintained by the stabilization of glass matrix owing to their large cationic field strength. A significant change in the non-isothermal DSC thermogram observed at 750–1050 °C is attributed to fluorophlogopite crystallization. Opaque glass-ceramics were prepared from such glasses by single step heat-treatment at 1050 °C; and the predominant crystalline phases are identified as fluorophlogopite mica, KMg{sub 3}(AlSi{sub 3}O{sub 10})F{sub 2} by XRD and EDX analysis. The compact glass-ceramic microstructure by the agglomeration of fluorophlogopite mica crystallites (crystal size ∼ 100–500 nm, FESEM) is achieved in attendance of rare earth ion; and such microstructure controlled the variation of density, thermal expansion and microhardness value. Higher thermal expansion (11.11–14.08 × 10{sup −6}/K at 50–800 °C and 50–900 °C) of such glass-ceramics approve that these rare earth containing glasses can be useful for high temperature vacuum sealing application with metal or solid electrolyte. The increase of Vickers microhardness (5.27–5.61 GPa) in attendance of rare earth ions is attributed to the compact crystallinity of fluorophlogopite mica glass-ceramic microstructure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of rare earth oxide doped alkaline boroaluminosilicate glasses. • Development of opaque

  10. Rare earth ion controlled crystallization of mica glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garai, Mrinmoy; Karmakar, Basudeb

    2016-01-01

    In understanding the effects of rare earth ions to control the crystallization and microstructure of alkaline boroaluminosilicate system, the CeO_2, Nd_2O_3, Sm_2O_3 and Gd_2O_3 doped K_2O−MgO−B_2O_3−Al_2O_3−SiO_2−F glasses were synthesized by melt-quenching at 1550 °C. Higher density (2.82–3.06 g cm"−"3) and thermal stability (glass phase) is experiential on addition of rare earth content, which also affects in increasing the glass transition temperature (T_g) and crystallization temperature (T_c). Decrease of thermal expansion in glasses with rare earth ion content is maintained by the stabilization of glass matrix owing to their large cationic field strength. A significant change in the non-isothermal DSC thermogram observed at 750–1050 °C is attributed to fluorophlogopite crystallization. Opaque glass-ceramics were prepared from such glasses by single step heat-treatment at 1050 °C; and the predominant crystalline phases are identified as fluorophlogopite mica, KMg_3(AlSi_3O_1_0)F_2 by XRD and EDX analysis. The compact glass-ceramic microstructure by the agglomeration of fluorophlogopite mica crystallites (crystal size ∼ 100–500 nm, FESEM) is achieved in attendance of rare earth ion; and such microstructure controlled the variation of density, thermal expansion and microhardness value. Higher thermal expansion (11.11–14.08 × 10"−"6/K at 50–800 °C and 50–900 °C) of such glass-ceramics approve that these rare earth containing glasses can be useful for high temperature vacuum sealing application with metal or solid electrolyte. The increase of Vickers microhardness (5.27–5.61 GPa) in attendance of rare earth ions is attributed to the compact crystallinity of fluorophlogopite mica glass-ceramic microstructure. - Highlights: • Synthesis of rare earth oxide doped alkaline boroaluminosilicate glasses. • Development of opaque fluorophlogopite mica glass-ceramics by single-step heat treatment. • Nanocrystalline glass-ceramic

  11. Potential of Bioactive Glasses for Cardiac and Pulmonary Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Kargozar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Repair and regeneration of disorders affecting cardiac and pulmonary tissues through tissue-engineering-based approaches is currently of particular interest. On this matter, different families of bioactive glasses (BGs have recently been given much consideration with respect to treating refractory diseases of these tissues, such as myocardial infarction. The inherent properties of BGs, including their ability to bond to hard and soft tissues, to stimulate angiogenesis, and to elicit antimicrobial effects, along with their excellent biocompatibility, support these newly proposed strategies. Moreover, BGs can also act as a bioactive reinforcing phase to finely tune the mechanical properties of polymer-based constructs used to repair the damaged cardiac and pulmonary tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the potential of different forms of BGs, alone or in combination with other materials (e.g., polymers, in regards to repair and regenerate injured tissues of cardiac and pulmonary systems.

  12. Microstructural analysis of clayey ceramic incorporated with fluorescent lamp glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, A.S.C.; Caldas, T.C.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of glass powder fluorescent lamp, from a decontamination process, in the microstructure of clayey ceramic. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts of up to 10 wt.% into the clayey body. Specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and then fired at 850 and 1050°C. After firing, the microstructure of the ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the incorporation of glass powder into the clayey body changes the microstructure of the ceramics. (author)

  13. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  14. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  15. LSA glass-ceramic tiles made by powder pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueira, F.C.; Bertan, F.M.; Riella, H.G.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    A low cost alternative for the production of glass-ceramic materials is the pressing of the matrix glass powders and its consolidation simultaneously with crystallization in a single stage of sintering. The main objective of this work was to obtain LSA glass ceramics with low thermal expansion, processed by pressing and sintering a ceramic frit powder. The raw materials were homogenized and melted (1480 deg C, 80min), and the melt was poured in water. The glass was chemically (XRF and AAS) and thermally (DTA, 10 deg C/min, air) characterized, and then ground (60min and 120min). The ground powders were characterized (laser diffraction) and compressed (35MPa and 45MPa), thus forming four systems. The compacts were dried (150 deg C, 24h) and sintered (1175 deg C and 1185 deg C, 10 deg C/min). Finally, the glass-ceramics were characterized by microstructural analysis (SEM and XRD), mechanical behavior (σbending) and thermal analysis (α). The best results for thermal expansion were those for the glass-ceramics processed with smaller particle size and greater compaction pressure. (author)

  16. LASER-INDUCED BIOACTIVITY IN DENTAL PORCELAIN MODIFIED BY BIOACTIVE GLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANASTASIA BEKETOVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of laser-liquid-solid interaction method in the bioactivity of dental porcelain modified by bioactive glass. Forty sol-gel derived specimens were immersed in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium, 31 and 9 specimens of which were treated with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser respectively. Untreated specimens served as controls. Incubation of specimens followed. Bioactivity was evaluated, using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM/Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. FTIR detected peaks associated with hydroxyapatite on 1 Nd:YAG- and 4 Er:YAG-treated specimens. SEM analysis revealed that Er:YAG-treated specimens were covered by granular hydroxyapatite layer, while Nd:YAG treated specimen presented growth of flake-like hydroxyapatite. TEM confirmed the results. The untreated controls presented delayed bioactivity. In conclusion, Nd:YAG and Er:YAG laser treatment of the material, under certain fluencies, accelerates hydroxyapatite formation. Nd:YAG laser treatment of specific parameters causes the precipitation of flake-like hydroxyapatite in nano-scale.

  17. In vitro bioactivity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass nanoparticles/polycaprolactone composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lijun; Wang, Wenjun; Jin, Duo; Zhou, Songtao; Song, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles of bioactive glass (NBG) with a diameter of 50-90 nm were synthesized using the Stöber method. NBG/PCL composites with different NBG contents (0 wt.%, 10 wt.%, 20 wt.%, 30 wt.% and 40 wt.%) were prepared by a melt blending and thermal injection moulding technique, and characterized with XRD, FTIR, and SEM to study the effect of NBG on the mechanical properties and in vitro bioactivity of the NBG/PCL composites. In spite of the high addition up to 40 wt.%, the NBG could be dispersed homogeneously in the PCL matrix. The elastic modulus of the NBG/PCL composites was improved remarkably from 198±13 MPa to 851±43 MPa, meanwhile the tensile strength was retained in the range of 19-21.5 MPa. The hydrophilic property and degradation behavior of the NBG/PCL composites were also improved with the addition of the NBG. Moreover, the composites with high NBG content showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity after being immersed in simulated body fluid, which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized NBG. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering.

  19. Dynamic fatigue testing of Zerodur glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.

    1988-01-01

    The inherent brittleness of glass invariably leads to a large variability in strength data and a time dependence in strength. Leading rate plays a large role in strength values. Glass is found to be weaker when supporting loads over long periods of time as compared to glass which undergoes rapid leading. These properties complicate the structural design allowables for the utilization of glass components in an application such as Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). The test methodology to obtain parameters which can be used to predict the reliability and life time of Zerodur glass-ceramic which is to be used for the mirrors in the AXAF is described.

  20. Glasses and ceramics for immobilisation of radioactive wastes for disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.D.B.; Marples, J.A.C.

    1979-05-01

    The U.K. Research Programme on Radioactive Waste Management includes the development of processes for the conversion of high level liquid reprocessing wastes from thermal and fast reactors to borosilicate glasses. The properties of these glasses and their behaviour under storage and disposal conditions have been examined. Methods for immobilising activity from other wastes by conversion to glass or ceramic forms is described. The U.K. philosophy of final solutions to waste management and disposal is presented. (author)

  1. Interaction of HEPES buffer with glass-ceramic scaffold: Can HEPES replace TRIS in SBF?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohanová, Dana; Horkavcová, Diana; Paidere, Laine; Boccaccini, Aldo Roberto; Bozděchová, Pavlína; Bezdička, Petr

    2018-01-01

    An international standard (ISO: 23317:2014) exists for the in vitro testing of inorganic biomaterials in simulated body fluid (SBF). This standard uses TRIS buffer to maintain neutral pH in SBF, but in our previous paper, we showed that the interaction of a tested glass-ceramic material with TRIS can produce false-positive results. In this study, we evaluated whether the HEPES buffer, which also belongs to the group of Good´s buffers, would be more suitable for SBF. We compared its suitability in two media: SBF with HEPES and demineralized water with HEPES. The tested scaffold (45S5 bioactive glass-based) was exposed to the media under a static-dynamic arrangement (solutions were replaced on a daily basis) for 15 days. Leachate samples were collected daily for the analysis of Ca 2+ ions and Si (AAS), (PO 4 ) 3- ions (UV-VIS), and to measure pH. The glass-ceramic scaffold was analyzed by SEM/EDS, XRD, and WD-XRF before and after 0.3, 1, 3, 7, 11, and 15 days of exposure. Our results confirmed the rapid selective dissolution of the glass-ceramic crystalline phase (Combeite) containing Ca 2+ ions due to the presence of HEPES, hydroxyapatite supersaturation being reached within 24 h in both solutions. These new results suggest that, like TRIS, HEPES buffer is not suitable for the in vitro testing of highly reactive inorganic biomaterials (glass, glass-ceramics). The ISO standard for such tests requires revision, but HEPES is not a viable alternative to TRIS buffer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 143-152, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Bioactive and Antibacterial Coatings Based on Zein/Bioactive Glass Composites by Electrophoretic Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Meyer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the electrophoretic deposition (EPD of the natural polymer zein combined with bioactive glass (BG particles. Through the deposition of various BG compositions, namely 45S5 BG and Cu-doped BG, this work sought to demonstrate the ability of the films to potentiate the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA in contact with simulated body fluid (SBF. Following incubation in SBF, the physical and chemical surface properties of the EPD films were evaluated using different characterization techniques. The formation of HA at the surface of the coatings following immersion in SBF was confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The results demonstrated HA formation in all coatings after seven days of immersion in SBF. Coating morphology and degradation of the zein films were characterized using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The results confirmed EPD as a very convenient room temperature technique for production of ion releasing, bioactive, and antibacterial coatings for potential application in orthopedics.

  3. An experimental bioactive dental ceramic for metal-ceramic restorations: Textural characteristics and investigation of the mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudouri, Ourania-Menti; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Papadopoulou, Lambrini; Manda, Marianthi; Kavouras, Panagiotis; Triantafyllidis, Konstantinos S; Stefanidou, Maria; Koidis, Petros; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the textural characteristics of an experimental sol-gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic, which has already been proven bioactive and the investigation of its flexural strength through Weibull Statistical Analysis. The null hypothesis was that the flexural strength of the experimental and the commercial dental ceramic would be of the same order, resulting in a dental ceramic with apatite forming ability and adequate mechanical integrity. Although the flexural strength of the experimental ceramics was not statistically significant different compared to the commercial one, the amount of blind pores due to processing was greater. The textural characteristics of the experimental ceramic were in accordance with the standard low porosity levels reported for dental ceramics used for fixed prosthetic restorations. Feldspathic dental ceramics with typical textural characteristics and advanced mechanical properties as well as enhanced apatite forming ability can be synthesized through the sol-gel method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydroxyapatite additive influenced the bioactivity of bioactive nano-titania ceramics and new bone-forming capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhensheng [Third Military Medical University, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging (China); Yang Xiaozhan [Chongqing University of Technology, School of Optoelectronic Information (China); Guo Hongfeng [Third Military Medical University, Tissue Engineering Research Center of Chongqing, Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences (China); Yang Xiaochao; Sun Lili [Third Military Medical University, College of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging (China); Dong Shiwu, E-mail: shiwudong@gmail.com [Third Military Medical University, Tissue Engineering Research Center of Chongqing, Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medical Sciences (China)

    2012-09-15

    Bioceramics plays an important role in bone-substitutes. In this study, titania porous ceramics with excellent bioactivity were prepared using hydroxyapatite (HA, 10 vol.% contents) as a grain growth inhibitor. The pure TiO{sub 2} porous ceramics were also prepared as a control. After sintered at 1,000 Degree-Sign C with a pressureless sintering method, the particle size of the pure TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}/HA (10 vol.%) porous ceramics were 450 and 310 nm, respectively. Each of the porous ceramics presented numerous pores, which were cross-connected. The size of the pores ranged from 100 to 300 {mu}m. There were also profuse micropores inside the pore wall and between the particles. A SBF soaking experiment demonstrated that the HA additive played an important role in promoting apatite formation. The cell proliferation demonstrated that osteoblasts on the TiO{sub 2}/HA (10 vol.%) porous ceramics proliferated faster than that on the pure TiO{sub 2} ceramics. The histological sections and EDX assay results of the two porous ceramics also illustrated that TiO{sub 2}/HA (10 vol.%) composite ceramics combined with Ca and P elements induced much better apatite formation than that of the pure TiO{sub 2} ceramics. These results indicated that titania ceramics combined with HA holds great promise for bone-substitutes.

  5. Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites: mechanical properties and biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Devis; Sola, Antonella; Anesi, Alexandre; Salvatori, Roberta; Chiarini, Luigi; Cannillo, Valeria

    2015-06-01

    Bioactive glass/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue repair and regeneration have been produced and discussed. The use of a recently developed glass, namely BG_Ca/Mix, with its low tendency to crystallize, allowed one to sinter the samples at a relatively low temperature thus avoiding several adverse effects usually reported in the literature, such as extensive crystallization of the glassy phase, hydroxyapatite (HA) decomposition and reaction between HA and glass. The mechanical properties of the composites with 80wt.% BG_Ca/Mix and 20wt.% HA are sensibly higher than those of Bioglass® 45S5 reference samples due to the presence of HA (mechanically stronger than the 45S5 glass) and to the thermal behaviour of the BG_Ca/Mix, which is able to favour the sintering process of the composites. Biocompatibility tests, performed with murine fibroblasts BALB/3T3 and osteocites MLO-Y4 throughout a multi-parametrical approach, allow one to look with optimism to the produced composites, since both the samples themselves and their extracts do not induce negative effects in cell viability and do not cause inhibition in cell growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of calcium hydroxide on mechanical strength and biological properties of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Asma Tufail; Batool, Madeeha; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Iqbal, Farasat; Javaid, Ayesha; Zahid, Saba; Ilyas, Kanwal; Bin Qasim, Saad; Khan, Ather Farooq; Khan, Abdul Samad; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2016-08-01

    In this manuscript for the first time calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used for preparation of bioactive glass (BG-2) by co-precipitation method and compared with glass prepared using calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2·4H2O (BG-1), which is a conventional source of calcium. The new source positively affected physical, biological and mechanical properties of BG-2. The glasses were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA-DSC), BET surface area analysis and Knoop hardness. The results showed that BG-2 possessed relatively larger surface properties (100m(2)g(-1) surface area) as compared to BG-1 (78m(2)g(-1)), spherical morphology and crystalline phases (wollastonite and apatite) after sintering at lower than conventional temperature. These properties contribute critical role in both mechanical and biological properties of glasses. The Knoop hardness measurements revealed that BG-2 possessed much better hardness (0.43±0.06GPa at 680°C and 2.16±0.46GPa at 980°C) than BG-1 (0.24±0.01 at 680°C and 0.57±0.07GPA at 980°C) under same conditions. Alamar blue Assay and confocal microscopy revealed that BG-2 exhibited better attachment and proliferation of MG63 cells. Based on the improved biological properties of BG-2 as a consequent of novel calcium source selection, BG-2 is proposed as a bioactive ceramic for hard tissue repair and regeneration applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fabrication and bioactivity behavior of HA/bioactive glass composites in the presence of calcium hexaboride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.; Beherei, Hanan H. [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, Khaled R., E-mail: kh_rezk1966@yahoo.com [Biomaterials Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Kenawy, Sayed H. [Ceramics Dept., National Research Centre (NRC), Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-06-01

    In the current study, composites were prepared using both the synthesized nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA), bioactive glass (BG) powders (obtained by the traditional melt-quenching route) together with the purchased nano-sized calcium hexaboride (CB) with different ratios and were fired at 1250 °C. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques and compressive strength. The mechanical testing was to designate the role of the CB in improving the mechanical property of the prepared composites. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °°C for 10 days. The effect of different ratios of the three components (CB, HA & BG) on the bioactivity properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing such property to perform in vitro imitations of in vivo conditions in the future. It can be pointed out that the Si-HA content in the composition showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity than pure hydroxyapatite which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized composites. - Highlights: • The prepared of nano-composites containing CB, HA and BG powders were achieved. • The addition of CB powder enhanced the compressive strength for all the composites. • The composites containing high BG and CB contents improved formation of bone-like apatite layer.

  8. Fabrication and bioactivity behavior of HA/bioactive glass composites in the presence of calcium hexaboride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bassyouni, Gehan T.; Beherei, Hanan H.; Mohamed, Khaled R.; Kenawy, Sayed H.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, composites were prepared using both the synthesized nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA), bioactive glass (BG) powders (obtained by the traditional melt-quenching route) together with the purchased nano-sized calcium hexaboride (CB) with different ratios and were fired at 1250 °C. The structure and composition of the solid reaction products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy; scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques and compressive strength. The mechanical testing was to designate the role of the CB in improving the mechanical property of the prepared composites. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared composites was assessed by soaking in the simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 ± 0.5 °°C for 10 days. The effect of different ratios of the three components (CB, HA & BG) on the bioactivity properties was assessed to explore the possibility of enhancing such property to perform in vitro imitations of in vivo conditions in the future. It can be pointed out that the Si-HA content in the composition showed outstanding in vitro bioactivity than pure hydroxyapatite which could be attributed to the excellent bioactivity of the synthesized composites. - Highlights: • The prepared of nano-composites containing CB, HA and BG powders were achieved. • The addition of CB powder enhanced the compressive strength for all the composites. • The composites containing high BG and CB contents improved formation of bone-like apatite layer.

  9. The influence of precursor addition order on the porosity of sol-gel bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delihta; Colon, Pierre; Cresswell, Mark; Journet, Catherine; Pradelle-Plasse, Nelly; Jackson, Phil; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Attik, Nina

    2018-06-16

    The superior textural properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses compared to conventional melt quench glasses accounts for their accelerated bioactivity in vitro. Several studies have explored ways to improve the surface properties of sol-gel glasses in order to maximise their efficiency for bone and tooth regeneration. In this study, we investigated the effect of order of network modifying precursor addition on the textural properties of sol-gel derived bioactive glasses. The effect of precursor addition order on the glass characteristics was assessed by switching the order of network modifying precursor (calcium acetate monohydrate and sodium acetate anhydrous) addition for a fixed composition of bioactive glass (75SiO 2 :5CaO:10Na 2 O:10P 2 O 5 ). The results of this study showed that the order of precursor addition does influence the porosity of these glasses. For the glasses of a fixed composition and preparation conditions we achieved a doubling of surface area, a 1.5 times increase in pore volume and a 1.2 times decrease in pore size just by the mixing the network modifying precursors and adding them together in the sol-gel preparation. This simple and straightforward route adaptation to the preparation of bioactive glasses would allow us to enhance the textural properties of existing and novel composition of bioactive glasses and thus accelerate their bioactivity. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O glasses and superconducting glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.; Zacharias, E.

    1991-01-01

    Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O glasses and glass ceramics of various compositions were synthesised. The glass transition temperature varies from 396 to 422degC depending on the glass composition. The bulk glass ceramics of 4334, 4336, 2223 and 4246 compositions show superconductivity when the corresponding glass samples were heat-treated in air at 820degC for 3, 9, 12 and 24 h respectively. X-ray diffraction studies show that the superconducting phase present in all these compositions is Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x . The 4334 glass ceramic is almost a single-phase material with a preferred orientation such that the c axis is normal to the sample surface. The 2223 glass ceramic has a higher T c (onset) than the other three compositions indicating the presence of high T c phase (110 K) also. ESR studies on the glass samples indicate the existence of Cu 2+ . The effect of heat treatment on ESR shows that the intensity of resonance decreases with increase in heat-treatment duration. This effect is more pronounced for the 4334 and 2223 compositions. The advantages of synthesizing superconducting materials by glass route are discussed in view of practical applications. (author). 9 refs., 6 figs

  11. Internal Friction in L.A.S. Type Glass and Glass-Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Arnault , L.; RiviÈre , A.

    1996-01-01

    Internal friction measurements have been performed on glass and glass-ceramics of the Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2 type by isothermal mechanical spectroscopy. Experiments were carried out over a large frequency range (10-4Hz - 31.6 Hz) for various temperatures between 260K and 850K. For the glass, a relaxation peak is observed at low temperature (276K for 1Hz). This peak does not appear in the glass-ceramics ; however, for each of them, two other peaks were observed : the first one at about 343K (1Hz) and...

  12. Elastic modulus measurements of LDEF glasses and glass-ceramics using a speckle technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedlocher, D.E.; Kinser, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Elastic moduli of five glass types and the glass-ceramic Zerodur, exposed to a near-earth orbit environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), were compared to that of unexposed samples. A double exposure speckle photography technique utilizing 633 nm laser light was used in the production of the speckle pattern. Subsequent illumination of a double exposed negative using the same wavelength radiation produces Young's fringes from which the in-plane displacements are measured. Stresses imposed by compressive loading produced measurable strains in the glasses and glass-ceramic

  13. Crack tip fracture toughness of base glasses for dental restoration glass-ceramics using crack opening displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubener, J; Höland, M; Höland, W; Janakiraman, N; Rheinberger, V M

    2011-10-01

    The critical stress intensity factor, also known as the crack tip toughness K(tip), was determined for three base glasses, which are used in the manufacture of glass-ceramics. The glasses included the base glass for a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, the base glass for a fluoroapatite glass-ceramic and the base glass for a leucite glass-ceramic. These glass-ceramic are extensively used in the form of biomaterials in restorative dental medicine. The crack tip toughness was established by using crack opening displacement profiles under experimental conditions. The crack was produced by Vickers indentation. The crack tip toughness parameters determined for the three glass-ceramics differed quite significantly. The crack tip parameters of the lithium disilicate base glass and the leucite base glass were higher than that of the fluoroapatite base glass. This last material showed glass-in-glass phase separation. The discussion of the results clearly shows that the droplet glass phase is softer than the glass matrix. Therefore, the authors conclude that a direct relationship exists between the chemical nature of the glasses and the crack tip parameter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis, characterization of CaF2 doped silicate glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Madeeha; Zia, Rehana; Mirza, Ambreen; Hussain, Tousif; Bashir, Farooq; Anjum, Safia

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of silicate glass-ceramics doped with (0-12mol%) CaF 2 . TGA-DSC analysis was carried out to determine the crystallization temperature and stability of glass measured by two glass parameters; Hruby parameter K H =(T x -T g )/(T L -T x ) and Weinberg parameter K W =(T c -T g )/T L . It was found that with CaF 2 doping improved sinterability at low temperature and provided stability to the glass. The XRD pattern exhibits a single phase of combeite and doping of CaF 2 cause increase in crystallite size. Microstructure of samples was also improved with CaF 2 addition, pores were significantly reduced. After 15days immersion in simulated body fluid all samples developed apatite layer onto its surface. Hence, the addition of CaF 2 provided bioactive glass-ceramic material having a low processing temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Resorbable bioactive ceramic for treatment of bone infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Jahed, Kiarash; Govindaswami, Meera

    2010-07-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads have been widely used in the treatment of bone infection over the last three decades. Although PMMA does offer a mechanism to quickly and effectively administer a localized dose of antibiotic to the site of infection, its efficacy is limited by its nonresorbability and nonbioactivity. Resorbable bioactive silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC75) was investigated as a novel controlled release carrier of vancomycin for the treatment of osteomyelitis. SCPC75 particles adsorbed significantly higher amount of vancomycin compared with PMMA. Moreover, SCPC75 provided a sustained release kinetics of therapeutic dose of vancomycin up to 35 days. The novel resorbable ceramic was able to release 95.5% of the adsorbed drug in an average dose of 12 microg/mL/day over 480 h (35 days). In conjunction with the sustained drug release, a controlled dissolution rate that led to 40% mass loss of SCPC75 was observed. On the other hand, PMMA provided a sustained release of a therapeutic dose of vancomycin for 14 days after which minimal concentration of the drug was detected. Moreover, PMMA retained 32% of the drug adsorbed onto its surface. The SCPC-vancomycin implant can serve a dual function: provide a sustained therapeutic dose of antibiotic to eradicate infection and stimulate bone cell differentiation and new bone formation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 2010.

  16. Predicting bioactive glass properties from the molecular chemical composition: glass transition temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Matthew D

    2011-05-01

    The glass transition temperature (T(g)) of inorganic glasses is an important parameter than can be used to correlate with other glass properties, such as dissolution rate, which governs in vitro and in vivo bioactivity. Seven bioactive glass compositional series reported in the literature (77 in total) were analysed here with T(g) values obtained by a number of different methods: differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dilatometry. An iterative least-squares fitting method was used to correlate T(g) from thermal analysis of these compositions with the levels of individual oxide and fluoride components in the glasses. When all seven series were fitted a reasonable correlation was found between calculated and experimental values (R(2)=0.89). When the two compositional series that were designed in weight percentages (the remaining five were designed in molar percentage) were removed from the model an improved fit was achieved (R(2)=0.97). This study shows that T(g) for a wide range in compositions (e.g. SiO(2) content of 37.3-68.4 mol.%) can be predicted to reasonable accuracy enabling processing parameters to be predicted such as annealing, fibre-drawing and sintering temperatures. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Glass-ceramic material and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Pasco, WA; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2002-08-13

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining at least two solid ceramic parts. The seal is a blend of M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M.sub.A O--M.sub.B O.sub.y --SiO.sub.2 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar ceramic solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  18. Immobilization of transuranic sludge in glass-ceramic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.M.; Schuman, R.P.; Flinn, J.E.

    1982-03-01

    Studies were performed to determine the effectiveness of glass-ceramic waste forms, particularly iron-enriched basalt, for immobilizing transuranic waste sludges from the Rocky Flats plant operations. Two sludges were used in the study - one was nonradioactive and the other contained approx. 2200 dps/mg of 241 Am. The glass-ceramic waste forms were produced from laboratory-scale melting operations with subsequent controlled cooling. The waste forms were examined to assess the microstructures which resulted from systematically varied compositions and controlled cooling sequences. Leach tests in deionized water were performed on small monolithic specimens of the various glass-ceramic materials. The test results showed a rather strong temperature dependence for leach rates. Also, for some of these materials, marked differences in the 241 Am leaching behavior were seen in measurements obtained on acidified versus neutral aliquots of the spent leachates. 8 figures, 12 tables

  19. Polyphase ceramic and glass-ceramic forms for immobilizing ICPP high-level nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harker, A.B.; Flintoff, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    Polyphase ceramic and glass-ceramic forms have been consolidated from simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant wastes by hot isostatic pressing calcined waste and chemical additives by 1000 0 C or less. The ceramic forms can contain over 70 wt% waste with densities ranging from 3.5 to 3.85 g/cm 3 , depending upon the formulation. Major phases are CaF 2 , CaZrTi 207 , CaTiO 3 , monoclinic ZrO 2 , and amorphous intergranular material. The relative fraction of the phases is a function of the chemical additives (TiO 2 , CaO, and SiO 2 ) and consolidation temperature. Zirconolite, the major actinide host, makes the ceramic forms extremely leach resistant for the actinide simulant U 238 . The amorphous phase controls the leach performance for Sr and Cs which is improved by the addition of SiO 2 . Glass-ceramic forms were also consolidated by HIP at waste loadings of 30 to 70 wt% with densities of 2.73 to 3.1 g/cm 3 using Exxon 127 borosilicate glass frit. The glass-ceramic forms contain crystalline CaF 2 , Al 203 , and ZrSi 04 (zircon) in a glass matrix. Natural mineral zircon is a stable host for 4+ valent actinides. 17 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  20. Synchrotron X-ray Absorption and In Vitro Bioactivity of Magnetic Macro/Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanida Charoensuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides in macro/mesoporous bioactive glasses were characterized by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectroscopy. This magnetic phase was introduced by adding Fe(NO33 9H2O during the sol-gel synthesis. The obtained bioactive glass scaffolds exhibited superparamagnetism, in which the magnetization was increased with the increase in the Fe molar ratio from 10 to 20%. The linear combination fits of the XANES spectra indicated that the increase in the Fe molar ratio to 20% enhanced the γ-Fe2O3 formation at the expense of the α- Fe2O3 phase. This variation also promoted the formation of fine-grained bone-like apatites on the surface of the scaffolds in the in vitro test. The apatite growth between three and seven days was confirmed by the changing elemental compositions. However, the highest magnetic proportion led to the distortion of the skeleton walls and the collapse of the porous networks.

  1. Development of a novel technique for maxillofacial reconstruction using custom-made bioactive ceramic implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbakin, D. E.; Choinzonov, E. L.; Kulkov, S. N.; Buyakova, S. P.; Chernov, V. I.; Mukhamedov, M. R.; Buyakov, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been a trend towards the search for new, safe and effective methods of reconstruction of maxillofacial defects after tumor excision. Among various materials used for bone defect reconstruction, ceramics has attached a great deal of attention. The purpose of our study was to develop a technique for personified approach to the reconstruction of maxillofacial bone defects with bioactive ceramic implants. In our study we used the technique of virtual implant planning for maxillofacial reconstruction using preoperative CT data of the patient's facial skeleton. Bioactive ceramic implant materials meet all the requirements for medical materials used in reconstructive surgery. The technique described in this paper to customize prefabricated bioactive ceramic implants enables surgeons to perform reconstruction of large postoperative defects in the maxillofacial region, thereby making custom implants suitable for any patient. The use of this technique decreases surgical time, reduces time needed for postoperative recovery, lowers overall patient morbidity and optimizes aesthetic and functional results.

  2. Evaluation of the reuse of glass and ceramic blocks in the development of a ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.A.; Silva, L.A.; Martins, B.E.D.B.S.; Felippe, C.E.C.; Almeida, V.C.

    2010-01-01

    The ceramic industry has enormous potential to absorb wastes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing leftovers ceramic blocks, from construction and, with shards of glass in the development of a ceramic product. The ceramic pieces were prepared with different compositions of glass by the method of pressing conformation and heating at 1000 and 1100 deg C. The conformed pieces were tested for linear shrinkage, water absorption, porosity, and tensile strength. The techniques for characterization were X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, the results show that the ceramic material produced has a high flexural strength and low values of water absorption. (author)

  3. Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Functionalized 3D Ti-6Al-4V Scaffolds with Improved Surface Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaotong; Leeflang, Sander; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Zhou, Jie; Huan, Zhiguang

    2017-10-27

    Porous Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by means of selective laser melting (SLM), having controllable geometrical features and preferable mechanical properties, have been developed as a class of biomaterials that hold promising potential for bone repair. However, the inherent bio-inertness of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy as the matrix of the scaffolds results in a lack in the ability to stimulate bone ingrowth and regeneration. The aim of the present study was to develop a bioactive coating on the struts of SLM Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds in order to add the desired surface osteogenesis ability. Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) coating was applied on the strut surfaces of the SLM Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds through spin coating, followed by a heat treatment. It was found that the coating could maintain the characteristic mesoporous structure and chemical composition of MBG, and establish good interfacial adhesion to the Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The compressive strength and pore interconnectivity of the scaffolds were not affected by the coating. Moreover, the results obtained from in vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated that the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) on the MBG-coated Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds were improved as compared with those on the conventional bioactive glass (BG)-coated Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds and bare-metal Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds. Our results demonstrated that the MBG coating by using the spinning coating method could be an effective approach to achieving enhanced surface biofunctionalization for SLM Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds.

  4. Mesoporous Bioactive Glass Functionalized 3D Ti-6Al-4V Scaffolds with Improved Surface Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotong Ye

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Porous Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds fabricated by means of selective laser melting (SLM, having controllable geometrical features and preferable mechanical properties, have been developed as a class of biomaterials that hold promising potential for bone repair. However, the inherent bio-inertness of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy as the matrix of the scaffolds results in a lack in the ability to stimulate bone ingrowth and regeneration. The aim of the present study was to develop a bioactive coating on the struts of SLM Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds in order to add the desired surface osteogenesis ability. Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs coating was applied on the strut surfaces of the SLM Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds through spin coating, followed by a heat treatment. It was found that the coating could maintain the characteristic mesoporous structure and chemical composition of MBG, and establish good interfacial adhesion to the Ti-6Al-4V substrate. The compressive strength and pore interconnectivity of the scaffolds were not affected by the coating. Moreover, the results obtained from in vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated that the attachment, proliferation, and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs on the MBG-coated Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds were improved as compared with those on the conventional bioactive glass (BG-coated Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds and bare-metal Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds. Our results demonstrated that the MBG coating by using the spinning coating method could be an effective approach to achieving enhanced surface biofunctionalization for SLM Ti-6Al-4V scaffolds.

  5. Zirconia toughened mica glass ceramics for dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gali, Sivaranjani; K, Ravikumar; Murthy, B V S; Basu, Bikramjit

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to understand the role of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) in achieving the desired spectrum of clinically relevant mechanical properties (hardness, elastic modulus, fracture toughness and brittleness index) and chemical solubility of mica glass ceramics. The glass-zirconia mixtures with varying amounts of YSZ (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20wt.%) were ball milled, compacted and sintered to obtain pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites. Phase analysis was carried out using X-ray diffraction and microstructural characterization with SEM revealed the crystal morphology of the composites. Mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, indentation fracture toughness and chemical solubility were assessed. Phase analysis of sintered pellets of glass ceramic-YSZ composites revealed the characteristic peaks of fluorophlogopite (FPP) and tetragonal zirconia. Microstructural investigation showed plate and lath-like interlocking mica crystals with embedded zirconia. Vickers hardness of 9.2GPa, elastic modulus of 125GPa, indentation toughness of 3.6MPa·m 1/2 , and chemical solubility of 30μg/cm 2 (well below the permissible limit) were recorded with mica glass ceramics containing 20wt.% YSZ. An increase in hardness and toughness of the glass ceramic-YSZ composites with no compromise on their brittleness index and chemical solubility has been observed. Such spectrum of properties can be utilised for developing a machinable ceramic for low stress bearing inlays, onlays and veneers. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbon glass-ceramics and their radiation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgil'ev, Yu. S.

    1995-01-01

    Structural carbon materials (SCMs) hold great promise for use in numerous plasma-facing components of fusion reactors. One possible candidate for this use is carbon glass-ceramic. Therefore, it is not surprising that there is considerable interest in studying its properties and their variations upon exposure to different radiations, such as neutrons, high-energy electrons, and light ions (H + , D + , and He + ). Here, the authors summarize data accumulated to date on the structure and properties of commercial carbon glass-ceramics and their behavior under irradiation with neutrons, electrons, and some ions

  7. Development of abrasion resistant glass-ceramics from industrial waste products. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Roode, M.

    1983-05-26

    Slag-ceramics were produced from glass compositions using pelletized slag as the major ingredient. The abrasion resistance, fracture toughness and microstructure of the prepared glass and glass-ceramics were evaluated. Glas-ceramics with good abrasion resistance were obtained when iron oxide in conjunction with carbon was used as a nucleating agent. 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. In vitro bioactivity and cytotoxicity of chemically treated glass fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Leão Andrade

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of a commercial glass fiber FM® (Fiber Max were used to test the efficacy of a chemical sol-gel surface treatment to enhance their bioactivity. After treatment with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, individual fiber samples were soaked into a simulated body fluid (SBF solution, from which they were removed at intervals of 5 and 10 days. Micrographs obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis of samples chemically treated with TEOS revealed the formation of a hydroxyapatite (HA coating layer after 5 days into SBF solution. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR analyses confirmed that the coating layer has P-O vibration bands characteristic of HA. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated using a direct contact test, minimum essential medium elution test (ISO 10993-5 and MTT assay. Fibers immersed in SBF and their extracts exhibited lower cytotoxicity than the controls not subjected to immersion, suggesting that SBF treatment improves the biocompatibility of the fiber.

  9. Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Dental Pulp and Dentin Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawli, Hassan Talat

    Current and historical endodontic "root canal" treatments employ inert obturating materials inserted into the teeth's pulp chambers and root canals, often saving teeth but without adequate function. Furthermore, the occurrence of pulpal necrosis in the immature permanent tooth is considered to be a challenging situation, clinically, in treatment because the thin and often short roots increase the risk of fracture. The ideal treatment would be to promote continued root development. This work demonstrated that endodontically-shaped and durable scaffolds of slowly resorbable fibrous (HT) glass and faster-resorbing small-particle Bioglass can be sintered at 900 degrees C for such placement, and that cell growth of osteoblasts in these scaffolds shows good early results. Retained bioactivity in the sintered specimen was revealed by Multiple Attenuated Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy.

  10. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticles scaffolds with shape memory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cristina O; Leite, Álvaro J; Mano, João F

    2015-06-05

    We propose a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce CHT/BG-NPs scaffolds that combine the shape memory properties of chitosan and the biomineralization ability of BG-NPs for applications in bone regeneration. The addition of BG-NPs prepared by a sol-gel route to the CHT polymeric matrix improved the bioactivity of the nanocomposite scaffold, as seen by the precipitation of bone-like apatite layer upon immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Shape memory tests were carried out while the samples were immersed in varying compositions of water/ethanol mixtures. Dehydration with ethanol enables to fix a temporary shape of a deformed scaffold that recovers the initial geometry upon water uptake. The scaffolds present good shape memory properties characterized by a recovery ratio of 87.5% for CHT and 89.9% for CHT/BG-NPs and a fixity ratio of 97.2% for CHT and 98.2% for CHT/BG-NPs (for 30% compressive deformation). The applicability of such structures was demonstrated by a good geometrical accommodation of a previously compressed scaffold in a bone defect. The results indicate that the developed CHT/BG-NPs nanocomposite scaffolds have potential for being applied in bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Facing slag glass and slag glass ceramic produced from thermal power plant ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buruchenko, A.E.; Kolesnikov, A.A.; Lukoyanov, A.G.

    1990-10-01

    Evaluates properties of fly ash and slags from the Krasnoyarsk coal-fired power plants and their utilization for glass and ceramic glass production. Composition of a mixture of fly ash and slag was: silica 40-55%, aluminium oxides 10-40%, ferric trioxide 6-14%, calcium oxides 20-35%, magnesium oxides 3-6%, potassium oxides 0.3-1.5%, sodium oxides 0.2-05%, sulfur trioxide 0.9-5.0%. The analyzed fly ash and slags from the Krasnoyarsk plant were an economic waste material for glass production. Properties of sand, clay and other materials used in glass production and properties of glass and ceramic glass produced on the basis of fly ash and slags are analyzed. Economic aspects of fly ash and slag utilization are also evaluated. 3 refs.

  12. [Quantitative determination of glass content in monazite glass-ceramics by IR technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Zhang, Bao-min

    2003-04-01

    Monazite glass-ceramics consist of both monazite and metaphoshate glass phases. The absorption bands of both phases do not overlap each other, and the absorption intensities of bands 1,275 and 616 cm-1 vary with the glass contents. The correlation coefficient between logarithmic absorbance ratio of the two bands and glass contents was r = 0.9975 and its regression equation was y = 48.356 + 25.93x. The absorbance ratio of bands 952 and 616 cm-1 also varied with different ratios of Ce2O3/La2O3 in synthetic monazites, with r = 0.9917 and a regression equation y = 0.2211 exp (0.0221x). High correlation coefficients show that the IR technique could find new application in the quantitative analysis of glass content in phosphate glass-ceramics.

  13. Enhanced Luminescent Properties in Tm3+/Dy3+ Co-doped Transparent Phosphate Glass Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Yao L. Q.; Chen G. H.; Zhong H. J.; Cui S. C.; Li F.; Gan J.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Novel Tm3+/Dy3+ co-doped phosphate glass and glass ceramic samples for white light emitting diodes were prepared by melt quenching method. Under 353 nm excitation, the colors of the luminescence of the glass and glass ceramic samples are white. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (0.338, 0.328) of the emission from the glass ceramic is close to the standard white-light illumination (0.333, 0.333). Compared to the glass, the fluorescence intensity in the glass ceramic is greatly enhanced.

  14. Thermal expansion at low temperatures of glass-ceramics and glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G K [National Measurement Lab., Sydney (Australia)

    1976-08-01

    The linear thermal expansion coefficient, ..cap alpha.., has been measured from 2 to 32 K and from 55 to 90 K for a machineable glass-ceramic, an 'ultra-low expansion' titanium silicate glass (Corning ULE), and ceramic glasses (Cer-Vit and Zerodur), and for glassy carbon. ..cap alpha.. is negative for the ultra-low expansion materials below 100 K, as for pure vitreous silica. Comparative data are reported for ..cap alpha..-quartz , ..cap alpha..-cristobalite, common opal, and vitreous silica.

  15. Through the looking glass; bioactive glass S53P4 (BonAlive®) in the treatment of chronic osteomyelitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McAndrew, J

    2013-09-01

    In terms of eradication, osteomyelitis represents one of the most challenging infective conditions in medicine and surgery. In recent years, the use of bioactive glass in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy has emerged as a viable new treatment.

  16. Thermal properties and crystallization of lithium–mica glass and glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nia, A. Faeghi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Two groups of Li–mica glass-ceramics, have been compared. • By controlling the glass composition, crystalline lepidolite was obtained. • The T p of Li–mica was through the previous virgilite and eucryptite phase. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was the synthesis of two groups of Li–mica glass-ceramics denoted by lepidolite (Al 2.5 F 2 KLi 1.5 O 10 Si 3 ) and Li-phlogopite (LiMg 3 AlSi 3 O 10 F 2 ). The studied system was SiO 2 –Al 2 O 3 –MgO–K 2 O–Li 2 O. A total of 3 compositions were prepared. Bulk casted glasses and sintered glass-ceramics of Li-phlogopite and lepidolite systems, were prepared. Eucryptite and virgilite were two prior phases of lepidolite and Li-phlogopite crystallization. It was shown that the obtained glass-ceramics have lower TEC than corresponding glasses. Sinterability of lepidolite glass-ceramic was shown that improved by increasing the Al 2 O 3 content in glass composition. TEC and microhardness values were α = 6.08 × 10 −6 /°C, 755 ± 11.1, α = 7.86 × 10 −6 /°C, 739 ± 7.4 and α = 5.05 × 10 −6 /°C, 658 ± 6.2 HV for Li-lep, Klep1 and Klep2 glasses, respectively

  17. Optical and spectroscopic properties of Eu-doped tellurite glasses and glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambouli, W.; Elhouichet, H.; Gelloz, B.; Férid, M.

    2013-01-01

    Tellurite glasses doped with trivalent europium were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique, in the chemical composition of (85−x) TeO 2 +5La 2 O 3 +10TiO 2 +xEu 2 O 3 by varying the concentration of the rare-earth ion in the order 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mol%. Using Judd–Ofelt analysis, we calculated intensity parameters (Ω 2 and Ω 4 ), spontaneous emission probabilities, the radiative lifetime, luminescence branching factors, the quantum yield of luminescence, and the stimulated emission cross-sections for 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 transition. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu 3+ ion concentration have been discussed and compared with other glasses. The luminescence intensity ratio, quantum efficiency and emission cross-section values support that the TeEu1.5 tellurite glass is a suitable candidate for red laser source applications. Optical properties for Eu 3+ doped tellurite glass, heated for different temperature, were investigated. Crystalline phases for α-TeO 2 , γ-TeO 2 and TiTe 3 O 8 system were determined by the XRD method. The effect of heat treatment on luminescence properties in the tellurite glass was discussed. By using Eu 3+ as a probe, the local structure of rare-earth ion in tellurite glass, vitro-ceramic and ceramic glass has been investigated. The evaluated J–O intensity parameters have been used to calculate different radiative and laser characteristic parameters of the 5 D 0 excited level. The large magnitudes of stimulated emission cross-section (σ e ), branching ratio (β) and Gain bandwidth (σ e ×Δλ eff ) obtained for 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 (613 nm) transition for ceramic glass indicate that the present glass ceramic is promising host material for Eu 3+ doped fiber amplifiers. The measured lifetime of 5 D 0 excited state increases with increase of the heat treatment which further indicate that some Eu 3+ ions were successfully embedded in the crystal phase and prove the low phonon energy environment of Eu 3+ ions

  18. Bactericidal effects of bioactive glasses on clinically important aerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munukka, Eveliina; Leppäranta, Outi; Korkeamäki, Mika; Vaahtio, Minna; Peltola, Timo; Zhang, Di; Hupa, Leena; Ylänen, Heimo; Salonen, Jukka I; Viljanen, Matti K; Eerola, Erkki

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BAGs) have been studied for decades for clinical use, and they have found many dental and orthopedic applications. BAGs have also been shown to have an antibacterial effect e.g., on some oral microorganisms. In this extensive work we show that six powdered BAGs and two sol-gel derived materials have a clear antibacterial effect on 29 clinically important bacterial species. We also incorporated a rapid and accurate flow cytometric (FCM) method to calculate and standardize the numbers of viable bacteria inoculated in the suspensions used in the tests for antibacterial activity. In all materials tested growth inhibition could be demonstrated, although the concentration and time needed for the effect varied depending on the BAG. The most effective glass was S53P4, which had a clear growth-inhibitory effect on all pathogens tested. The sol-gel derived materials CaPSiO and CaPSiO II also showed a strong antibacterial effect. In summary, BAGs were found to clearly inhibit the growth of a wide selection of bacterial species causing e.g., infections on the surfaces of prostheses in the body after implantation.

  19. Cementation of Glass-Ceramic Posterior Restorations: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Breemer, Carline R. G.; Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Cune, Marco S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this comprehensive review is to systematically organize the current knowledge regarding the cementation of glass-ceramic materials and restorations, with an additional focus on the benefits of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS). Materials and Methods. An extensive literature search concerning the cementation of single-unit glass-ceramic posterior restorations was conducted in the databases of MEDLINE (Pubmed), CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), and EMBASE. To be considered for inclusion, in vitro and in vivo studies should compare different cementation regimes involving a “glass-ceramic/cement/human tooth” complex. Results and Conclusions. 88 studies were included in total. The in vitro data were organized according to the following topics: (micro)shear and (micro)tensile bond strength, fracture strength, and marginal gap and integrity. For in vivo studies survival and quality of survival were considered. In vitro studies showed that adhesive systems (3-step, etch-and-rinse) result in the best (micro)shear bond strength values compared to self-adhesive and self-etch systems when luting glass-ceramic substrates to human dentin. The highest fracture strength is obtained with adhesive cements in particular. No marked clinical preference for one specific procedure could be demonstrated on the basis of the reviewed literature. The possible merits of IDS are most convincingly illustrated by the favorable microtensile bond strengths. No clinical studies regarding IDS were found. PMID:26557651

  20. Cementation of Glass-Ceramic Posterior Restorations : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Breemer, Carline R. G.; Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Cune, Marco S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this comprehensive review is to systematically organize the current knowledge regarding the cementation of glass-ceramic materials and restorations, with an additional focus on the benefits of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS). Materials and Methods. An extensive literature search

  1. Properties and Clinical Application of Three Types of Dental Glass-Ceramics and Ceramics for CAD-CAM Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzberger, Christian; Apel, Elke; Höland, Wolfram; Peschke, Arnd; Rheinberger, Volker M.

    2010-01-01

    The main properties (mechanical, thermal and chemical) and clinical application for dental restoration are demonstrated for three types of glass-ceramics and sintered polycrystalline ceramic produced by Ivoclar Vivadent AG. Two types of glass-ceramics are derived from the leucite-type and the lithium disilicate-type. The third type of dental materials represents a ZrO2 ceramic. CAD/CAM technology is a procedure to manufacture dental ceramic restoration. Leucite-type glass-ceramics demonstrate high translucency, preferable optical/mechanical properties and an application as dental inlays, onlays and crowns. Based on an improvement of the mechanical parameters, specially the strength and toughness, the lithium disilicate glass-ceramics are used as crowns; applying a procedure to machine an intermediate product and producing the final glass-ceramic by an additional heat treatment. Small dental bridges of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic were fabricated using a molding technology. ZrO2 ceramics show high toughness and strength and were veneered with fluoroapatite glass-ceramic. Machining is possible with a porous intermediate product.

  2. The influence of glass composition on crystalline phase stability in glass-ceramic wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddrell, Ewan; Thornber, Stephanie; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Crystalline phase formation shown to depend on glass matrix composition. • Zirconolite forms as the sole crystalline phase only for most aluminous glasses. • Thermodynamics indicate that low silica activity glasses stabilise zirconolite. - Abstract: Zirconolite glass-ceramic wasteforms were prepared using a suite of Na 2 O–Al 2 O 3 –B 2 O 3 –SiO 2 glass matrices with variable Al:B ratios. Zirconolite was the dominant crystalline phase only for the most alumina rich glass compositions. As the Al:B ratio decreased zirconolite was replaced by sphene, zircon and rutile. Thermodynamic data were used to calculate a silica activity in the glass melt below which zirconolite is the favoured crystalline phase. The concept of the crystalline reference state of glass melts is then utilised to provide a physical basis for why silica activity varies with the Al:B ratio

  3. Accelerated bone ingrowth by local delivery of Zinc from bioactive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-19

    Oct 19, 2015 ... Aims: This study aims to evaluate in vivo the performance therapy of zinc-doped bioactive glass (BG-Zn) and ... Keywords: zinc metallic ion; bioactive glass; osteoporosis; trabecular bone architecture; mechanical property; oxidative stress ..... Ducheyne P, Qiu Q. Bioactive ceramics: the effect of surface.

  4. Glass binder development for a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Brian J.; Vienna, John D.; Frank, Steven M.; Kroll, Jared O.; Peterson, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses work to develop Na_2O-B_2O_3-SiO_2 glass binders for immobilizing LiCl-KCl eutectic salt waste in a glass-bonded sodalite waste form following electrochemical reprocessing of used metallic nuclear fuel. In this paper, five new glasses with ~20 mass% Na_2O were designed to generate waste forms with high sodalite. The glasses were then used to produce ceramic waste forms with a surrogate salt waste. The waste forms made using these new glasses were formulated to generate more sodalite than those made with previous baseline glasses for this type of waste. The coefficients of thermal expansion for the glass phase in the glass-bonded sodalite waste forms made with the new binder glasses were closer to the sodalite phase in the critical temperature region near and below the glass transition temperature than previous binder glasses used. Finally, these improvements should result in lower probability of cracking in the full-scale monolithic ceramic waste form, leading to better long-term chemical durability.

  5. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, Imran; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO 2 –P 2 O 5 –CaO–CaF 2 –Na 2 O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na 2 O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na 2 O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization. (paper)

  6. Influence of sodium content on the properties of bioactive glasses for use in air abrasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Imran; Tylkowski, Maxi; Müller, Steffen; Janicki, Tomasz; Brauer, Delia S; Hill, Robert G

    2013-12-01

    Air abrasion is used in minimally invasive dentistry for preparing cavities, while removing no or little sound dentine or enamel, and the use of bioactive glass (rather than alumina) as an abrasive could aid in tooth remineralization. Melt-derived bioactive glasses (SiO2-P2O5-CaO-CaF2-Na2O) with low sodium content (0 to 10 mol% Na2O in exchange for CaO) for increased hardness, high phosphate content for high bioactivity and fluoride content for release of fluoride and formation of fluorapatite were produced, and particles between 38 and 80 µm in size were used for cutting soda-lime silicate glass microscope slides and human enamel. Vickers hardness increased with decreasing Na2O content, owing to a more compact silicate network in low sodium content glasses, resulting in shorter cutting times. Cutting times using bioactive glass were significantly longer than using the alumina control (29 µm) when tested on microscope slides; however, glasses showed more comparable results when cutting human enamel. The bioactive glasses formed apatite in Tris buffer within 6 h, which was significantly faster than Bioglass® 45S5 (24 h), suggesting that the hardness of the glasses makes them suitable for air abrasion application, while their high bioactivity and fluoride content make them of interest for tooth remineralization.

  7. Using machine learning for improving knowledge on antibacterial effect of bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echezarreta-López, M M; Landin, M

    2013-09-10

    The aim of this work was to find relationships between critical bioactive glass characteristics and their antibacterial behaviour using an artificial intelligence tool. A large dataset including ingredients and process variables of the bioactive glasses production, bacterial characteristics and microbiological experimental conditions was generated from literature and analyzed by neurofuzzy logic technology. Our findings allow an explanation on the variability in antibacterial behaviour found by different authors and to obtain general conclusions about critical parameters of bioactive glasses to be considered in order to achieve activity against some of the most common skin and implant surgery pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-term behavior of glass-ceramic zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Ch.

    2003-01-01

    This work is a part of the investigation of new containment matrices considered for specific conditioning of radionuclides after separation. The aim was to demonstrate the long-term aqueous corrosion resistance of the glass-ceramic zirconolite considered for the conditioning of plutonium and the minor actinides. This material is composed of crystals of zirconolite (CaZrTi 2 O 7 ) dispersed in a residual vitreous phase. It appears that glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a better kinetic behavior than the nuclear glass R 7T7. This is mainly due to a more important rate decrease that occurs more rapidly, that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for R 7T7 glass. This high slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have demonstrated that the rate decrease was controlled as for the R7T7 glass by the amorphous phase of the alteration film forming a diffusion barrier for reactive species. It seems that the porosity is not the single parameter that explains the protective effect of the gel. The main differences compared with R7T7 glass are that silicon does not control the alteration of the material and that the gel is composed of two distinct phases. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics. (author)

  9. Thermoluminescence as a probe in bioactivity studies; the case of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeris, George S; Tsirliganis, Nestor C; Goudouri, Ourania Menti; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M; Kontonasaki, Eleana; Kitis, George

    2011-01-01

    The formation of a carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer on the surface of bioactive materials is the main reaction that takes place upon their immersion in physiological fluids. To date, all techniques used for the identification of this HCAp formation are rather time consuming and not well suited to detailed and rapid monitoring of changes in the bioactivity response of the material. The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of using thermoluminescence (TL) for the discrimination between different bioactive responses in the case of the 58S bioactive glass. Results provided strong indications that the 110 deg. C TL peak of quartz can be used effectively in the study of the bioactive behaviour of 58S bioactive glass, since it is unambiguously present in all samples and does not require deconvolution analysis. Furthermore, the intensity of the 110 deg. C TL peak is proven to be very sensitive to the different bioactive responses, identifying the loss of silica which takes place at the first stages of the sequence. The discontinuities of the 110 deg. C TL peak intensity plot versus immersion time at 8 and 1440 min provide experimental indications regarding the timescale for both the beginning of amorphous CaP formation as well as the end of crystalline hydroxyl-apatite formation respectively, while the spike in the sensitization of the 110 deg. C TL peak, which was observed for immersion times ranging between 20 and 40 min, could be an experimental feature indicating the beginning of the crystalline HCAp formation.

  10. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenstrauha, I.; Sosins, G.; Krage, L.; Sedmale, G.; Vaiciukyniene, D.

    2013-01-01

    Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50 % of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminium borosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 degree centigrade). In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites) the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia) with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90 % was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA) and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15 - 35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45 - 65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 degree centigrade in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090 - 1100 degree centigrade with the most optimal properties - porosity 38 - 52 %, water absorption 39 -47 % and bulk density 1.35 - 1.67 g/cm 3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35 - 1.1 %, water absorption 0.7 - 2.6 % and bulk density 2.1 - 2.3 g/cm 3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected. (Author)

  11. Cerâmicas bioativas: estado da arte Bioactive ceramics: state of the arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Leão Andrade

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses undergo corrosion with leaching of alkaline ions when exposed to body fluids. This results in the spontaneous formation of a layer of hydroxyapatite (HA, the mineral component of natural bone, which in turn can induce bone growth in vivo. This paper describes the different types of bioactive glasses, the characterization methods currently used, and the main factors that influence their bioactivity. Nucleation and crystallization, the main mechanisms involved in the formation of hydroxyapatite, Ca10(PO46(OH2, are discussed as a function of the chemical composition and the reactivity of the surface of the material. Finally, promising applications are considered.

  12. Elaboration of optical glass-ceramic for frequency doubling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigouroux, H.

    2012-01-01

    The High power laser development required the need of materials with nonlinear properties. Glass materials can be considered as ideal materials as they can be transparent and elaborated in very large dimension. Precipitation of non-centro symmetric crystalline particles in bulk glass leads to a material with bulk nonlinear properties. This glass-ceramic should be then easily integrated in such laser facilities. In this thesis, the results concerning the precipitation of the phase LiNbO 3 in the glassy-matrix 35 Li 2 O - 25 Nb 2 O 5 - 40 SiO 2 are detailed. The crystallization mechanism of this phase is studied through thermal analysis, optical and electronic microscopy as well as in-situ analyses. These studies reveal glass-ceramics are obtained through a precipitation of the lithium niobate crystalline phase in spherulite shape. The nonlinear optical properties are investigated on this materials and an original, isotropic Second Harmonic Generation Signal (SHG) is registered in the bulk glass-ceramic. A complete study using a multi-scale approach allows the correlation between the spherulite structure and the nonlinear optical properties. A mechanism at the origin of the SHG signal is proposed. This leads to a new approach for transparent inorganic materials development for isotropic SHG conversion. (author) [fr

  13. Synthesis, bioactivity and preliminary biocompatibility studies of glasses in the system CaO-MgO-SiO2-Na2O-P2O5-CaF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulyaganov, D U; Agathopoulos, S; Valerio, P; Balamurugan, A; Saranti, A; Karakassides, M A; Ferreira, J M F

    2011-02-01

    New compositions of bioactive glasses are proposed in the CaO-MgO-SiO(2)-Na(2)O-P(2)O(5)-CaF(2) system. Mineralization tests with immersion of the investigated glasses in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37°C showed that the glasses favour the surface formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) from the early stages of the experiments. In the case of daily renewable SBF, monetite (CaHPO(4)) formation competed with the formation of HA. The influence of structural features of the glasses on their mineralization (bioactivity) performance is discussed. Preliminary in vitro experiments with osteoblasts' cell-cultures showed that the glasses are biocompatible and there is no evidence of toxicity. Sintering and devitrification studies of glass powder compacts were also performed. Glass-ceramics with attractive properties were obtained after heat treatment of the glasses at relatively low temperatures (up to 850°C).

  14. EPR of radiation defects in lithium-oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotovs, A; Rogulis, U; Sarakovskis, A; Dimitrocenko, L, E-mail: andris-f@navigator.l [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Kengaraga st. 8, LV-1063, Riga (Latvia)

    2010-11-01

    We studied oxyfluoride composites based on lithium silicate glasses with yttrium fluorides and rare-earth dopants. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to obtain information about radiation induced defects in these materials. Spectra have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Fluoride crystallites within samples were created by means of thermal treatment at specific temperatures. EPR spectra of radiation induced defects in oxyfluoride glass ceramics, in which crystallites have not been yet created, show no explicit hfs interaction of fluorine nuclei. However, in glass ceramics, which already contains fluoride crystallites, the hfs characteristic to fluorine nuclei appears in the EPR spectra. EPR hyperfine structure could be explained within a model of an F-type centre in YF{sub 3} crystalline phase.

  15. EPR of radiation defects in lithium-oxyfluoride glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotovs, A.; Rogulis, U.; Sarakovskis, A.; Dimitrocenko, L.

    2010-11-01

    We studied oxyfluoride composites based on lithium silicate glasses with yttrium fluorides and rare-earth dopants. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) has been used to obtain information about radiation induced defects in these materials. Spectra have been measured before and after X-ray irradiation at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature. Fluoride crystallites within samples were created by means of thermal treatment at specific temperatures. EPR spectra of radiation induced defects in oxyfluoride glass ceramics, in which crystallites have not been yet created, show no explicit hfs interaction of fluorine nuclei. However, in glass ceramics, which already contains fluoride crystallites, the hfs characteristic to fluorine nuclei appears in the EPR spectra. EPR hyperfine structure could be explained within a model of an F-type centre in YF3 crystalline phase.

  16. Bioactive Glass Nanopowder for theTreatment of Oral Bone Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH. Fathi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Osseous defects around dental implants are often seen when implants are placed in areas with inadequate alveolar bone, or around failing implants. Bone regenera-tion in these areas using bone grafts or its substitutes may improve dental implants prog-nosis. The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize the bioactive glass nanopow-der and development of its coating for treatment of oral bone defects.Materials and Methods: Bioactive bioglass coating was made on stainless steel plates by sol-gel technique. The powder shape and size was evaluated by transmission electron mi-cropscopy, and thermal properties studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA. Structural characterization techniques (XRD were used to analyze and study the structure and phase present in the prepared bioactive glass nanopowder. This nanopowder was immersed in the simulated body fluid (SBF solution. Fourier transform infrared spec-troscopy (FTIR was utilized to recognize and confirm the formation of apatite layer on prepared bioactive glass nanopowder.Results: The bioglass powder size was less than 100 nanometers which was necessary for better bioactivity, and preparing a homogeneous coating. The formation of apatite layer confirmed the bioactivity of the bioglass nanopowder. Crack-free and homogeneous bioglass coatings were achieved with no observable defects.Conclusion: It was concluded that the prepared bioactive glass nanopowder could be more effective as a bone replacement material than conventional bioactive glass to pro-mote bone formation in osseous defects. The prepared bioactive glass nanopowder could be more useful for treatment of oral bone defects compare to conventional hydroxyapatite or bioactive glass.

  17. Development of a low-permeability glass--ceramic to seal to molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagan, R.J.

    1975-03-01

    This report describes the development of low-permeability glass-ceramics which can be sealed directly to molybdenum for the purpose of producing long-life vacuum tubes. Low permeability to helium and thermal expansion match to molybdenum are the bases upon which particular glass-ceramic compositions were selected and developed. The fabrication of tube envelopes using glass-ceramics is simplified when compared to conventional ceramic/metal tubes and these melting and sealing techniques are presented

  18. Development of glass/glass-ceramics materials and devices and their micro-structural studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Madhumita; Sarkar, Arjun; Shingarvelan, Shobha; Kumar, Rakesh; Ananathanarayan, Arvind; Shrikhande, V.K.; Kothiyal, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    Materials and devices based on glass and glass-ceramics (GCs) find applications in various high pressure and vacuum applications. We have prepared different glasses/glass-ceramics with requisite thermal expansion coefficient, electrical, vacuum and wetting characteristics to fabricate hermetic seals with different metals/alloys as well as components for these applications. Some of these are, SiO 2 -Na 2 O-K 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -B 2O3 (BS) for matched type of seal fabricated with Kovar alloy, SiO 2 -Na 2 O-K 2 O-BaO-PbO(LS) for fabrication of compressive type seals with stainless steel and SS 446 alloys, P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O-B 2 O 3 -BaO-PbO(NAP) for fabrication of matched type of seal with relatively low melting metals/alloys like AI/Cu-Be and Li 2 O-ZnO-SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 -B 2 O 3 -Na 2 O (LZS) and Lithium aluminium silicate (LAS) glass-ceramics to fabricate matched and compression types feedtroughs/conductivity probes Magnesium aluminium silicate (MAS) machinable glass-ceramics is another development for high voltage and ultra high vacuum applications. Micro-structural studies have been carried out on these materials to understand the mechanism of their behaviour and have also been deployed in various systems and plants in DAE. (author)

  19. Glass Ceramics Composites Fabricated from Coal Fly Ash and Waste Glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angjusheva, B.; Jovanov, V.; Srebrenkoska, V.; Fidancevska, E.

    2014-01-01

    Great quantities of coal ash are produced in thermal power plants which present a double problem to the society: economical and environmental. This waste is a result of burning of coal at temperatures between 1100-14500C. Fly ash available as fine powder presents a source of important oxides SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, Na2O, but also consist of small amount of ecologically hazardous oxides such as Cr2O3, NiO, MnO. The combination of the fly ash with waste glass under controlled sintering procedure gave bulk glass-ceramics composite material. The principle of this procedure is presented as a multi barrier concept. Many researches have been conducted the investigations for utilization of fly ash as starting material for various glass–ceramics production. Using waste glass ecologically hazardous components are fixed at the molecular level in the silicate phase and the fabricated new glass-ceramic composites possess significantly higher mechanical properties. The aim of this investigation was to fabricate dense glass ceramic composites using fly ash and waste glass with the potential for its utilization as building material

  20. Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Fluoridated and Unfluoridated Bioactive Glass Composites: Structural Analysis and Bioactivity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, Uma; Kapoor, Seema; Sharma, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Biphasic bioceramic composites containing nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) and nanosized bioactive glasses have been prepared in the form of pellets and have been examined for the effects of bioglass concentrations and sintering temperature on the structural transformations and bioactivity behavior. Pure stoichiometric nano-HAP was synthesized using sol-gel technique. Two bioglasses synthesized in this work--fluoridated bioglass (Cao-P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O 3 -CaF 2 ) and unfluoridated bioglass (Cao-P 2 O 5 -Na 2 O 3 ) designated as FBG and UFBG respectively, were added to nano-HAP with concentrations of 5, 10, 12 and 15%. The average particle sizes of synthesized HAP and bioglasses were 23 nm and 35 nm, respectively. The pellets were sintered at four different temperatures i.e. 1000 deg. C, 1150 deg. C, 1250 deg. C and 1350 deg. C. The investigations involved study of structural and bioactivity behavior of green and sintered pellets and their deviations from original materials i.e. HAP, FBG and UFBG, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The phase composition of the sintered pellets was found to be non-stoichiometric HAP with α-TCP (tricalcium phosphate) and β-TCP. It was revealed from SEM images that bonding mechanism was mainly solid state sintering for all pellets sintered at 1000 deg. C and 1150 deg. C and also for pellets with lower concentrations of bioglass i.e. 5% and 10% sintered at 1250 deg. C. Partly liquid phase sintering was observed for pellets with higher bioglass concentrations of 12% and 15% sintered at 1250 deg. C and same behaviour was noted for pellets at all concentrations of bioglasses at 1350 deg. C. The sintered density, hardness and compression strength of pellets have been influenced both by the concentration of the bioglasses and sintering temperature. It was observed that the biological HAP layer formation was faster on the green pellets surface than on pure HAP and sintered pellets, showing higher bioactivity in the

  1. Bioactive glass-reinforced bioceramic ink writing scaffolds: sintering, microstructure and mechanical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huifeng; Yang, Xianyan; He, Yong; Fu, Jianzhong; Liu, Limin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2015-09-10

    The densification of pore struts in bioceramic scaffolds is important for structure stability and strength reliability. An advantage of ceramic ink writing is the precise control over the microstructure and macroarchitecture. However, the use of organic binder in such ink writing process would heavily affect the densification of ceramic struts and sacrifice the mechanical strength of porous scaffolds after sintering. This study presents a low-melt-point bioactive glass (BG)-assisted sintering strategy to overcome the main limitations of direct ink writing (extrusion-based three-dimensional printing) and to produce high-strength calcium silicate (CSi) bioceramic scaffolds. The 1% BG-added CSi (CSi-BG1) scaffolds with rectangular pore morphology sintered at 1080 °C have a very small BG content, readily induce apatite formation, and show appreciable linear shrinkage (∼21%), which is consistent with the composite scaffolds with less or more BG contents sintered at either the same or a higher temperature. These CSi-BG1 scaffolds also possess a high elastic modulus (∼350 MPa) and appreciable compressive strength (∼48 MPa), and show significant strength enhancement after exposure to simulated body fluid-a performance markedly superior to those of pure CSi scaffolds. Particularly, the honeycomb-pore CSi-BG1 scaffolds show markedly higher compressive strength (∼88 MPa) than the scaffolds with rectangular, parallelogram, and Archimedean chord pore structures. It is suggested that this approach can potentially facilitate the translation of ceramic ink writing and BG-assisted sintering of bioceramic scaffold technologies to the in situ bone repair.

  2. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    OpenAIRE

    Mangutova Bianka V.; Fidancevska Emilija M.; Milosevski Milosav I.; Bossert Joerg H.

    2004-01-01

    Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa). The polyurethane f...

  3. Analysis of leachants from strontium chlorapatite glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.; Annapoorani, S.; Sriram, S.; Uma Maheshwari, R.; Deivanayaki, R.; Sekar, J.K.; Sankaran, K.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium chlorapatite glass ceramics is being tried out as one of the candidate matrices for immobilizing pyrochemical salt waste produced in the nuclear industry. To find-out the suitability of such material for immobilising the waste, leaching of various constituents of the ceramics in water is required. Therefore, in Chemistry Group of IGCAR experiments are being carried out with simulated salt waste (chlorides of Li, Na, K, Cs, Ba, Nd and Ce) of pyrochemical reprocessing method for studying the utilisation of strontium chlorapatite glass ceramics towards the immobilization of radioactive waste. Leaching behaviour study requires the determination of alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth elements in the leachant solutions of the glass ceramic material. Apart from cations, leaching study of anions especially chloride is required as the chloride salts are used in pyrochemical experiments. Considering the good sensitivity of alkali elements in Flame-AES method, all the alkali elements were determined by flame-AES. Ba, Sr and rare earth elements in the leachant solutions were determined using ICP-OES. Chloride was determined using ISE and IC. Standardisation of instrumental techniques and the application of various techniques for the sample analysis will be discussed in the paper. (author)

  4. CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF GLASS-CERAMICS BY DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. NOZAD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization behavior of fluorphlogopite, a glass-ceramic in the MgO–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O–B2O3–F system, was studied by substitution of Li2O for K2O in the glass composition. DTA, XRD and SEM were used for the study of crystallization behavior, formed phases and microstructure of the resulting glass-ceramics. Crystallization kinetics of the glass was investigated under non-isothermal conditions, using the formal theory of transformations for heterogeneous nucleation. The crystallization results were analyzed, and both the activation energy of crystallization process as well as the crystallization mechanism were characterized. Calculated kinetic parameters indicated that the appropriate crystallization mechanism was bulk crystallization for base glass and the sample with addition of Li2O. Non-isothermal DTA experiments showed that the crystallization activation energies of base glasses was in the range of 234-246 KJ/mol and in the samples with addition of Li2O was changed to the range of 317-322 KJ/mol.

  5. Development and characterization of basalt-glass ceramics for the immobilization of transuranic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.; Chick, L.A.; Thomas, L.E.

    1982-09-01

    Basalt-based waste forms were developed for the immobilization of transuranic (TRU) contaminated wastes. The specific waste studied is a 3:1 blend of process sludge and incinerator ash. Various amounts of TRU blended waste were melted with Pomona basalt powder. The vitreous products were subjected to a variety of heat treatment conditions to form glass ceramics. The total crystallinity of the glass ceramic, ranging from 20 to 45 wt %, was moderately dependent on composition and heat treatment conditions. Three parent glasses and four glass ceramics with varied composition and heat treatment were produced for detailed phase characterization and leaching. Both parent glasses and glass ceramics were mainly composed of a continuous, glassy matrix phase. This glass matrix entered into solution during leaching in both types of materials. The Fe-Ti rich dispersed glass phase was not significantly degraded by leaching. The glass ceramics, however, exhibited four to ten times less elemental releases during leaching than the parent glasses. The glass ceramic matrix probably contains higher Fe and Na and lower Ca and Mg relative to the parent glass matrix. The crystallization of augite in the glass ceramics is believed to contribute to the improved leach rates. Leach rates of the basalt glass ceramic are compared to those of other TRU nuclear waste forms containing 239 Pu

  6. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, J V; Antoniac, I; Fosca, M; De Bonis, A; Blajan, A I; Cotrut, C; Graziani, V; Curcio, M; Cricenti, A; Niculescu, M; Ortenzi, M; Teghil, R

    2016-07-01

    Biodegradable metals and alloys are promising candidates for biomedical bone implant applications. However, due to the high rate of their biodegradation in human body environment, they should be coated with less reactive materials, such, for example, as bioactive glasses or glass-ceramics. Fort this scope, RKKP composition glass-ceramic coatings have been deposited on Mg-Ca(1.4wt%) alloy substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition method, and their properties have been characterized by a number of techniques. The prepared coatings consist of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite phases, having composition close to that of the bulk target material used for depositions. The 100μm thick films are characterized by dense, compact and rough morphology. They are composed of a glassy matrix with various size (from micro- to nano-) granular inclusions. The average surface roughness is about 295±30nm due to the contribution of micrometric aggregates, while the roughness of the fine-texture particulates is approximately 47±4nm. The results of the electrochemical corrosion evaluation tests evidence that the RKKP coating improves the corrosion resistance of the Mg-Ca (1.4wt%) alloy in Simulated Body Fluid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural analysis and thermal behavior of diopside-fluorapatite-wollastonite-based glasses and glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Ishu; Tulyaganov, Dilshat U; Goel, Ashutosh; Pascual, Maria J; Ferreira, José M F

    2010-11-01

    Glass-ceramics in the diopside (CaMgSi2O6)-fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F)-wollastonite (CaSiO3) system are potential candidates for restorative dental and bone implant materials. The present study describes the influence of varying SiO2/CaO and CaF2/P2O5 molar ratio on the structure and thermal behavior of glass compositions in the CaO-MgO-SiO2-P2O5-Na2O-CaF2 system. The structural features and properties of the glasses were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared spectroscopy, density measurements and dilatometry. Sintering and crystallization behavior of the glass powders were studied by hot-stage microscopy and differential thermal analysis, respectively. The microstructure and crystalline phase assemblage in the sintered glass powder compacts were studied under non-isothermal heating conditions at 825 °C. X-ray diffraction studies combined with the Rietveld-reference intensity ratio (R.I.R) method were employed to quantify the amount of amorphous and crystalline phases in the glass-ceramics, while scanning electron microscopy was used to shed some light on the microstructure of resultant glass-ceramics. An increase in CaO/SiO2 ratio degraded the sinterability of the glass powder compacts, resulting in the formation of akermanite as the major crystalline phase. On the other hand, an increase in P2O5/CaF2 ratio improved the sintering behavior of the glass-ceramics, while varying the amount of crystalline phases, i.e. diopside, fluorapatite and wollastonite. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Glass-ceramic hermetic seals to high thermal expansion metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1987-04-28

    A process for forming glass-ceramic materials from an alkaline silica-lithia glass composition comprising 60-72 mole-% SiO/sub 2/, 18-27 mole-% Li/sub 2/O, 0-5 mole-% Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 0-6 mole-% K/sub 2/O, 0-3 mole-% B/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and 0.5-2.5 mole-% P/sub 2/O/sub 5/, which comprises heating said glass composition at a first temperature within the 950-1050/degree/C range for 5-60 minutes, and then at a devitrification temperature within the 700-900/degree/C range for about 5-300 minutes to obtain a glass-ceramic having a thermal expansion coefficient of up to 210 x 10/sup /minus/7///degree/C. These ceramics form strong, hermetic seals with high expansion metals such as stainless steel alloys. An intermediate nucleation heating step conducted at a temperature within the range of 675-750/degree/C for 10-120 minutes may be employed between the first stage and the devitrification stage. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Cr3+ and Cr4+ luminescence in glass ceramic silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, Marco A.U.; Davolos, Marian R.; Jafelicci, Miguel Junior; Souza, Dione F. de; Nunes, Luiz A.O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on the effect of glass ceramic silica matrix on [CrO 4 ] 4- and Cr 2 O 3 NIR and visible luminescence. Chromium-containing silica was obtained by precipitation from water-glass and chromium nitrate acid solution with thermal treatment at 1000 deg. C. From XRD results silica and silica-chromium samples are crystalline. The chromium emission spectrum presents two main broad bands: one in the NIR region (1.1-1.7μm) and other in the visible region (0.6-0.7μm) assigned to Cr 4+ and to Cr 3+ , respectively. This thermal treated glass ceramic silica-chromium sample stabilizes the [CrO 4 ] 4- where Cr 4+ substitutes for Si 4+ and also hexacoordinated Cr 3+ group probably as segregated phase in the system. It can be pointed out that luminescence spectroscopy is a powerful tool for detecting the two chromium optical centers in the glass ceramic silica

  10. Glass/ceramic coatings for implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsia, Antoni P [Pinole, CA; Saiz, Eduardo [Berkeley, CA; Gomez-Vega, Jose M [Nagoya, JP; Marshall, Sally J [Larkspur, CA; Marshall, Grayson W [Larkspur, CA

    2011-09-06

    Glass coatings on metals including Ti, Ti6A14V and CrCo were prepared for use as implants. The composition of the glasses was tailored to match the thermal expansion of the substrate metal. By controlling the firing atmosphere, time, and temperature, it was possible to control the reactivity between the glass and the alloy and to fabricate coatings (25-150 .mu.m thick) with excellent adhesion to the substrate. The optimum firing temperatures ranged between 800 and 840.degree. C. at times up to 1 min in air or 15 min in N.sub.2. The same basic technique was used to create multilayered coatings with concentration gradients of hydroxyapatite (HA) particles and SiO.sub.2.

  11. Glass-ceramics with multibarrier structure obtained from industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berzina, L.; Cimdins, R.; Rozenstrauha, I. [Riga Tech. Univ. (Latvia). Fac. of Chem. Technol.; Bossert, J. [Technisches Inst.: Materialwissenschaft, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena (Germany); Kravtchenko, I. [Inst. for Problems of Material Science, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    Recycling problem for various kind of waste is solved by processing the waste to ecological depositable products with multibarrier structure. In order to form a multibarrier structure the ecologically incompatible substances may be diluted and chemically bound until their recycling products gain a structure like natural mineral or glass (I. barrier). After that, remineralized materials are converted into a new product by melting or powder technology using an ecological compatible type of waste as a matrix phase (II. barrier). Waste which are treated this way could be applied to produce ceramic building materials and goods such as floor tiles, stone pavement and casting products. Industrial waste from the metallurgical factory in Latvia ``Liepajas metalurgs`` are metallurgical slag, filter dust, etching waste and sewage used in technologies. The main constituents of chemical compositions of these waste are: Fe, Ca, Si, Mg, Al, Mn etc. In some types of waste a small amount of ecologically risky elements such as Cr, Ni, Zr, Sn and Pb can occur. The combination of metallurgical waste with peat ashes from Riga thermal power station, oil shale ashes or glass waste under controlled sintering procedure gives bulk materials with surface or/and bulkcrystallization. The structure of glass-ceramics built this way may prevent the migration of ecologically risky elements into environment due to corrosion or friction. Physical-chemical properties and thermal behaviour (DTA, dilatometry, melting) of waste define the range of sintering for production of glass-ceramics (powder technology) and decorative glass-ceramic materials (melting and powder technology). (orig.) 5 refs.

  12. Glass ceramics for sealing to high-thermal-expansion metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, J.A. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    Glass ceramics were studied, formulated in the Na 2 O CaO.P 2 O 5 , Na 2 O.BaOP 2 O 5 , Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .P 2 O 5 , and Li 2 O.BaO.P 2 O 5 systems to establish their suitability for sealing to high thermal expansion metals, e.g. aluminum, copper, and 300 series stainless steels. Glass ceramics in Na 2 O.CaO.P 2 O 5 and Na 2 O.BaO.P 2 O 5 systems have coefficients of thermal expansion in the range 140 x 10 -1 per 0 C less than or equal to α less than or equal to 225 x 10 -7 per 0 C and fracture toughness values generally greater than those of phosphate glasses; they are suitable for fabricating seals to high thermal expansion metals. Crystal phases include NaPo 3 , (NaPO 3 ) 3 , NaBa(PO 3 ) 3 , and NaCa(PO 3 ) 3 . Glass ceramics formed in the Na 2 O.Al 2 O 3 .P 2 O 5 systems have coefficients of thermal expansion greater than 240 x 10 -7 per 0 C, but they have extensive microcracking. Due to their low thermal expansion values (α less than or equal to 120 x 10 -7 per 0 C), glass ceramics in the Li 2 O.BaO.P 2 O 5 system are unsuitable for sealing to high thermal expansion metals

  13. Characterization of microstructure of Si3N4 whisker reinforced glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byoung Sung; Choi, Shung Shaon

    1993-01-01

    Glass ceramics, especially fiber-reinforced composite ceramics, have attracted a great deal of attention in improving the reliability of ceramic components because of the improvement in various mechanical properties. Through hot-pressing and sintering, 225 cordierite was transformed with glass ceramic and mullite phase. Particularly glass glain size increased with the increasing of the sintering temperature and the heat treatment enhance the toughness and hardness of materials. Like the increased sintering temperature, the roughness increased with increasing whisker vol.%. In case of whisker-rinforced glass ceramic, the fracture surface of samples has been associated with a whisker orientation of samples. (Author)

  14. Sol-gel processing of bioactive glass nanoparticles: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2017-11-01

    Silicate-based bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGN) are gaining increasing attention in various biomedical applications due to their unique properties. Controlled synthesis of BGN is critical to their effective use in biomedical applications since BGN characteristics, such as morphology and composition, determining the properties of BGN, are highly related to the synthesis process. In the last decade, numerous investigations focusing on BGN synthesis have been reported. BGN can mainly be produced through the conventional melt-quench approach or by sol-gel methods. The latter approaches are drawing widespread attention, considering the convenience and versatility they offer to tune the properties of BGN. In this paper, we review the strategies of sol-gel processing of BGN, including those adopting different catalysts for initiating the hydrolysis and condensation of silicate precursors as well as those combining sol-gel chemistry with other techniques. The processes and mechanism of different synthesis approaches are introduced and discussed in detail. Considering the importance of the BGN morphology and composition to their biomedical applications, strategies put forward to control the size, shape, pore structure and composition of BGN are discussed. BGN are particularly interesting biomaterials for bone-related applications, however, they also have potential for other biomedical applications, e.g. in soft tissue regeneration/repair. Therefore, in the last part of this review, recently reported applications of BGN in soft tissue repair and wound healing are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bonding strength of glass-ceramic trabecular-like coatings to ceramic substrates for prosthetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Baino, Francesco; Pugno, Nicola M; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2013-04-01

    A new approach based on the concepts of quantized fracture mechanics (QFM) is presented and discussed in this paper to estimate the bonding strength of trabecular-like coatings, i.e. glass-ceramic scaffolds mimicking the architecture of cancellous bone, to ceramic substrates. The innovative application of glass-derived scaffolds as trabecular-like coatings is proposed in order to enhance the osteointegration of prosthetic ceramic devices. The scaffolds, prepared by polymeric sponge replication, are joined to alumina substrates by a dense glass-ceramic coating (interlayer) and the so-obtained 3-layer constructs are investigated from micro-structural, morphological and mechanical viewpoints. In particular, the fracture strengths of three different crack propagation modes, i.e. glass-derived scaffold fracture, interface delamination or mixed fracture, are predicted in agreement with those of experimental mechanical tests. The approach proposed in this work could have interesting applications towards an ever more rational design of bone tissue engineering biomaterials and coatings, in view of the optimization of their mechanical properties for making them actually suitable for clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent Evidence on Bioactive Glass Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Drago

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bone defects caused by trauma or pathological events are major clinical and socioeconomic burdens. Thus, the efforts of regenerative medicine have been focused on the development of non-biodegradable materials resembling bone features. Consequently, the use of bioactive glass as a promising alternative to inert graft materials has been proposed. Bioactive glass is a synthetic silica-based material with excellent mechanical properties able to bond to the host bone tissue. Indeed, when immersed in physiological fluids, bioactive glass reacts, developing an apatite layer on the granule’s surface, playing a key role in the osteogenesis process. Moreover, the contact of bioactive glass with biological fluids results in the increase of osmotic pressure and pH due to the leaching of ions from granules’ surface, thus making the surrounding environment hostile to microbial growth. The bioactive glass antimicrobial activity is effective against a wide selection of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, either in planktonic or sessile forms. Furthermore, bioglass is able to reduce pathogens’ biofilm production. For the aforementioned reasons, the use of bioactive glass might be a promising solution for the reconstruction of bone defects, as well as for the treatment and eradication of bone infections, characterized by bone necrosis and destruction of the bone structure.

  17. Mechanical properties of molybdenum-sealing glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swearengen, J.C.; Eagan, R.J.

    1975-07-01

    Elastic constants, thermal expansion, strength, and fracture toughness were determined for a molybdenum-sealing glass-ceramic containing approximately 31 volume percent Zn 2 SiO 4 crystals in a glass matrix. The microstructure was studied for two different crystallization treatments and moderate changes in composition. Mechanical properties of the composite were compared with the properties of the constituent phases through application of mixture theory and by fractographic observations. The reinforcing effects of the crystal phase at room temperature are evident in comparison with the properties of the residual glass but not necessarily in comparison with the parent glass. Fracture toughness of the composite depends primarily upon additive properties of the separate phases instead of by interactive effects such as microcracks. (U.S.)

  18. Electrical characterization of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramics system with bismuth oxide addition using impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, O.P.; Kumar, Devendra; Parkash, Om; Pandey, Lakshman

    2003-01-01

    The ac electrical data, measured in the frequency range 0.1 kHz-1 MHz, were used to study the electrical response of strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramic system with bismuth oxide addition. Complex plane plots from these electrical data for various glass ceramic samples reveal contributions from simultaneously operating polarization mechanisms to overall dielectric behavior. The complex modulus (M * ) representation of electrical data for various glass ceramic samples were found to be more informative. Equivalent circuit models, which represent the electrical behavior of glass ceramic samples, were determined using complex non-linear least square (CNLS) fitting. An attempt has been made to understand the dielectric behavior of various glass ceramics in terms of contributions arising from different polarization processes occurring at glassy matrix, crystalline phases, glass to crystal interface region and blocking electrodes. Glass ceramics containing SrTiO 3 and TiO 2 (rutile) phases show thermally stable dielectric behavior

  19. High-frequency characteristics of glass/ceramic composite and alumina multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niwa, K.; Suzuki, H.; Yokoyama, H.; Kamechara, N.; Tsubone, K.; Tanisawa, H.; Sugiki, H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the transmission characteristics of glass/ceramic composite (borosilicate glass/alumina) and alumina multilayer structures examined. The triplate stripline formed in the glass/ceramic multilayer shows low conductor and dielectric loss. Alumina multilayer, however, has twice the transmission loss at 10 GHz, because the resistivity of W in the alumina multilayer is higher than the Cu in the glass/ceramic multilayer. Crosstalk between striplines in the glass/ceramics is less than -80 dB up to 11 GHz and 9 GHz for alumina

  20. Factors controlling crystallization of miserite glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Fenik K; Moorehead, Robert; van Noort, Richard; Pollington, Sarah

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a range of variables affecting the synthesis of a miserite glass-ceramic (GC). Miserite glass was synthesized by the melt quench technique. The crystallization kinetics of the glass were determined using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The glasses were ground with dry ball-milling and then sieved to different particle sizes prior to sintering. These particle sizes were submitted to heat treatment regimes in a high temperature furnace to form the GC. The crystal phases of the GC were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the microstructure of the cerammed glass. XRD analysis confirmed that the predominant crystalline phase of the GC was miserite along with a minor crystalline phase of cristobalite only when the particle size is <20 μm and the heat treatment at 1000°C was carried out for 4h and slowly cooled at the furnace rate. For larger particle sizes and faster cooling rates, a pseudowollastonite crystalline phase was produced. Short sintering times produced either a pseudowollastonite or xonotolite crystalline phase. The current study has shown that particle size and heat treatment schedules are major factors in controlling the synthesis of miserite GC. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Broad-spectrum antibacterial properties of metal-ion doped borate bioactive glasses for clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottomeyer, Megan

    Bioactive glasses with antimicrobial properties can be implemented as coatings on medical devices and implants, as well as a treatment for tissue repair and prevention of common hospital-acquired infections such as MRSA. A borate-containing glass, B3, is also undergoing clinical trials to assess wound-healing properties. The sensitivities of various bacteria to B3, B3-Ag, B3-Ga, and B3-I bioactive glasses were tested. In addition, the mechanism of action for the glasses was studied by spectroscopic enzyme kinetics experiments, Live-Dead staining fluorescence microscopy, and luminescence assays using two gene fusion strains of Escherichia coli. It was found that gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all four glasses than gram negative bacteria, and that a single mechanism of action for the glasses is unlikely, as the rates of catalysis for metabolic enzymes as well as membrane permeability were altered after glass exposure.

  2. Magnetic properties of Fe-Nd silica glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Manjunath T.; Desa, J. A. Erwin; Babu, P. D.

    2018-04-01

    Soda lime silica glass ceramics containing iron and neodymium have been synthesized. The XRD pattern revealed that the glass samples devitrified into multiple phases. Fe2O3 as an initial component converted into Fe3O4 in the sample during the synthesis, and was the main contributor to the magnetic property of the sample. The inclusion of Nd was found to enhance the magnetization of the sample at 5K. The coercivity of the sample increased with decrease in temperature from room to 5K.

  3. Inward Cationic Diffusion and Percolation Transition in Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedsklaer, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng; Mørup, Steen

    2010-01-01

    We show the quantitative correlation between the degree of crystallization and the cationic diffusion extent in iron-containing diopside glass–ceramics at the glass transition temperature. We find a critical degree of crystallization, above which the diffusion extent sharply drops with the degree...... of crystallization. Below the critical value, the diffusion extent decreases only slightly with the degree of crystallization. No cationic diffusion is observed in the fully crystalline materials. The critical value might be associated with a percolation transition from an interconnected to a disconnected glass...

  4. Porous SiO_2 nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass–ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indranee; De, Goutam; Hupa, Leena; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    A composite bioactive glass–ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. - Highlights: • Fabricated porous SiO_2 nanofibers grafted composite bioactive glass–ceramic coating on inert glass. • The newly engineered coating facilitates uniformly dense apatite precipitation. • Embedded porous silica nanofibers enhance hydrophilicity of the coated surface. • Cells proliferate well on the entire coating following a particular orientation by the assistance of nanofibers. • The coatings have potential to be used as biological scaffold on the surface of implants.

  5. Porous SiO{sub 2} nanofiber grafted novel bioactive glass–ceramic coating: A structural scaffold for uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation on inert implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Indranee [Nano-Structured Materials Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); De, Goutam, E-mail: gde@cgcri.res.in [Nano-Structured Materials Division, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Hupa, Leena [Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, FI-20500 Åbo (Finland); Vallittu, Pekka K. [Turku Clinical Biomaterials Centre—TCBC, University of Turku, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Department of Biomaterials Science and City of Turku, Welfare Division, Turku (Finland)

    2016-05-01

    A composite bioactive glass–ceramic coating grafted with porous silica nanofibers was fabricated on inert glass to provide a structural scaffold favoring uniform apatite precipitation and oriented cell proliferation. The coating surfaces were investigated thoroughly before and after immersion in simulated body fluid. In addition, the proliferation behavior of fibroblast cells on the surface was observed for several culture times. The nanofibrous exterior of this composite bioactive coating facilitated homogeneous growth of flake-like carbonated hydroxyapatite layer within a short period of immersion. Moreover, the embedded porous silica nanofibers enhanced hydrophilicity which is required for proper cell adhesion on the surface. The cells proliferated well following a particular orientation on the entire coating by the assistance of nanofibrous scaffold-like structural matrix. This newly engineered composite coating was effective in creating a biological structural matrix favorable for homogeneous precipitation of calcium phosphate, and organized cell growth on the inert glass surface. - Highlights: • Fabricated porous SiO{sub 2} nanofibers grafted composite bioactive glass–ceramic coating on inert glass. • The newly engineered coating facilitates uniformly dense apatite precipitation. • Embedded porous silica nanofibers enhance hydrophilicity of the coated surface. • Cells proliferate well on the entire coating following a particular orientation by the assistance of nanofibers. • The coatings have potential to be used as biological scaffold on the surface of implants.

  6. Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants fabricated by rapid prototyping based on CO(2) laser cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, R; Lusquiños, F; Del Val, J; López-Álvarez, M; Quintero, F; Riveiro, A; Boutinguiza, M; de Carlos, A; Jones, J R; Hill, R G; Pou, J

    2011-09-01

    Three-dimensional bioactive glass implants were produced by rapid prototyping based on laser cladding without using moulds. CO(2) laser radiation was employed to melt 45S5 and S520 bioactive glass particles and to deposit the material layer by layer following a desired geometry. Controlled thermal input and cooling rate by fine tuning of the processing parameters allowed the production of crack-free fully dense implants. Microstructural characterization revealed chemical composition stability, but crystallization during processing was extensive when 45S5 bioactive glass was used. Improved results were obtained using the S520 bioactive glass, which showed limited surface crystallization due to an expanded sintering window (the difference between the glass transition temperature and crystallization onset temperature). Ion release from the S520 implants in Tris buffer was similar to that of amorphous 45S5 bioactive glass prepared by casting in graphite moulds. Laser processed S520 scaffolds were not cytotoxic in vitro when osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured with the dissolution products of the glasses; and the MC3T3-E1 cells attached and spread well when cultured on the surface of the materials. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bi4Sr3Ca3Cu4O16 galss and superconducting glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.; Mackenzie, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Bi 4 Sr 3 Ca 3 Cu 4 O 16 glass has been successfully fabricated by the melting process. Glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, and liquid temperature of the glass are 434, 478, and 833 0 C, respectively. After the glass is heat treated at 800 0 C, a glass ceramic is formed. A comparison of the x-ray-diffraction pattern of the superconducting Bi 4 Sr 3 Ca 3 Cu 4 O/sub 16+//sub x/ ceramic to the Bi 4 Sr 3 Ca 3 Cu 4 O 16 glass ceramic revealed preferred orientation in the glass ceramic crystals. The superconducting transition temperatures T/sub c//sub (onset)/ and T/sub c//sub (zero)/ of the glass ceramics are 100 and 45 K, respectively

  8. New generation Li+ NASICON glass-ceramics for solid state Li+ ion battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelakshi; Dalvi, Anshuman

    2018-04-01

    Lithiumion conducting NASICON glass-ceramics have been prepared by a novel planetary ball milling assisted synthesis route. Structural, thermal and electrical investigations have been carried out on the novel composites composed of LiTi(PO4)3 (LTP) and 50[Li2SO4]-50[Li2O-P2O5] ionic glass reveal interesting results. Composites were prepared keeping the concentration of the ionic glass fixed at 20 wt%. X-ray diffraction and diffe rential thermal analysis confirm the glass-ceramic formation. Moreover, the structure of LTP remains intact during the glass -ceramic formation. Electrical conductivity of the glass-ceramic composite is found to be higher than that of the pristine glass (50LSLP) and LTP. The bulk and grain boundary conductivities of LTP exhibit improvement in composite. Owing to high ionic conductivity and thermal stability, novel glass -ceramic seems to be a promising candidate for all solid-state battery applications.

  9. Cracking phenomena in lithium-di-silicate glass ceramics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Lithium-di-silicate glass ceramic (Li2O, SiO2) with uniformly oriented crystals was placed on a. Vickers indentation with extrusion axis horizontally parallel to the base axis. The material was rotated through. 0°– 90° and at each angle a 20 N load was applied to ascertain the crack path. It was observed that the crack.

  10. Marginal Integrity of Glass Ionomer and All Ceramic Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    North Carolina), scanned by the CEREC Omnicam , and milled by CEREC inLab MC XL system. 15 List of Procedures in Chronological Order 1. The...Fuji II LC, GC America, Alsip, Illinois). Forty lithium disilicate porcelain ceramic inlays will be milled from CEREC Block PC (Sirona, Charlotte...evolution of the CEREC system. Journal of the American Dental Association, 137, 7s-13s. Mount G.J. (1991). Adhesion of glass-ionomer cement in the clinical

  11. Zirconia toughened alumina ceramic foams for potential bone graft applications: fabrication, bioactivation, and cellular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Zhang, Y Z; Mansell, J P; Su, B

    2008-07-01

    Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) has been regarded as the next generation orthopedic graft material due to its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Porous ZTA ceramics with good interconnectivity can potentially be used as bone grafts for load-bearing applications. In this work, three-dimensional (3D) interconnected porous ZTA ceramics were fabricated using a direct foaming method with egg white protein as binder and foaming agent. The results showed that the porous ZTA ceramics possessed a bimodal pore size distribution. Their mechanical properties were comparable to those of cancellous bone. Due to the bio-inertness of alumina and zirconia ceramics, surface bioactivation of the ZTA foams was carried out in order to improve their bioactivity. A simple NaOH soaking method was employed to change the surface chemistry of ZTA through hydroxylation. Treated samples were tested by conducting osteoblast-like cell culture in vitro. Improvement on cells response was observed and the strength of porous ZTA has not been deteriorated after the NaOH treatment. The porous 'bioactivated' ZTA ceramics produced here could be potentially used as non-degradable bone grafts for load-bearing applications.

  12. Dielectric behaviour of (Ba,Sr)TiO3 perovskite borosilicate glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Avadhesh Kumar; Gautam, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Various perovskite (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 borosilicate glasses were prepared by rapid melt-quench technique in the glass system ((Ba 1-x Sr x ).TiO 3 )-(2SiO 2 .B 2 O 3 )-(K 2 O)-(La 2 O 3 ). On the basis of differential thermal analysis results, glasses were converted into glass ceramic samples by regulated heat treatment schedules. The dielectric behaviour of crystallized barium strontium titanate borosilicate glass ceramic samples shows diffuse phase transition. The study depicts the dielectric behaviour of glass ceramic sample BST5K1L0.2S814. The double relaxation was observed in glass ceramic samples corresponding 80/20% Ba/Sr due to change in crystal structure from orthorhombic to tetragonal and tetragonal to cubic with variation of temperature. The highest value of dielectric constant was found to be 48289 for the glass ceramic sample BST5K1L0.2S814. The high value of dielectric constant attributed to space charge polarization between the glassy phase and perovskite phase. Due to very high value of dielectric constant, such glass ceramics are used for high energy storage devices. La 2 O 3 acts as nucleating agent for crystallization of glass to glass ceramics and enhances the dielectric constant and retarded dielectric loss. Such glass ceramics can be used in high energy storage devices such as barrier layer capacitors, multilayer capacitors etc. (author)

  13. Improvement of the stability of hydroxyapatite through glass ceramic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Na Ra; Yang, Zheng Xun; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Kim, Tae Suk; Lee, Jong Kook

    2010-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite has achieved significant application in orthopedic and dental implants due to its excellent biocompatibility. Sintered hydroxyapatites showed significant dissolution, however, after their immersion in water or simulated body fluid (SBF). This grain boundary dissolution, even in pure hydroxyapatites, resulted in grain separation at the surfaces, and finally, in fracture. In this study, hydroxyapatite ceramics containing apatite-wollastonite (AW) or calcium silicate (SG) glass ceramics as additives were prepared to prevent the dissolution. AW and SG glass ceramics were added at 0-7 wt% and powder-compacted uniaxially followed by firing at moisture conditions. The glass phase was incorporated into the hydroxyapatite to act as a sintering aid, followed by crystallization, to improve the mechanical properties without reducing the biocompatibility. As seen in the results of the dissolution test, a significant amount of damage was reduced even after more than 14 days. TEM and SEM showed no decomposition of HA to the secondary phase, and the fracture toughness increased, becoming even higher than that of the commercial hydroxyapatite.

  14. In vitro study of manganese-doped bioactive glasses for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, Marta; Brovarone, Chiara Vitale; Maina, Giovanni; Rossi, Federica; Bergandi, Loredana; Ghigo, Dario; Saracino, Silvia; Maggiora, Marina; Canuto, Rosa Angela; Muzio, Giuliana; Vernè, Enrica

    2014-01-01

    A glass belonging to the system SiO 2 –P 2 O 5 –CaO–MgO–Na 2 O–K 2 O was modified by introducing two different amounts of manganese oxide (MnO). Mn-doped glasses were prepared by melt and quenching technique and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) analysis. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a slight decrease in the reactivity kinetics of Mn-doped glasses compared to the glass used as control; however the glasses maintained a good degree of bioactivity. Mn-leaching test in SBF and minimum essential medium (MEM) revealed fluctuating trends probably due to a re-precipitation of Mn compounds during the bioactivity process. Cellular tests showed that all the Mn-doped glasses, up to a concentration of 50 μg/cm 2 (μg of glass powders/cm 2 of cell monolayer), did not produce cytotoxic effects on human MG-63 osteoblasts cultured for up to 5 days. Finally, biocompatibility tests demonstrated a good osteoblast proliferation and spreading on Mn-doped glasses and most of all that the Mn-doping can promote the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and some bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). - Highlights: • Novel bioactive glasses doped with manganese were prepared. • Mn-doped bioactive glasses were not cytotoxic towards human MG-63 osteoblasts. • The Mn introduction promotes the expression of ALP and bone morphogenetic proteins. • Mn-doped glass may be a promising material for bone regeneration procedures

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} containing BaO-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leenakul, W.; Kantha, P.; Pisitpipathsin, N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Rujijanagul, G.; Eitssayeam, S. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Pengpat, K., E-mail: kamonpan.p@cmu.ac.th [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2013-01-15

    The incorporation method was employed to produce bioactive glass-ceramics from the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}-SiO{sub 2}-CaO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system. The ferrimagnetic BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} was first prepared using a simple mixed oxide method, where the oxide precursors of 45S5 bioglass were initially mixed and then melted to form glass. The devitrification of Na{sub 3}Ca{sub 6}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was observed in all of the quenched glass samples. The glass samples were then subjected to a heat treatment schedule for further crystallization. It was found that the small traces of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} phases started to crystallize in high BF content samples of 20 and 40 wt%. These samples also exhibited good magnetic properties comparable to that of other magnetic glass-ceramics. The bioactivity of the BF glass-ceramics improved with increasing BF content as was evident by the formation of bone-like apatite layers on the surface of all of the glass-ceramics after soaking in SBF for 14 days. The results support the use of these bioactive glass-ceramics for hyperthermia treatment within the human body. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BF addition improves the magnetic property and bioactivity of 45S5 bioglasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioglass-ceramics exhibited soft magnetic properties with Mr=14.850 emu/g. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property can be enhanced by crystallization of BF in 45S5 bioglasses.

  16. Novel cobalt releasing sol-gel derived bioactive glass for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana Celeste Ximenes; Barrioni, Breno Rocha; Leite, Maria de Fatima; Pereira, Marivalda Magalhaes

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Bone defects are caused by traumas, congenital disorders or infections, and bone grafts are the usual treatment. However, limitations of this therapy have lead to the advance of tissue engineering approaches. Bioactive glasses (BG) are an attractive bioactive ceramic for bone repair [1], due to its osteogenic properties and capability of releasing different ions, inducing specific biological responses. Tissue repair depends also on blood vessels formation. Among angiogenic agents, cobalt ion has been regarded as strategic component to incorporate into ion releasing materials. In this study, 5% (molar) cobalt releasing BG was synthesized by sol-gel method. To characterize the material, powder samples were evaluated by FTIR and DRX. To access the cytotoxic effects, MTT and LIVE/DEAD tests were performed on osteoblasts exposed to the ionic product of the material (100 μg/mL) for 72h. FTIR analysis reveals typical absorption bands of present groups in BG. X-ray diffractogram of DRX confirmed the amorphous character of BG, without the occurrence of recrystallization of cobalt precursor, suggesting that cobalt incorporation was well succeeded. MTT test showed that cells exposed to ionic product presented high levels of metabolic activity. LIVE/DEAD assay evidenced that cell membrane integrity and intracellular esterases activity were preserved. Both cytotoxic tests proved that cobalt-BG material generated a cell friendly environment. This work shows that BG with cobalt agent presented proper structural features and a non-cytotoxic behaviour. Reference: [1] Hench LL, J Mater Sci Mater Med 17(11), 967-78 (2006). (author)

  17. Sol-gel processing of glasses and glass-ceramics for microelectronic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, M.A.; Kumta, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been made in electronic packaging substrate technology. The future need of miniaturization of devices to increase the signal processing speeds calls for an increase in the device density requiring the substrates to be designed for better thermal, mechanical and electrical efficiency. Fast signal propagation with minimum delay requires the substrate to possess very low dielectric constant. Several glasses and glass-ceramic materials have been identified over the years which show good promise as candidate substrate materials. among these borophosphate and borophosphosilicate glass-ceramics have been recently identified to have the lowest dielectric constant. This paper reports that sol-gel processing has been used to synthesize borosilicate, borophosphosilicate and borophosphate glasses and glass-ceramics using inexpensive boron oxide and phosphorus pentoxide precursors. Preliminary results of the processing of these gels and the effect of volatility of boron alkoxide and its modification on the gel structure are described. X-ray diffraction, Differential thermal analyses and FTIR have been used to characterize the as-prepared and heat treated gels

  18. Application of magnetron sputtering for producing bioactive ceramic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    time is to coat the metal surface with a bioactive material that can promote rapid ... metal implant and the surrounding tissue because of their close similarity to the ... good control of coating composition, a good adhesion of the coating to the ...

  19. Progress in development of a source term for sphene glass-ceramic dissolution under vault conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.; Tait, J.C.; George, I.M.; Carmichael, A.A.; Ross, J.M.P.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the results of ongoing leaching experiments, involving aluminosilicate glass and sphene (CaTiSiO/sub 5/) ceramics, doped with /sup 22/Na or /sup 45/Ca, and leached in a simulated Ca-NA-Cl brine at 25 0 or 100 0 C. The experiments are designed to aid development of separate models for the dissolution of the glass and the ceramic phase in a sphene glass-ceramic, and to help evaluate a composite model for the dissolution of the glass-ceramic

  20. Ceramic Surface Treatment with a Single-component Primer: Resin Adhesion to Glass Ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Mayara; Prochnow, Catina; Marchionatti, Ana Maria Estivalete; Baldissara, Paolo; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe

    2018-04-19

    To evaluate the microshear bond strength (μSBS) of composite cement bonded to two machined glass ceramics and its durability, comparing conventional surface conditioning (hydrofluoric acid + silane) to a one-step primer (Monobond Etch & Prime). Machined slices of lithium disilicate ceramic (LDC) (IPS e.max CAD) and feldspathic ceramic (FC) (VITA Mark II) glass ceramics were divided into two groups (n = 10) according to two factors: 1. surface treatment: HF+S (ca 5% hydrofluoric acid [IPS Ceramic Etching GEL] + silane coupling agent [SIL; Monobond Plus]) or MEP (single-component ceramic conditioner; Monobond Etch & Prime); 2. storage condition: baseline (without aging; tested 24 h after cementing) or aged (70 days of water storage + 12,000 thermal cycles). Composite cement (Multilink Automix, Ivoclar Vivadent) was applied to starch matrices on the treated ceramic surfaces and photoactivated. A μSBS test was performed (0.5 mm/min) and the failure pattern was determined. Contact angle and micromorphological analyses were also performed. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test (α = 5%). For both ceramic materials, HF+S resulted in higher mean μSBS (MPa) at baseline (LDC: HF+S 21.2 ± 2.2 > MEP 10.4 ± 2.4; FC: HF+S 19.6 ± 4.3 > MEP 13.5 ± 5.4) and after aging (LDC: HF+S 14.64 ± 2.31 > MEP 9 ± 3.4; FC HF+S: 14.73 ± 3.33 > MEP 11.1 ± 3.3). HF+S resulted in a statistically significant decrease in mean μSBS after aging (p = 0.0001), while MEP yielded no significant reduction. The main failure type was adhesive between composite cement and ceramic. HF+S resuted in the lowest contact angle. Hydrofluoric acid + silane resulted in higher mean μSBS than Monobond Etch & Prime for both ceramics; however, Monobond Etch & Prime had stable bonding after aging.

  1. Addition of bioactive glass to glass ionomer cements: Effect on the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caluwé, T; Vercruysse, C W J; Ladik, I; Convents, R; Declercq, H; Martens, L C; Verbeeck, R M H

    2017-04-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are a subject of research because of their inferior mechanical properties, despite their advantages such as fluoride release and direct bonding to bone and teeth. Recent research aims to improve the bioactivity of the GICs and thereby improve mechanical properties on the long term. In this study, two types of bioactive glasses (BAG) (45S5F and CF9) are combined with GICs to evaluate the physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of the BAG-GIC combinations. The effect of the addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition and the use of smaller BAG particles on the BAG-GIC properties was also investigated. Conventional aluminosilicate glass (ASG) and (modified) BAG were synthesized by the melt method. BAG-GIC were investigated on setting time, compressive strength and bioactivity. Surface changes were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS and PO 4 3- -and Ca 2+ uptake in SBF. Biocompatibility of selected BAG-GICs was determined by a direct toxicity assay. The addition of BAG improves the bioactivity of the GIC, which can be observed by the formation of an apatite (Ap) layer, especially in CF9-containing GICs. More BAG leads to more bioactivity but decreases strength. The addition of Al 3+ to the BAG composition improves strength, but decreases bioactivity. BAGs with smaller particle sizes have no effect on bioactivity and decrease strength. The formation of an Ap layer seems beneficial to the biocompatibility of the BAG-GICs. Bioactive GICs may have several advantages over conventional GICs, such as remineralization of demineralized tissue, adhesion and proliferation of bone- and dental cells, allowing integration in surrounding tissue. CF9 BAG-GIC combinations containing maximum 10mol% Al 3+ are most promising, when added in ≤20wt% to a GIC. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Glass-ceramic joint and method of joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Kerry D [Richland, WA; Vienna, John D [West Richland, WA; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Pederson, Larry R [Kennewick, WA

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is a glass-ceramic material and method of making useful for joining a solid ceramic component and at least one other solid component. The material is a blend of M1-M2-M3, wherein M1 is BaO, SrO, CaO, MgO, or combinations thereof, M2 is Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, present in the blend in an amount from 2 to 15 mol %, M3 is SiO.sub.2 with up to 50 mol % B.sub.2 O.sub.3 that substantially matches a coefficient of thermal expansion of the solid electrolyte. According to the present invention, a series of glass ceramics in the M1-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -M3 system can be used to join or seal both tubular and planar solid oxide fuel cells, oxygen electrolyzers, and membrane reactors for the production of syngas, commodity chemicals and other products.

  3. Consolidated waste forms: glass marbles and ceramic pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treat, R.L.; Rusin, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Glass marbles and ceramic pellets have been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the multibarrier concept for immobilizing high-level radioactive waste. These consolidated waste forms served as substrates for the application of various inert coatings and as ideal-sized particles for encapsulation in protective matrices. Marble and pellet formulations were based on existing defense wastes at Savannah River Plant and proposed commercial wastes. To produce marbles, glass is poured from a melter in a continuous stream into a marble-making device. Marbles were produced at PNL on a vibratory marble machine at rates as high as 60 kg/h. Other marble-making concepts were also investigated. The marble process, including a lead-encapsulation step, was judged as one of the more feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes. To produce ceramic pellets, a series of processing steps are required, which include: spray calcining - to dry liquid wastes to a powder; disc pelletizing - to convert waste powders to spherical pellets; sintering - to densify pellets and cause desired crystal formation. These processing steps are quite complex, and thereby render the ceramic pellet process as one of the least feasible processes for immobilizing high-level wastes

  4. Electrophoretic deposition of chitosan/45S5 bioactive glass composite coatings doped with Zn and Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the original 45S5 bioactive glass (BG was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6% mol in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation, Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology, while compositional analysis (EDS demonstrated the effective addition of these elements inside the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF up to one month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD. The stability of the suspension was analysed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, while the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behaviour of 45S5-Sr containing coating, while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation.

  5. Risedronate adsorption on bioactive glass surface for applications as bone biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbahi, Siwar [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Orthopaedic and Traumatology Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Medicine, Sfax (Tunisia); Oudadesse, Hassane, E-mail: hassane.oudadesse@univ-rennes1.fr [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Lefeuvre, Bertand [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Barroug, Allal [University Cadi Ayyad, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); CNRST, Rabat (Morocco); Elfeki, Hafed [Science Materials and Environement Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Science, Sfax (Tunisia); Elfeki, Abdelfattah [Animal Ecophysiology Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Science, Department of Life Sciences, Sfax (Tunisia); Roiland, Claire [University of Rennes 1, UMR CNRS 6226, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes (France); Keskes, Hassib [Orthopaedic and Traumatology Laboratory, Sfax Faculty of Medicine, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2016-03-30

    Highlights: • The fixation of risèdronates on the bioactive glass surface has been highlighted. • Scanning electron microscopy shows the new morphology of this composite. • Chemical analyses reveal the stability of adsorption process after 40 min of incubation. - Abstract: The aim of the current work is to study the physicochemical interactions between bisphosphonates molecules, risedronate (RIS) and bioactive glass (46S6) after their association by adsorption phenomenon. To more understand the interaction processes of RIS with the 46S6 surface we have used complementary physicochemical techniques such as infrared (FTIR), Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The obtained results suggest that risedronate adsorption corresponds to an ion substitution reaction with silicon ions occurring at the bioactive glass surface. Thus, a pure bioactive glass was synthesized and fully characterized comparing the solids after adsorption (46S6-XRIS obtained after the interaction of 46S6 and X% risedronate). Therefore, based on the spectroscopic results FTIR, Raman and MAS-NMR, it can be concluded that strong interactions have been established between RIS ions and 46S6 surface. In fact, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy illustrate the fixation of risedronate on the bioactive glass surface by the appearance of several bands characterizing risedronate. The {sup 31}P MAS-NMR of the composite 46S6-XRIS show the presence of two species at a chemical shift of 15 and 19 ppm demonstrating thus the fixation of the RIS on 46S6 surface.

  6. Comparison of Calcium Hydroxide and Bioactive Glass after Direct Pulp Capping in Primary Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Haghgoo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bioactive glass is often used as a filler material for repair of dental bone defects.In different studies osteogenic potential of this material was proved, but its dentinogenesisproperty is in doubt. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp responses of Calcium hydroxide and Bioactive glass placed directly on exposed pulp tissues.Materials and Methods: Twenty teeth to be extracted due to orthodontic reasons were selected. These teeth were divided into two groups and treated with direct pulp capping.Calcium hydroxide was used for 10 teeth and Bioactive glass for 10 teeth. After 60 daysthe teeth were extracted and prepared for histological evaluation. Finally the data was analyzed with exact Fisher test.Results: All teeth treated with Calcium hydroxide showed inflammation. Internal resorption was seen in six teeth, abscess in five teeth and dentinal bridge in two teeth. Inflammationwas seen in three Bioactive glass samples and dentinal bridge in seven teeth, but internal resorption and abscess were not seen.Conclusion: Bioactive glass appears to be superior to Calcium hydroxide as a pulp capping agent in primary teeth.

  7. Scintillation and optical properties of TiO2-ZnO-Al2O3-B2O3 glasses and glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuki; Okada, Go; Kawaguchi, Noriaki; Masai, Hirokazu; Yanagida, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    13TiO2-xZnO-17Al2O3-(70 - x)B2O3 (x = 17, 26, and 35) glasses were prepared by a melt-quenching method, and the obtained glass samples were heated at temperatures 30 °C above the glass transition temperature of corresponding glass in order to obtain glass-ceramics. The obtained glass-ceramic samples were confirmed to have anatase (x = 17) and rutile (x = 26 and 35) phases from X-ray diffraction analysis. Then, the scintillation and optical properties were evaluated and discussed the difference between the glass-ceramic and glass samples. In the scintillation spectra under X-ray irradiation, a broad emission peak was observed around 450 nm in all the samples, and the new peak around 500 nm appeared in the anatase-precipitated glass-ceramic. The intensities of the glass-ceramic samples were enhanced in comparison with the corresponding glasses because the glass-ceramics includes TiO2 crystallites with defect centers which act as effective emission centers. The scintillation decay curves of the glass and glass-ceramic samples were approximated by one and a sum of two exponential decay functions, respectively. The faster component of glass and glass-ceramic samples would be caused by the host emission, and the slower component of glass-ceramic sample would be ascribed to the emission of Ti3+.

  8. Quantum efficiencies of near-infrared emission from Ni2+-doped glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Arai, Yusuke; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2008-01-01

    A systematic method to evaluate potentials of Ni 2+ -doped transparent glass-ceramics as a new broadband optical gain media is presented. At first, near-infrared emission of various ceramics were investigated to explore the suitable crystalline phase to be grown in the glass-ceramics. The quantum efficiency of Ni 2+ near-infrared emission estimated by the Struck-Fonger analysis was higher than 95% for spinel-type structure gallate crystals MgGa 2 O 4 and LiGa 5 O 8 at room temperature. Transparent glass-ceramics containing Ni 2+ :LiGa 5 O 8 could be prepared and the quantum efficiency for the glass-ceramics was measured to be about 10%. This value shows a potential of Ni-doped transparent glass-ceramics as a broadband gain media

  9. In vitro study of polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite coatings on corrosion and bioactivity of pure Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yuyun; Michalczyk, Carolin [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Singer, Ferdinand [Institute of Surface Science and Corrosion, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Virtanen, Sannakaisa, E-mail: virtanen@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Surface Science and Corrosion, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Boccaccini, Aldo R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [Institute of Biomaterials, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Bioactive glass nanoparticles (nBG) enhance bioactivity of PCL coatings on Mg. • Barrier properties of PCL can be altered by nBG addition. • Degradation of PCL increased by addition of nBG. - Abstract: The influence of the addition of nano-scaled bioactive glass (nBG) powder into polycaprolactone (PCL) coatings on the biodegradation and bioactivity of pure Mg was investigated in the present work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the morphology, chemical composition and anticorrosion properties of the coatings. The results indicate that nBG addition in PCL increases the degradation of PCL in physiological solution; depending on the amount of nBG in the composite coating, the barrier properties of PCL therefore can be modified. At the same time, the addition of nBG facilitates the formation of hydroxyapatite during 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  10. Crystallization kinetics of bioactive glasses in the ZnO-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Gianluca; Lusvardi, Gigliola; Pedone, Alfonso; Menziani, Maria Cristina; Dappiaggi, Monica; Gualtieri, Alessandro; Menabue, Ledi

    2007-08-30

    stability field of the crystalline phases with the view of creating a different glass ceramic useful in the field of bioactive materials.

  11. Examining porous bio-active glass as a potential osteo-odonto-keratoprosthetic skirt material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtinen, Reeta; Sandeman, Susan; Rose, Susanna; Fok, Elsie; Howell, Carol; Fröberg, Linda; Moritz, Niko; Hupa, Leena; Lloyd, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Bio-active glass has been developed for use as a bone substitute with strong osteo-inductive capacity and the ability to form strong bonds with soft and hard tissue. The ability of this material to enhance tissue in-growth suggests its potential use as a substitute for the dental laminate of an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A preliminary in vitro investigation of porous bio-active glass as an OOKP skirt material was carried out. Porous glass structures were manufactured from bio-active glasses 1-98 and 28-04 containing varying oxide formulation (1-98, 28-04) and particle size range (250-315 μm for 1-98 and 28-04a, 315-500 μm for 28-04b). Dissolution of the porous glass structure and its effect on pH was measured. Structural 2D and 3D analysis of porous structures were performed. Cell culture experiments were carried out to study keratocyte adhesion and the inflammatory response induced by the porous glass materials. The dissolution results suggested that the porous structure made out of 1-98 dissolves faster than the structures made from glass 28-04. pH experiments showed that the dissolution of the porous glass increased the pH of the surrounding solution. The cell culture results showed that keratocytes adhered onto the surface of each of the porous glass structures, but cell adhesion and spreading was greatest for the 98a bio-glass. Cytokine production by all porous glass samples was similar to that of the negative control indicating that the glasses do not induce a cytokine driven inflammatory response. Cell culture results support the potential use of synthetic porous bio-glass as an OOKP skirt material in terms of limited inflammatory potential and capacity to induce and support tissue ingrowth.

  12. Reduced wear of enamel with novel fine and nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulos, Antonios; Chen, Xiaohui; Hill, Robert; Cattell, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Leucite glass-ceramics used to produce all-ceramic restorations can suffer from brittle fracture and wear the opposing teeth. High strength and fine crystal sized leucite glass-ceramics have recently been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate whether fine and nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics with minimal matrix microcracking are associated with a reduction in in vitro tooth wear. Human molar cusps (n=12) were wear tested using a Bionix-858 testing machine (300,000 simulated masticatory cycles) against experimental fine crystal sized (FS), nano-scale crystal sized (NS) leucite glass-ceramics and a commercial leucite glass-ceramic (Ceramco-3, Dentsply, USA). Wear was imaged using Secondary Electron Imaging (SEI) and quantified using white-light profilometry. Both experimental groups were found to produce significantly (pceramic) loss than the FS group. Increased waviness and damage was observed on the wear surfaces of the Ceramco-3 glass-ceramic disc/tooth group in comparison to the experimental groups. This was also indicated by higher surface roughness values for the Ceramco-3 glass-ceramic disc/tooth group. Fine and nano-sized leucite glass-ceramics produced a reduction in in vitro tooth wear. The high strength low wear materials of this study may help address the many problems associated with tooth enamel wear and restoration failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Machinable glass-ceramics forming as a restorative dental material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaysuwan, Duangrudee; Sirinukunwattana, Krongkarn; Kanchanatawewat, Kanchana; Heness, Greg; Yamashita, Kimihiro

    2011-01-01

    MgO, SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), MgF(2), CaF(2), CaCO(3), SrCO(3), and P(2)O(5) were used to prepare glass-ceramics for restorative dental materials. Thermal properties, phases, microstructures and hardness were characterized by DTA, XRD, SEM and Vickers microhardness. Three-point bending strength and fracture toughness were applied by UTM according to ISO 6872: 1997(E). XRD showed that the glass crystallized at 892°C (second crystallization temperature+20°C) for 3 hrs consisted mainly of calcium-mica and fluorapatite crystalline phases. Average hardness (3.70 GPa) closely matched human enamel (3.20 GPa). The higher fracture toughness (2.04 MPa√m) combined with the hardness to give a lower brittleness index (1.81 µm(-1/2)) which indicates that they have exceptional machinability. Bending strength results (176.61 MPa) were analyzed by Weibull analysis to determine modulus value (m=17.80). Machinability of the calcium mica-fluorapatite glass-ceramic was demonstrated by fabricating with CAD/CAM.

  14. Materials analyses of ceramics for glass furnace recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.W.; Tennery, V.J.

    1979-11-01

    The use of waste heat recuperation systems offers significant promise for meaningful energy conservation in the process heat industries. This report details the analysis of candidate ceramic recuperator materials exposed to simulated industrial glass furnace hot flue gas environments. Several candidate structural ceramic materials including various types of silicon carbide, several grades of alumina, mullite, cordierite, and silicon nitride were exposed to high-temperature flue gas atmospheres from specially constructed day tank furnaces. Furnace charging, operation, and batch composition were selected to closely simulate industrial practice. Material samples were exposed in flues both with and without glass batch in the furnace for times up to 116 d at temperatures from 1150 to 1550/sup 0/C (2100 to 2800/sup 0/F). Exposed materials were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence to identify material degradation mechanisms. The materials observations were summarized as: Silicon carbide exhibited enhanced corrosion at lower temperatures (1150/sup 0/C) when alkalies were deposited on the carbide from the flue gas and less corrosion at higher temperatures (1550/sup 0/C) when alkalies were not deposited on the carbide; alumina corrosion depended strongly upon purity and density and alumina contents less than 99.8% were unsatisfactory above 1400/sup 0/C; and mullite and cordierite are generally unacceptable for application in soda-lime glass melting environments at temperatures above 1100/sup 0/C.

  15. Immobilization of radioactive wastes in glasses and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotto, E.D.

    1983-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive liquid wastes arises from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to recover uranium and plutonium. Immobilization of such wastes in solid form and disposal of the solidified wastes in safe places, to prevent contamination of the human environment, are topics of considerable interest for both the scientific community and the public in general. The great majority of materials candidate for the encapsulation of radioactive wastes are inorganic non-metalic, such as glasses, glass-ceramics, special cements, calcined ceramics and few more. Among these materials, certain glasses have received special attention, and are being studied for over twenty years. It is estimated that about US$2 billion have already been spent in these studies. The disposal (long term storage) of these solid wastes may be possible in deep geological formations, salt mines, the ocean bed, by evacuation to the outer space, etc. A brief review on the several options avaiable for encapsulation and disposal of high level radioactive liquid wastes is presented, along with the relative merits and disadvantages of the candidate materials for encapsulation. A few suggestions for the solution of the Brazilian problem are advanced. (Author) [pt

  16. Effect of additional materials on the properties of glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W

    2004-07-01

    There are 21 Metro-waste incinerators in Taiwan under construction and are expected to be finished at year 2003. It is estimated that these incinerators will produce about two million tons of incinerator ash. In order to reduce the volume and eliminate contamination problems, high temperature molten technology studies have been conducted. The purpose of this research was that of trying to control the chemical composition of the glass-ceramic produced from incinerator fly ash, in order to improve the characteristics of the glass-ceramic. The experimental results showed that the additional materials, Mg(OH)2 and waste glass cullet, can change glass-ceramic phases from gehlenite to augite, pigeonite, and diopside. The physical, mechanical and chemical resistance properties of the glass-ceramic also showed much better characteristics than prepared glass-ceramic using incinerator fly ash alone.

  17. In vitro study of manganese-doped bioactive glasses for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, Marta; Brovarone, Chiara Vitale; Maina, Giovanni; Rossi, Federica; Bergandi, Loredana; Ghigo, Dario; Saracino, Silvia; Maggiora, Marina; Canuto, Rosa Angela; Muzio, Giuliana; Vernè, Enrica

    2014-05-01

    A glass belonging to the system SiO2-P2O5-CaO-MgO-Na2O-K2O was modified by introducing two different amounts of manganese oxide (MnO). Mn-doped glasses were prepared by melt and quenching technique and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS) analysis. In vitro bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed a slight decrease in the reactivity kinetics of Mn-doped glasses compared to the glass used as control; however the glasses maintained a good degree of bioactivity. Mn-leaching test in SBF and minimum essential medium (MEM) revealed fluctuating trends probably due to a re-precipitation of Mn compounds during the bioactivity process. Cellular tests showed that all the Mn-doped glasses, up to a concentration of 50 μg/cm(2) (μg of glass powders/cm(2) of cell monolayer), did not produce cytotoxic effects on human MG-63 osteoblasts cultured for up to 5 days. Finally, biocompatibility tests demonstrated a good osteoblast proliferation and spreading on Mn-doped glasses and most of all that the Mn-doping can promote the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and some bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Augite-anorthite glass-ceramics from residues of basalt quarry and ceramic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Khater

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dark brown glasses were prepared from residues of basalt quarries and wastes of ceramic factories. Addition of CaF2, Cr2O3 and their mixture CaF2-Cr2O3 were used as nucleation catalysts. Generally, structures with augite and anorthite as major phases and small amount of magnetite and olivine phases were developed through the crystallization process. In the samples heat treated at 900 °C the dominant phase is augite, whereas the content of anorthite usually overcomes the augite at higher temperature (1100 °C. Fine to medium homogenous microstructures were detected in the prepared glass-ceramic samples. The coefficient of thermal expansion and microhardness measurements of the glass-ceramic samples were from 6.16×10-6 to 8.96×10-6 °C-1 (in the 20–500 °C and 5.58 to 7.16 GP, respectively.

  19. [Machinable property of a novel dental mica glass-ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ji-hua; Li, Na; Ma, Xin-pei; Zhao, Ying-hua; Sun, Xiang; Li, Guang-xin

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the machinability of a novel dental mica glass-ceramic and analyze the effect of heat-treatment on its ductile machinable behavior. The drilling and turning experiment were used to measure the machinabilities of the control group (feldspar ceramic: Vita Mark II) and 7 experiment groups treated with different crystallization techniques. The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The average drilling depths in 30 s of the experimental groups ranged from (0.5 +/- 0.1) mm to (7.1 +/- 0.8) mm. There were significant differences between the control [(0.8 +/- 0.1) mm] and the experimental groups (P machining at a high velocity and cut depth. The crystal portion of this group is only about 40%. This material has a satisfactory machinability. The mechanism could be attributed to a combination of the interlocked structure of mica crystals and the low viscosity of glassy phase.

  20. Effect of CASP glass doping on sintering and dielectric properties of SBN ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guohua; Qi Bing

    2009-01-01

    16CaO-29Al 2 O 3 -34SiO 2 -13PbO-4B 2 O 3 -2ZnO-2P 2 O 5 (CASP) glass doped-Sr 0.5 Ba 0.5 Nb 2 O 6 (SBN50) ceramics have been synthesized by solid-state ceramic route. The effects of CASP glass on the firing, microstructure and dielectric characterization of SBN50 ceramics are investigated. The densities of the ceramic samples firstly increase and then slightly decrease with increasing CASP glass content. The appropriate amount of doping glass is 2%. The SBN50 ceramics doped with CASP glass can be sintered at a relatively low temperature, 1200 deg. C. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the single phase (tetragonal tungsten bronze type structure) is preserved for all the samples. The diffuse character of the ceramic system increases and the dielectric constant at phase transition temperature (T c ) markedly decreases as CASP glass content increases. Interestingly, the CASP glass addition drastically alters the microstructure of the sintered ceramics. The isotropic grains in the pure SBN50 ceramics transform to rod like grains after the addition of CASP glass. The grain size of SBN phase is found to obviously increase with increase in CASP glass doping level

  1. Tough and strong porous bioactive glass-PLA composites for structural bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Zaeem, Mohsen Asle; Li, Guangda; Bal, B Sonny; Rahaman, Mohamed N

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds have been used to heal small contained bone defects but their application to repairing structural bone is limited by concerns about their mechanical reliability. In the present study, the addition of an adherent polymer layer to the external surface of strong porous bioactive glass (13-93) scaffolds was investigated to improve their toughness. Finite element modeling (FEM) of the flexural mechanical response of beams composed of a porous glass and an adherent polymer layer predicted a reduction in the tensile stress in the glass with increasing thickness and elastic modulus of the polymer layer. Mechanical testing of composites with structures similar to the models, formed from 13-93 glass and polylactic acid (PLA), showed trends predicted by the FEM simulations but the observed effects were considerably more dramatic. A PLA layer of thickness -400 µm, equal to -12.5% of the scaffold thickness, increased the load-bearing capacity of the scaffold in four-point bending by ~50%. The work of fracture increased by more than 10,000%, resulting in a non-brittle mechanical response. These bioactive glass-PLA composites, combining bioactivity, high strength, high work of fracture and an internal architecture shown to be conducive to bone infiltration, could provide optimal implants for healing structural bone defects.

  2. The electronic conduction of glass and glass ceramics containing various transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, T.; Matsuno, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Nb 2 O 5 -V 2 O 5 -P 2 O 5 glasses containing only Group Va oxides have been investigated to elucidate their electronic conduction and structure, as compared with other glasses obtained by the addition of various transition metal oxides to vanadium phosphate. The P 2 O 5 introduction for Nb 2 O 5 in this glass with the same amount of V 2 O 5 increased the conductivity about two times. Glass ceramics having high conductivity increased by two orders of magnitude and the activation energy for conduction decreased from about 0.5 to 0.2 eV. The crystals were confirmed to be (V,Nb) 2 O 5 and Nb phosphate, one of which was highly conductive and developed a pillar-like shape with a length of more than 20 μm. (orig.)

  3. Cladding glass ceramic for use in high powered lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, Alexander J.; Campbell, John H.

    1998-01-01

    A Cu-doped/Fe-doped low expansion glass ceramic composition comprising in Wt. %: SiO{sub 2} 50--65; Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} 18--27; P{sub 2}O{sub 5} 0--10; Li{sub 2}O 2--6; Na{sub 2}O 0--2; K{sub 2}O 0--2; B{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1; MgO 0--4; ZnO 0--5; CaO 0--4; BaO 0--5; TiO{sub 2} 1--3; ZrO{sub 3} 1--3; As{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1.5; CuO 0--3; and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} 0--1 wherein the total amount of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P{sub 2}O{sub 5} is 80--89 wt. %, and said glass ceramic contains as a dopant 0.1--3 wt. % CuO, 0.1--1 wt. % Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or a combined CuO+Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} amount of 0.1--4 wt. %. The glass ceramic composition is suitable for use as a cladding material for solid laser energy storage mediums as well as for use in beam attenuators for measuring laser energy level and beam blocks or beam dumps used for absorbing excess or unused laser energy.

  4. Preparation and leaching property of Nd-doped zirconolite-based glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lang; Xu Dong; Teng Yuancheng; Li Yuxiang; Liu Zongqiang

    2014-01-01

    Nd-doped zirconolite-based glass-ceramics were prepared by melting-heat treatment technique. The effects of heat treatment processing on phase structure of the glass-ceramics were investigated. The leaching properties of the glass-ceramics were also evaluated by static leaching experiments (product consistency test, PCT). The results show that glass transformation temperature (T g ) and crystallization temperature of the glass-ceramics are about 580℃ and 740℃, respectively. CaTiO 3 phase forms easily when the glass-ceramics were prepared by two-step method, i.e. the glass was prepared first, and then it was heat-treated at the crystallization temperatures. 2M-zirconolite phase can be obtained by one-step method, i.e. the heat-treatment immediately followed by the melting process. In addition, the zirconolite crystals exhibit a dendritic shape. The normalized mass loss of B and Na in the glass-ceramics remains almost unchanged (about 1 mg/m 2 ) after 14 days, while the normalized mass loss of Nd reaches stable value (about 0.2 mg/m 2 ) after 28 days. The normalized mass loss of B, Na, and Nd in the glass-ceramics is an order of magnitude lower than that of borosilicate glasses, respectively. (authors)

  5. Crystallization of high-strength nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharopoulos, A; Chen, X; Wilson, R M; Hill, R; Cattell, M J

    2013-11-01

    Fine-grained, high strength, translucent leucite dental glass-ceramics are synthesized via controlled crystallization of finely milled glass powders. The objectives of this study were to utilize high speed planetary milling of an aluminosilicate glass for controlled surface crystallization of nano-scale leucite glass-ceramics and to test the biaxial flexural strength. An aluminosilicate glass was synthesized, attritor or planetary milled and heat-treated. Glasses and glass-ceramics were characterized using particle size analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Experimental (fine and nanoscale) and commercial (Ceramco-3, IPS Empress Esthetic) leucite glass-ceramics were tested using the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) test. Gaussian and Weibull statistics were applied. Experimental planetary milled glass-ceramics showed an increased leucite crystal number and nano-scale median crystal sizes (0.048-0.055 μm(2)) as a result of glass particle size reduction and heat treatments. Experimental materials had significantly (p0.05) strength difference. All other groups' mean BFS and characteristic strengths were found to be significantly different (pglass-ceramics with high flexural strength. These materials may help to reduce problems associated with brittle fracture of all-ceramic restorations and give reduced enamel wear. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Dynamic fatigue of a machinable glass-ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, K. K.; Magida, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    To assess the stress-corrosion susceptibility of a machinable glass-ceramic, its dynamic fatigue behavior was investigated by measuring its strength as a function of stress rate. Fracture mechanics techniques were used to analyze the results for the purpose of making lifetime predictions for components of this material. This material was concluded to have only moderate resistance (N = 30) to stress corrosion in ambient conditions. The effects of specimen size on strength were assessed for the material used in this study; it was concluded that the Weibull edge-flaw scaling law adequately describes the observed strength-size relation.

  7. Structure-solubility relationships in fluoride-containing phosphate based bioactive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaharyar, Yaqoot

    The dissolution of fluoride-containing bioactive glasses critically affects their biomedical applications. Most commercial fluoride-releasing bioactive glasses have been designed in the soda-lime-silica system. However, their relatively slow chemical dissolution and the adverse effect of fluoride on their bioactivity are stimulating the study of novel biodegradable materials with higher bioactivity, such as biodegradable phosphate-based bioactive glasses, which can be a viable alternative for applications where a fast release of active ions is sought. In order to design new biomaterials with controlled degradability and high bioactivity, it is essential to understand the connection between chemical composition, molecular structure, and solubility in physiological fluids.Accordingly, in this work we have combined the strengths of various experimental techniques with Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations, to elucidate the impact of fluoride ions on the structure and chemical dissolution of bioactive phosphate glasses in the system: 10Na2O - (45-x) CaO - 45P2O5 - xCaF2, where x varies between 0 -- 10 mol.%. NMR and MD data reveal that the medium-range atomic-scale structure of thse glasses is dominated by Q2 phosphate units followed by Q1 units, and the MD simulations further show that fluoride tends to associate with network modifier cations to form alkali/alkaline-earth rich ionic aggregates. On a macroscopic scale, we find that incorporating fluoride in phosphate glasses does not affect the rate of apatite formation on the glass surface in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, fluoride has a marked favorable impact on the glass dissolution in deionized water. Similarly, fluoride incorporation in the glasses results in significant weight gain due to adsorption of water (in the form of OH ions). These macroscopic trends are discussed on the basis of the F effect on the atomistic structure of the glasses, such as the F-induced phosphate network re-polymerization, in a

  8. Glass-ceramics frits for high mechanical resistance glazes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajek, M.; Lis, J.; Partyka, J.; Wojczyk, M.

    2004-01-01

    The obtaining and application of glass-ceramics frits for glazes were discussed by many authors. This glazes are characterized by raised mechanical parameters and chemical resistance. Factors, that determines crystallization process are initial composition, heat treatment and nucleation agents. The kind of crystalline phases, crystal habit and the content of residual glass phase play the decisive role in the strengthening of the glaze. In this paper are shown results of investigation over controlled crystallization in the ternary systems; Li 2 O-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , CaO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , ZnO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , MgO-Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 , with or without nucleation agents. (author)

  9. Hydrogel/bioactive glass composites for bone regeneration applications: Synthesis and characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killion, John A.; Kehoe, Sharon; Geever, Luke M.; Devine, Declan M.; Sheehan, Eoin; Boyd, Daniel; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the deficiencies of current commercially available biological bone grafts, alternative bone graft substitutes have come to the forefront of tissue engineering in recent times. The main challenge for scientists in manufacturing bone graft substitutes is to obtain a scaffold that has sufficient mechanical strength and bioactive properties to promote formation of new tissue. The ability to synthesise hydrogel based composite scaffolds using photopolymerisation has been demonstrated in this study. The prepared hydrogel based composites were characterised using techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), rheological studies and compression testing. In addition, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), porosity and swelling studies of the composites were carried out. It was found that these novel hydrogel bioglass composite formulations did not display the inherent brittleness that is typically associated with bioactive glass based bone graft materials and exhibited enhanced biomechanical properties compared to the polyethylene glycol hydrogel scaffolds along. Together, the combination of enhanced mechanical properties and the deposition of apatite on the surface of these hydrogel based composites make them an ideal candidate as bone graft substitutes in cancellous bone defects or low load bearing applications. Highlights: • Young's modulus increases with the addition of bioactive glasses. • Hydrogel based composites formed an apatite layer in simulated body fluid. • Storage modulus increases with addition of bioactive glasses. • Compressive strength is dependent on molecular weight and bioactive glass loading

  10. Synthesis and In Vitro Activity Assessment of Novel Silicon Oxycarbide-Based Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gonzalo-Juan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel bioactive glasses based on a Ca- and Mg-modified silicon oxycarbide (SiCaMgOC were prepared from a polymeric single-source precursor, and their in vitro activity towards hydroxyapatite mineralization was investigated upon incubating the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF at 37 °C. The as-prepared materials exhibit an outstanding resistance against devitrification processes and maintain their amorphous nature even after exposure to 1300 °C. The X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of the SiCaMgOC samples after the SBF test showed characteristic reflections of apatite after only three days, indicating a promising bioactivity. The release kinetics of the Ca2+ and Mg2+ and the adsorption of H+ after immersion of SiCaMgOC in simulated body fluid for different soaking times were analyzed via optical emission spectroscopy. The results show that the mechanism of formation of apatite on the surface of the SiCaMgOC powders is similar to that observed for standard (silicate bioactive glasses. A preliminary cytotoxicity investigation of the SiOC-based bioactive glasses was performed in the presence of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF as well as human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293. Due to their excellent high-temperature crystallization resistance in addition to bioactivity, the Ca- and Mg-modified SiOC glasses presented here might have high potential in applications related to bone repair and regeneration.

  11. Dense and porous glass and glass ceramics from natural and waste raw materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marangoni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the herewith presented research activities was to develop innovative processes and materials for building applications adapted to the needs of Saudi Arabia according to the information exchanged with the partners from KACST (King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology). The research activity focused on the development of a wide range of ceramic components via sinter-crystallization of glasses produced from waste (fly ash, slag, sludge) with or without the addition of vit...

  12. Structural, thermal, and optical properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped oxyhalide tellurite glasses, glass-ceramics and ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.; Rai, R.N.; Rai, S.B.

    2012-01-01

    Glass-ceramics and ceramics containing nano-crystals of different phases doped with Er 3+ /Yb 3+ ions have been successfully prepared by heat treatment of the precursor oxyhalide glasses synthesized by the melt-quench method. X-ray diffraction patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images verify the precipitation of nano-crystals. Emission of Er 3+ enhances several times when Yb 3+ ion is added with the matrix. The Stark splitting and the intensity of different emission bands increase to a great extent when we approach to ceramics from glasses via glass-ceramics. The intensity of the blue and green emission bands increases much faster than the red and NIR emission bands. Intense upconversion emission observed by the naked eye has been quantified in terms of standard chromaticity diagram (CIE). Power dependence study shows that the upconversion of NIR radiation to visible radiation takes place mainly via photon avalanche (PA) process.

  13. Novel resorbable glass-ceramic scaffolds for hard tissue engineering: from the parent phosphate glass to its bone-like macroporous derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretcanu, Oana; Baino, Francesco; Verné, Enrica; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges of hard tissue engineering research focuses on the development of scaffolds that can match the mechanical properties of the host bone and resorb at the same rate as the bone is repaired. The aim of this work was the synthesis and characterization of a resorbable phosphate glass, as well as its application for the fabrication of three dimensional (3-D) scaffolds for bone regeneration. The glass microstructure and behaviour upon heating were analysed by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and hot stage microscopy. The glass solubility was investigated according to relevant ISO standards using distilled water, simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-HCl as testing media. The glass underwent progressive dissolution over time in all three media but the formation of a hydroxyapatite-like layer was also observed on the samples soaked in SBF and Tris-HCl, which demonstrated the bioactivity of the material. The glass powder was used to fabricate 3-D macroporous bone-like glass-ceramic scaffolds by adopting polyethylene particles as pore formers: during thermal treatment, the polymer additive was removed and the sintering of glass particles was allowed. The obtained scaffolds exhibited high porosity (87 vol.%) and compressive strength around 1.5 MPa. After soaking for 4 months in SBF, the scaffolds mass loss was 76 wt.% and the pH of the solution did not exceed the 7.55 value, thereby remaining in a physiological range. The produced scaffolds, being resorbable, bioactive, architecturally similar to trabecular bone and exhibiting interesting mechanical properties, can be proposed as promising candidates for bone repair applications.

  14. Fatigue failure load of two resin-bonded zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate glass-ceramics: Effect of ceramic thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Jaiane Bandoli; Riquieri, Hilton; Prochnow, Catina; Guilardi, Luís Felipe; Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; de Melo, Renata Marques; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of ceramic thickness on the fatigue failure load of two zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS) glass-ceramics, adhesively cemented to a dentin analogue material. Disc-shaped specimens were allocated into 8 groups (n=25) considering two study factors: ZLS ceramic type (Vita Suprinity - VS; and Celtra Duo - CD), and ceramic thickness (1.0; 1.5; 2.0; and 2.5mm). A trilayer assembly (ϕ=10mm; thickness=3.5mm) was designed to mimic a bonded monolithic restoration. The ceramic discs were etched, silanized and luted (Variolink N) into a dentin analogue material. Fatigue failure load was determined using the Staircase method (100,000 cycles at 20Hz; initial fatigue load ∼60% of the mean monotonic load-to-failure; step size ∼5% of the initial fatigue load). A stainless-steel piston (ϕ=40mm) applied the load into the center of the specimens submerged in water. Fractographic analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) were also performed. The ceramic thickness influenced the fatigue failure load for both ZLS materials: Suprinity (716N up to 1119N); Celtra (404N up to 1126N). FEA showed that decreasing ceramic thickness led to higher stress concentration on the cementing interface. Different ZLS glass-ceramic thicknesses influenced the fatigue failure load of the bonded system (i.e. the thicker the glass ceramic is, the higher the fatigue failure load will be). Different microstructures of the ZLS glass-ceramics might affect the fatigue behavior. FEA showed that the thicker the glass ceramic is, the lower the stress concentration at the tensile surface will be. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphate glass fibre scaffolds: Tailoring of the properties and enhancement of the bioactivity through mesoporous glass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novajra, G; Boetti, N G; Lousteau, J; Fiorilli, S; Milanese, D; Vitale-Brovarone, C

    2016-10-01

    Novel bone glass fibre scaffolds were developed by thermally bonding phosphate glass fibres belonging to the P2O5-CaO-Na2O-SiO2-MgO-K2O-TiO2 system (TiPS2.5 glass). Scaffolds with fibres of 85 or 110μm diameter were fabricated, showing compressive strength in the range of 2-3.5MPa, comparable to that of the trabecular bone. The effect of different thermal treatments and fibre diameters and length on the final scaffold structure was investigated by means of micro-CT analysis. The change of the sintering time from 30 to 60min led to a decrease in the scaffold overall porosity from 58 to 21vol.% for the 85μm fibre scaffold and from 50 to 40vol.% when increasing the sintering temperature from 490 to 500°C for the 110μm fibre scaffold. The 85μm fibres resulted in an increase of the scaffold overall porosity, increased pore size and lower trabecular thickness; the use of different fibre diameters allowed the fabrication of a scaffold showing a porosity gradient. In order to impart bioactive properties to the scaffold, for the first time in the literature the introduction in these fibre scaffolds of a bioactive phase, a melt-derived bioactive glass (CEL2) powder or spray-dried mesoporous bioactive glass particles (SD-MBG) was investigated. The scaffold bioactivity was assessed through soaking in simulated body fluid. CEL2/glass fibre scaffold did not show promising results due to particle detachment from the fibres during soaking in simulated body fluid. Instead the use of mesoporous bioactive powders showed to be an effective way to impart bioactivity to the scaffold and could be further exploited in the future through the ability of mesoporous particles to act as systems for the controlled release of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Placenta Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Hosted on RKKP Glass-Ceramic: A Tissue Engineering Strategy for Bone Regenerative Medicine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ledda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering protocols, the survival of transplanted stem cells is a limiting factor that could be overcome using a cell delivery matrix able to support cell proliferation and differentiation. With this aim, we studied the cell-friendly and biocompatible behavior of RKKP glass-ceramic coated Titanium (Ti surface seeded with human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs from placenta. The sol-gel synthesis procedure was used to prepare the RKKP glass-ceramic material, which was then deposited onto the Ti surface by Pulsed Laser Deposition method. The cell metabolic activity and proliferation rate, the cytoskeletal actin organization, and the cell cycle phase distribution in hAMSCs seeded on the RKKP coated Ti surface revealed no significant differences when compared to the cells grown on the treated plastic Petri dish. The health of of hAMSCs was also analysed studying the mRNA expressions of MSC key genes and the osteogenic commitment capability using qRT-PCR analysis which resulted in being unchanged in both substrates. In this study, the combination of the hAMSCs’ properties together with the bioactive characteristics of RKKP glass-ceramics was investigated and the results obtained indicate its possible use as a new and interesting cell delivery system for bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  17. Effect of furnace type and ceramming heat treatment conditions on the biaxial flexural strength of a canasite glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A; Shareef, M Y; van Noort, R; Walsh, J M

    2000-07-01

    To assess the effect of different heat treatment conditions when using two different furnace types on the biaxial flexural strength (BFS) of a fluorcanasite castable glass-ceramic. Two furnace types, one a programmable furnace (PF), the other a dental laboratory burnout furnace (DLF), were used with various ceramming times to determine their effect on the BFS of a fluorcanasite castable glass-ceramic. The glass-ceramic material was cast to produce discs of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness using the lost wax casting process (n = 80). After casting, both furnace types were used to ceram the discs. Half the discs were not de-vested from the casting ring before ceramming but cerammed in situ (DLF) and half were de-vested before ceramming (PF). All the discs were given a nucleation heat treatment at 520 degrees C for 1 h and then cerammed at 860 degrees C using four heat soak times (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 h). The DLF furnace had a rate of climb of 13 degrees C/min and the PF furnace had a rate of climb of 5 degrees C/min to 520 degrees C and 3 degrees C/min to 860 degrees C. After ceramming the discs were de-vested and the BFS determined using a Lloyd 2000R tester. The maximum BFS values seen for both furnace types were almost identical (280 MPa), but were achieved at different heat soak times (1 h DLF, and 2 h PF). The only significant differences in BFS values for the two furnaces were between the 0.5 and 2 h heat soak times (p < or = 0.05). Individual differences were seen between results obtained from each furnace type/heat soak times evaluated (p < or = 0.05). Already available dental laboratory burnout furnaces can be used to ceram fluorcanasite glass-ceramic castings to the same BFS values as more expensive and slower specialist programmable furnaces.

  18. Processing of high-temperature simulated waste glass in a continuous ceramic melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.M.; Brouns, R.A.; Hanson, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Recent operations have demonstrated that high-melting-point glasses and glass-ceramics can be successfully processed in joule-heated, ceramic-lined melters with minor modifications to the existing technology. Over 500 kg of simulated waste glasses have been processed at temperatures up to 1410 0 C. The processability of the two high-temperature waste forms tested is similar to existing borosilicate waste glasses. High-temperature waste glass formulations produced in the bench-scale melter exhibit quality comparing favorably to standard waste glass formulations

  19. [Microstructure and mechanical property of a new IPS-Empress 2 dental glass-ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-ping; Watts, D C; Wilson, N H F; Silsons, N; Cheng, Ya-qin

    2005-03-01

    To investigate the microstructure and mechanical properties of a new IPS-Empress 2 dental glass-ceramic. AFM, SEM and XRD were used to analyze the microstructure and crystal phase of IPS-Empress 2 glass-ceramic. The flexural strength and fracture toughness were tested using 3-point bending method and indentation method respectively. IPS-Empress 2 glass-ceramic mainly consisted of lithium disilicate crystal, lithium phosphate and glass matrix, which formed a continuous interlocking structure. The crystal phases were not changed before and after hot-pressed treatment. AFM showed nucleating agent particles of different sizes distributed on the highly polished ceramic surface. The strength and fracture toughness were 300 MPa and 3.1 MPam(1/2). The high strength and fracture toughness of IPS-Empress 2 glass ceramic are attributed to the fine lithium disilicate crystalline, interlocking microstructure and crack deflection.

  20. Corrosion resistance and in-vitro bioactivity of BaO containing Na2O-CaO-P2O5 phosphate glass-ceramic coating prepared on 316 L, duplex stainless steel 2205 and Ti6Al4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edathazhe, Akhila B.; Shashikala, H. D.

    2018-03-01

    The phosphate glass with composition 11Na2O-15BaO-29CaO-45P2O5 was coated on biomedical implant materials such as stainless steel 316 L, duplex stainless steel (DSS) 2205 and Ti6Al4V alloy by thermal enamelling method. The structural properties and composition of glass coated substrates were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The coatings were partially crystalline in nature with porous structure and pore size varied from micro to nanometer range. The polarization curve was obtained for uncoated and coated substrates from electrochemical corrosion test which was conducted at 37 °C in Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS). The corrosion resistance of 316 L substrate increased after coating, whereas it decreased in case of DSS 2205 and Ti6Al4V. The XRD and SEM/EDS studies indicated the bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer formation on all the coated surfaces after electrochemical corrosion test, which improved the corrosion resistance. The observed electrochemical corrosion behavior can be explained based on protective HAp layer formation, composition and diffusion of ions on glass coated surfaces. The in-vitro bioactivity test was carried out at 37 °C in HBS solution for 14 days under static conditions for uncoated and coated substrates. pH and ion release rate measurements from the coated samples were conducted to substantiate the electrochemical corrosion test. The lower ion release rates of Na+ and Ca2+ from coated 316 L supported its higher electrochemical corrosion resistance among coated samples. Among the uncoated substrates, DSS showed higher electrochemical corrosion resistance. Amorphous calcium-phosphate (ACP) layer formation on all the coated substrates after in-vitro bioactivity test was confirmed by XRD, SEM/EDS and ion release measurements. The present work is a comparative study of corrosion resistance and bioactivity of glass coated and uncoated

  1. Antibacterial effect of bioactive glasses on clinically important anaerobic bacteria in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppäranta, Outi; Vaahtio, Minna; Peltola, Timo; Zhang, Di; Hupa, Leena; Hupa, Mikko; Ylänen, Heimo; Salonen, Jukka I; Viljanen, Matti K; Eerola, Erkki

    2008-02-01

    Bioactive glasses (BAGs) of different compositions have been studied for decades for clinical use and they have found many dental and orthopaedic applications. Particulate BAGs have also been shown to have antibacterial properties. This large-scale study shows that two bioactive glass powders (S53P4 and 13-93) and a sol-gel derived material (CaPSiO II) have an antibacterial effect on 17 clinically important anaerobic bacterial species. All the materials tested demonstrated growth inhibition, although the concentration and time needed for the effect varied depending on the BAG. Glass S53P4 had a strong growth-inhibitory effect on all pathogens tested. Glass 13-93 and sol-gel derived material CaPSiO II showed moderate antibacterial properties.

  2. Waste Not, Want Not: An Inexpensive Glass-Ceramic from Waste

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, J. P.; Rawlings, R. D.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 5 (2006), s. 29-32 ISSN 0002-7812 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : glass ceramic s * fracture toughness * flexural strength Subject RIV: JH - Ceramic s, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.210, year: 2006 http://www. ceramic bulletin.org/2006-05.asp

  3. In vitro study of nano-sized zinc doped bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goh, Yi-Fan; Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Akram, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM skudai, Johor Darul Ta' zim (Malaysia); Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq [Medical Implant Technology Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTMJohor Bahru (Malaysia); Hussain, Rafaqat, E-mail: rafaqat@kimia.fs.utm.my [IbnuSina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor DarulTa' zim (Malaysia)

    2013-01-15

    Surface reactivity in physiological fluid has been linked to bioactivity of a material. Past research has shown that bioactive glass containing zinc has the potential in bone regeneration field due to its enhanced bioactivity. However, results from literature are always contradictory. Therefore, in this study, surface reactivity of bioactive glass containing zinc was evaluated through the study of morphology and composition of apatite layer formed after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). Nano-sized bioactive glass with 5 and 10 mol% zinc were synthesized through quick alkali sol-gel method. The synthesized Zn-bioglass was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Samples after SBF immersion were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and EDX. Morphological study through SEM showed the formation of spherical apatite particles with Ca/P ratio closer to 1.67 on the surface of 5 mol% Zn-bioglass. Whereas, the 10 mol% Zn-bioglass samples induced the formation of flake-like structure of calcite in addition to the spherical apatite particles with much higher Ca/P ratio. Our results suggest that the higher Zn content increases the bioactivity through the formation of bone-bonding calcite as well as the spherical apatite particles. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-sized bioactive glasses were synthesized through quick alkali sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5 and 10 mol% Zn-bioglass induced the formation of spherical particles in SBF test. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 10 mol% Zn-bioglass also induced the formation of flake-like structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The flake-like structure is calcium carbonate; spherical particles are apatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High Zn contents negatively influence the chemical composition of the apatite layer.

  4. Magnetic properties of the ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics for hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretcanu, O.; Verne, E.; Coeisson, M.; Tiberto, P.; Allia, P.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic materials play a key-role in magnetic induction hyperthermia for the treatment of cancer. In this paper, we analyse the magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics with the composition in the system SiO 2 -Na 2 O-CaO-P 2 O 5 -FeO-Fe 2 O 3 , as a function of the melting temperature. These materials were obtained by melting of commercial reagents in the temperature range of 1400-1550 o C. Room-temperature magnetic measurements were performed by means of a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature. The power loss was determined from calorimetric measurements, using a magnetic induction furnace. The highest power loss (61 W/g) has been obtained for samples melted at 1500 o C. The heat generation of the ferrimagnetic glass-ceramics prepared by two different synthesis methods (traditional melting and coprecipitation-derived) will be compared. These materials are expected to be useful in the localised treatment of cancer

  5. Melting of glass by direct induction heating in ceramic container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooka, Kazuo; Oguino, Naohiko; Kawanishi, Nobuo

    1981-01-01

    The direct induction melting, a process of glass melting by high frequency induction heating, was found to be the effective way of glass melting, especially desirable for the vitrification of High Level Radioactive Liquid Wastes, HLLW. A test instrument in the cold level was equipped with a high frequency oscillator of 65 kW anode output. The direct induction melting was successfully performed with two frequencies of 400 kHz and 3 MHz, and the operation conditions were determined in the five cases of ceramic pot inner diameters of 170, 200, 230, 280 and 325 mm. The start-up of the direct induction melting was carried out by induction heating using a silicon carbide rod which was inserted in raw material powders in the ceramic pot. After the raw material powders partly melted down and the direct induction in the melt began, the start-up rod was removed out of the melt. At this stage, the direct induction melting was successively performed by adjusting the output power of the oscillator and by supplying the raw materials. It was also found that the capacity of this type of melting was reasonably large and the operation could be remotely controlled. Both applied frequencies of 400 kHz and 3 MHz was found to be successful with this melting system, especially in the case of lower frequency which proved more preferable for the in-cell work. (author)

  6. Characterization of cutting soda-lime glass sludge for the formulation of red ceramic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filogonio, P.H.C.; Reis, A.S.; Louzada, D.M.; Della, V.P.

    2014-01-01

    Considering previous works that have demonstrated the feasibility of soda-lime glass incorporation into red ceramics, this paper aims to determine the potential for incorporation of cutting soda-lime glass sludge in red ceramic manufacturing. Therefore, the waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal behavior. The results confirm the chemical and mineralogical similarity between waste and soda-lime glass. Because of this similarity, it is concluded that the soda-lime glass waste has the capability to be used in the manufacturing of red ceramics. (author)

  7. Crystallization and dielectric properties of PbTiO3 based glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, J.; Rani, G. Neeraja; Deshpande, V. K.

    2018-04-01

    Glass samples with composition (50 - X) PbO - (25 + X) TiO2 - 25 B2O3 (where X = 0, 5, 10 and 12.5 mol %) were prepared using conventional quenching technique. These glass samples were converted to glass ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The XRD results in the glass ceramics revealed the formation of tetragonal lead titanate as a major crystalline phase. The SEM results show rounded crystallite of lead titanate. The ferroelectric nature of all the glass ceramic samples is confirmed by P - E hysteresis measurements. The extended heat treatment of glass ceramic samples at 593K for 10 h exhibited saturated hysteresis loops with higher values of remnant polarization.

  8. Synthesis and Structural Studies of Er3+ Containing Lead Cadmium Fluoroborate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Maurício A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitreous domain was established in the PbF2-CdF2-B2O 3 system from melting and quenching experiments. Er3+ containing glasses were prepared and glass ceramics were obtained by selected heat-treatments. Lead fluoride was identified (beta-PbF2 as the crystalline phase. Structural studies were performed in some glassy and partially crystallized samples by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS measurements. The role of Cd2+ and Pb2+ atoms on the glass network formation and also on the crystallization behavior was put forward by these techniques. After crystallization Er3+ atoms segregated in the crystal phase.

  9. A unified in vitro evaluation for apatite-forming ability of bioactive glasses and their variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçon, Anthony L B; Kim, Taek B; Valliant, Esther M; Goetschius, Kathryn; Brow, Richard K; Day, Delbert E; Hoppe, Alexander; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Kim, Ill Yong; Ohtsuki, Chikara; Kokubo, Tadashi; Osaka, Akiyoshi; Vallet-Regí, Maria; Arcos, Daniel; Fraile, Leandro; Salinas, Antonio J; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Vueva, Yuliya; Almeida, Rui M; Miola, Marta; Vitale-Brovarone, Chiara; Verné, Enrica; Höland, Wolfram; Jones, Julian R

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a new unified method for testing dissolution rates of bioactive glasses and their variants, and the formation of calcium phosphate layer formation on their surface, which is an indicator of bioactivity. At present, comparison in the literature is difficult as many groups use different testing protocols. An ISO standard covers the use of simulated body fluid on standard shape materials but it does not take into account that bioactive glasses can have very different specific surface areas, as for glass powders. Validation of the proposed modified test was through round robin testing and comparison to the ISO standard where appropriate. The proposed test uses fixed mass per solution volume ratio and agitated solution. The round robin study showed differences in hydroxyapatite nucleation on glasses of different composition and between glasses of the same composition but different particle size. The results were reproducible between research facilities. Researchers should use this method when testing new glasses, or their variants, to enable comparison between the literature in the future.

  10. Microstructures and luminescent properties of Ce-doped transparent mica glass-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taruta, Seiichi; Iwasaki, Yoshitomo; Nishikiori, Hiromasa; Yamakami, Tomohiko; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kitajima, Kunio; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ce-doped transparent glass-ceramics and their parent glasses. ► TEM and STEM images for the microstructures. ► Each mica crystal did not contain Ce uniformly. ► Emission due to Ce 3+ ions in the glass phase and/or Ce 3+ ions in the mica crystals. - Abstract: Transparent mica glass-ceramics were prepared by heating parent glasses that had been doped with 0.5–15 mol% CeO 2 . During the melting and heat treatment, Ce 4+ ions in the specimens were reduced to Ce 3+ ions, and one or both of these ion species were then replaced with Li + ions in the interlayers of the separated mica crystals. However, scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and Z-contrast imaging revealed that the mica crystals did not contain the same amount of Ce. On excitation at 254 nm, the parent glasses and glass-ceramics emitted blue light, which originated from the 5d to 4f transition of the Ce 3+ ions. The emission of the glass-ceramic containing a smaller amount of Ce was attributed to the Ce 3+ ions in both the glass phase and the mica crystals, whereas that of the glass-ceramics containing a larger amount of Ce was caused mainly by Ce 3+ ions in the mica crystals. The dependence of the emission band of the parent glasses on the amount of Ce was a unique feature of the Ce-doped transparent mica glass-ceramics and was not observed in previous studies of Eu-doped parent glasses and mica glass-ceramics.

  11. [An experimental study of the wear behavior of dental feldspathic glass-ceramic and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bei-min; Zhang, Shao-feng; He, Lin; Guo, Jia-wen; Yu, Jin-tao; Wu, Xiao-hong

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the tribology characteristics of two ceramic materials in vitro:feldspathic glass-ceramic (veneer porcelain) and lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (heat-pressed ceramic), and to evaluate the wear resistance of different ceramic materials from the dynamic chewing perspective. Wear tests were performed in simulated oral environment with stainless steel ball antagonists (r = 3 mm), veneer porcelain (CERAMCO 3) and heat-pressed ceramic (IPS e.max Press HT type) in the chewing simulator. The tribological tests were carried out under artificial saliva lubrication condition in room temperature with a vertical load of 10 N for 1.2×10(6) cycles (f = 1.5 Hz, uniform circular motion, revolving speed = 90 r/min, radius = 0.5 mm). The wear volumes were measured using three-dimensional profiling, and surface microscopic morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy at time point of 200 000, 400 000, 600 000, 800 000, 1 000 000, and 1 200 000 cycles. In a simulated oral environment, the wear rates of veneer porcelain were (0.001 20 ± 0.00 018) , (0.000 10 ± 0.000 03) , (0.000 50 ± 0.000 05), (0.000 10 ± 0.000 02) , (0.004 10 ± 0.000 38) , and (0.019 00 ± 0.003 53) (×10(-4) mm(3)/cycles) at 200 000, 400 000, 600 000, 800 000, 1 000 000, 1 200 000 cycles. The wear rates of heat-pressed ceramic were (0.139 50 ± 0.030 94), (0.124 40 ± 0.031 20), (0.054 80 ± 0.005 38), (0.038 80 ± 0.006 10), (0.011 10 ± 0.003 75), (0.198 90 ± 0.045 80) (×10(-4) mm(3)/cycles) at 200 000, 400 000, 600 000, 800 000, 1 000 000, 1 200 000 cycles. Three stages were observed in the wear loss process of the two materials: running-in stage, steady wear stage and severe wear stage. In running-in and steady wear stage, the shallow wear tracks of veneer porcelain were produced by the fatigue effect.While in severe wear stage, the wear tracks turned into ploughing. In running-in stage, the surface of heat-pressed ceramic was characterized by dense and shallow ploughing

  12. Production of highly porous glass-ceramics from metallurgical slag, fly ash and waste glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangutova Bianka V.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glass-ceramics composites were produced based on fly-ash obtained from coal power stations, metallurgical slag from ferronickel industry and waste glass from TV monitors, windows and flasks. Using 50% waste flask glass in combination with fly ash and 20% waste glass from TV screens in combination with slag, E-modulus and bending strength values of the designed systems are increased (system based on fly ash: E-modulus from 6 to 29 GPa, and bending strength from 9 to 75 MPa. The polyurethane foam was used as a pore creator which gave the material porosity of 70(5% (fly ash-glass composite and a porosity of 65( 5% (slag-glass composite. E-modulus values of the designed porous systems were 3.5(1.2 GPa and 8.1(3 GPa, while the bending strength values were 6.0(2 MPa and 13.2(3.5 MPa, respectively. These materials could be used for the production of tiles, wall bricks, as well as for the construction of air diffusers for waste water aeration.

  13. Laser sintering of nano 13-93 glass scaffolds: Microstructure, mechanical properties and bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only bioactive material that can bond with both hard tissues and soft tissues, bioactive glass has become much important in the field of tissue engineering. 13-93 bioactive glass scaffolds were fabricated via selective laser sintering (SLS. It was focused on the effects of laser sintering on microstructure and mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The experimental results showed that the sintered layer gradually became dense with the laser power increasing and then some defects occurred, such as macroscopic caves. The optimum compressive strength and fracture toughness were 21.43±0.87 MPa and 1.14±0.09 MPa.m1/2, respectively. In vitro bioactivity showed that there was the bone-like apatite layer on the surface of the scaffolds after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF, which was further evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Moreover, cell culture study showed MG-63 cells adhered and spread well on the scaffolds, and proliferated with increasing time in cell culture. These indicated excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility of nano 13-93 glass scaffolds.

  14. Synthesis of nucleated glass-ceramics using oil shale fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Jingde; Li Aimin; Su Tong; Cui Xiaobo

    2010-01-01

    Nucleated glass-ceramics materials were produced from oil shale fly ash obtained from Huadian thermal power plant in China with the addition of analytic reagent CaO. On basis of differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, the nucleation and crystallization temperature of two parent glass samples with different alkalinity (Ak=m CaO /m SiO 2 ) were identified as Tn 1 = 810 deg. C, Tc 1 = 956 deg. C and Tn 2 = 824 o C, Tc 2 = 966 deg. C, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the produced nucleated glass-ceramics materials revealed that there was a coexistence phenomenon of multi-crystalline phase and the main crystalline phase was anorthite ([Ca,Na][AI,Si] 2 Si 2 O 8 ). The microstructure of the glass-ceramics materials was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM observation indicated that there was an increase in the quantity of sphere-shaped crystals when crystallization time increased. Furthermore, the increase of alkalinity caused more amorphous phase occurring in glass-ceramics materials. Through the tests of physical and mechanical properties, the glass-ceramics materials with more crystalline phase and fine microstructure had high density, fine performance of resisting compression (328.92 MPa) and negligible water absorption. Through chemical resistance tests, the glass-ceramics samples showed strong corrosion resistance. Overall results indicated that it was a feasible attempt to produce nucleated glass-ceramics materials for building and decorative materials from oil shale fly ash.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of 45S5 bioactive ceramic coating on Ti6Al4V alloy for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado López, M. M.; Espitia Cabrera, M. I.; Faure, J.; Contreras García, M. E.

    2016-04-01

    Titanium and its alloys are widely used as implant materials because of their mechanical properties and non-toxic behavior. Unfortunately, they are not bioinert, which means that they can release ions and can only fix the bone by mechanical anchorage, this can lead to the encapsulation of dense fibrous tissue in the body. The bone fixation is required in clinical conditions treated by orthopedic and dental medicine. The proposal is to coat metallic implants with bioactive materials to establish good interfacial bonds between the metal substrate and bone by increasing bioactivity. Bioactive glasses, ceramics specifically 45 S5 Bioglass, have drawn attention as a serious functional biomaterial because osseointegration capacity. The EPD method of bioglass gel precursor was proposed in the present work as a new method to obtain 45S5/Ti6A14V for dental applications. The coatings, were thermally treated at 700 and 800°C and presented the 45 S5 bioglass characteristic phases showing morphology and uniformity with no defects, quantification percentages by EDS of Si, Ca, Na, P and O elements in the coating scratched powders, showed a good proportional relationship demonstrating the obtention of the 45S5 bioglass. The corrosion tests were carried out in Hank's solution. By Tafel extrapolation, Ti6Al4V alloy showed good corrosion resistance in Hank's solution media, by the formation of a passivation layer on the metal surface, however, in the system 45S5/Ti6Al4V there was an increase in the corrosion resistance; icon-, Ecorr and corrosion rate decreased, the mass loss and the rate of release of ions, were lower in this system than in the titanium alloy without coating.

  16. Sinter recrystalization and properties evaluation of glass-ceramic from waste glass bottle and magnesite for extended application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    As'mau Ibrahim Gebi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a bid to address environmental challenges associated with the management of waste Coca cola glass bottle, this study set out to develop glass ceramic materials using waste coca cola glass bottles and magnesite from Sakatsimta in Adamawa state. A reagent grade chrome (coloring agent were used to modify the composition of the coca cola glass bottle;  X-ray fluorescence(XRF, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA were used to characterize raw materials, four batches GC-1= Coca cola glass frit +1%Cr2O3, GC-2=97% Coca cola glass frit+ 2% magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-3=95% Coca cola glass frit+ 4%magnesite+1%Cr2O3, GC-4=93%Coca cola glass frit+ 6%magnesite+ 1%Cr2O3 were formulated and prepared. Thermal Gradient Analysis (TGA results were used as a guide in selection of three temperatures (7000C, 7500C and 8000C used for the study, three particle sizes -106+75, -75+53, -53µm and 2 hr sintering time were also used, the sinter crystallization route of glass ceramic production was adopted. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, the density, porosity, hardness and flexural strength of the resulting glass ceramics were also measured. The resulting glass ceramic materials composed mainly of wollastonite, diopside and anorthite phases depending on composition as indicated by XRD and SEM, the density of the samples increased with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The porosity is minimal and it decreases with increasing sintering temperature and decreasing particle size. The obtained glass ceramic materials possess appreciable hardness and flexural strength with GC-3 and GC-4 having the best combination of both properties.

  17. Role of cellulose functionality in bio-inspired synthesis of nano bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Santhiya, Deenan

    2017-06-01

    In search of abundant cheaper natural polymer for bio-inspired bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesis, cellulose and its derivatives have been considered as a template. Different templates explored in the present studies are pure cellulose, methyl cellulose and amine grafted cellulose. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time of the considered templates, pure cellulose and amine grafted cellulose results in in situ nano particulate composite formation while interestingly methyl cellulose proves to be an excellent sacrificial template for the synthesis of uniform bioglass nanoparticles of diameter in the range of 55nm. Further, viscoelastic measurements were carried out using dynamic mechanical analyzer. Herein, an attempt has been made to establish structure-mechanical relationship based on the templates. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity is also observed to be affected by the nature of the template molecule used for the synthesis of bioactive glass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-destructive thermo-mechanical behavior assessment of glass-ceramics for dental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordatos, E. Z.; Abdulkadhim, Z.; Feteira, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Every year millions of people seek dental treatment to either repair damaged, unaesthetic and dysfunctional teeth or replace missing natural teeth. Several dental materials have been developed to meet the stringent requirements in terms of mechanical properties, aesthetics and chemical durability in the oral environment. Glass-ceramics exhibit a suitable combination of these properties for dental restorations. This research is focused on the assessment of the thermomechanical behavior of bio-ceramics and particularly lithium aluminosilicate glass-ceramics (LAS glass-ceramics). Specifically, methodologies based on Infrared Thermography (IRT) have been applied in order the structure - property relationship to be evaluated. Non-crystallized, partially crystallized and fully crystallized glass-ceramic samples have been non-destructively assessed in order their thermo-mechanical behavior to be associated with their micro-structural features.

  19. Bioactive glass–ceramic coating for enhancing the in vitro corrosion resistance of biodegradable Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xinyu; Cai Shu; Dou Ying; Xu Guohua; Huang Kai; Ren Mengguo; Wang Xuexin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sol–gel derived 45S5 glass–ceramic coating was prepared on Mg alloy substrate. ► The corrosion resistance of glass–ceramic coated Mg alloy was markedly improved. ► The corrosion behavior of the coated sample varied due to the cracking of coating. - Abstract: In this work, a bioactive 45S5 glass–ceramic coating was synthesized on magnesium (Mg) alloy substrate by using a sol–gel dip-coating method, to improve the initial corrosion resistance of AZ31 Mg alloy. The surface morphology and phase composition of the glass–ceramic coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The coating composed of amorphous phase and crystalline phase Na 2 Ca 2 Si 3 O 9 , with the thickness of ∼1.0 μm, exhibited a uniform and crack-free surface morphology. The corrosion behavior of the uncoated and coated Mg alloy substrates was investigated by the electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (SBF). Potentiodynamic polarization tests recorded an increase of potential (E corr ) form −1.60 V to −1.48 V, and a reduction of corrosion current density (i corr ) from 4.48 μA cm −2 to 0.16 μA cm −2 , due to the protection provided by the glass–ceramic coating. Immersion tests also showed the markedly improved corrosion resistance of the coated sample over the immersion period of 7 days. Moreover, after 14 days of immersion in SBF, the corrosion resistance of the coated sample declined due to the cracking of the glass–ceramic coating, which was confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis. The results suggested that the 45S5 glass–ceramic coated Mg alloy could provide a suitable corrosion behavior for use as degradable implants.

  20. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.(1) The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  1. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  2. Crystallization behaviors and seal application of basalt based glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, A.; Önen, U.; Ercenk, E.; Yılmaz, Ş.

    2017-02-01

    Basalt based glass-ceramics were prepared by conventional melt-quenching technique and subsequently converted to glass-ceramics by a controlled nucleation and crystallization process. Glass materials were obtained by melt at 1500°C and quenched in cold water. The powder materials were made by milling and spin coating. The powders were applied on the 430 stainless steel interconnector material, and heat treatment was carried out. The interface characteristics between the glass-ceramic layer and interconnector were investigated by using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the basalt base glass-ceramic sealant material exhibited promising properties to use for SOFC.

  3. Plutonium disposition via immobilization in ceramic or glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.W.; Kan, T.; Shaw, H.F.; Armantrout, A.

    1997-03-05

    The management of surplus weapons plutonium is an important and urgent task with profound environmental, national, and international security implications. In the aftermath of the Cold War, Presidential Policy Directive 13, and various analyses by renown scientific, technical, and international policy organizations have brought about a focused effort within the Department of Energy to identify and implement paths for the long term disposition of surplus weapons- usable plutonium. The central goal of this effort is to render surplus weapons plutonium as inaccessible and unattractive for reuse in nuclear weapons as the much larger and growing stock of plutonium contained in spent fuel from civilian reactors. One disposition option being considered for surplus plutonium is immobilization, in which the plutonium would be incorporated into a glass or ceramic material that would ultimately be entombed permanently in a geologic repository for high-level waste.

  4. The role of ceramics, cement and glass in the immobilization of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    A brief account is given of the constitution and origin of nuclear waste. The immobilization of wastes is discussed: borosilicate glasses are considered as possible matrices; ceramic forms are dealt with in more detail. The principles of the use of ceramics are explained, with examples of different ceramic structures; cements are mentioned as being suitable for wet, medium- to low-active wastes. The effects of radiation on cement, ceramic and glass waste forms are indicated. The account concludes with 'summary and future progress'. (U.K.)

  5. A review of glass-ceramics for the immobilization of nuclear fuel recycle wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report reviews the status of the Canadian, German, U.S., Japanese, U.S.S.R. and Swedish programs for the development of glass-ceramic materials for immobilizing the high-level radioactive wastes arising from the recycling of used nuclear fuel. The progress made in these programs is described, with emphasis on the Canadian program for the development of sphene-based glass-ceramics. The general considerations of product performance and process feasibility for glass-ceramics as a category of waste form material are discussed. 137 refs

  6. Exoelectron emission from surface layer of Li2B4O7 glass ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Takamichi; Katsube, Shizuko; Yanagisawa, Hideo; Kikuchi, Riichi; Kawanishi, Masaharu.

    1984-01-01

    The thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TESS) of Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics was investigated for its application to the dosimetric use. It has been found the TSEE glow patterns of Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics and of the thin layer of LiF evaporated on Li 2 B 4 O 7 glass ceramics depend on the kind of radiations irradiated. The TSEE glow pattern of the duplicated structure sample indicated a possibility of determining the dose of each kind of radiation separately in the mixed radiation field. (author)

  7. Novel low-temperature sintering ceramic substrate based on indialite/cordierite glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Jobin; Vahera, Timo; Ohsato, Hitoshi; Iwata, Makoto; Jantunen, Heli

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel low-temperature sintering substrate for low temperature co-fired ceramic applications based on indialite/cordierite glass ceramics with Bi2O3 as a sintering aid showing low permittivity (εr) and ultralow dielectric loss (tan δ) is described. The fine powder of indialite was prepared by the crystallization of cordierite glass at 1000 °C/1 h. The optimized sintering temperature was 900 °C with 10 wt % Bi2O3 addition. The relative density achieved was 97%, and εr and tan δ were 6.10 and 0.0001 at 1 MHz, respectively. The composition also showed a moderately low temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of 118 ppm/°C at 1 MHz. The obtained linear coefficient of thermal expansion was 3.5 ppm/°C in the measured temperature range of 100 to 600 °C. The decreasing trend in dielectric loss, the low relative permittivity at 1 MHz, and the low thermal expansion of the newly developed composition make it an ideal choice for radio frequency applications.

  8. Protein-adsorption and Ca-phosphate formation on chitosan-bioactive glass composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, V.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Virtanen, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, chitosan-bioactive glass (BG) composites have been developed and investigated as bioactive coatings for orthopedic applications. The increase of bioactivity occurs due to the stimulation of calcium-phosphate/hydroxyapatite formation on the surface while the coating is degrading. In the present work, protein adsorption and its influence on calcium-phosphate precipitation was studied for the first time on such composite coatings. The experiments involved coating of 316L stainless steel substrates with chitosan (Ch) and chitosan-bioactive glass (Ch-BG) and immersion of the coated samples in two different bovine serum albumin (BSA) containing solutions, namely DI H2O (with pH adjusted to about 7.2 with diluted NaOH) and simulated body fluid (SBF). In order to investigate the influence of protein adsorption on calcium-phosphate precipitation, samples were also immersed in DI H2O and in SBF without BSA. Samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Surface analysis revealed that adsorption of BSA takes place on all studied samples and that protein adsorption is influenced by the presence of Ca2+ and PO43- ions. Bioactivity in the form of hydroxyapatite pre-stage formation is significantly increased on Ch-BG composite coating as compared with bare stainless steel surface. However, calcium-phosphate precipitation in SBF is reduced by the presence of BSA.

  9. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palza, Humberto, E-mail: hpalza@ing.uchile.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Bravo, Denisse [Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Diaz-Dosque, Mario [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas y Comunitarias, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Perez, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Biotecnología, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    Bioactive glasses (SiO{sub 2}–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials.

  10. Designing antimicrobial bioactive glass materials with embedded metal ions synthesized by the sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palza, Humberto; Escobar, Blanca; Bejarano, Julian; Bravo, Denisse; Diaz-Dosque, Mario; Perez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (SiO 2 –P 2 O 5 –CaO) having tailored concentrations of different biocide metal ions (copper or silver) were produced by the sol–gel method. All the particles release phosphorous ions when immersed in water and simulated body fluid (SBF). Moreover, a surface layer of polycrystalline hydroxy-carbonate apatite was formed on the particle surfaces after 10 day immersion in SBF as confirmed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showing the bioactive materials. Samples with embedded either copper or silver ions were able to further release the biocide ions with a release rate that depends on the metal embedded and the dissolution medium: water or SBF. This biocide ion release from the samples explains the antimicrobial effect of our active particles against Escherichia coli DH5α ampicillin-resistant (Gram-negative) and Streptococcus mutans (Gram-positive) as determined by the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) method. The antimicrobial behavior of the particles depends on the bacteria and the biocide ion used. Noteworthy, although samples with copper are able to release more metal ion than samples with silver, they present higher MBC showing the high effect of silver against these bacteria. - Highlights: • Copper and silver act as antimicrobial additives in bioactive glass materials. • Silver is more toxic than copper ions in these bioactive materials. • Sol–gel method allows the synthesis of antimicrobial bioactive materials

  11. Physicochemical properties of newly developed bioactive glass cement and its effects on various cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Ayako; Nakagawa, Aika; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Maeda, Hidefumi; Kitamura, Chiaki

    2015-02-01

    Biomaterials used in dental treatments are expected to have favorable properties such as biocompatibility and an ability to induce tissue formation in dental pulp and periapical tissue, as well as sealing to block external stimuli. Bioactive glasses have been applied in bone engineering, but rarely applied in the field of dentistry. In the present study, bioactive glass cement for dental treatment was developed, and then its physicochemical properties and effects on cell responses were analyzed. To clarify the physicochemical attributes of the cement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and pH measurement were carried out. Cell attachment, morphology, and viability to the cement were also examined to clarify the effects of the cement on odontoblast-like cells (KN-3 cells), osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells), human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cells and neuro-differentiative cells (PC-12 cells). Hydroxyapatite-like precipitation was formed on the surface of the hardened cement and the pH level changed from pH10 to pH9, then stabilized in simulate body fluid. The cement had no cytotxic effects on these cells, and particulary induced process elongation of PC-12 cells. Our results suggest that the newly developed bioactive glass cement have capability of the application in dental procedures as bioactive cement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Systematic approach to preparing ceramic-glass composites with high translucency for dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Humberto N; Chimanski, Afonso; Cesar, Paulo F

    2015-10-01

    Ceramic composites are promising materials for dental restorations. However, it is difficult to prepare highly translucent composites due to the light scattering that occurs in multiphase ceramics. The objective of this work was to verify the effectiveness of a systematic approach in designing specific glass compositions with target properties in order to prepare glass infiltrated ceramic composites with high translucency. First it was necessary to calculate from literature data the viscosity of glass at the infiltration temperature using the SciGlass software. Then, a glass composition was designed for targeted viscosity and refractive index. The glass of the system SiO2-B2O3-Al2O3-La2O3-TiO2 prepared by melting the oxide raw materials was spontaneously infiltrated into porous alumina preforms at 1200°C. The optical properties were evaluated using a refractometer and a spectrophotometer. The absorption and scattering coefficients were calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. The light transmittance of prepared composite was significantly higher than a commercial ceramic-glass composite, due to the matching of glass and preform refractive indexes which decreased the scattering, and also to the decrease in absorption coefficient. The proposed systematic approach was efficient for development of glass infiltrated ceramic composites with high translucency, which benefits include the better aesthetic performance of the final prosthesis. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  14. Combined PIXE and SEM study of the behaviour of trace elements in gel formed around implant coated with bioactive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.; Barbotteau, Y.; Brun, V.; Moretto, Ph.

    2002-05-01

    Bioactive glasses are used as coating biomaterials to facilitate anchorage of metallic prostheses implanted into the body. The aim of this work is to study the behavior of gel formed in contact with alloys and BVA and BVH bioactive glasses implanted. Cylinders of metallic implants composed by Ti, Al and V, are coated with bioactive glass. Three sheep were implanted for different time length: 3, 6 and 12 months in the femoral epiphysis. Results obtained with particle induced X-ray emission and scanning electron microscopy show that BVA coating induces a better contact between the metallic implant and bone. On the other hand, BVH coating prevents corrosion from the metallic implant.

  15. CAD/CAM glass ceramics for single-tooth implant crowns: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akça, Kvanç; Cavusoglu, Yeliz; Sagirkaya, Elcin; Aybar, Buket; Cehreli, Murat Cavit

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the load distribution of CAD/CAM mono-ceramic crowns supported with single-tooth implants in functional area. A 3-dimensional numerical model of a soft tissue-level implant was constructed with cement-retained abutment to support glass ceramic machinable crown. Implant-abutment complex and the retained crown were embedded in a Ø 1.5 × 1.5 cm geometric matrix for evaluation of mechanical behavior of mono-ceramic CAD/CAM aluminosilicate and leucite glass crown materials. Laterally positioned axial load of 300 N was applied on the crowns. Resulting principal stresses in the mono-ceramic crowns were evaluated in relation to different glass ceramic materials. The highest compressive stresses were observed at the cervical region of the buccal aspect of the crowns and were 89.98 and 89.99 MPa, for aluminosilicate and leucite glass ceramics, respectively. The highest tensile stresses were observed at the collar of the lingual part of the crowns and were 24.54 and 25.39 MPa, respectively. Stresses induced upon 300 N static loading of CAD/CAM aluminosalicate and leucite glass ceramics are below the compressive strength of the materials. Impact loads may actuate the progress to end failure of mono-ceramic crowns supported by metallic implant abutments.

  16. Aspects of bonding between resin luting cements and glass ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Tsoi, James Kit-Hon; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Burrow, Michael F

    2014-07-01

    The bonding interface of glass ceramics and resin luting cements plays an important role in the long-term durability of ceramic restorations. The purpose of this systematic review is to discuss the various factors involved with the bond between glass ceramics and resin luting cements. An electronic Pubmed, Medline and Embase search was conducted to obtain laboratory studies on resin-ceramic bonding published in English and Chinese between 1972 and 2012. Eighty-three articles were included in this review. Various factors that have a possible impact on the bond between glass ceramics and resin cements were discussed, including ceramic type, ceramic crystal structure, resin luting cements, light curing, surface treatments, and laboratory test methodology. Resin-ceramic bonding has been improved substantially in the past few years. Hydrofluoric acid (HF) etching followed by silanizaiton has become the most widely accepted surface treatment for glass ceramics. However, further studies need to be undertaken to improve surface preparations without HF because of its toxicity. Laboratory test methods are also required to better simulate the actual oral environment for more clinically compatible testing. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. ZK30-bioactive glass composites for orthopedic applications: A comparative study on fabrication method and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huan, Z.G.; Leeflang, M.A. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Zhou, J., E-mail: j.zhou@tudelft.nl [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Duszczyk, J. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradable Mg-bioglass composites were made using casting; powder metallurgy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioglass powder retained its composition and morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accelerated deposition of Ca; P ions on composites occurred due to bioglass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-bioglass composites made from powders had reduced degradation rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powder metallurgy appeared to be better for making biodegradable composites. - Abstract: Previous in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopedic implant applications showed the need to improve early-stage bioactivity. Introducing bioactive particles into a magnesium alloy to form a metal matrix composite (MMC) represents an effective way to enhance the bioactivity of the alloy. In this study, composites with the ZK30 alloy as the matrix and the 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) as the reinforcement phase were fabricated using a semi-solid casting (SSC) method and a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. The SSC and P/M biocomposites with the same weight percents of bioactive glass particles were compared. Optical microscopy showed homogeneously dispered BG particles in the SSC and P/M composites. SEM and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the composites. However, the SSC composites exhibited micro-porous structures, while the P/M composites had nearly fully densified structures. As compared with the ZK30 matrix, the SSC composites exhibited significantly higher degradation rates, while the P/M composites possessed lower degradation rates. On the surface of all the composites, accelerated deposition of Ca and P ions occurred during immersion in the cell culture medium, indicating an improved surface bioactivity of the composites. The P/M method was found to be advantageous over the SSC method and could yield magnesium-matrix composites with enhanced

  18. Development of novel strontium containing bioactive glass based calcium phosphate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, A; Kent, N W; Shahdad, S A; Hill, R G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect on properties of increasing strontium substitution for calcium in bioactive glasses used as precursors for novel calcium phosphate cements. Glasses were produced by progressively substituting strontium for calcium. Cements were prepared by mixing the glass powder with Ca(H2PO4)2 powder with a 2.5% solution of Na2HPO4. Setting times and compressive strength were measured after 1h, 1 day, 7 days and 28 days immersion in Tris buffer solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and radiopacity were measured and crystal morphology was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. A correlation between the phases formed, morphology of the crystallites, setting time and compressive strength were analyzed. Setting time increased proportionally with strontium substitution in the glass up to 25%, whereas for higher substitutions it decreased. Compressive strength showed a maximum value of 12.5MPa and was strongly influenced by the interlocking of the crystals and their morphology. XRD showed that the presence of strontium influenced the crystal phases formed. Octacalcium phosphate (Ca8H2(PO4)6·5H2O, OCP) was the main phase present after 1h and 1 day whereas after 28 days OCP was completely transformed to strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (SrxCa(10-x)(PO4)6(OH)2, SrHA). Radiopacity increased proportionally to strontium substitution in the glass. A novel method to develop a bone substitute forming in vitro SrHA as a final product by using a bioactive glass as a precursor was shown. These novel injectable bioactive glass cements are promising materials for dental and orthopedic applications. Further in vivo characterizations are being conducted. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel method for early investigation of bioactivity in different borate bio-glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelghany, A. M.

    Some ternary borate glasses were prepared and corrosion behavior of such ternary borate glasses after immersion in aqueous dilute phosphate solution was studied using different immersion times. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectral measurements were done before and after immersion in the mentioned solution for extended times up to 2 days to justify the appearance of the characteristic FTIR bands due to calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite (HA)) which is considered as the potential indication of bioactivity. Experimental IR data confirm the beginning of the appearance of FTIR bands at about 580 and 620 cm-1 after 3 days and the complete resolution with its characteristic split form after 1 week and more. Deconvolution analysis technique (DAT) of the FTIR spectrum was employed to investigate the bioactivity of such ternary borate system after a short period of immersion. The corrosion behavior of such glasses is explained in relation to a suggested hydrolysis followed by direct dissolution mechanism. The ease of dissolution of all the borate glasses constituents explains the formation of calcium phosphate and conversion to crystalline hydroxyapatite within the borate glass matrix. X-ray diffraction may be used to retrace the structural changes and degree of crystallinity of the prepared glasses.

  20. Bioactive glass/ZrO2 composites for orthopaedic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-01-01

    Binary biocomposites were realized by combining yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) with a bioactive glass matrix. Few works are available regarding composites containing zirconia and a relatively high content of glass because the resulting samples are usually biocompatible but not bioactive after thermal treatment. In the present research, the promising properties of the new BG C a–K glass, with its low tendency to crystallize and high apatite-forming ability, allowed us to sinter the composites at a relatively low temperature with excellent effects in terms of bioactivity. In addition, it was possible to benefit from the good mechanical behaviour of Y-TZP, thus obtaining samples with microhardness values that were among the highest reported in the literature. After a detailed analysis regarding the thermal behaviour of the composite powders, the sintered bodies were fully characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM equipped with EDS, density measurements, volumetric shrinkage determination, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. According to the experimental results, the presence of Y-TZP improved the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, the BG C a–K glass, which mainly preserved its amorphous structure after sintering, provided the composites with a good apatite-forming ability in SBF. (paper)

  1. Development of a novel bioactive glass for air-abrasion to selectively remove orthodontic adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ayam A; Hill, Robert G; Fleming, Padhraig S; Patel, Mangala P

    2018-05-01

    To develop a novel, bioactive glass for removing residual orthodontic adhesive via air-abrasion, following bracket debonding, and to evaluate its effectiveness against a proprietary bioactive glass 45S5(Sylc™)-air-abrasion, and a slow-speed tungsten carbide (TC) bur. Three glasses were prepared and their bioactivity was proved. One novel glass (QMAT3) was selected due to its appropriate hardness, lower than that of enamel/45S5(Sylc™). Sixty extracted human premolars were randomly assigned to adhesive removal using: (a) QMAT3-air-abrasion, (b) 45S5(Sylc™)-air-abrasion, and (c) TC bur, which were further subdivided (n = 10) based on the adhesive used (Transbond XT™ or Fuji Ortho LC™). Enamel roughness was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and non-contact profilometry before bracket bonding, after removing residual adhesive following bracket debonding and after polishing. QMAT3 formed apatite faster (6 h) than 45S5(Sylc™) (24 h) in Tris solution. QMAT3-air-abrasion gave the lowest enamel roughness (Ra) after removing the adhesives. SEM images showed a pitted, roughened enamel surface in the TC bur group and to a lesser extent with 45S5(Sylc™), while a virtually smooth surface without any damage was observed in the QMAT3-air-abrasion group. The time taken for adhesive removal with QMAT3 was comparable to 45S5(Sylc™) but was twice as long with the TC bur. QMAT3-air-abrasion is a promising technique for selective removal of adhesives without inducing tangible enamel damage. A novel bioactive glass has been developed as an alternative to the use of TC burs for orthodontic adhesive removal.

  2. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozafari, Masoud, E-mail: mmozafari@aut.ac.ir [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied [Biomaterials Group, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering (Center of Excellence), Amirkabir University of Technology, PO Box 15875-4413, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 {mu}m and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  3. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-12-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2-CaO-P 2O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  4. Biomimetic formation of apatite on the surface of porous gelatin/bioactive glass nanocomposite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Rabiee, Mohammad; Azami, Mahmoud; Maleknia, Saied

    2010-01-01

    There have been several attempts to combine bioactive glasses (BaGs) with biodegradable polymers to create a scaffold material with excellent biocompatibility, bioactivity, biodegradability and toughness. In the present study, the nanocomposite scaffolds with compositions based on gelatin (Gel) and BaG nanoparticles in the ternary SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 system were prepared. In vitro evaluations of the nanocomposite scaffolds were performed, and for investigating their bioactive capacity these scaffolds were soaked in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at different time intervals. The scaffolds showed significant enhancement in bioactivity within few days of immersion in SBF solution. The apatite formation at the surface of the nanocomposite samples confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses. In vitro experiments with osteoblast cells indicated an appropriate penetration of the cells into the scaffold's pores, and also the continuous increase in cell aggregation on the bioactive scaffolds with increase in the incubation time demonstrated the ability of the scaffolds to support cell growth. The SEM observations revealed that the prepared scaffolds were porous with three dimensional (3D) and interconnected microstructure, pore size was 200-500 μm and the porosity was 72-86%. The nanocomposite scaffold made from Gel and BaG nanoparticles could be considered as a highly bioactive and potential bone tissue engineering implant.

  5. Study of glass-nanocomposite and glass-ceramic containing ferroelectric phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Khalek, E.K., E-mail: Eid_khalaf0@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, E.A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Girl' s Branch), Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Salem, Shaaban M.; Ebrahim, F.M.; Kashif, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glass nanocomposites was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glass nanocomposites exhibit both optical transmission bands at 598 and 660 nm and broad dielectric anomalies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ferroelectricity in pure single-phase oxide glass has not yet been discovered. - Abstract: Transparent glass nanocomposite in the pseudo binary system (100 - x) Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}-xBaTiO{sub 3} with x = 0 and 60 (in mol%) were prepared. Amorphous and glassy characteristics of the as-prepared samples were established via X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The precipitated BaTiO{sub 3} nanocrystal phase embedded in the glass sample at x = 60 mol% was identified by transmission electron microscopic (TEM). The optical transmission bands at 598 and 660 nm were assigned to Ti{sup 3+} ions in tetragonal distorted octahedral sites. The precipitated Li{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}, BaTi(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and BaTiO{sub 3} nanocrystallites phases with heat-treatment at 923 K for 6 h (HT923) in glass-ceramic were identified by XRD, TEM and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The as-prepared at x = 60 mol% and the HT923 samples exhibit broad dielectric anomalies in the vicinity of the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric transition temperature. The results demonstrate that the method presented may be an effective way to fabricate ferroelectric host and development of multifunctional ferroelectrics.

  6. Influence of SrO substitution for CaO on the properties of bioactive glass S53P4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massera, Jonathan; Hupa, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Commercial melt-quenched bioactive glasses consist of the oxides of silicon, phosphorus, calcium and sodium. Doping of the glasses with oxides of some other elements is known to affect their capability to support hydroxyapatite formation and thus bone tissue healing but also to modify their high temperature processing parameters. In the present study, the influence of gradual substitution of SrO for CaO on the properties of the bioactive glass S53P4 was studied. Thermal analysis and hot stage microscopy were utilized to measure the thermal properties of the glasses. The in vitro bioactivity and solubility was measured by immersing the glasses in simulated body fluid for 6 h to 1 week. The formation of silica rich and hydroxyapatite layers was assessed from FTIR spectra analysis and SEM images of the glass surface. Increasing substitution of SrO for CaO decreased all characteristic temperatures and led to a slightly stronger glass network. The initial glass dissolution rate increased with SrO content. Hydroxyapatite layer was formed on all glasses but on the SrO containing glasses the layer was thinner and contained also strontium. The results suggest that substituting SrO for CaO in S53P4 glass retards the bioactivity. However, substitution greater than 10 mol% allow for precipitation of a strontium substituted hydroxyapatite layer.

  7. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander [School of Engineering and Science, Curtin University of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia); Abou-El-Hossein, K A, E-mail: mohan.m@curtin.edu.my [Mechanical and Aeronautical Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elegebeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  8. Predictive Surface Roughness Model for End Milling of Machinable Glass Ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, M Mohan; Gorin, Alexander; Abou-El-Hossein, K A

    2011-01-01

    Advanced ceramics of Machinable glass ceramic is attractive material to produce high accuracy miniaturized components for many applications in various industries such as aerospace, electronics, biomedical, automotive and environmental communications due to their wear resistance, high hardness, high compressive strength, good corrosion resistance and excellent high temperature properties. Many research works have been conducted in the last few years to investigate the performance of different machining operations when processing various advanced ceramics. Micro end-milling is one of the machining methods to meet the demand of micro parts. Selecting proper machining parameters are important to obtain good surface finish during machining of Machinable glass ceramic. Therefore, this paper describes the development of predictive model for the surface roughness of Machinable glass ceramic in terms of speed, feed rate by using micro end-milling operation.

  9. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  10. Effect of heat treatment time on microstructure and electrical conductivity in LATP glass ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonigra, Dhiren, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Soman, Swati, E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in; Kulkarni, Ajit R., E-mail: somans@iitb.ac.in, E-mail: ajit.kulkarni@iitb.ac.in [Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, IIT Bombay, Mumbai-400076 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Glass-ceramic is prepared by heat treatment of melt quenched 14Li{sub 2}O−9Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}−38TiO{sub 2}−39P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass in the vicinity of crystallization temperature. Growth of ceramic phase is controlled by tuning heat treatment time at fixed temperature. Ceramic phase was identified to be LiTi{sub 2}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} from X Ray Diffraction analysis. Microstructural evolution of this phase with hold time was observed under high resolution Scanning Electron Microscope. DC conductivity is observed to increase by 4-5 orders of magnitude in this glass-ceramic compared to parent glass. However, formation of pores and cracks with very large heat treatment time seem to hinder further increase of conductivity.

  11. Elaboration of new ceramic composites containing glass fibre production wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozenstrauha, I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two main by-products or waste from the production of glass fibre are following: sewage sludge containing montmorillonite clay as sorbent material and ca 50% of organic matter as well as waste glass from aluminiumborosilicate glass fibre with relatively high softening temperature (> 600 ºC. In order to elaborate different new ceramic products (porous or dense composites the mentioned by-products and illitic clay from two different layers of Apriki deposit (Latvia with illite content in clay fraction up to 80-90% was used as a matrix. The raw materials were investigated by differential-thermal (DTA and XRD analysis. Ternary compositions were prepared from mixtures of 15–35 wt % of sludge, 20 wt % of waste glass and 45–65 wt % of clay and the pressed green bodies were thermally treated in sintering temperature range from 1080 to 1120 ºC in different treatment conditions. Materials produced in temperature range 1090–1100 ºC with the most optimal properties - porosity 38-52%, water absorption 39–47% and bulk density 1.35–1.67 g/cm3 were selected for production of porous ceramics and materials showing porosity 0.35–1.1%, water absorption 0.7–2.6 % and bulk density 2.1–2.3 g/cm3 - for dense ceramic composites. Obtained results indicated that incorporation up to 25 wt % of sewage sludge is beneficial for production of both ceramic products and glass-ceramic composites according to the technological properties. Structural analysis of elaborated composite materials was performed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM. By X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD the quartz, diopside and anorthite crystalline phases were detected.Durante la obtención de ciertas fibras de vidrio se generan dos subproductos o residuos principalmente: Lodo de arcilla montmorillonítica capaz de adsorber el 50 % de materia orgánica y un vidrio silicato alumínico con temperatura de reblandecimiento relativamente alta (> 600 ºC. Con el fin de elaborar nuevos

  12. Titanium addition influences antibacterial activity of bioactive glass coatings on metallic implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Omar; Stone, Wendy; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zalzal, Paul; Waldman, Stephen; Papini, Marcello; Towler, Mark R

    2017-10-01

    In an attempt to combat the possibility of bacterial infection and insufficient bone growth around metallic, surgical implants, bioactive glasses may be employed as coatings. In this work, silica-based and borate-based glass series were synthesized for this purpose and subsequently characterized in terms of antibacterial behavior, solubility and cytotoxicity. Borate-based glasses were found to exhibit significantly superior antibacterial properties and increased solubility compared to their silica-based counterparts, with BRT0 and BRT3 (borate-based glasses with 0 and 15 mol% of titanium dioxide incorporated, respectively) outperforming the remainder of the glasses, both borate and silicate based, in these respects. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy confirmed the release of zinc ions (Zn 2+ ), which has been linked to the antibacterial abilities of glasses SRT0, BRT0 and BRT3, with inhibition effectively achieved at concentrations lower than 0.7 ppm. In vitro cytotoxicity studies using MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts confirmed that cell proliferation was affected by all glasses in this study, with decreased proliferation attributed to a faster release of sodium ions over calcium ions in both glass series, factor known to slow cell proliferation in vitro .

  13. Multilayer bioactive glass/zirconium titanate thin films in bone tissue engineering and regenerative dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari, Masoud; Salahinejad, Erfan; Shabafrooz, Vahid; Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tayebi, Lobat

    2013-01-01

    Surface modification, particularly coatings deposition, is beneficial to tissue-engineering applications. In this work, bioactive glass/zirconium titanate composite thin films were prepared by a sol-gel spin-coating method. The surface features of the coatings were studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and spectroscopic reflection analyses. The results show that uniform and sound multilayer thin films were successfully prepared through the optimization of the process variables and the application of carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing agent. Also, it was found that the thickness and roughness of the multilayer coatings increase nonlinearly with increasing the number of the layers. This new class of nanocomposite coatings, comprising the bioactive and inert components, is expected not only to enhance bioactivity and biocompatibility, but also to protect the surface of metallic implants against wear and corrosion. PMID:23641155

  14. Sequentially-crosslinked biomimetic bioactive glass/gelatin methacryloyl composites hydrogels for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiafu; Zhao, Fujian; Zhang, Wen; Mo, Yunfei; Zeng, Lei; Li, Xian; Chen, Xiaofeng

    2018-08-01

    In recent years, gelatin-based composites hydrogels have been intensively investigated because of their inherent bioactivity, biocompatibility and biodegradability. Herein, we fabricated photocrosslinkable biomimetic composites hydrogels from bioactive glass (BG) and gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) by a sequential physical and chemical crosslinking (gelation + UV) approach. The results showed that the compressive modulus of composites hydrogels increased significantly through the sequential crosslinking approach. The addition of BG resulted in a significant increase in physiological stability and apatite-forming ability. In vitro data indicated that BG/GelMA composites hydrogels promoted cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation. Overall, the BG/GelMA composites hydrogels combined the advantages of good biocompatibility and bioactivity, and had potential applications in bone regeneration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa [School of Chemical Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Razavi, Mehdi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Vashaee, Daryoosh [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606 (United States); Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Rajadas, Jayakumar [Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Tayebi, Lobat, E-mail: lobat.tayebi@marquette.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Helmerich Advanced Technology Research Center, Oklahoma State University, Tulsa, OK 74106 (United States); Biomaterials and Advanced Drug Delivery Laboratory, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Developmental Sciences, Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States)

    2015-05-30

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  16. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG coating was applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. • Mg scaffold/PCL-BaG/Gel-BaG presented improved biodegradation resistance. • Mg scaffold coated with the PCL-BaG layer indicated better bioactivity. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability

  17. Structure and in vitro bioactivity of ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys by microarc oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huijun; Dong, Qing; Dou, Jinhe; Pan, Yaokun; Chen, Chuanzhong

    2016-12-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have the potential to serve as lightweight, degradable, biocompatible and bioactive orthopedic implants for load-bearing applications. However, severe local corrosion attack and high corrosion rate have prevented their further clinical use. Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is proved to be a simple, controllable and efficient electrochemistry technique that can prepare protective ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys. In this paper, electrolyte containing silicate salts was used for microarc oxidation to form ceramic bioactive coatings on the ZK61 alloy substrate. The structure characteristics and element distributions of the coating were investigated by XRD, TEM, SEM and EPMA. The MAO samples were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 and 14 days, respectively. The surface characteristic of the immersed coatings was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results show that these MAO coatings have low crystallinity and are mainly composed of MgO, Mg2SiO4 and Mg2Si2O6. The coating surface is porous. During the SBF immersion period, the nucleation and precipitation of bone-like apatites occur on the MAO coating surface. The corrosion resistance of the substrate is improved by the MAO coatings.

  18. Prospective cohort comparison of bioactive glass implants and conchal cartilage in reconstruction of the posterior canal wall during tympanomastoidectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abramovich, S.; Hannan, S. A.; Huins, C. T.; Georgalas, C.; McGuinness, J.; Vats, A.; Thompson, I.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of bioactive glass implants and conchal cartilage in reconstructing the posterior canal wall during tympanomastoidectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort clinical study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Patients with clinically diagnosed chronic

  19. Development of a bioactive glass-polymer composite for wound healing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, D; Souza, M T; Liverani, L; Rella, G; Luz, G M; Mano, J F; Boccaccini, A R

    2017-07-01

    This study reports the production and characterization of a composite material for wound healing applications. A bioactive glass obtained by sol-gel process and doped with two different metal ions was investigated. Silver (Ag) and cobalt (Co) were chosen due to their antibacterial and angiogenic properties, respectively, very beneficial in the wound healing process. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fibers were produced by electrospinning (ES) from a polymeric solution using acetone as a solvent. After optimization of the ES parameters, two main suspensions were prepared, namely: PCL containing bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NP) and PCL with Ag 2 O and CoO doped BG-NP (DP BG-NP), which were processed with different concentrations of BG-NP (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75wt%). The composite membranes were characterized in terms of morphology, fiber diameter, weight loss, mineralization potential and mechanical performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Delia S.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V.; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, gi...

  1. In situ pH within particle beds of bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Hupa, Mikko; Hupa, Leena

    2008-09-01

    The in vitro behavior of three bioactive glasses with seven particle size distributions was studied by measuring the in situ pH inside the particle beds for 48h in simulated body fluid (SBF). After immersion, the surface of the particles was characterized with a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer. In addition, the results were compared with the reactions of the same glasses formed as plates. A similar trend in pH as a function of immersion time was observed for all systems. However, the pH inside the particle beds was markedly higher than that in the bulk SBF of the plates. The pH decreased as power functions with increasing particle size, i.e. with decreasing surface area. The in vitro reactivity expressed as layer formation strongly depended on the particle size and glass composition. The average thickness of the total reaction layer decreased with the increase in sample surface area. Well-developed silica and calcium phosphate layers typically observed on glass plates could be detected only on some particles freely exposed to the solution. No distinct reaction layers were observed on the finest particles, possibly because the layers spread out on the large surface area. Differences in the properties of the bulk SBF and the solution inside the particle bed were negligible for particles larger than 800microm. The results enhance our understanding of the in vitro reactions of bioactive glasses in various product forms and sizes.

  2. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: mr.bafandeh@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4 weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1 week immersion in SBF. After 2 weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4 weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications. - Highlights: • Co-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared. • In order to study their bioactivity, composite samples were immersed in SBF solution for 1 to 4 weeks. • Immersion in SBF accompanied with precipitation of hydroxyapatite on surface of samples. • Prepared composite samples unlike cobalt-based alloy were bioactive.

  3. Characterization of fabricated cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bafandeh, Mohammad Reza; Gharahkhani, Raziyeh; Fathi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cobalt-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared and their bioactivity after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1 to 4 weeks was studied. Scanning electron microscopy images of two- step sintered composites revealed relatively dense microstructure. The results showed that density of composite samples decreased with increase in NBG amount. The microstructure analysis as well as energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed that small amount of calcium phosphate phases precipitates on the surface of composite samples after 1 week immersion in SBF. After 2 weeks immersion, considerable amounts of cauliflower-like shaped precipitations were seen on the surface of the composites. Based on EDX analysis, these precipitations were composed mainly from Ca, P and Si. The observed bands in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of immersed composites samples for 4 weeks in SBF, were characteristic bands of hydroxyapatite. Therefore it is possible to form hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of composite samples during immersion in SBF. The results indicated that prepared composites unlike cobalt-based alloy are bioactive, promising their possibility for implant applications. - Highlights: • Co-based alloy/nano bioactive glass (NBG) composites with 10, 15 and 20 wt% NBG were prepared. • In order to study their bioactivity, composite samples were immersed in SBF solution for 1 to 4 weeks. • Immersion in SBF accompanied with precipitation of hydroxyapatite on surface of samples. • Prepared composite samples unlike cobalt-based alloy were bioactive.

  4. Barium halide nanocrystals in fluorozirconate based glass ceramics for scintillation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, J.

    2007-01-01

    Europium (Eu)-activated barium halide nanocrystals in fluorozirconate based glass ceramics represent a promising class of Xray scintillators. The scintillation in these glass ceramics is mainly caused by the emission of divalent Eu incorporated in hexagonal BaCl 2 nanocrystals which are formed in the glass matrix upon appropriate annealing. Experiments with cerium (Ce)-activated fluorozironate glass ceramics showed that Ce is an interesting alternative. In order to get a better understanding of the scintillation mechanism in Eu- or Ce-activated barium halide nanocrystals, an investigation of the processes in the corresponding bulk material is essential. The objective of this thesis is the investigation of undoped, Eu-, and Ce-doped barium halides by X-ray excited luminescence (XL), pulse height, and scintillation decay spectra. That will help to figure out which of these crystals has the most promising scintillation properties and would be the best nanoparticles for the glass ceramics. Furthermore, alternative dopants like samarium (Sm) and manganese (Mn) were also investigated. Besides the above-mentioned optical investigation electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Moessbauer measurements were carried out in order to complete the picture of Eu-doped barium halides. The EPR data of Eu-doped BaI 2 is anticipated to yield more information about the crystal field and crystal structure that will help to understand the charge carrier process during the scintillation process. The main focus of the Moessbauer investigations was set on the Eu-doped fluorochlorozirconate glass ceramics. The results of this investigation should help to improve the glass ceramics. The Eu 2+ /Eu 3+ ratio in the glass ceramics should be determined and optimize favor of the Eu 2+ . We also want to distinguish between Eu 2+ in the glass matrix and Eu 2+ in the nanocrystals. For a better understanding of Moessbauer spectroscopy on Eu also measurements on Eu in a CaF 2 host lattice were carried

  5. Application of the final flotation waste for obtaining the glass-ceramic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocić Mira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the investigation of the final flotation waste (FFW, originating from the RTB Bor Company (Serbia, as the main component for the production of glass-ceramic materials. The glass-ceramics was synthesized by the sintering of FFW, mixtures of FFW with basalt (10%, 20%, and 40%, and mixtures of FFW with tuff (20% and 40%. The sintering was conducted at the different temperatures and with the different time duration in order to find the optimal composition and conditions for crystallization. The increase of temperature, from 1100 to 1480°C, and sintering time, from 4 to 6h resulted in a higher content of hematite crystal in the obtained glass-ceramic (up to 44%. The glass-ceramics sintered from pure FFW (1080°C/36h has good mechanical properties, such as high propagation speed (4500 m/s and hardness (10800 MPa, as well as very good thermal stability. The glass-ceramics obtained from mixtures shows weaker mechanical properties compared to that obtained from pure FFW. The mixtures of FFW with tuff have a significantly lower bulk density compared to other obtained glass-ceramics. Our results indicate that FFW can be applied as a basis for obtaining the construction materials. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176010: Composition, genesis, application, and contribution to the environmental sustainability

  6. Mechanical performance of a biocompatible biocide soda-lime glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esteban, S; Bartolomé, J F; Dí Az, L A; Esteban-Tejeda, L; Prado, C; López-Piriz, R; Torrecillas, R; Moya, J S

    2014-06-01

    A biocompatible soda-lime glass-ceramic in the SiO2-Na2O-Al2O3-CaO-B2O3 system containing combeite and nepheline as crystalline phases, has been obtained at 750°C by two different routes: (i) pressureless sintering and (ii) Spark Plasma Sintering. The SPS glass-ceramic showed a bending strength, Weibull modulus, and toughness similar values to the cortical human bone. This material had a fatigue limit slightly superior to cortical bone and at least two times higher than commercial dental glass-ceramics and dentine. The in vitro studies indicate that soda-lime glass-ceramic is fully biocompatible. The in vivo studies in beagle jaws showed that implanted SPS rods presented no inflammatory changes in soft tissues surrounding implants in any of the 10 different cases after four months implantation. The radiological analysis indicates no signs of osseointegration lack around implants. Moreover, the biocide activity of SPS glass-ceramic versus Escherichia coli, was found to be >4log indicating that it prevents implant infections. Because of this, the SPS new glass-ceramic is particularly promising for dental applications (inlay, crowns, etc). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrophoretic Deposition as a New Bioactive Glass Coating Process for Orthodontic Stainless Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Kyotaro Kawaguchi; Masahiro Iijima; Kazuhiko Endo; Itaru Mizoguchi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the surface modification of orthodontic stainless steel using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of bioactive glass (BG). The BG coatings were characterized by spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and X-ray diffraction. The frictional properties were investigated using a progressive load scratch test. The remineralization ability of the etched dental enamel was studied according to the time-dependent mechanical proper...

  8. Comparison of mechanical properties of three machinable ceramics with an experimental fluorophlogopite glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian T W; Tsoi, James K H; Matinlinna, Jukka P; Pow, Edmond H N

    2015-09-01

    Fluorophlogopite glass ceramic (FGC) is a biocompatible, etchable, and millable ceramic with fluoride releasing property. However, its mechanical properties and reliability compared with other machinable ceramics remain undetermined. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the mechanical properties of 3 commercially available millable ceramic materials, IPS e.max CAD, Vitablocs Mark II, and Vita Enamic, with an experimental FGC. Each type of ceramic block was sectioned into beams (n=15) of standard dimensions of 2×2×15 mm. Before mechanical testing, specimens of the IPS e.max CAD group were further fired for final crystallization. Flexural strength was determined by the 3-point bend test with a universal loading machine at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min. Hardness was determined with a hardness tester with 5 Vickers hardness indentations (n=5) using a 1.96 N load and a dwell time of 15 seconds. Selected surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Data were analyzed by the 1-way ANOVA test and Weibull analysis (α=.05). Weibull parameters, including the Weibull modulus (m) as well as the characteristic strength at 63.2% (η) and 10.0% (B10), were obtained. A significant difference in flexural strength (PVita Enamic (145.95 ±12.65 MPa)>Vitablocs Mark II (106.67 ±18.50 MPa), and FGC (117.61 ±7.62 MPa). The Weibull modulus ranged from 6.93 to 18.34, with FGC showing the highest Weibull modulus among the 4 materials. The Weibull plot revealed that IPS e.max CAD>Vita Enamic>FGC>Vitablocs Mark II for the characteristic strength at both 63.2% (η) and 10.0% (B10). Significant difference in Vickers hardness among groups (PVitablocs Mark II (594.74 ±25.22 H(V))>Vita Enamic (372.29 ±51.23 H(V))>FGC (153.74 ±23.62 H(V)). The flexural strength and Vickers hardness of IPS e.max CAD were significantly higher than those of the 3 materials tested. The FGC's flexural strength was comparable with Vitablocs Mark II

  9. Structure, phases, and mechanical response of Ti-alloy bioactive glass composite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, G.M.; Nychka, J.A. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, 7th Floor, Electrical and Computer Engineering Research Facility, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2V4 (Canada); McDonald, A.G., E-mail: andre2@ualberta.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, 4-9 Mechanical Engineering Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2014-03-01

    Porous titanium alloy-bioactive glass composite coatings were manufactured via the flame spray deposition process. The porous coatings, targeted for orthodontic and bone-fixation applications, were made from bioactive glass (45S5) powder blended with either commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) or Ti-6Al-4V alloy powder. Two sets of spray conditions, two metallic particle size distributions, and two glass particle size distributions were used for this study. Negative control coatings consisting of pure Ti-6Al-4V alloy or Cp-Ti were sprayed under both conditions. The as-sprayed coatings were characterized through quantitative optical cross-sectional metallography, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ASTM Standard C633 tensile adhesion testing. Determination of the porosity and glassy phase distribution was achieved by using image analysis in accordance with ASTM Standard E2109. Theoretical thermodynamic and heat transfer modeling was conducted to explain experimental observations. Thermodynamic modeling was performed to estimate the flame temperature and chemical environment for each spray condition and a lumped capacitance heat transfer model was developed to estimate the temperatures attained by each particle. These models were used to establish trends among the choice of alloy, spray condition, and particle size distribution. The deposition parameters, alloy composition, and alteration of the feedstock powder size distribution had a significant effect on the coating microstructure, porosity, phases present, mechanical response, and theoretical particle temperatures that were attained. The most promising coatings were the Ti-6Al-4V-based composite coatings, which had bond strength of 20 ± 2 MPa (n = 5) and received reinforcement and strengthening from the inclusion of a glassy phase. It was shown that the use of the Ti-6Al-4V-bioactive glass composite coatings may be a superior choice due to the possible osteoproductivity from the bioactive glass, the potential ability to

  10. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic: The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R.; Ozcan, M.; Bottino, M.A.; Valandro, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR,

  11. Microtensile bond strength of a resin cement to glass infiltrated zirconia-reinforced ceramic : The effect of surface conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, R; Ozcan, M; Bottino, MA; Valandro, LF

    Objectives. This study evaluated the effect of three surface conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of resin cement to a glass-infiltrated zirconia-reinforced alumina-based core ceramic. Methods. Thirty blocks (5 x 5 x 4 mm) of In-Ceram Zirconia ceramics (In-Ceram Zirconia-INC-ZR,

  12. Enhanced Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation by Bioactive Glass Functionalized Graphene Oxide Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoju Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unmet need in engineered bone regeneration is to develop scaffolds capable of manipulating stem cells osteogenesis. Graphene oxide (GO has been widely used as a biomaterial for various biomedical applications. However, it remains challenging to functionalize GO as ideal platform for specifically directing stem cell osteogenesis. Herein, we report facile functionalization of GO with dopamine and subsequent bioactive glass (BG to enhance stem cell adhesion, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation. On the basis of graphene, we obtained dopamine functionalized graphene oxide/bioactive glass (DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds containing different content of DGO by loading BG nanoparticles on graphene oxide surface using sol-gel method. To enhance the dispersion stability and facilitate subsequent nucleation of BG in GO, firstly, dopamine (DA was used to modify GO. Then, the modified GO was functionalized with bioactive glass (BG using sol-gel method. The adhesion, spreading, and osteoinductive effects of DGO/BG scaffold on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs were evaluated. DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds with different content of DGO could influence rBMSCs’ behavior. The highest expression level of osteogenic markers suggests that the DGO/BG hybrid scaffolds have great potential or elicit desired bone reparative outcome.

  13. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Tang, Yuanyuan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Lee, Po-Heng [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Liu, Chengshuai, E-mail: csliu@soil.gd.cn [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550009 (China); Shih, Kaimin, E-mail: kshih@hku.hk [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Key Laboratory of Agricultural Environment Pollution Integrated Control, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4} spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr{sub 1.32}Fe{sub 0.19}Al{sub 0.49}O{sub 4}. Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the

  14. Detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chang-Zhong; Tang, Yuanyuan; Lee, Po-Heng; Liu, Chengshuai; Shih, Kaimin; Li, Fangbai

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue in spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. All Cr(VI) species is reduced to Cr(III) and most chromium contents are incorporated into spinel structure where the residual chromium are resided in the glass networks. - Highlights: • COPR was detoxified and immobilized in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix. • Cr-rich crystalline phase was determined to be MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 spinel. • The partitioning ratio of Cr into spinel in the glass-ceramic can be up to 77%. • No Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic. • TCLP results demonstrate the superiority of the final product in immobilizing Cr. - Abstract: A promising strategy for the detoxification and immobilization of chromite ore processing residue (COPR) in a spinel-based glass-ceramic matrix is reported in this study. In the search for a more chemically durable matrix for COPR, the most critical crystalline phase for Cr immobilization was found to be a spinel solid solution with a chemical composition of MgCr 1.32 Fe 0.19 Al 0.49 O 4 . Using Rietveld quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, we identified this final product is with the phases of spinel (3.5 wt.%), diopside (5.2 wt.%), and some amorphous contents (91.2 wt.%). The partitioning ratio of Cr reveals that about 77% of the Cr was incorporated into the more chemically durable spinel phase. The results of Cr K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy show that no Cr(VI) was observed after conversion of COPR into a glass-ceramic, which indicates successful detoxification of Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic. The leaching performances of Cr 2 O 3 and COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic were compared with a prolonged acid-leaching test, and the results demonstrate the superiority of the COPR-incorporated glass-ceramic matrix in the immobilization of Cr. The overall results suggest that

  15. Correlation between acoustical and structural properties of glasses: Extension of Abd El-Moneim model for bioactive silica based glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd El-Moneim, Amin, E-mail: aminabdelmoneim@hotmail.com

    2016-04-15

    Correlation between room temperature ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the most significant structural parameters has been studied in the bioactive silica based glasses, for the first time. The correlation has been carried out in the quaternary SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5} glass system using the two semi-empirical formulas, which have been presented recently by the author. Changes in the elastic properties, related to the substitution of SiO{sub 2} by alkali Na{sub 2}O and alkaline earth CaO oxides, have also been deduced by evaluating the mean atomic volume, packing density, fractal bond connectivity and density of the analogous crystalline structure. Furthermore, values of the theoretical elastic moduli have been calculated on the basis of Makishima-Mackenzie theory and compared with the corresponding observed values. Results show that the correlation between ultrasonic attenuation coefficient and the oxygen density, average atomic ring size, first-order stretching force constant and experimental bulk modulus was achieved at 5 MHz frequency. Values of the theoretically calculated shear modulus are in excellent correlation (C. R. ≻95%) with the corresponding experimental ones. The divergence between the theoretical and experimental values of bulk modulus has been discussed. - Highlights: • Abd El-Moneim model was extended for bioactive glasses. • Ultrasonic attenuation was correlated with structural parameters. • Correlation was carried out in Si–Na–Ca–P glasses. • The model is valid for all investigated glass samples. • Agreement between theoretical and experimental elastic moduli was studied.

  16. Assessing the Validity of the Simplified Potential Energy Clock Model for Modeling Glass-Ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grillet, Anne M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dai, Steve Xunhu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Glass-ceramic seals may be the future of hermetic connectors at Sandia National Laboratories. They have been shown capable of surviving higher temperatures and pressures than amorphous glass seals. More advanced finite-element material models are required to enable model-based design and provide evidence that the hermetic connectors can meet design requirements. Glass-ceramics are composite materials with both crystalline and amorphous phases. The latter gives rise to (non-linearly) viscoelastic behavior. Given their complex microstructures, glass-ceramics may be thermorheologically complex, a behavior outside the scope of currently implemented constitutive models at Sandia. However, it was desired to assess if the Simplified Potential Energy Clock (SPEC) model is capable of capturing the material response. Available data for SL 16.8 glass-ceramic was used to calibrate the SPEC model. Model accuracy was assessed by comparing model predictions with shear moduli temperature dependence and high temperature 3-point bend creep data. It is shown that the model can predict the temperature dependence of the shear moduli and 3- point bend creep data. Analysis of the results is presented. Suggestions for future experiments and model development are presented. Though further calibration is likely necessary, SPEC has been shown capable of modeling glass-ceramic behavior in the glass transition region but requires further analysis below the transition region.

  17. In vivo bone tissue response to a canasite glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Sverzut, C E; Xavier, S P; van Noort, R; Johnson, A; Hatton, P V

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biocompatibility and osteoconductive potential of a high-strength canasite glass ceramic. Glass-ceramic rods were produced using the lost-wax casting technique and implanted in the mid-shafts rabbit femurs. Implants were harvested at 4, 13 and 22 weeks and prepared for light and electron microscopy. Hydroxyapatite was used as a control material. Hydroxyapatite implants were surrounded by new mineralised bone tissue after 4 weeks of implantation. The amount of bone surrounding the implant increased slightly at 13 weeks. In contrast, canasite glass and glass ceramic implants were almost entirely surrounded by soft tissue during all the time periods. Close contact between bone and canasite glass-ceramic implant without the intervening fibrous tissue was observed in only a few regions. The canasite formulation evaluated was not osteoconductive and appeared to degrade in the biological environment. It was therefore concluded that the canasite formulation used was unsuitable for use as implant. Further work is required to improve the biocompatibility of these materials with bone tissue. It is possible that this could be achieved by reducing the solubility of the glass and glass ceramic.

  18. Synthesis of glass-ceramics using glass cullet and vitrified industrial by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamberi, A.; Orkopoulos, K.; Moutsatsou, A. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2007-07-01

    This study concerns the recycling of inorganic waste materials for the production of glass-ceramics and the evaluation of the developed physical properties. Four industrial by-products were selected due to their mass production: (I) two high calcium lignite fly ashes, (ii) slag derived from the production of Fe-Ni and, (iii) steel slag. In order to examine the role of the SiO{sub 2} in the crystallization process, glass cullet and Egyptian sand were added. Thermal treatment, at 1450{sup o}C, enables the production of glasses using mixtures of these materials at appropriate proportions. The crystallization was achieved by heating at 900, 950 and 1000{sup o}C. The produced materials were examined concerning their structure by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS). The results showed that the crystalline phase is greatly depending on the structure of the raw material and the thermal process, influencing accordingly the hardness of the final products.

  19. Fe-Doped Sol-Gel Glasses and Glass-Ceramics for Magnetic Hyperthermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Baino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of novel Fe-containing sol-gel materials obtained by modifying the composition of a binary SiO2-CaO parent glass with the addition of Fe2O3. The effect of different processing conditions (calcination in air vs. argon flowing on the formation of magnetic crystalline phases was investigated. The produced materials were analyzed from thermal (hot-stage microscopy, differential thermal analysis, and differential thermal calorimetry and microstructural (X-ray diffraction viewpoints to assess both the behavior upon heating and the development of crystalline phases. N2 adsorption–desorption measurements allowed determining that these materials have high surface area (40–120 m2/g and mesoporous texture with mesopore size in the range of 18 to 30 nm. It was assessed that the magnetic properties can actually be tailored by controlling the Fe content and the environmental conditions (oxidant vs. inert atmosphere during calcination. The glasses and glass-ceramics developed in this work show promise for applications in bone tissue healing which require the use of biocompatible magnetic implants able to elicit therapeutic actions, such as hyperthermia for bone cancer treatment.

  20. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  1. Evaluation of machinability and flexural strength of a novel dental machinable glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Feng; Zheng, Shucan; Luo, Zufeng; Li, Yong; Guo, Ling; Zhao, Yunfeng; Fu, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the machinability and flexural strength of a novel dental machinable glass-ceramic (named PMC), and to compare the machinability property with that of Vita Mark II and human enamel. The raw batch materials were selected and mixed. Four groups of novel glass-ceramics were formed at different nucleation temperatures, and were assigned to Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4. The machinability of the four groups of novel glass-ceramics, Vita Mark II ceramic and freshly extracted human premolars were compared by means of drilling depth measurement. A three-point bending test was used to measure the flexural strength of the novel glass-ceramics. The crystalline phases of the group with the best machinability were identified by X-ray diffraction. In terms of the drilling depth, Group 2 of the novel glass-ceramics proves to have the largest drilling depth. There was no statistical difference among Group 1, Group 4 and the natural teeth. The drilling depth of Vita MK II was statistically less than that of Group 1, Group 4 and the natural teeth. Group 3 had the least drilling depth. In respect of the flexural strength, Group 2 exhibited the maximum flexural strength; Group 1 was statistically weaker than Group 2; there was no statistical difference between Group 3 and Group 4, and they were the weakest materials. XRD of Group 2 ceramic showed that a new type of dental machinable glass-ceramic containing calcium-mica had been developed by the present study and was named PMC. PMC is promising for application as a dental machinable ceramic due to its good machinability and relatively high strength.

  2. Microstructure and spectroscopic investigations of calcium zinc bismuth phosphate glass ceramics doped with manganese ions