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Sample records for bioactive compounds extracted

  1. Chemically engineered extracts: source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramallo, I Ayelen; Salazar, Mario O; Mendez, Luciana; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2011-04-19

    Biological research and drug discovery critically depend on access to libraries of small molecules that have an affinity for biomacromolecules. By virtue of their sustained success as sources of lead compounds, natural products are recognized as "privileged" starting points in structural space for library development. Compared with synthetic compounds, natural products have distinguishing structural properties; indeed, researchers have begun to quantify and catalog the differences between the two classes of molecules. Measurable differences in the number of chiral centers, the degree of saturation, the presence of aromatic rings, and the number of the various heteroatoms are among the chief distinctions between natural and synthetic compounds. Natural products also include a significant proportion of recurring molecular scaffolds that are not present in currently marketed drugs: the bioactivity of these natural substructures has been refined over the long process of evolution. In this Account, we present our research aimed at preparing libraries of semisynthetic compounds, or chemically engineered extracts (CEEs), through chemical diversification of natural products mixtures. The approach relies on the power of numbers, that is, in the chemical alteration of a sizable fraction of the starting complex mixture. Major changes in composition can be achieved through the chemical transformation of reactive molecular fragments that are found in most natural products. If such fragments are common enough, their transformation represents an entry point for chemically altering a high proportion of the components of crude natural extracts. We have searched for common reactive fragments in the Dictionary of Natural Products (CRC Press) and identified several functional groups that are expected to be present in a large fraction of the components of an average natural crude extract. To date, we have used reactions that incorporate (i) nitrogen atoms through carbonyl groups, (ii

  2. Compressed fluids for the extraction of bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, M.; Mendiola, J. A.; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The improvement of sample-preparation and extraction techniques for determinations of natural bioactive compounds is very important. New concepts relate to not only enhancement of extraction efficiencies but also environmental impact. This evolution towards Green Analytical Chemistry is to new extraction and sample-preparation processes that should be faster, more reproducible and more environmentally friendly.Compressed fluid-based sample-preparation techniques (e.g., supercritical fluid ext...

  3. Carrier system for a plant extract or bioactive compound from a plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound.......This invention relates to a carrier system for use in producing a beverage with a metered amount of plant extract or bioactive compound....

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from lemon balm and peppermint leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Boričević, Ana; Borić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction (frequency, time, temperature) on the content of bioactive compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from fresh lemon balm and peppermint leaves. Total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, and radical scavenging capacity were determined. Moreover, the relationship between bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was studied by linear regression. A significant increase in all studied bioactive compounds during ultrasonic extraction for 5 to 20 min was found. With the classical extraction method, the highest amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined, and the maximum amounts of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined during 20 min ultrasonic extraction. The correlation analysis revealed a strong, positive relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.

  5. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase. PMID:22877739

  6. Solvent-free microwave extraction of bioactive compounds provides a tool for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ying LI; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview on solvent-free microwave-extraction techniques of bioactive compounds from natural products. This new technique is based on the concept of green analytical chemistry. It has proved to be an alternative to other techniques with the advantages of reducing extraction times, energy consumption, solvent use and CO2 emissions.

  7. Bioactive phenolic compounds : production and extraction by solid-state fermentation. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Silvia; Solange I. Mussatto; Martínez-Avila, G.; Montañez-Saenz, J.; Aguilar Gonzalez, Cristobal Noé; Teixeira, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the development of bioprocesses for the production or extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources has increased in recent years due to the potential applications of these compounds in food, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries. In this context, solid-state fermentation (SSF) has received great attention because this bioprocess has potential to successfully convert inexpensive agro-industrial residues, as well as plants, in a great variety of valuable compounds, inclu...

  8. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Da Sun; Shikang Zhang; Yuefei Wang; Ping Xu; Yuejin Zhu; Le Ying

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained f...

  9. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Uribe; Alvaro Delgadillo; Claudia Giovagnoli-Vicuña; Issis Quispe-Fuentes; Liliana Zura-Bravo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE), ultrasound (UE), agitation (AE), and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry) and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respecti...

  10. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat ass...

  11. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez; María Castro-Puyana; Mendiola, Jose A.; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alejandro Cifuentes; Elena Ibáez

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospra...

  12. Encapsulation of bioactive compound from extracted jasmine flower using β-Cyclodextrin via electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmam., S.; Naim., M. N.; Ng., E.; Mokhtar, M. Nn; Abu Bakar, N. F.

    2016-06-01

    The ability of electrospray to encapsulate the bioactive compound extracted from Jasmine flower with β-Cyclodextrion (β-CD) without any thermal-assisted processing was demonstrated in this study. The extraction of Jasmine compound were conducted using sonicator at 70 000 Hz, for 10 minutes and followed by mixing of the filtered compound with β-CD. Then, the mixture was electrosprayed under a stable Taylor cone jet mode at the voltage of 4 - 5 kV, with flow rate of 0.2 ml/hour. The aluminum substrate that used for collecting the deposit was placed at 30 cm from the needle's tip to allow the occurrence of evaporation and droplet fission until the droplet transform to solid particles. Characteristics of solidified bioactive compound from Jasmine flower (non-encapsulated compound) and solidified bioactive compound with β-CD (encapsulated compound) were studied in this work. From SEM images, it can be observed that the particles size distribution of encapsulated compound deposits have better deposition array and did not aggregate with each other compared to the non-encapsulated compound. FE-SEM images of encapsulated compound deposits indicate more solid crystal looks while non-encapsulated compound was obtained in the porous form. The electrospray process in this work has successfully encapsulated the Jasmine compound with β-CD without any thermal-assisted process. The encapsulation occurrence was determined using FTIR analysis. Identical peaks that referred to the β-CD were found on the encapsulated compound demonstrated that most deposits were encapsulated with β-CD.

  13. Characterization of phenolic compounds using separation techniques coupled to mass spectrometry of plant extracts with demonstrated bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Iswaldi, Ihsan

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis, entitled "Characterization of phenolic compounds using separation techniques coupled to mass spectrometry of plant extracts with demonstrated bioactivity", consists of two main sections: the Introduction and the Experimental Section. The first section describes an overview of traditional medicine and functional food, plant foods as natural source of bioactive compounds, polyphenols and bioactivity and the analytical tools used to identify polyphenols such as high-pe...

  14. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  15. GC-MS analysis of bio-active compounds in methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Kanta Kanthal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of phytochemical constitutes has been reported from species of the Compositae (Asteraceae. Hitherto no reports exist on the phytochemical components and biological activity of Lactuca runcinata DC. Objective: The present study was designed to determine the bioactive compounds in the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the entire herb of Lactuca runcinata DC revealed the presence of some bio-active components. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis of the whole plant methanol extract of Lactuca runcinata was performed on a GC-MS equipment (Thermo Scientific Co. Thermo GC-TRACE ultra ver.: 5.0, Thermo MS DSQ II. Results: The phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, phlobatannin, reducing sugars, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpenoids, volatile oils, carbohydrates, and protein/amino acids in methanolic extract of L. runcinata. The GC-MS analysis has shown the presence of different phytochemical compounds in the methanolic extract of Lactuca runcinata. A total of 21 compounds were identified representing 84.49% of total methanolic extract composition. Conclusion: From the results, it is evident that Lactuca runcinata contains various phytocomponents and is recommended as a plant of phytopharmaceutical importance.

  16. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  17. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide. PMID:26151222

  18. Optimization of the extraction process for the seven bioactive compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang, an herbal formula, using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Hoon Kim; Hyeun-Kyoo Shin; Chang-Seob Seo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Yukmijihwang-tang (YJT) contains multiple bioactive compounds. Heat-reflux extraction was employed and optimized for the extraction of the bioactive compounds in YJT. Objective: The determination of optimal conditions with maximum yields of bioactive compounds, gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol, in YJT. Materials and Methods: The extraction ratio (ratio of water to herbal formula), extraction time and extraction numb...

  19. Extraction and characterization of candidate bioactive compounds in different tissues from salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Mikalsen, S. O.; Joensen, H.;

    2014-01-01

    and for their ability to inhibit activity of the proteases angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). In vitro assays were used to detect these activities and the corresponding candidate bioactive compounds were characterized by LC-MS/MS.Radical scavenging activity was...... detected in <10kDa extracts of gills, belly flap muscle and skin with EC50 values of 39, 82 and 100 µg/mL, respectively. No ACE or DPP-4 inhibiting activity could be detected. LC-MS/MS analysis of dominating compounds in active fractions from size exclusion chromatography showed that families of related...... compounds were found in several fractions from different tissues but most pronounced in gills. One family was defined according to content of a specific amino acid sequence (PW). Three families were defined by the m/z value of the smallest compound reported in each family (219, 434 and 403). The three...

  20. Use of ultrasound radiation for extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Current events and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, clean technologies have been developed for high efficiency extracting of isolation of biologically active compounds from natural sources, without the loss of biological activity, with good yield and high purity. Ultrasound-assisted extraction has low instrumental requirements and their implementation is very appropriate where the stability of the active component to be removed is affected by the high temperatures of conventional processes. In this paper it is evaluated the state of the art of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from various natural sources, its mechanism, the parameters governing its use and research perspectives in this field. Ultrasonic cavitation phenomenon promotes cell wall rupture, reduction of particle size and tissue permeability, which facilitates the diffusion of the solvent into the inert part of the plant material and increasing the mass transferred through membranes. This mechanism explains the high efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction as it allows to reduce the time, temperature and amounts of solvent extraction process with high yields and high purity of the extracted product. Currently there is a great demand for the use of ultrasound to industrial and current research lead to the development of larger scale reactors and the theoretical modeling of the parameters that determine efficient extraction

  1. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation. PMID:26563916

  2. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol–water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol–water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques. PMID:25987992

  3. Simultaneous extraction and biotransformation process to obtain high bioactivity phenolic compounds from Brazilian citrus residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Jose Valdo; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have pointed to a reduction in the incidence of some cancers, diabetes, and neuro-degenerative diseases as a result of human health benefits from flavanones. Currently, flavanones are obtained by chemical synthesis or extraction from plants, and these processes are only produced in the glycosylated form. An interesting environmentally friendly alternative that deserves attention regarding phenolic compound production is the simultaneous extraction and biotransformation of these molecules. Orange juice consumption has become a worldwide dietary habit and Brazil is the largest producer of orange juice in the world. Approximately half of the citrus fruit is discarded after the juice is processed, thus generating large amounts of residues (peel and pectinolytic material). Hence, finding an environmentally clean technique to extract natural products and bioactive compounds from different plant materials has presented a challenging task over the last decades. The aim of this study was to obtain phenolics from Brazilian citrus residues with high bioactivity, using simultaneous extraction (cellulase and pectinase) and biotransformation (tannase) by enzymatic process. The highest hesperetin, naringenin and ellagic acid production in the experiment were 120, 80, and 11,250 µg g(-1), respectively, at 5.0 U mL(-1) of cellulase and 7.0 U mL(-1) of tannase at 40°C and 200 rpm. Also, the development of this process generated an increase of 77% in the total antioxidant capacity. These results suggest that the bioprocess obtained innovative results where the simultaneous enzymatic and biotransformatic extracted flavanones from agro-industrial residues was achieved without the use of organic solvents. The methodology can therefore be considered a green technology. PMID:26081498

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v, and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v. Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems.

  5. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  6. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  7. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterized in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most...

  8. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-Ang, Niramon

    2015-02-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45-85 °C), and the time (2-8 h) were designed for the extraction. The results indicated that the extraction temperature and time introduced the increasing the extraction yield, total phenolic content, anthocyanin and resveratrol, but the long extraction time reduced the tannin content. The results showed that the optimize condition was the extraction at 80 ± 1 °C for 2 h 53 min. This provided the highest content of polyphenolic compounds. The next experiment was microencapsulation of the extract which studied the amounts of maltodextrin (7-28 % w/v) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (0-1.4 % w/v). The results showed that the optimized microencapsulation used 10.21 % w/v maltodextrin and 0.21 % w/v CMC to maximize all polyphenolic compounds, and also to minimize bitterness and astringency. This study illustrated that the optimal conditions for extraction and microencapsulation of the red grape extract have a high potential to produce functional ingredients. PMID:25694686

  9. Optimization of the Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Sunflower Meal and Evaluation of the Bioactivities of Chosen Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Kamil; Mohamed, S.S.; Mohamed, S. H.; G.F. Mohamed; Taha, F. S.

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower seed defatted meal (SM) is an underutilized source of protein due to the presence of chlorogenic acid (CGA) which imparts a greenish color to sunflower meal protein products. The aim of the present study was to prepare a (CGA) extract from SM and evaluate its biological activity. The study included extraction of phenolic compounds from SM, using 80% methanol, 80% ethanol and 80% acetone. The methods of extraction used included conventional extraction (CE), microwave assisted extract...

  10. Optimization of extraction and microencapsulation of bioactive compounds from red grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Boonchu, Thapakorn; Utama-ang, Niramon

    2013-01-01

    Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) pomace constitutes a promising source of phenolic compounds, gallic acid, flavan-3-ols, flavonoids, stilbene and anthocyanins that are beneficial for human health. The objectives of this study were to optimize the extraction and microencapsulation of red grape pomace. Central composite designs with two factors were conducted for optimization using response surface methodology. The temperature (45–85 °C), and the time (2–8 h) were designed for the extraction. The resu...

  11. Five new bioactive compounds from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Hong-Qing; Liu, Chao; Li, Bao-Ming; Kang, Jie; Chen, Ruo-Yun

    2015-05-01

    Five new bioactive compounds, chenopodiumamines A-D (1-4) and chenopodiumoside A (5), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by various spectroscopic means (UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Compounds 1-3 had moderate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26001043

  12. Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described. PMID:22312726

  13. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Brazil, jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried-out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging capacity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans-caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  14. Chemically engineered extracts as an alternative source of bioactive natural product-like compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia N. López; Ramallo, I. Ayelen; Sierra, Manuel Gonzalez; SUSANA A ZACCHINO; Furlan, Ricardo L. E.

    2006-01-01

    The access to libraries of molecules with interesting biomolecular properties is a limiting step in the drug discovery process. By virtue of a long molecular evolution process, natural products are recognized as biologically validated starting points in structural space for library development. We introduce here a strategy to generate natural product-like libraries. A semisynthetic mixture of compounds was produced by diversification of a natural product extract through the chemical transform...

  15. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  16. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds. PMID:27192193

  17. Optimization of the extraction process for the seven bioactive compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang, an herbal formula, using response surface methodology

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    Jung-Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yukmijihwang-tang (YJT contains multiple bioactive compounds. Heat-reflux extraction was employed and optimized for the extraction of the bioactive compounds in YJT. Objective: The determination of optimal conditions with maximum yields of bioactive compounds, gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol, in YJT. Materials and Methods: The extraction ratio (ratio of water to herbal formula, extraction time and extraction number were set as individual values and the yields of the seven compounds were the response values that were optimized with a Box-Behnken design. Results: The optimal conditions obtained from response surface methodology (RSM were 1:11.99 for the extraction ratio, 94.53 min for the extraction time and 2.21 for the extraction number. Under the optimal conditions, the response value of the experiment closely agreed with the predicted response value. Conclusions: The result suggests that RSM is successfully applied for optimizing the extraction of the marker compounds in YJT.

  18. Variation of antioxidant activity and the levels of bioactive compounds in lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Haejin; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, John; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2012-10-15

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are a rich source of diverse bioactive compounds with potential health-promoting properties. This study investigated the extraction efficiency of five solvents on antioxidant activities from cayenne (CA408 and Mesilla), jalapeño (Ixtapa) and serrano (Tuxtlas) pepper cultivars. Freeze-dried peppers were extracted using a Soxhlet extractor with five solvents: hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and methanol:water (80:20). The levels of specific bioactive compounds (phenolics, capsaicinoids, carotenoids and flavonoids) were determined by HPLC and antioxidant activities were assayed by three methods. For all pepper cultivars tested, hexane extracts had the highest levels of capsaicinoids and carotenoids, but methanol extracts had the maximum levels of flavonoids. Hexane extracts showed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and higher reducing power, and acetone extracts (from Mesilla pepper) had a high reducing power. All pepper extracts, except hexane, were effective in preventing deoxyribose degradation, and the inhibition was increased by high concentrations of extracts. The results of the present study indicated that, among the different measures of antioxidant activity, DPPH radical-scavenging activity was strongly correlated with total bioactive compounds (capsaicinoids, carotenoids, flavonoids and total phenolics) in pepper cultivars. PMID:23442638

  19. Extraction of bioactive compounds using twin-screw extrusion : comparison between two hemp coproducts

    OpenAIRE

    BASSIL, Sabina; Candy, Laure; Simon, Valérie; Raynaud, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Biomass represents an important source for the production of multiple products including high-value chemicals. In this context, different lignocellulosic residues have been explored for the extraction of aromatic monomers. It includes ultrasonic extraction, refluxing extraction, alkaline hydrolysis and accelerated solvent extraction [1]. Aromatic monomers could be used for food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical applications. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant. The natural fra...

  20. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  1. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueye Lamine

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative.

  2. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    OpenAIRE

    Gueye Lamine; Sarr Bocar; Diop Doudou; Wele Alassane; Kane Modou O; Ngom Saliou; Sarr Mamadou; Andriantsitohaina Ramaroson; Diallo Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, ...

  3. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo) Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Alamelumangai. M; Dhanalakshmi, J; M. Mathumitha; R. Saranya Renganayaki; P. Muthukumaran; N.Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) (E.C number 1.14.18.1) was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca) and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate t...

  4. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

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    Abdul Rahman Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8% and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8% and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%. Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics, rutin and myricetin (flavonoids and daidzein (isoflavonoid. The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy, acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+ to ferrous ion (Fe2+. Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.

  5. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

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    Somayeh Rasooli

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Island coastlines and transferred to the laboratory. Standard methods were used to obtain the algae extract. Antibacterial activities of various extracts were tested against the bacterium using well diffusion assay method. Significant differences were observed in antibacterial activities of different extracts (P<0.05. The diameter of zone of growth inhibition varied in correlation with concentration of the extracts (50, 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1. The best inhibition zone was observed at 100, 200 and 300 mg.ml-1 methanolic and 300 mg.ml-1 aqueous extracts.

  6. Antibacterial activities of bioactive compounds extracted from Marine algae Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Rasooli; Masoud Sattari; Zohreh Ramezanpour; Javid Imanpour Namin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicinal products have attracted significant research interest in recent years. Considering the efficiency of algae products in controlling pathogenic bacteria and also easy access to large resources of algae, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic, chloroformic and aqueous extracts of Gracilaria salicornia against Aeromonas hydrophila, a heterotrophic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium found mainly in warm climate. Algae samples were collected from Qeshm Isl...

  7. Metabonomics classifies pathways affected by bioactive compounds. Artificial neural network classification of NMR spectra of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Karl-Heinz; Araníbar, Nelly; Singh, Bijay; Stockton, Gerald W

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical mode-of-action (MOA) for herbicides and other bioactive compounds can be rapidly and simultaneously classified by automated pattern recognition of the metabonome that is embodied in the 1H NMR spectrum of a crude plant extract. The ca. 300 herbicides that are used in agriculture today affect less than 30 different biochemical pathways. In this report, 19 of the most interesting MOAs were automatically classified. Corn (Zea mays) plants were treated with various herbicides such as imazethapyr, glyphosate, sethoxydim, and diuron, which represent various biochemical modes-of-action such as inhibition of specific enzymes (acetohydroxy acid synthase [AHAS], protoporphyrin IX oxidase [PROTOX], 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [EPSPS], acetyl CoA carboxylase [ACC-ase], etc.), or protein complexes (photosystems I and II), or major biological process such as oxidative phosphorylation, auxin transport, microtubule growth, and mitosis. Crude isolates from the treated plants were subjected to 1H NMR spectroscopy, and the spectra were classified by artificial neural network analysis to discriminate the herbicide modes-of-action. We demonstrate the use and refinement of the method, and present cross-validated assignments for the metabolite NMR profiles of over 400 plant isolates. The MOA screen also recognizes when a new mode-of-action is present, which is considered extremely important for the herbicide discovery process, and can be used to study deviations in the metabolism of compounds from a chemical synthesis program. The combination of NMR metabolite profiling and neural network classification is expected to be similarly relevant to other metabonomic profiling applications, such as in drug discovery. PMID:12590124

  8. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahman Omar; Yin Wan Ho,; Wan Zuhainis Saad; Syahida Ahmad; Norhani Abdullah; Ehsan Oskoueian

    2011-01-01

    Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin...

  9. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans. PMID:27283658

  10. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations. PMID:24024688

  11. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi againstParacoccidioides brasiliensis and identification ofAspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds

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    Graziele Mendes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5 of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero. This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity.

  12. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  13. HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

  14. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  15. Phenolic Compounds and Bioactivity of Healthy and Infected Grapevine Leaf Extracts from Red Varieties Merlot and Vranac (Vitis vinifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anđelković, Marko; Radovanović, Blaga; Anđelković, Ana Milenkovic; Radovanović, Vladimir

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the phenolic composition, radical scavenging activity, and antimicrobial activity of grapevine leaf extracts from two red grape varieties, Vranac and Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.). The extracts were prepared from healthy grapevine leaves and those infected by Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew). The phenolic composition of the grapevine leaf extracts was determined using spectrophotometric assays and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The radical scavenging activity of grapevine leaf extracts was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, and their antimicrobial activity was determined by microwell dilution tests. The total phenolic content was higher in healthy grapevine leaf extracts than in infected grapevine leaf extracts. The RP-HPLC analysis detected significant amounts of flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, and small amounts of stilbenes in the grapevine leaf extracts. Compared with the infected grapevine leaf extracts, the healthy grapevine leaf extracts were richer in flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavan-3-ols, but had lower stilbenes contents. All extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity, which was strongly correlated with the total phenolic content (R(2) = 0.978). The extracts showed a stronger antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive bacterial strains than towards Gram-negative bacterial strains and yeast. The phenolic compounds in grapevine leaves were responsible for their strong radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. Together, these results demonstrate that grapevine leaves have high nutritional value and can be used as a fresh food and to prepare extracts that can be used as additives in food and medicines. PMID:26174183

  16. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface. PMID:26964951

  17. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces

  18. Bioactive compounds from Carissa spinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangteeraprasert, Ruchira; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Neidle, Stephen; Gibbons, Simon; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2012-10-01

    In our continuing efforts to find new antiherpetic agents from plants, an extract prepared from the stems of Carissa spinarum L. was found to possess appreciable activity against herpes simplex viruses (HSV I and II). A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, and this led to the isolation of 12 compounds, including a coumarin, two cardiac glycosides and nine lignans. These isolated compounds were evaluated for several biological activities, including antiherpetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. The cardiac glycoside evomonoside was found to be the only antiherpetic principle, showing moderate activity against herpes simplex virus types I and II in the inactivation method. The lignans (-)-carinol, (-)-carissanol and (-)-nortrachelogenin exhibited cytotoxicity against breast (MCF7) and lung (A549) cancer cells. Moderate anti-DPPH free radical activity was observed for all the lignans. None of the isolates showed antibacterial activity. PMID:22308099

  19. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MHSE), respectively. The monoterpenes were 1st extracted by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by an optimized DHS-GC-MS. The optimization of the dynamic extraction step and the desorption/cryo-focusing step were tackled independently by experimental design assays. The best working conditions were set at 30 °C for the incubation temperature, 5 min of incubation time, and 40 mL of purge volume for the dynamic extraction step of these bioactive molecules. The conditions of the desorption/cryo-trapping step from the Tenax TA trap were set at follows: the temperature was increased from 30 to 300 °C at 150 °C/min, although the cryo-trapping was maintained at -70 °C. In order to estimate the efficiency of the SFE process, the analysis of monoterpenes in the 4 aromatic plants was directly carried out by means of MHSE because it did not require any sample preparation. Good linearity (r2) > 0.99) and reproducibility (relative standard deviation % <12) was obtained for solid and liquid quantification approaches, in the ranges of 0.5 to 200 ng and 10 to 500 ng/mL, respectively. The developed methods were applied to analyze the concentration of 7 monoterpenes in aromatic plants obtaining concentrations in the range of 2 to 6000 ng/g and 0.25 to 110 μg/mg, respectively. PMID:26925555

  1. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaafar, Hawa Z. E.; Ehsan Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the ne...

  2. Chemical composition of bioactive pressurized extracts of Romanian aromatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, T. L.; Plaza, Merichel; Bahrim, G.; Ibáñez, Elena; Herrero, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been employed to isolate bioactive compounds from three native Romanian plants, oregano (Origanum vulgare), tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum). Different PLE conditions have been tested including extraction with water, ethanol and their mixtures in a wide range of extraction temperatures (50–200 °C), and the antioxidant capacity of the extracts was measured using different assays (DPPH radical scaven...

  3. Preparative separation of bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze using steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yun; Du, Jilin; Lu, Yuanyuan

    2012-10-01

    In order to utilize and control the invasive weed, bioactive compounds from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze were studied. Steam distillation extraction and one step high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to separate and purify the caryophyllene oxide, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene, and caryophyllene from essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The two-phase solvent system containing n-hexane/acetonitrile/ethanol (5:4:3, v/v/v) was selected for the one step separation mode according to the partition coefficient values (K) of the target compounds and the separation factor (α). The purity of each isolated fraction after a single high-speed counter-current chromatography run was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. A 3.2 mg of caryophyllene oxide at a purity of 92.6%, 10.4 mg of 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene at a purity of 99.1% and 5.7 mg of caryophyllene at a purity of 98.8% were obtained from 200 mg essential oil of Flaveria bidentis (L.) Kuntze. The chemical structures of these components were identified by GC-MS, (1) H-NMR, and (13) C-NMR. PMID:22907873

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaiee, Somayeh; Moini, Sohrab; Hashemi, Maryam; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. These properties are basically related to its crocins, picrocrocin and safranal contents which have all demonstrated health promoting properties. The present review article highlights the phytochemical constituents (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, degraded carotenoid compounds crocins and crocetin) that are important in a...

  5. Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsha Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals. Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison. Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC 50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC 50 5.0 mg/mL. Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl ester. Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots

  6. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  7. Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera Peach): Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Pulp, Peel and Seed Ethanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loizzo, Monica R; Pacetti, Deborah; Lucci, Paolo; Núñez, Oscar; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe; Tundis, Rosa

    2015-09-01

    A comparative analysis of ethanol extracts from peel, pulp and seed of Prunus persica var. platycarpa (Tabacchiera peach) was done. The total phenol, flavonoid and carotenoid content as well as the antioxidant properties by using different in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, Fe-chelating, β-carotene bleaching test) were evaluated. Pulp extract was subjected to liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, protocatechualdehyde, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid were identified as main constituents. Pulp extract was characterized by the highest total phytonutrients content and exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in all in vitro assays (IC(50) values of 2.2 μg/mL after 60 min of incubation by using β-carotene bleaching test and 2.9 μg/mL by using Fe-chelating assay). Overall, the obtained results suggest that P. persica var. platycarpa displays a good antioxidant activity and its consumption could be promoted. PMID:26138775

  8. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  9. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bi-Fong; Chao Wen-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, a...

  10. NOVEL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MANGROVE DERIVED ACTINOMYCETES

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari Amrita; Jain Nitin; Subathra Devi, C.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove is most productive and unexplored ecosystem that approximately covers one fourth of world coastline with high diversity of thriving organism. Recently the rate of isolation of novel bioactive compounds from microorganism living in mangrove forest has tremendously increased which is reflected in significant hasten for exploration of mangrove actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are group of bacteria which are extremely interesting as active producers of many primary and secondary metabolites....

  11. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sessa, Mariarenata

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The increase in dietary-intake-related illnesses, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, have made in recent years the development of health-and-wellness promoting foods a priority of the food industry. Clinical studies have demonstrated tangible health benefits that may be derived from the intake of bioactive compounds. However many difficulties are associated with their inclusion in food matrices, due to a very low solubility in water and...

  12. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão; Ivano Alessandro Devilla; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Leonardo Luiz Borges

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provi...

  13. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  14. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the bioactive compounds from the crude extracts of Waltheria indica and the histopathological changes induced in albino rats challenged with Naja nigricollis venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ilani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a characteristic fingerprint of the different chemical compounds of plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis and assess the effect of the crude extract on histological changes induced in Naja nigricollis (N. nigricollis envenomed albino rats. Methods: The coarsely powdered Waltheria indica (W. indica whole plant material was extracted using 70% methanol. GC-MS analysis was carried out using a Shimadzu GC-MS QP 2010 plus system of gas chromatography interfaced to a mass spectrometer. The identification of components was based on National Institute of Standard and Technology-08 and Willey-8 libraries. Hydrogen-NMR spectra of the extracts was performed using Bruker Biospin Avance 400-MHz NMR spectrophotometer with a 5 mm broad inverse probe head, equipped with shielded z-gradient accessories and C-13 NMR hetero-nuclear single quantum correction was carried out using the Brucker’s standard pulse library. The efficacy of the crude extract of W. indica whole plant was tested and the lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged with N. nigricollis were analyzed by light microscopy. Results: The identification of the bioactive compounds from W. indica by GC-MS analysis revealed 41 peaks. A total of 38 compounds were identified with majority having important pharmacological activities that included anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant antiinflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ageing, anti-arthritic, larvicidal, anti-convulsant and herbicidal activities. C-13 and hydrogen-NMR analysis of W. indica elucidated key bioactive compounds in the whole plant that were consistent with the classes of bioactive compounds detected by GC-MS analysis. The efficacy of the crude extract of W. indica whole plant in ameliorating histopathological lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged with N. nigricollis venom revealed the

  15. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the bioactive compounds from the crude extracts ofWaltheria indica and the histopathological changes induced in albino rats challenged withNaja nigricollis venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Ilani; Nicholas Ajodo; Folashade Adewusi; Samirat Yakubu; Victor Yakubu Cosmos; Ache Eunice; Atonila Kayode Ezekiel; Oshiedu Sarah; Emmanuel Amlabu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To develop a characteristic fingerprint of the different chemical compounds of plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and assess the effect of the crude extract on histological changes induced inNaja nigricollis(N. nigricollis)envenomed albino rats. Methods: The coarsely powderedWaltheria indica (W. indica) whole plant material was extracted using 70% methanol.GC-MS analysis was carried out using a ShimadzuGC-MS QP 2010 plus system of gas chromatography interfaced to a mass spectrometer. The identification of components was based on National Institute of Standard and Technology-08 and Willey-8 libraries. Hydrogen-NMR spectra of the extracts was performed using Bruker Biospin Avance 400-MHzNMR spectrophotometer with a 5 mm broad inverse probe head, equipped with shielded z-gradient accessories andC-13 NMR hetero-nuclear single quantum correction was carried out using the Brucker’s standard pulse library. The efficacy of the crude extract ofW. indica whole plant was tested and the lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged withN. nigricollis were analyzed by light microscopy. Results:The identification of the bioactive compounds fromW. indica byGC-MS analysis revealed 41 peaks. A total of 38 compounds were identified with majority having important pharmacological activities that included anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ageing, anti-arthritic, larvicidal, anti-convulsant and herbicidal activities.C-13 and hydrogen-NMR analysis ofW. indica elucidated key bioactive compounds in the whole plant that were consistent with the classes of bioactive compounds detected byGC-MS analysis. The efficacy of the crude extract ofW. indica whole plant in ameliorating histopathological lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged withN. nigricollis venom revealed the abrogation of tissue degeneration when

  16. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  17. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here. PMID:26473827

  18. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

  19. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2015-11-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  20. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  1. Isolation, partial purification and evaluation of bioactive compounds from leaves of Ageratum houstonianum

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Khan; Kumar, A; Rizvi, S.M.D.; M. Zeeshan

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation and partial purification of bioactive compounds from the crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum (Asteraceae). The quantification and the identification of compounds in the crude extract and active bands isolated by preparative TLC were accomplished using GC-MS analysis. The most important compounds identified in the crude extract and active bands (AB-1 and AB-2) were 6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, hexadecanoic acid ...

  2. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins. The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+-catechin equivalents.

  3. Isolation and characterization of regulatory peptides and bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Åke

    2004-01-01

    Isolation of peptides and other bioactive compounds is an important and often necessary step to get the total information about their structures. This is demonstrated by a number of different characterizations in this thesis. Bioactive peptides and small organic molecules can act as signaling substances and messengers in multicellular organisms and are fundamental to higher forms of life. The following bioactive peptides and compounds were studied. 1) Different assays ca...

  4. Fruits Bioactive Compounds Characterization from a New Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Mariana RUS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (I to create a new product, smart bar type which can be consumed as protective food by adults and children (II to characterize the bioactive compounds from the designed food. The bioactive compounds were identified from nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds. Secoisolariciresinol (683 ppm has been identified as a major compound in flax seeds.  The vitamin C was quantified by HPLC in a concentration of 35.02 mg% in cranberries extract. The total phenolic content varied from 7.1 mg/g for walnut to 71.8 mg/g for cranberries. In addition, the antioxidative capability of phenolic compounds was monitored and evaluated using a colored free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Almond showed better results than walnut in the antioxidant capacity test. The results obtained in this study collect information that enables the use of nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds as raw material for the production of smart bar which may serve as a new product for food market.

  5. Bioactive compounds: Safety and efficacy (Consensus Meeting - Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Dragsted, L.O.; Elmadfa, I.; Grossklaus, R.; Müller, M.R.; Schrenk, D.; Walter, P.; Weber, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of bioactive compounds depend on a few known and unknown parameters. What is a physiologic dose and how can that dose be defined in cases of bioactive compounds with a poor knowledge of supply and distribution? What safety sets are needed? How can individual aspects such as p

  6. Phytochemical analysis and estimation of major bioactive compounds from Triticum aestivum L. grass with antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoria, Anand; Mehta, Archana; Mehta, Pradeep; Ahirwal, Laxmi; Shukla, Shruti

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate phytochemical analysis, and qualitative and quantitative determination of major bioactive compound present in various organic extracts of T. aestivum L. grass. Soxhlet apparatus was used for the extraction purpose using hexane, chloroform, methanol and distilled water as a solvent system. All the extracts derived from T. aestivum showed qualitative presence of major phytochemicals including alkaloids, steroids and cardiac glycosides tannins, flavonoids carbohydrates. Further, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds such as rutin, chlorogenic acid, tocopherol, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid in various organic extracts responsible for the reported maximum antimicrobial activity of T. aestivum grass against pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholerae. These findings confirm that T. aestivum grass containing medicinally important bioactive compounds may have significant potential to be used in traditional medicine system for the treatment of various diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26687741

  7. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina.

  8. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Bi-Fong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees (Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is immunomodulatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Among the less abundant compounds from A. paniculata, andrograpanin is both anti-inflammatory and anti-infective; 14-deoxy-14,15-dehydroandrographolide is anti-inflammatory; isoandrographolide, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide and 14-acetylandrographolide are tumor suppressive; arabinogalactan proteins are anti-hepatotoxic. The four flavonoids from A. paniculata, namely 7-O-methylwogonin, apigenin, onysilin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid are anti-atherosclerotic.

  9. Radiation Parameters of Some Potential Bioactive Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynep Gedik; Mehtap Tugrak; Aysenur Dastan; Haliseinci Gul; Demet YIlmaz

    2015-01-01

    In this study ,we aimed to determine the radiation parameters of some potential bioactive com‐pounds .1‐Aryl‐3‐dibenzylamino‐propane‐1‐on hydrochloride type Mannich bases were synthesized via classical conventional heating method .Aryl part was changed as phenyl (C6 H5 ) ,4‐methylphenyl (4‐CH3 C6 H4 ) ,4‐flu‐orophenyl (4‐FC6 H4 ) , 4‐nitrophenyl (4‐NO2 C6 H4 ) , 4‐chlorophenyl (4‐ClC6 H4 ) , 4‐bromophenyl (4‐BrC6 H4 ) ,and 2‐thienyl (C4 H3 S‐2‐yl) .Mass attenuation coefficient (μm ) ,effective atomic number (Zef ) and effective electron density (Nel ) of compounds were determined experimentally and theoretically for at 8.040 , 8.910 ,13.40 ,14.96 ,17.48 ,19.61 ,22.16 ,24.94 ,32.19 ,36.38 ,44.48 ,50.38 and 59.54 keV photon en‐ergies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV .Radiation parameters of these com‐pounds which can be anti‐cancer drug candidate were given in the tables .The results show that phenyl ring be‐have like thiophene ring in terms of radiation absorption .It is thought that the results of study may drive allow the development of drug candidate new compounds in medical oncology .

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of cinnamon (C. zeylanicum and C. cassia) extracts - identification of E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxy cinnamaldehyde as the most potent bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Dhanushka; Karunaweera, Niloo; Lee, Samiuela; van Der Kooy, Frank; Harman, David G; Raju, Ritesh; Bennett, Louise; Gyengesi, Erika; Sucher, Nikolaus J; Münch, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    Chronic inflammation is a contributing factor in many age-related diseases. In a previous study, we have shown that Sri Lankan cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was one of the most potent anti-inflammatory foods out of 115 foods tested. However, knowledge about the exact nature of the anti-inflammatory compounds and their distribution in the two major cinnamon species used for human consumption is limited. The aim of this investigation was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of C. zeylanicum and C. cassia and elucidate their main phytochemical compounds. When extracts were tested in LPS and IFN-γ activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, most of the anti-inflammatory activity, measured by down-regulation of nitric oxide and TNF-α production, was observed in the organic extracts. The most abundant compounds in these extracts were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde. The highest concentration of E-cinnamaldehyde was found in the DCM extract of C. zeylanicum or C. cassia (31 and 34 mg g(-1) of cinnamon, respectively). When these and other constituents were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 macrophages, the most potent compounds were E-cinnamaldehyde and o-methoxycinnamaldehyde, which exhibited IC₅₀ values for NO with RAW 264.7 cells of 55 ± 9 μM (7.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 35 ± 9 μM (5.7 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)), respectively; and IC₅₀ values for TNF-α of 63 ± 9 μM (8.3 ± 1.2 μg mL(-1)) and 78 ± 16 μM (12.6 ± 2.6 μg mL(-1)), respectively. If therapeutic concentrations can be achieved in target tissues, cinnamon and its components may be useful in the treatment of age-related inflammatory conditions. PMID:25629927

  11. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary de Fátima Guedes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g−1, total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g−1, and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g−1. As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC (194.67 µM·Trolox·g−1, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (47.46 g·pulp·g−1 DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits.

  12. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  13. Phenolic compounds and bioactive properties of wild German and Roman chamomiles

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery. In the present work, methanolic extracts of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and Chamaemelum nobile L. (Roman chamomile) and their decoction and infusion (the most consumed preparations of these herbs) were submitted to an analysis of phenolic compounds and bioactivity evaluation. Phenolic compounds were characterized by HPL...

  14. Fermentation of Plant Material - Effect on Sugar Content and Stability of Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reis Bruno A. dos; Kosińska-Cagnazzo Agnieszka; Schmitt Rudolf; Andlauer Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Extraction is a method often used to obtain products rich in bioactive compounds from plant material. Most of the solvents used for the poly-phenols extraction simultaneously extract also sugars, undesirable as a component of health-promoting food. Fermentation might be a simple, cheap and efficient way of sugar elimination. In our study, black tea and goji berries, both known for their health benefits, were used and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to elimin...

  15. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  16. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrovankova, Sona; Sumczynski, Daniela; Mlcek, Jiri; Jurikova, Tunde; Sochor, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry), and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry), belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC). They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins) and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits. PMID:26501271

  17. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  18. Phenolic waste valorization through bioenergy and bioactive compounds production [Resumo

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos; Morana, A; La Cara, F.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial processing activities produce large amounts of waste that are only partially valorised at different value-added levels (spread on land, animal feed, composting), whereas the main volumes are managed as waste of environmental worry. These by-products are rich sources of bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity.

  19. Bioactive Compounds from Marine Bacteria and Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wen H.; Proksch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Marine bacteria and fungi are of considerable importance as new promising sources of a huge number of biologically active products. Some of these marine species live in a stressful habitat, under cold, lightless and high pressure conditions. Surprisingly, a large number of species with high diversity survive under such conditions and produce fascinating and structurally complex natural products. Up till now, only a small number of microorganisms have been investigated for bioactive me...

  20. Fluorescence studies by quenching and protein unfolding on the interaction of bioactive compounds in water extracts of kiwi fruit cultivars with human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this investigation was to characterize new kiwi fruit cultivars after cold storage treatment and to determine the similarities and differences between them, using spectroscopic methods. The chemometric comparison of kiwi fruit cultivars based on physicochemical indices during cold storage was carried out. All kiwi fruit cultivars showed a high level of correlation between the contents of phenolic compounds (polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids) and their antioxidant capacities. The interactions of soluble polyphenols of different kiwi fruit cultivars with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence. The obtained statistical and fluorescence results allow to classify the investigated kiwi fruit cultivars according to their properties. The antioxidant properties of different cultivars monitored by β-carotene assay showed that the highest percentage of antioxidant activity (%AA) at the end of the cold storage was detected for ‘SKK-12’ (27.61±2.44) %AA with the lowest shelf life (8 weeks) and the lowest was found for ‘Hayward’ variety (8.33±0.74) %AA with the highest shelf life (24 weeks). The averaged amount of polyphenols in ‘Bidan’ and ‘SKK-12’ 13.97±1.95 mg GAE/g was much higher than in other cultivars 3.93±3.26 mg GAE/g, without respect on time of cold storage. The HSA-binding capacities of these cultivars were the highest and correlated with their antioxidant capacities. To our knowledge this is the first report showing differences and similarities in new kiwi fruit cultivars, using spectroscopic techniques. The fact that fluorescence spectral methods are applied as a powerful tool to show the photophysical properties of intrinsic fluorophores in protein molecules in the presence of fruit extracts is important in this study. In conclusion, the obtained knowledge would contribute to the pharmaceutical development and clinical application of kiwi fruit extracts. - Highlights: • Different kiwi fruit cultivars

  1. Fluorescence studies by quenching and protein unfolding on the interaction of bioactive compounds in water extracts of kiwi fruit cultivars with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo Park, Yong, E-mail: ypark@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Horticultural Science, Mokpo National University, Muan, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Polovka, Martin [National Agricultural and Food Centre VUP, Food Research Institute, SK-824 75 Bratislava (Slovakia); Leticia Martinez-Ayala, Alma [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carretera Yautepec-Jojutla, Km. 6, calle CEPROBI No. 8, Col. San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos 62731 (Mexico); González-Aguilar, Gustavo A. [Research Center for Food & Development, A.C. (CIAD), Carretera a Ejido La Victoria, Km 0.6, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304 (Mexico); Ham, Kyung-Sik; Kang, Seong-Gook; Park, Yang-Kyun [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Buk-Gu [Naju Foundation of Natural Dyeing Culture, Naju 520-931 (Korea, Republic of); Namiesnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80 952 Gdańsk (Poland); Gorinstein, Shela, E-mail: shela.gorin@mail.huji.ac.il [The Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)

    2015-04-15

    The main aim of this investigation was to characterize new kiwi fruit cultivars after cold storage treatment and to determine the similarities and differences between them, using spectroscopic methods. The chemometric comparison of kiwi fruit cultivars based on physicochemical indices during cold storage was carried out. All kiwi fruit cultivars showed a high level of correlation between the contents of phenolic compounds (polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids) and their antioxidant capacities. The interactions of soluble polyphenols of different kiwi fruit cultivars with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence. The obtained statistical and fluorescence results allow to classify the investigated kiwi fruit cultivars according to their properties. The antioxidant properties of different cultivars monitored by β-carotene assay showed that the highest percentage of antioxidant activity (%AA) at the end of the cold storage was detected for ‘SKK-12’ (27.61±2.44) %AA with the lowest shelf life (8 weeks) and the lowest was found for ‘Hayward’ variety (8.33±0.74) %AA with the highest shelf life (24 weeks). The averaged amount of polyphenols in ‘Bidan’ and ‘SKK-12’ 13.97±1.95 mg GAE/g was much higher than in other cultivars 3.93±3.26 mg GAE/g, without respect on time of cold storage. The HSA-binding capacities of these cultivars were the highest and correlated with their antioxidant capacities. To our knowledge this is the first report showing differences and similarities in new kiwi fruit cultivars, using spectroscopic techniques. The fact that fluorescence spectral methods are applied as a powerful tool to show the photophysical properties of intrinsic fluorophores in protein molecules in the presence of fruit extracts is important in this study. In conclusion, the obtained knowledge would contribute to the pharmaceutical development and clinical application of kiwi fruit extracts. - Highlights: • Different kiwi fruit cultivars

  2. Jellyfish Bioactive Compounds: Methods for Wet-Lab Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Bárbara; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-04-01

    The study of bioactive compounds from marine animals has provided, over time, an endless source of interesting molecules. Jellyfish are commonly targets of study due to their toxic proteins. However, there is a gap in reviewing successful wet-lab methods employed in these animals, which compromises the fast progress in the detection of related biomolecules. Here, we provide a compilation of the most effective wet-lab methodologies for jellyfish venom extraction prior to proteomic analysis-separation, identification and toxicity assays. This includes SDS-PAGE, 2DE, gel chromatography, HPLC, DEAE, LC-MS, MALDI, Western blot, hemolytic assay, antimicrobial assay and protease activity assay. For a more comprehensive approach, jellyfish toxicity studies should further consider transcriptome sequencing. We reviewed such methodologies and other genomic techniques used prior to the deep sequencing of transcripts, including RNA extraction, construction of cDNA libraries and RACE. Overall, we provide an overview of the most promising methods and their successful implementation for optimizing time and effort when studying jellyfish. PMID:27077869

  3. The investigation of some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna Jacq)

    OpenAIRE

    Serhat KESER; Celik, Sait; Turkoglu, Semra; Yilmaz, Okkes; Turkoglu, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers, and ripened fruits. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH•, ABTS•+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic c...

  4. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  5. In-vitro evaluation of bioactive compounds, anti-oxidant, lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase inhibitory potential of Citrus karna L. peel extract

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jagdeep; Sood, Shailja; Muthuraman, Arunachalam

    2011-01-01

    Many medicinal plants have been studied for their antioxidant and their pharmacological activity. Citrus species were well documented as potential antioxidant based therapy for cancer, inflammation, heart disease. Citrus seeds and peels have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study to explore the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation & lipoxygenase inhibitory action of Citrus karna peel extracts were undertaken. Extraction was performed with different solvent...

  6. Mass spectrometry for determination of bioactive compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Majik, M.S.; Singh, K.S.

    cell. This type of experiment is particularly useful for monitoring groups of compounds contained within a mixture which fragment to produce common fragment ions, e.g. glycosylated peptides in a tryptic digest mixture, aliphatic hydrocarbons in an oil... in a matrix e.g. drug testing with blood or urine samples. It is not only a highly specific method but also has very high sensitivity. For known compounds, mass spectra can be used much like fingerprints. A match is extremely strong evidence...

  7. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Bhatnagar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

  8. Bioactive compounds in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bergquist, Sara

    2006-01-01

    A high intake of fruit and vegetables is well known to have positive effects on human health, and has been correlated to a decreased risk of most degenerative diseases of ageing, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts and several forms of cancer. These protective effects have been attributed to high concentrations of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, flavonoids, carotenoids) in fruit and vegetables, partly due to the antioxidative action of some of these compounds. Maintaining a high lev...

  9. Nocardiopsis species: a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennur, T; Ravi Kumar, A; Zinjarde, S S; Javdekar, V

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are an ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important group of Actinomycetes. Most of the isolates are halotolerant or halophilic and they prevail in soils, marine environments or hypersaline locations. To aid their survival under these conditions, they mainly produce extremozymes, compatible solutes, surfactants and bioactive compounds. The current review details the bioactive compounds obtained for this genus. Important antimicrobial agents obtained from this genus include polyketides, phenzines, quinoline alkaloids, terphenyls, proteins, thiopeptides and amines. Polyketides and peptides displaying potent anticancer activities are also significant. Tumour promoting agents, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, immunomodulators and protein kinase inhibitors are other relevant products obtained from Nocardiopsis species. Structurally, polyketides (synthesized by polyketide synthases) and peptides (made by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or cyclodipeptide synthases) are important compounds. Considered here are also toxins, anti photoaging and adipogenic agents produced by this genus. The gene clusters mediating the synthesis of bioactive compounds have been described. Commercially available products (Apoptolidins and K-252a) derived from this genus have also been described. This review highlights the significance of a single genus in producing an assortment of compounds with varied biological activities. On account of these features, the members of this genus have established a place for themselves and are of considerable value in producing compounds with profound bio-medical applications. PMID:26369300

  10. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN COMMONLY UTILIZED LEGUME CULTIVARS FROM IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content as well as total antioxidant capacity in three chickpea, four fababean and four lentil cultivars from regions of Iraq with different environmental growth conditions were investigated in the work. The total polyphenol content (TP was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of legume extracts was measured using the DPPH spectrophotometrically. The obtained results confirmed that the polyphenols content in the tested legume cultivars was influenced by locality. From tested legumes the highest polyphenol content was measured in fababean (1220 – 6286 mg GAE.kg-1. In lentil (2351 – 3011 mgGAE.kg-1 the average TP value was slightly lower (by 1,6%, while in chickpea (549 – 978 mg GAE.kg-1 it was dramatically (by 71,5% lower in comparison to fababean. The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest average TAC value was determined in fababean (15.2 – 25.6% DPPH, in lentil (14.2 – 28.9% DPPH the TAC value was by 2% and in chickpea (1.9 – 4.5% DPPH by 83,6% lower in comparison to fababean. Only in lentil a statistically strong correlation (P-value 2.391E-06; R = 0.802 was found. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition.

  11. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  12. Green algae Chlorococcum humicola- a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P; Jancy Sherene Bell I

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the existence of bioactive phytochemicals and their antimicrobial role of green algae Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola). Methods: The various organic solvents such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane and methanol were used for the preparation of the algal extracts then subjected to chemical analysis and further used for the screening of antimicrobial assay. The purified carotenoid pigments and chlorophylls were used for the antimicrobial studies against the harmful pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibreo cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Results: The chemical analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, alkaloids, favanoids, fattyacids, saponins, aminoacids and carbohydrates. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts of green algae C. humicola shows activity in inhibiting the growth of virulent strains of bacteria and fungi pathogenic to human. Eight different extracts showed effective inhibitory action against the selected pathogens. Depends upon their existence of the bioactive compounds the different organic algal extracts shows difference in their inhibitory zone against the microbes. Out of all the organic extracts benzene and ethyl acetate extracts showed excellent effect nearly 80% microbial growth inhibition. The separated carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions of C. humicola, also results in the microbial growth inhibition. Conclusions: The present study concludes that green algae C. humicola are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, they showed excellent effect against the microbial pathogens.

  13. Rapid determination of major bioactive isoflavonoid compounds during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) by near-infrared transmission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Hailong; Nie, Lei; Zang, Hengchang

    2015-02-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been developed into an indispensable tool for both academic research and industrial quality control in a wide field of applications. The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy to monitor the concentration of puerarin, daidzin, daidzein and total isoflavonoid (TIF) during the extraction process of kudzu (Pueraria lobata) was verified in this work. NIR spectra were collected in transmission mode and pretreated with smoothing and derivative. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to establish calibration models. Three different variable selection methods, including correlation coefficient method, interval partial least squares (iPLS), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were performed and compared with models based on all of the variables. The results showed that the approach was very efficient and environmentally friendly for rapid determination of the four quality indices (QIs) in the kudzu extraction process. This method established may have the potential to be used as a process analytical technological (PAT) tool in the future.

  14. Anion Gap Toxicity in Alloxan Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Treated with Antidiabetic Noncytotoxic Bioactive Compounds of Ethanolic Extract of Moringa oleifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Omabe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera (MO is used for a number of therapeutic purposes. This raises the question of safety and possible toxicity. The objective of the study was to ascertain the safety and possible metabolic toxicity in comparison with metformin, a known drug associated with acidosis. Animals confirmed with diabetes were grouped into 2 groups. The control group only received oral dose of PBS while the test group was treated with ethanolic extract of MO orally twice daily for 5-6 days. Data showed that the extract significantly lowered glucose level to normal values and did not cause any significant cytotoxicity compared to the control group (P=0.0698; there was no gain in weight between the MO treated and the control groups (P>0.8115. However, data showed that treatment with an ethanolic extract of MO caused a decrease in bicarbonate (P<0.0001, and more than twofold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001; metformin treatment also decreased bicarbonate (P<0.0001 and resulted in a threefold increase in anion gap (P<0.0001. Conclusively, these data show that while MO appears to have antidiabetic and noncytotoxic properties, it is associated with statistically significant anion gap acidosis in alloxan induced type 2 diabetic rats.

  15. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  16. Bioactive Compounds of Aristotelia chilensis Stuntz and their Pharmacological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanucci, Valeria; D'Alonzo, Daniele; Guaragna, Annalisa; Di Marino, Cinzia; Davinelli, Sergio; Scapagnini, Giovanni; Di Fabio, Giovanni; Zarrelli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Aristotelia chilensis ([Molina], Stuntz) a member of the family Eleocarpaceae, is a plant native to Chile that is distributed in tropical and temperate Asia, Australia, the Pacific Area, and South America. The juice of its berries has important medicinal properties, as an astringent, tonic, and antidiarrhoeal. Its many qualities make the maqui berry the undisputed sovereign of the family of so-called "superfruits", as well as a valuable tool to combat cellular inflammation of bones and joints. Recently, it is discovered that the leaves of the maqui berry have important antibacterial and antitumour activities. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the traditional use, phytochemistry, and biological activity of A. chilensis using information collected from scientific journals, books, and electronic searches. Anthocyanins, other flavonoids, alkaloids, cinnamic acid derivatives, benzoic acid derivatives, other bioactive molecules, and mineral elements are summarized. A broad range of activities of plant extracts and fractions are presented, including antioxidant activity, inhibition of visible light-induced damage of photoreceptor cells, inhibition of α-glucosidase, inhibition of pancreatic lipase, anti-diabetic effects, anti-inflammatory effects, analgesic effects, anti-diabetes, effective prevention of atherosclerosis, promotion of hair growth, anti-photo ageing of the skin, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Although some ethnobotanical uses have been supported in in vitro experiments, further studies of the individual compounds or chemical classes of compounds responsible for the pharmacological effects and the mechanisms of action are necessary. In addition, the toxicity and the side effects from the use of A. chilensis, as well as clinical trials, require attention. PMID:26778456

  17. Development and validation of a rapid high performance liquid chromatography - photodiode array detection method for estimation of a bioactive compound wedelolactone in extracts of Eclipta alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanshu Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following optimization of extraction, separation and analytical conditions, a rapid, sensitive and simple reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array (HPLC-PDA method has been developed for the identification and quantification of wedelolactone in different extracts of Eclipta alba. The separation of wedelolactone was achieved on a C18 column using the solvent system consisting of a mixture of methanol: water: acetic acid (95: 5: 0.04 as a mobile phase in isocratic elution mode followed by photo diode array detection at 352 nm. The developed method was validated as per the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH. Calibration curve presented good linear regression (r²>0.998 within the test range and the maximum relative standard deviation (RSD, % values for intra-day assay were found to be 0.15, 1.30 and 1.1 for low (5 µg/mL, medium (20 µg/mL and high (80 µg/mL concentrations of wedelolactone. For inter-day assay the maximum RSD (% values were found to be 2.83, 1.51 and 2.06 for low, medium and high concentrations, respectively. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ were calculated to be 2 and 5 µg/mL respectively. Analytical recovery of wedelolactone was greater than 95%. Wedelolactone in different extracts of Eclipta alba was identified and quantified using the developed HPLC method. The validated HPLC method allowed precise quantitative analysis of wedelolactone in Eclipta. alba extracts.Desenvolveu-se método rápido, sensível e simples de Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência em fase reversa, utilizando-se arranjo de fotodiodo (HPLC-PDA, visando à separação, extração e às condições analíticas para a identificação e quantificação de wedelolactona em diferentes extratos de Eclipta alba. A separação de wedelolactona foi efetuada por meio de uma coluna C18, utilizando mistura de metanol:água:ácido acético (95:5:0.04 como fase móvel, em sistema de

  18. Natural Bioactive Compounds from Winery By-Products as Health Promoters: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teixeira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers’ interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L. are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used. Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health.

  19. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

  20. Bioactivity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Laurus nobilis L. from Different Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Barreira, João C.M.; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Laurus nobilis L. (Laureaceae), commonly known as laurel, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region. Most widely used as culinary spice, it is also consumed as infusion to treat some gastrointestinal problems (Dall’Acqua et al., 2009) and has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds namely, essential oils and phenolic compounds (Dadalioğlu et al., 2004; Dias et al., 2013). In the present work, methanolic and aqueous extracts of wild and cultivated L. nobilis wer...

  1. Bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity in new kiwi fruit cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Seo; Namiesnik, Jacek; Vearasilp, Kann; Leontowicz, Hanna; Leontowicz, Maria; Barasch, Dinorah; Nemirovski, Alina; Trakhtenberg, Simon; Gorinstein, Shela

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this investigation was to find the best among seven different kiwi fruit cultivars ('Hayward', 'Daheung', 'Haenam', 'Bidan', 'Hort16A', 'Hwamei' and 'SKK12') for human consumption and to classify them as groups. Therefore, the contents of bioactive compounds and the level of antioxidant capacities of these cultivars were determined in four different extracts and compared. It was found that the contents of the bioactive compounds and the level of antioxidant capacities in different extracts differ significantly (Pkiwi fruit cultivars can be classified for three groups: 'Hayward' (including 'Daheung', 'Haenam', Hwamei' and 'SKK12'), 'Bidan' and 'Hort 16A'. In MS - profiles some differences in the peaks were found between the cultivar groups. All studied fruits could be a valuable addition to known disease preventing diets. PMID:25038687

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of bioactive compounds with high potential for cosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Io; Varriale, Simona; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products containing biologically active ingredients purporting to offer a pharmaceutical therapeutic benefit. The active ingredients can be extracted and purified from natural sources (botanicals, herbal extracts, or animals) but can also be obtained biotechnologically by fermentation and cell cultures or by enzymatic synthesis and modification of natural compounds. A cosmeceutical ingredient should possess an attractive property such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin whitening, anti-aging, anti-wrinkling, or photoprotective activity, among others. During the past years, there has been an increased interest on the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive esters and glycosides based on (trans)esterification, (trans)glycosylation, or oxidation reactions. Natural bioactive compounds with exceptional theurapeutic properties and low toxicity may offer a new insight into the design and development of potent and beneficial cosmetics. This review gives an overview of the enzymatic modifications which are performed currently for the synthesis of products with attractive properties for the cosmeceutical industry. PMID:27276911

  3. Extraction Optimization, Characterization and Bioactivities of a Major Polysaccharide from Sargassum thunbergii

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Xiumei; Zeng, Yawei; Nie, Kaiying; Luo, Dianhui; Wang, Zhaojing

    2015-01-01

    Sargassum thunbergii is a kind of natural edible algae. STP (S. thunbergii polysaccharides) was considered as the main bioactive compounds in S. thunbergii. To obtain the optimal processing conditions for maximum total sugar yield, single factor investigation and response surface methodology (RSM) were employed. The optimal processing conditions were as follows: liquid to solid ratio 120 mL/g, extraction time 210 min, extraction temperature 97°C. The experimental yield 7.53% under optimized c...

  4. Mass propagation of in vitro plantlets and extraction of bioactive compounds from Eurycoma Longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali) using cell and organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack or better known in Malaysia as Tongkat Ali is an important herbal plant that owes its popularity locally and worldwide to its aphrodisiac claim and has been sought after as an essential component for the treatment of anti-malarial, anti-ulcer, anti-tumour promoting and anti-parasitic agent and also as health supplements. Quassinoids and canthin-6-one alkaloids contained in Tongkat Ali roots are the main substances having active functions for human body. Propagation is commonly done through seeds or some vegetative means such as cuttings of stems and root, grafting or layering. However, propagation by conventional method is inadequate to meet the demand due to low viability, low germination rate, delayed rooting and long life cycle. Tissue culture has been successfully applied for mass production of plantlets and extraction of many useful secondary metabolites, including pharmaceuticals, pigments and other fine chemicals. Tongkat Ali active substances have also been derived through cell culture technology but its processes need to be optimized before the product can be commercialized. Cell and organ cultures have been proven to be an efficient alternative method for biomass production due to its fast growth and stable metabolite production. In view of its potential commercial value as a plantation crop as well as to conserve its germplasm, micropropagation technique using cell culture system is an attractive method for regeneration and mass propagation. (Author)

  5. Optimization on Extraction Engineering of the Anti - inflammatory Bioactive Materials from Ainsliaea Fragrans Champ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainsliaea fragrans Champ.(A.fragrans is a traditional Chinese herbal, phenolic compounds was the major anti - inflammatory bioactive constituents. To improve the bioavailability and enhanced the curative effect of A.fragrans, the anti - inflammatory effect of phenolic acids and the “non-active” group of control vectors constitute a new biomedical material, which is of great significance to the treatment of diseases inflammation. Hence, in this thesis, regarding the total phenolic acid transfer rate as the indicator, L9(34 orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction process of total Phenolic acid from A.fragrans by reflux extraction method on solvent dosage, extraction times and extraction time.The optimal extraction technology was as follows: 15 times of water volume, reflux extraction 3 times, extraction time 60 min. The result of pharmacological activity indicated anti-inflammatory effect: 95% ethanol extraction > water extraction > 30% ethanol extraction > 60% ethanol extraction.

  6. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    T JN Okonkwo; P O Osadebe

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP) was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water succes...

  7. Echinoderms: their culture and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M S

    2005-01-01

    biologically active compounds with biomedical applications. Sea cucumber has been valued in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years as a cure for a wide variety of ailments. Some more recently isolated compounds, mainly from sea cucumbers and starfish, and including those with antitumour, antiviral, anticoagulant and antimicrobial activity are summarised below. When wild stocks decline, the demand created in the market place raises to the price of the product and, consequently, culturing is more likely to become viable economically. As this review shows, there have been dramatic advances in the culture methods of sea urchins and sea cucumbers in the last 10-15 years, to the extent that one can conclude that currently the major obstacles to successful cultivation are indeed economic rather than biological. Hence the future of the echinoculture industry is closely linked to that of the fisheries, whose fate will ultimately determine the market forces that will shape this growing industry. PMID:17152697

  8. The Investigation of Some Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KESER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH and #8226;, ABTS and #8226;+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu and #8217;s reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by HPLC in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. Additionally, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 51-55

  9. Fermentation of Plant Material - Effect on Sugar Content and Stability of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Bruno A. dos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction is a method often used to obtain products rich in bioactive compounds from plant material. Most of the solvents used for the poly-phenols extraction simultaneously extract also sugars, undesirable as a component of health-promoting food. Fermentation might be a simple, cheap and efficient way of sugar elimination. In our study, black tea and goji berries, both known for their health benefits, were used and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to eliminate sugars. In the course of fermentation the concentration of polyphenols, L-theanine and carotenoids was evaluated in order to verify the preservation of selected bioactive compounds. Decreases in sugar content, formation of ethanol and yeasts growth were monitored during fermentation. The fermentation of black tea decreased the sugar concentration by 84% within 6 h without decreasing total polyphenols and L-theanine contents. Goji berry fermentation yielded a sugars decrease of 87% within 24 h, without decrease in poly-phenol content. However, carotenoid content was reduced by 17%. The study showed that fermentation was an effective way to decrease sugar content in plant extracts, and therefore it might be a pertinent step to concentrate bioactives.

  10. Variation of bioactive compounds content of 14 oriental strawberry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Kyeom; Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Dae Young; Chun, Changhoo

    2015-10-01

    Variation in bioactive compounds content was assessed in antioxidant rich June-bearing strawberry cultivars. Ascorbic acid, anthocyanin, and ellagic acid content were analyzed in ripe fruits of 14 cultivars. The bioactive content in strawberry fruit was found to vary significantly among cultivars and from year to year. The highest ascorbic acid content was found in 'Sugyeong'. The 'Red Pearl' and 'Sachinoka' had three to fourfold higher amounts of pelargonidin 3-glucoside than other cultivars. For cyanidin 3-glucoide and pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, two other characterized anthocyanins, 'Dahong' and 'Keumhyang' had the highest contents among all the tested cultivars. The ellagic acid content of 'Dahong' was generally all within the upper ranges. These results can be used for the validation of fruit antioxidant capacity and in addition, provide useful information for breeding programs looking to enhance the antioxidant capacity in strawberry fruit. PMID:25872444

  11. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    OpenAIRE

    Ismael Barros Gomes; Roseane Cristina Predes Trindade; Antônio Euzébio Goulart Sant'Ana; Eurico Eduardo Pinto Lemos; Irinaldo Diniz Basílio Júnior

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae ), on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae ). Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer) or arabic gum (second polymer). It was possible to microencapsulate the...

  12. Infusion and decoction of wild German chamomile: bioactivity and characterization of organic acids and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognised potential in drug discovery. Herein, the methanol extract of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and its decoction and infusion (the most consumed preparations of this herb) were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation; the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture (non-tumour cells). All the samples revealed antioxidant properties. The decoction exhibited no antitumour activity (GI(50)>400 μg/mL) which could indicate that this bioactivity might be related to compounds (including phenolic compounds) that were not extracted or that were affected by the decoction procedure. Both plant methanol extract and infusion showed inhibitory activity to the growth of HCT-15 (GI(50) 250.24 and 298.23 μg/mL, respectively) and HeLa (GI(50) 259.36 and 277.67 μg/mL, respectively) cell lines, without hepatotoxicity (GI(50)>400 μg/mL). Infusion and decoction gave higher contents of organic acids (24.42 and 23.35 g/100g dw). Otherwise, the plant methanol extract contained the highest amounts of both phenolic acids (3.99 g/100g dw) and flavonoids (2.59 g/100g dw). The major compound found in all the preparations was luteolin O-acylhexoside. Overall, German chamomile contains important phytochemicals with bioactive properties (mainly antitumour potential selective to colon and cervical carcinoma cell lines) to be explored in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. PMID:23122148

  13. Optimization of ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive components from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Shekhar U; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Smyth, Thomas J; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of key extraction parameters of extraction time (5-25 min), acid concentration (0-0.06 M HCl) and ultrasound amplitude (22.8-114 μm) on yields of bioactive compounds (total phenolics, fucose and uronic acid) from Ascophyllumnodosum. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the extraction variables for bioactive compounds' yield. A second order polynomial model was fitted well to the extraction experimental data with (R(2)>0.79). Extraction yields of 143.12 mgGAE/gdb, 87.06 mg/gdb and 128.54 mg/gdb were obtained for total phenolics, fucose and uronic acid respectively at optimized extraction conditions of extraction time (25 min), acid concentration (0.03 M HCl) and ultrasonic amplitude (114 μm). Mass spectroscopy analysis of extracts show that ultrasound enhances the extraction of high molecular weight phenolic compounds from A. nodosum. This study demonstrates that ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) can be employed to enhance extraction of bioactive compounds from seaweed. PMID:25453215

  14. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Kraan, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products an...... of uses to enhance comparisons. In addition, scientific experiments performed on seaweed used as animal feed are presented, and EU, US and Japanese legislation on functional foods is reviewed.......Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products...... and vice versa. Scientific research on bioactive compounds in seaweed usually takes place on just a few species and compounds. This paper reviews worldwide research on bioactive compounds, mainly of nine genera or species of seaweed, which are also available in European temperate Atlantic waters, i...

  15. Metabolites identification of bioactive licorice compounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qian, Yi; Wang, Qing; Yang, Yan-Fang; Ji, Shuai; Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Guo, De-An; Liang, Hong; Ye, Min

    2015-11-10

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the most popular herbal medicines worldwide. This study aims to identify the metabolites of seven representative bioactive licorice compounds in rats. These compounds include 22β-acetoxyl glycyrrhizin (1), licoflavonol (2), licoricidin (3), licoisoflavanone (4), isoglycycoumarin (5), semilicoisoflavone B (6), and 3-methoxy-9-hydroxy-pterocarpan (7). After oral administration of 250mg/kg of 1 or 40mg/kg of 2-7 to rats, a total of 16, 43 and 31 metabolites were detected in the plasma, urine and fecal samples, respectively. The metabolites were characterized by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) and LC/IT-TOF-MS analyses. Particularly, two metabolites of 1 were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference standards, and 22β-acetoxyl glycyrrhizin-6″-methyl ester (1-M2) is a new compound. Compound 1 could be readily hydrolyzed to eliminate the glucuronic acid residue. The phenolic compounds (4-7) mainly undertook phase II metabolism (glucuronidation or sulfation). Most phenolic compounds with an isoprenyl group (chain or cyclized, 2-5) could also undertake hydroxylation reaction. This is the first study on in vivo metabolism of these licorice compounds. PMID:26311472

  16. Assessment of bioactivities of ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md Asadujjaman; Abu Saed; Md Aslam Hossain; Utpal Kumar Karmakar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess ethanolic extract of the leaves of Melia azedarach L. (Family-Meliaceae) for its possible antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in association with performing phytochemical evaluation.Methods:A number of phytochemical tests of this extract were utilized to distinguish the existence of different sorts of compounds. Qualitative and quantitative antioxidant activities were assessed by TLC and DPPH scavenging assay respectively. Acetic acid induced writhing test in mice and disk diffusion assay of the leaves extract were carried out to demonstrate the analgesic and antibacterial activities respectively.Results:The phytochemical assessment revealed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins and tannins like compounds. Ethanolic extract of the leaves demonstrated antioxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activities in vitro.Conclusion:Considering the study, this could justify the leaves extract’s bioactivities but, to substantiate the activity of individual compound further investigation is necessary.

  17. Biological effects of bioactive components and extracts derived from edible plants commonly used in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Danesi, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of this PhD research project was the evaluation of the biological effects of bioactive compounds derived from edible plants, with particular attention on their possibility to counteract oxidative damage and inflammation. After a preliminary study of in vitro antioxidant activity, regarding the modification eventually occurring after home freezing and cooking of edible vegetables, cultured mammalian cells were used as experimental model systems. Soluble extract and essenti...

  18. Method to extract uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium compounds present in gangue of phosphate ores are also to be determined and extracted with the proposed method. The gangue-water mixture in phosphate extraction is to be displaced, according to the invention, by a component which selectively dissolves the uranium compounds out of the gangue. The enriched solution is separated off and processed. Weak acids (e.g. phosphoric acid, acetre acid, citric acid), lyes (e.g. ammonium carbonate, soda) or salts (e.g. sodium hydrogen phosphate, NaHCO3 tartrates) are named as solution components. (UWI)

  19. Study on endophytic bacteria for bioactive compound production use as plant protection agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microbes are microbes which live symbiotically inside the plant tissue. The potential of those microbes were studied for many purposes such as industrial and agriculture. The purpose of this research was to study the potential of endophytic microbes for bioactive compound production as plants protection agent. From 238 bacteria isolates tested, it were identified that 44 bacteria were against the Xanthomonas campestris, 49 isolates against Pseudomonas solanacearum, 28 isolates against Colletotricum gloeosporioides, 18 isolates against Fusarium oxysporum, 19 isolates against Xanthomonas campestris and Pseudomonas solanacearum, 6 isolates against X. campestris and C. gloeosporioides, four isolates against X. campestris and F. oxysporum, two isolates against P. solanacearum and F. oxysporum, seven isolates against C. gloeosporioides and F. oxysporum, five isolates againt X. campestris, P. solanacearum and C. gloeosporioides. Fermentation process was conducted to collect the bioactive compound against pathogen. Isolates HL.50B.106 could produce bioactive compound against C. gloeosporioides, and F. oxysporum, isolates HL.13B.21 against X. campestris and P. solanacearum, isolates Hl.12B.19 against X. campestris, P. solanacearum and C. gloeosporioides. Thin layer chromatography analysis showed specific spot, different from standard (media. Spot was purple in color after sprayed with CeSO4. Rf value of HL.50B.106 extract were 0.51 and 0.53 (fraction 1 and 2, 0.62 and 0.64 (fraction 3 and 4.

  20. Effect of Dietary Bioactive Compounds on Mitochondrial and Metabolic Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. E. Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility is the capacity of an organism to adequately respond to changes in the environment, such as nutritional input, energetic demand, etc. An important player in the capacity of adaptation through different stages of metabolic demands is the mitochondrion. In this context, mitochondrial dysfunction has been attributed to be the onset and center of many chronic diseases, which are denoted by an inability to adapt fuel preferences and induce mitochondrial morphological changes to respond to metabolic demands, such as mitochondrial number, structure and function. Several nutritional interventions have shown the capacity to induce changes in mitochondrial biogenesis/degradation, oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, mitochondrial membrane composition, electron transfer chain capacity, etc., in metabolic inflexibility states that may open new target options and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic diseases. This review is focused in three well-recognized food bioactive compounds that modulate insulin sensitivity, polyphenols, ω-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber, by several mechanism of action, like caloric restriction properties and inflammatory environment modulation, both closely related to mitochondrial function and dynamics.

  1. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  2. The powerful in vitro bioactivity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds and related phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Santos, Elândia A.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) is a plant from the Amazon region, classified as "super fruit" because of its various functional properties. However, limited investigation has been performed on açaí by-products, such as seeds. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterized the phenolic compounds of the aqueous extract of açaí seeds and further evaluate its bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Only proanthocyanidins were detected, being a B-type (epi)catech...

  3. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  4. Microwave Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Four Different Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ritieni

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spices and herbs are known not only for their taste, aroma and flavour, but also for their medical properties and value. Both spices and herbs have been used for centuries in traditional medical systems to cure various kinds of illnesses such as common cold, diabetes, cough and cancers. The aim of this work was the comparison between two different extractive techniques in order to get qualitative and quantitative data regarding bioactive compounds of four different spices (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Crocus sativus. The plants were extracted employing ultrasonication and microwave-assisted extractions. The efficiency of extraction of bioactive compounds obtained with the microwave extraction process was in general about four times higher than that resulting from sonication extraction. The various extracts obtained were analyzed for their antioxidant activity using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays and for their total polyphenolic content. It can be concluded that microwave-assisted extractions provide significant advantages in terms of extraction efficiency and time savings.

  5. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Selected Agro-Industrial By-products

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ehsan Oskoueian; Rudi Hendra; Norhani Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher phenolics and f...

  6. Production of Bioactive Compounds by Bacillus subtilis against Sclerotium rolfsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalisha, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the characteristic of bioactive compound produced by Bacillus subtilis against Sclerotium rolfsii and the influence of additive supplements on the antagonistic activity of B. subtilis. The fact that B. subtilis produced an antifungal substance which has inhibitory effect on wide range of fungi, including S. rolfsii, is well known. To learn the effect of pH, temperature and light condition on the production of antifungal compound, B. subtilis was inoculated in Potato Dextrose Broth at various initial pH, temperatures and light conditions, respectively. This antagonist was found to produce antifungal compound that stable at 80C with 58.3 % inhibition on S. rolfsii. The activity was constant within a wide range of pH (3–11. However, treatment with pH11 lead to higher antifungal activity (31.57 % inhibition and it was also found to produce substance that can endure dark condition (46.24 % inhibition with fungicidal effect on S. rolfsii. A series of experiments also been carried out to enhance the antifungal production by supplementing different carbon source preparation into bacterial liquid culture. B. subtilis were grown in minimal medium containing 1 % of oil palm root, Ganoderma lucidum or chitin, respectively prior to bioassay. Crude culture from oil palm root supplemented culture shown significantly reduction in S. rolfsii growth compared to other carbon source crude culture or the antagonism alone, suggesting that this approach may provide improved biocontrol efficiency.

  7. Determination of bioactive and potentially toxic compounds in food: raw material analysis and shelf life evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Verardo, Vito

    2009-01-01

    "Bioactive compounds" are extranutritional constituents that typically occur in small quantities in food. They are being intensively studied to evaluate their effects on health. Bioactive compounds include both water soluble compounds, such as phenolics, and lipidic substances such as n-3 fatty acids, tocopherols and sterols. Phenolic compounds, tocopherols and sterols are present in all plants and have been studied extensively in cereals, nuts and oil. n-3 fatty acids are pres...

  8. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  9. Bioactive compounds in Bidens pilosa L. populations: a key step in the standardization of phytopharmaceutical preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cortés-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The total flavonoid content (TFC, total polyphenols content (TPC, and in vitro antioxidant activity (AA of six Bidens pilosa L., Asteraceae, populations harvested from different localities were evaluated in this work. The plants were separated in roots, stems, and leaves/flowers, and the influence of extraction methods was investigated.Areversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC was developed and employed to obtain characteristic HPLC fingerprints of the bioactive compounds present in the extractive solutions, which were correlated with the TFC, TPC, and AA. Extractive solutions of leaves/flowers presented a higher AA when compared with those obtained from other parts of the plant (IC50 of 35.35±0.10 µg/mL. The stem extracts presented the lowest AA (IC50 117.2±1.96 µg/mL. A direct correlation of AA with TFC and TPC was evidenced. The highest AA was obtained by dynamic maceration and was statistically different from the AA presented by the extractive solutions obtained by other extraction methods. The results of this work evidenced differences that can be found at different stages of development of phytopharmaceutical preparations from B. pilosa and highlighted the importance of using the concentration of marker compounds as well as HPLC fingerprints as quality control parameters.

  10. Minimally processed mixed salad submitted to gamma radiation: effects on bioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases due to the presence of bioactive structures. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments because it is associated with practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. Low-dose of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processes has shown to be a promising strategy for extending shelf life and maintaining the organoleptic quality of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) free radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method in minimally processed mixed salad before and after different radiation doses. Samples of minimally processed mixed salad (with green and red cabbage and carrot) were purchased at local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ORAC were analyzed on the same extract prepared with MeOH. The results showed that bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increasing on radiation dose. Gamma-rays may affect these compounds and can cause degradation or oxidation, which can explain the drop on levels. Although the radiation has affected the bioactive contents, the process seems to be interesting to maintaining organoleptic characteristics and provide microbiological security at doses up to 2.0 kGy, according to studies conducted by our research group. (author)

  11. Minimally processed mixed salad submitted to gamma radiation: effects on bioactive compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2015-07-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases due to the presence of bioactive structures. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments because it is associated with practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. Low-dose of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processes has shown to be a promising strategy for extending shelf life and maintaining the organoleptic quality of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) free radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method in minimally processed mixed salad before and after different radiation doses. Samples of minimally processed mixed salad (with green and red cabbage and carrot) were purchased at local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ORAC were analyzed on the same extract prepared with MeOH. The results showed that bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increasing on radiation dose. Gamma-rays may affect these compounds and can cause degradation or oxidation, which can explain the drop on levels. Although the radiation has affected the bioactive contents, the process seems to be interesting to maintaining organoleptic characteristics and provide microbiological security at doses up to 2.0 kGy, according to studies conducted by our research group. (author)

  12. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid-liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · (+) and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. The appropriate parameters were preferred as extraction solvent of 50 % ethanol with liquid-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and time of 2 h. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract indicated flavonoids and phenolics were dominant bioactive compounds. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin. PMID:25892766

  13. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letricia Barbosa-Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1, similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1 was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6% as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  14. Potential Bioactive Compounds from Seaweed for Diabetes Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusrizam Sharifuddin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of the endocrine system characterised by hyperglycaemia. Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM constitutes the majority of diabetes cases around the world and are due to unhealthy diet, sedentary lifestyle, as well as rise of obesity in the population, which warrants the search for new preventive and treatment strategies. Improved comprehension of T2DM pathophysiology provided various new agents and approaches against T2DM including via nutritional and lifestyle interventions. Seaweeds are rich in dietary fibres, unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenolic compounds. Many of these seaweed compositions have been reported to be beneficial to human health including in managing diabetes. In this review, we discussed the diversity of seaweed composition and bioactive compounds which are potentially useful in preventing or managing T2DM by targeting various pharmacologically relevant routes including inhibition of enzymes such as α-glucosidase, α-amylase, lipase, aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B and dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4. Other mechanisms of action identified, such as anti-inflammatory, induction of hepatic antioxidant enzymes’ activities, stimulation of glucose transport and incretin hormones release, as well as β-cell cytoprotection, were also discussed by taking into consideration numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human studies involving seaweed and seaweed-derived agents.

  15. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ariza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health.

  16. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Yuliett; Giampieri, Francesca; Afrin, Sadia; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; Battino, Maurizio; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH) of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health. PMID:27409612

  17. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Yuliett; Giampieri, Francesca; Afrin, Sadia; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; Battino, Maurizio; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH) of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health. PMID:27409612

  18. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive petalostigma extracts: Toxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F R Kalt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petalostigma pubescens and Petalostigma triloculare were common components of pharmacopeia′s of multiple Australian Aboriginal tribal groupings which traditionally inhabited the areas in which they grow. Among these groups, they had a myriad of medicinal uses in treating a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This study was undertaken to test P. pubescens and P. triloculare leaf and fruit extracts for the ability to inhibit bacterial and viral growth and thus validate Australian Aboriginal usage of these plants in treating bacterial and fungal diseases. Materials and Methods: P. pubescens, and P. triloculare leaves and fruit were extracted and tested for antimicrobial, antiviral activity and toxicity. The bioactive extracts were further examined by RP-HPLC and GC-MS to identify the component compounds. Results: The methanol, water and ethyl acetate leaf and fruit extracts of displayed potent antibacterial activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 10 of the 14 bacteria tested (71% for the leaf extract and 9 of the 14 bacteria tested (64% for the fruit extracts. The water extracts also had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 8 (57% and 7 (50% of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. All antibacterial extracts were approximately equally effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, inhibiting the growth of 50-75% of the bacteria tested. The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay. The methanol and water extracts inhibited 26.6-49.0% and 85.4-97.2% of MS2 plaque formation, respectively, with the fruit extracts being more potent inhibitors. All ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of MS2 plaque formation. All extracts were also non-toxic or of low toxicity. Analysis of these extracts by RP-HPLC showed that the P. triloculare ethyl acetate

  19. Separation and identification of bioactive compounds in Anabasis articulata (Forsk) Moq. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghembaza, Nacéra; Belyagoubi-Benhammou, Nabila; Atik Bekkara, Fawzia

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, for the first time, we are interested to separate and identify some bioactive fractions isolated from the roots of a Saharan plant Anabasis articulata, which is widely used in traditional medicine against cancer. The crude methanolic extract of the roots was fractionated on column chromatography, and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol each time with increasing polarity of methanol; 17 fractions were separated. One of these fractions named F12 showed more antioxidant activity to scavenge DPPH free radical with percentage inhibition of 95.29%. F12 was separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to give 12 compounds. A second preparative TLC of compound 2, which has antioxidative activity of 74.92%, provided the three phenolic acids M1, M2 and M3, analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometry. PMID:26263238

  20. The effect of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertkova, I; Hijova, E; Chmelarova, A; Mojzisova, G; Petrasova, D; Strojny, L; Bomba, A; Zitnan, R

    2010-01-01

    Diet interventions and natural bioactive supplements have now been extensively studied to reduce risks of colon cancer, which is one of the major public health problem throughout the world. The objective of our investigation was to study the effects of probiotic, prebiotic, nutritional plant extract, and plant oil on selected biochemical and immunological parameters in rats with colon cancer induced by N,N dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male and female Wistar albino rats were were fed by a high-fat (HF) diet (10% fat in the diet) and were divided into 9 groups: Control group; PRO group - HF diet supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum to provide 3 x 109 c.f.u. of strain/1 ml of medium; PRE group - HF diet supplemented with inulin enriched with oligofructose (2% of HF diet); HES group - HF diet supplemented with plant extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (1% of HF diet); OIL group - HF diet comprised Linioleum virginale (2% of HF diet); and combination of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in the groups - PRO-PRE, PRO-HES, PRO-OIL, PRE-OIL. Carcinogenesis was initiated with subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) two times at week interval and dietary treatments were continued for the six weeks. Application of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in all treated groups significantly decreased the activities of bacterial enzymes (p<0.001), the fecal bile acids concentration (p<0.01; p<0.001) and significantly increased serum TNFalpha level (p<0.001) in comparison to the control rats. The number of coliforms was reduced in PRO, PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups and significantly higher count of lactobacilli (p<0.05) was observed in PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups in compare with the controls. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds could exert a preventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH. PMID:20568896

  1. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Donno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph−Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98% followed by monoterpenes (14.05%, while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06% and organic acids (27.34%. Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural

  2. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  3. The effects of bioactive compounds on biomarkers of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Coats

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The world is presently facing a prolonged struggle without a predictable cure. Obesity causes hundreds of thousands of fatalities each year, along with holding a position as a primary contributor to several other virulent chronic diseases. This review of scientific literature will examine the current state of obesity along with the mechanisms and biomarkers that lay the foundation for the development of the disease. Furthermore, this article will assess several functional foods and the bioactive compounds they contain that play an influential role in the prevention and treatment of obesity as a chronic disease. By presenting many relevant functional food research studies, this review aims to offer auxiliary support to traditional obesity treatments. The topic of functional foods and their relation to obesity is an extremely important topic to explore due to the severe expansion of obesity in the past few decades. Overall, the purpose of this review is to supply a comprehensive description of obesity and examine results of functional foods in clinical trials that may offer innovative benefits.

  4. Evaluating the potential bioactivity of a novel compound ER1626.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. METHOD: MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis. RESULTS: ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis.

  5. Bioactive compounds in potatoes: Accumulation under drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina B. Wegener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Besides starch, crude fibre, amino acids (AAS, vitamins and minerals, the tubers contain diverse phenolic compounds. These phenolics and AAS confer anti-oxidant protection against reactiveoxygen species, tissue damage, and diseases like atherosclerosis, renal failure, diabetes mellitus,and cancer. Climate change and drought stress may become a major risk for crop production worldwide, resulting in reduced access for those who depend on the nutritional value of this staple crop. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of drought stress on water, lipid soluble antioxidants, anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, free AAS, peroxidase (POD and lipid acyl hydrolase activity (LAH in tuber tissue. Methods: The study was carried out on three potato genotypes comprising one yellow-fleshed cultivar and two purple breeding clones. The plants were grown in pots (from April to September in a glasshouse with sufficient water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of both variants were analysed for antioxidants measured as ascorbic acid (ACE and Trolox equivalent (TXE using a photo-chemiluminescent method. Amounts of anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, as well as POD and LAH activities were analysed using a UV photometer. Finally, free AAS were measured by HPLC. Results: The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduces tuber yield, but has no significant effect on antioxidants, Ac, soluble phenols and POD. Drought stress significantly increased the levels of soluble protein (P < 0.0001 and LAH (P < 0.001. Also, total amounts of free AAS were higher in the drought stressed tubers (+34.2%, on average than in the tubers grown with a sufficient water supply. Above all, proline was elevated due to drought stress.

  6. Investigating the Antimicrobial Bioactivity of Cyano bacterial Extracts on Some Plant and Human Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for broad spectrum antimicrobial agents against microbial pathogens, as the available bioactive compounds, has decreasing efficacy and the multidrug resistance trait is spreading among pathogens. Accordingly, the study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial bioactivity of extracts derived from a cyano bacterial strain from Egypt. The solvents used were diethyl ether, chloroform and methanol. The antimicrobial bioassay of the lipophilic fraction dissolved in diethyl ether of Synechococcus spp. (isolated from Wadi El-Natroun, Egypt) showed the highest broad spectrum bioactivity as it inhibited the growth of both plant and human pathogens. The extract was also effective on the filamentous plant pathogenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. The effects of incubation periods, growth media and pH values on both growth and antimicrobial activity of Synechococcus spp. were investigated. Chu medium was the medium that gave the highest growth followed by BG11 medium then Oscillatoria medium and all these three media showed antibacterial activities but only BG11 showed both antibacterial and antifungal activities after 18 days of incubation. The pH value 10 proved to be the best for growth and antimicrobial activities of Synechococcus spp. in BG11 medium

  7. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS. PMID:27142444

  8. Formation and relevance of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in bioactive subcritical water extracts from olive leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Miguel; Castro-Puyana, M.; Rocamora-Reverte, Lourdes; Ferragut, José A.; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although subcritical water extraction (SWE) has already shown its great potential for the attainment of natural bioactive extracts, concerns still remain on possible unexpected reactions that can arise during the extraction process, usually taking place at high pressure and temperature. It is already well-known that different components might be formed during the SWE extraction protocol due e.g. to Maillard reaction, which can improve the bioactivity of the obtained extracts. On the other han...

  9. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Activity of Chamaecyparis obtusa Leaf Extract against the HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line and Investigation of the Bioactive Compound by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Youn; Lee, Seul-Gi; Oh, Taek-Joo; Lim, Sa Rang; Kim, So-Hyun; Lee, Hong Jin; Kim, Young-Suk; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (CO) belongs to the Cupressaceae family, and it is found widely distributed in Japan and Korea. In this study, the anti-proliferative activities of the methanol and water extracts of CO leaves against a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116) were investigated. The methanol extract of CO leaves, at a concentration of 1.25 µg/mL, exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HCT116 cells, while displaying no cytotoxicity against Chang liver cells. Comparative global metabolite profiling was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, and it was revealed that anthricin was the major compound contributing to the anti-proliferative activity. The activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases played a key role in the apoptotic effect of the methanol extract of CO leaves in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the methanol extract and anthricin derived from CO leaves might be useful in the development of medicines with anti-colorectal cancer activity. PMID:26445036

  10. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Activity of Chamaecyparis obtusa Leaf Extract against the HCT116 Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line and Investigation of the Bioactive Compound by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Youn Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chamaecyparis obtusa (CO belongs to the Cupressaceae family, and it is found widely distributed in Japan and Korea. In this study, the anti-proliferative activities of the methanol and water extracts of CO leaves against a human colorectal cancer cell line (HCT116 were investigated. The methanol extract of CO leaves, at a concentration of 1.25 µg/mL, exhibited anti-proliferative activity against HCT116 cells, while displaying no cytotoxicity against Chang liver cells. Comparative global metabolite profiling was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate statistical analysis, and it was revealed that anthricin was the major compound contributing to the anti-proliferative activity. The activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases played a key role in the apoptotic effect of the methanol extract of CO leaves in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. These results suggest that the methanol extract and anthricin derived from CO leaves might be useful in the development of medicines with anti-colorectal cancer activity.

  11. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcushornemanni (C. hornemanni) on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrioalginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonashydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract.Conclusion:Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (C. hornemanni on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  13. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martella, L.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Santiago, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction of actinides and lanthanides is also presented.

  14. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages

    OpenAIRE

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E.; Villa-Rodríguez, José A.; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A.; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Guadalupe I. Olivas; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. “Grandela”). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antio...

  15. Silica-Gelatin Composite Materials for Prolonged Desorption of Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana STAVINSKAYA; Iryna LAGUTA; Inna OREL

    2014-01-01

    The set of gelatin and silica-gelatin films with incorporated bioactive compounds of different chemical nature was prepared. The swelling behavior of the films and desorption of active ingredients into aqueous media were studied. For all the silica-gelatin films we observed considerable improvement of the materials water stability and retardation of the release of bioactive compounds as compared to gelatin samples. The results obtained make it possible to consider silica-gelatin composite mat...

  16. Bio-active nanoemulsions enriched with gold nanoparticle, marigold extracts and lipoic acid: In vitro investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Emine; Barlas, F Baris; Yavuz, Murat; Demir, Bilal; Gumus, Z Pinar; Baspinar, Yucel; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna

    2014-09-01

    A novel and efficient approach for the preparation of enriched herbal formulations was described and their potential applications including wound healing and antioxidant activity (cell based and cell free) were investigated via in vitro cell culture studies. Nigella sativa oil was enriched with Calendula officinalis extract and lipoic acid capped gold nanoparticles (AuNP-LA) using nanoemulsion systems. The combination of these bio-active compounds was used to design oil in water (O/W) and water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The resulted emulsions were characterized by particle size measurements. The phenolic content of each nanoemulsion was examined by using both colorimetric assay and chromatographic analyses. Two different methods containing cell free chemical assay (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method) and cell based antioxidant activity test were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities. In order to investigate the bio-activities of the herbal formulations, in vitro cell culture experiments, including cytotoxicity, scratch assay, antioxidant activity and cell proliferation were carried out using Vero cell line as a model cell line. Furthermore, to monitor localization of the nanoemulsions after application of the cell culture, the cell images were monitored via fluorescence microscope after FITC labeling. All data confirmed that the enriched N. sativa formulations exhibited better antioxidant and wound healing activity than N. sativa emulsion without any enrichment. In conclusion, the incorporation of AuNP-LA and C. officinalis extract into the N. sativa emulsions significantly increased the bio-activities. The present work may support further studies about using the other bio-active agents for the enrichment of herbal preparations to strengthen their activities. PMID:25009101

  17. Minor bioactive compounds in milk and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Kocmanová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    Milk is an essential part of human nutrition at every stage of life, due to the balanced content of all necessary nutrients, valuable protein, lactose, fat and easily digestible bioactive minor components, especially vitamins and minerals. Milk is used as so - called ‘functional food’ due to its composition and positive effects on human health. Through the use of literature search it was possible to dispose compendium of minor bioactive substances found in milk and their effect on human he...

  18. Bioactive compounds of goat milk and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Petránková, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Summary Milk is for centuries the basic natural food of man. It is more than a source of nutrients. Due to its nutritional composition, specific effects on physiological and biochemical functions of the organism and the content of a wide range of bioactive substances, milk is ranked into the group of so-called functional foods. In this literature review was drawn sketch effect, particularly goat's milk, and it's bioactive substances on the human organism. At the end of this work are a...

  19. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid–liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid–solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · + and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The re...

  20. Nanoencapsulation of pomegranate bioactive compounds for breast cancer chemoprevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirode AB

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amit B Shirode,1,2,* Dhruba J Bharali,3,* Sameera Nallanthighal,1,2 Justin K Coon,1,2 Shaker A Mousa,3 Ramune Reliene1,2 1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY, USA; 2Cancer Research Center, University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY, USA; 3Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Pomegranate polyphenols are potent antioxidants and chemopreventive agents but have low bioavailability and a short half-life. For example, punicalagin (PU, the major polyphenol in pomegranates, is not absorbed in its intact form but is hydrolyzed to ellagic acid (EA moieties and rapidly metabolized into short-lived metabolites of EA. We hypothesized that encapsulation of pomegranate polyphenols into biodegradable sustained release nanoparticles (NPs may circumvent these limitations. We describe here the development, characterization, and bioactivity assessment of novel formulations of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid–poly(ethylene glycol (PLGA–PEG NPs loaded with pomegranate extract (PE or individual polyphenols such as PU or EA. Monodispersed, spherical 150–200 nm average diameter NPs were prepared by the double emulsion–solvent evaporation method. Uptake of Alexa Fluor-488-labeled NPs was evaluated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells over a 24-hour time course. Confocal fluorescent microscopy revealed that PLGA–PEG NPs were efficiently taken up, and the uptake reached the maximum at 24 hours. In addition, we examined the antiproliferative effects of PE-, PU-, and/or EA-loaded NPs in MCF-7 and Hs578T breast cancer cells. We found that PE, PU, and EA nanoprototypes had a 2- to 12-fold enhanced effect on cell growth inhibition compared to their free counterparts, while void NPs did not affect cell growth. PU-NPs were the most potent nanoprototype of pomegranates. Thus, PU may be the

  1. Biochemometrics for Natural Products Research: Comparison of Data Analysis Approaches and Application to Identification of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua J; Todd, Daniel A; Egan, Joseph M; Raja, Huzefa A; Oberlies, Nicholas H; Kvalheim, Olav M; Cech, Nadja B

    2016-02-26

    A central challenge of natural products research is assigning bioactive compounds from complex mixtures. The gold standard approach to address this challenge, bioassay-guided fractionation, is often biased toward abundant, rather than bioactive, mixture components. This study evaluated the combination of bioassay-guided fractionation with untargeted metabolite profiling to improve active component identification early in the fractionation process. Key to this methodology was statistical modeling of the integrated biological and chemical data sets (biochemometric analysis). Three data analysis approaches for biochemometric analysis were compared, namely, partial least-squares loading vectors, S-plots, and the selectivity ratio. Extracts from the endophytic fungi Alternaria sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. with antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus served as test cases. Biochemometric analysis incorporating the selectivity ratio performed best in identifying bioactive ions from these extracts early in the fractionation process, yielding altersetin (3, MIC 0.23 μg/mL) and macrosphelide A (4, MIC 75 μg/mL) as antibacterial constituents from Alternaria sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp., respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of biochemometrics coupled with bioassay-guided fractionation to identify bioactive mixture components. A benefit of this approach is the ability to integrate multiple stages of fractionation and bioassay data into a single analysis. PMID:26841051

  2. Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Florou-Paneri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plants and their derivatives has increased because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for human and animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the in vivo and in vitro use of aromatic plants.

  3. The Use of Plant Bioactive Compounds to Mitigate Enteric Methane in Ruminants and its Application in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have become a major concern as they are now considered to be the cause of global warming. Several strategies have been planned and taken by different countries including Indonesia to mitigate this situation. Agriculture is considered to be one of major contributors to GHG, especially methane coming from ruminant digestive processes. More than 85% of the methane produced by ruminants comes from enteric fermentation. Several options have been proposed to lower this enteric methane production. This paper describes a review on diet manipulation using feed additives, especially plant bioactive compounds, to mitigate the GHG emission from ruminant livestock. Plant bioactive compounds have been found with various chemical structures. Some of them such as saponin, tannin, essential oils, organosulphur compounds, have been reported to have ability to reduce enteric methane production. Indonesia has many plant resources that have potential as methane reducing agents. Sapindus rarak fruit especially its methanol extract contain saponins which reduce the activity of methanogens in the rumen in vitro, hence reduce methane production (11%. Feeding S. rarak to sheep increased daily weight gain but not that of local cattle. Shrub legumes such as Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala contain tannins which can reduce methanogenesis (3 – 21% methane reduction. Besides tannin, these shrub legumes are a good source of protein. Feeding shrub legumes can be beneficial as a protein source and a methane reducer. Other sources of methane reducing agents have been tested in other countries and some can be applied for Indonesian situation. The strategy to reduce methane by plant bioactive compounds should be developed to be simple and relatively cheap so it will benefit the local farmers. Extraction of these compounds may be expensive, therefore, costs should be considered carefully when proposing to use the

  4. Antileishmanial activity of compounds produced by endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant Vernonia polyanthes and their potential as source of bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Adriana M; Soares, Mateus Gonçalves; da Silva Torchelsen, Fernanda K V; de Araujo, Jorge A Viana; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; do Nascimento, Andréa M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Vernonia polyanthes plant and their prospective use in the discovery of bioactive compounds. Sixteen endophytes were isolated by using potato dextrose agar medium and submitted to cultivation in rice medium. The fungal cultures were extracted with ethanol and used as crude extracts for testing their antileishmanial activity. The most active ethanol extract was obtained from P2-F3 strain, which was identified as Cochliobolus sativus by ITS rRNA gene sequence data. Followed by a bioassay-guided fractionation, the cochlioquinone A, isocochlioquinone A and anhydrocochlioquinone A compounds were isolated from the crude extracts and demonstrated to inhibit the parasites. From the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant V. polyanthes may be considered promising source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. PMID:26318306

  5. Chemical characterization and evaluation of biological activity of Cynara cardunculus extractable compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Patrícia Alexandra Bogango

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean species Cynara cardunculus L. is recognized in the traditional medicine, for their hepatoprotective and choleretic effects. Biomass of C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC), or cultivated cardoon, may be explored not only for the production of energy and pulp fibers, but also for the extraction of bioactive compounds. The chemical characterization of extractable components, namely terpenic and phenolic compounds, may valorize the cultivated cardoon plantation, due to their ant...

  6. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein. PMID:26132136

  7. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adília Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein.

  8. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Barot; Nirmal Kumar JI; Rita N. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for ...

  9. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol into human erythrocytes.

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    Max Kurlbaum

    Full Text Available Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-γ-valerolactone (M1, that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated.

  10. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated. PMID:23646194

  11. Phenolic contents and bioactive potential of peach fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrani, Abderrahmane; Krisa, Stéphanie; Cluzet, Stéphanie; Da Costa, Grégory; Temsamani, Hamza; Renouf, Elodie; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Madani, Khodir; Mesnil, Marc; Monvoisin, Arnaud; Richard, Tristan

    2016-07-01

    Several cultivars of peach fruit (Prunus persica L.) were investigated. Their phenolic composition and concentration were assessed by LC-MS. Concentrations were calculated in mg per g of dry weight extract. Their antioxidant capacity (Folin-Ciocalteu, ORAC, DPPH, ABTS, PFRAP and ICA), inhibitory property against β-amyloid and α-synuclein fibril formation and protective capacity against Aβ-induced toxicity on PC12 cell lines (viability assessed by MTT assay and intracellular ROS production by DCFH-DA assay) were evaluated. Fifteen different phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. In particular, new isorhamnetin derivatives were identified. Phenolic contents were ranged between 19 and 82mg/g. Spring Belle extract had the highest content and Romea the lowest. Except for the ICA assay, a good correlation between phenolic content and the antioxidant capacities of peach fruit extracts was found, indicating that phenolic compounds are major contributors to their antioxidant capacity. Results indicate that the phenolic extract of peach cultivars inhibits Aβ and αS fibril formation and protects PC12 cell lines against Aβ-induced toxicity. PMID:26920287

  12. Antioxidant activity of Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte) nut extract and its bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Carla; Tesoriere, Luisa; Butera, Daniela; Fazzari, Marco; Monastero, Massimo; Allegra, Mario; Livrea, Maria A

    2007-02-01

    Pistacia vera L. is the only species of Pistacia genus producing edible nuts. This paper investigates the antioxidant potential of a Sicilian variety of pistachio nut by chemical as well as biological assays and measured antioxidant vitamins and a number of antioxidant polyphenols in either the hydrophilic and/or the lipophilic nut extract. In accordance with the majority of foods, the total antioxidant activity, measured as a TAA test, was much higher (50-fold) in the hydrophilic than in the lipophilic extract. Substantial amounts of total phenols were measured. The hydrophilic extract inhibited dose-dependently both the metal-dependent and -independent lipid oxidation of bovine liver microsomes, and the Cu+2-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Peroxyl radical-scavenging as well as chelating activity of nut components may be suggested to explain the observed inhibition patterns. Among tocopherols, gamma-tocopherol was the only vitamin E isomer found in the lipophilic extract that did not contain any carotenoid. Vitamin C was found only in a modest amount. The hydrophilic extract was a source of polyphenol compounds among which trans-resveratrol, proanthocyanidins, and a remarkable amount of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, 3.68 and 3.40 mg per 100 g of edible nut, respectively, were evaluated. With the exception of isoflavones that appeared unmodified, the amounts of other bioactive molecules were remarkably reduced in the pistachio nut after roasting, and the total antioxidant activity decreased by about 60%. Collectively, our findings provide evidence that the Sicilian pistachio nut may be considered for its bioactive components and can effectively contribute to a healthy status. PMID:17263455

  13. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Barot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for identification of bioactive compounds present in crude extract. Results: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of all the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, fatty acids and esters compounds. Among the three species, the maximum crude extract yield (53.46% and the largest inhibition zone (36 mm were recorded in methanol extract of Ulva lactuca, whereas the minimum crude extract yield and inhibition zone were recorded in chloroform extract of the same species as 0.5% and 10 mm, respectively. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum antifungal activity and the major important compounds like steroids, fatty acids and esters were detected with higher amount in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the different seaweed extracts showed moderate to significant antifungal activity against the strains tested as compared with the standard fungicides, and polar solvents methanol and ethyl acetate were comparatively efficient for extraction of different metabolites that are responsible for antifungal activity.

  14. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Fansheng Kong; Shujuan Yu; Zeng Feng; Xinlan Wu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (20...

  15. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Lignin of Empty Bunch Palm Fiber and Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Prayuwidayati; T. C. Sunarti; Sumardi; Subeki; K. G. Wiryawan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of bioactive compounds isolated from purified lignin formacell (PLF) of empty bunch palm fiber as natural antimicrobes and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation. The first experiment was inhibition test of 11 bioactive compounds isolated from PLF, using disc diffusion method against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the most potential bioactive compounds were then used in ...

  16. Bioactive compounds of the main milk constituents and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Malecký, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Diet is a blend of nutrients that the body needs to obtain energy and building materials needed for growth and repair of cells, tissues and organs. The nutrients or bioactive subtances are divided into two main groups: basic nutrients (macronutritients) and additional nutrients (micronutritients). Essential nutrients are divided into proteins, fats, carbohydrates and the body needs in large doses. The first part of this work with the available literature focuses on the milk, its general d...

  17. Screening of Herbal-Based Bioactive Extract Against Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Monalisa; Roy, Ranita; Tiwari, Vishvanath

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is grouped in the ESKAPE pathogens by Infectious Disease Society of America, which is linked to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and increased costs. The high level of acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms of these bacteria makes it an urgent requirement to find a suitable alternative to carbapenem, a commonly prescribed drug for Acinetobacter infection. In this study, methanolic extracts of six medicinal plants were subjected to phytochemical screening and their antimicrobial activity was tested against two strains of A. baumannii (ATCC 19606, carbapenem-sensitive strain, and RS 307, carbapenem-resistant strain). Synergistic effect of the plant extracts and antibiotics was also tested. Bael or Aegle marmelos contains tannin, phenol, terpenoids, glycoside, alkaloids, coumarine, steroid, and quinones. Flowers of madar or Calotropis procera possess tannin, phenol, terpenoids, glycoside, quinone, anthraquinone, anthocyanin, coumarin, and steroid. An inhibitory growth curve was seen for both the bacterial strains when treated with A. marmelos, Curcuma longa, and leaves and flowers of C. procera. Antibiotics alone showed a small zone of inhibition, but when used with herbal extracts they exhibited larger zone of inhibition. Synergistic effect of A. marmelos and imipenem was the best against both the strains of A. baumannii. From this study, it can be concluded that extracts from A. marmelos and leaves and flowers of C. procera exhibited the most effective antibacterial activity. These herbal extracts may be used to screen the bioactive compound against the carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii. PMID:26910023

  18. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  19. Assessment of by-products from fresh-cut products for reuse as bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Díaz, M P; Aguayo, E

    2013-10-01

    The fresh-cut industry is constantly growing and generating wastes. The major challenge for this industry consists in an environmentally sustainable production through re-utilization of by-products, for instance, in extraction of bioactive compounds. In this paper, the nutritional and functional compounds of apple, potato, cucumber, melon and watermelon by-products were investigated. The amount of by-product produced was of 10.10 to 30.80% of initial fresh weight depending on the product. By-products were characterized by low protein (peel than in whole product. Apple peel was rich in carbohydrates, total dietary fibre, antioxidants and total polyphenols. Potato peel was high in iron. Melon was rich in magnesium. Watermelon peel was characterized by the level of potassium, and cucumber peel was rich in manganese, zinc, phosphorous, calcium and sodium. All these data demonstrate than natural by-product from fresh-cut industry could potentially be utilized as ingredients to design new functional foods with a future market. PMID:23733809

  20. Immunomodulatory activities of medicinal mushroom Grifola frondosa extract and its bioactive constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Lu, Tzy-Ming; Lai, Min-Nan; Ng, Lean-Teik

    2013-01-01

    Grifola frondosa (GF), a high value medicinal mushroom in China and Japan, is popularly consumed as traditional medicines and health foods, especially for enhancing immune functions. In this study, our aim was to examine the immunomodulatory activities of GF and its bioactive compound ergosterol peroxide (EPO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human monocytic (THP-1) cells. At low concentrations, EPO but not other extracts showed a full protection against LPS-induced cell toxicity. EPO significantly blocked MyD88 and VCAM-1 expression, and cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) production in LPS-stimulated cells. It also effectively inhibited NF-κB activation, which was further confirmed with siRNA treatment. These results conclude that EPO may play an important role in the immunomodulatory activity of GF through inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:23336512

  1. Optimisation of the extraction of phenolic compounds from apples using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Aline; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Zardo, Danianni Marinho; Demiate, Ivo Mottin; Nogueira, Alessandro; Mafra, Luciana Igarashi

    2014-04-15

    The extraction of phenolic compounds from apples was optimised using response surface methodology (RSM). A Box-Behnken design was conducted to analyse the effects of solvent concentration (methanol or acetone), temperature and time on the extraction of total phenolic content, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity (FRAP and DPPH). Analysis of the individual phenolics was performed by HPLC in optimal extraction conditions. The optimisation suggested that extraction with 84.5% methanol for 15 min, at 28 °C and extraction with 65% acetone for 20 min, at 10 °C were the best solutions for this combination of variables. RSM was shown to be an adequate approach for modelling the extraction of phenolic compounds from apples. Most of the experiments with acetone solutions extracted more bioactive compounds, and hence they had more antioxidant capacity, however, chlorogenic acid and phloridzin had higher yields (32.4% and 48.4%, respectively) in extraction with methanol. PMID:24295689

  2. Green alga Ulva pertusa--a new source of bioactive compounds with antialgal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-ying, Sun; Hui, Wang; Gan-lin, Guo; Yin-fang, Pu; Bin-lun, Yan; Chang-hai, Wang

    2015-07-01

    We tested the effects of solvent fractions (FA, FB, FC, and FD), which partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction from the methanol extract of Ulva pertusa, on the growth of red tide microalgae (Karenia mikimitoi, Skeletonema costatum, Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo, Prorocentrum donghaiense), and FA, FB, and FC exhibited significantly antialgal activity. The chemical constituent analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as phenols and alkaloids. Further, four solvent fractions were applied to silica gel column and repeated preparative TLC to produce 13 samples and their purity qualified as thin-layer chromatographic grade. Among these purified samples, FA111, FB411, FC411, FD111, and FD211 exhibited stronger antialgal activity. Furthermore, their functional groups were analyzed by colorimetric methods and UV spectra data. FD111 and FD211 were temptatively identified as alkaloids; the others were initially identified as phenolic acids. This is a preliminary study and the structure identification of these purified samples requires further investigation. While concentration of these purified samples in this algae was very small, they showed excellent effects against red tide microalgae. PMID:25724801

  3. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon ambiguus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Darren Grice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions and decoctions of Cymbopogon ambiguus have been used traditionally in Australia for the treatment of headache, chest infections and muscle cramps. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds from C. ambiguus that could explain this plant’s anti-headache activity. A dichloromethane extract of C. ambiguus was identified as having activity in adenosine-diphosphate-induced human platelet aggregation and serotonin-release inhibition bioassays. Subsequent fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four phenylpropenoids, eugenol, elemicin, eugenol methylether and trans-isoelemicin. While both eugenol and elemicin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet serotonin release, only eugenol displayed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 46.6 μM, in comparison to aspirin, with an IC50 value of 46.1 μM. These findings provide evidence to support the therapeutic efficacy of C. ambiguus in the non-conventional treatment of headache and inflammatory conditions.

  4. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. PMID:26593602

  5. Bioactive phenols in algae: the application of pressurized-liquid and solid-phase extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofrejová, L; Vasícková, J; Klejdus, B; Stratil, P; Misurcová, L; Krácmar, S; Kopecký, J; Vacek, J

    2010-01-20

    A new extraction technique based on the off-line combination of pressurized-liquid with solid-phase extraction (PLE-SPE) is described. The method was used for the extraction of bioactive phenolic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, p-coumaric, salicylic acid), cinnamic acid and hydroxybenzaldehydes (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillin) from in vitro culture of two freshwater algae (Anabaena doliolum and Spongiochloris spongiosa) and from food products of marine macroalgae Porphyra tenera (nori) and Undaria pinnatifida (wakame). For the identification and quantification of the compounds the molecular ions [M-H](-) and specific fragments were analyzed by quadrupole mass spectrometry analyzer connected on-line with a reversed-phase HPLC system. Our analysis showed that the freshwater algae and marine algal products contained submicrogram or microgram level of above-mentioned phenols per gram of lyophilized sample. In addition, the total phenol content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and antioxidant activity (TEAC assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay) of the PLE-SPE extracts were determined and discussed. PMID:19410410

  6. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  7. OrgTrace – No difference found in bioactive compounds of organic and conventional crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Søltoft, Malene; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    years as well as soil types. The results showed that contents of neither polyacetylenes and carotenoids in carrots, flavonoids in onions, nor phenolic acids in carrots and potatoes were significantly influenced by growth system. Thus it could not be concluded that the organically grown crops had higher......The objective of the present study was to compare the content of selected bioactive compounds in organically and conventionally grown crops, and to evaluate if the ability of the crops to synthesize selected secondary metabolites was systematically affected by growth systems across different growth...... contents of bioactive compounds than the conventionally grown. This indicates that giving preference to organic products because they contain more bioactive components is doubtfull. However, there are many other reasons for the consumer to choose organic food products, including: no pesticide residues in...

  8. A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Bioactive Compounds in Cardiovascular Disease: Phenolic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Huerta, Oscar D.; Pastor-Villaescusa, Belen; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is rising and is the prime cause of death in all developed countries. Bioactive compounds (BAC) can have a role in CVD prevention and treatment. The aim of this work was to examine the scientific evidence supporting phenolic BAC efficacy in CVD prevention and treatment by a systematic review. Databases utilized were Medline, LILACS and EMBASE, and all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with prospective, parallel or crossover designs in humans in which the effects of BAC were compared with that of placebo/control were included. Vascular homeostasis, blood pressure, endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were considered as primary outcomes. Cohort, ecological or case-control studies were not included. We selected 72 articles and verified their quality based on the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, establishing diverse quality levels of scientific evidence according to two features: the design and bias risk of a study. Moreover, a grade of recommendation was included, depending on evidence strength of antecedents. Evidence shows that certain polyphenols, such as flavonols can be helpful in decreasing CVD risk factors. However, further rigorous evidence is necessary to support the BAC effect on CVD prevention and treatment. PMID:26132993

  9. Extraction and characterization of naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from Salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2011-01-01

    activity (Free Radical Scavenging assay). A number of extracts showed high ACE inhibiting and anti-oxidative activity. The extracts were then size fractionated by ultrafiltration using a 10 kDa filter, and relevant fractions below 10 kDa from gills, skin and belly flap were further fractionated by gel...... number of bio-components such as bioactive peptides for this purpose. Tissue and proteins from e.g. fish gills, skin and viscera could be a new source of peptides that could have a nutritional and pharmaceutical value, and be used in health and functional foods and thereby increasing the value adding of...... is therefore to extract and identify naturally occurring bioactive peptides from different tissues from salmon. A number of aqueous extracts were made from gills, skin and belly flap. In order to preserve the bioactivity of the peptides mild extraction procedures as acidic, basic and aqueous...

  10. New flavonoids from bioactive extract of Algerian medicinal plant Launeae arborescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled Sekkoum; Nasser Belboukhari; Abdelkrim Cheriti

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the butanol fraction of the water/acetone extract and isolate of the new flavonoids from Launeae arboescens. Methods:The compounds were isolated by liquid chromatographic methods and their structures were identified by using spectroscopic analysis. Results:The isolated compounds were identified as: 7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl 4',5,6-Trihydroxy flavone 1,4’,5’-Di-Methoxy 7-(5’’-Me Hexan)1-oyl flavanone 2, 3”-isopropyl pyrano [1”:7,4”:6] 3’,4’,5’,5-Tetrahydroxy flavanone 3,5,4’,5’-Tri-Hydroxy 7-(3’’-Me butan) -yl flavanone 4, 5,7-Dihydroxy-2',4',5' –trimethoxy-isoflavanone 5,5,6,7,4'-tetrahydroxy flavonol 6,7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-β-glucopyranosyl]- 4',5,7-tri-hydroxy-flavanone 7,7-O-[α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1->6)-β-glucopyranosyl] 3',5-Dihydroxy 4’-Methoxy flavanone 8. Conclusions:The presence of different types of bioactive flavonoids in Launeae arboescens extract can explain the large ethnopharmacological uses and the potential activity of this medicinal plant.

  11. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  12. Bioactive compounds in dairy products and their relation to neurodegenerative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of nervous system function and cognitive ability may be aided by bioactive compounds found in dairy products, including calcium-binding phosphopeptides and peptides derived from casein and beta-lactoglobulin. These peptides inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme I, scavenge radicals, red...

  13. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  14. Quantification of six bioactive compounds in Zhenqi Fuzheng preparation by high-performance liquid chromatography couple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Kai Shi; Fang Cui; Fang-Di Hu; Ying-Yan Bi; Yu-Feng Ma; Shi-Lan Feng

    2011-01-01

    A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)coupled with diode array detector(DAD)and evaporative light scattering detector(ELSD)was established for the determination of six bioactive compounds in Zhenqi Fuzheng preparation(ZFP).The

  15. Effect of time and temperature on bioactive compounds in germinated Brazilian soybean cultivar BRS 258

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of soybeans and soybean products has increased in the last few years due to the functional properties of bioactive compounds such as lunasin, Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI), lectin, saponins, and isoflavones. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination of soy...

  16. Health promoting effects of bioactive compounds in plants: Targeting Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala

    While type 2 diabetes is an increasing problem worldwide, there is still no cure and therefore search for the new insulin sensitizer continues. Plants are a natural source of bioactive compounds and have been used to improve human health and wellbeing for centuries. Today, several studies...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc...... of bacteriocins, polyketides, and auxins, as demonstrated by genome mining....

  18. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane;

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the...

  19. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from Centaurea arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Csapi, Bence; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupko, Istvan; Berényi, Ágnes; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál Tam'S; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The antiproliferative effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of Centaurea arenaria M.B. ex Willd. were investigated against cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells, using the MTT assay. The chloroform extract displayed high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activity (higher than 85% at 10 ?g/ml concentration), and was therefore subjected to a bioassay-guide...

  20. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Eduardo A.S.; Saavedra, Maria J; Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho; Conceição Fernandes; Bennett, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total fla...

  1. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    OpenAIRE

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Edmar CLEMENTE

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorph...

  2. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Van De Velde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR, covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  3. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Ferrari de Brito; Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin; Roney de Carvalho Macedo Silva; Leandro do Prado Ribeiro; José Djair Vendramim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1), all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. me...

  4. Optimized methodology for the simultaneous extraction of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from maca (Lepidium meyenii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, D.; Chirinos, R.; Barreto, O.; Noratto, G.; Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.

    2013-01-01

    Maca is a highly appreciated Andean crop with multiple attributed health claims due to its assortment of bioactive compounds. The extraction parameters of glucosinolates (GLs), total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AC) of maca (Lepidium meyenii) hypocotyls were optimized using res

  5. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M J; Aires, A; Dias, C; Almeida, J A; De Vasconcelos, M C B M; Santos, P; Rosa, E A

    2015-02-01

    The transformation of byproducts and wastes generated by agro-food companies is of high importance since only a small portion of plant material is utilized directly for human consumption. Squash pumpkin is greatly used in Portugal and as by-products of its processing are generated tons of shell and seeds. In this study we aim to evaluate the potential of these wastes as sources of beneficial and bioactive compounds (antioxidants and antimicrobials), studying the effect of different extraction solvents and drying methods. The samples (fresh and cooked) were freeze-dried and oven-dried followed by extraction with different solvents that revealed the following decreasing order of efficiency: 70 % ethanol, 70 % methanol, 70 % acetone, ultra-pure water and 100 % dichloromethane. The oven-dried samples showed higher values of antioxidant activity and phenolic content, with exception of the values of phenolics for the seeds material. The shell samples presented higher values (1.47 - 70.96 % inhibition) of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (2.00 - 10.69 mg GAE/g DW). A positive correlation was found between these two parameters on the shell samples, however the squash seeds revealed a negative correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. The results show that these industrial agro-food residues are potentially good sources of bioactive compounds with health benefits. PMID:25694712

  6. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  7. Identification of a Bioactive Compound against Adult T-cell Leukaemia from Bitter Gourd Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hisahiro; Akamatsu, Ena; Torii, Eri; Kodama, Hiroko; Yukizaki, Chizuko; Akagi, Isao; Ino, Hisatoshi; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Okayama, Akihiko; Morishita, Kazuhiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Matsuno, Koji

    2013-01-01

    In our previous report, an 80% ethanol bitter gourd seed extract (BGSE) was found to suppress proliferation of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell lines. The present study aimed to identify the bioactive compounds from BGSE specific against ATL. From the result of an HPLC-MS analysis, α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA) was present in BGSE at 0.68% ± 0.0022% (±SD, n = 5). In the cell proliferation test, α-ESA potently suppressed proliferation of two ATL cell lines (ED and Su9T01; IC50 = 8.9 and 29.3 µM, respectively) more than several other octadecanoic acids. However, α-ESA moderately inhibited phytohemagglutinin-activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; IC50 = 31.0 µM). These results suggest that BGSE-derived α-ESA has potential as a functional food constituent because of its activity against ATL, particularly against ED cells. Moreover, α-ESA might be effective for the prevention of moderate adverse effects of ATL on normal T cells.

  8. Effects on Animal Models of Depression of Bioactive Compounds from Entomogenous Fungi, A Novel Antioxidant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰兰; 明亮; 马传庚; 樊美珍; 程燕; 江勤

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidepressant effects and its mechanism of bioactive compounds (metabolite extract) from entomogenous fungi (BCEF) on experimental animal models of depression. Methods: The antidepressant effect of BCEF was examined on the acquired models of depression (rats and mice in forced swimming test) and unpredictable chronic stress mouse models. The behavior alterations were assayed by detecting the duration of immobility in forced swimming test. UV spectrophotometer analysis technique was used to detect the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and catalase (CAT) in mice brain mitochondria; and colorimetric method was used to detect the content of malondealdehyde (MDA), nitrogen oxide (NO) in rat brain cytoplasm and mitochondria. Results: BCEF (25, 50,100 mg/kg) could obviously shorten the immobility time in forced swimming mice and BCEF (50,100 mg/kg)could obviously shorten the immobility time in forced swimming rats. Both of them showed some extent of dose-effect relationship. BCEF (50, 100 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the increase of MDA and NO content in brain mitochondria and cytoplasm in chronic unpredictable stress models. BCEF (25,50,100 mg/kg)could obviously enhance the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. BCEF (50 mg/kg) also enhances the activities of CAT. Conclusion: BCEF has antidepressant effects in depressed animal models. The anti-oxidation may be one of the important mechanisms.

  9. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Pharmaceutical Quality, and Anticancer Activity of Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated some bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L. extracts from three different locations in Malaysia. The highest TF and total phenolic (TP contents were observed in the extracts from Kelantan (3.771 and 14.371 mg/g DW, followed by Selangor (3.146 and 12.272 mg/g DW and Johor (2.801 and 12.02 mg/g DW, respectively. High quercetin (0.350 mg/g DW, catechin (0.325 mg/g DW, epicatechin (0.678 mg/g DW, naringin (0.203 mg/g DW, and myricetin (0.703 mg/g DW levels were observed in the extracts from Kelantan, while the highest rutin content (0.082 mg/g DW was detected in the leaves from Selangor. The curry leaf extract from Kelantan exhibited higher concentration of gallic acid (0.933 mg/g DW than that from Selangor (0.904 mg/g DW and Johor (0.813 mg/g DW. Among the studied samples, the ones from Kelantan exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 66.41% and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP, 644.25 μm of Fe(II/g followed by those from Selangor (60.237% and 598.37 μm of Fe(II/g and Johor (50.76% and 563.42 μm of Fe(II/g, respectively. A preliminary screening showed that the curry leaf extracts from all the locations exhibited significant anticarcinogenic effects inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and maximum inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell was observed with the curry leaf extract from Kelantan. Based on these results, it is concluded that Malaysian curry leaf collected from the North (Kelantan might be potential source of potent natural antioxidant and beneficial chemopreventive agents.

  10. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from selected marine organisms in the Obhur Creek, Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sofyani, Abdulmohsin; Marimuthu, N.; Wilson, J. Jerald; Pugazhendi, Arulazhagan; Dhavamani, Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    Three species of sponges and a tunicate were collected from Obhur creek of Jeddah coast for this bioactivity study. In order to assess the antifouling efficacy of selected marine organisms, methanolic extracts of these organisms were tested against different fouling bacterial forms and II-instar stage of the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Antibiosis, bioactivity and followed by multivariate analyses were carried out to check the efficacy of antifouling effect of the selected marine organisms. Principal component analysis revealed the exemplary antifouling efficacy of the sponge extracts of Stylissa sp. observed followed by Hyrtios sp. against bacterial forms in the laboratory study. De-trended correspondence analysis confirmed that the contribution of antifouling efficacy of the selected sponge extracts was observed to be more towards Bacillus sp., Vibrio sp. and Alteromonas sp. Moreover, the efficacy of Hyrtios sp. extract (20.430 μg mL-1) followed by Stylissa sp. (30.945 μg mL-1) showed higher against barnacle instar compared with other extracts in the bioactivity assay. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis under paired linkage categorized all the sponge extracts into one major cluster with 75% similarity, and one outlier tunicate. More than 80% similarity observed between Hyrtios sp. and Stylissa sp. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the contribution of major peaks found in the marine organisms were towards sulfones, sulfoxides, cyanates and ketones.

  11. Bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, Zerihun T; Silima, Beauty; Gryzenhout, Marieka; van Ree, Teunis

    2016-06-01

    The crude extract of an endophytic fungus isolated from Syzygium cordatum and identified as Fusarium proliferatum showed 100% cytotoxicity against the brine shrimp Artemia salina at 100 μg/mL. Seven coloured, biologically active metabolites - including ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3β-ol, nectriafurone-8-methyl ether, 9-O-methyl fusarubin, bostrycoidin, bostrycoidin-9-methyl ether and 8-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxy-2-methyl-3-(2-oxo-propyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone- were isolated from the extract. PMID:26158312

  12. Screening of minor bioactive compounds from herbal medicines by in silico docking and the trace peak exposure methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Song, Hui-Peng; Zhou, Xu; Liu, Xin-Guang; Gao, Wen; Dong, Xin; Li, Hui-Jun; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua

    2016-03-01

    Screening of high potent enzyme inhibitors from herbal medicines is always lacking of efficiency due to the complexity of chemicals. The constituents responsible for the holistic effect may be trace-level chemicals, but these chemicals were covered by highly abundant compositions. To challenge this bottleneck, a strategy for screening minor bioactive compounds was proposed. It generally included four steps, (1) preliminarily find the enzyme binders by ultrafiltration; (2) optimise and predict the potential inhibitors by docking analysis; (3) selectively identify and prepare trace compounds by segment and exposure approach; (4) validate the activity and summarize the structure-activity relationship. As a case study, α-glucosidase (AGH) and Ginkgo biloba extract were used as the experimental materials. By comprehensive screening, 11 trace flavones were screened out and identified as strong AGH inhibitors. Among them, AGH inhibitory activities of syringetin and sciadopitysin were reported for the first time. Their IC50 values were 36.80 and 8.29μM, respectively, which were lower than that of a positive control acarbose. In addition, the AGH inhibitory activities of the flavonoids could be ranked, based on a decreased order, as biflavone, flavone, flavone glycoside, flavone biglycoside. The strategy is expected to be practical and useful for screening bioactive molecules from herbal medicines, especially for the minor compounds, which will definitely accelerate the discovery of new drug candidates. PMID:26852619

  13. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  14. HPLC ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN TEN DIFFERENT WILD TYPE UNDER-UTILIZED LEGUME GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellingiri Vadivel and Hans Konrad Biesalski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many food industries have been initiated the formulation of nutraceutical/functional foods by incorporating the bioactive ingredients for the prevention/treatment of certain chronic diseases. In this connection, certain promising wild type under-utilized legume grains received more attention, since they are naturally a rich source of L-Dopa (precursor of dopamine and certain bioactive compounds including phenolics, tannins and phytic acid. In the present study, seed materials of certain promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Abrus precatorius L., Acacia leucopholea Willd, Bauhinia varigata L., Canavalia gladiata (Jacq. DC., Cassia floribunda Cav., Entada scandens Benth., Indigofera linifolia (L.f. Retz., Mucuna monosperma DC. Ex Wight., Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq. Wight. and Tamarindus indica L., collected from Eastern and Western Ghats of South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds through HPLC technique. All the analysed samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (4.23 – 8.75 g/100 g DM, tannins (1.04 – 5.41 g /100 g DM, L-Dopa (1.17 – 5.34 g/100 g DM and phytic acid (0.96 – 2.74 g/100 g DM and also the newly developed HPLC procedures were proven to be sensitive enough to detect these bioactive compounds even at tracer level. Further, such wild type legume grains could be recommended as a natural source of bioactive compounds in the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as Parkinsonism, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc.

  15. Evaluation of Mycelial Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidants of Five Himalayan Entomopathogenic Ascomyceteous Fungi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Gautam, Nandini; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, using standard methods, mycelial nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidants were analyzed for the first time for five fungal species: Isaria sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd, I. tenuipes Peck, I. japonica Yasuda, I. farinosa (Holmsk) Fr. and Cordyceps tuberculata (Lebert) Maire. All of these species were low in fat content and rich in protein, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates. Mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Ca) were detected in appreciable amounts. All three types of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated) as well as bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides) were detected for each species. The investigated species showed high ferric-reducing antioxidant power as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Although differences were observed in the values of each species, each species showed richness in one or more components. PMID:26559700

  16. Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Florou-Paneri; Ilias Giannenas; Eleftherios Bonos; Efterpi Christaki

    2012-01-01

    Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plant...

  17. Separation and determination of bioactive compounds in food

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáčková, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Herbs are widely known for their numerous applications in the food industry; however, there is increasing interest in their pharmaceutical properties. In recent years, major research has been focused on the biologically active derivatives of medicinal plants, mainly because of their potential anti-tumor activity and protective effects with respect to the cardiovascular system. This thesis summarizes the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds mainly responsible for such positive health impacts, th...

  18. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Helena Frančáková; Jana Petrová; Jana Hutková; Valeryii Brovarskyi; Serhii Velychko; Leonora Adamchuk; Zuzana Schubertová; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2...

  19. Bioactivity guided isolation of antimicrobial compounds from Lythrum salicaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Hans; Scher, Jochen M; Speakman, John-Bryan; Zapp, Josef

    2005-09-01

    Lythrum salicaria extracts showed activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and activity against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and Microccocus luteus. Bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms was used to isolate the two antifungal triterpenoids oleanolic and ursolic acid. The hexahydroxydiphenoyl ester vescalagin was isolated as active principle of the antibacterial activity. Furthermore, the flavon-C-glucosides vitexin, isovitexin, orientin and isoorientin were isolated. PMID:15975734

  20. Effect of Mobile Phase Additives on the Resolution of Four Bioactive Compounds by RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile phase additives enhances the separation and resolution of the bioactive compounds on the C18 column. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and scoparone from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae were investigated as the target compounds. Acetic acid, triethylamine, inorganic salts, and several ionic liquids were added as mobile phase additives into methanol/water (40:60, v/v. The result revealed that a mobile phase with 0.01 mol/L of ionic liquid [BMIM][BF4] enabled the optimum separation of the four target compounds.

  1. Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus Derivatives: Extraction Methods and Bioactivity Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L P; Ansante, T F; Niculau, E S; Pavarini, R; Silva, M F G F; Seffrin, R C; Vendramim, J D

    2015-12-01

    Plant-based insecticides can play an important role in integrated insect pest management (IPM), especially in protecting stored grains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of derivatives (powder, ethanolic extract, and essential oil (EO)) from the leaves of Pimenta pseudocaryophyllus (Myrtaceae), a Brazilian native species, against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the main insect pest of stored corn. The powder and essential oil prepared from leaves showed a repellent effect. Moreover, the EO exhibited promising insecticidal activity through residual contact (LC50 = 1522 mg kg(-1)) and significantly decreased the F 1 progeny and the percentage of damaged grains. However, the essential oil obtained from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves did not result in significant mortality of S. zeamais adults after 72 h of exposure by fumigation in concentrations up to 400 μL L(-1) of air. Based on GC-MS analysis, 20 compounds were identified in the essential oil of P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves, being chavibetol (38.14%), methyl eugenol (11.35%), and terpinolene (9.17%) as the major constituents. Essential oil from P. pseudocaryophyllus leaves is an interesting source of compounds with grain-protectant properties and should be analyzed in future studies aiming to develop new bioinsecticides to use in the IPM of stored grains. PMID:26285912

  2. Primary Screening of the Bioactivity of Brackishwater Cyanobacteria: Toxicity of Crude Extracts to Artemia salina Larvae and Paracentrotus lividus Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana R. Lopes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that produce an array of secondary compounds with selective bioactivity against vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, microalgae, fungi, bacteria, viruses and cell lines. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic effects of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of benthic and picoplanktonic cyanobacteria isolated from estuarine environments, towards the nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina and embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. The A. salina lethality test was used as a frontline screen and then complemented by the more specific sea urchin embryo-larval assay. Eighteen cyanobacterial isolates, belonging to the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Microcoleus, Phormidium, Nodularia, Nostoc and Synechocystis, were tested. Aqueous extracts of cyanobacteria strains showed potent toxicity against A. salina, whereas in P. lividus, methanolic and aqueous extracts showed embryo toxicity, with clear effects on development during early stages. The results suggest that the brackishwater cyanobacteria are producers of bioactive compounds with toxicological effects that may interfere with the dynamics of invertebrate populations.

  3. Bovine and soybean milk bioactive compounds: Effects on inflammatory response of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Rosa; Aresta, Antonella; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo; Cianciulli, Antonia; Salvatore, Rosaria; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effects of commercial bovine and soybean milks and their bioactive compounds, namely genistein, daidzein and equol, on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 cells were examined, in terms of nitric oxide (NO) release and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) expression. Both milks and their bioactive compounds significantly inhibited, dose-dependently, the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein, resulting in a decreased NO production. The NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated intestinal cells was also examined. In all cases we observed that cell pre-treatment before LPS activation inhibited the IkB phosphorylation. Accordingly, quantification of bioactive compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography has shown that they were absorbed, metabolized and released by Caco-2 cells in culture media. In conclusion, we demonstrated that milks and compounds tested are able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses from intestinal cells, interfering with NF-kB dependent molecular mechanisms. PMID:27211648

  4. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and germinated for four different days (1- 4 days. Total phenolic compounds, phytic acid, á-tocopherol, á- tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol were investigated compared with those of ungerminated brown rice. The antioxidant activity of germinated rice was evaluated through four different methods, the 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay and linoleic acid emulsion system-thiocyanate method. Results: The results showed that the germination for 2 days or longer, after soaking, yielded significantly higher level of total phenolic, á-tocopherol, á-tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol than those of ungerminated brown rice and soaked rice, whilst the concentration of phytic acid was reduced significantly when germination time was increased. The samples germinated for one day or longer also revealed greater antioxidant activity than those of ungerminated rice. Conclusion: The level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of germinated rough rice were affected by germination time. Germination for 2 and 3 days was the optimum time for germination rough rice to obtain high concentration of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity. The germination process of rough rice could be a potential method to obtain functional germinated rice flour with high bioactive compounds and health beneficial properties and could be applied to produce

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

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    T JN Okonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water successively. The acetone extract was fractionated serially into chloroform, ethylacetate and acetone to obtain the respective solvent fractions. LOSSP/CF-1 was obtained by re-crystallization of the chloroform fraction. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts and fractions was performed using standard methods. The chemical structure of LOSSP/CF-1 was elucidated by ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. While the flavonoid concentrate (FC and LOSSP/CF-1 tested positive to 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical and KMnO4 assays, indicating strong antioxidant properties. In addition, LOSSP/CF-1 expressed a 50% radical inhibition concentration (IC50 of 238.24 ± 3.12 µg/ml against gallic acid (37.63 ± 0.47 µg/ml. Ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of LOSSP/CF-1 indicated it to be ascorbic acid. This is novel for the herb, and the first ever compound isolated and characterized from L. owariensis. Flavonoids and LOSSP/CF-1 (ascorbic acid are potent bioactive principles of L. owariensis, acting via antioxidant mechanism. Thus the herb is recommended for use as an adjuvant in the management of diseases involving pro-oxidative state.   Industrial relevance. Pro-oxidative state-induced disorders like hepatitis, cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, cancer, et c., have been identified as major course of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in

  6. Zebrafish dives into food research: effectiveness assessment of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M; Iturria, I; Martinez-Santos, M; Pardo, M A; Rainieri, S; Tueros, I; Navarro, V

    2016-06-15

    Zebrafish have been traditionally used in ecotoxicology and developmental biology. However, due to the advances in available methodologies and the similitude with mammals, it has been increasingly used in other fields. One of the most recent fields using zebrafish is food research, being the focus of this review. Most relevant and recent publications including food component toxicity and key metabolic effects together with effectiveness on some zebrafish disease models have been reviewed. This model is a good intermediate tool between in vitro and rodent models, because it provides information from a complete organism in a fast and cost-effective manner. Definitely, in the near future, we will see this model being used by the ingredient suppliers and scientists in order to show the potential impact on health of several compounds. PMID:27109696

  7. Olive stone an attractive source of bioactive and valuable compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Guillermo; Lama, Antonio; Rodríguez, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Guillén, Rafael; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2008-09-01

    The olive stone and seed are an important byproduct generated in the olive oil extraction and pitted table olive industries. As a lignocellulosic material, the hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are the main components of olive stone as wells as protein, fat, phenols, free sugars and poliols composition. The main use of this biomass is as combustion to produce electric energy or heat. Other uses such as activated carbon, furfural production, plastic filled, abrasive and cosmetic or other potential uses such as biosorbent, animal feed or resin formation have been cited. In this article, an overview of the characterization and main uses of olive stone and seed are described for the first time. Also, this review discusses the potential use of this material based on each component. In this way, a new approach to the olive stone and seed by pretreating with a steam explosion followed by chemical fractionation is described. PMID:18160280

  8. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenum assay. Total polyphenol content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and total flavonoid content by aluminium-chloride method. Secondary was also evaluated antimicrobial activity in bee bread samples with disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antioxidant activity expressed as mg TEAC per g of dry weight (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was the highest in bee bread from Poltava oblast in DPPH and also phosphomolybdenum method. Samples of bee bread contained high levels of total polyphenols (12.36 - 18.24 mg GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight and flavonoids (13.56 - 18.24 μg QE - quercetin equivalent per g of dry weight with the best values of bee bread from Poltava oblast. An elevated level of antioxidant potential in the bee bread determines its biological properties, which conditioned of the biological active substances. The best antibacterial activity of bee bred with disc diffusion method was found against Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19. The antibacterial activity inhibited by the bee bread extract in the present study indicate that best minimal inhibition concentration was against bacteria Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Salmonella enterica subs. enterica CCM 3807.

  9. Comparison of Artemisia annua bioactivities between traditional medicine and chemical extracts

    KAUST Repository

    Nageeb, Ahmed

    2014-04-04

    The present work investigates the efficacy of using Artemisia annua in traditional medicine in comparison with chemical extracts of its bioactive molecules. In addition, the effects of location (Egypt and Jericho) on the bioactivities of the plant were investigated. The results showed that water extracts of Artemisia annua from Jericho have stronger antibacterial activities than organic solvent extracts. In contrast, water and organic solvent extracts of the Artemisia annua from Egypt do not have anti-bacterial activity. Furthermore, while the methanol extract of EA displayed high anticancer affects, the water extract of Egypt and the extracts of Jericho did not show significant anticancer activity. Finally, the results showed that the methanol and water extracts of Jericho had the highest antioxidant activity, while the extracts of Egypt had none. The current results validate the scientific bases for the use of Artemisia annua in traditional medicine. In addition, our results suggest that the collection location of the Artemisia annua has an effect on its chemical composition and bioactivities. - See more at: http://www.eurekaselect.com/121416/article#sthash.2c2j9AoL.dpuf

  10. Effective properties of a sturgeon-based bioactive compound on stress-induced hippocampal degeneration and on in vitro neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, F; Chui, D H; Yadav, H; Lorenzetti, A; Celep, G; Jain, S; Bomba, A; Polimeni, A; Zhong, K; Allegri, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the activity of a marine bioactive compound containing high-purity caviar-derived DNA, collagen elastin and protein extracts from sturgeon (LD-1227, Caviarlieri, Laboratoires Dom, Switzerland) to exert neuroprotective properties in an experimental setting while also being potential triggers of neurogenesis in a separate in vitro study. Supplementation with high-DHA mixture of LD-1227 was applied for 30 days to stress model rats. Both supplementations significantly mitigated the histological brain damage when analyzing hippocampal subregions and corticosterone level. However, LD-1227 was most significantly efficient in preventing SOD, Catalase and ascorbic acid decrease in brain tissue. Both supplementations stimulated neurogenesis in vitro and neuron markers in particular but og olygodendrocyte markers and glia increased only in LD-1227-enriched medium. Taken together, these data suggest that LD-1227 is able to significantly protect the brain structure redox system to higher degree than DHA. Moreover, from in vitro study it appears that marine bioactive compound, through it wide array of small unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and neurotransmitter precursors, is likely to influence neuronal and glial lineage to act differently from a DHA-rich mixture. PMID:23034252

  11. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  12. Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

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    Pietro eLo Cantore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas tolaasii is the main bacterial pathogen of several mushroom species. In this paper we report that strains of P. tolaasii produce volatile substances inducing in vitro mycelia growth inhibition of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. eryngii, and Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus basidiome tissue blocks brown discoloration. P. tolaasii strains produced the volatile ammonia but not hydrogen cyanide. Among the volatiles detected by GC-MS, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-undecene were identified. The latter, when assayed individually as pure compounds, led to similar effects noticed when P. tolaasii volatiles natural blend was used on mushrooms mycelia and basidiome tissue blocks. Furthermore, the natural volatile mixture, resulted toxic toward lettuce and broccoli seedling growth. In contrast, pure volatiles showed different activity according to their nature and/or doses applied. Indeed, methanethiol resulted toxic at all the doses used, while dimethyl disulfide toxicity was assessed till a quantity of 1.25 µg, below which it caused, together with 1-undecene ( 10 µg, broccoli growth increase.

  13. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Selected Agro-Industrial By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01 higher phenolics and flavonoids contents; and significantly (P < 0.01 higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to that of cottonseed meal and soybean meal extracts. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests results showed rapeseed meal with the highest antioxidant activity (P < 0.01 followed by BHT, cotton seed meal and soybean meal. Rapeseed meal extract in xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays showed the lowest  IC50 values  followed by cottonseed and soybean meals. Anti-inflammatory assay using IFN-γ/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicated rapeseed meal is a potent source of anti-inflammatory agent. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids were highly correlated to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rapeseed meal was found to be promising as a natural source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities in contrast to cotton and soybean meals.

  14. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Mas; Jose Manuel Guillamon; Maria Jesus Torija; Gemma Beltran; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M.; M. Carmen Garcia-Parrilla

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being und...

  15. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Edmundo Juarez-Enriquez; Ivan Salmerón; Nestor Gutierrez-Mendez; Enrique Ortega-Rivas

    2016-01-01

    Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also descri...

  16. GOAT SPERM SURFACE ALTERATION DURING EPIDIDYMAL MATURATION: AN EVALUATION BY MARINE BIOACTIVE COMPOUND FROM TELESCOPIUM TELESCOPIUM

    OpenAIRE

    HEMBRAM, Manik Lai; Datta, Uttam; Dasgupta, Raju

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bio-active compounds from marine flora and fauna contain various types of pharmacologically active novel biomolecules enriched with different types of lectins. Lectins, with high saccharide binding specificities have been considered important probe to monitor the changes in plasmamembrance during physiological maturation of spermatozoa. Cytosol fraction, isolated from the spermatheca and / or ovotestis gland of a marine mollusc Telescopium telescopium, specific for sialic acid, has b...

  17. Bioactive compounds in soluble cocoa products; polyphenols, dietary fibre and methylxanthines

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; Martínez López, Sara; Sarriá, Beatriz; Permanyer, J.; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Cocoa powder is a highly consumed food product that may confer health benefits such as cardiovascular protection [1], antitumor and antioxidant effects [2]. These health benefits have been widely attributed to its phenolic composition and dietary fibre content [3]. Other bioactive compounds naturally present in cocoa are methylxanthines, alkaloids that induce modulation of the central nervous system. In response to cocoa consumers' demands, the food industry produces new cocoa products aimed ...

  18. Bioactive extract from moringa oleifera inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Tangestani Fard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E 2 , tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-1b. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders.

  19. Production of Nanofibers Containing the Bioactive Compound C-Phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Felipe da Silva; Gettens, Juliana Garcia; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque; Moraes, Caroline Costa; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2016-01-01

    C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a water-soluble phycobiliprotein present in light-harvesting antenna system of cyanobacteria. The nanostructures have not been widely evaluated, precluding improvements in stability and application of the C-PC. Electrospun nanofibers have an extremely high specific surface area due to their small diameter, they can be produced from a wide variety of polymers, and they are successfully evaluated to increase the efficacy of antitumor drugs. The incorporation of C-PC into nanofibers would allow investigations of potential uses in alternative cancer treatments and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this paper, C-phycocyanin were incorporated into the polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO) in various concentrations for nanofiber production via an electrospinning process. Nanofibers structures were analyzed using digital optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis was performed on the pure starting compounds and the produced nanofibers. At a concentration of 2% (w/w) of PEO, nanofibers were not produced, and concentrations of 4% (w/w) of PEO failed to produce nanofibers of good quality. Solutions with 6% (w/w) PEO, 6% (w/w) PEO plus 1% (w/w) NaCI, and 8% (w/w) PEO promote the formation of bluish, homogeneous and bead-free nanofibers with average diameters varying between 542.1 and 759.9 nm, as evaluated by optical microscopy. SEM analysis showed that nanofibers produced from polymer solutions containing 6% (w/w) PEO, 1% (w/w) NaCl and 3% (w/w) C-PC have an average diameter of 295 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis detected an increase in thermal resistance with the incorporation of C-phycocyanin into nanofibers. PMID:27398551

  20. Bioactive packaging using antioxidant extracts for the prevention of microbial food-spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Diana; Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Gomes, Ana; Tavaria, Freni

    2016-07-13

    Bioactive food packaging is an innovative approach for the prevention of the growth of food-spoilage microorganisms. Four active extracts from agroindustrial subproducts (Eucalyptus wood, almond shells, corn cobs and grape pomace) with demonstrated antioxidant activity have been investigated for bestowing antimicrobial activity to bioactive packaging. To carry out this evaluation, the antioxidant extracts were tested against five food pathogenic bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. The results obtained showed that all the tested extracts inhibited the growth of all five pathogenic bacteria. From the analysis of the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the Eucalyptus wood extract was the most active, being necessary only 2% (v/v) to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, whereas almond shells extract were less active requiring 4% (w/v) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the extract from corn cobs was bactericidal against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 4% (w/v). After checking their antimicrobial activity, the antioxidant extracts have been incorporated into sodium alginate films and the maintenance of their antimicrobial properties was confirmed. This work showed that the antioxidant extracts from agroindustrial byproducts exhibited antimicrobial activity and were suitable for incorporation into edible films that could be used in bioactive packaging systems. PMID:27363903

  1. Effects of orange winemaking variables on antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Schvab

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAscorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols stand out among the orange juice natural antioxidants. The winemaking process affects their bioavailability and bioactivity. Antioxidant activities (AA were estimated in different process conditions to asses those properties. The AA and their correlation with ascorbic acid, total phenolics and carotenoids content were calculated. The variables and levels analyzed were: pasteurized and natural must (PJ and NJ, pH 3.5 and 4.0 and fermentation temperatures at 10°C and 20°C. Statistically significant differences (α=0.05 were found among bioactive compounds concentrations. Antioxidant compounds concentration was higher in raw material than in orange wine. Juice pasteurization caused the major losses while subsequent vinification affects them to a lesser extent. Highest antioxidants retention was measured in wines from JN fermented at pH 3.5 and 10 °C (JN-3.5-10 followed by wines from JP and fermented at the same conditions (JP-3.5-10. AA determined by DPPH showed a positive and close correlation with FRAP, while ABTS showed a low correlation with former assays. Juice pasteurization process and fermentation temperature influenced bioactive compound reduction which correlates with the AA variation.

  2. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L. using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow, Sweet/Robusto (green, Fascinato/Robusto (red, Orangela/Terrano (orange, and Fascinato/Terrano (red. The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  3. Effect of edible coatings on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomatoes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila-Aviña, Jorge E; Villa-Rodríguez, José A; Villegas-Ochoa, Mónica A; Tortoledo-Ortiz, Orlando; Olivas, Guadalupe I; Ayala-Zavala, J Fernando; González-Aguilar, Gustavo A

    2014-10-01

    This work evaluated the effect of carnauba and mineral oil coatings on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of tomato fruits (cv. "Grandela"). Carnauba and mineral oil coatings were applied on fresh tomatoes at two maturity stages (breaker and pink) over 28 day of storage at 10 °C was evaluated. Bioactive compound and antioxidant activity assays included total phenols, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid (ASA), lycopene, DPPH radical scavenging activity (%RSA), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC). The total phenolic, flavonoid and lycopene contents were significantly lower for coated fruit than control fruits. However, ascorbic acid content was highest in fruits treated with carnauba, followed by mineral oil coating and control fruits. The ORAC values were highest in breaker tomatoes coated with carnauba wax, followed by mineral oil-coated fruits and controls. No significant differences in ORAC values were observed in pink tomatoes. % RSA and TEAC values were higher for controls than for coated fruit. Edible coatings preserve the overall quality of tomatoes during storage without affecting the nutritional quality of fruit. We found that the physiological response to the coatings is in function of the maturity stage of tomatoes. The information obtained in this study support to use of edible coating as a safe and good alternative to preserve tomato quality, and that the changes of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tomato fruits, was not negatively affected. This approach can be used by producers to preserve tomato quality. PMID:25328215

  4. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity analysis. Analysis of Variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests were performed using the SAS program. The concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity of the grape juices treated with microwave heating and ultrasonication increased significantly with increasing treatment time notably at 5 min treatment. It can be noted that all the bioactive contents and % radical scavenging activity were higher in noncold stabilized grape juice than in cold stabilized juices. However, blanching whole grapes for longer period of time before processing resulted in the decrease of all bioactive compounds and % radical scavenging activity both in non-cold stabilized and cold stabilized juice especially at 5 min blanching period. It was also showed that 1 min blanching is more effective in increasing the bioactive compounds of the grape juice as compared to other treatment time.

  5. Synthesis of potentially bioactive compounds and tools for biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR spectroscopy is one of the most versatile tools for studying structural parameters of organic and bioorganic compounds. It became a highly suitable method to achieve spectra simplification of macromolecules in combination with isotope labeling techniques. This technique is used to study protein structures, folding properties and mechanisms of chemical and biochemical reactions. Proteins typically feature a high molecular mass showing a high number of spin systems, being responsible for increasingly difficult to interpret NMR spectra, which is why it is essential to introduce 13C- and 15N- isotopes to obtain reasonable signal intensities. The development of a new synthetic route towards 13C-isotope labeled Phenylalanine or precursors thereof, starting from inexpensive and easily accessible labeled starting materials, is the main purpose of this work. Label sources such as [13C]-acetic acid, [13C]-formaldehyde, [13C]-allyl alcohol and [13C]-glycine will be used. The synthetic pathway will be carried out in a way where the position-selective incorporation of labeled isotopes can be performed. This important feature of the synthesis may open access towards newly designed NMR-experiments. Key steps for the tested route are ring closing metatheses as well as indium mediated reactions. The second part of this work focuses on the field of sugar chemistry, in particular on the family of deoxy sugars, components of many natural products, found in different plants, fungi and bacteria. Deoxy sugars also participate in a wide range of biological processes. Special focus is given to 3-deoxy sugars and the research of a versatile and flexible synthetic route for their preparation starting from the easily accessible D-glyceraldehyde. These sugars are found on Gram-negative bacteria where they are a key component of the lipopolysaccharides, or where they can take place in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants. Being able to perform this synthesis on a

  6. Using immobilized G-protein coupled receptors to screen bioactive traditional Chinese medicine compounds with multiple targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Li, Qian; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian

    2012-11-01

    Demand on high-throughput methods for multi-target compounds screening continues to increase nowadays due to the decline of new drugs on the market. Two kinds of G-protein-coupled receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptor (α(1A)-AR) and beta2-adrenoceptor (β(2)-AR), were purified and immobilized on the surface of macroporous silica gel to prepare new chromatographic stationary phases. Control drugs (e.g., prazosin, terazosin, salbutamol, and terbutaline) were used to characterize the retention behavior of the obtained α(1A)-AR and β(2)-AR columns. This study also coupled both columns with a six-way switching valve to construct an automatic two-dimensional system for multi-target compounds screening in complex mixtures. Adrenaline hydrochloride was used as a representative drug to evaluate the chromatographic performance of the two dimensional system. The aqueous extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Coptis chinensis were also analyzed by the automatic system. The compounds in S. miltiorrhiza had no binding to both α(1A)-AR and β(2)-AR columns. But berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were screened as the bioactive compounds in C. chinensis, targeting both the receptors. The proposed method is an alternative for recognizing and separating the compounds targeting different proteins from a complex matrix. PMID:22651959

  7. Bioactive metabolite profiles and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. leaves and stems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Patrick Cruiz Buhian; Raquel Orejudos Rubio; Demetrio Lim Valle Jr; Juliana Janet Martin-Puzon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the bioactive phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity of leaf and stem ethanolic extracts from Muntingia calabura L. (M. calabura). Methods: Dried leaves and stems of M. calabura were extracted with 95%ethanol. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were examined using the disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each extract showing antimicrobial activity was determined. The dried extracts were subjected to phyto-chemical screening to determine the presence of bioactive components. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the aluminum chloride method, respectively. Results: Varying degrees of antimicrobial activity were exhibited by the leaf and stem extracts against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis, and Candida albicans (C. albicans), with minimal activity against Escherichia coli. Based on the MIC, the extracts showed the highest activity against C. albicans, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and tannins in the leaf extract; however, no triterpenes were detected. In the stem extract, triterpenes were detected along with relative amounts of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins. Alkaloids and sterols were absent in the stem extract. Conclusions: M. calabura leaf and stem ethanol extracts are potential sources of anti-bacterial agents against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study reports for the first time the high degree of antifungal activity of M. calabura ethanolic extract, especially against C. albicans.

  8. The polyphasic description of a Desmodesmus spp. isolate with the potential of bioactive compounds production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Semary, NA.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyphasic approach was applied to describe a colony-forming Desmodesmus species collected from the Nile River, Maadi area, Helwan district, Egypt. The isolate grows best at moderate temperature and relatively high light intensity. The phenotypic features revealed the presence of both unicellular and colonial forms of the isolate and the latter form was either 2-4 celled. Cells were 4-6 mm ± 0.5 at their widest point and 11-15 mm ± 0.48 in their length with spiny projections that encircled the cells. Cells were heavily-granulated and enclosed within common mucilaginous sheath. Colonial forms were developed through production of daughter cells within mother cell. Molecular analysis using 18S rRNA gene showed some similarity to its nearest relative (Desmodesmus communis whereas the phylogenetic analyses clustered it together with other Desmodesmus spp. and away from Scenedesmus spp. from the database. However, the use of ITS-2 as a phylotaxonomic marker proved to be more resolving and confirmed the generic identity of the isolate as Desmodesmus spp. The fatty acid composition revealed the presence of saturated palmitic fatty acid as the most abundant component followed by monounsaturated palmitoleic acid whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids were in relatively low abundance. The palmitoleic acid in particular is suggested to be involved in active defense mechanism. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins and absence of tannins. Fractions of methanolic extracts showed antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial strains including multi-drug resistant ones. This study documents the presence of this strain in the River Nile and highlights its biotechnological potential as a source of bioactive compounds.

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of some bioactive compounds having oxygen and nitrogen heteroatom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Poonam Yadav; Nalini V Purohit

    2013-01-01

    Some new 3,4-disubstituted isocoumarins were synthesized having bioactive pyrazole molecule at 3rd position of isocoumarin moiety (5a,b), from isocoumarin -3- carboxylic acid hydrazide (4a,b) followed by cyclization with acetyl acetone. A series of isocoumarin derivative having Schiff base as lateral side chain at 3rd position of isocoumarin moiety were also synthesized (7a,b), by condensing isocoumarin acid hydrazide and benzaldehyde derivative followed by dehydration. The chemical structures of all the compounds were determined by analytical and spectral method. The lead compounds were screened for antimicrobial and analgesic activities.

  10. Facilitated Uptake of a Bioactive Metabolite of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol) into Human Erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Max Kurlbaum; Melanie Mülek; Petra Högger

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other t...

  11. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Walter Ziegler; Nicolas Louka; Zeina Hobaika; Eugene Vorobiev; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g ...

  12. Chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica: efeitos do tempo de infusão, acondicionamento da erva e forma de preparo sobre a eficiência de extração dos bioativos e sobre a estabilidade da bebida Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica: effect of infusion time, mode of packaging and preparation on the extraction efficiency of bioactive compounds and on the stability of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Fernandes Nishiyama

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos do chá verde brasileiro (Camellia sinensis var assamica ainda são escassos quando comparados aos realizados com chás verdes produzidos em outros países. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos do tempo de infusão, forma de acondicionamento da erva (a granel ou em sachês e forma de preparo da bebida na extração dos biativos do chá verde brasileiro e na estabilidade da bebida obtida. Foram avaliados os parâmetros sólidos solúveis e compostos fenólicos extraídos, bem como as propriedades antioxidantes da bebida pelo método DPPH (radicais 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil. Os dados obtidos evidenciam que o uso da erva a granel sob agitação e tempo de infusão de 5 minutos foi a condição mais propícia para a extração dos bioativos do chá verde. Aumentando-se o volume de preparação da bebida sem alteração da razão erva:água, aumentou-se a eficiência da extração dos bioativos, devido ao fato de que o resfriamento de volumes maiores é mais demorado que o resfriamento de volumes menores. As bebidas obtidas foram estáveis por 24 horas em temperatura ambiente e em geladeira, visto não terem sido detectadas redução das propriedades antioxidantes e variações significativas dos seus principais bioativos epigalocatequina galato, epicatequina, catequina e cafeína.Studies on the Brazilian green tea (Camellia sinensis var assamica are still scarce when compared with the great number of investigations conducted on the green tea produced in other countries. The purposes of the present study were to evaluate the effects of infusion time, mode of packaging (tea in bulk or in tea bags and preparation on the extraction of bioactive compounds from the Brazilian green tea and on the stability of the beverage. The evaluated parameters were: the amounts of soluble solutes and phenolic compounds that were extracted as well as the antioxidant properties of the beverage using the DPPH method (2,2-diphenyl-1

  13. Bioactive phenolic compounds from hepatoprotective plants: extraction, identification and isolation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest and one of the most important organs in human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. It has a pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and detoxification of a variety of drugs, xenobiotics and toxins, which makes it a vulnerable target of injury caused by toxic chemicals and free radicals capable of binding to cellular macromolecules such as DNA, lipids, proteins, or carbohydrates and produce...

  14. Potent Anticancer Effects of Bioactive Mushroom Extracts (Phellinus linteus) on a Variety of Human Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, Sensuke; Chu, Kevin; Feuer, Nicholas; Phillips, John; Choudhury, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several therapeutic options are currently available for patients with various cancers, the outcomes are often disappointing and a more effective modality needs to be promptly established. We have been exploring an alternative approach using natural agents and two bioactive mushroom extracts isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), namely PL-ES and PL-I-ES, were of our interest. As anticancer effects of similar extracts have been reported in several cancers, we investigated wh...

  15. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  16. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of 1H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  17. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of (1)H and (13)C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  18. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  19. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  20. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of Geranium molle L.: from the plant to the most active extract and its phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, V C; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Dias, Maria Inês; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Santos, P F

    2016-05-18

    After a period of indifference, in which synthetic compounds were favored, there is an increasing interest in the study of the biological properties of plants and the active principles responsible for their therapeutic properties. Geranium molle L. has been used in the Portuguese folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments including cancer but, unlike many of the species from the Geranium genus, its phytochemical characterization and biological activity are virtually unexplored. In this study a G. molle sample from Trás-os-Montes, north-eastern Portugal, was chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols, and several aqueous (decoction, infusion) and organic (n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol) extracts of the plant were assessed for their bioactive properties. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by means of the free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The cytotoxicity of the different extracts was assessed in vitro against several human cancer cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and, additionally, their hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. G. molle was shown to be rich in carbohydrates and proteins, providing tocopherols and essential fatty acids. Amongst the various extracts, the acetone extract was found to have the highest content of phenolic compounds (mainly ellagitannins, but also some flavone and flavonol glycosides) as well as the highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the chemical composition and bioactive properties of G. molle. PMID:27094513

  1. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor

    effects of the different extraction parameters on the natural chemical composition of the isolated sulfated polysaccharides were also investigated. The data showed that classical multi-step extraction using ≥0.2 M HCl at elevated temperature and extended time had a detrimental effect on the FCSPs yield...... seaweeds, and investigate their bioactivity. To this effect, designed optimized extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and/or crude fucoidan from brown seaweed were performed, and the bioactivity of the isolated FCSPs was investigated. Moreover, to assess the potential of seaweed...... of fucose; varying amounts of galactose, xylose, and glucuronic acid; and differing glycosidic linkages, and are variously substituted with sulfate and acetyl groups and side branches containing fucose or other glycosyl units. These FCSPs principally consist of a backbone of (1→3)- and/or (1...

  2. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  3. Experimental protocol for the recovery and evaluation of bioactive compounds of tarbush against postharvest fruit fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De León-Zapata, Miguel A; Pastrana-Castro, Lorenzo; Rua-Rodríguez, María Luisa; Alvarez-Pérez, Olga Berenice; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raul; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to recover and evaluate in vitro the antifungal activity of bioactive compounds of tarbush Flourensia cernua against fruit postharvest fungi and their antioxidant capacity. A yield of 15% of bioactive compounds of tarbush was obtained by infusion method and heating using water as solvent. A concentration of 4000 mg/L showed a higher antioxidant activity against the ABTS radical (3.21 μMol/g) in comparison with the DPPH radical (7.62 μMol/g); however the DPPH radical showed a better correlation with the content of tannins. The BCT showed values of IC50 between 1519 and 3310 mg/L against Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Antifungal activity is attributable mainly to gallic acid and flavonoids identified by infrared and HPLC analysis. In this study, the BCT have shown to be a possible natural alternative of antioxidant and antifungal compounds for use against postharvest fruit fungi. PMID:26769505

  4. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

  5. Identification and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds Targeting Uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Sanjin Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Meng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sanjin Tablets are completely natural preparation with significant efficacy in treating urinary tract infection. To identify the bioactive compounds from Sanjin Tablets, we separated components capable of binding to the soluble proteins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC by affinity binding and characterized their identities using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis. Our study discovered eight compounds with E. coli protein-binding capabilities, and all these compounds were tracked back to the original natural ingredients of Sanjin Tablets. These compounds presented essentially no antibacteria activity, indicating that they affect UPEC by means other than directly killing the cells. Further molecular modeling analysis predicted molecular targets for these compounds and mapped the residues potentially involved in compound-target interactions. All the predicted targets turned out to be critical proteins regulating the metabolisms of E. coli, suggesting that these compounds may affect metabolic pathways in UPEC and inhibit pathogenesis. These data will benefit future design of drugs with higher efficacy and specificity on targeting pathogenic bacteria.

  6. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih; Jaya Mahar Maligan; Ahmad Zaki Mubarok; Elok Zubaidah; Jhauharotul Mukhlisiyyah; Risma Puspitasari

    2013-01-01

    This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs) from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisi...

  7. Cyclopamine bioactivity by extraction method from Veratrum californicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew W; Cruz, Roberto; Mattos, Jared; Baughman, Nic; Elwell, Jordan; Fothergill, Jenny; Nielsen, Anna; Brookhouse, Jessica; Bartlett, Ashton; Malek, Petr; Pu, Xinzhu; King, Matthew D; McDougal, Owen M

    2016-08-15

    Veratrum californicum, commonly referred to as corn lily or Californian false hellebore, grows in high mountain meadows and produces the steroidal alkaloid cyclopamine, a potent inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. The Hh pathway is a crucial regulator of many fundamental processes during vertebrate embryonic development. However, constitutive activation of the Hh pathway contributes to the progression of various cancers. In the present study, a direct correlation was made between the extraction efficiency for cyclopamine from root and rhizome by eight methods, and the associated biological activity in Shh-Light II cells using the Dual-Glo® Luciferase Assay System. Alkaloid recovery ranged from 0.39 to 8.03mg/g, with ethanol soak being determined to be the superior method for obtaining biologically active cyclopamine. Acidic ethanol and supercritical extractions yielded degraded or contaminated cyclopamine with lower antagonistic activity towards Hh signaling. PMID:27338657

  8. Establishment of a high content assay for the identification and characterisation of bioactivities in crude bacterial extracts that interfere with the eukaryotic cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Nickels A; Gerth, Klaus; Grotjohann, Tim; Kapp, Dieter; Keck, Matthias; Niehaus, Karsten

    2009-03-10

    High content microscopy as a screening tool to identify bioactive agents has provided researchers with the ability to characterise biological activities at the level of single cells. Here, we describe the development and the application of a high content screening assay for the identification and characterisation of cytostatic bioactivities from Myxobacteria extracts. In an automated microscopy assay Sf9 insect cells were visualised utilising the stains bisbenzimide Hoechst 33342, calcein AM, and propidium iodide. Imaging data were processed by the ScanR Analysis-software to determine the ploidy and vitality of each cell and to quantify cell populations. More than 98% of the Sf9 cells were viable and the culture consisted of diploid ( approximately 30%), tetraploid ( approximately 60%), polyploidic (colchicine, paclitaxel, and cytochalasin D induced changes in ploidy and vitality, which were characteristic for the respective bioactive substance. Furthermore, crude extracts from the chivosazole producing Myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum So ce56 induced an increase of polyploid cells and a decrease in total cell count, while a mutant producing nearly no chivosazole triggered none of these effects. Purified chivosazole induced the same effects as the wild type extract. Similar effects have been observed for the reference compound cytochalasin D. On the basis of this assay, crude extracts of ten different Myxobacteria cultures were screened. Three extracts exhibited strong cytotoxic activities, further five extracts induced weak changes in the ploidy distribution, and two extracts showed no detectable effect within the assay. Therefore, this robust assay provides the ability to discover and characterise cytotoxic and cytostatic bioactivities in crude bacterial extracts. PMID:19111838

  9. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanan Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1 using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H,17α(H,(20R-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies.

  10. Isolation of bioactive biphenyl compounds from the twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kwon, Oh Kil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-01-15

    Investigation of the MeOH extract of Chaenomeles sinensis twigs resulted in the isolation of seven biphenyl compounds (1-7) including a new compound, chaenomin (1). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR data ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC), specific optical rotation, and chemical reaction. Compounds 2 and 6 showed potent cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15), and compound 7 exhibited potent anti-neuroinflammatory and NGF-potentiating activity. PMID:26706168

  11. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Pilegaard, Kirsten; Plumb, Jenny; Rhodes, Mike; Sheehan, Darina; Kiely, Mairéad; Kroon, Poul A.

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds, is...... being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists and...... researchers interested in diet and health relationships, and product developers within the food industry....

  12. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  13. Rapid in situ identification of bioactive compounds in plants by in vivo nanospray high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Peng, Yue'e; Dan, Conghui; Shuai, Qin; Hu, Shenghong

    2015-03-25

    A method for the rapid in situ identification of bioactive compounds in fresh plants has been developed using in vivo nanospray coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Using a homemade in vivo nanospray ion source, the plant liquid was drawn out from a target region and ionized in situ. The ionized bioactive compounds were then identified using Q-Orbitrap HR-MS. The accurate mass measurements of these bioactive compounds were performed by full-scan or selected ion monitoring (SIM), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used in the structural elucidation. Without sample pretreatment, 12 bioactive compounds in 7 different plant species were identified, namely, isoalliin in onion; butylphthalide in celery; N-methylpelletierine, pelletierine, and pseudopelletierine in pomegranate; chlorogenic acid in crabapple; solamargine, solasonine, and solasodine in nightshade; aloin and aloe-emodin in aloe; and menthone in mint. This work demonstrates that in vivo nanospray HR-MS is a good method for rapid in situ identification of bioactive compounds in plants. PMID:25749134

  14. Pressurised Fluid Extraction of Bioactive Species in Tree Barks : Analysis using Hyphenated Electrochemical Mass Spectrometric Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Co, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Analytical chemistry has developed throughout time to meet current needs. At present, the interest in biorefinery is growing, due to environmental awareness and the depletion of fossil resources. Biomass from agricultural and forestry industries has proven to be excellent raw material for different processes. Biorefinering valuable species such as bioactive species from biomass, without compromising the primary process of the biomass is highly desirable. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) usi...

  15. Determination of some physicochemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of tropical fruits from Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moo-Huchin, Víctor M; Estrada-Mota, Iván; Estrada-León, Raciel; Cuevas-Glory, Luis; Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Vargas y Vargas, María de Lourdes; Betancur-Ancona, David; Sauri-Duch, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    The aim to the study was to determine the physicochemical composition, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits from Yucatan, Mexico such as star apple, cashew, mombin, mamey sapote, white sapote, sugar apple, sapodilla, dragon fruit, nance, ilama, custard apple, mamoncillo and black sapote. The physicochemical characteristics were different between fruits and were good sources of bioactive compounds. The edible part with the highest values of antioxidant activity were mamoncillo, star apple, mombin, cashew, white sapote, ilama, custard apple, sugar apple, and nance. Total soluble phenols content showed a correlation with antioxidant activity by ABTS (R=0.52, P⩽0.05) and DPPH (R=0.43, P⩽0.05). A high correlation was obtained between the two assays (ABTS and DPPH) used to measure antioxidant activity in the tropical fruit species under study (R=0.82, P⩽0.05). The results show promising perspectives for the exploitation and use of tropical fruits studied with significant levels of nutrients and antioxidant activity. PMID:24444968

  16. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  17. Citrus fruits by-products as sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel and pulp from Orlando orange, Kinnow mandarin and Eureka lemon fruits were evaluated for phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid contents and free radical scavenging activities. Pulp from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 123.02, 104.98 and 98.38 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 61.38, 38.52 and 57.63 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 69.31, 62.82 and 59.60 % DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. Peel from orange, mandarin and lemon contained 178.90, 169.54 and 61.22 mg GAE/100 g total phenolics; 62.45, 54.87 and 25.68 mg/100g ascorbic acid and 67.58, 68.57 and 46.98% DPPH radical scavenging activities, respectively. The data reveals that these citrus by-products are good sources of bioactive compounds and be considered as antioxidant constituents for developing functional foods. (author)

  18. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. PMID:26948592

  19. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Gynostemma pentaphyllum physiology and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Dong; Mantri, Nitin; Sun, Bin; Jiang, Li; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Jialei; Shen, Jiahao; Lu, Hongfei; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an important topic of research has been how climate change is seriously threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. However, there is surprisingly little experimental data regarding how elevated temperature and CO2 will affect the growth of medicinal plants and production of bioactive compounds. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the photosynthetic process, biomass, total sugars, antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and bioactive compounds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two different CO2 concentrations [360 and 720μmolmol(-1)] were imposed on plants grown at two different temperature regimes of 23/18 and 28/23°C (day/night) for 60days. Results show that elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increase the biomass, particularly in proportion to inflorescence total dry weight. The chlorophyll content in leaves increased under the elevated temperature and CO2. Further, electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), instantaneous photosynthetic rate (Photo), transpiration rate (Trmmol) and stomatal conductance (Cond) also increased to different degrees under elevated CO2 and temperature. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the level of total sugars and gypenoside A, but decreased the total antioxidant capacity and main antioxidant compounds in different organs of G. pentaphyllum. Accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids also decreased in leaves, stems, and inflorescences under elevated CO2 and temperature. Overall, our data indicate that the predicted increase in atmospheric temperature and CO2 could improve the biomass of G. pentaphyllum, but they would reduce its health-promoting properties. PMID:27054772

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Bioactive Components of Oxalidaceae Fruit Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the Antioxidant Activity (AA), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) of Oxalidaceae fruit extracts. Two types of Averrhoa carambola L. and two types of bilimbi fruits were used in this study. Bilimbi fruits selected were Averrhoa bilimbi L. and Averrhoa bilimbi cv. while Averrhoa carambola L. selected were Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) and another type of Averrhoa carambola L. which is known as tart type. The maturity stage for both Averrhoa carambola L. fruits (honey and tart type) were selected at commercial maturity stages which were stage 3 and stage 4. Antioxidant estimation of oxalidaceae fruit extracts were evaluated by using Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC), while antioxidant activity were evaluated using scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), β-carotene Bleaching (BCB) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. Phytochemical screening of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins and saponins were also performed on all samples. Averrhoa carambola L. indicated positive results for all phytochemical screening conducted and similar results were observed from bilimbi fruits, except for alkaloids. Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 possessed higher TPC and TFC followed by Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4. Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 also exhibited high scavenging effect (74 %) as determined by DPPH assay with the value of EC50 72.36 mg/ ml while Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 3 showed significantly lower percentage of scavenging effect. The results also demonstrated that FRAP values of Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4 and Averrhoa carambola L. (tart type) of stage 4 were higher than other samples (5.1023 mmol TE/ g and 5.0759 mmol TE/ g) and similar trends were observed for β-carotene Bleaching (BCB) assay, where Averrhoa carambola L. (honey type) of stage 4

  1. Extraction optimization and bioactivity of exopolysaccharides from Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Mao, Jian; Meng, Xiangyong

    2013-02-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the extraction parameters of EPS produced by Agaricus bisporus MJ-0811 in submerged culture. The optimal levels for ethanol concentration (85%, v/v), pH (8) and precipitation time (22 h) were determined, and EPS production was estimated at 2.71 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 2.69 g/L. In addition, the antioxidant activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its scavenging ability on superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the hypoglycemic activity of EPS was investigated by measuring its effects on body weights and blood glucose of diabetic mice. The study suggests that EPS has beneficial antioxidant activities (hydroxyl radical-scavenging activities, superoxide radical-scavenging activities) in vitro, anti-diabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic mice. The EPS from A. bisporus may be a novel resource of natural antioxidants and anti-diabetic agents for use in the functional food or medicine. PMID:23399195

  2. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  3. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  4. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  5. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Campos Nunes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health.

  6. Nutrients and bioactive compounds in popular and indigenous durian (Durio zibethinus murr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Thiyajai, Parunya; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2016-02-15

    This study identified nutrients, fatty acids, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of two popular varieties (Mon-thong, Cha-ni) and two indigenous varieties (Kra-dum and Kob-ta-kam) of durian. Each of variety was collected from 3 gardens in Nonthaburi province, Thailand. At optimal ripeness, the edible part was separated, homogenised or freeze dried, as fresh or dry samples for further analysis using standard methods. All durian varieties contained a considerable amount of dietary fibre (7.5-9.1g/100g dry matter, DM) and high amounts of carbohydrate and sugar (62.9-70.7g and 47.9-56.4g/100g DM respectively). Cha-ni, Kra-dum and Kob-ta-kam varieties had monounsaturated (MUFA) (6.1-7.8g/100g DM)>saturated (SFA) (4.2-5.7g/100g DM)>polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (0.8-1.5g/100g DM), whereas the Mon-thong variety had SFA>MUFA>PUFA (5.1, 4.0, 1.1g/100g DM, respectively). The Kob-ta-kam variety showed greater potential for health benefits in terms of carotenoids and β-carotene (2248μg and 1202μg/100g DM respectively). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were not significantly different among each variety, though the Cha-ni variety had the lowest. This study provides data on nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of indigenous and popular durian varieties that could be used for consumer education as well as for incorporation into the food composition databases. PMID:26433306

  7. Investigation of bioactivity of extracts of Marine Sponge, Spongosorites halichondrioides (Dendy, 1905) from western coastal areas of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maushmi S. Kumar; Asim. K. Pal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Sponges (phylum Porifera) are sessile marine invertebrates and are known to be the richest source of pharmacologically-active compounds. This work was taken to investigate the antibacterial, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity from marine sponge. Method: In this study the marine sponge Spongosorites halichondrioides crude extracts were investigated for three bioassays. The first is an antimicrobial test against Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and the second is an antifungal test against three pathogenic fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillusniger and Metarhizium anisopliae. The third is a cytotoxicity test using larva of Artemia salina, for detection of cytotoxic activity in the extracts. Result: For all the three bioassays, extracts were found to be bioactive. This result suggests that this marine sponge is able to produce biologically active agents required for an overall defense against their predators. Conclusions: Further GC MS was done and the fragmentation pattern, showed the presence of sterol esters and terpenoids in the active extracts.

  8. Extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil by deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Juan, Elisa; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rios, José Julian; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are "green" solvents, applied in this study for the extraction of phenolic compounds from virgin olive oil (VOO). Different combinations of DES consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) in various mixing ratios with sugars, alcohols, organic acids, and urea, as well as a mixture of three sugars were used. The yields of the DES extractions were compared with those from conventional 80% (v/v) methanol/water. DES showed a good solubility of phenolic compounds with different polarities. The two most abundant secoiridoid derivatives in olive oil, oleacein and oleocanthal, extracted with ChCl/xylitol and ChCl/1,2-propanediol showed an increase of 20-33% and 67.9-68.3% with respect to conventional extraction, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first time that phenolic compounds have been extracted from VOO oil using DES. Our results suggest that DES offers an efficient, safe, sustainable, and cost effective alternative to methanol for extraction of bioactive compounds from VOO. PMID:26616988

  9. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Gi; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Cherkas, Andriy; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Ku, Yang-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant, binding, and anti-proliferative properties of red sweet paprika growing under artificial light. The amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in red paprika (RP), cultivated in Korea, before and after light treatments under high pressure sodium (HPS) and lighting emitting plasma (LEP) lamps (RPControl, RPHPS, RPLEP), were analyzed in water (W) and ethanolic extracts (Et). Spectroscopic, radical scavenging assays, fluorescence and cytotoxicity measurements were applied. The results of this study showed that total chlorophyll and carotenes were the highest in RPHPS (10.50 ± 1.02 and 33.90 ± 3.26 μg/g dry weight (DW)). The strongest antioxidant capacity (μM TE/g DW) in a 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+)) assay was in RPControlEt (24.34 ± 2.36), in a ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in RPHPSW (27.08 ± 2.4) and in a cupric reducing antioxidant (CUPRAC) in RPLEPW (70.99 ± 7.11). The paprika ethanolic extracts showed lower values in their bioactivity than the water ones. The binding and cytotoxicity abilities of extracted polyphenols correlated with their amounts. LEP treatment is better for plant growth characteristics than other conventional treatments. The investigated paprika samples can be used as a source of antioxidants. PMID:27184000

  10. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals. PMID:26333346

  11. High-performance thin-layer chromatography linked with (bio)assays and mass spectrometry - a suited method for discovery and quantification of bioactive components? Exemplarily shown for turmeric and milk thistle extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud N; Krawinkel, Michael B; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-05-15

    Extraction parameters, chemical fingerprint, and the single compounds' activity levels were considered for the selection of active botanicals. For an initial survey, the total bioactivity (i.e., total reducing capacity, total flavonoids contents and free radical scavenging capacity) of 21 aqueous and 21 ethanolic plant extracts was investigated. Ethanolic extracts showed a higher yield and were further analyzed by HPTLC in detail to obtain fingerprints of single flavonoids and further bioactive components. Exemplarily shown for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and milk thistle (Silybum marianum), effect-directed analysis (EDA) was performed using three selected (bio)assays, the Aliivibrio fischeri bioassay, the Bacillus subtilis bioassay and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) assay. As a proof of principle, the bioactive components found in the extracts were confirmed by HPTLC-MS. Bioassays in combination with planar chromatography directly linked to the known, single effective compounds like curcumin and silibinin. However, also some unknown bioactive components were discovered and exemplarily characterized, which demonstrated the strength of this kind of EDA. HPTLC-UV/Vis/FLD-EDA-MS could become a useful tool for selection of active botanicals and for the activity profiling of the active ingredients therein. The flexibility in effect-directed detections allows a comprehensive survey of effective ingredients in samples. This streamlined methodology comprised a non-targeted, effect-directed screening first, followed by a highly targeted characterization of the discovered bioactive compounds. HPTLC-EDA-MS can also be recommended for bioactivity profiling of food on the food intake side, as not only effective phytochemicals, but also unknown bioactive degradation products during food processing or contamination products or residues or metabolites can be detected. Thus, an efficient survey on potential food intake effects on wellness could be obtained. Having performed

  12. Metabolomic-Based Study of the Leafy Gall, the Ecological Niche of the Phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians, as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Duez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leafy gall is a plant hyperplasia induced upon Rhodococcus fascians infection. Previously, by genomic and transcriptomic analysis, it has been reported that, at the early stage of symptom development, both primary and secondary metabolisms are modified. The present study is based on the hypothesis that fully developed leafy gall, could represent a potential source of new bioactive compounds. Therefore, non-targeted metabolomic analysis of aqueous and chloroform extracts of leafy gall and non-infected tobacco was carried out by 1H-NMR coupled to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Polar metabolite profiling reflects modifications mainly in the primary metabolites and in some polyphenolics. In contrast, main modifications occurring in non-polar metabolites concern secondary metabolites, and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS evidenced alterations in diterpenoids family. Analysis of crude extracts of leafy galls and non-infected tobacco leaves exhibited a distinct antiproliferative activity against all four tested human cancer cell lines. A bio-guided fractionation of chloroformic crude extract yield to semi-purified fractions, which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with IC50 between 14.0 and 2.4 µg/mL. Discussion is focused on the consequence of these metabolic changes, with respect to plant defense mechanisms following infection. Considering the promising role of diterpenoid family as bioactive compounds, leafy gall may rather be a propitious source for drug discovery.

  13. Bioactive Compounds Screening from Zingiberaceae Family as Influenza A/Swine Flu Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor through Docking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman S.F. Tambunan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Influenza A/H1N1 is a disease caused by infection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. This virus constantly mutates and consequently will be developed into new drug-resistant strains. Approach: In this research, we have conducted docking study to screen bioactive compounds from Zingiberaceae family, which has a role as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza a virus. Results: The docking result identified that 1, 2-di-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene (BGA compound has the affinity and ability to inhibit neuraminidase. There are fourteen residues contact of BGA compound to neuraminidase and eight residues contact of enzyme that formed hydrogen bond with catalytic site. Conclusion/recommendation: The docking result showed that BGA has better binding energy and affinity compared with other bioactive compounds and the standard compounds.

  14. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar Amali Muhammad; Nur Aimi Syarina Pauzi; Palanisamy Arulselvan; Faridah Abas; Sharida Fakurazi

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera) from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to...

  15. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  16. Induction of bioactive compound composition from marine microalgae (Lyngbya sp.) by using different stress condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul Farhana Rosly; Rabeah Adawiyah Abdul Razak; Palaniselvam Kuppusamy; Mashitah M. Yusoff; Natanamurugaraj Govindan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To the effect of salinity stress on the production of microalgae (Lyngbya sp.) and chlorophyll pigments in the growth medium.Methods:Stress was investigated by using green algae strains Lyngbya sp. in response to change bioactive compounds without any modification of cell growth and biomass production rate. The different stress conditions like 10%-40% were analyzed.Results:During the stress condition, various biochemical and microbiological assays were monitored. The photochemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS studies. The studies expressed that 30% higher salinity stress was suitable for high phytochemical production rate including chlorophyll content.Conclusions:Our study indicates the wide range of salinity stress to enhance the growth on microalgae culture and enhance the production of major secondary metabolites.

  17. Extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Ballesteros, Lina F.; Martins, Silvia; J. A. Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of antioxidant phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds (SCG) was studied. Extraction experiments were carried out by the conventional solid–liquid method, using methanol as solvent at different concentrations (20–100%), solvent/solid ratios (10–40 ml/g SCG), and extraction times (30–90 min), and the influence of these operational variables on the content of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of the produced extracts was evaluated. Flavonoids, chlorogenic aci...

  18. Variation of Bioactive Compounds in Hypericum perforatum Growing in Turkey During Its Phenological Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt Cirak; Jolita Radusiěnё; Birsen (Sa(g)lam) Karabük; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine phenologic and morphogenetic variation of hypericin, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, as rutin, hyperoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercltrin, quercetin content of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Turkey. Wild growing plants were harvested at vegetative, floral budding, full flowering,fresh fruiting and mature fruiting stages and dissected into stem, leaf and reproductive tissues and assayed for bioactive compounds by the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hyperlcin concentration ranged between 0 and 2.73 mg/g DW, chlorogenic acid 0.00-3.64 mg/g DW, rutin 0.00-3.36 mg/g DW, hyperoside 0.04-22.42 mg/g DW, quercitrin 0.03-3.45 mg/g DW and quercetin 0.04-1.02 mg/g DW depending on ontogenetic and morphogenetic sampling. Leaves were found to be superior to stems and reproductive parts with regard to phenolic accumulation for all compounds tested while flowers accumulated the highest levels of hypericin. Quercitrin,quercetin and hypericin content in all tissues increased with advancing of developmental stages and reached their highest level during flower ontogenesis. Similarly, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside content in different plant parts increased during plant development, however, the highest level was observed at different stages of plant phenology for each tissue. Chlorogenic acid was not detected in stems, leaves and reproductive parts in several stages of plant phenology and its variation during plant growth showed inconsistent manner. In contrast to the other compounds examined, rutin content of stems and leaves decreased with advancing of plant development and the highest level for both tissues was observed at the vegetative stage. However,content of the same compound in reproductive parts was the highest at mature fruiting. The present findings might be useful to obtain increased concentration of these natural compounds.

  19. Preliminary Study on Kinetic Solid-Liquid Extraction and Bio-Active Components Analysis of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis or commonly known as 'Hibiscus' is a kind of decorative flowers which often grown in a subtropical countries. This plant is often used in the preparation of traditional medicine because of its pharmacological properties that are capable of treating number of health problems. The plant contains several essential bio-active substances and nutrients especially in its flowers and leaves. One of the bioactive substances is β-sitosterol which is abundant in the leaf crude extract. Hibiscus leaves water extract yielded mucilage which is widely used in lowering high body temperature due to fever (antipyretic). Therefore, the main objective of this paper was to determine the maximum concentration of mucilage and time of exhaustive extraction from fresh and dried leaves using a Peleq's mathematical model. Moreover, several analyses were conducted such as qualitative analysis to determine the presence of bioactive substances using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of functional groups by means of fourier transform infrared method (FTIR). Physical properties of the extracts were evaluated to determine its acidity and viscosity of the mucilage with respect to different shear stress. The result show that the extract of dried Hibiscus leaves exhibited high in its concentrations even though the achieved exhaustive extraction was relatively slow as compared to fresh leaves (p < 0.05). Based on the HPLC analysis, the main bio-active substances of β-sitosterol was only existed in fresh leaves samples. The absence of β-sitosterol in dried leaves extract was caused by the loss of other important bio-active substances which possess surfactant capability, due to thermal degradation of drying process or the component itself was deteriorated during the pre-preparation drying process. Furthermore, the FTIR analysis shows that the same composition of the absorption peaks for both extracts with the highest absorption of O-H bonds was

  20. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Segura-Carretero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  1. Comparison of the contents of bioactive compounds and the level of antioxidant activity in different kiwifruit cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Park, Y.S.; Leontowicz, H.; Leontowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Suhaj, M.; Cvikrová, Milena; Martincová, Olga; Weisz, M.; Gorinstein, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2011), s. 963-970. ISSN 0889-1575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Kiwifruits cultivars * Actinidia sp. * Bioactive compounds Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.079, year: 2011

  2. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

  3. Bioactivity of Piper extracts on Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferrari de Brito

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the bioactivity of ethanolic leaf extracts from four species of the genus Piper against the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae under laboratory conditions. The evaluated species were: P. amalago var. medium, P. glabratum, P. mikanianum, and P. mollicomum. In the initial screening assay (extract concentration of 2,000 mg L-1, all tested extracts caused significant larval mortality, particularly the extract of P. amalago var. medium; however, no extracts reduced the weight of the surviving larvae. The extract from P. amalago var. medium at the concentration of 1,011 mg L-1 caused a significant lengthening of the larval and pupal stages. The ethanolic leaf extract of P. amalago var. medium is promising for the control of T. absoluta larvae in tomato, since it exhibits acute toxicity toward these caterpillars at the concentration of 2,000 mg L-1 and affects the insect's development by reducing its survival and lengthening the larval and pupal stages.

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of chitosan-based edible films incorporating bioactive compounds of different molecular weight

    OpenAIRE

    Bourbon, A. I.; A.C. Pinheiro; Cerqueira, M. A.; Rocha, Cristina M. R.; Avides, Maria do Carmo; Quintas, Mafalda A. C.; Vicente, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan packaging films containing different bioactive compounds (a peptide fraction from whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysate, glycomacropeptide (GMP) and lactoferrin) were produced and their mechanical and barrier properties were evaluated. The molecular weight of protein-based compounds was determined using SDS–PAGE. The addition of GMP and lactoferrin to chitosan film caused a significant reduction of tensile strength and the elongation-at-break significantly increased ...

  5. Isolation of two new bioactive proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius herb extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qa'dan, F; Nahrstedt, A; Schmidt, M

    2011-06-01

    Two new proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin (1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) in addition to the known compound epigallocatechin-(4beta-->6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from the air-dried herb of Cistus salvifolius. The chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR-spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-3 and the water extract of C. salvifolius herb were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 2 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 followed by compound 3, compound 1 and the water extract, while compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate in vitro inhibition against COX-1. PMID:21699087

  6. The Cooking Effect on Two Edible Mushrooms in Anatolia: Fatty Acid Composition, Total Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Öztürk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking practices on the fatty acid and bioactivity of edible mushrooms; namely, Lactarius delicious and Ramaria flava, naturally growing in Anatolia were investigated. Each mushroom species was divided into two parts and one of the parts was baked. Both baked and unbaked materials were extracted with hexane and methanol, successively. The fatty acid contents of baked and unbaked extracts of both species were carried out by GC and GC-MS analytical techniques. In the unbaked extracts palmitic acid (9.7-14.43%, stearic acid (41.41-6.68%, oleic acid (25.94-47.12% and linoleic acid (22.85-9.78% were identified as major fatty acids, respectively. In the baked extracts, however, palmitic acid (7.92-19.12%, stearic acid (49.94-6.23%, oleic acid (18.07-45.13% and linoleic acid (23.36-9.25% were identified as major fatty acids, as well. The antioxidative effect of the extracts of baked and unbaked mushroom species was also determined by using four complimentary assays. In addition, the extracts and the major fatty acids were also evaluated for anticholinesterase activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s disease. The baked methanol extract of R. flava showed the highest activity in DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging and BChE assays, while the unbaked hexane extract of R. flava exhibited the best lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In conclusion, baking proved to have influence in nutritional values and bioactivity properties of L. delicious and R. flava. The nutrient concentration and bioactivities of L. delicious were decreased when baked; however, baked R. flava proved to have higher nutrient concentrations and higher bioactivities than unbaked samples.

  7. Molecular docking of the anticancer bioactive compound proceraside with macromolecules involved in the cell cycle and DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, A B; Ali, M A; Bhattacharjee, A; AbulFarah, M; Al-Hemaid, F; Abou-Tarboush, F M; Al-Anazi, K M; Al-Anazi, F S M; Lee, J

    2016-01-01

    The bioactive compounds proceraside A, frugoside and calotropin, which were extracted from the root bark of Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton (family Asclepiadaceae), were recently reported to inhibit the growth of inhibition against various human cancer cell lines in vitro. However, their modes of action have not been clearly defined. Therefore, we attempted an in silico approach to gain insights into their binding modes against the following selected molecular targets: CDK-2, CDK-6, topoisomerase I, BCL-2, VEGFR-2, telomere: G-quadruplex, and topoisomerase II. These targets were selected based on their key roles in cancer progression via the regulation of the cell cycle and DNA replication. Molecular-docking analyses revealed that proceraside A was the best docked ligand against all the targets, with the exception of telomere-G: quadruplex. Furthermore, it displayed the lowest binding energies and inhibition constants, and critical hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with the targets were also revealed. The present study may aid in the identification of possible targets for proceraside A, and might provide a plausible explanation for its proven anti-tumor activities. Moreover, the result of this study may further guide structure-activity relationship studies used to generate more potent target-specific inhibitors. PMID:27173346

  8. Cooking techniques improve the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity in kale and red cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murador, Daniella Carisa; Mercadante, Adriana Zerlotti; de Rosso, Veridiana Vera

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different home cooking techniques (boiling, steaming, and stir-frying) in kale and red cabbage, on the levels of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins and phenolic compounds) determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)), and on the antioxidant activity evaluated by ABTS, ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The steaming technique resulted in a significant increase in phenolic content in kale (86.1%; p<0.001) whereas in red cabbage it was significantly reduced (34.6%; p<0.001). In the kale, steaming resulted in significant increases in antioxidant activity levels in all of the evaluation methods. In the red cabbage, boiling resulted in a significant increase in antioxidant activity using the ABTS assay but resulted in a significant decrease using the ORAC assay. According to the CAA assay, the stir-fried sample displayed the highest levels of antioxidant activity. PMID:26593594

  9. Bioactive compounds and sensory quality of black and white mulberries grown in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Martínez-Nicolás, Juan José; Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; Legua, Pilar; Hernández, Francisca

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare, for the first time, white and black mulberry species in terms of main phytochemical, volatile composition and sensory profile characteristics in eight Spanish clones. The results showed that black and white mulberry species displayed significant different characteristics. PLS analysis has allowed grouping of the clones into four groups (i) MA1, MA2 and MN2, (ii) MN3 and MN4, (iii) MA3 and MA4, and (iv) MN1. Experimental results proved that Spanish mulberries have potential for fresh consumption due to their high antioxidant capacity (10.7-86.1 mg Trolox 100 g(-1)), polyphenol (76.7-180 mg gallic acid 100 g(-1)) and ellagic acid content (8.7-15.5 mg 100 g(-1)) as well as considerable amount of volatile compounds (35) with desirable attributes, which were scored high by a trained panel. Cultivars from the Morus nigra species seem to provide fruits with higher content of bioactive compounds and better aptitude for fresh consumption than Morus alba. Differences among the species should be attributed to genetics because they were cultivated under same conditions. PMID:23979495

  10. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM. PMID:26879600

  11. Salinity effect on nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of Cichorium spinosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Levizou, Efi; Ntatsi, Georgia; Fernandes, Ângela; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Akoumianakis, Konstantinos; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization is an increasing problem for many areas throughout the world that renders prohibitive vegetables and crop production in general. In the present study, Cichorium spinosum L. plants were grown under saline conditions in order to evaluate chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of their leaves. Salinity increase resulted in significant changes of macro and micro-nutrients content (nutritional value, sugars, fatty acids, minerals, ascorbic acid and tocopherols), whereas the concentration of phenolic compounds was not significantly affected. Chicoric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids. In contrast, antioxidant activity and mineral composition were beneficially affected by mid-to-high and high salinity levels. In conclusion, C. spinosum can be cultivated under saline conditions without compromising the quality of the final product, especially in semi-arid areas where irrigation water is scarce and/or of low quality due to high content of NaCl (coastal areas or areas where underground water is saline). PMID:27507457

  12. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed. PMID:27041291

  13. Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor: A New Technology for Biotreatment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compound

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    F. Ghorbani Shahna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological treatment is a new established technology for the air pollutants. This technology can be an alternative for physical and chemical treatment methods. Among bioreators, the Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor (BFER is a new alternative that has not the problems of the conventional ones. In this reactor bed clogging in the conventional bioreactor was resolved by bioactive foam as a substitute of packing bed. The pollutant absorption has been increased using biocompatible organic phase in liquid .This reactor can be used for higher inlet toluene concentration. The objective of this study was designing and optimizing the operational parameters of BFER for toluene treatment.Materials & Methods: In the first step of this experimental-analytic study, the toluene degradation microorganisms were identified, extracted and concentrated for injection to bioreactor. Then the effect of several parameters such as Kind and concentration of organic phase,and residence time oxygen content on bioreactor performance were studied and the optimum conditions were selected for continuous operation. The continuous operation of bioreactor was monitored at the optimum conditions.Results: Experimental results showed that the residence time of 15s, oxygen content of 40%, and the 4 % (v/v n-hexadecane as organic phase were the optimum conditions. The average elimination capacity (EC and removal efficiency of bioreactor were 231.68 g/m3h and 88.44% respectively for the inlet concentration about of 1 g/m3. The statistical developed model predicted that the maximum EC of this reactor could reach to 426.21 g/m3h.Conclusion: Since the elimination capacity of this reactor is several times more than the other bioreactors, it has the potential to be applied instead of biofilters and biotrickling filters.

  14. Metanolic extract of Malpighia emarginata bagasse: phenolic compounds and inhibitory potential on digestive enzymes

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    Tamara R. Marques

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adding value to fruit residues is of great interest, since they can be presented as a viable solution in search of new drugs for the treatment of obesity and related diseases, due to bioactive substances, especially phenolic compounds. Thus, the objective of this study was to prepare the methanol extract of acerola bagasse flour, in order to evaluate its potential as a source of inhibitors of the enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase and trypsin, and determine the content of phenolic compounds by high performance liquid chromatography. Enzymatic inhibition assays were conducted in the presence or absence of simulated gastric fluid. In the methanol extract of acerola bagasse flour, the following phenolic compounds were identified: gallic acid, syringic and p-coumaric acid, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin and quercetin; epicatechin was the major compound. In the absence of gastric fluid, simulated enzymes had a variable inhibition of the acerola bagasse flour extract, except for lipase, which was not inhibited. In the presence of simulated gastric fluid, there was an inhibition of 170.08 IEU (Inhibited Enzyme Unit in µmol min−1 g−1 for α-amylase and 69.29 IEU for α-glucosidase, indicating that this extract shows potential as an adjuvant in the treatment of obesity and other dyslipidemia.

  15. Search for Hydrophilic Marine Fungal Metabolites: A Rational Approach for Their Production and Extraction in a Bioactivity Screening Context

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    Jean-François Biard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the search for bioactive natural products, our lab screens hydrophobic extracts from marine fungal strains. While hydrophilic active substances were recently identified from marine macro-organisms, there was a lack of reported metabolites in the marine fungi area. As such, we decided to develop a general procedure for screening of hydrophobic metabolites. The aim of this study was to compare different processes of fermentation and extraction, using six representative marine fungal strains, in order to define the optimized method for production. The parameters studied were (a which polar solvent to select, (b which fermentation method to choose between solid and liquid cultures, (c which raw material, the mycelium or its medium, to extract and (d which extraction process to apply. The biochemical analysis and biological evaluations of obtained extracts led to the conclusion that the culture of marine fungi by agar surface fermentation followed by the separate extraction of the mycelium and its medium by a cryo-crushing and an enzymatic digestion with agarase, respectively, was the best procedure when screening for hydrophilic bioactive metabolites. During this development, several bioactivities were detected, confirming the potential of hydrophilic crude extracts in the search for bioactive natural products.

  16. Inhibition of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus by phenolic compounds extracted of Piper betle L.

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    Darab Yazdani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Food contamination by aflatoxins is an important food safety concern for agricultural products. In order to identify and develop novel antifungal agents, several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been evaluated for their bioactivities. Anti-infectious activity of Piper betle used in traditional medicine of Malaysia has been reported previously.Crude methanol extract from P. betel powdered leaves was partitioned between chloroform and water. The fractions were tested against A. flavus UPMC 89, a strong aflatoxin producing strain. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin biosynthesis were tested by disk diffusion and macrodillution techniques, respectively. The presence of aflatoxin was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC and fluorescence spectroscopy techniques using AFB1 standard. The chloroform soluble compounds were identified using HPLC-Tandem mass spectrometry technique.The results, evaluated by measuring the mycelial growth and quantification of aflatoxin B1(AFLB1 production in broth medium revealed that chloroform soluble compounds extract from P. betle dried leaves was able to block the aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway at concentration of 500μg/ml without a significant effect on mycelium growth. In analyzing of this effective fractions using HPLC-MS(2 with ESI ionization technique, 11 phenolic compounds were identified.The results showed that the certain phenolic compounds are able to decline the aflatoxin production in A. flavus with no significant effect on the fungus mycelia growth. The result also suggested P. betle could be used as potential antitoxin product.

  17. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez; Patricia Garcia-Salas; Aranzazu Morales-Soto

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but ...

  18. AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (MILLER SWINGLE: A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

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    Ângelo Luís,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ailanthus altissima (Miller Swingle is a tree used in Chinese traditional medicine as a bitter aromatic drug and in the treatment of colds and gastric diseases. Previous phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of quassinoids in the plant, as well as indole alkaloids. The purpose of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, and total alkaloid contents of the ethanolic, methanolic, acetone, and hydroalcoholic crude extracts of A. altissima and then try to correlate them with antioxidant activity of corresponding extracts. Moreover, the phenolic compounds present in the extracts were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Extracts from leaves have greater phenolic content than the other parts of this tree. Concerning the extraction process, it is possible to conclude that the mixture of water and ethanol is the best solvent to extract substances with antioxidant activity. Analysis by RP-HPLC showed that ferulic acid was the most dominant hydroxycinnamic acid, with an occurrence percentage of 25.59%. These results presented a positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of all the extracts.

  19. Microbial Transformation of Bioactive Compounds and Production of ortho-Dihydroxyisoflavones and Glycitein from Natural Fermented Soybean Paste

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    Changhyun Roh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds.

  20. Extraction and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Rose Hip (Rosa canina L.) Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Stănilă, Andreea; Diaconeasa, Zoriţa; Roman, Ioana; Nicușor SIMA; Dănuț MĂNIUȚIU; Alin ROMAN; Rodica SIMA

    2015-01-01

    Wild berry are a rich of natural compounds which provide them high antioxidant potential. The compounds which provide them these proprieties are known to be vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize bioactive compounds from rose hip (Rosa canina L.) currently found in Romania. A qualitative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS) detection in positive ion mode has...

  1. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and HPLC Determination of Bioactive Compound That Relate to the Antiplatelet Activity (Adhesion, Secretion, and Aggregation from Solanum lycopersicum

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    Eduardo Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In seeking the functionality of foodstuff applicable to medicine, ripe tomato fruits were found to show an antiplatelet activity. Therefore, the bioactive compound was isolated, structurally identified, and studied for an inhibitory effects on platelet adhesion, secretion, and aggregation. The concentration of adenosine in ripe tomato fruits (pulp and skin extracts and its processing by-products (paste and pomace was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. According to platelet aggregation inhibition induced by ADP, the total extract residual was fractionated by liquid-liquid separation, obtaining aqueous, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. The aqueous extract was subjected to repeated permeation over sephadex LH-20 and semipreparative TLC. The isolate finally obtained was identified as adenosine on the basis of ESI-MS, 1H NMR, HPLC, and UV spectra. Adenosine concentration dependently (2.3–457 μM platelet aggregation inhibited induced by ADP. Also, adenosine present inhibition of platelet secretion and thrombus formation under flow conditions. The quantitative HPLC analysis revealed significant amounts of adenosine in ripe tomato fruits and its processing by-products. From these results, extracts/fractions of ripe tomato fruits and their processing by-products may be referred to as functional food and functional ingredients containing a compound that inhibits platelet function with a potent preventive effect on thrombus formation, as those that occur in stroke.

  2. Bioactivity of non-edible oil seed extracts and purified extracts against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Pushpa; Joseph, Mary; Tungikar, Vijay; Joshi, Swati

    2004-01-01

    Extracts and purified extracts of seeds of two plant species, Madhuca latifolia and Calophyllum inophyllum when evaluated against the 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera reared on synthetic diet, exhibited high larval mortality, prolongation of developmental period, morphological deformities and highly significant reduction in adult emergence. The reduction in larval weights in the treatments was also highly significant. PMID:15274488

  3. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

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    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  4. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

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    Kim Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell survival by anticancer agents has been shown to correlate with tumor response. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence; the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to various anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell survival and proliferating signaling molecules. As a new therapeutic strategy, alternative types of cell death might be exploited to control and eradicate cancer cells. This review discusses the signaling of apoptosis and cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of marine bioactive compounds, suggesting that new therapeutic strategies might follow.

  5. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. PMID:25993418

  6. Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder

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    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm, color (L*, a*, b*, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k and activation energies (Ea were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the −0.0188 to −0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of −0.0122 to −0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products.

  7. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

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    Edmundo Juarez-Enriquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake.

  8. Microencapsulation of lipophilic bioactive compounds using prebiotic carbohydrates: Effect of the degree of inulin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Keven; Zabot, Giovani L; Bargas, Matheus A; Meireles, M Angela A

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel outcomes about the effect of degree of inulin polymerization (DP) on the technological properties of annatto seed oil powder obtained by freeze-drying. Inulins with two DP's were evaluated: GR-inulin (DP≥10) and HP-inulin (DP≥23). Micrographs obtained by confocal microscopy were analyzed to confirm the encapsulation of bioactive compounds using both inulins, especially the encapsulation of the natural fluorescent substance δ-tocotrienol. Microparticles formed with both inulins presented the same capacity for geranylgeraniol retention (77%). Glass transitions of microparticles formed with GR-inulin and HP-inulin succeeded at 144°C and 169°C, respectively. Regarding water adsorption isotherms, microparticles formed with HP-inulin and GR-inulin presented behaviors of Types II (sigmoidal) and III (non-sigmoidal), respectively. Reduction of water adsorption capacity in the matrix at high relative moistures (>70%) was presented when HP-inulin was used. At low relative moistures (<30%), the opposite behavior was observed. PMID:27516329

  9. Microbial Communities and Bioactive Compounds in Marine Sponges of the Family Irciniidae—A Review

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    Cristiane C. P. Hardoim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges harbour complex microbial communities of ecological and biotechnological importance. Here, we propose the application of the widespread sponge family Irciniidae as an appropriate model in microbiology and biochemistry research. Half a gram of one Irciniidae specimen hosts hundreds of bacterial species—the vast majority of which are difficult to cultivate—and dozens of fungal and archaeal species. The structure of these symbiont assemblages is shaped by the sponge host and is highly stable over space and time. Two types of quorum-sensing molecules have been detected in these animals, hinting at microbe-microbe and host-microbe signalling being important processes governing the dynamics of the Irciniidae holobiont. Irciniids are vulnerable to disease outbreaks, and concerns have emerged about their conservation in a changing climate. They are nevertheless amenable to mariculture and laboratory maintenance, being attractive targets for metabolite harvesting and experimental biology endeavours. Several bioactive terpenoids and polyketides have been retrieved from Irciniidae sponges, but the actual producer (host or symbiont of these compounds has rarely been clarified. To tackle this, and further pertinent questions concerning the functioning, resilience and physiology of these organisms, truly multi-layered approaches integrating cutting-edge microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and zoology research are needed.

  10. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers. PMID:27139188

  11. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers. PMID:27139188

  12. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  13. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  14. Antidepressant effect of bioactive compounds from Paecilomyces tenuipes in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Kan; Liang Ming; Chunru Li; Hongxing Kan; Bei Sun; Yan Liang

    2010-01-01

    A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes(BCPT)has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A(MAO-A)in vitro.Researchers have thought that BCPT may be a potential antidepressant.The MAO-A suppressor moclobemide served as a control,and this study investigated the mechanisms of BCPT as an antidepressant.Results demonstrated that BCPT induced significantly increased sucrose intake in chronic unpredictable stressed rats,shortened immobility time in forced swimming mice,improved the scores of blepharoptosis and akinesia in reserpine-treated mice,increased the number of 5-hydroxy tryptophan-induced head-twitches,remarkably enhanced the expression of hippocampus mineralcorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA,decreased the ratio of mineralcorticoid receptor to glucocorticoid receptor and raised the levels of dopamine,norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine,while decreasing hydroxyindole acetic acid levels or dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid in chronic unpredictable stressed rats.Behavioral test results suggested that BCPT potentially had antidepressant-like activity.Meanwhile,BCPT increased the levels of neurotransmitters,and mineralcorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the hippocampus,which may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  15. Physicochemical Parameters and Bioactive Compounds of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L. Honey

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    Pablo A. Ulloa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical origin, physicochemical properties (ash, colour, diastase activity, electrical conductivity (EC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, moisture, optical rotation (OP, pH, reducing sugars, total acidity, total soluble solids, and water activity, bioactive compounds (BC, and antioxidant activity obtained from strawberry tree honey from South Portugal were investigated. Results showed that the pollen analysis and physicochemical parameters were found within to meet international honey specifications. Significant differences (P<0.05 in results of ash content, EC, HMF, OP and colour when were compared with analogous famous Italian honey (Sardinia island. For BC, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were 94.47 mg gallic acid/100 g and 5.33 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. Concerning Portuguese honey, it was also found that radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay was 43.46% and antioxidant activity was 18.85 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g and 9.92 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g. These results confirmed that Portuguese strawberry tree honey has the highest antioxidant activity, when compared with other kinds of honey. This complete report demonstrates advantages and can help to promote consumption and shown their benefical properties (e.g., antioxidant; which will may increase the commercial value.

  16. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

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    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  17. Bioactive extracts and chemical constituents of two endophytic strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa M. do Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl acetate extracts of cultures grown in liquid Czapek and on solid rice media of the fungal endophyte Fusarium oxysporum SS46 isolated from the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob., Asteraceae, exhibited considerable cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against human cancer cells. Chromatographic separation yielded anhydrofusarubin (1 and beauvericin (2 that were identified based on their ¹H and 13C NMR data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed the strongest cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines. Compound 2 also showed promising activity against Leishmania braziliensis. Hexanic extract of F. oxysporum SS50 grown on solid rice media also afforded a mixture of compounds that displayed cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines. Chemical analysis of the mixture of compounds, investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, showed that there was a predominance of methyl esters of fatty acids and alkanes.

  18. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

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    Clara Grosso

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered.

  19. Alternative and Efficient Extraction Methods for Marine-Derived Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems cover more than 70% of the globe’s surface. These habitats are occupied by a great diversity of marine organisms that produce highly structural diverse metabolites as a defense mechanism. In the last decades, these metabolites have been extracted and isolated in order to test them in different bioassays and assess their potential to fight human diseases. Since traditional extraction techniques are both solvent- and time-consuming, this review emphasizes alternative extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field-assisted extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and extraction with switchable solvents and ionic liquids, applied in the search for marine compounds. Only studies published in the 21st century are considered. PMID:26006714

  20. Electrostatic extrusion as a dispersion technique for encapsulation of cells and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant development of cells and bioactive compound encapsulation technologies is taking place due to an exceptional possibility of their application in various scientific disciplines, including biomedicine, pharmacy, cosmetology, food and agricultural sciences, beverage production, industrial waste treatment. Despite the broad application of microencapsulation, the literature reviews on dispersion techniques for microcapsule/microbead production, their advantages, restrictions and drawbacks are scarce. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibilities of electrostatic extrusion for encapsulation of biological material, including living cells in hydrogel microbeads. The paper presents an overview of the mechanisms of droplet formation and controlling experimental parameters for producing microbeads by means of electrostatic extrusion. Electrostatic droplet formation utilizes a special type of physical process taking advantage of electrostatic effects occurring in flowing conductive liquids after introduction of an electric field.When an electrostatic field is applied to the metal needle and an electric charge is induced in the liquid flowing out of the needle, the size of droplet detaching from the needle tip decreases as a funcion of applied electrostatic field. It has been shown that few parameters affect microbead size: applied voltage, electrode geometry, needle size, polarity arrangement and polymer concentration. The electrostatic droplet formation is one of the most precise methods, which enables one to produce spherical and uniform particles ranging from 100 μm up to 1000 μm. Most of the authors report that the encapsulated compounds (drugs, enzymes and living cells remain unaltered after electrostatic extrusion. This technique seems to be particularly promising in biotechnology, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, where a low-temperature process, preserving heat-sensitive material is a prerequisite. Future efforts in

  1. Bioactivity guided isolation of the antifungal components in sawdust extracts of Piptadeniatrum africanum, and Terminalia ivorensis

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    Olajuyigbe A.O

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antifungal activities of extracts from fresh sawdust of Piptadeniatrum africanum,and Terminalia ivorensis was determined using the agar well diffusion method. Aqueous, methanol, chloroform,and n-hexane extracts obtained from the sawdust samples were tested against fungi isolated from some decayed wood samples.Methodology and Results: Fungal isolates included: Aspergillus. niger, Aspergillus. flavus, Aspergillus. fumigates, Aspergillus. wentii, Aspergillus. tamari, and Penicillium. chrysogenum (please write the microorganisms’ name in full when first time introducing them. Results of inhibitory activities showed that the chloroform extracts showed the highest inhibitory abilities with zones of inhibition ranging from 14 mm-24 mm for P. africanum, and 11 mm-15 mm for T. ivorensis. However, the aqueous extracts exhibited the least antifungal activity with zones of inhibition ranging between 10 mm-13 mm and 8 mm-11 mm respectively.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The major secondary plant metabolites identified are alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthraglycosides, arbutin, glycosides, flavonoids, phenolics, saponins, coumarins and valepotriates. The antifungal components in P. africanum were identified to be 3, 7, 8, 3'–Tetramethoxy-6–C-methyl-5, 4'–dihydroxyflavone and 3–methoxy–6–C–methyl–3',4',5,7,8–pentahydroxyflavone while Terminalia ivorensis contained 5,7,8-Trihydroxy-2′5′-methoxy-3′,4′-methylenedioxyisoflavanone as the bioactive component.

  2. Bioactive chemicals from carrot (Daucus carota) juice extracts for the treatment of leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaini, Rana; Clench, Malcolm R; Le Maitre, Christine L

    2011-11-01

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that consumption of fruits and vegetables with antioxidant properties correlates with reduced risk for cancers, including leukemia. Carrots contain beneficial agents, such as β-carotene and polyacetylenes, which could be effective in the treatment of leukemia. This study investigated the effect of carrot juice extracts on myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cell lines together with normal hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia cell lines and nontumor control cells were treated with carrot juice extracts for up to 72 hours in vitro. Induction of apoptosis was investigated by using annexin V/propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometric analysis, and results were confirmed by using 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole morphology. Effects on cellular proliferation were investigated via cell cycle analysis and cell counts. Treatment of leukemia cell lines with carrot juice extract induced apoptosis and inhibited progression through the cell cycle. Lymphoid cell lines were affected to a greater extent than were myeloid cell lines, and normal hematopoietic stem cells were less sensitive than most cell lines. This study has shown that extracts from carrots can induce apoptosis and cause cell cycle arrest in leukemia cell lines. The findings suggest that carrots may be an excellent source of bioactive chemicals for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:21864090

  3. Bioactivities and Iridoid Determination of a Beverage Containing Noni, Cornelian Cherries and Olive Leaf Extract

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    Chen X. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the iridoid content, as well as the in vitro and in vivo bioactivities, of a beverage containing noni fruit, Cornelian cherries, and olive leaf extract (Thrive Adaptogenics Max. The average total iridoid content of the beverage was 2.09 mg/mL. The major iridoids present were identified as asperulosidic acid, deacetylasperulosidic acid, oleuropein, morroniside, loganic acid, and loganin. In the 2, 2-Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assay, remarkably high in vitro antioxidant activity was observed, with an IC50 of 3.8 :L/mL. In vivo bioactivities were evaluated in type 2 diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a dose-dependent manner, Thrive Adaptogenics Max reduced abnormal weight gain, blood glucose levels, and serum Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs, as well as improved immunity via increased T cell counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratios. These results suggest that this blend of ingredients is beneficial for improving and maintaining health in the general population, as well as among those with metabolic imbalance.

  4. Effect of barrier properties of zein colloidal particles and oil-in-water emulsions on oxidative stability of encapsulated bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidation of encapsulated bioactive compounds is a key challenge that limits shelf-life of bioactive containing products. The objectives of this study were to compare differences between the oxidative barrier properties of biopolymer particle based encapsulation system (zein colloidal particles) and...

  5. Structural and synthetic studies of bioactive natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Heltzel, Carl E.

    1993-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation for anticancer agents from natural resources, four plant extracts were determined to contain interesting bioactivity. These extracts were separated by chromatography to afford a number of bioactive compounds that were characterized by spectral analysis. Fractionation of the fruit extract of Cryptocarya crassifolia led to the isolation of two known flavonoids and two known cryptocaryalactones. Fractionation of the bark extract of the same plant also g...

  6. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Lignin of Empty Bunch Palm Fiber and Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

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    M. Prayuwidayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of bioactive compounds isolated from purified lignin formacell (PLF of empty bunch palm fiber as natural antimicrobes and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation. The first experiment was inhibition test of 11 bioactive compounds isolated from PLF, using disc diffusion method against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the most potential bioactive compounds were then used in the second experiment, which was an in vitro test using fresh rumen liquid of Ongole grade beef cattle, to study their effects on rumen fermentation. Six treatments with 3 replications were applied in a completely randomized block (CRB design. The treatments were R0= 0.5 g basal diet; R1= R0 + 0.3 mg Rumensin®; R2= R0 + 0.3 mg syringaldehyde; R3= R0 + 0.3 mg p-hydroxybenzoic acid; R4= R0 + 0.3 mg m-hydroxybenzoic acid; and R5= R0 + 0.3 mg oxybenzene. Isolate fraction of CC-2 (syringaldehyde, CC-3 (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, VLC-5 (oxybenzene, and VLC-9 (p-hydroxybenzoic acid exhibited antimicrobes activity against all tested bacteria. Other isolated fractions exhibited antimicrobes activity only against 1 or 2 tested bacteria. The use of syringaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, and oxybenzene improved ammonia concentration, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrients digestibility. Bioactive compounds had no effect on rumen pH but reduced total VFA concentration as well as the estimate of methane production.

  7. Exploiting natural factors in greenhouses to stimulate plants’ defences and the concentration in bioactive compounds of fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Laurent; Aarrouf, Jawad; Nicot, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Many secondary metabolites, such as carotenoids, flavonoids, glucosinolates, contribute to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. It has been repeatedly observed that environmental factors can be used as a powerful lever, besides genetic factors, to increase the concentrations in bioactive compounds of fruits and vegetables. More specifically, it has been observed in a large range of vegetables, including lettuce, pepper, tomato, and strawberry, that high light intensity, red and UV li...

  8. Bioactive Compounds Screening from Zingiberaceae Family as Influenza A/Swine Flu Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor through Docking Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Usman S. F.; Fadilah; Parikesit, Arli A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Influenza A/H1N1 is a disease caused by infection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. This virus constantly mutates and consequently will be developed into new drug-resistant strains. Approach: In this research, we have conducted docking study to screen bioactive compounds from Zingiberaceae family, which has a role as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza a virus. Results: The docking res...

  9. Traceability of Functional Bioactive Compounds in Fresh and Pasteurized Milk Obtained from Goats Fed with Orange Pulp

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    Maria Simona Chiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products (Prache et al, 2002. In this work, were studied the bioactive compounds (total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E and antioxidant activity of goat fresh milk and pasteurized one. The goats were fed with a standard diet (control diet and then with a diet that incorporates orange pulp. The control diet (CD corresponded with a standard ration (a ration wich provide the energetic and proteic values, daily food for milking animals. From that ration, the Department of Animal Science, from Politechnic University of Valencia replaced the different proportions of the ingredients for incorporating orange pulp diet (OPD. The results of the present study show that the citrus pulp silage mixture used can be fed to goats without any negative effects on the performance of the animals. Results of this study indicate that citrus pulp silage can replace part of the conventional ration of goats, thus lowering the cost of production. The first aim of this study was to compare the two types of goat diets: a standard diet and a diet with orange pulp, by analyzing the bioactive compounds in fresh and pasteurized milk. The results demonstrate that all the bioactive compounds are bigger in the orange pulp diet than in the control diet. The second objective of this study was to analyze the bioavailability and traceability of bioactive compounds in fresh milk. 

  10. Traceability of Functional Bioactive Compounds in Fresh and Pasteurized Milk Obtained from Goats Fed with Orange Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Simona Chiş; Sevastiţa Muste; Maria Del Mar Camacho Vidal

    2015-01-01

    Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products (Prache et al, 2002). In this work, were studied the bioactive compounds (total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E) and antioxidant activ...

  11. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. PMID:26988472

  12. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  13. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiba N. Rajha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12% than the wet extract (39.8%. The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  14. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality. PMID:26139918

  15. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808

  16. Antiaggregation Potential of Padina gymnospora against the Toxic Alzheimer's Beta-Amyloid Peptide 25-35 and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Its Bioactive Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation in the cerebral cortex of the brain is a promising therapeutic and defensive strategy in identification of disease modifying agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Since natural products are considered as the current alternative trend for the discovery of AD drugs, the present study aims at the evaluation of anti-amyloidogenic potential of the marine seaweed Padina gymnospora. Prevention of aggregation and disaggregation of the mature fibril formation of Aβ 25-35 by acetone extracts of P. gymnospora (ACTPG was evaluated in two phases by Thioflavin T assay. The results were further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The results of antiaggregation and disaggregation assay showed that the increase in fluorescence intensity of aggregated Aβ and the co-treatment of ACTPG (250 μg/ml with Aβ 25-35, an extensive decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed in both phases, which suggests that ACTPG prevents the oligomers formation and disaggregation of mature fibrils. In addition, ACTPG was subjected to column chromatography and the bioactivity was screened based on the cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Finally, the active fraction was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the bioactive compound alpha bisabolol present in the alga might be responsible for the observed cholinesterase inhibition with the IC50 value < 10 μg/ml for both AChE and BuChE when compared to standard drug donepezil (IC50 value < 6 μg/ml and support its use for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  17. Bioactivity-guided isolation of new antiproliferative compounds from Juniperus foetidissima Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood; Suleimani Dehkordi, Ibrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Syed Majid, Ayatollahi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Based on a literature survey on cytotoxic medicinal plants, Juniper species were identified as interesting source of antitumor compounds. Using bioassay-guided fractionation against Caov-4 cancer cells on acetone extract of leaves and branchlets of Juniperus foetidissima led to the isolation of a new 3H-benzofuaran-2-one: 4-methyl-3-methoxy-3H-benzofuaran-2-one (1), a new sesquiterpene: 4,9(α)-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en (2) and an already known labdane-type diterpene: 15-hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxilic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxic effects, with moderate cytotoxicity against the EJ-138 bladder and CAOV-4 ovary cancer cell lines. PMID:26506268

  18. Bioactive phytochemicals in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds. Among plant foods, flaxseed has the highest content of lignans, mainly in the form of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Flaxseed oil also has a very high concentration of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). This thesis presents studies on both SDG and ALA. An HPLC method for quantification of SDG in hydrolysed flaxseed extracts was developed and used to compare the SDG content in ...

  19. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xueping; Tang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb). Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 10⁵ Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents. PMID:27213369

  20. Extraction Optimization, Preliminary Characterization and Bioactivities in Vitro of Ligularia hodgsonii Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Song

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimization extraction, preliminary characterization and bioactivities of Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides were investigated. Based on single-factor experiments and orthogonal array test, the optimum extraction conditions were obtained as follows: extraction time 3 h, temperature 85 °C, water/raw material ratio 36. Further Sevag deproteinization and dialysis yielded the dialyzed Ligularia hodgsonii polysaccharides (DLHP, 19.2 ± 1.4 mg/g crude herb. Compositional analysis, size-exclusion chromatography connected with multi-angle laser light-scattering and refractive index (SEC-MALLS-RI, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy were employed for characterization of the polysaccharides. DLHP was found to have a major component with a weight-average molecular weight of 1.17 × 105 Da, mainly comprising of glucose, galactose, arabinose, mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid. By in vitro antioxidant activity assays, DLHP presented remarkable scavenging capacities towards 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and ferrous ions chelating ability. Moreover, it exhibited appreciable anti-hyperglycemic activity as demonstrated by differential inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. The results indicated that DLHP could potentially be a resource for antioxidant and hypoglycemic agents.

  1. Bioactive compounds from Paecilomyces tenuipes regulating the function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system axis in chronic unpredictable stress rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan-yan; MING Liang; ZHENG Li-fang; KAN Hong-wei; LI Chun-ru; LI Wei-ping

    2007-01-01

    Background A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes (BGPT) has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in vitro and in vivo, which indicates BCPT may be a potential antidepressant. In this study we aimed to study the antidepressant effects of BCPT in the chronic unpredictable stress(CUS) model in rats and explore underlying mechanisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.Methods The antidepressant effects of BCPT were studied in the chronic unpredictable stress model in rats. Animals were housed isolated, except the control group. Rats were exposed daily to different random stressors from day 1 to 21.Awarding response was detected by calculating the 24-hour consumption of sucrose water. Cortisol (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH) contents in serum and arginine vasopressin (AVP) contents in the pituitary body were detected by radio immunoassays. Total RNA of hippocampus or hypothalamus was extracted and subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the measurement of corticotrophin releasing hormone(CRH) mRNA or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test.Results Chronic unpredictable stress resulted in reduction of sensitivity to reward and abnormality in the HPA axis in the animal model. BCPT improved the reward reaction as measured by increasing sucrose consumption, remarkably reduced serum CORT and ACTH levels and the AVP content in the pituitary body in the CUS-treated rats, decreased the expression of CRH mRNA, enhanced the expression of hippocampus MR mRNA, GR mRNA and decreased the ratio of MR/GR.Conclusions BCPT has potentially antidepressant-like activity and normalized the HPA axis hyperactivity in a CUS model of depression in rats. This may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  2. Extraction of interesting organic compounds from olive oil waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez, Ana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the olive fruits there is a large amount of bioactive compounds and substances of high interest. Many of them are known by owing health beneficial properties that contribute to protective effect of the virgin olive oil. During olive oil processing, most of them remain in the olive oil wastes. Although, olive-mill wastewater (OMWW or “alpechin”, olive oil cake (OOC, and the new by-product, known as “alperujo” in Spain and generated by the two-phase extraction process, represent a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem for the industry, they are also promising source of substances of high value. This review summarises the last knowledge on the utilisation of residual products, with more than 90 references including articles and patents, which are promising with regard to future application. All these investigations have been classified into two options, the recovery of valuable natural constituents and the bioconversion into useful products.Existe una gran cantidad de compuestos bioactivos y de alto interés presentes en la aceituna. Muchos de ellos se conocen por las cualidades beneficiosas que aportan al aceite de oliva virgen. La mayoría permanecen en mayor cantidad en el subproducto de la extracción del aceite. Aunque, el alpechín, el orujo y el nuevo subproducto de extracción del aceite en dos fases, alperujo, representan un problema potencial de vertido y contaminación, también son una prometedora fuente de compuestos de alto valor. Esta revisión resume lo último que se conoce sobre la utilización de estos residuos en el campo anteriormente mencionado, con más de 90 referencias que incluyen artículos y patentes. Todas estas investigaciones han sido clasificadas en cuanto a la recuperación de constituyentes naturalmente presentes o en cuanto a la bioconversión de los residuos en sustancias de interés.

  3. Extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa using microwave and ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    İNCE, Alev Emine; ŞAHİN, Serpil; ŞÜMNÜ, Servet Gülüm

    2013-01-01

    In this study, extraction of phenolic compounds from melissa by microwave and ultrasound was studied. In both the microwave and ultrasound extractions, the effects of extraction time (5-20 min for microwave; 5-30 min for ultrasound) and solid-to-solvent ratio (1:10, 1:20, and 1:30 g mL-1) on total phenolic content (TPC) were investigated. Effects of different powers (50% and 80%) were also studied for the ultrasound extraction. As a solvent, water was used. In microwave extractions, the highe...

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  5. Antifungal Activity of Extractable Conifer Heartwood Compounds Toward Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western redcedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper, ...

  6. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  7. EMBARGO 12 MESES ABRIL 2016 Assessment of total (free and bound) phenolic compounds in spent coffee extracts

    OpenAIRE

    CID, C; Peña, M. P.; Irigoyen, A; Ludwig, I.A. (Iziar A.); Monente, C. (Carmen)

    2015-01-01

    Spent coffee is the main byproduct of the brewing process and a potential source of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic acids easily extracted with water. Free and bound caffeoylquinic (3-CQA, 4-CQA, 5-CQA), dicaffeoylquinic (3,4-diCQA, 3,5-diCQA, 4,5-diCQA), caffeic, ferulic, p-coumaric, sinapic, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were measured by HPLC, after the application of three treatments (alkaline, acid, saline) to spent coffee extracts. Around 2-fold higher content of total phenolics has be...

  8. Profile of bioactive compounds from grape pomace (Vitis vinifera and Vitis labrusca) by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L F; Ribani, R H; Francisco, T M G; Soares, A A; Pontarolo, R; Haminiuk, C W I

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to characterize grape pomace (GP) from winemaking byproducts of different grape samples (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS; Merlot-ME; Mix composed of 65% Bordeaux, 25% Isabel and 10% BRS Violet-MI and Terci-TE) with a view to exploiting its potential as a source of bioactive compounds and an alternative to the reuse of waste. Bioactive compounds such as individual phenolic compounds and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were identified and quantified by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and spectral analyses. The sample of MI had the highest concentrations for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids, while TE had the highest content for total monomeric anthocyanins. For all samples it was possible to identify 13 different anthocyanins by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Moreover, the GP samples showed phenolic acids; flavan-3-ols such as catechin; flavonols such as quercetin, rutin and kaempferol; and stilbenes such as trans-resveratrol. Therefore, grape pomace can be considered a source for the recovery of phenolic compounds having antioxidant activity as well as a rich source of PUFA. Thus it can be used as an ingredient in the development of new food products, since it is suitable for human consumption, and a viable alternative both to adding nutritional value to food and to reduce environmental contamination. PMID:26590878

  9. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds: Selective supercritical extraction of phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Panizzon, Gean Pier; Aguiar, Bruna Aparecida Alves; Simionato, Ane Stéfano; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio; Andrade, Galdino; de Oliveira, Admilton Gonçalves; Guedes, Terezinha Aparecida; Mello, João Carlos Palazzo de

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 70% of the Brazilian production of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) seeds is absorbed by the beverage industries. Guaraná has several pharmacological properties: energy stimulant, antimicrobial, chemoprophylactic, antigenotoxic, antidepressive, anxiolytic, and anti-amnesic effects. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive compounds from guaraná seeds was carried out and optimized by an orthogonal array design (OA9(3(4))). The factors/levels studied were: modifier(s) (ethanol and/or methanol), extraction time (20, 40, and 60min), temperature (40, 50, and 60°C), and pressure (100, 200, and 300bar). The statistical design was repeated with increasing proportions of modifiers. The percentage of modifier used was proportional to the amount of polar compounds extracted. The best conditions for the supercritical extraction, based on the content of polyphenols, epicatechin/catechin quantification, yield and operating cost, proved to be: 40% ethanol:methanol during 40min, under 40°C, and 100bar. The temperature had a significant effect on the total phenolic content. PMID:27374587

  10. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root

    OpenAIRE

    Karami, Zohreh; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Mirzaee, Habib Allah; Khomeiri, Morteza; Mahoonak, Alireza Sadeghi; Aydani, Emad

    2014-01-01

    In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capac...

  11. Bioactive Lipidic Extracts from Octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus: Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractions from an organic extract from fresh octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus were studied for biological activities such as antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. A chloroform extract obtained from octopus tentacles was sequentially fractionated using thin layer chromatography (TLC, and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Organic extract reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxin B1 showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. Based on the results obtained, the isolated fractions obtained from octopus contain compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of cancer cell lines.

  12. Identification of phenolic compounds by HPLC/MS and in vitro evaluation of the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Ceratonia siliqua leaves extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hsouna, A.; Trigui, M.; Jarraya, R.; Damak, , M.; Jaoua, S

    2015-01-01

    Ceratonia siliqua is a typical plant of the Mediterranean area, which is mainly used as animal and human food and in folk medicine for treating some diseases such as antidiarrheal and diuretic. The present study was planned to evaluate the potential of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. siliqua leaves extract and the identification of bioactive compounds by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) in the active extract. The antioxidant activities of the d...

  13. Simultaneous extraction of phenolic compounds of citrus peel extracts: effect of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ya-Qin; Chen, Jian-Chu; Liu, Dong-Hong; Ye, Xing-Qian

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) has been widely applied in the extraction of a variety of biologically active compounds including phenolic compounds. However, there is an insufficiency of information on simultaneous extraction of these compounds in this area. In the present study, seven phenolic compounds of two families including cinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapic acid), and benzoic acids (protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic acid) from citrus (Citrus unshiuMarc) peels were evaluated by UAE. The effects of ultrasonic variables including extraction time, temperature, and ultrasonic power on the yields of seven phenolic acids was investigated. Results showed that the yields of phenolic compounds increased with both ultrasonic time and temperature increased, whereas the opposite occurred with increasing time at higher temperature to some certain. In the case of 40 degrees C, the decrease in the yields of some phenolic compounds was observed with increased time, whereas those of other compounds did not significantly declined. Ultrasonic power has a positive effect on the yields of phenolic acids under study. Among all ultrasound variables, temperature is the most sensitive on stability of phenolic compounds. Moreover, when phenolic compounds from citrus peel extracts were subjected to ultrasound process, the benzoic acids were more stable than the cinnamic acids. Meanwhile, the optimal ultrasound condition was different one compound from another. These were partly attributed to both the differently chemical structures of phenolic acids and the combination effects of ultrasonic variables. PMID:18556233

  14. Prediction of solubilities for ginger bioactive compounds in hot water by the COSMO-RS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubilities in water of four main ginger bioactives, 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol, were predicted using a conductor-like screening model for real solvent (COSMO-RS) calculations. This study was conducted since no experimental data are available for ginger bioactive solubilities in hot water. The σ-profiles of these selected molecules were calculated using Gaussian software and the solubilities were calculated using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of these ginger bioactives were calculated at 50 to 200 °C. In order to validate the accuracy of the COSMO-RS method, the solubilities of five hydrocarbon molecules were calculated using the COSMO-RS method and compared with the experimental data in the literature. The selected hydrocarbon molecules were 3-pentanone, 1-hexanol, benzene, 3-methylphenol and 2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde. The calculated results of the hydrocarbon molecules are in good agreement with the data in the literature. These results confirm that the solubilities of ginger bioactives can be predicted using the COSMO-RS method. The solubilities of the ginger bioactives are lower than 0.0001 at temperatures lower than 130 °C. At 130 to 200 °C, the solubilities increase dramatically with the highest being 6-shogaol, which is 0.00037 mole fraction, and the lowest is 10-gingerol, which is 0.000039 mole fraction at 200 °C.

  15. Bioactive Compounds of Cold-pressed Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Oil with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Adel M A; Elbanna, Khaled; Abulreesh, Hussein H; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Herbs rich in bioactive phytochemicals were recognized to have biological activities and possess many health-promoting effects. In this work, cold-pressed thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil (TO) was studied for its lipid classes, fatty acid profile, tocols and phenolics contents. Antioxidant activity and radical scavenging potential of TO against free radicals (DPPH(・) and galvinoxyl) was determined. Antimicrobial activity (AA) of TO against food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi were also evaluated. Neutral lipids accounted for the main lipid fraction in TO, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids in TO were linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic. γ-Tocopherol (60.2% of total tocols) followed by α-tocotrienol (26.9%) and α-tocopherol (9.01% of total tocols) were the main tocols. TO contained high amounts of phenolic compounds (7.3 mg/g as GAE). TO had strong antiradical action wherein 65% of DPPH(・) radicals and 55% of galvinoxyl radical were quenched after 60 min of incubation. Rancimat assay showed that induction time (IT) for TO: sunflower oil blend (1:9, w/w) was 6.5 h, while TO: sunflower oil blend (2:8, w/w) recorded higher IT (9 h). TO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. TO exhibited various degrees of AA against different food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi, wherein the highest AA was recorded against dermatophyte fungi and yeasts including T. mentagrophytes (62 mm), T. rubrum (40 mm), and C. albicans (20 mm) followed by food spoilage fungi including A. flavus (32 mm) with minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) ranging between 80 to 320 μg/mL. Furthermore, TO exhibited broad-spectra activity against food borne bacteria including S. aureus (30 mm), E. coli (25 mm) and L. Monocytogenes (20 mm) with MLC ranging between 160 to 320 μg/mL. The results suggest that TO could be used economically as a valuable natural product with novel functional properties in food

  16. Comparative bioactivity of dhaman grass root extracts in different polar solvents against plant and human pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae is a very suitable and highly nutritive grass for environmental conditions of the desert; yet, no antimicrobial work has been done on this grass. Aim: To estimate in vitro the antibiotic activity of root extracts of C. ciliaris in various polar solvents to use the grass as a possible source for new antimicrobial compounds against important plant and human pathogens. Settings and Design: The antibiotic activity of C. ciliaris root extracts were evaluated against a few medically important pathogens including Gram-negative bacteria Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and the fungi, Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: Dried, powdered, and weighted root material was successively extracted with different polar solvents [hexane, petroleum ether, toluene, benzene, isopropyl alcohol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, glacial acetic acid (GAA, and water] using a Soxhlet assembly. Antibiotic activity was performed by using disc diffusion assay followed by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations by broth dilution method, against sensitive bacteria (with good inhibition zone. Most of the extracts, at higher concentrations, showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against selected bacteria. Statistical Analysis: Mean value and standard deviation were calculated for the test bacteria and fungi. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and P values were considered significant at P<0.05. Results and Conclusions: Results revealed that the highest antibiotic activity was exhibited by the water and GAA extracts against P. mirabilis, followed by isopropyl alcohol extract against K. pneumoniae and A. tumefaciens. Water extract was observed to be the most active extract with maximum zone of inhibition against A. tumefaciens (plant pathogen as compared to all other extracts.

  17. UVA I-protection effectiveness of bioactive compound and organic UV filters: an in vitro assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rolim Baby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work aimed at determining the UVA effectiveness (UVA I/UV ratio, by diffuse transmittance analysis, of sunscreens developed with a bioactive substance, the rutin, associating or not with organic UVB-UVA filters incorporated at a phosphate-base O/W emulsion. Sunscreens provided conflicting and unpredictable results concerning the anti-UVA protection, specially, at the UVA I region. Possible interactions among the organic UV filters and the polyphenolic bioactive substance may have accounted with improvement or reduction of UV protection by a complex and not yet elucidated mechanism, probably regarding wavelength delocalization to superior or inferior values, by resonant molecule stabilization or destabilization.

  18. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  19. Assessment of wild mint from Tunceli as source of bioactive compounds, and its antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, S

    2015-01-01

    The types of wild mint (Mentha spicata L.) were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) in order to find out their vitamin, mineral, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 77.7±0.242 to 52.34±0.351 mg of GAEs/g of dry mint. The highest radical effect of scavenging was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 6.17±0.245 mg/mL. The highest reducing power and metal chelating were observed in the mint from Cicekli parting of the ways 6.5 km Demirkapı. Among the various macronutrients which were estimated in the plant samples, potassium was presented in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Although rutin and resveratrol were not determined in any samples, kaempferol and catechin levels were found out in almost all samples. The concentrations of vitamin A ranged between 42,14±5.70 and 13.61±3.00 (mg/kg dry weight). These results show that plants of mint are quite rich in phenolic compounds, and these have been appeared to have antioxidant activity, which agrees with this work, since the extract showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity and mint may be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors. PMID:26718431

  20. Some bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of the bitter almond kernel (prunus dulcis var. amara)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    in this study, it was determined antioxidant activities and phenolic, flavonoid, phytosterol, lipid soluble vitamin and fatty acid contents of bitter almond kernel extract (bae). antioxidant activities of bae was investigated by dppho, abtso+, oho radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and determination of lipid peroxidation levels (tbars). bae was scavenged 83.49% of the abts radical, 68.34% of the hydroxyl radical, and 68.65% of the dpph radical. this extract was shown 49.36% of the metal chelating activity myricetin (1831.52 mu g/g), kaempferol (104.52 mu g/g), naringenin (2.51 mu g/g), vanillic acid (91.70 mu g/g), caffeic acid (85.92 mu g/g), ferulic acid (27.11 mu g/g) rosmarinic acid (0.95 mu g/g), hydroxycinnamic acid (1.35 mu g/g), delta-tocopherol (4.95 mg/kg), mu-tocopherol (104.15 mg/kg), vitamin k (42.25 mg/kg), beta-sitosterol (366.95 mg/kg) and stigmasterol (242.65 mg/kg) were determined in the bae. the major fatty acids were oleic acid (70.61%) and linoleic acid (20.68%) in the bae. these results indicate that bitter almond can be a good natural source of fatty acids, lipid soluble vitamins, phytosterols, flavonoid, phenolic compounds. (author)

  1. Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gärtner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During studies on bacteria from the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea, incubation under in situ conditions (salinity, temperature and pressure and heat treatment were used to selectively enrich representatives of Micromonospora. From sediments of the Ierapetra Basin (4400 m depth and the Herodotos Plain (2800 m depth, 21 isolates were identified as members of the genus Micromonospora. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Micromonospora isolates could be assigned to 14 different phylotypes with an exclusion limit of ≥ 99.5% sequence similarity. They formed 7 phylogenetic clusters. Two of these clusters, which contain isolates obtained after enrichment under pressure incubation and phylogenetically are distinct from representative reference organism, could represent bacteria specifically adapted to the conditions in situ and to life in these deep-sea sediments. The majority of the Micromonospora isolates (90% contained at least one gene cluster for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides (polyketide synthases type I and type II. The determination of biological activities of culture extracts revealed that almost half of the strains produced substances inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical analyses of culture extracts demonstrated the presence of different metabolite profiles also in closely related strains. Therefore, deep-sea Micromonospora isolates are considered to have a large potential for the production of new antibiotic compounds.

  2. Lipoxygenase and urease inhibition of extracts of polygonatum verticillatum rhizome: augmented by its isolated compound, santonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to explore the enzyme inhibitory profile of extracts of rhizome of Polygonatum verticillatum against lipoxygenase and urease. When tested against lipoxygenase, ethyl acetate fraction was found the most potent (IC50: 69 micro g/ml) and the overall IC50 values of different extracts ranged from 69-174 micro g/ml. In urease assay, n-butanol was the most potent fraction (IC50: 169 micro g/ml) while the overall IC50 values were in the range of 169-288 micro g/ml. Bioactivity guided chromatography led to the isolation of compound 1 which was characterized as santonin on the basis of various spectroscopic techniques. When santonin was tested against lipoxygenase and urease, it showed potent inhibition of lipoxygenase (IC50: 27.4 micro M) but did not attenuate the urease activity. Our findings provided strong evidence for the enzyme inhibitory profile of the extracts of P. verticillatum rhizome and its isolated compound. Thus results are consistent with the traditional use of the plant as an anti-inflammatory agent. (author)

  3. Discovery Strategies of Bioactive Compounds Synthesized by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and Type-I Polyketide Synthases Derived from Marine Microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoutzias, Grigoris D.; Chaliotis, Anargyros; Mossialos, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Considering that 70% of our planet’s surface is covered by oceans, it is likely that undiscovered biodiversity is still enormous. A large portion of marine biodiversity consists of microbiomes. They are very attractive targets of bioprospecting because they are able to produce a vast repertoire of secondary metabolites in order to adapt in diverse environments. In many cases secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest such as nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by multimodular enzymes named nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSes) and type-I polyketide synthases (PKSes-I), respectively. Novel findings regarding the mechanisms underlying NRPS and PKS evolution demonstrate how microorganisms could leverage their metabolic potential. Moreover, these findings could facilitate synthetic biology approaches leading to novel bioactive compounds. Ongoing advances in bioinformatics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are driving the discovery of NRPs and PKs derived from marine microbiomes mainly through two strategies: genome-mining and metagenomics. Microbial genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and this vast quantity of biological information can be analyzed through genome mining in order to identify gene clusters encoding NRPSes and PKSes of interest. On the other hand, metagenomics is a fast-growing research field which directly studies microbial genomes and their products present in marine environments using culture-independent approaches. The aim of this review is to examine recent developments regarding discovery strategies of bioactive compounds synthesized by NRPS and type-I PKS derived from marine microbiomes and to highlight the vast diversity of NRPSes and PKSes present in marine environments by giving examples of recently discovered bioactive compounds. PMID:27092515

  4. Discovery Strategies of Bioactive Compounds Synthesized by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and Type-I Polyketide Synthases Derived from Marine Microbiomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoris D. Amoutzias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering that 70% of our planet’s surface is covered by oceans, it is likely that undiscovered biodiversity is still enormous. A large portion of marine biodiversity consists of microbiomes. They are very attractive targets of bioprospecting because they are able to produce a vast repertoire of secondary metabolites in order to adapt in diverse environments. In many cases secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest such as nonribosomal peptides (NRPs and polyketides (PKs are synthesized by multimodular enzymes named nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSes and type-I polyketide synthases (PKSes-I, respectively. Novel findings regarding the mechanisms underlying NRPS and PKS evolution demonstrate how microorganisms could leverage their metabolic potential. Moreover, these findings could facilitate synthetic biology approaches leading to novel bioactive compounds. Ongoing advances in bioinformatics and next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies are driving the discovery of NRPs and PKs derived from marine microbiomes mainly through two strategies: genome-mining and metagenomics. Microbial genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and this vast quantity of biological information can be analyzed through genome mining in order to identify gene clusters encoding NRPSes and PKSes of interest. On the other hand, metagenomics is a fast-growing research field which directly studies microbial genomes and their products present in marine environments using culture-independent approaches. The aim of this review is to examine recent developments regarding discovery strategies of bioactive compounds synthesized by NRPS and type-I PKS derived from marine microbiomes and to highlight the vast diversity of NRPSes and PKSes present in marine environments by giving examples of recently discovered bioactive compounds.

  5. Discovery Strategies of Bioactive Compounds Synthesized by Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and Type-I Polyketide Synthases Derived from Marine Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoutzias, Grigoris D; Chaliotis, Anargyros; Mossialos, Dimitris

    2016-04-01

    Considering that 70% of our planet's surface is covered by oceans, it is likely that undiscovered biodiversity is still enormous. A large portion of marine biodiversity consists of microbiomes. They are very attractive targets of bioprospecting because they are able to produce a vast repertoire of secondary metabolites in order to adapt in diverse environments. In many cases secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical and biotechnological interest such as nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs) are synthesized by multimodular enzymes named nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSes) and type-I polyketide synthases (PKSes-I), respectively. Novel findings regarding the mechanisms underlying NRPS and PKS evolution demonstrate how microorganisms could leverage their metabolic potential. Moreover, these findings could facilitate synthetic biology approaches leading to novel bioactive compounds. Ongoing advances in bioinformatics and next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are driving the discovery of NRPs and PKs derived from marine microbiomes mainly through two strategies: genome-mining and metagenomics. Microbial genomes are now sequenced at an unprecedented rate and this vast quantity of biological information can be analyzed through genome mining in order to identify gene clusters encoding NRPSes and PKSes of interest. On the other hand, metagenomics is a fast-growing research field which directly studies microbial genomes and their products present in marine environments using culture-independent approaches. The aim of this review is to examine recent developments regarding discovery strategies of bioactive compounds synthesized by NRPS and type-I PKS derived from marine microbiomes and to highlight the vast diversity of NRPSes and PKSes present in marine environments by giving examples of recently discovered bioactive compounds. PMID:27092515

  6. Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy for the improvement of bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, A.H., E-mail: ahwang@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Z.; Zheng, R.R. [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xia, H.B.; Wang, Y.N. [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy is carried out by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The corresponding microstructure, phase structure, microhardness profiles, corrosion properties and bioactivity of the laser-alloyed coatings are investigated to optimize the atomic ratio of Ti–Si. The laser alloyed Ti–Si compound coatings are free of cracks, and primarily present block-like crystals, lath-like crystals and dendrite crystals. The phase structures of both laser-alloyed Ti + Si and 5Ti + 3Si coatings are mainly consisted of α-Ti and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, while the laser-alloyed Si coating is mainly consisted of TiSi{sub 2} and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. Microhardness test indicates that the laser-alloyed Si coating has the highest microhardness. Also, corrosion resistance measurement reveals that the corrosion resistance of the laser-alloyed Si coating is much better than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Evaluation of bioactivity shows that cell growth on the laser-alloyed Si coating with high volume fraction of Ti–Si compounds is faster than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy.

  7. Public Domain HTS Fingerprints: Design and Evaluation of Compound Bioactivity Profiles from PubChem's Bioassay Repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Kazi Yasin; Maciejewski, Mateusz; Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Glick, Meir; Wassermann, Anne Mai

    2016-02-22

    Molecular profiling efforts aim at characterizing the biological actions of small molecules by screening them in hundreds of different biochemical and/or cell-based assays. Together, these assays yield a rich data landscape of target-based and phenotypic effects of the tested compounds. However, submitting an entire compound library to a molecular profiling panel can easily become cost-prohibitive. Here, we make use of historical screening assays to create comprehensive bioactivity profiles for more than 300 000 small molecules. These bioactivity profiles, termed PubChem high-throughput screening fingerprints (PubChem HTSFPs), report small molecule activities in 243 different PubChem bioassays. Although the assays originate from originally independently pursued drug or probe discovery projects, we demonstrate their value as molecular signatures when used in combination. We use these PubChem HTSFPs as molecular descriptors in hit expansion experiments for 33 different targets and phenotypes, showing that, on average, they lead to 27 times as many hits in a set of 1000 chosen molecules as a random screening subset of the same size (average ROC score: 0.82). Moreover, we demonstrate that PubChem HTSFPs retrieve hits that are structurally diverse and distinct from active compounds retrieved by chemical similarity-based hit expansion methods. PubChem HTSFPs are made freely available for the chemical biology research community. PMID:26898267

  8. Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy for the improvement of bioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy is carried out by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The corresponding microstructure, phase structure, microhardness profiles, corrosion properties and bioactivity of the laser-alloyed coatings are investigated to optimize the atomic ratio of Ti–Si. The laser alloyed Ti–Si compound coatings are free of cracks, and primarily present block-like crystals, lath-like crystals and dendrite crystals. The phase structures of both laser-alloyed Ti + Si and 5Ti + 3Si coatings are mainly consisted of α-Ti and Ti5Si3, while the laser-alloyed Si coating is mainly consisted of TiSi2 and Ti5Si3. Microhardness test indicates that the laser-alloyed Si coating has the highest microhardness. Also, corrosion resistance measurement reveals that the corrosion resistance of the laser-alloyed Si coating is much better than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Evaluation of bioactivity shows that cell growth on the laser-alloyed Si coating with high volume fraction of Ti–Si compounds is faster than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy.

  9. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones. PMID:26604346

  10. Optimized Solid Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Dendrons Applicable as Scaffolds for Radiolabeled Bioactive Multivalent Compounds Intended for Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fischer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic structures, being highly homogeneous and symmetric, represent ideal scaffolds for the multimerization of bioactive molecules and thus enable the synthesis of compounds of high valency which are e.g., applicable in radiolabeled form as multivalent radiotracers for in vivo imaging. As the commonly applied solution phase synthesis of dendritic scaffolds is cumbersome and time-consuming, a synthesis strategy was developed that allows for the efficient assembly of acid amide bond-based highly modular dendrons on solid support via standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis protocols. The obtained dendritic structures comprised up to 16 maleimide functionalities and were derivatized on solid support with the chelating agent DOTA. The functionalized dendrons furthermore could be efficiently reacted with structurally variable model thiol-bearing bioactive molecules via click chemistry and finally radiolabeled with 68Ga. Thus, this solid phase-assisted dendron synthesis approach enables the fast and straightforward assembly of bioactive multivalent constructs for example applicable as radiotracers for in vivo imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET.

  11. Detection of Bioactive Compounds in the Mucus Nets of Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Prosobranch Gastropod Vermetidae, Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sessile suspension-feeding wormsnail Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Vermetidae secretes a mucus net to capture planktonic prey. The nets are spread out over the corals and often have remarkable deleterious effects on them like changes in growth form and pigmentation shifts not uncommonly resulting in tissue necrosis. Until now, there is no explanation for this phenomenon although the indication as well as theories about its genesis is mentioned in several publications. Vermetids are well studied concerning the intraspecific competition with neighboring individuals but not in their interaction with other taxa like corals or fish. We did extensive in situ video recording and observed that fish avoided the plankton-load nets although several specialized taxa are known to be molluscivores, mucivores, and/or feed on plankton. As many molluscs use chemical weapons to combat feeding pressure and to defend themselves against predators, we screened empty and plankton-load mucus nets for potential bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity testing was performed with a recently developed system based on a chromatographic separation (high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and a bioassay with luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Thus, we found at least two active compounds exclusively accumulated by the wormsnails themselves. This is the first record of bioactive properties in the whole family of Vermetidae.

  12. Rescuing compound bioactivity in a secondary cell-based screening by using γ-cyclodextrin as a molecular carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Vega, Sonia; Grazu, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Lanas, Angel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Abian, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In vitro primary screening for identifying bioactive compounds (inhibitors, activators or pharmacological chaperones) against a protein target results in the discovery of lead compounds that must be tested in cell-based efficacy secondary screenings. Very often lead compounds do not succeed because of an apparent low potency in cell assays, despite an excellent performance in primary screening. Primary and secondary screenings differ significantly according to the conditions and challenges the compounds must overcome in order to interact with their intended target. Cellular internalization and intracellular metabolism are some of the difficulties the compounds must confront and different strategies can be envisaged for minimizing that problem. Using a novel screening procedure we have identified 15 compounds inhibiting the hepatitis C NS3 protease in an allosteric fashion. After characterizing biophysically the interaction with the target, some of the compounds were not able to inhibit viral replication in cell assays. In order to overcome this obstacle and potentially improve cellular internalization three of these compounds were complexed with γ-cyclodextrin. Two of them showed a five- and 16-fold activity increase, compared to their activity when delivered as free compounds in solution (while γ-cyclodextrin did not show antiviral activity by itself). The most remarkable result came from a third compound that showed no antiviral activity in cell assays when delivered free in solution, but its γ-cyclodextrin complex exhibited a 50% effective concentration of 5 μM. Thus, the antiviral activity of these compounds can be significantly improved, even completely rescued, using γ-cyclodextrin as carrier molecule. PMID:25834436

  13. Effects of selected bioactive food compounds on human white adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Christel; Wilhelm, Uta; Mandrup, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    bioactive nutrients on fat metabolism, we investigated their role on human white adipocyte function. METHODS: The influence of the omega-3-fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the anthocyanin (AC) cyanidin-3-glucoside and its metabolite protocatechuic acid, and the beta-glucan metabolite propionic acid...

  14. Studies on vasoconstrictor activity of Curculigo pilosa extracts and of its isolated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometa, M F; Palazzino, G; Galeffi, C; Palmery, M

    2001-01-01

    The Curculigo pilosa total extract, its butanolic fraction (0.5 microg-100 mg/kg) and the most active in vitro compound structurally similar to adrenaline, pilosidine (10 ng-l mg/kg), caused a reversible and dose-dependent increase in blood pressure in anaesthetized rat. This hypertensive effect is partially reversed (90%) by the prior administration of phentolamine (1 mg/kg) and abolished by pre-treatment with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) and atenolol (100 microg/kg). Neither tachiphylaxis nor any toxic effects were observed. These experimental findings suggest an interaction between C. pilosa and the peripheral adrenergic system (particularly with alpha1 and beta1 receptors); the structure of the bioactive glucosides could be important in evoking this effect. PMID:11482757

  15. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT. PMID:25132088

  16. Simultaneous quantification of 50 bioactive compounds of the traditional Chinese medicine formula Gegen-Qinlian decoction using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Ji, Shuai; Kuang, Yi; Zhang, Zheng-Xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2016-07-01

    The quality evaluation of patent drugs derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound formulas has been challenging due to their complex chemical composition. In this study, we developed a solution to evaluate the quality of Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD), an ancient four-herb TCM formula for the treatment of diarrhea and diabetes, together with its derived patent drugs by simultaneously quantifying 50 bioactive compounds. The samples were extracted by 100% methanol (for hydrophobic compounds) and 50% methanol in water (for hydrophilic compounds), respectively, and were separated on a Waters Acquity charged surface hybrid C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.7μm) eluted with gradients of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 400μL/min. The analytes were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The 50 compounds (including acidic and alkaline, hydrophilic and hydrophobic) were well resolved within 14min, and were determined using an internal standard method. The method was fully validated for precision, repeatability, and recovery. The limits of detection were 0.3-10.0ng/mL. Finally, this method was used to analyze 24 batches of GQD samples, including water decoction, pills, tablets, and oral solutions. Principal component analysis indicated significantly varied chemical compositions among these formulations. The tablets and pills contained higher concentrations of Scutellaria and Coptis compounds than the oral solutions, and the water decoction contained abundant glycosides and saponins. Moreover, the contents of flavanones and flavone O-glucuronides varied remarkably. This study provides a feasible solution for the comprehensive quality control of TCM patent drugs. PMID:27262372

  17. Tropical Plant Extracts as Sources of Grain-Protectant Compounds Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D; Andrade, M S; Bicalho, K U; Silva, M F G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of organic plant extracts to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed for three tropical plant species: branches, leaves, and seeds of Annona montana (Annonaceae), branches of Aristolochia paulistana (Aristolochiaceae), and leaves and branches of Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae). The screening assay resulted that the extracts of A. montana seeds obtained with hexane (LC50 = 534.75 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 6.10 days) and with dichloromethane (LC50 = 424.67 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 5.03 days) were the most promising treatments, followed by the extract prepared from A. montana leaves with hexane (LC50 = 837.70 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 4.90 days). Moreover, extracts (at 1,500 mg kg(-1)) prepared from C. sylvestris branches with dichloromethane and A. paulistana with hexane caused significant mortality (37% and 41.5%, respectively) beyond sublethal effects on S. zeamais. Therefore, based on the biological assays, extraction yield, and evaluation of the chromatographic profile of the crude extracts by TLC, the hexane extract of A. montana seeds was selected and fractioned using liquid-liquid partitioning. The hydroalcoholic fraction caused mortality of 55.5%, significantly superior to dichloromethane fraction, which caused 35.5% of mortality. Chemical analyses ((1)H NMR, HPLC, and TLC) were performed, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in both active fractions, which have been associated with bioactivity. Therefore, extracts prepared from A. montana seeds (especially) is an interesting source of new compounds with promising grain-protectant properties. PMID:27193958

  18. Extraction of phenolic compounds from a Spodosol profile: an evaluation of three extractants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, G.F.; Boyd, S.A.; Mokma, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The authors extracted phenolic compounds from each horizon of a Spodosol profile using three extractants: 0.1 M sodium pyrophosphate at pH 7.0 and 10.2, and 0.5 N sodium hydroxide at pH 13.4. Of 28 standard compounds evaluated seven phenolic compounds were identified: three carboxylic acids - protocatechuic, p-hydroxybenzoic, and vanillic acids; two aldehydes - vanillin and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde; and two cinnamic acids - trans p-coumaric and ferulic acids. The three most abundant compounds evaluated were protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and vanillic acid. The amounts of each phenolic compound extracted increased with increasing pH of the extractant except for protocatechuic acid. Protocatechuic acid was extracted in the highest amounts by sodium pyrophosphate pH 10. The pyrophosphate (pH .10) extracts revealed that protocatechuic acid tended to accumulate in the B horizons, suggesting that it may play a role in the translocation of metal ions during podzolization. The two cinnamic acids, trans p-coumaric and ferulic, were extracted primarily by NaOH. The identification of these cinnamic derivatives in an NaOH extraction of roots separated from the B horizon suggested that their presence may be due to degradation of plant residues by NaOH. Pyrophosphate (pH 7) extracted only small amounts of phenolic compounds. The specificity of pyrophosphate (pH 10) in removing organic complexes of a possible pedogenic nature suggest that it was the better extractant. Sodium pyrophosphate (pH 10) is recommended for use in future pedological studies of phenolic substances.

  19. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Brahim Marzouk; Iness Jabri karoui

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representin...

  20. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation 60Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds

  1. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    protein, most of the essential amino acid contents of Bitter Melon were similar as in soy proteins. Some amino acids such as Alanine, Glycine, and Valanine were relatively higher in Bitter Melon flesh than in soy protein. Phenolics contents of the flesh, seed, and seed coat tissue [SCT] were significantly different [p<0.05] among the four varieties. The four varieties were similar in their antioxidant activities of the flesh tissues; however, they were significantly different in their antioxidant activities in the seed and seed coat tissues [SCT]. Bitter melon varieties IW and CG, tested for antimutagenic effects, both flesh and seed had considerably high activities against benzo[a]pyrene with Salmonella TA98 [92-100% inhibition] and Salmonella TA100 [79-86% inhibition].Conclusion: Based on these studies, Bitter Melon is a good source of phenolic compounds. All four varieties tested showed considerably high antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Therefore, these natural plant phenolics can be a good source of biologically active compounds that may be applied in many food systems to enhance food values and special nutritional qualities. Further studies will be needed using more genetically diverse varieties to pin point the bioactive and functional compounds and their physiological properties.

  2. A process for extracting vanadylporphyrin compounds from oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakirova, S.F.; Abubakirov, S.A.; Ben' kovskii, V.G.; Fedorova, N.V.; Kotova, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The method for extracting vanadylporphyrin compounds from oil by treating the oil at 20 to 35 degrees with successive sorbent dosages to separate the product is improved by using the waste from titanium/aluminum production, which contains aluminum, iron, titanium and silicon oxides, in order to increase the degree of separation and to shorten the process. The compound ratios, by percentage are: A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 0.3-3.0; Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 0.3-1.0; TiO/sub 2/ 2.0-4.0; and SiO/sub 2/ for the remainder. Treatment takes place at a ratio of sorbent to oil of 1:10-12. The proposed process makes it possible to increase the degree of vanadylporphyrin compound extraction compared to the current process to 97.2-98.0% and to reduce the duration of the process from 7 to 4 hours; here, the number of treatments drops from 22 to 4.5. For example, 100 milliliters of oil from the Zhanazhol deposit with a concentration of 6.375 milligrams vanadylporphyrin compounds is exposed to 10 grams of the proposed sorbent for an hour at 20 degrees, at atmospheric pressure, with the component ratio, by percentage, of: SiO/sub 2/ 94.4; A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2.3; Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 0.3; TiO/sub 2/ 3.0. Each time, following the hour long exposure, the content of vanadylporphyrin compounds in the oil filtered out is determined by spectrophotography. During exposure to four batches of solvent, up to 98% of the compounds are extracted; during exposure to the fifth batch of sorbent, the degree of extraction does not change.

  3. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Ana P.; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  4. Isolation, Characterization, and Synthesis of Bioactive Natural Products from Rainforest Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, John Michael

    2001-01-01

    As part of our ongoing investigations for anticancer drugs from rainforestflora, five plant extracts were determined to contain interesting bioactivity. These extracts were subjected to various separation techniques, affording a number of bioactive compounds that were then characterized by spectral and degradative methods. A methanol extract of Cestrum latifolium Lam. yielded the known compound parissaponin Pb. Hydrolysis afforded its aglycone, the known spirostanol diosgenin. GCMS analysi...

  5. Synthesis and bioactive evaluations of novel benzotriazole compounds as potential antimicrobial agents and the interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Ren; Hui Zhen Zhang; Shao Lin Zhang; Yun Lei Luo; Ling Zhang; Cheng He Zhou; Rong Xia Geng

    2015-12-01

    A novel series of benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR and MS spectra. The bioactive assay manifested that most of the new compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison to reference drugs chloromycin, norfloxacin and fluconazole. Especially, 2,4-dichlorophenyl substituted benzotriazole derivative 6f displayed good antibacterial activity against MRSA with MIC value of 4 g/mL, which was 2-fold more potent than Chloromycin, and it also displayed 3-fold stronger antifungal activity (MIC = 4 g/mL) than fluconazole (MIC = 16 g/mL) against Beer yeast. The preliminary interactive investigations of compound 6f with calf thymus DNA revealed that compound 6f could effectively intercalate into DNA to form compound 6f–DNA complex which might block DNA replication to exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking experiments suggested that compound 6f projected into base-pairs of DNA hexamer duplex forming two hydrogen bonds with guanine of DNA. The theoretical calculations were in accordance with the experimental results.

  6. Helleborus purpurascens—Amino Acid and Peptide Analysis Linked to the Chemical and Antiproliferative Properties of the Extracted Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Elena Segneanu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong drive worldwide to discover and exploit the therapeutic potential of a large variety of plants. In this work, an alcoholic extract of Helleborus purpurascens (family Ranunculaceae was investigated for the identification of amino acids and peptides with putative antiproliferative effects. In our work, a separation strategy was developed using solvents of different polarity in order to obtain active compounds. Biochemical components were characterized through spectroscopic (mass spectroscopy and chromatographic techniques (RP-HPLC and GC-MS. The biological activity of the obtained fractions was investigated in terms of their antiproliferative effects on HeLa cells. Through this study, we report an efficient separation of bioactive compounds (amino acids and peptides from a plant extract dependent on solvent polarity, affording fractions with unaffected antiproliferative activities. Moreover, the two biologically tested fractions exerted a major antiproliferative effect, thereby suggesting potential anticancer therapeutic activity.

  7. Compostos bioativos em café integral e descafeinado e qualidade sensorial da bebida Bioactive compounds in whole and decaffeinated coffee and sensorial quality of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andrade Abrahão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a qualidade sensorial de café (Coffea arabica descafeinado e integral, os níveis de compostos bioativos, antes e após a torração, e a estabilidade destes após a extração da bebida. A análise sensorial foi realizada por meio do método oficial brasileiro de classificação do café. As análises de cafeína, trigonelina e ácido clorogênico foram realizadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas com quatro tipos de café, cinco tempos de análise e três repetições. Na análise sensorial, foi observado que as características sensoriais, presentes na amostra integral, foram perdidas após o processo de descafeinação. Na variável concentração de trigonelina, não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras integrais e descafeinadas. As concentrações para as amostras de café descafeinado verde e integral torrado não foram alteradas após 4 horas de extração. Houve redução significativa na concentração do ácido clorogênico após a torração, após o processo de descafeinação, e com o decorrer do tempo de extração. Quanto à cafeína, não houve diferença significativa após a torração e nem com o passar do tempo após a extração. A descafeinação e a torração afetaram a qualidade sensorial do café e alteraram a concentração dos compostos bioativos.The aims of this study were to determine the sensorial quality of both decaffeinated and whole coffee (Coffea arabica, the levels of bioactive compounds, before and after toasting, and bioactive compound stability after beverage extraction. The sensorial analysis was accomplished according to the official Brazilian method for coffee classification. The analyses of caffeine, trigonelline and chlorogenic acid were performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental design was completely randomized with split plot

  8. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate. PMID:24372268

  9. Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Peaches and Pumpkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Watson, Dennis G; Choudhary, Ruplal; Dasari, Mallika R; Lightfoot, David A

    2016-01-01

    The ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) method was used to optimize the extraction of phenolic compounds from pumpkins and peaches. The response surface methodology (RSM) was used to study the effects of three independent variables each with three treatments. They included extraction temperatures (30, 40 and 50°C), ultrasonic power levels (30, 50 and 70%) and extraction times (10, 20 and 30 min). The optimal conditions for extractions of total phenolics from pumpkins were inferred to be a temperature of 41.45°C, a power of 44.60% and a time of 25.67 min. However, an extraction temperature of 40.99°C, power of 56.01% and time of 25.71 min was optimal for recovery of free radical scavenging activity (measured by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) reduction). The optimal conditions for peach extracts were an extraction temperature of 41.53°C, power of 43.99% and time of 27.86 min for total phenolics. However, an extraction temperature of 41.60°C, power of 44.88% and time of 27.49 min was optimal for free radical scavenging activity (judged by from DPPH reduction). Further, the UAE processes were significantly better than solvent extractions without ultrasound. By electron microscopy it was concluded that ultrasonic processing caused damage in cells for all treated samples (pumpkin, peach). However, the FTIR spectra did not show any significant changes in chemical structures caused by either ultrasonic processing or solvent extraction. PMID:26885655

  10. Selective Extraction of Perrhenate and Pertechnetate by New Macrocyclic Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long half-life of technetium-99 and its ability to form an anionic species makes it a major concern when considering long-term disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Furthermore, as its most stable species in the environment, the pertechnetate ion, TcO4- is highly mobile and is considered as a long-term hazard in nuclear waste disposal. There is a need for the development of new extractant systems, such as systems based on crown ethers that may serve to selectively extract and separate this long lived radionuclide from different streams for potential industrial application. In this paper, we are reporting the design and synthesis of new macrocyclic compounds to selectively extract technetium and rhenium from complex mixtures. Preliminary tests performed for the selective extraction of pertechnetate and perrhenate are presented. (authors)

  11. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  12. Three statistical experimental designs for enhancing yield of active compounds from herbal medicines and anti motion sickness bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since antiquity, Zingiber officinale (ginger, pogostemonis herba, and radix aucklandiae have been used as traditional Chinese medicines to remit gastrointestinal discomfort. Recent evidences also show the efficacy of the three herbal medicines against nausea and vomiting. Objective: To optimize the CO2 supercritical fluid extraction (SFE CO2 conditions for ginger and the ethanol reflux extraction conditions for radix aucklandiae, control the quality of pogostemonis herba essential oil, and evaluate anti motion sickness activity of the compound recipes composed of the three herbal medicine extracts. Materials and Methods: Two orthogonal array designs L9 (34 were employed to optimize the SFE CO2 conditions for enhancing yield of 6 gingerol from ginger and the ethanol reflux extraction conditions for enhancing yield of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone from radix aucklandiae; a uniform design U5(53 was applied for evaluation of anti motion sickness activity of the compound recipes. Results: Extraction pressure (P < 0.01, extraction temperature and extraction time (P < 0.05 have significant effects on the yield of 6 gingerol from ginger by SFE CO2; ethanol concentration (P < 0.01 and times of repeating extraction (P < 0.05 have significant effects on the total yield of costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone from radix aucklandiae by ethanol reflux extraction; the anti motion sickness effects of the optimized compound recipe composed of the three herbal medicine extracts were markedly better than those of dimenhydrinate. Conclusion: The compound recipe composed of ginger, pogostemonis herba, and radix aucklandiae could be developed as a promising anti motion sickness medicine.

  13. Extraction and quantitation of furanic compounds dissolved in oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furans are amongst the decomposition products which are generated by the degradation of cellulose in paper. Paper insulation is used in capacitors, cables and transformers. These furans dissolve in the impregnating mineral oil, and a method, involving liquid/liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, has been developed to determine the concentration of 2-furfural the most stable compound in oil. The degradation of paper is being examined in order to find correlation between the change in dielectric and mechanical properties and the increase in concentration of 2-furfural in the oil. (author)

  14. Antioxidant Compounds from Vegetable Matrices: Biosynthesis, Occurrence, and Extraction Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, tocopherols and tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds are largely distributed in plant products. Most of them are not synthesized by human and need to be introduced with diet according to the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI). This work was aimed to give a comprehensive overview on the occurrence of these antioxidants in plants, in particular in plant foods, on the mechanisms of biosynthesis, and on conventional (liquid-liquid or solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet) and innovative (enzymatic-assisted, pressurized fluid, supercritical fluid, ultrasound-assisted, microwave-assisted, pulsed electric field) extraction systems. PMID:25751787

  15. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25017866

  16. In Vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of Bioactive Compound 2H-FURO [2,3-H]-1-Benzopyran-2-one against seed borne fungi of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of bioactive compound 2HFuro[ 2,3-H]-1-benzopyran-2-one recorded a significant activity at 100-1000 ppm concentration against all the ten Aspergillus species tested. A. flavus recorded complete inhibition at 100 ppm concentration, A. niger at 500 ppm, A. fumigates at 600 ppm, A. flavus oryzae and A. flavus columnaris at 700 ppm respectively. A. ochraceous and A. flavipes recorded complete inhibition at 900 ppm concentration. Compared to synthetic fungicide Captan and Thiram at 2000ppm concentration. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of bioactive compound was in the range of 100- 900ppm concentration against all the test fungi.

  17. Stability and metabolism of Arbutus unedo bioactive compounds (phenolics and antioxidants) under in vitro digestion and colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosele, Juana I; Macià, Alba; Romero, Mari-Paz; Motilva, María-José

    2016-06-15

    The natural antioxidants of Arbutus unedo highlight the importance of this fruit as natural source of bioactive compounds. In the present study, to evaluate the stability of phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and fat-soluble antioxidants (α-tocopherol, β-carotene and lutein), in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was applied to A. unedo fruit. After that, the non-absorbable fraction was anaerobically incubated with human faeces and the metabolic pathway for gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins from A. unedo fruit was proposed. The results showed that the presence of pectin from the fruit hampered the solubilization of the phenolic compounds (with exception of gallic and ellagic acids) and fat-soluble vitamins during gastric digestion. Degradation of pectin-gel during the duodenal digestion favored the release of the phenolic compounds and fat-soluble antioxidants to the media. The catabolic activity of human microbiota led to the generation of a wide range of simple phenols, such as p-hydroxybenzoic acid and catechol, derived from the catabolism of gallotannins, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanins. PMID:26868556

  18. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:23692746

  19. Impact of molecular weight on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules as delivery vehicles for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Sanchez, Gloria; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-10-01

    The molecular weight of chitosan is one of its most determinant characteristics, which affects its processability and its performance as a biomaterial. However, information about the effect of this parameter on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules is scarce. In this work, the impact of chitosan molecular weight on its electrosprayability was studied and correlated with its effect on the viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity of solutions. A Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that the morphology of the electrosprayed chitosan materials could be correctly predicted using these three parameters for almost 85% of the samples. The suitability of using electrosprayed chitosan capsules as carriers for bioactive agents was also assessed by loading them with a model active compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). This encapsulation, with an estimated efficiency of around 80% in terms of preserved antioxidant activity, showed the potential to prolong the antiviral activity of EGCG against murine norovirus via gradual bioactive release combined with its protection against degradation in simulated physiological conditions. PMID:27312621

  20. Germinating Seeds of Citrus aurantium a Good Source of Bioactive Limonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Marta R; Herrador del Pino, M Mar; Barrero, Alejandro F

    2015-06-01

    A simple method to obtain extracts enriched in bioactive limonoids from Citrus aurantium L. seeds has been developed, using solvents of increasing polarity. 1H NMR data from the extracts revealed that the highest amounts of limonoids were present in the t-butylmethylether extract. The comparison between extracts obtained from dormant and germinating seeds showed that the latter contained almost double amounts of limonoids, revealing germinating seeds as an excellent source of those bioactive compounds. PMID:26197503

  1. Juglans regia L. leaves as a source of bioactive phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    André SANTOS; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2013-01-01

    Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves are considered a source of healthcare compounds, and have been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of skin inflammations, hyperhidrosis and ulcers and for its antidiarrheic, anti-helmintic, antiseptic and astringent properties [1]. Furthermore, they have been reported as a source of phenolic compounds [2,3].The beneficial effects derived from those compounds with interesting properties, such as anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic and c...

  2. Water at Room Temperature as a Solvent for the Extraction of Apple Pomace Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Sofia; Rai, Dilip; Abu-Ghannam, Nissreen

    2012-01-01

    A fractionation method was used for the extraction of phenolic compounds from apple pomace (AP) involving a first extraction with water and subsequent extractions of the same residue with two different organic solvents. The water extracts obtained presented high amounts of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant capacity however, the second and third extractions of the same residue still extracted considerable amounts of remaining phenolic compounds with significant antioxidant capacities. L...

  3. Extraction and Characterization of Phenolic Compounds from Rose Hip (Rosa canina L. Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrospray Ionization - Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea STĂNILĂ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild berry are a rich of natural compounds which provide them high antioxidant potential. The compounds which provide them these proprieties are known to be vitamins, flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The aim of this study was to extract and characterize bioactive compounds from rose hip (Rosa canina L. currently found in Romania. A qualitative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric (ESI-MS detection in positive ion mode has been used to identify phenolic compounds from rose hip crude extract. The chromatograms revealed the presence of a large number of compounds (19, identified and grouped as phenolic acids and flavones/ols, flavan-3-ols and also anthocyanins. Based on obtained results these berries can be highly recommended as part of our diet. Also this finding represents a contribution to the chemical characterization of phenolic profile of rose hip.

  4. An FDA-Drug Library Screen for Compounds with Bioactivities against Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Ying Lau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of new antibacterial drugs entering the market and their misuse have resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, posing a major health crisis worldwide. In particular, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, a pathogen responsible for numerous human infections, has become endemic in hospitals worldwide. Drug repurposing, the finding of new therapeutic indications for approved drugs, is deemed a plausible solution to accelerate drug discovery and development in this area. Towards this end, we screened 1163 drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for bioactivities against MRSA in a 10 μM single-point assay. After excluding known antibiotics and antiseptics, six compounds were identified and their MICs were determined against a panel of clinical MRSA strains. A toxicity assay using human keratinocytes was also conducted to gauge their potential for repurposing as topical agents for treating MRSA skin infections.

  5. Bioactivity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae) in the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiuza, Tatiana S; Silva, Paulo C; De Paula, José R; Tresvenzol, Leonice M F; Sabóia-Morais, Simone M T

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the bioactivity of the crude ethanol extract and ethyl acetate, hexane and chloroform fractions obtained from Eugenia uniflora leaves using the hepatopancreas of Oreochromis niloticus L. as an experimental model. The ethanol extract and fractions were administered to the fish orally with their feed. Twenty-four hours later, the fish were sacrificed and their livers dissected, fixed in neutral formalin, embedded in paraffin and sectioned. Histological analyses were performed using Masson's trichrome and Haematoxylin-Eosin. Histochemical studies were performed using Feulgen, PAS (Periodic Acid Schiff) and PAS + salivary amylase and Sudan IV stain. The qualitative analysis of the material showed that the crude extract and the ethyl, chloroform and hexane fractions induced vasodilation, vascular congestion and toxicity due to the presence of eosinophilic granular cells, rodlet cells, some leukocytic infiltrate and rare focal necroses. The Nile tilapia proved to be a satisfactory model for screening plant products. PMID:20140296

  6. An Alternative Use of Horticultural Crops: Stressed Plants as Biofactories of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Cisneros-Zevallos; Daniel A. Jacobo-Velázquez

    2012-01-01

    Plants subjected to abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with potential application in the functional foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and agrochemical markets. This approach can be extended to horticultural crops. This review describes previous reports regarding the effect of different postharvest abiotic stresses on the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Likewise, the physiological basis for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds as an abiotic stress respo...

  7. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed Fouad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C, then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Results. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05 increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid significantly (P ≤ 0.05 decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Conclusions. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  8. Simultaneous analysis of eight bioactive compounds in Danning tablet by HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Jiye; Liang, Mingjin; Zhang, Weidong; Yan, Shikai; Lin, Min

    2007-02-19

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet detector (UV) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of eight bioactive compounds in Danning tablet (including hyperin, hesperidin, resveratrol, nobiletin, curcumine, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion), a widely used prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The chromatographic separation was performed on a ZORBAX Extend C(18) analytical column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and formate buffer (containing 0.05% formic acid, adjusted with triethylamine to pH 5.0) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The eight compounds in Danning tablet were identified and their MS(n) fractions were elucidated by using HPLC-ESI-MS, and the contents of these compounds were determined by using HPLC-UV method. The standard calibration curves were linear between 5.0 and 100 microg/ml for hyperin, 10-200 microg/ml for hesperidin, 1.0-150 microg/ml for resveratrol, 2.0-120 microg/ml for nobiletin, 2.0-225 microg/ml for curcumine, 20-300 microg/ml for emodin, 2.0-200 microg/ml for chrysophanol, and 20-250 microg/ml for physcion with regression coefficient r(2)>0.9995. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of this method were evaluated with the R.S.D. values less than 0.7% and 1.3%, respectively. The recoveries of the eight investigated compounds were ranged from 99.3% to 100.2% with R.S.D. values less than 1.5%. This method was successfully used to determine the 8 target compounds in 10 batches of Danning tablet. PMID:17079108

  9. Distribution, diversity and bioprospecting of bioactive compounds from cryptic fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates identified using molecular methods into 21 genera and 43 species. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces...

  10. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09) and characterisation by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; George Edward Gnana Jothi; Sakthivel Manikkam; Balamurugan Sadaiyappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera,Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta), Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii), Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu) of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity.Methods:All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether) to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09) purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR.Results:The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11) cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78) cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05) cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25) cm and diethyl ether extract of S.wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11) cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii.Conclusions:Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweedS. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should be used for

  11. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Miron, T. L.; Herrero, Miguel; Ibáñez, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extract...

  12. Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cerullo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged.

  13. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    OpenAIRE

    S. L. VASOYA; P. T. CHOVATIA; D. H. PUROHIT; H. S. JOSHI

    2005-01-01

    An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  14. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. VASOYA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  15. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, M. Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well...

  16. Dereplication of Known Nucleobase and Nucleoside Compounds in Natural Product Extracts by Capillary Electrophoresis-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhui Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nucleobase and nucleoside compounds exist widely in various organisms. An often occurring problem in the discovery of new bioactive compounds from natural products is reisolation of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds. To resolve this problem, a capillary electrophoresis-high resolution mass spectrometry (CE-HR-MS method providing both rapid separation and accurate mass full-scan MS data was developed for the first time to screen and dereplicate known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in crude extracts of natural products. Instrumental parameters were optimized to obtain optimum conditions for CE separation and electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS detection. The proposed method was verified to be precise, reproducible, and sensitive. Using this method, known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different marine medicinal organisms including Syngnathus acus Linnaeus; Hippocampus japonicus Kaup and Anthopleura lanthogrammica Berkly were successfully observed and identified. This work demonstrates that CE-HR-MS combined with an accurate mass database may be used as a powerful tool for dereplicating known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds in different types of natural products. Rapid dereplication of known nucleobase and nucleoside compounds allows researchers to focus on other leads with greater potential to yield new substances.

  17. EVALUATION OF SOXTEC EXTRACTION PROCEDURE FOR EXTRACTING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA conducted a study to evaluate the Soxtec extraction of 29 target compounds from spiked sandy clay loam and clay loam. he study also compared two solvent mixtures and methylene chloride-acetone and investigated the effect on method recovery of five factors (matrix typ...

  18. Essential oil of Mitracarpus frigidus as a potent source of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Fabri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In our previous work (Fabri et al. 2009, we showed that different extracts of Mitracarpus frigidus had significant antibacterial, antifungal and leishmanicidal activities. In order to increase our knowledge about this species, this work assesses the chemical composition and the in vitro biological activity of its essential oil. Thus, the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of M. frigidus was analyzed by GC/MS. Among several compounds detected, 11 were identified, being linalool and eugenol acetate the major components. The essential oil exhibited a moderate antibacterial effect against Staphyloccocus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae (MIC 250 µg/mL. On the other hand, it showed a strong antifungal effect against Cryptoccocus neoformans (MIC 8 µg/mL and Candida albicans (MIC 63 µg/mL. Expressive activity against L. major and L. amazonensis promastigote forms with IC50 values of 47.2 and 89.7 µg/mL, respectively, were also observed. In addition, the antioxidant activity was investigated through DPPH radical-scavenging and showed a significative activity with IC50 of 38 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity against Artemia salina was moderate with LC50 of 88 µg/mL. The results presented here are the first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of M. frigidus essential oil.Em nosso trabalho anterior (Fabri et al. 2009, mostramos que diferentes extratos de Mitracarpus frigidus apresentaram atividades antibacteriana, antifúngica e leishmanicida significativas. Com o objetivo de aprofundar o conhecimento sobre essa espécie, esse trabalho objetiva identificar os constituintes químicos e avaliar as atividades biológicas in vitro de seu óleo essencial. Dessa forma, o óleo essencial das partes aéreas de M.frigidus foi obtido por hidrodestilação e analisado por CG/EM. Entre os compostos detectados, 11 foram identificados, sendo linalol e o acetato de eugenol os

  19. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    OpenAIRE

    Wronkowska Małgorzata; Honke Joanna; Piskuła Mariusz Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid)...

  20. Isolation of the bioactive compound(s) with antinociceptive activity in mice, from the fish Haruan, Channa striata

    OpenAIRE

    Mat Jais, M; Zakaria, Z; Mori, T.; McCahon, L; Croft, K.

    2014-01-01

    Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Note portant sur l'auteur Introduction A freshwater fish species haruan, Channa striata (Bloch 1793; syn. Channa striatus), is carnivorous and air breathing. The fish is indigenous to Malaysia and extracts are commonly used to induce postoperative wound healing, especially women following caesarean births. Haruan-based cream is also effective for exfoliation in dermatitis, such as sclerosis...

  1. Bioactivities of ethanolic extract and its fractions of Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ustun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cistus laurifolius L. (Cistaceae and Salvia wiedemannii Boiss. (Lamiaceae have been used for treatment of some illnesses in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, the ethanolic extract and its fractions obtained using re-extraction by hexane (Hx, chloroform (CHCl3, butanol, and remaining-water (r-H2O of C. laurifolius were screened for their in vitro bioactivities. Materials and Methods: Activities were determined against both standard and the isolated strains of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, as well as yeasts such as Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis by microdilution method. Also, antiviral activity of C. laurifolius and S. wiedemannii extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1 and parainfluenza-3 (PI-3 using Madin-Darby bovine kidney and vero cell lines. Results: Tested extracts of C. laurifolius (minimum inhibitory concentration 32 μg/mL exerted a strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria of E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii. Conclusion: The Hx extract of C. laurifolius (cytopathogenic effect of 32–8 μg/mL had antiviral activity on PI-3. Also, the r-H2O, CHCl3, and ethanol extracts (16–<0.25 μg/mL of S. wiedemannii had significant antiviral activity on HSV-1, same as control.

  2. Antiplasmodial compounds from Cassia siamea stem bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Ashidi, J S; Okpako, L C; Houghton, P J; Wright, C W

    2008-02-01

    Cassia siamea L. (Fabaceae) was identified from the southwest Nigerian ethnobotany as a remedy for febrile illness. This led to the bioassay-guided fractionation of stem bark of the plant extract, using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay and multi-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1) for assessing the in vitro antimalarial activity. Emodin and lupeol were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by a combination of chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds were determined by spectroscopy, co-spotting with authentic samples and comparison with literature data. Both compounds were found to be the active principles responsible for the antiplasmodial property with IC(50) values of 5 microg/mL, respectively. PMID:17705142

  3. Cajachalcone: An Antimalarial Compound from Cajanus cajan Leaf Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Ajaiyeoba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cajanus cajan L, a member of the family Fabaceae, was identified from the Nigerian antimalarial ethnobotany as possessing antimalarial properties. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of C. cajan leaves was done in vitro using the multiresistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum (K1 in the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. Isolation of compound was achieved by a combination of chromatographic techniques, while the structure of the compound was elucidated by spectroscopy. This led to the identification of a cajachalcone, 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4-methoxy chalcone, as the biologically active constituent from the ethyl acetate fraction. Cajachalcone had an IC50 value of 2.0 μg/mL (7.4 μM and could be a lead for anti-malarial drug discovery.

  4. Enhanced Antifungal Bioactivity of Coptis Rhizome Prepared by Ultrafining Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-Chung Kuo; Yao-Tung Lin; Mei-Lin Yang; Ming-Yuan Liao; Guo-Feng Chen; Po-Hsun Chen; Lin-Fu Wong; Jenn-Wen Huang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive constituents in the methanol extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology. The indicator compound was identified by spectroscopic method and its purity was determined by HPLC. Moreover, the crude extracts and indicator compound were examined for their ability to inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 on potato dextrose agar plates. The indicator compound is a potential candidate as a new plant derive...

  5. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±-(4R*,5S*,6S*-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1 and (±-(4S*,5S*-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2, and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3 and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4, along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5, were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass, one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM.

  6. Volatile compounds and antioxidative activity of Porophyllum tagetoides extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, M; Guzman, A P; Azuara, E; Garcia, O; Mendoza, M R; Beristain, C I

    2012-03-01

    Porophyllum tagetoides is an annual warm-weather herb that has an intense typical smell. Its leaves are commonly used in soup preparation and traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Its volatile compounds and antioxidant properties were evaluated in crude, aqueous and ethanol leaf extract and an oil emulsion using different antioxidant assays in vitro, such as: DPPH radical scavenging activity, redox potential, polyphenol content, reducing power and optical density. A high antioxidative activity was found when comparing leaves with stems. The crude extract from leaves showed a very high reducing power (2.88 ± 0.20 O.D.) and DPPH radical-scavenging activity (54.63 ± 4.80%), in concordance with a major concentration of vitamin C (23.97 ± 0.36 mg/100 g). Instead, the highest polyphenol content (264.54 ± 2.17 mg GAE/g of sample) and redox potential (561.23 ± 0.15 mV) were found by the ethanol and aqueous extract, respectively. Aldehydes and terpenes such as nonanal, decanal, trans-pineno, β-myrcene and D-limonene were the major volatiles found. This study suggests that Porophyllum tagetoides extracts could be used as antioxidants. PMID:22318745

  7. An Alternative Use of Horticultural Crops: Stressed Plants as Biofactories of Bioactive Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cisneros-Zevallos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants subjected to abiotic stresses synthesize secondary metabolites with potential application in the functional foods, dietary supplements, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and agrochemical markets. This approach can be extended to horticultural crops. This review describes previous reports regarding the effect of different postharvest abiotic stresses on the accumulation of phenolic compounds. Likewise, the physiological basis for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds as an abiotic stress response is described. The information presented herein would be useful for growers and the fresh produce market which are interested in finding alternative uses for their crops, especially for those not meeting quality standards and thus are considered as waste.

  8. Biopolymer-prebiotic carbohydrate blends and their effects on the retention of bioactive compounds and maintenance of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Keven; Zabot, Giovani L; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Meireles, M Angela A

    2016-06-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of inulin (IN), a prebiotic carbohydrate without superficial activity, as an encapsulating matrix of lipophilic bioactive compounds. For achieving the encapsulation, IN was associated with biopolymers that present superficial activity: modified starch (HiCap), whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum acacia (GA). Encapsulation was performed through emulsification assisted by ultrasound followed by freeze-drying (FD) process to dry the emulsions. All blends retained geranylgeraniol. GA-IN blend yielded the highest geranylgeraniol retention (96±2wt.%) and entrapment efficiency (94±3wt.%), whilst WPI-IN blend yielded the highest encapsulation efficiency (88±2wt.%). After encapsulation, composition of geranylgeraniol in the annatto seed oil was maintained (23.0±0.5g/100g of oil). Such findings indicate that the method of encapsulation preserved the active compound. All blends were also effective for maintaining the antioxidant activity of the oil through ORAC and DPPH analyses. PMID:27083804

  9. Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Rocío; Giménez, Rafael; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2012-05-01

    This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially γ-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil. PMID:22537213

  10. Characterization of Bioactive Compounds in Tunisian Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L. Peel and Juice and Determination of Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iness Jabri karoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25% and juice (91.61%. HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.. p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid. Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  11. Cholesterol esterase inhibitory activity of bioactives from leaves of Mangifera indica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G M Gururaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the earlier studies, methanolic extract of Mangifera indica L leaf was exhibited hypocholesterol activity. However, the bioactive compounds responsible for the same are not reported so far. Objective: To isolate the bioactive compounds with hypocholesterol activity from the leaf extract using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay which can be used for the standardization of extract. Materials and Methods: The leaf methanolic extract of M. indica (Sindoora variety was partitioned with ethyl acetate and chromatographed on silica gel to yield twelve fractions and the activity was monitored by using cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. Active fractions were re-chromatographed to yield individual compounds. Results and Discussion: A major compound mangiferin present in the extract was screened along with other varieties of mango leaves for cholesterol esterase inhibition assay. However, the result indicates that compounds other than mangiferin may be active in the extract. Invitro pancreatic cholesterol esterase inhibition assay was used for bioactivity guided fractionation (BAGF to yield bioactive compound for standardization of extract. Bioactivity guided fractionation afford the active fraction containing 3b-taraxerol with an IC50 value of 0.86μg/ml.Conclusion: This study demonstrates that M.indica methanol extract of leaf have significant hypocholesterol activity which is standardized with 3b-taraxerol, a standardized extract for hypocholesterol activity resulted in development of dietary supplement from leaves of Mangifera indica.

  12. Natural products as an inspiration in the diversity-oriented synthesis of bioactive compound libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Christopher; Morton, Daniel; Murrison, Sarah; Nelson, Adam; O'Leary-Steele, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of diversity-oriented synthesis is to drive the discovery of small molecules with previously unknown biological functions. Natural products necessarily populate biologically relevant chemical space, since they bind both their biosynthetic enzymes and their target macromolecules. Natural product families are, therefore, libraries of pre-validated, functionally diverse structures in which individual compounds selectively modulate unrelated macromolecular targets. This review describ...

  13. A comparison of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit from Europe affected by genotype and latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josuttis, M.; Carlen, C.; Nestby, R.;

    2012-01-01

    compounds and this effect was stronger than local variations by temporary weather changes or even year-to-year effects. As a result, the northern samples had principally lower anthocyanin amounts than the southern ones and, moreover, distribution of individual anthocyanins was different. In contrast, the...

  14. Two new naphthalene glucosides and other bioactive compounds from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Van; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Dat, Le Duc; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jang, Hae Dong; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-01

    Two new naphthalene diglucosides named nepenthosides A (1) and B (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13), were isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1-13 were evaluated in terms of their peroxyl radical-scavenging (trolox equivalent, TE) and reducing capacities. All isolates showed peroxyl radical-scavenging and reducing activities at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μM. Anti-osteoporotic activities were investigated using murine osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity down to 91.13 ± 1.18 to 42.39 ± 1.11%, relative to the control (100%) in nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANκL)-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:25724283

  15. Hyphenated GC-FTIR and GC-MS techniques applied in the analysis of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, Steluta; Paduraru, Nicoleta; Praisler, Mirela

    2014-08-01

    The drugs of abuse, which affect human nature and cause numerous crimes, have become a serious problem throughout the world. There are hundreds of amphetamine analogues on the black market. They consist of various alterations of the basic amphetamine molecular structure, which are yet not yet included in the lists of forbidden compounds although they retain or slightly modify the hallucinogenic effects of their parent compound. It is their important variety that makes their identification quite a challenge. A number of analytical procedures for the identification of amphetamines and their analogues have recently been reported. We are presenting the profile of the main hallucinogenic amphetamines obtained with the hyphenated techniques that are recommended for the identification of illicit amphetamines, i. e. gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC-FTIR). The infrared spectra of the analyzed hallucinogenic amphetamines present some absorption bands (1490 cm-1, 1440 cm-1, 1245 cm-1, 1050 cm-1 and 940 cm-1) that are very stable as position and shape, while their intensity depends of the side-chain substitution. The specific ionic fragment of the studied hallucinogenic compounds is the 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl cation (m/e = 135) which has a small relative abundance (lesser than 20%). The complementarity of the above mentioned techniques for the identification of hallucinogenic compounds is discussed.

  16. In vitro Antioxidant Activity between Bioactive Compounds from Nine Species of Passiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAV Montero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Main bioactive substances identified from the genus Passiflora include polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins and other natural antioxidants that are critical factors for maintaining optimum health. Polyphenols mainly C-glycosides are present in well studied species such as P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. alata. However, most Passiflora species remains little explored and it’s for this reason that we address our work at the comparison between species. Three experiments with completely randomized designs were performed in order to compare the total amount of flavonoids, phenols and in vitro free radical DPPH scavenger activity (%DPPH of nine species of Passiflora (P. edulis, P. alata, P. incarnata, P. ligularis, P. tripartite, P. coccinea, P. gardneri, P. laurifólia and P. mucronata. Non parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests (for flavonoids, parametric analyses of variances (Anova and the last significant differences (LSD tests (for phenols and free radical scavenger activity were performed to compare the studied species and then a correlation analysis was carried out to assess the interaction between the variables using RStudio statistical software. Results showed significant differences between the studied passionflowers for the total amount of flavonoids (p=4.4e-5, total amount of phenols (p=2.2e-16 and scavenger activity of the free radical DPPH (p=2.2e-16. Also, we found a positive correlation between %DPPH scavenging activity and the total content of polyphenols (Pearson’s coefficient=0.706 and a negative one between flavonoid (Pearson’s coefficient=-0.485. The results suggest that in passionflower leaf samples the scavenging activity of the free radical DPPH is more related with polyphenols rather than flavonoids.

  17. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation; Compostos bioativos em flores comestiveis processadas por radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  18. Comparison of volatile and semivolatile compounds from commercial cigarette by supercritical fluid extraction and simultaneous distillation extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子刚; 郑琳

    2004-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) was studied as a rapid method for extraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds of Chinese commercial cigarettes. The method was compared with simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE). Temperature and pressure for the SFE were optimized. The extracts obtained by the two methods showed different characters in composition and represented differently the flavor characteristics of tobacco; compared to SDE, SFE can extract compounds within a shorter time and avoid the thermal degradation and solvent contamination of samples. The extracts by the two extraction methods are complementary for investigating the flavor characteristic of tobacco products.

  19. Comparison of volatile and semivolatile compounds from commercial cigarette by supercritical fluid extraction and simultaneous distillation extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子刚; 郑琳

    2004-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) was studied as a rapid method for extraction of volatile and semivolatile compounds of Chinese commercial cigarettes. The method was compared with simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE). Temperature and pressure for the SFE were optimized. The extracts obtained by the two methods showed different characters in composition and represented differently the flavor characteristics of tobacco; compared to SDE, SFE can extract compounds within a shorter time and avoid the thermal degradation and solvent contamination of samples. The extracts by the two extraction methods are complementary for investigating the flavor characteristic of tobacco products.

  20. In vitro assessment of Macleaya cordata crude extract bioactivity and anticancer properties in normal and cancerous human lung cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Lin, Yu-ling; Chen, Xuan-Ren; Liao, Chi-Cheng; Poo, Wak-Kim

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the bioactivity and anticancer properties of Macleaya cordata crude extract in vitro using normal fetal lung fibroblast MRC5 and adenocarcinomic epithelial cell A549 as model systems,. Treatment of extract induced cell detachment, rounding, and irregularity in shape, in both normal and adenocarcinomic human lung cells, in accompanied of significant reduction in cell proliferation. The data indicated that necrosis appeared to be involved in compromising cell growth in both types of lung cells since membrane permeability and cell granularity were elevated. Although apoptosis was evident, the responses were differential in normal and diseased lung cells. Viability of treated MRC5 cells was reduced in a dose-dependent manner, demonstrating that the normal lung cells are sensitive to the extract. Surprisingly, A549 viability was slightly elevated in response to extract exposure at low concentration, implying that cells survived were metabolically active; the viability was reduced accordingly to treatment at higher concentrations. The present findings demonstrate that the crude extract of M. cordata contains agents affecting the functioning of normal and diseased lung cells in vitro. The observed cytotoxic effects against adenocarcinomic lung cells validate the potential of using M. cordata as herbal intervention in combined with conventional chemotherapy for lung cancer treatment. PMID:23238228

  1. Inflorescences of Brassicacea species as source of bioactive compounds: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sousa; Taveira, M.; Valentão, P.; Fernandes, F; Pereira, J.A.; Leticia M. Estevinho; Bento, Albino; Ferreres, F.; Seabra, R.M.; P. B. Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Two Brassica oleracea varieties (B. oleracea L. var. costata DC and B. oleracea L. var. acephala) and Brassica rapa L. var. rapa inflorescences were studied for their chemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Phenolic compounds and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC–DAD and HPLC–UV, respectively. B. oleracea var. costata and B. oleracea L. var. acephala inflorescences presented a similar qualitative phenolic composition, exhibiting several complex kaempferol deriv...

  2. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley G. Cabrera; Kwang-Deog Moon

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical sc...

  3. Innovative minimal processing of mini broccoli for keeping quality and safety and enhancing bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernández, Ginés Benito

    2012-01-01

    [ENG] Broccoli has been described as the ‘super–vegetable’ in the media after a great number of epidemiological and laboratory studies on this Brassica specie. These studies have shown numerous health–promoting properties of broccoli such as chemopreventive, antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenicity, anti–inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral and reduction of coronary heart disease risk. These properties are related to the high content of broccoli in phenolic compounds, glucosinolates (isothi...

  4. Tocopherols as bioactive compounds in different cultivars of Gomphrena globosa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Liberal, Ângela; Pereira, Carla; Adega, Filomena; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Tocopherols are lipid-soluble molecules that belong to the group of the Vitamin E compounds, playing an essential role on human nutrition and health [1]. The term "Vitamin E" was first introduced as an important dietary factor for animal reproduction and, more than 40 years later, it was associated to antioxidant properties. Nowadays, most of the researches focus on the fundamental chemistry that explains their antioxidant properties, specific location, role in biological membr...

  5. Variation in the Bioactive Compound Content at Three Ripening Stages of Strawberry Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Voća; Jana Šic Žlabur; Nadica Dobričević; Lidija Jakobek; Marijan Šeruga; Ante Galić; Stjepan Pliestić

    2014-01-01

    During the harvest season of two consecutive years, five strawberry cultivars (‘Arosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Marmolada’, ‘Miss’ and ‘Raurica’), grown in the continental part of the Republic of Croatia, were examined. Strawberry fruits quality was evaluated by individual phenol compounds, individual anthocyanins and fruit color. Fruits were harvested in three different periods. Analyzed strawberry cultivars show very good average values of the studied phenolic acids and flavonoids with predominant caff...

  6. Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P.; Versari, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its de...

  7. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Rosa canina L. biotypes from spontaneous flora of Transylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Ioana; Stănilă, Andreea; Sorin STĂNILĂ

    2013-01-01

    Background The theoretical, but especially the practical values of identifying the biochemical compounds from the Rosa canina L. fruits are of present interest, this aspect being illustrated by the numerous researches. It was reported that the Rosa canina L. fruit, with its high ascorbic acid, phenolics and flavonoids contents, have antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. This study was performed on order to evaluate the amount of the main phytochemicals (vitamin C, total pol...

  8. Beneficial effect of a sturgeon-based bioactive compound on gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinases and type-10 collagen in human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, R; Marotta, F; Jain, S; Rastmanesh, R; Allegri, F; Celep, G; Lorenzetti, A; Polimeni, A; Yadav, H

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the effect of a marine bioactive compound containing high-purity caviar-derived DNA, collagen elastin and protein extracts from sturgeon (LD-1227, Caviarlieri, Laboratoires Dom, Switzerland) on IL-1beta-induced activation and production of TNFalpha and MMP-13 in human osteo-arthritis (OA) chondrocytes and intracellular signaling factors. Human chondrocytes were derived from OA cartilage and stimulated with IL-1beta. Gene expression of TNFalpha, MMP-13, MMP-1 and Col10A1 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. TNFalpha protein in culture medium was determined using cytokine-specific ELISA. Western immunoblotting was used to analyze the MMP-13 production in the culture medium and the activation of NF-kB. DNA binding activity of NF-kB p65 was determined using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. MMP-13 activity in the culture medium was assayed by gelatine zymography. LD-1227 significantly decreased IL-1beta-stimulated gene expression and production of TNFalpha, MMP-1, MMP-13 and Col10A1 in human chondrocytes. The inhibitory effect of LD-1227 on the IL-1beta-induced expression of these genes was mediated at least in part via suppression of NF-kB p65. These data show that LD-1227 can inhibit IL-1beta-induced proliferation and inflammatory reactions via inhibited activation of the transcription factor NF-kB pathway in human chondrocytes derived from OA patients. These novel pharmacological actions of LD-1227 on IL-1beta-stimulated human OA chondrocytes provide suggestions that this marine biology compound may inhibit cartilage degradation by suppressing IL-1beta-mediated activation and the catabolic response in human chondrocytes. PMID:23034253

  9. Bioactive compounds of Eriocaulon sieboldianum blocking proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells might be involved in Aurora kinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanhua; Lu, Hongyuan; Ma, Hongda; Feng, Fan; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Xu, Yongnan; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-12-01

    Eriocaulon sieboldianum (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) is an edible and medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Often in combination with other herbs, it is processed into healthcare beverages for expelling wind-heat, protecting eyes, and reducing blood lipids. Besides, its water decoction together with other herbs has been utilized to treat cancer in China. However, the active ingredients and the precise cellular mechanisms of E. sieboldianum remain to be elucidated. The Aurora kinase family plays critical roles in the regulation of cell division and has attracted great attention to the identification of small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors for potential treatment of cancer. A molecular docking study was employed for docking of the most bioactive compounds. Hispidulin (HPDL) and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QGGP) were singled out as potent inhibitors of Aurora kinase. Their inhibitory activity towards Aurora kinase was further confirmed by the obvious decrease in autophosphorylation of Aurora-A (Thr288) and Aurora-B (Thr232). Moreover, the induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells and the suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 were also consistent with the inhibition of Aurora kinase. The data indicate that the E. sieboldianum extract and its two active compounds, HPDL and QGGP, could effectively induce apoptosis via p53, MAPKs and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. These findings could improve the understanding and enhance the development of drugs based on E. sieboldianum and raise its application value in anticancer therapy or prevention. In addition, our results indicated that Aurora kinase might be a novel target of HPDL and QGGP. PMID:26369427

  10. Solid-phase extraction of antioxidant compounds from commercial cranberry extract and its antiradical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tumbas Vesna T.; Đilas Sonja M.; Čanadanović-Brunet Jasna M.; Ćetković Gordana S.; Savatović Slađana M.

    2007-01-01

    This study is concerned with the fractionation and determination of major antioxidant compounds (phenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C) in commercial cranberry extract. The total content of phenolics, flavonoids and total and monomers of anthocyanins, determined spectrophotometrically, was 1.67 mg/g, 0.41 mg/g, 5.12 mg/g and 3.32 mg/g. The content of vitamin C, determined volumetrically, was 121.74 mg/g. Commercial cranberry extract was dissolved in 80 % acetone and the solution was...

  11. Isolation and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Evaluation of Bio-Active Compounds from Eriobotrya Japonica Stems

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Nabih Rashed; Monica Butnariu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities from Eriobotrya japonica stems as well investigation of its chemical composition. Methods: Methanol 80% extract of Eriobotrya japonica stems was tested for antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal strains and for antioxidant activity using oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays and also total content of polyphenols with p...

  12. AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (MILLER) SWINGLE: A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ângelo Luís,; Nuno Gil; Maria Emília Amaral,; Fernanda Domingues,; Ana Paula Coelho Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Ailanthus altissima (Miller) Swingle is a tree used in Chinese traditional medicine as a bitter aromatic drug and in the treatment of colds and gastric diseases. Previous phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of quassinoids in the plant, as well as indole alkaloids. The purpose of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, and total alkaloid contents of the ethanolic, methanolic, acetone, and hydroalcoholic crude extracts of A. altissima and then try to correlate them ...

  13. A bioguided identification of the active compounds that contribute to the antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects of rosemary extract on colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Micol, Vicente; Carretero, Antonio Segura

    2015-06-01

    Rosemary extracts have exhibited potential cytostatic or cytotoxic effects in several cancer cell models but their bioactive compounds are yet to be discovered. In this work, the anticancer activity of a rosemary-leaf extract and its fractions were assayed to identify the phenolic compounds responsible for their antiproliferative/cytotoxic effects on a panel of human colon cancer cell lines. Bioguided fractionation of the rosemary-leaf extract was achieved by semi-preparative chromatography. The rosemary extract and the compounds in the fractions were characterized and quantified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS. Cellular viability in the presence of these fractions and the whole extract was determined after 24 or 48 h incubations by using an MTT assay. Fractions containing diterpenes or triterpenes were the most active but not as much as the whole extract. In conclusion, carnosic acid, carnosol, 12-methoxycarnosic acid, taxodione, hinokione and betulinic acid were the putative candidates that contributed to the observed antiproliferative activity of rosemary in human colon cancer cells. Whether the effects of the extract and fractions are only cytostatic or cytotoxic needs to be elucidated. Nevertheless, the comparative antiproliferative study on the fractions and whole extract revealed potential synergistic effects between several components in the extract that may deserve further attention. PMID:25801906

  14. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  15. Use of Biotechnology to increase the content of bioactive compounds in fermented foods of plant origin

    OpenAIRE

    Taneyo Saa, Danielle Laure

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this PhD research were: i) to evaluate the use of bread making process to increase the content of β-glucans, resistant starch, fructans, dietary fibers and phenolic compounds of kamut khorasan and wheat breads made with flours obtained from kernels at different maturation stage (at milky stage and fully ripe) and ii) to study the impact of whole grains consumption in the human gut. The fermentation and the stages of kernel development or maturation had a great impact on t...

  16. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Olsen, Louise C B;

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but...

  17. Bioactivity guided isolation of antifungal compounds from the liverwort Bazzania trilobata (L.) S.F. Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jochen M; Speakman, John-Bryan; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans

    2004-09-01

    A dichloromethane and a methanol extract of the liverwort Bazzania trilobata showed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Phythophthora infestans, Pyricularia oryzae and Septoria tritici. Bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms was used to isolate six antifungal sesquiterpenes: 5- and 7-hydroxycalamenene, drimenol, drimenal, viridiflorol, gymnomitrol and three bisbibenzyls: 6 ',8'-dichloroisoplagiochin C, isoplagiochin D and 6'-chloroisoplagiochin D. Furthermore we report the isolation of gymnomitr-8(12)-en-4-one and the new coumarin 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Their structures have been elucidated based on extensive NMR spectral evidence. PMID:15451321

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivojevic, Jelena; Skaro, Sanja; Senerovic, Lidija; Vasiljevic, Branka; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Maslak, Veselin; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    A library of 18 different compounds was synthesized starting from (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid which is derived from the bacterial polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Ten derivatives, including halo and unsaturated methyl and benzyl esters, were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Given that (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are known to have biological activity, the new compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and in vitro antiproliferative effect with mammalian cell lines. The presence of the carboxylic group was essential for the antimicrobial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations against a panel of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in the range 2.8-7.0 mM and 0.1-6.3 mM, respectively. 3-Halogenated octanoic acids exhibited the ability to inhibit C. albicans hyphae formation. In addition, (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic and (E)-oct-2-enoic acids inhibited quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Generally, derivatives did not inhibit mammalian cell proliferation even at 3-mM concentrations, while only (E)-oct-2-enoic and 3-oxooctanoic acid had IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.6 mM with the human lung fibroblast cell line. PMID:26399414

  19. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. PMID:27464261

  20. Characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Huerta, Katira da Mota; Monteiro, Sabrina Sauthier; da Rosa, Claudia Severo; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (Bruno and Monty) of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. The flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. The flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the Bruno variety had higher DPPH values and levels of phenolic compounds (1262.34 mg GAE/100g flour), while the Monty variety showed higher FRAP values, vitamin C (189.06 mg/100g flour), flavonoids (486.47 mg/100g flour), chlorophylls (12.13 mg/100g flour) and carotenoids (246.91 μg/100g flour). Flour made from kiwi fruit bagasse can be used to reduce agro-industrial waste. This flour is a promising ingredient which can be used to enrich products providing dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant action. PMID:26775997