WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioactive compound libraries

  1. Natural products as an inspiration in the diversity-oriented synthesis of bioactive compound libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Cordier, Christopher; Morton, Daniel; Murrison, Sarah; Nelson, Adam; O'Leary-Steele, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of diversity-oriented synthesis is to drive the discovery of small molecules with previously unknown biological functions. Natural products necessarily populate biologically relevant chemical space, since they bind both their biosynthetic enzymes and their target macromolecules. Natural product families are, therefore, libraries of pre-validated, functionally diverse structures in which individual compounds selectively modulate unrelated macromolecular targets. This review describ...

  2. An FDA-Drug Library Screen for Compounds with Bioactivities against Meticillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Ying Lau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The lack of new antibacterial drugs entering the market and their misuse have resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, posing a major health crisis worldwide. In particular, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, a pathogen responsible for numerous human infections, has become endemic in hospitals worldwide. Drug repurposing, the finding of new therapeutic indications for approved drugs, is deemed a plausible solution to accelerate drug discovery and development in this area. Towards this end, we screened 1163 drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for bioactivities against MRSA in a 10 μM single-point assay. After excluding known antibiotics and antiseptics, six compounds were identified and their MICs were determined against a panel of clinical MRSA strains. A toxicity assay using human keratinocytes was also conducted to gauge their potential for repurposing as topical agents for treating MRSA skin infections.

  3. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  4. Bioactive compounds from Carissa spinarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangteeraprasert, Ruchira; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Neidle, Stephen; Gibbons, Simon; Likhitwitayawuid, Kittisak

    2012-10-01

    In our continuing efforts to find new antiherpetic agents from plants, an extract prepared from the stems of Carissa spinarum L. was found to possess appreciable activity against herpes simplex viruses (HSV I and II). A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, and this led to the isolation of 12 compounds, including a coumarin, two cardiac glycosides and nine lignans. These isolated compounds were evaluated for several biological activities, including antiherpetic, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. The cardiac glycoside evomonoside was found to be the only antiherpetic principle, showing moderate activity against herpes simplex virus types I and II in the inactivation method. The lignans (-)-carinol, (-)-carissanol and (-)-nortrachelogenin exhibited cytotoxicity against breast (MCF7) and lung (A549) cancer cells. Moderate anti-DPPH free radical activity was observed for all the lignans. None of the isolates showed antibacterial activity. PMID:22308099

  5. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces

  6. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão; Ivano Alessandro Devilla; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Leonardo Luiz Borges

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provi...

  7. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sessa, Mariarenata

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The increase in dietary-intake-related illnesses, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, have made in recent years the development of health-and-wellness promoting foods a priority of the food industry. Clinical studies have demonstrated tangible health benefits that may be derived from the intake of bioactive compounds. However many difficulties are associated with their inclusion in food matrices, due to a very low solubility in water and...

  8. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  9. Bioactive compounds: Safety and efficacy (Consensus Meeting - Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Dragsted, L.O.; Elmadfa, I.; Grossklaus, R.; Müller, M.R.; Schrenk, D.; Walter, P.; Weber, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of bioactive compounds depend on a few known and unknown parameters. What is a physiologic dose and how can that dose be defined in cases of bioactive compounds with a poor knowledge of supply and distribution? What safety sets are needed? How can individual aspects such as p

  10. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  11. Radiation Parameters of Some Potential Bioactive Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynep Gedik; Mehtap Tugrak; Aysenur Dastan; Haliseinci Gul; Demet YIlmaz

    2015-01-01

    In this study ,we aimed to determine the radiation parameters of some potential bioactive com‐pounds .1‐Aryl‐3‐dibenzylamino‐propane‐1‐on hydrochloride type Mannich bases were synthesized via classical conventional heating method .Aryl part was changed as phenyl (C6 H5 ) ,4‐methylphenyl (4‐CH3 C6 H4 ) ,4‐flu‐orophenyl (4‐FC6 H4 ) , 4‐nitrophenyl (4‐NO2 C6 H4 ) , 4‐chlorophenyl (4‐ClC6 H4 ) , 4‐bromophenyl (4‐BrC6 H4 ) ,and 2‐thienyl (C4 H3 S‐2‐yl) .Mass attenuation coefficient (μm ) ,effective atomic number (Zef ) and effective electron density (Nel ) of compounds were determined experimentally and theoretically for at 8.040 , 8.910 ,13.40 ,14.96 ,17.48 ,19.61 ,22.16 ,24.94 ,32.19 ,36.38 ,44.48 ,50.38 and 59.54 keV photon en‐ergies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV .Radiation parameters of these com‐pounds which can be anti‐cancer drug candidate were given in the tables .The results show that phenyl ring be‐have like thiophene ring in terms of radiation absorption .It is thought that the results of study may drive allow the development of drug candidate new compounds in medical oncology .

  12. Diversity selection of compounds based on 'protein affinity fingerprints' improves sampling of bioactive chemical space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha P; Koutsoukas, Alexios; Mohd Fauzi, Fazlin; Drakakis, Georgios; Maciejewski, Mateusz; Glen, Robert C; Bender, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Diversity selection is a frequently applied strategy for assembling high-throughput screening libraries, making the assumption that a diverse compound set increases chances of finding bioactive molecules. Based on previous work on experimental 'affinity fingerprints', in this study, a novel diversity selection method is benchmarked that utilizes predicted bioactivity profiles as descriptors. Compounds were selected based on their predicted activity against half of the targets (training set), and diversity was assessed based on coverage of the remaining (test set) targets. Simultaneously, fingerprint-based diversity selection was performed. An original version of the method exhibited on average 5% and an improved version on average 10% increase in target space coverage compared with the fingerprint-based methods. As a typical case, bioactivity-based selection of 231 compounds (2%) from a particular data set ('Cutoff-40') resulted in 47.0% and 50.1% coverage, while fingerprint-based selection only achieved 38.4% target coverage for the same subset size. In conclusion, the novel bioactivity-based selection method outperformed the fingerprint-based method in sampling bioactive chemical space on the data sets considered. The structures retrieved were structurally more acceptable to medicinal chemists while at the same time being more lipophilic, hence bioactivity-based diversity selection of compounds would best be combined with physicochemical property filters in practice.

  13. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  14. Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-30

    Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cyclodextrins are inexpensive, friendly to humans, and also capable of improving the biological, chemical and physical properties of bioactive molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the use of cyclodextrins as encapsulating agents for bioactive plant molecules in the pharmaceutical field.

  15. Phenolic waste valorization through bioenergy and bioactive compounds production [Resumo

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos; Morana, A; La Cara, F.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial processing activities produce large amounts of waste that are only partially valorised at different value-added levels (spread on land, animal feed, composting), whereas the main volumes are managed as waste of environmental worry. These by-products are rich sources of bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity.

  16. Bioactive Compounds from Marine Bacteria and Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wen H.; Proksch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Marine bacteria and fungi are of considerable importance as new promising sources of a huge number of biologically active products. Some of these marine species live in a stressful habitat, under cold, lightless and high pressure conditions. Surprisingly, a large number of species with high diversity survive under such conditions and produce fascinating and structurally complex natural products. Up till now, only a small number of microorganisms have been investigated for bioactive me...

  17. Bioactive Compounds and Their Neuroprotective Effects in Diabetic Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Sin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and impaired insulin signaling during the development of diabetes can cause diabetic complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although various therapeutics are available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, no absolute cure exists, and additional research is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying pathophysiological pathways. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of bioactive compounds, i.e., flavonoids and vitamins, which may be effective as supplementary treatments for diabetes and its complications. In this review, we highlight the most recent reports about the mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and vitamins) possessing potential neuroprotective properties in diabetic conditions. Additional clinical studies are required to determine the appropriate dose and duration of bioactive compound supplementation for neuroprotection in diabetic patients. PMID:27483315

  18. Mass spectrometry for determination of bioactive compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Majik, M.S.; Singh, K.S.

    are naturally occurring nitrogen containing biologically active heterocyclic compounds. Over the last few years, a large number of biologically important alkaloids with antiviral, antibacterial, anti- inflammatory, antimalarial, antioxidant and anticancer...

  19. Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

    2010-01-20

    Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

  20. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Bhatnagar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

  1. Bioactive compounds in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bergquist, Sara

    2006-01-01

    A high intake of fruit and vegetables is well known to have positive effects on human health, and has been correlated to a decreased risk of most degenerative diseases of ageing, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts and several forms of cancer. These protective effects have been attributed to high concentrations of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, flavonoids, carotenoids) in fruit and vegetables, partly due to the antioxidative action of some of these compounds. Maintaining a high lev...

  2. Nocardiopsis species: a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennur, T; Ravi Kumar, A; Zinjarde, S S; Javdekar, V

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are an ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important group of Actinomycetes. Most of the isolates are halotolerant or halophilic and they prevail in soils, marine environments or hypersaline locations. To aid their survival under these conditions, they mainly produce extremozymes, compatible solutes, surfactants and bioactive compounds. The current review details the bioactive compounds obtained for this genus. Important antimicrobial agents obtained from this genus include polyketides, phenzines, quinoline alkaloids, terphenyls, proteins, thiopeptides and amines. Polyketides and peptides displaying potent anticancer activities are also significant. Tumour promoting agents, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, immunomodulators and protein kinase inhibitors are other relevant products obtained from Nocardiopsis species. Structurally, polyketides (synthesized by polyketide synthases) and peptides (made by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or cyclodipeptide synthases) are important compounds. Considered here are also toxins, anti photoaging and adipogenic agents produced by this genus. The gene clusters mediating the synthesis of bioactive compounds have been described. Commercially available products (Apoptolidins and K-252a) derived from this genus have also been described. This review highlights the significance of a single genus in producing an assortment of compounds with varied biological activities. On account of these features, the members of this genus have established a place for themselves and are of considerable value in producing compounds with profound bio-medical applications. PMID:26369300

  3. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  4. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, safeguard beta cells of the pancreas, and reduce cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and damage caused by chronic alcohol consumption. In this paper, the chemistry and health benefits of bioactive compounds present in persimmon are reviewed to encourage impending applications and to facilitate further research activities.

  5. Echinoderms: their culture and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M S

    2005-01-01

    biologically active compounds with biomedical applications. Sea cucumber has been valued in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years as a cure for a wide variety of ailments. Some more recently isolated compounds, mainly from sea cucumbers and starfish, and including those with antitumour, antiviral, anticoagulant and antimicrobial activity are summarised below. When wild stocks decline, the demand created in the market place raises to the price of the product and, consequently, culturing is more likely to become viable economically. As this review shows, there have been dramatic advances in the culture methods of sea urchins and sea cucumbers in the last 10-15 years, to the extent that one can conclude that currently the major obstacles to successful cultivation are indeed economic rather than biological. Hence the future of the echinoculture industry is closely linked to that of the fisheries, whose fate will ultimately determine the market forces that will shape this growing industry. PMID:17152697

  6. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bi-Fong; Chao Wen-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, a...

  7. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... to extracts most of the bioactive compounds, before the main process for carrageenan extraction, leading to a future multiproduct extraction (biorefinery) approach, instead of the traditional single-extraction procedure....

  8. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  9. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential fruit of Ximenia americana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Lucilania Bezerra; Freitas, Wallace Edelky de Souza; de Morais, Patrícia Lígia Dantas; Sarmento, José Dárcio Abrantes; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2016-02-01

    The caatinga ecoregion in northeast Brazil presents a wide variety in plant species. However, the potential of these species as a source of energy, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and bioactive properties beneficial to health is still unknown. Among these species we can find the wild plum (Ximenia americana). Due to its various phytotherapeutic properties and absence of studies on the chemical composition of the fruit this article aimed to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of the X. americana in different stages of maturation. The fruits of X. americana showed considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzymes. The fruits at green maturity stage showed higher content of yellow flavonoids (22.07 mg/100g), anthocyanins (1.92 mg/100 g), polyphenols (3051.62 mg/100 g), starch (4.22%), antioxidant activity (489.40 g fruit/g DPPH and 198.77 μmol Trolox/g) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; the antioxidant activity allocated to the fruit was shown to be related to the contents of extractable polyphenols, yellow flavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant enzymes.

  10. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  11. Fruits Bioactive Compounds Characterization from a New Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Mariana RUS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (I to create a new product, smart bar type which can be consumed as protective food by adults and children (II to characterize the bioactive compounds from the designed food. The bioactive compounds were identified from nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds. Secoisolariciresinol (683 ppm has been identified as a major compound in flax seeds.  The vitamin C was quantified by HPLC in a concentration of 35.02 mg% in cranberries extract. The total phenolic content varied from 7.1 mg/g for walnut to 71.8 mg/g for cranberries. In addition, the antioxidative capability of phenolic compounds was monitored and evaluated using a colored free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Almond showed better results than walnut in the antioxidant capacity test. The results obtained in this study collect information that enables the use of nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds as raw material for the production of smart bar which may serve as a new product for food market.

  12. Metabolites identification of bioactive licorice compounds in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qian, Yi; Wang, Qing; Yang, Yan-Fang; Ji, Shuai; Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Guo, De-An; Liang, Hong; Ye, Min

    2015-11-10

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) is one of the most popular herbal medicines worldwide. This study aims to identify the metabolites of seven representative bioactive licorice compounds in rats. These compounds include 22β-acetoxyl glycyrrhizin (1), licoflavonol (2), licoricidin (3), licoisoflavanone (4), isoglycycoumarin (5), semilicoisoflavone B (6), and 3-methoxy-9-hydroxy-pterocarpan (7). After oral administration of 250mg/kg of 1 or 40mg/kg of 2-7 to rats, a total of 16, 43 and 31 metabolites were detected in the plasma, urine and fecal samples, respectively. The metabolites were characterized by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) and LC/IT-TOF-MS analyses. Particularly, two metabolites of 1 were unambiguously identified by comparing with reference standards, and 22β-acetoxyl glycyrrhizin-6″-methyl ester (1-M2) is a new compound. Compound 1 could be readily hydrolyzed to eliminate the glucuronic acid residue. The phenolic compounds (4-7) mainly undertook phase II metabolism (glucuronidation or sulfation). Most phenolic compounds with an isoprenyl group (chain or cyclized, 2-5) could also undertake hydroxylation reaction. This is the first study on in vivo metabolism of these licorice compounds. PMID:26311472

  13. Bioactive compounds and quality parameters of natural cloudy lemon juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçan, Filiz; Ağçam, Erdal; Akyildiz, Asiye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, bioactive compounds (phenolic and carotenoid) and some quality parameters (color, browning index and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) of natural cloudy lemon juice, pasteurized (90 °C/15 s) and storage stability of concentrated lemon juice (-25 °C/180 days) were carried out. Fifteen phenolic compounds were determined in the lemon juice and the most abounded phenolic compounds were hesperidin, eriocitrin, chlorogenic acid and neoeriocitrin. In generally, phenolic compound concentrations of lemon juice samples increased after the pasteurization treatment. Four carotenoid compounds (β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein and zeaxanthin) were detected in natural cloudy lemon juice. Lutein and β-cryptoxanthin were the most abounded carotenoid compounds in the lemon juice. Color values of the lemon juices were not affected by processing and storage periods. HMF and browning index of the lemon juices increased with concentration and storage. According to the results, storing at -25 °C was considered as sufficient for acceptable quality limits of natural cloudy lemon juice. PMID:27570271

  14. Effect of Dietary Bioactive Compounds on Mitochondrial and Metabolic Flexibility

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    Jose C. E. Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility is the capacity of an organism to adequately respond to changes in the environment, such as nutritional input, energetic demand, etc. An important player in the capacity of adaptation through different stages of metabolic demands is the mitochondrion. In this context, mitochondrial dysfunction has been attributed to be the onset and center of many chronic diseases, which are denoted by an inability to adapt fuel preferences and induce mitochondrial morphological changes to respond to metabolic demands, such as mitochondrial number, structure and function. Several nutritional interventions have shown the capacity to induce changes in mitochondrial biogenesis/degradation, oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, mitochondrial membrane composition, electron transfer chain capacity, etc., in metabolic inflexibility states that may open new target options and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic diseases. This review is focused in three well-recognized food bioactive compounds that modulate insulin sensitivity, polyphenols, ω-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber, by several mechanism of action, like caloric restriction properties and inflammatory environment modulation, both closely related to mitochondrial function and dynamics.

  15. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian

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    Lin Bi-Fong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f. Nees (Acanthaceae is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, anti-infective and anti-hepatotoxic; 14-deoxyandrographolide is immunomodulatory and anti-atherosclerotic. Among the less abundant compounds from A. paniculata, andrograpanin is both anti-inflammatory and anti-infective; 14-deoxy-14,15-dehydroandrographolide is anti-inflammatory; isoandrographolide, 3,19-isopropylideneandrographolide and 14-acetylandrographolide are tumor suppressive; arabinogalactan proteins are anti-hepatotoxic. The four flavonoids from A. paniculata, namely 7-O-methylwogonin, apigenin, onysilin and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid are anti-atherosclerotic.

  16. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  17. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

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    Isabel Borrás-Linares

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina.

  18. Production of Bioactive Compounds by Bacillus subtilis against Sclerotium rolfsii

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    Nalisha, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the characteristic of bioactive compound produced by Bacillus subtilis against Sclerotium rolfsii and the influence of additive supplements on the antagonistic activity of B. subtilis. The fact that B. subtilis produced an antifungal substance which has inhibitory effect on wide range of fungi, including S. rolfsii, is well known. To learn the effect of pH, temperature and light condition on the production of antifungal compound, B. subtilis was inoculated in Potato Dextrose Broth at various initial pH, temperatures and light conditions, respectively. This antagonist was found to produce antifungal compound that stable at 80C with 58.3 % inhibition on S. rolfsii. The activity was constant within a wide range of pH (3–11. However, treatment with pH11 lead to higher antifungal activity (31.57 % inhibition and it was also found to produce substance that can endure dark condition (46.24 % inhibition with fungicidal effect on S. rolfsii. A series of experiments also been carried out to enhance the antifungal production by supplementing different carbon source preparation into bacterial liquid culture. B. subtilis were grown in minimal medium containing 1 % of oil palm root, Ganoderma lucidum or chitin, respectively prior to bioassay. Crude culture from oil palm root supplemented culture shown significantly reduction in S. rolfsii growth compared to other carbon source crude culture or the antagonism alone, suggesting that this approach may provide improved biocontrol efficiency.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and bioactive compounds of four Brazilian native fruits

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    Cristiane C. Denardin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of extracts from araçá (Psidium cattleianum, butiá (Butia eriospatha, and pitanga (Eugenia uniflora fruits with different flesh colors (i.e., purple, red, and orange, and blackberries (Rubus sp.; cv. Xavante and Cherokee collected in the southern region of Brazil. The content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, and phenolics were determined. The profile of the phenolic compounds was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH assay, total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP assay, and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR assay. The Xavante blackberry and purple-fleshed pitanga showed the highest total phenolic content [816.50 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100g and 799.80 mg GAE/100g, respectively]. The araçá and red-fleshed pitanga showed the highest carotenoid content (6.27 ug β-carotene/g and 5.86 ug β-carotene/g, respectively. The fruits contained several phenolic compounds such as quercetin derivatives, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, and cyanidin derivatives, which may contribute differentially to the antioxidant capacity. The highest scavenging activity in the DPPH assay was found for purple-fleshed pitanga (IC50 36.78 mg/L, blackberries [IC50 44.70 (Xavante and IC50 78.25 mg/L (Cherokee], and araçá (IC50 48.05 mg/L, which also showed the highest FRAP, followed by orange- and red-fleshed pitanga. Our results revealed that some fruits grown in southern Brazil such as purple-fleshed pitanga, blackberries, and araçá are rich sources of phenolic compounds and have great antioxidant activity.

  20. Rational principles of compound selection for combinatorial library design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropsha, Alexander; Zheng, Weifan

    2002-03-01

    It is practically impossible in a short period of time to synthesize and test all compounds in any large exhaustive chemical library. We discuss rational approaches to selecting representative subsets of virtual libraries that help direct experimental synthetic efforts for both targeted and diverse library design. For targeted library design, we consider principles based on the similarity to lead molecules. In the case of diverse library design, we discuss algorithms aimed at the selection of both diverse and representative subsets of the entire chemical library space. We illustrate methodologies with several practical examples.

  1. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN COMMONLY UTILIZED LEGUME CULTIVARS FROM IRAQ

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    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Total polyphenol content as well as total antioxidant capacity in three chickpea, four fababean and four lentil cultivars from regions of Iraq with different environmental growth conditions were investigated in the work. The total polyphenol content (TP was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of legume extracts was measured using the DPPH spectrophotometrically. The obtained results confirmed that the polyphenols content in the tested legume cultivars was influenced by locality. From tested legumes the highest polyphenol content was measured in fababean (1220 – 6286 mg GAE.kg-1. In lentil (2351 – 3011 mgGAE.kg-1 the average TP value was slightly lower (by 1,6%, while in chickpea (549 – 978 mg GAE.kg-1 it was dramatically (by 71,5% lower in comparison to fababean. The similar trend was observed at values of TAC. The highest average TAC value was determined in fababean (15.2 – 25.6% DPPH, in lentil (14.2 – 28.9% DPPH the TAC value was by 2% and in chickpea (1.9 – 4.5% DPPH by 83,6% lower in comparison to fababean. Only in lentil a statistically strong correlation (P-value 2.391E-06; R = 0.802 was found. Our results confirmed that legumes can be a good source of bioactive compounds in the human nutrition.

  2. Evaluating the potential bioactivity of a novel compound ER1626.

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    Lijun Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. METHOD: MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis. RESULTS: ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis.

  3. The effects of bioactive compounds on biomarkers of obesity

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    Rebecca Coats

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The world is presently facing a prolonged struggle without a predictable cure. Obesity causes hundreds of thousands of fatalities each year, along with holding a position as a primary contributor to several other virulent chronic diseases. This review of scientific literature will examine the current state of obesity along with the mechanisms and biomarkers that lay the foundation for the development of the disease. Furthermore, this article will assess several functional foods and the bioactive compounds they contain that play an influential role in the prevention and treatment of obesity as a chronic disease. By presenting many relevant functional food research studies, this review aims to offer auxiliary support to traditional obesity treatments. The topic of functional foods and their relation to obesity is an extremely important topic to explore due to the severe expansion of obesity in the past few decades. Overall, the purpose of this review is to supply a comprehensive description of obesity and examine results of functional foods in clinical trials that may offer innovative benefits.

  4. Cheminformatics approaches to analyze diversity in compound screening libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, Lakshmi B; DeCaprio, David

    2010-06-01

    As high-throughput screening matures as a discipline, cheminformatics is playing an increasingly important role in selecting new compounds for diverse screening libraries. New visualization techniques such as multi-fusion similarity maps, scaffold trees, and principal moments of inertia plots provide complementary information on compound libraries and enable identification of unexplored regions of chemical space with potential biological relevance. Quantitative metrics have been developed to analyze libraries for properties such as natural product-likeness and shape complexity. Analysis of high-throughput screening results and drug discovery programs identify compounds problematic for screening. Taken together these approaches allow us to increase the diversity of biological outcomes available in compound screening libraries and improve the success rates of high-throughput screening against new targets without making significant increases in the size of compound libraries. PMID:20457001

  5. Bioactive compounds in potatoes: Accumulation under drought stress conditions

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    Christina B. Wegener

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potato (Solanum tuberosum is a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Besides starch, crude fibre, amino acids (AAS, vitamins and minerals, the tubers contain diverse phenolic compounds. These phenolics and AAS confer anti-oxidant protection against reactiveoxygen species, tissue damage, and diseases like atherosclerosis, renal failure, diabetes mellitus,and cancer. Climate change and drought stress may become a major risk for crop production worldwide, resulting in reduced access for those who depend on the nutritional value of this staple crop. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of drought stress on water, lipid soluble antioxidants, anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, free AAS, peroxidase (POD and lipid acyl hydrolase activity (LAH in tuber tissue. Methods: The study was carried out on three potato genotypes comprising one yellow-fleshed cultivar and two purple breeding clones. The plants were grown in pots (from April to September in a glasshouse with sufficient water supply and under drought stress conditions. After harvest, the tubers of both variants were analysed for antioxidants measured as ascorbic acid (ACE and Trolox equivalent (TXE using a photo-chemiluminescent method. Amounts of anthocyanins (Ac, soluble phenols, proteins, as well as POD and LAH activities were analysed using a UV photometer. Finally, free AAS were measured by HPLC. Results: The results revealed that drought stress significantly reduces tuber yield, but has no significant effect on antioxidants, Ac, soluble phenols and POD. Drought stress significantly increased the levels of soluble protein (P < 0.0001 and LAH (P < 0.001. Also, total amounts of free AAS were higher in the drought stressed tubers (+34.2%, on average than in the tubers grown with a sufficient water supply. Above all, proline was elevated due to drought stress.

  6. Production of hydroxy marilone C as a bioactive compound from

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    Osama H. El Sayed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy marilone C is a bioactive metabolite produced from the culture broth of Streptomyces badius isolated from Egyptian soil. Hydroxy marilone C was purified and fractionated by a silica gel column with a gradient mobile phase dichloromethane (DCM:methanol then Sephadex LH-20 column using methanol as a mobile phase. It was subjected to many procedures such as infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Mass spectroscopy (MS and UV spectroscopy for elucidation of its structure. It was evaluated for antioxidant, cytotoxicity against human alveolar basal epithelial cell line (A-549 and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7 and antiviral activities; showed that the maximum antioxidant activity was 78.8% at 3 mg/ml after 90 min. and the IC50 value against DPPH radical found about 1.5 mg/ml after 60 min. Using MTT assay the effect of the pure compound on the proliferation of A-549 cells and MCF-7 cells was 443 μg/ml and 147.9 μg/ml, respectively, while for detection of antiviral activity using Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells the maximum cytotoxicity was at 27.9% and IC50 was 128.1 μg/ml. The maximum concentration required for protecting 50% of the virus-infected cells against H1N1 viral cytopathogenicity (EC50 was 33.25% for 80 μg/ml. These results indicated that the hydroxy marilone C has potential antitumor and antiviral activities.

  7. Designing Multi-target Compound Libraries with Gaussian Process Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Michael; Reutlinger, Michael; Rodrigues, Tiago; Schneider, Petra; Kriegl, Jan M; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-05-01

    We present the application of machine learning models to selecting G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-focused compound libraries. The library design process was realized by ant colony optimization. A proprietary Boehringer-Ingelheim reference set consisting of 3519 compounds tested in dose-response assays at 11 GPCR targets served as training data for machine learning and activity prediction. We compared the usability of the proprietary data with a public data set from ChEMBL. Gaussian process models were trained to prioritize compounds from a virtual combinatorial library. We obtained meaningful models for three of the targets (5-HT2c , MCH, A1), which were experimentally confirmed for 12 of 15 selected and synthesized or purchased compounds. Overall, the models trained on the public data predicted the observed assay results more accurately. The results of this study motivate the use of Gaussian process regression on public data for virtual screening and target-focused compound library design.

  8. Minor bioactive compounds in milk and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Kocmanová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    Milk is an essential part of human nutrition at every stage of life, due to the balanced content of all necessary nutrients, valuable protein, lactose, fat and easily digestible bioactive minor components, especially vitamins and minerals. Milk is used as so - called ‘functional food’ due to its composition and positive effects on human health. Through the use of literature search it was possible to dispose compendium of minor bioactive substances found in milk and their effect on human he...

  9. Bioactive compounds of goat milk and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Petránková, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Summary Milk is for centuries the basic natural food of man. It is more than a source of nutrients. Due to its nutritional composition, specific effects on physiological and biochemical functions of the organism and the content of a wide range of bioactive substances, milk is ranked into the group of so-called functional foods. In this literature review was drawn sketch effect, particularly goat's milk, and it's bioactive substances on the human organism. At the end of this work are a...

  10. 1,3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITIONS APPROACH TO BIOACTIVE SPIROHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS 1,3-dipolare Cycloadditionen Ansatz zur BIOACTIVE

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    Essam M. Hussein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spiro compounds represent an important class of naturally occurring substances characterized by highly pronounced biological properties. The most developed avenue for the synthesis of these compounds depends on the cycloaddition to an exocyclic bond. 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions are considered to be one of the most useful processes for the construction of five membered heterocyclic ring systems in highly regio- and stereoselective manner. This review describes 1 general methods for generation and preparation of most important 1,3- dipoles such as nitrones, nitrile oxides and azomethine ylides; and 2 the most recent examples of synthetic applications of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions to bioactive spiroheterocyclic compounds.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from lemon balm and peppermint leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šic Žlabur, Jana; Voća, Sandra; Dobričević, Nadica; Pliestić, Stjepan; Galić, Ante; Boričević, Ana; Borić, Nataša

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction (frequency, time, temperature) on the content of bioactive compounds as well as on the antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from fresh lemon balm and peppermint leaves. Total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavonoids, total chlorophylls, total carotenoids, and radical scavenging capacity were determined. Moreover, the relationship between bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity was studied by linear regression. A significant increase in all studied bioactive compounds during ultrasonic extraction for 5 to 20 min was found. With the classical extraction method, the highest amounts of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were determined, and the maximum amounts of total chlorophylls and carotenoids were determined during 20 min ultrasonic extraction. The correlation analysis revealed a strong, positive relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds.

  12. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Lignin of Empty Bunch Palm Fiber and Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Prayuwidayati; T. C. Sunarti; Sumardi; Subeki; K. G. Wiryawan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of bioactive compounds isolated from purified lignin formacell (PLF) of empty bunch palm fiber as natural antimicrobes and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation. The first experiment was inhibition test of 11 bioactive compounds isolated from PLF, using disc diffusion method against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the most potential bioactive compounds were then used in ...

  13. Bioactive compounds of the main milk constituents and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Malecký, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Diet is a blend of nutrients that the body needs to obtain energy and building materials needed for growth and repair of cells, tissues and organs. The nutrients or bioactive subtances are divided into two main groups: basic nutrients (macronutritients) and additional nutrients (micronutritients). Essential nutrients are divided into proteins, fats, carbohydrates and the body needs in large doses. The first part of this work with the available literature focuses on the milk, its general d...

  14. Seasonal Effects on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Six Economically Important Brassica Vegetables

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    Eduardo A.S. Rosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L. as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total flavonoids of each sample. The climate seasons affected directly the concentration of bioactive components and the antioxidant activity. Broccoli inflorescences and Portuguese kale showed high antioxidant activity in Spring-Summer whilst turnip leaves did so in Summer-Winter. The Brassica vegetables can provide considerable amounts of bioactive compounds and thus may constitute an important natural source of dietary antioxidants.

  15. Isolation, partial purification and evaluation of bioactive compounds from leaves of Ageratum houstonianum

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Khan; Kumar, A; Rizvi, S.M.D.; M. Zeeshan

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation and partial purification of bioactive compounds from the crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum (Asteraceae). The quantification and the identification of compounds in the crude extract and active bands isolated by preparative TLC were accomplished using GC-MS analysis. The most important compounds identified in the crude extract and active bands (AB-1 and AB-2) were 6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, hexadecanoic acid ...

  16. EPlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plumb, J.; Lyons, J.; Nørby, Karin Kristiane;

    2015-01-01

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the......The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc......Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer...

  18. Structure-Based Virtual Screening of Commercially Available Compound Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Virtual screening (VS) is an efficient hit-finding tool. Its distinctive strength is that it allows one to screen compound libraries that are not available in the lab. Moreover, structure-based (SB) VS also enables an understanding of how the hit compounds bind the protein target, thus laying ground work for the rational hit-to-lead progression. SBVS requires a very limited experimental effort and is particularly well suited for academic labs and small biotech companies that, unlike pharmaceutical companies, do not have physical access to quality small-molecule libraries. Here, we describe SBVS of commercial compound libraries for Mer kinase inhibitors. The screening protocol relies on the docking algorithm Glide complemented by a post-docking filter based on structural protein-ligand interaction fingerprints (SPLIF). PMID:27316988

  19. Structure-Based Virtual Screening of Commercially Available Compound Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Virtual screening (VS) is an efficient hit-finding tool. Its distinctive strength is that it allows one to screen compound libraries that are not available in the lab. Moreover, structure-based (SB) VS also enables an understanding of how the hit compounds bind the protein target, thus laying ground work for the rational hit-to-lead progression. SBVS requires a very limited experimental effort and is particularly well suited for academic labs and small biotech companies that, unlike pharmaceutical companies, do not have physical access to quality small-molecule libraries. Here, we describe SBVS of commercial compound libraries for Mer kinase inhibitors. The screening protocol relies on the docking algorithm Glide complemented by a post-docking filter based on structural protein-ligand interaction fingerprints (SPLIF).

  20. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  1. In Vitro Wound Healing Potential and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam

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    Abubakar Amali Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam. (M. oleifera from the monogeneric family Moringaceae is found in tropical and subtropical countries. The present study was aimed at exploring the in vitro wound healing potential of M. oleifera and identification of active compounds that may be responsible for its wound healing action. The study included cell viability, proliferation, and wound scratch test assays. Different solvent crude extracts were screened, and the most active crude extract was further subjected to differential bioguided fractionation. Fractions were also screened and most active aqueous fraction was finally obtained for further investigation. HPLC and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for identification and confirmation of bioactive compounds. The results of our study demonstrated that aqueous fraction of M. oleifera significantly enhanced proliferation and viability as well as migration of human dermal fibroblast (HDF cells compared to the untreated control and other fractions. The HPLC and LC-MS/MS studies revealed kaempferol and quercetin compounds in the crude methanolic extract and a major bioactive compound Vicenin-2 was identified in the bioactive aqueous fraction which was confirmed with standard Vicenin-2 using HPLC and UV spectroscopic methods. These findings suggest that bioactive fraction of M. oleifera containing Vicenin-2 compound may enhance faster wound healing in vitro.

  2. In vitro antifungal potentials of bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester isolated from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (Acanthaceae) inflorescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maghdu Nainamohamed Abubacker; Palaniyappan Kamala Devi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester from Lepidagathis cristata Willd. (L. cristata) and to assess antifungal potentials of the isolated compound. Methods: Aqueous extracts of L. cristata inflorescence were used for this study. The major bioactive compound isolated was tested for antifungal activities. Results: The major bioactive compound oleic acid, 3-(octadecyloxy) propyl ester was isolated from the inflorescence of L. cristata. The bioactive compound was tested for antifungal potentials and found to be highly effective to plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum fulcatum NCBT 146, Fusarium oxysporum NCBT 156 and Rhizoctonia solani NCBT 196 as well as for the human pathogenic fungi Curvularia lunata MTCC 2030 and Microsporum canis MTCC 2820. Conclusions: The results justify the antifungal potentials of both plant and human pathogenic fungi. The plant bioactive compound will be helpful in herbal antifungal formulations.

  3. A New Compound Isolated from a Bioactive Streptomycete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Qing LI; Xue Shi HUANG; Ming Gang LI; Isabel SATrLER; Meng Liang WEN; Susanne GRABLEY

    2005-01-01

    A new compound, named (S)-α-acetylamino-β-(3-indole)propanol (1) was isolated, along with two known compounds teleocidin B 1 and emycin B from culture broth of a streptomycete strain YIM33176 (streptomyces pleomorphus). The structure of 1 was determined by detailed spectroscopic investigation.

  4. Characterization of phenolic compounds using separation techniques coupled to mass spectrometry of plant extracts with demonstrated bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Iswaldi, Ihsan

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis, entitled "Characterization of phenolic compounds using separation techniques coupled to mass spectrometry of plant extracts with demonstrated bioactivity", consists of two main sections: the Introduction and the Experimental Section. The first section describes an overview of traditional medicine and functional food, plant foods as natural source of bioactive compounds, polyphenols and bioactivity and the analytical tools used to identify polyphenols such as high-pe...

  5. Endophytes: A Treasure House of Bioactive Compounds of Medicinal Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Das, Gitishree; Sen, Sandeep K.; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use. PMID:27746767

  6. OrgTrace – No difference found in bioactive compounds of organic and conventional crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Søltoft, Malene; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    years as well as soil types. The results showed that contents of neither polyacetylenes and carotenoids in carrots, flavonoids in onions, nor phenolic acids in carrots and potatoes were significantly influenced by growth system. Thus it could not be concluded that the organically grown crops had higher......The objective of the present study was to compare the content of selected bioactive compounds in organically and conventionally grown crops, and to evaluate if the ability of the crops to synthesize selected secondary metabolites was systematically affected by growth systems across different growth...... contents of bioactive compounds than the conventionally grown. This indicates that giving preference to organic products because they contain more bioactive components is doubtfull. However, there are many other reasons for the consumer to choose organic food products, including: no pesticide residues in...

  7. Biodiversity in production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Girish; Balachandran, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Microbes continue to play a highly considerable role in the drug discovery and development process. Nevertheless, the number of new chemical entities (NCEs) of microbial origin that has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been reduced in the past decade. This scarcity can be partly attributed to the redundancy in the discovered molecules from microbial isolates, which are isolated from common terrestrial ecological units. However, this situation can be partly overcome by exploring rarely exploited ecological niches as the source of microbes, which reduces the chances of isolating compounds similar to existing ones. The use of modern and advanced isolation techniques, modification of the existing fermentation methods, genetic modifications to induce expression of silent genes, analytical tools for the detection and identification of new chemical entities, use of polymers in fermentation to enhance yield of fermented compounds, and so on, have all aided in enhancing the frequency of acquiring novel compounds. These compounds are representative of numerous classes of diverse compounds. Thus, compounds of microbial origin and their analogues undergoing clinical trials continue to demonstrate the importance of compounds from microbial sources in modern drug discovery.

  8. Encapsulation of bioactive compound from extracted jasmine flower using β-Cyclodextrin via electrospray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmam., S.; Naim., M. N.; Ng., E.; Mokhtar, M. Nn; Abu Bakar, N. F.

    2016-06-01

    The ability of electrospray to encapsulate the bioactive compound extracted from Jasmine flower with β-Cyclodextrion (β-CD) without any thermal-assisted processing was demonstrated in this study. The extraction of Jasmine compound were conducted using sonicator at 70 000 Hz, for 10 minutes and followed by mixing of the filtered compound with β-CD. Then, the mixture was electrosprayed under a stable Taylor cone jet mode at the voltage of 4 - 5 kV, with flow rate of 0.2 ml/hour. The aluminum substrate that used for collecting the deposit was placed at 30 cm from the needle's tip to allow the occurrence of evaporation and droplet fission until the droplet transform to solid particles. Characteristics of solidified bioactive compound from Jasmine flower (non-encapsulated compound) and solidified bioactive compound with β-CD (encapsulated compound) were studied in this work. From SEM images, it can be observed that the particles size distribution of encapsulated compound deposits have better deposition array and did not aggregate with each other compared to the non-encapsulated compound. FE-SEM images of encapsulated compound deposits indicate more solid crystal looks while non-encapsulated compound was obtained in the porous form. The electrospray process in this work has successfully encapsulated the Jasmine compound with β-CD without any thermal-assisted process. The encapsulation occurrence was determined using FTIR analysis. Identical peaks that referred to the β-CD were found on the encapsulated compound demonstrated that most deposits were encapsulated with β-CD.

  9. Natural bioactive compounds from winery by-products as health promoters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana; Baenas, Nieves; Dominguez-Perles, Raul; Barros, Ana; Rosa, Eduardo; Moreno, Diego A; Garcia-Viguera, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The relevance of food composition for human health has increased consumers' interest in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, as well as foods enriched in bioactive compounds and nutraceuticals. This fact has led to a growing attention of suppliers on reuse of agro-industrial wastes rich in healthy plant ingredients. On this matter, grape has been pointed out as a rich source of bioactive compounds. Currently, up to 210 million tons of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) are produced annually, being the 15% of the produced grapes addressed to the wine-making industry. This socio-economic activity generates a large amount of solid waste (up to 30%, w/w of the material used). Winery wastes include biodegradable solids namely stems, skins, and seeds. Bioactive compounds from winery by-products have disclosed interesting health promoting activities both in vitro and in vivo. This is a comprehensive review on the phytochemicals present in winery by-products, extraction techniques, industrial uses, and biological activities demonstrated by their bioactive compounds concerning potential for human health. PMID:25192288

  10. Antialgal and antilarval activities of bioactive compounds extracted from the marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianyu; Han, Xiurong; Gao, Min; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    With the global ban on the application of organotin-based marine coatings by the International Maritime Organization, the development of environmentally friendly, low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries has become an urgent need. Marine microorganisms have been considered as a potential source of natural antifoulants. In this study, the antifouling potential of marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae, the toxic and red-tide microalgae, was investigated. We performed a series of operations to extract the bioactive substances from Amphidinium carterae and tested their antialgal and antilarval activities. The crude extract of Amphidinium carterae showed significant antialgal activity and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 55.4 μg mL-1. After purification, the isolated bioactive substances (the organic extract C) exhibited much higher antialgal and antilarval activities with EC50 of 12.9 μg mL-1 against Skeletonema costatum and LC50 of 15.1 μg mL-1 against Amphibalanus Amphitrite larvae. Subsequently, IR, Q-TOFMS, and GC-MS were utilized for the structural elucidation of the bioactive compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- to 22-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested the bioactive compounds isolated from Amphidinium carterae exhibited a significant inhibiting effect against the diatom Skeletonema costatum and Amphibalanus Amphitrite larvae, and could be substitutes for persistent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  11. Functional food productions: release the potential of bioactive compounds through food processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological studies of bioactive compounds from plant-based foods have consistently pointed to undisputed benefits of consumption of plant-based foods on human health particularly regarding cardiovascular diseases and cancers. However, in order to attain the dosage required from these studies, p...

  12. Effect of time and temperature on bioactive compounds in germinated Brazilian soybean cultivar BRS 258

    Science.gov (United States)

    The consumption of soybeans and soybean products has increased in the last few years due to the functional properties of bioactive compounds such as lunasin, Bowman Birk Inhibitor (BBI), lectin, saponins, and isoflavones. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination of soy...

  13. Bioactive compounds in dairy products and their relation to neurodegenerative disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhancement of nervous system function and cognitive ability may be aided by bioactive compounds found in dairy products, including calcium-binding phosphopeptides and peptides derived from casein and beta-lactoglobulin. These peptides inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme I, scavenge radicals, red...

  14. Solvent-free microwave extraction of bioactive compounds provides a tool for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ying LI; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview on solvent-free microwave-extraction techniques of bioactive compounds from natural products. This new technique is based on the concept of green analytical chemistry. It has proved to be an alternative to other techniques with the advantages of reducing extraction times, energy consumption, solvent use and CO2 emissions.

  15. Quantification of six bioactive compounds in Zhenqi Fuzheng preparation by high-performance liquid chromatography couple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Kai Shi; Fang Cui; Fang-Di Hu; Ying-Yan Bi; Yu-Feng Ma; Shi-Lan Feng

    2011-01-01

    A simple and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)coupled with diode array detector(DAD)and evaporative light scattering detector(ELSD)was established for the determination of six bioactive compounds in Zhenqi Fuzheng preparation(ZFP).The

  16. Nutritional value, bioactive compounds, and health benefits of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most popularly consumed vegetables worldwide but its nutritional value has been underestimated. Lettuce is low in calories and fat but high in fiber. Moreover, lettuce is high in potassium but low in sodium. Lettuce is also a good source of health-beneficial bioactive compounds...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Hoeflea sp. Strain BAL378, a Potential Producer of Bioactive Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzon-Tilia, Mikkel; Riemann, Lasse; Gram, Lone

    2014-01-01

    Some phytoplankton-associated marine bacteria produce bioactive compounds. Members of the genus Hoeflea may be examples of such bacteria; however, data describing their metabolisms are scarce. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Hoeflea sp. strain BAL378, a putative producer of bacterioc...... of bacteriocins, polyketides, and auxins, as demonstrated by genome mining....

  18. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukova, Natalia V

    2014-01-01

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldia...

  19. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    OpenAIRE

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Edmar CLEMENTE

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorph...

  20. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Eduardo A.S.; Saavedra, Maria J; Alfredo Aires; Rosa Carvalho; Conceição Fernandes; Bennett, Richard N

    2011-01-01

    Research on natural and bioactive compounds is increasingly focused on their effects on human health, but there are unexpectedly few studies evaluating the relationship between climate and natural antioxidants. The aim of this study was analyze the biological role of six different Brassica vegetables (Brassica oleracea L. and Brassica rapa L.) as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. The antioxidant activity may be assigned to high levels of L-ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total fla...

  1. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity of Camarosa and Selva Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Van De Velde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries represent an important source of bioactive compounds due to their vitamin C and phenolic compound levels, which present high antioxidant effects, beneficial for the maintenance of consumer’s health. Argentina is the second largest strawberry producer in The Common Market of the Southern Cone (MERCOSUR, covering the main export destinations of Argentinian strawberries, i.e., Canada, United States, and European Union. Information about the bioactive compound occurrence and antioxidant capacity of these fruits is scarce or not available. Health related compounds of strawberry cultivars (Camarosa and Selva from different zones of Argentina were investigated. Vitamin C content was in the same range for both studied cultivars. However, Camarosa strawberries, which are the most cultivated, consumed, and exported berries in Argentina, presented higher total phenolic and anthocyanins content, and consequently better in vitro antioxidant capacity. Moreover, there were differences in the occurrence and concentration in the phenolic compound profiles for both cultivars. Camarosa cultivar presented higher content of anthocyanidins, and Selva showed higher total ellagic acid content. The research shows that Argentina’s strawberries are an interesting source of bioactive compounds comparable to those in other parts of the world.

  2. Bioactivity of the compounds isolated from Blepharocalyx salicifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequias P. Siqueira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg, Myrtaceae, is an endemic species that occurs at Southern America. This species was studied to intend to isolation of the active compounds that could be used in vitro model against leishmaniosis, tumoral cell and paracoccidioidomycosis. After Gel Permeation Chromatography, the ethanolic extract from leaves yielded sixteen fractions. Five compounds were isolated and assayed, showing activity against tumoral cells, from 3.33 to 12.83 µg.mL-1; Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis from 2.19 to 20.80 µg.mL-1 and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis from 3.10 to 12.5 µg.mL-1.

  3. Bioactive sesquiterpene lactones and other compounds isolated from Vernonia cinerea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ui Joung; Miklossy, Gabriella; Chai, Xingyun; Wongwiwatthananukit, Supakit; Toyama, Onoomar; Songsak, Thanapat; Turkson, James; Chang, Leng Chee

    2014-01-01

    Four new sesquiterpene lactones, 8α-(2′Z-tigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide (1), 8α-(2′Z-tigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate (2), 8α-(4-hydroxytigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide (3), and 8α-hydroxy-13-O-tigloyl-hirsutinolide (4), along with seven known derivatives (5–11), three norisoprenoids (12–14), a flavonoid (15), and a linoleic acid derivative (16), were isolated from the chloroform partition of a methanol extract from the combined leaves and stems of Vernonia cinerea. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR, UV, and MS analyses. Compounds 1–16 were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against the viability of U251MG glioblastoma and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that harbour aberrantly-active STAT3, compared to normal NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts that show no evidence of activated STAT3. Among the isolates, compounds 2 and 7 inhibited the aberrant STAT3 activity in glioblastoma or breast cancer cells. Further, compounds 7 and 8 inhibited viability of all three cell lines, compounds 2, 4, and 9 predominantly inhibited the viability of the U251MG glioblastoma cell line. PMID:24370662

  4. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  5. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  6. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  7. HPLC ANALYSIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN TEN DIFFERENT WILD TYPE UNDER-UTILIZED LEGUME GRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellingiri Vadivel and Hans Konrad Biesalski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many food industries have been initiated the formulation of nutraceutical/functional foods by incorporating the bioactive ingredients for the prevention/treatment of certain chronic diseases. In this connection, certain promising wild type under-utilized legume grains received more attention, since they are naturally a rich source of L-Dopa (precursor of dopamine and certain bioactive compounds including phenolics, tannins and phytic acid. In the present study, seed materials of certain promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Abrus precatorius L., Acacia leucopholea Willd, Bauhinia varigata L., Canavalia gladiata (Jacq. DC., Cassia floribunda Cav., Entada scandens Benth., Indigofera linifolia (L.f. Retz., Mucuna monosperma DC. Ex Wight., Sesbania bispinosa (Jacq. Wight. and Tamarindus indica L., collected from Eastern and Western Ghats of South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds through HPLC technique. All the analysed samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (4.23 – 8.75 g/100 g DM, tannins (1.04 – 5.41 g /100 g DM, L-Dopa (1.17 – 5.34 g/100 g DM and phytic acid (0.96 – 2.74 g/100 g DM and also the newly developed HPLC procedures were proven to be sensitive enough to detect these bioactive compounds even at tracer level. Further, such wild type legume grains could be recommended as a natural source of bioactive compounds in the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as Parkinsonism, diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc.

  8. Evaluation of Mycelial Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds, and Antioxidants of Five Himalayan Entomopathogenic Ascomyceteous Fungi from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapan Kumar; Gautam, Nandini; Atri, Narender Singh

    2015-01-01

    In this study, using standard methods, mycelial nutrients, bioactive compounds, and antioxidants were analyzed for the first time for five fungal species: Isaria sinclairii (Berk.) Lloyd, I. tenuipes Peck, I. japonica Yasuda, I. farinosa (Holmsk) Fr. and Cordyceps tuberculata (Lebert) Maire. All of these species were low in fat content and rich in protein, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates. Mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, and Ca) were detected in appreciable amounts. All three types of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated) as well as bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, phenolic compounds, and polysaccharides) were detected for each species. The investigated species showed high ferric-reducing antioxidant power as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Although differences were observed in the values of each species, each species showed richness in one or more components. PMID:26559700

  9. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno Bonnet, Christelle; Hubert, Olivier; Mbeguie-A-Mbeguie, Didier; Pallet, Dominique; Hiol, Abel; Reynes, Max; Poucheret, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    The combined influence of maturation, ripening, and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine). Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method. The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening, while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase. Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening, its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile. Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation, ripening, and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M. acuminata, AAA, Cavendish, cv. Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  10. Effect of physiological harvest stages on the composition of bioactive compounds in Cavendish bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christelle BRUNO BONNET; Olivier HUBERT; Didier MBEGUIE-A-MBEGUIE; Dominique PALLET; Abel HIOL; Max REYNES; Patrick POUCHERET

    2013-01-01

    The combined influence of maturation,ripening,and climate on the profile of bioactive compounds was studied in banana (Musa acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine).Their bioactive compounds were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high-performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method.The polyphenol content of bananas harvested after 400 degree days remained unchanged during ripening,while bananas harvested after 600 and 900 degree days exhibited a significant polyphenol increase.Although dopamine was the polyphenol with the highest concentration in banana peels during the green developmental stage and ripening,its kinetics differed from the total polyphenol profile.Our results showed that this matrix of choice (maturation,ripening,and climate) may allow selection of the banana (M.acuminata,AAA,Cavendish,cv.Grande Naine) status that will produce optimal concentrations of identified compounds with human health relevance.

  11. Effects of selected bioactive food compounds on human white adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björk, Christel; Wilhelm, Uta; Mandrup, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    (PI) on adipokine secretion, fatty acid metabolism (lipolysis/lipogenesis) and adipocyte differentiation (lipid accumulation) was studied in human fat cells differentiated in vitro. To investigate possible synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects, DHA was also combined with AC or PI. RESULTS...... of the compounds was found to be cytotoxic. CONCLUSION: The studied bioactive food compounds or their metabolites have beneficial effects in human primary fat cells measured as decreased basal lipolytic activity and secretion of inflammatory markers. A minor effect was also observed on insulin-stimulated glucose......BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that intake of specific bioactive compounds may have beneficial clinical effects on adipose tissue partly due to their anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selected...

  12. A High-Throughput Yeast Halo Assay for Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Walter; Lokey, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    When a disk of filter paper is impregnated with a cytotoxic or cytostatic drug and added to solid medium seeded with yeast, a visible clear zone forms around the disk whose size depends on the concentration and potency of the drug. This is the traditional "halo" assay and provides a convenient, if low-throughput, read-out of biological activity that has been the mainstay of antifungal and antibiotic testing for decades. Here, we describe a protocol for a high-throughput version of the halo assay, which uses an array of 384 pins to deliver ∼200 nL of stock solutions from compound plates onto single-well plates seeded with yeast. Using a plate reader in the absorbance mode, the resulting halos can be quantified and the data archived in the form of flat files that can be connected to compound databases with standard software. This assay has the convenience associated with the visual readout of the traditional halo assay but uses far less material and can be automated to screen thousands of compounds per day. PMID:27587777

  13. Antioxidant-Prooxidant Properties of a New Organoselenium Compound Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sanmartín

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the biological evaluation of a library of 59 organo-selenium compounds as superoxide (O2─ generators and cytotoxic agents in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and in breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7. In order to corroborate that the biological activity for selenium compounds depends on the chemical form, a broad structural variety is presented. These structures include selenocyanates, diselenides, selenoalkyl functional moieties and eight newly synthesized symmetrically substituted dithioselenites and selenylureas. Eleven of the derivatives tested showed high levels of superoxide generation in vitro via oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH and nine of them were more catalytic than the reference compound, diselenodipropionic acid. Eighteen of the library compounds inhibited cell growth more than or similar to reference chemotherapeutic drugs in PC-3 and eleven were more potent cytotoxic agents than etoposide in the MCF-7 cell line. Considering both parameters (superoxide generation and cell cytotoxicity compounds B1, C6 and C9 displayed the best therapeutic profiles. Considering that many diselenide compounds can generate superoxide (O2─ in vitro via oxidation of GSH and other thiols, the analogue B1, that contains a diselenide moiety, was selected for a preliminary mechanistic investigation, which . revealed that B1 has apoptogenic effects similar to camptothecin mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS in lymphocytic leukemia cells (CCRF-CEM and affected the MCF-7 cell-cycle in G2/M and S-phases.

  14. Effect of Mobile Phase Additives on the Resolution of Four Bioactive Compounds by RP-HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of mobile phase additives enhances the separation and resolution of the bioactive compounds on the C18 column. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, and scoparone from Herba Artemisiae Scopariae were investigated as the target compounds. Acetic acid, triethylamine, inorganic salts, and several ionic liquids were added as mobile phase additives into methanol/water (40:60, v/v. The result revealed that a mobile phase with 0.01 mol/L of ionic liquid [BMIM][BF4] enabled the optimum separation of the four target compounds.

  15. Bovine and soybean milk bioactive compounds: Effects on inflammatory response of human intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Rosa; Aresta, Antonella; Trapani, Adriana; Zambonin, Carlo; Cianciulli, Antonia; Salvatore, Rosaria; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo; Panaro, Maria Antonietta

    2016-11-01

    In this study the effects of commercial bovine and soybean milks and their bioactive compounds, namely genistein, daidzein and equol, on the inflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of human intestinal Caco-2 cells were examined, in terms of nitric oxide (NO) release and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) expression. Both milks and their bioactive compounds significantly inhibited, dose-dependently, the expression of iNOS mRNA and protein, resulting in a decreased NO production. The NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulated intestinal cells was also examined. In all cases we observed that cell pre-treatment before LPS activation inhibited the IkB phosphorylation. Accordingly, quantification of bioactive compounds by solid phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography has shown that they were absorbed, metabolized and released by Caco-2 cells in culture media. In conclusion, we demonstrated that milks and compounds tested are able to reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses from intestinal cells, interfering with NF-kB dependent molecular mechanisms. PMID:27211648

  16. Germination Time Dependence of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Germinated Rough Rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuchita Moongngarm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Germinated rice has been recognized as a functional food and its health benefits. However, most related studies were on germinated brown rice but our previous study indicated that germination of rough rice was an effective method to obtain high concentrations of bioactive compounds. Germination time is one of the most important factors affecting the level of biochemical compositions and antioxidant activity. Approach: Rough rice seeds were soaked in water for 2 days and germinated for four different days (1- 4 days. Total phenolic compounds, phytic acid, á-tocopherol, á- tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol were investigated compared with those of ungerminated brown rice. The antioxidant activity of germinated rice was evaluated through four different methods, the 1, 1- Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, lipid peroxidation assay and linoleic acid emulsion system-thiocyanate method. Results: The results showed that the germination for 2 days or longer, after soaking, yielded significantly higher level of total phenolic, á-tocopherol, á-tocopherol, á-tocotrienol and á-oryzanol than those of ungerminated brown rice and soaked rice, whilst the concentration of phytic acid was reduced significantly when germination time was increased. The samples germinated for one day or longer also revealed greater antioxidant activity than those of ungerminated rice. Conclusion: The level of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of germinated rough rice were affected by germination time. Germination for 2 and 3 days was the optimum time for germination rough rice to obtain high concentration of bioactive compounds and high antioxidant activity. The germination process of rough rice could be a potential method to obtain functional germinated rice flour with high bioactive compounds and health beneficial properties and could be applied to produce

  17. Aromatic Plants as a Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Florou-Paneri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants, also known as herbs and spices, have been used since antiquity as folk medicine and as preservatives in foods. The best known aromatic plants, such as oregano, rosemary, sage, anise, basil, etc., originate from the Mediterranean area. They contain many biologically active compounds, mainly polyphenolics, which have been found to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory properties. Currently, the demand for these plants and their derivatives has increased because they are natural, eco-friendly and generally recognized as safe products. Therefore, aromatic plants and their extracts have the potential to become new generation substances for human and animal nutrition and health. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the literature surrounding the in vivo and in vitro use of aromatic plants.

  18. Zebrafish dives into food research: effectiveness assessment of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, M; Iturria, I; Martinez-Santos, M; Pardo, M A; Rainieri, S; Tueros, I; Navarro, V

    2016-06-15

    Zebrafish have been traditionally used in ecotoxicology and developmental biology. However, due to the advances in available methodologies and the similitude with mammals, it has been increasingly used in other fields. One of the most recent fields using zebrafish is food research, being the focus of this review. Most relevant and recent publications including food component toxicity and key metabolic effects together with effectiveness on some zebrafish disease models have been reviewed. This model is a good intermediate tool between in vitro and rodent models, because it provides information from a complete organism in a fast and cost-effective manner. Definitely, in the near future, we will see this model being used by the ingredient suppliers and scientists in order to show the potential impact on health of several compounds. PMID:27109696

  19. Chemical quality parameters and bioactive compound content of brazilian berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Mota Segantini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing consumer demand for higher healthy foods such as berries which are a rich source of phenolic compounds. The current work evaluated blackberry cultivars: Cherokee, Tupy and Xavante; raspberry cultivars: Heritage, Fallgold and Black; and the hybrid Boysenberry. All berries were grown under homogenous subtropical conditions in Brazil. Black raspberry, Cherokee and Tupy blackberry cultivars showed the highest ratio between soluble solid contents and titratable acidity, and Fallgold and Heritage raspberry showed the highest titratable acidity. Total phenolic content ranged from 2.03 to 5.33 g kg–1 fresh weight and total anthocyanin content registered values from 0.41 to 1.81 g kg–1 fresh weight. The most common phenolic acids were gallic, p-coumaric and ellagic, and for anthocyanins: cyanidin-3-glucoside and malvinidin-3-glucoside. Antioxidant capacity ranged from 14.13 to 21.51 mol equivalent trolox kg–1 fresh weight. Black raspberry, all blackberry cultivars and the Boysenberry hybrid are appropriate to be consumed fresh, while Fallgold and Heritage raspberries are recommended to the food industry. Due to their phenolic richness and antioxidant properties, these fruits are of great interest to the fresh fruit market and to pharmaceutical industries. These results could help breeders and growers when planning the cultivar selection according to their foreseeable destination.

  20. Bioactivity of volatile organic compounds produced by Pseudomonas tolaasii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eLo Cantore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas tolaasii is the main bacterial pathogen of several mushroom species. In this paper we report that strains of P. tolaasii produce volatile substances inducing in vitro mycelia growth inhibition of Pleurotus ostreatus and P. eryngii, and Agaricus bisporus and P. ostreatus basidiome tissue blocks brown discoloration. P. tolaasii strains produced the volatile ammonia but not hydrogen cyanide. Among the volatiles detected by GC-MS, methanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, and 1-undecene were identified. The latter, when assayed individually as pure compounds, led to similar effects noticed when P. tolaasii volatiles natural blend was used on mushrooms mycelia and basidiome tissue blocks. Furthermore, the natural volatile mixture, resulted toxic toward lettuce and broccoli seedling growth. In contrast, pure volatiles showed different activity according to their nature and/or doses applied. Indeed, methanethiol resulted toxic at all the doses used, while dimethyl disulfide toxicity was assessed till a quantity of 1.25 µg, below which it caused, together with 1-undecene ( 10 µg, broccoli growth increase.

  1. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Microalgae in Chronic Inflammation and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Talero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The risk of onset of cancer is influenced by poorly controlled chronic inflammatory processes. Inflammatory diseases related to cancer development include inflammatory bowel disease, which can lead to colon cancer, or actinic keratosis, associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Chronic inflammatory states expose these patients to a number of signals with tumorigenic effects, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins release and ROS production. In addition, the participation of inflammasomes, autophagy and sirtuins has been demonstrated in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Chemoprevention consists in the use of drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to reduce the risk of developing or having a recurrence of cancer. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have established the potential colon and skin cancer chemopreventive properties of substances from marine environment, including microalgae species and their products (carotenoids, fatty acids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and proteins. This review summarizes the main mechanisms of actions of these compounds in the chemoprevention of these cancers. These actions include suppression of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic responses and increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

  2. Enzymatic synthesis of bioactive compounds with high potential for cosmeceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou, Io; Varriale, Simona; Topakas, Evangelos; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul; Faraco, Vincenza

    2016-08-01

    Cosmeceuticals are cosmetic products containing biologically active ingredients purporting to offer a pharmaceutical therapeutic benefit. The active ingredients can be extracted and purified from natural sources (botanicals, herbal extracts, or animals) but can also be obtained biotechnologically by fermentation and cell cultures or by enzymatic synthesis and modification of natural compounds. A cosmeceutical ingredient should possess an attractive property such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, skin whitening, anti-aging, anti-wrinkling, or photoprotective activity, among others. During the past years, there has been an increased interest on the enzymatic synthesis of bioactive esters and glycosides based on (trans)esterification, (trans)glycosylation, or oxidation reactions. Natural bioactive compounds with exceptional theurapeutic properties and low toxicity may offer a new insight into the design and development of potent and beneficial cosmetics. This review gives an overview of the enzymatic modifications which are performed currently for the synthesis of products with attractive properties for the cosmeceutical industry. PMID:27276911

  3. Production of Nanofibers Containing the Bioactive Compound C-Phycocyanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Felipe da Silva; Gettens, Juliana Garcia; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque; Moraes, Caroline Costa; Kalil, Susana Juliano

    2016-01-01

    C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a water-soluble phycobiliprotein present in light-harvesting antenna system of cyanobacteria. The nanostructures have not been widely evaluated, precluding improvements in stability and application of the C-PC. Electrospun nanofibers have an extremely high specific surface area due to their small diameter, they can be produced from a wide variety of polymers, and they are successfully evaluated to increase the efficacy of antitumor drugs. The incorporation of C-PC into nanofibers would allow investigations of potential uses in alternative cancer treatments and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this paper, C-phycocyanin were incorporated into the polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO) in various concentrations for nanofiber production via an electrospinning process. Nanofibers structures were analyzed using digital optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis was performed on the pure starting compounds and the produced nanofibers. At a concentration of 2% (w/w) of PEO, nanofibers were not produced, and concentrations of 4% (w/w) of PEO failed to produce nanofibers of good quality. Solutions with 6% (w/w) PEO, 6% (w/w) PEO plus 1% (w/w) NaCI, and 8% (w/w) PEO promote the formation of bluish, homogeneous and bead-free nanofibers with average diameters varying between 542.1 and 759.9 nm, as evaluated by optical microscopy. SEM analysis showed that nanofibers produced from polymer solutions containing 6% (w/w) PEO, 1% (w/w) NaCl and 3% (w/w) C-PC have an average diameter of 295 nm. Thermogravimetric analysis detected an increase in thermal resistance with the incorporation of C-phycocyanin into nanofibers. PMID:27398551

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    T JN Okonkwo; P O Osadebe

    2013-01-01

    Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP) was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water succes...

  5. GOAT SPERM SURFACE ALTERATION DURING EPIDIDYMAL MATURATION: AN EVALUATION BY MARINE BIOACTIVE COMPOUND FROM TELESCOPIUM TELESCOPIUM

    OpenAIRE

    HEMBRAM, Manik Lai; Datta, Uttam; Dasgupta, Raju

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bio-active compounds from marine flora and fauna contain various types of pharmacologically active novel biomolecules enriched with different types of lectins. Lectins, with high saccharide binding specificities have been considered important probe to monitor the changes in plasmamembrance during physiological maturation of spermatozoa. Cytosol fraction, isolated from the spermatheca and / or ovotestis gland of a marine mollusc Telescopium telescopium, specific for sialic acid, has b...

  6. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez; María Castro-Puyana; Mendiola, Jose A.; Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alejandro Cifuentes; Elena Ibáez

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospra...

  7. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Da Sun; Shikang Zhang; Yuefei Wang; Ping Xu; Yuejin Zhu; Le Ying

    2011-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assay. The best conditions obtained f...

  8. Preparation of a thermoresponsive polymer grafted polystyrene monolithic capillary for the separation of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Takuya; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    To develop aqueous microseparation columns for bioactive compounds, a thermoresponsive polymer grafted polymer monolith was prepared inside silica capillaries having an I.D. of 100μm by polymerization of styrene (St) with m/p-divinylbenzene (DVB) in the presence of polydimethylsiloxane as porogen, followed by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm). SEM analysis indicated that the resulting poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) grafted polystyrene monolith had a consecutive three-dimensionally interconnected structure and through-pores, similar to the base polystyrene (PSt) monolith. The elution behavior of steroids with different hydrophobicity was evaluated using micro-high-performance liquid chromatography in sole aqueous mobile phase. Temperature dependent interaction changes were observed between steroids and the PNIPAAm modified surfaces. Furthermore, the interaction between bioactive compounds and the PNIPAAm grafted PSt surfaces was controlled and eventually separate these molecules with different hydrophobicities by simple temperature modulation in aqueous environment. The PNIPAAm grafted PSt monolithic capillary showed improved separation properties of bioactive compounds, compared with a PNIPAAm grafted hollow capillary in aqueous environment.

  9. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity analysis. Analysis of Variance and Duncan’s multiple range tests were performed using the SAS program. The concentration of total phenolics, total flavonoids, total anthocyanin and % radical scavenging activity of the grape juices treated with microwave heating and ultrasonication increased significantly with increasing treatment time notably at 5 min treatment. It can be noted that all the bioactive contents and % radical scavenging activity were higher in noncold stabilized grape juice than in cold stabilized juices. However, blanching whole grapes for longer period of time before processing resulted in the decrease of all bioactive compounds and % radical scavenging activity both in non-cold stabilized and cold stabilized juice especially at 5 min blanching period. It was also showed that 1 min blanching is more effective in increasing the bioactive compounds of the grape juice as compared to other treatment time.

  10. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L. using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow, Sweet/Robusto (green, Fascinato/Robusto (red, Orangela/Terrano (orange, and Fascinato/Terrano (red. The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  11. Influence of culinary processing time on saffron's bioactive compounds (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Neira, Lidia; Lage-Yusty, María Asunción; López-Hernández, Julia

    2014-12-01

    Saffron, the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is used as a condiment spice. The major bioactive compounds are crocins, picrocrocin and safranal, which are responsible for the sensory profile of saffron (color, flavor and aroma, respectively), and also health-promoting properties. In this paper, the effect on the bioactive compounds of different cooking times in boiling water at 100 °C in samples of Saffron from La Mancha (safranal, picrocrocin, trans-crocin 4, cis-crocin 4 and trans-crocin 3) was investigated. Performance characteristics of High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Variable Wavelength Detector method, parameters of linearity, limits of detection and quantification are reported. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photo Diode Array-Mass Spectrometry was used as a confirmatory technique in crocins identification. When the samples are subjected to different cooking times, they present different behaviors, depending on the bioactive compound. In this way, no changes were observed in the concentration of picrocrocin, while heat culinary treatment adversely affects the concentrations of crocins and safranal.

  12. Synthesis of potentially bioactive compounds and tools for biological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR spectroscopy is one of the most versatile tools for studying structural parameters of organic and bioorganic compounds. It became a highly suitable method to achieve spectra simplification of macromolecules in combination with isotope labeling techniques. This technique is used to study protein structures, folding properties and mechanisms of chemical and biochemical reactions. Proteins typically feature a high molecular mass showing a high number of spin systems, being responsible for increasingly difficult to interpret NMR spectra, which is why it is essential to introduce 13C- and 15N- isotopes to obtain reasonable signal intensities. The development of a new synthetic route towards 13C-isotope labeled Phenylalanine or precursors thereof, starting from inexpensive and easily accessible labeled starting materials, is the main purpose of this work. Label sources such as [13C]-acetic acid, [13C]-formaldehyde, [13C]-allyl alcohol and [13C]-glycine will be used. The synthetic pathway will be carried out in a way where the position-selective incorporation of labeled isotopes can be performed. This important feature of the synthesis may open access towards newly designed NMR-experiments. Key steps for the tested route are ring closing metatheses as well as indium mediated reactions. The second part of this work focuses on the field of sugar chemistry, in particular on the family of deoxy sugars, components of many natural products, found in different plants, fungi and bacteria. Deoxy sugars also participate in a wide range of biological processes. Special focus is given to 3-deoxy sugars and the research of a versatile and flexible synthetic route for their preparation starting from the easily accessible D-glyceraldehyde. These sugars are found on Gram-negative bacteria where they are a key component of the lipopolysaccharides, or where they can take place in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in bacteria and plants. Being able to perform this synthesis on a

  13. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens) Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Uribe; Alvaro Delgadillo; Claudia Giovagnoli-Vicuña; Issis Quispe-Fuentes; Liliana Zura-Bravo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE), ultrasound (UE), agitation (AE), and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry) and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respecti...

  14. Potential Pharmacological Resources: Natural Bioactive Compounds from Marine-Derived Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Liming; Quan, Chunshan; Hou, Xiyan; Fan, Shengdi

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, a considerable number of structurally unique metabolites with biological and pharmacological activities have been isolated from the marine-derived fungi, such as polyketides, alkaloids, peptides, lactones, terpenoids and steroids. Some of these compounds have anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibiotic and cytotoxic properties. This review partially summarizes the new bioactive compounds from marine-derived fungi with classification according to the sources of fungi and their biological activities. Those fungi found from 2014 to the present are discussed.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of some bioactive compounds having oxygen and nitrogen heteroatom

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Poonam Yadav; Nalini V Purohit

    2013-01-01

    Some new 3,4-disubstituted isocoumarins were synthesized having bioactive pyrazole molecule at 3rd position of isocoumarin moiety (5a,b), from isocoumarin -3- carboxylic acid hydrazide (4a,b) followed by cyclization with acetyl acetone. A series of isocoumarin derivative having Schiff base as lateral side chain at 3rd position of isocoumarin moiety were also synthesized (7a,b), by condensing isocoumarin acid hydrazide and benzaldehyde derivative followed by dehydration. The chemical structures of all the compounds were determined by analytical and spectral method. The lead compounds were screened for antimicrobial and analgesic activities.

  16. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  17. A comparison of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit from Europe affected by genotype and latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josuttis, M.; Carlen, C.; Nestby, R.;

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four different growing locations from Stjørdal, Norway (63°36'N) to Conthey, Switzerland (46°12'N) on the composition of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of three genotypes (cvs Clery, Elsanta and Korona) was evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...... is altering not only by latitude, but also by the shift of the harvest period and the current weather conditions prior to harvest. In conclusion, genetic effects were generally stronger than environmental effects.......The effect of four different growing locations from Stjørdal, Norway (63°36'N) to Conthey, Switzerland (46°12'N) on the composition of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of three genotypes (cvs Clery, Elsanta and Korona) was evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...... to characterize differences in bioactives between genotypes within a location. Despite harvest period and year-to-year effects, a clear clustering related to the effects of the cultivars was shown. Furthermore, PCA was able to separate locations within a cultivar due to differences in bioactive compounds...

  18. Green algae Chlorococcum humicola- a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhagavathy S; Sumathi P; Jancy Sherene Bell I

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the existence of bioactive phytochemicals and their antimicrobial role of green algae Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola). Methods: The various organic solvents such as acetone, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol, hexane and methanol were used for the preparation of the algal extracts then subjected to chemical analysis and further used for the screening of antimicrobial assay. The purified carotenoid pigments and chlorophylls were used for the antimicrobial studies against the harmful pathogens Escherichia coli, Pseudomonasaeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibreo cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Results: The chemical analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, alkaloids, favanoids, fattyacids, saponins, aminoacids and carbohydrates. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts of green algae C. humicola shows activity in inhibiting the growth of virulent strains of bacteria and fungi pathogenic to human. Eight different extracts showed effective inhibitory action against the selected pathogens. Depends upon their existence of the bioactive compounds the different organic algal extracts shows difference in their inhibitory zone against the microbes. Out of all the organic extracts benzene and ethyl acetate extracts showed excellent effect nearly 80% microbial growth inhibition. The separated carotenoid and chlorophyll fractions of C. humicola, also results in the microbial growth inhibition. Conclusions: The present study concludes that green algae C. humicola are a rich and varied source of pharmacologically active natural products and nutraceuticals. While nutraceutical and pharmaceutical content in the baseline algae strain is very small, they showed excellent effect against the microbial pathogens.

  19. Fermentation of Plant Material - Effect on Sugar Content and Stability of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Bruno A. dos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction is a method often used to obtain products rich in bioactive compounds from plant material. Most of the solvents used for the poly-phenols extraction simultaneously extract also sugars, undesirable as a component of health-promoting food. Fermentation might be a simple, cheap and efficient way of sugar elimination. In our study, black tea and goji berries, both known for their health benefits, were used and alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was carried out to eliminate sugars. In the course of fermentation the concentration of polyphenols, L-theanine and carotenoids was evaluated in order to verify the preservation of selected bioactive compounds. Decreases in sugar content, formation of ethanol and yeasts growth were monitored during fermentation. The fermentation of black tea decreased the sugar concentration by 84% within 6 h without decreasing total polyphenols and L-theanine contents. Goji berry fermentation yielded a sugars decrease of 87% within 24 h, without decrease in poly-phenol content. However, carotenoid content was reduced by 17%. The study showed that fermentation was an effective way to decrease sugar content in plant extracts, and therefore it might be a pertinent step to concentrate bioactives.

  20. Natural Phyto-Bioactive Compounds for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: Inflammation as a Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Ganesan, Palanivel; Park, Shin-Young; Fakurazi, Sharida; Choi, Dong-Kug; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic, endocrine disorder which is characterized by hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance due to insulin resistance. Extensive research has confirmed that inflammation is closely involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes and its complications. Patients with diabetes display typical features of an inflammatory process characterized by the presence of cytokines, immune cell infiltration, impaired function and tissue destruction. Numerous anti-diabetic drugs are often prescribed to diabetic patients, to reduce the risk of diabetes through modulation of inflammation. However, those anti-diabetic drugs are often not successful as a result of side effects; therefore, researchers are searching for efficient natural therapeutic targets with less or no side effects. Natural products’ derived bioactive molecules have been proven to improve insulin resistance and associated complications through suppression of inflammatory signaling pathways. In this review article, we described the extraction, isolation and identification of bioactive compounds and its molecular mechanisms in the prevention of diabetes associated complications. PMID:27527213

  1. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-07-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of (1)H and (13)C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  2. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Specian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of ¹H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (Tyrosol. Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential.

  3. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of 1H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  4. Minimally processed mixed salad submitted to gamma radiation: effects on bioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases due to the presence of bioactive structures. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments because it is associated with practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. Low-dose of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processes has shown to be a promising strategy for extending shelf life and maintaining the organoleptic quality of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) free radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method in minimally processed mixed salad before and after different radiation doses. Samples of minimally processed mixed salad (with green and red cabbage and carrot) were purchased at local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ORAC were analyzed on the same extract prepared with MeOH. The results showed that bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increasing on radiation dose. Gamma-rays may affect these compounds and can cause degradation or oxidation, which can explain the drop on levels. Although the radiation has affected the bioactive contents, the process seems to be interesting to maintaining organoleptic characteristics and provide microbiological security at doses up to 2.0 kGy, according to studies conducted by our research group. (author)

  5. Infusion and decoction of wild German chamomile: bioactivity and characterization of organic acids and phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Queiroz, Maria João R P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-15

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognised potential in drug discovery. Herein, the methanol extract of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and its decoction and infusion (the most consumed preparations of this herb) were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation; the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture (non-tumour cells). All the samples revealed antioxidant properties. The decoction exhibited no antitumour activity (GI(50)>400 μg/mL) which could indicate that this bioactivity might be related to compounds (including phenolic compounds) that were not extracted or that were affected by the decoction procedure. Both plant methanol extract and infusion showed inhibitory activity to the growth of HCT-15 (GI(50) 250.24 and 298.23 μg/mL, respectively) and HeLa (GI(50) 259.36 and 277.67 μg/mL, respectively) cell lines, without hepatotoxicity (GI(50)>400 μg/mL). Infusion and decoction gave higher contents of organic acids (24.42 and 23.35 g/100g dw). Otherwise, the plant methanol extract contained the highest amounts of both phenolic acids (3.99 g/100g dw) and flavonoids (2.59 g/100g dw). The major compound found in all the preparations was luteolin O-acylhexoside. Overall, German chamomile contains important phytochemicals with bioactive properties (mainly antitumour potential selective to colon and cervical carcinoma cell lines) to be explored in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetics industries. PMID:23122148

  6. Minimally processed mixed salad submitted to gamma radiation: effects on bioactive compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: fmayumi@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lanfer-Marquez, Ursula M., E-mail: lanferum@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FCF/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental

    2015-07-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with a lowered incidence of oxidative stress-related diseases due to the presence of bioactive structures. Minimally processed products are a growing segment in food retail establishments because it is associated with practicality and convenience without significantly altering fresh-like characteristics. Low-dose of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processes has shown to be a promising strategy for extending shelf life and maintaining the organoleptic quality of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) free radical scavenging and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) method in minimally processed mixed salad before and after different radiation doses. Samples of minimally processed mixed salad (with green and red cabbage and carrot) were purchased at local supermarket and irradiated with doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. Phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant activity by DPPH• and ORAC were analyzed on the same extract prepared with MeOH. The results showed that bioactive compounds levels and antioxidant activity decreased significantly (p<0.05) with an increasing on radiation dose. Gamma-rays may affect these compounds and can cause degradation or oxidation, which can explain the drop on levels. Although the radiation has affected the bioactive contents, the process seems to be interesting to maintaining organoleptic characteristics and provide microbiological security at doses up to 2.0 kGy, according to studies conducted by our research group. (author)

  7. The role dietary of bioactive compounds on the regulation of histone acetylases and deacetylases: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid, F; Zand, H; Nosrat-Mirshekarlou, E; Najafi, R; Hekmatdoost, A

    2015-05-10

    Nutrigenomics is an area of epigenomics that explores and defines the rapidly evolving field of diet-genome interactions. Lifestyle and diet can significantly influence epigenetic mechanisms, which cause heritable changes in gene expression without changes in DNA sequence. Nutrient-dependent epigenetic variations can significantly affect genome stability, mRNA and protein expression, and metabolic changes, which in turn influence food absorption and the activity of its constituents. Dietary bioactive compounds can affect epigenetic alterations, which are accumulated over time and are shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification mediated by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) critically involved in regulating affinity binding between the histones and DNA backbone. The HDAC-mediated increase in histone affinity to DNA causes DNA condensation, preventing transcription, whereas HAT-acetylated chromatin is transcriptionally active. HDAC and HAT activities are reported to be associated with signal transduction, cell growth and death, as well as with the pathogenesis of various diseases. The aim of this review was to evaluate the role of diet and dietary bioactive compounds on the regulation of HATs and HDACs in epigenetic diseases. Dietary bioactive compounds such as genistein, phenylisothiocyanate, curcumin, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate can regulate HDAC and HAT activities and acetylation of histones and non-histone chromatin proteins, and their health benefits are thought to be attributed to these epigenetic mechanisms. The intake of dietary compounds that regulate epigenetic modifications can provide significant health effects and may prevent various pathological processes involved in the development of cancer and other life-threatening diseases.

  8. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements.

  9. Bioactive Compounds Derived from the Yeast Metabolism of Aromatic Amino Acids during Alcoholic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamon, Jose Manuel; Torija, Maria Jesus; Beltran, Gemma; Troncoso, Ana M.; Garcia-Parrilla, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Metabolites resulting from nitrogen metabolism in yeast are currently found in some fermented beverages such as wine and beer. Their study has recently attracted the attention of researchers. Some metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids are bioactive compounds that can behave as hormones or even mimic their role in humans and may also act as regulators in yeast. Although the metabolic pathways for their formation are well known, the physiological significance is still far from being understood. The understanding of this relevance will be a key element in managing the production of these compounds under controlled conditions, to offer fermented food with specific enrichment in these compounds or even to use the yeast as nutritional complements. PMID:24895623

  10. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritipadma Panda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clerodendrum viscosum is commonly found in India and Bangladesh. Previously, various parts of this plant were reported for treatment of different types of diseases and there was no report on GC-Ms analysis. Objective: To analyze and characterize the phytochemical compounds of methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum using GC-MS. Materials and Methods: The preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract was carried out according to standard procedures described in WHO guidelines. Various bioactive compounds of the extract were determined by GC-MS technique. Results: The presence of steroids, triterpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins and carbohydrate was found on phytochemical screening of methanol extract of the leaves. The GC-MS analysis showed 16 peaks of different phytoconstituents namely acetamide,N,N-carbonylbis-, 4-Pyranone,2,3-dihydro-, alpha-D-Galactofuranoside, methyl 2,3,5,6-tetra-O-methyl-, Glycerin, Xylitol, N,N-Dimethylglycine, 4H-Pyran-4-one,2,3-dihydro-3, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-, 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural, 2(1HPyrimidinone,1-methyl-, 2,4-Dihydroxy-5,6-dimethylpyrimidine, 3-Deoxy-d-mannoic lactone, 1,3-Methylene-d-arabitol, Orcinol, n-Hexadecanoic acid and Phenol,4,4′-(1-methyl ethylidene bis etc. Conclusion: The bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Clerodendrum viscosum suggest the application of this extract for the treatment of various diseases by the aborigine tribes.

  11. Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products of tropical fruits from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Larissa Morais; Teixeira de Figueiredo, Evania Altina; Silva Ricardo, Nagila Maria Pontes; Pinto Vieira, Icaro Gusmao; Wilane de Figueiredo, Raimundo; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro; Gomes, Carmen L

    2014-01-15

    This study aimed to quantify the levels of resveratrol, coumarin, and other bioactives in pulps and by-products of twelve tropical fruits from Brazil obtained during pulp production process. Pineapple, acerola, monbin, cashew apple, guava, soursop, papaya, mango, passion fruit, surinam cherry, sapodilla, and tamarind pulps were evaluated as well as their by-products (peel, pulp's leftovers, and seed). Total phenolic, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, β-carotene and lycopene levels were also determined. Resveratrol was identified in guava and surinam cherry by-products and coumarin in passion fruit, guava and surinam cherry by-products and mango pulp. These fruit pulp and by-products could be considered a new natural source of both compounds. Overall, fruit by-products presented higher (P<0.05) bioactive content than their respective fruit pulps. This study provides novel information about tropical fruits and their by-products bioactive composition, which is essential for the understanding of their nutraceutical potential and future application in the food industry. PMID:24054258

  12. Extraction and characterization of candidate bioactive compounds in different tissues from salmon (Salmo salar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Susan Skanderup; Mikalsen, S. O.; Joensen, H.;

    2014-01-01

    , pharmaceutical or other functional value and be used in health and functional foods, thus increasing the value adding of secondary marine products. A number of naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides have been characterized from fish skin and gills, such as piscidins, but these and other fish tissues may...... not contain standard unmodified amino acids, indicating peptides with modified amino acids or other kinds of molecules.Industrial relevance. Bioprospecting in fish tissue traditionally regarded as waste can lead to detection of novel natural bioactive compounds including peptides, which could have nutritional...

  13. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    OpenAIRE

    Teti Estiasih1)*; Kgs. Ahmadi2); Tri Dewanti Widyaningsih; Jaya Mahar Maligan; Ahmad Zaki Mubarok; Elok Zubaidah; Jhauharotul Mukhlisiyyah; Risma Puspitasari

    2013-01-01

    This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs) from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols), phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisi...

  14. The powerful in vitro bioactivity of Euterpe oleracea Mart. seeds and related phenolic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Ricardo C. Calhelha; Queiroz, Maria João R. P.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Santos, Elândia A.; Regis, Wiliam C. B.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2015-01-01

    The Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açaí) is a plant from the Amazon region, classified as "super fruit" because of its various functional properties. However, limited investigation has been performed on açaí by-products, such as seeds. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterized the phenolic compounds of the aqueous extract of açaí seeds and further evaluate its bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Only proanthocyanidins were detected, being a B-type (epi)catech...

  15. EuroFIR-BASIS - a combined composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant-based foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gry, Jørn; Black, Lucinda; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted;

    2007-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that certain non-nutrient bioactive compounds promote optimal human health and reduce the risk of chronic disease. An Internet-deployed database, EuroFIR-BASIS, which uniquely combines food composition and biological effects data for plant-based bioactive compounds......, is being developed. The database covers multiple compound classes and 330 major food plants and their edible parts with data sourced from quality-assessed, peer-reviewed literature. The database will be a valuable resource for food regulatory and advisory bodies, risk authorities, epidemiologists...

  16. Bioactive compounds in different cocoa (Theobroma cacao, L cultivars during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fontes Moreau Cruz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One component that contribute to the flavor and aroma of chocolate are the polyphenols, which have received much attention due to their beneficial implications to human health. Besides bioactive action, polyphenols and methylxantines are responsible for astringency and bitterness in cocoa beans. Another important point is its drastic reduction during cocoa processing for chocolate production and the difference between cultivars. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the modifications in monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxanthines during fermentation of three cocoa cultivars grown in southern Bahia. Cocoa beans from three cultivars were fermented and sun dried and monomeric phenolic compounds and methylxantines were determinated. The results showed that each cultivar have different amounts of phenolic compounds and the behaviour of them is different during fermentation. The amount of methylxantines varied but there was not a pattern for methylxantines behavior during process. In addition a huge reduction in phenolic compounds could be observed after drying. Differently of phenolic compounds, methylxantines did not have great modification after sun drying. So, the differences observed in this study between cultivars, take to the conclusion that the compounds studied in those cocoa cultivars have different behavior during fermentation and drying, which consequently, give to these cultivars differences in sensory characteristics.

  17. The effect of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds on chemically induced carcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertkova, I; Hijova, E; Chmelarova, A; Mojzisova, G; Petrasova, D; Strojny, L; Bomba, A; Zitnan, R

    2010-01-01

    Diet interventions and natural bioactive supplements have now been extensively studied to reduce risks of colon cancer, which is one of the major public health problem throughout the world. The objective of our investigation was to study the effects of probiotic, prebiotic, nutritional plant extract, and plant oil on selected biochemical and immunological parameters in rats with colon cancer induced by N,N dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male and female Wistar albino rats were were fed by a high-fat (HF) diet (10% fat in the diet) and were divided into 9 groups: Control group; PRO group - HF diet supplemented with probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum to provide 3 x 109 c.f.u. of strain/1 ml of medium; PRE group - HF diet supplemented with inulin enriched with oligofructose (2% of HF diet); HES group - HF diet supplemented with plant extract of Aesculus hippocastanum L. (1% of HF diet); OIL group - HF diet comprised Linioleum virginale (2% of HF diet); and combination of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in the groups - PRO-PRE, PRO-HES, PRO-OIL, PRE-OIL. Carcinogenesis was initiated with subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg/kg) two times at week interval and dietary treatments were continued for the six weeks. Application of probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds in all treated groups significantly decreased the activities of bacterial enzymes (p<0.001), the fecal bile acids concentration (p<0.01; p<0.001) and significantly increased serum TNFalpha level (p<0.001) in comparison to the control rats. The number of coliforms was reduced in PRO, PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups and significantly higher count of lactobacilli (p<0.05) was observed in PRO-PRE, PRO-OIL and PRE-OIL groups in compare with the controls. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that probiotic microorganisms and bioactive compounds could exert a preventive effect on colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH. PMID:20568896

  18. Rapid in situ identification of bioactive compounds in plants by in vivo nanospray high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qing; Peng, Yue'e; Dan, Conghui; Shuai, Qin; Hu, Shenghong

    2015-03-25

    A method for the rapid in situ identification of bioactive compounds in fresh plants has been developed using in vivo nanospray coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS). Using a homemade in vivo nanospray ion source, the plant liquid was drawn out from a target region and ionized in situ. The ionized bioactive compounds were then identified using Q-Orbitrap HR-MS. The accurate mass measurements of these bioactive compounds were performed by full-scan or selected ion monitoring (SIM), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used in the structural elucidation. Without sample pretreatment, 12 bioactive compounds in 7 different plant species were identified, namely, isoalliin in onion; butylphthalide in celery; N-methylpelletierine, pelletierine, and pseudopelletierine in pomegranate; chlorogenic acid in crabapple; solamargine, solasonine, and solasodine in nightshade; aloin and aloe-emodin in aloe; and menthone in mint. This work demonstrates that in vivo nanospray HR-MS is a good method for rapid in situ identification of bioactive compounds in plants. PMID:25749134

  19. Optimization of the extraction process for the seven bioactive compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang, an herbal formula, using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Hoon Kim; Hyeun-Kyoo Shin; Chang-Seob Seo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Yukmijihwang-tang (YJT) contains multiple bioactive compounds. Heat-reflux extraction was employed and optimized for the extraction of the bioactive compounds in YJT. Objective: The determination of optimal conditions with maximum yields of bioactive compounds, gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol, in YJT. Materials and Methods: The extraction ratio (ratio of water to herbal formula), extraction time and extraction numb...

  20. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  1. Bioactive Compound Content and Cytotoxic Effect on Human Cancer Cells of Fresh and Processed Yellow Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato, as a fresh or processed product, has a high nutritional value due to its content of bioactive components such as phenolic compounds. Few studies describe the effect of processing on antioxidant content and the cancer cell growth inhibition activity. In this study we determined the phenolic and ascorbic acid content of three yellow tomato varieties, before and after thermal processing. Moreover, we determined the antioxidative power and tested the effects of tomato extracts on three human cancer cell lines. We found that the amount of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid decreased in all the samples after processing, whereas the flavonoid content increased after the heat treatment in two samples. A cytotoxic effect of tomato extracts was observed only after processing. This result well correlates with the flavonoid content after processing and clearly indicates that processed yellow tomatoes have a high content of bioactive compounds endowed with cytotoxicity towards cancer cells, thus opening the way to obtain tomato-based functional foods.

  2. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and γ tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by α and δ tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

  3. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  4. Metabolic profile of the bioactive compounds of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferracane, Rosalia; Graziani, Giulia; Gallo, Monica; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Ritieni, Alberto

    2010-01-20

    In this work the bioactive metabolic profile, the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of burdock (Arctium lappa) seeds, leaves and roots were obtained. TEAC values and total phenolic content for hydro-alcoholic extracts of burdock ranged from 67.39 to 1.63 micromol Trolox equivalent/100g dry weight (DW), and from 2.87 to 45 g of gallic acid equivalent/100g DW, respectively. Phytochemical compounds were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) in negative mode. The main compounds of burdock extracts were caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, lignans (mainly arctiin) and various flavonoids. The occurrence of some phenolic acids (caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and cynarin) in burdock seeds; arctiin, luteolin and quercetin rhamnoside in burdock roots; phenolic acids, quercetin, quercitrin and luteolin in burdock leaves was reported for the first time.

  5. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide. PMID:26151222

  6. Health promoting effects of bioactive compounds in plants: Targeting Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharya, Sumangala

    concentrate on screening plant extracts commonly used in folk medicine for pure compounds, exploiting promising results in treatment of, among others, type 2 diabetes. Another area of diabetes research, focused on the complex biology of adipose tissue and its influence on the development of insulin resistance......While type 2 diabetes is an increasing problem worldwide, there is still no cure and therefore search for the new insulin sensitizer continues. Plants are a natural source of bioactive compounds and have been used to improve human health and wellbeing for centuries. Today, several studies....... Moreover, the crosstalk between gut bacteria and insulin sensitive tissues like fat, pancreas and skeletal muscle has received much attention and all aspects are important in order to better understand the basics of this disease. This PhD thesis is based on 5 scientific papers focusing on plant derived...

  7. Separation and identification of bioactive compounds in Anabasis articulata (Forsk) Moq. roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghembaza, Nacéra; Belyagoubi-Benhammou, Nabila; Atik Bekkara, Fawzia

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, for the first time, we are interested to separate and identify some bioactive fractions isolated from the roots of a Saharan plant Anabasis articulata, which is widely used in traditional medicine against cancer. The crude methanolic extract of the roots was fractionated on column chromatography, and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol each time with increasing polarity of methanol; 17 fractions were separated. One of these fractions named F12 showed more antioxidant activity to scavenge DPPH free radical with percentage inhibition of 95.29%. F12 was separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) to give 12 compounds. A second preparative TLC of compound 2, which has antioxidative activity of 74.92%, provided the three phenolic acids M1, M2 and M3, analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometry. PMID:26263238

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on Gynostemma pentaphyllum physiology and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Dong; Mantri, Nitin; Sun, Bin; Jiang, Li; Chen, Ping; Jiang, Bo; Jiang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Jialei; Shen, Jiahao; Lu, Hongfei; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-06-01

    Recently, an important topic of research has been how climate change is seriously threatening the sustainability of agricultural production. However, there is surprisingly little experimental data regarding how elevated temperature and CO2 will affect the growth of medicinal plants and production of bioactive compounds. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on the photosynthetic process, biomass, total sugars, antioxidant compounds, antioxidant capacity, and bioactive compounds of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Two different CO2 concentrations [360 and 720μmolmol(-1)] were imposed on plants grown at two different temperature regimes of 23/18 and 28/23°C (day/night) for 60days. Results show that elevated CO2 and temperature significantly increase the biomass, particularly in proportion to inflorescence total dry weight. The chlorophyll content in leaves increased under the elevated temperature and CO2. Further, electron transport rate (ETR), photochemical quenching (qP), actual photochemical quantum yield (Yield), instantaneous photosynthetic rate (Photo), transpiration rate (Trmmol) and stomatal conductance (Cond) also increased to different degrees under elevated CO2 and temperature. Moreover, elevated CO2 increased the level of total sugars and gypenoside A, but decreased the total antioxidant capacity and main antioxidant compounds in different organs of G. pentaphyllum. Accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids also decreased in leaves, stems, and inflorescences under elevated CO2 and temperature. Overall, our data indicate that the predicted increase in atmospheric temperature and CO2 could improve the biomass of G. pentaphyllum, but they would reduce its health-promoting properties. PMID:27054772

  9. Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasmas Used to Embed Bioactive Compounds in Matrix Material for Active Packaging of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Sulmer; Pedrow, Patrick; Powers, Joseph; Pitts, Marvin

    2009-10-01

    Active thin film packaging is a technology with the potential to provide consumers with new fruit and vegetable products-if the film can be applied without deactivating bioactive compounds.Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) processing can be used to activate monomer with concomitant deposition of an organic plasma polymerized matrix material and to immobilize a bioactive compound all at or below room temperature.Aims of this work include: 1) immobilize an antimicrobial in the matrix; 2) determine if the antimicrobial retains its functionality and 3) optimize the reactor design.The plasma zone will be obtained by increasing the voltage on an electrode structure until the electric field in the feed material (argon + monomer) yields electron avalanches. Results will be described using Red Delicious apples.Prospective matrix precursors are vanillin and cinnamic acid.A prospective bioactive compound is benzoic acid.

  10. Nutrients and bioactive compounds in popular and indigenous durian (Durio zibethinus murr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Thiyajai, Parunya; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2016-02-15

    This study identified nutrients, fatty acids, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of two popular varieties (Mon-thong, Cha-ni) and two indigenous varieties (Kra-dum and Kob-ta-kam) of durian. Each of variety was collected from 3 gardens in Nonthaburi province, Thailand. At optimal ripeness, the edible part was separated, homogenised or freeze dried, as fresh or dry samples for further analysis using standard methods. All durian varieties contained a considerable amount of dietary fibre (7.5-9.1g/100g dry matter, DM) and high amounts of carbohydrate and sugar (62.9-70.7g and 47.9-56.4g/100g DM respectively). Cha-ni, Kra-dum and Kob-ta-kam varieties had monounsaturated (MUFA) (6.1-7.8g/100g DM)>saturated (SFA) (4.2-5.7g/100g DM)>polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (0.8-1.5g/100g DM), whereas the Mon-thong variety had SFA>MUFA>PUFA (5.1, 4.0, 1.1g/100g DM, respectively). The Kob-ta-kam variety showed greater potential for health benefits in terms of carotenoids and β-carotene (2248μg and 1202μg/100g DM respectively). Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were not significantly different among each variety, though the Cha-ni variety had the lowest. This study provides data on nutrients, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of indigenous and popular durian varieties that could be used for consumer education as well as for incorporation into the food composition databases. PMID:26433306

  11. Bioactive organocopper compound from Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhibits the growth of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admilton Gonçalves de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Citrus canker is a lot destructive disease of citrus species. The challenge is to find new compounds that show strong antibiotic activity, low toxicity to plants and the environment. The objectives of the present study are (1 produce, purify and evaluate the antibiotic activity of secondary metabolites produced by induction by P. aeruginosa LV strain in vitro against Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (strain 306, (2 study the potential for semi-purified secondary metabolites on foliar application to control citrus canker under greenhouse conditions, (3 identify the antibiotic activity in orange leaf mesophyll infected with strain 306 by electron microscopy. Two pure bioactive compounds were isolated, organocopper antibiotic compound and phenazine-1-carboxamide. The phenazine-1-carboxamide did not show any antibiotic activity under the experimental conditions used in this study. The organocopper antibiotic compound showed a high level of antibiotic activity with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.12 µg mL-1. In greenhouse tests for control of citrus canker in orange trees, the semi-purified fraction F3d, reduced lesion formation about 97%. The concentration used was five hundred times lower than recommended commercial product of metallic copper-based. Electron microscopy showed that F3d altered the exopolysaccharide matrix and causing cell lysis of the pathogen inside the citrus canker lesions. These results suggest that secondary metabolites produced by induction by P. aeruginosa LV strain has a high potential to be used as a bioproduct to control citrus canker.

  12. Bioactive Compounds Screening from Zingiberaceae Family as Influenza A/Swine Flu Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor through Docking Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman S.F. Tambunan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Influenza A/H1N1 is a disease caused by infection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. This virus constantly mutates and consequently will be developed into new drug-resistant strains. Approach: In this research, we have conducted docking study to screen bioactive compounds from Zingiberaceae family, which has a role as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza a virus. Results: The docking result identified that 1, 2-di-O- β-D-glucopyranosyl-4-allylbenzene (BGA compound has the affinity and ability to inhibit neuraminidase. There are fourteen residues contact of BGA compound to neuraminidase and eight residues contact of enzyme that formed hydrogen bond with catalytic site. Conclusion/recommendation: The docking result showed that BGA has better binding energy and affinity compared with other bioactive compounds and the standard compounds.

  13. Induction of bioactive compound composition from marine microalgae (Lyngbya sp.) by using different stress condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nurul Farhana Rosly; Rabeah Adawiyah Abdul Razak; Palaniselvam Kuppusamy; Mashitah M. Yusoff; Natanamurugaraj Govindan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To the effect of salinity stress on the production of microalgae (Lyngbya sp.) and chlorophyll pigments in the growth medium.Methods:Stress was investigated by using green algae strains Lyngbya sp. in response to change bioactive compounds without any modification of cell growth and biomass production rate. The different stress conditions like 10%-40% were analyzed.Results:During the stress condition, various biochemical and microbiological assays were monitored. The photochemical composition was evaluated by GC-MS studies. The studies expressed that 30% higher salinity stress was suitable for high phytochemical production rate including chlorophyll content.Conclusions:Our study indicates the wide range of salinity stress to enhance the growth on microalgae culture and enhance the production of major secondary metabolites.

  14. Effect of ultra high pressure homogenization treatment on the bioactive compounds of soya milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Funes, N; Bosch-Fusté, J; Veciana-Nogués, M T; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high pressure homogenization (UHPH) is a useful novel technology to obtain safe and high-quality liquid foods. The effect of UHPH at 200 and 300 MPa in combination with different inlet temperatures (Tin) (55, 65 and 75 °C) on the bioactive compounds of soya milk was studied. Total phytosterols increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. The main phytosterol was β-sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol. Total tocopherols in UHPH-treated soya milks decreased as the temperature and pressure increased. UHPH treatment also affected the different chemical forms of tocopherols. No biogenic amines were detected in any of the analyzed soya milks. Meanwhile, the polyamines SPD and SPM were found in all soya milks, being stable to the UHPH treatment. Total isoflavones increased with the higher combination of pressure and temperature. No differences in the isoflavone profile were found, with β-glucoside conjugates being the predominant form.

  15. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T; Meireles, M Angela A

    2014-07-01

    Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification.

  16. Cocoa Bioactive Compounds: Significance and Potential for the Maintenance of Skin Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Scapagnini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa has a rich history in human use. Skin is prone to the development of several diseases, and the mechanisms in the pathogenesis of aged skin are still poorly understood. However, a growing body of evidence from clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of cocoa-derived phytochemicals as an effective approach for skin protection. Although the specific molecular and cellular mechanisms of the beneficial actions of cocoa phytochemicals remain to be elucidated, this review will provide an overview of the current literature emphasizing potential cytoprotective pathways modulated by cocoa and its polyphenolic components. Moreover, we will summarize in vivo studies showing that bioactive compounds of cocoa may have a positive impact on skin health.

  17. The Investigation of Some Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Properties of Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat KESER

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and pharmacological effects of hawthorn have mainly been attributed to the polyphenolic contents. The aim of this research is to determine some bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of hawthorn aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves, flowers and ripened fruits. For this purpose, antioxidant activities of extracts were assessed on DPPH and #8226;, ABTS and #8226;+, superoxide scavenging, reducing power and ferrous metal chelating activity assays and phenolic content of extracts was determined by Folin-Cioacalteu and #8217;s reagent. The flavonoids including rutin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin, naringenin and kaempferol, were identified by HPLC in the hawthorn extract. It was observed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegus monogyna subsp. monogyna fruits showed highest activity in reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. Additionally, it was determined that the aqueous flower extract showed higher flavonoid content than aqueous leaves extract. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(2.000: 51-55

  18. HPLC Fingerprint of Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activities of Viscum album from Different Host Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ioana VICAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Viscum album L. is a medicinal plants used for many years as a remedy in the traditional medicine and in complementary cancer therapies. We investigated the influence of some host trees: Acer campestre (VAA, Fraxinus excelsior (VAF, Populus nigra (VAP, Malus domestica (VAM, and Robinia pseudoacacia (VAR, on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaves and stems from V. album, as well the influence of the solvent (water and ethanol used for extraction on biological activity. HPLC with photodiode array detector analysis of bioactive compounds from leaves and stems of mistletoes (V. album hosted by five differents trees was performed. Antioxidant activities, determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, (Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC methods were compared with the quantification of total phenolics using the Folin -Ciocalteu reagent. V. album hosted by Fraxinus excelsior (VAF, recorded the highest level of total phenolic acids (108.64 μg/g dry matter while the mistletoe hosted by Malus domestica (VAM had the lowest level of total polyphenols (39.37 μg/g dry matter. In general, higher antioxidant activity was detected in the alcoholic than in the aqueous extracts. The values obtained for total phenolics in both, aqueous and ethanol extracts, decreased in the order: VAR > VAF > VAP > VAA > VAM. The mistletoe stem extracts contained lower levels of phenolics, as compared to leaves, in both solvents. Our results suggest that mistletoe extracts possess significant antioxidant activities that may be due to their bioactive compounds content, suggesting that this plant may be an important source of natural products with chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities.

  19. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein. PMID:26132136

  20. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adília Lemos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well suited, as many plant associated compounds exhibit fluorescence. The photophysical behaviour of fluorescent molecules is also highly dependent on their microenvironment, making them suitable probes to monitor changes in pH, viscosity and polarity, for example. Time-resolved fluorescence techniques have recently come to the fore, as they offer the ability to obtain more information, coupled with the fact that the fluorescence lifetime is an absolute measure, while steady state just provides relative and average information. In this work, we will present illustrative time-resolved measurements, rather than a comprehensive review, to show the potential of time-resolved fluorescence applied to the study of bioactive substances. The aim is to help assess if any changes occur in their form, going from extraction via storage and cooking to the interaction with serum albumin, a principal blood transport protein.

  1. Lipids and Fatty Acids of Nudibranch Mollusks: Potential Sources of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Zhukova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed.

  2. Lipids and fatty acids of nudibranch mollusks: potential sources of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukova, Natalia V

    2014-08-01

    The molecular diversity of chemical compounds found in marine animals offers a good chance for the discovery of novel bioactive compounds of unique structures and diverse biological activities. Nudibranch mollusks, which are not protected by a shell and produce chemicals for various ecological uses, including defense against predators, have attracted great interest for their lipid composition. Lipid analysis of eight nudibranch species revealed dominant phospholipids, sterols and monoalkyldiacylglycerols. Among polar lipids, 1-alkenyl-2-acyl glycerophospholipids (plasmalogens) and ceramide-aminoethyl phosphonates were found in the mollusks. The fatty acid compositions of the nudibranchs differed greatly from those of other marine gastropods and exhibited a wide diversity: very long chain fatty acids known as demospongic acids, a series of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids, including unusual 21:2∆7,13, and an abundance of various odd and branched fatty acids typical of bacteria. Symbiotic bacteria revealed in some species of nudibranchs participate presumably in the production of some compounds serving as a chemical defense for the mollusks. The unique fatty acid composition of the nudibranchs is determined by food supply, inherent biosynthetic activities and intracellular symbiotic microorganisms. The potential of nudibranchs as a source of biologically active lipids and fatty acids is also discussed. PMID:25196731

  3. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ariza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health.

  4. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Yuliett; Giampieri, Francesca; Afrin, Sadia; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; Battino, Maurizio; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH) of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health. PMID:27409612

  5. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Yuliett; Giampieri, Francesca; Afrin, Sadia; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; Battino, Maurizio; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH) of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health. PMID:27409612

  6. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Donno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph−Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98% followed by monoterpenes (14.05%, while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06% and organic acids (27.34%. Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural

  7. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  8. Variation of Bioactive Compounds in Hypericum perforatum Growing in Turkey During Its Phenological Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cüneyt Cirak; Jolita Radusiěnё; Birsen (Sa(g)lam) Karabük; Valdimaras Janulis; Liudas Ivanauskas

    2007-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine phenologic and morphogenetic variation of hypericin, chlorogenic acid and flavonoids, as rutin, hyperoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, quercltrin, quercetin content of Hypericum perforatum L. growing in Turkey. Wild growing plants were harvested at vegetative, floral budding, full flowering,fresh fruiting and mature fruiting stages and dissected into stem, leaf and reproductive tissues and assayed for bioactive compounds by the High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hyperlcin concentration ranged between 0 and 2.73 mg/g DW, chlorogenic acid 0.00-3.64 mg/g DW, rutin 0.00-3.36 mg/g DW, hyperoside 0.04-22.42 mg/g DW, quercitrin 0.03-3.45 mg/g DW and quercetin 0.04-1.02 mg/g DW depending on ontogenetic and morphogenetic sampling. Leaves were found to be superior to stems and reproductive parts with regard to phenolic accumulation for all compounds tested while flowers accumulated the highest levels of hypericin. Quercitrin,quercetin and hypericin content in all tissues increased with advancing of developmental stages and reached their highest level during flower ontogenesis. Similarly, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside content in different plant parts increased during plant development, however, the highest level was observed at different stages of plant phenology for each tissue. Chlorogenic acid was not detected in stems, leaves and reproductive parts in several stages of plant phenology and its variation during plant growth showed inconsistent manner. In contrast to the other compounds examined, rutin content of stems and leaves decreased with advancing of plant development and the highest level for both tissues was observed at the vegetative stage. However,content of the same compound in reproductive parts was the highest at mature fruiting. The present findings might be useful to obtain increased concentration of these natural compounds.

  9. Physico-chemical characterization of chitosan-based edible films incorporating bioactive compounds of different molecular weight

    OpenAIRE

    Bourbon, A. I.; A.C. Pinheiro; Cerqueira, M. A.; Rocha, Cristina M. R.; Avides, Maria do Carmo; Quintas, Mafalda A. C.; Vicente, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Chitosan packaging films containing different bioactive compounds (a peptide fraction from whey protein concentrate (WPC) hydrolysate, glycomacropeptide (GMP) and lactoferrin) were produced and their mechanical and barrier properties were evaluated. The molecular weight of protein-based compounds was determined using SDS–PAGE. The addition of GMP and lactoferrin to chitosan film caused a significant reduction of tensile strength and the elongation-at-break significantly increased ...

  10. Use of ultrasound radiation for extraction of bioactive compounds from natural sources. Current events and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, clean technologies have been developed for high efficiency extracting of isolation of biologically active compounds from natural sources, without the loss of biological activity, with good yield and high purity. Ultrasound-assisted extraction has low instrumental requirements and their implementation is very appropriate where the stability of the active component to be removed is affected by the high temperatures of conventional processes. In this paper it is evaluated the state of the art of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from various natural sources, its mechanism, the parameters governing its use and research perspectives in this field. Ultrasonic cavitation phenomenon promotes cell wall rupture, reduction of particle size and tissue permeability, which facilitates the diffusion of the solvent into the inert part of the plant material and increasing the mass transferred through membranes. This mechanism explains the high efficiency of ultrasound-assisted extraction as it allows to reduce the time, temperature and amounts of solvent extraction process with high yields and high purity of the extracted product. Currently there is a great demand for the use of ultrasound to industrial and current research lead to the development of larger scale reactors and the theoretical modeling of the parameters that determine efficient extraction

  11. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM.

  12. Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Jatinder Pal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder

    2016-09-01

    Banana is a very popular fruit in the world market and is consumed as staple food in many countries. It is grown worldwide and constitutes the fifth most important agricultural food crop in terms of world trade. It has been classified into the dessert or sweet bananas and the cooking bananas or plantains. It is either eaten raw or processed, and also as a functional ingredient in various food products. Banana contains several bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, carotenoids, biogenic amines and phytosterols, which are highly desirable in the diet as they exert many positive effects on human health and well-being. Many of these compounds have antioxidant activities and are effective in protecting the body against various oxidative stresses. In the past, bananas were effectively used in the treatment of various diseases, including reducing the risk of many chronic degenerative disorders. In the present review, historical background, cultivar classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and health benefits of bananas are discussed. PMID:27041291

  13. Could gestational diabetes mellitus be managed through dietary bioactive compounds? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Carmela; Zicari, Alessandra; Mandosi, Elisabetta; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Mari, Emanuela; Morano, Susanna; Masella, Roberta

    2016-04-14

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a serious problem growing worldwide that needs to be addressed with urgency in consideration of the resulting severe complications for both mother and fetus. Growing evidence indicates that a healthy diet rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, extra-virgin olive oil and fish has beneficial effects in both the prevention and management of several human diseases and metabolic disorders. In this review, we discuss the latest data concerning the effects of dietary bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and PUFA on the molecular mechanisms regulating glucose homoeostasis. Several studies, mostly based on in vitro and animal models, indicate that dietary polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, positively modulate the insulin signalling pathway by attenuating hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance, reducing inflammatory adipokines, and modifying microRNA (miRNA) profiles. Very few data about the influence of dietary exposure on GDM outcomes are available, although this approach deserves careful consideration. Further investigation, which includes exploring the 'omics' world, is needed to better understand the complex interaction between dietary compounds and GDM. PMID:26879600

  14. Salinity effect on nutritional value, chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of Cichorium spinosum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Spyridon A; Levizou, Efi; Ntatsi, Georgia; Fernandes, Ângela; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Akoumianakis, Konstantinos; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinization is an increasing problem for many areas throughout the world that renders prohibitive vegetables and crop production in general. In the present study, Cichorium spinosum L. plants were grown under saline conditions in order to evaluate chemical composition and bioactive compounds content of their leaves. Salinity increase resulted in significant changes of macro and micro-nutrients content (nutritional value, sugars, fatty acids, minerals, ascorbic acid and tocopherols), whereas the concentration of phenolic compounds was not significantly affected. Chicoric and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were the most abundant phenolic acids. In contrast, antioxidant activity and mineral composition were beneficially affected by mid-to-high and high salinity levels. In conclusion, C. spinosum can be cultivated under saline conditions without compromising the quality of the final product, especially in semi-arid areas where irrigation water is scarce and/or of low quality due to high content of NaCl (coastal areas or areas where underground water is saline). PMID:27507457

  15. Microbial Transformation of Bioactive Compounds and Production of ortho-Dihydroxyisoflavones and Glycitein from Natural Fermented Soybean Paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhyun Roh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been a great deal of remarkable interest in finding bioactive compounds from nutritional foods to replace synthetic compounds. In particular, ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein are of growing scientific interest owing to their attractive biological properties. In this study, 7,8-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 6,7-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone, 3',4'-ortho-dihydroxyisoflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone were characterized using microorganism screened from soybean Doenjang. Three ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein were structurally elucidated by 1H-NMR and GC-MS analysis. Furthermore, bacterial strains from soybean Doenjang with the capacity of biotransformation were screened. The bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus subtilis Roh-1, was shown to convert daidzein into ortho-dihydroxyisoflavones and glycitein. Thus, this study has, for the first time, demonstrated that a bacterial strain had a substrate specificity for multiple modifications of the bioactive compounds.

  16. Identification and Antibacterial Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds from Garcinia kola (Heckel Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christinah T. Seanego

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the bioactivity of G. kola seeds on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Plesiomonas shigelloides and Salmonella typhimurium. The crude ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts were screened by the agar-well diffusion method and their activities were further determined by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC assays. The extracts were fractionated by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC. Bioautography was used to assess the activity of the possible classes of compounds present in the more active extracts. Column chromatography was used to purify the active compounds from the mixture, while GC-MS was used to identify the phytocomponents of the fractions. The inhibition zone diameters of the extracts ranged from 0–24 ± 1.1 mm, while MIC and MBC values ranged between 0.04–1.25 mg/mL and 0.081–2.5 mg/mL, respectively. The chloroform/ethyl acetate/formic acid (CEF solvent system separated more active compounds. The MIC of the fractions ranged between 0.0006–2.5 mg/mL. CEF 3 (F3, CEF 11 (F11 and CEF 12 (F12 revealed the presence of high levels of linoleic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl ester, respectively. The results obtained from this study justify the use of this plant in traditional medicine and provide leads which could be further exploited for the development of new and potent antimicrobials.

  17. Selective enrichment in bioactive compound from Kniphofia uvaria by super/subcritical fluid extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Johanna; Destandau, Emilie; Pecher, Virginie; Poujol, Marion; Tranchant, Jean-François; Lesellier, Eric

    2016-05-20

    Nowadays, a large portion of synthetic products (active cosmetic and therapeutic ingredients) have their origin in natural products. Kniphofia uvaria is a plant from Africa which has proved in the past by in-vivo tests an antioxidant activity due to compounds present in roots. Recently, we have observed anthraquinones in K. uvaria seeds extracts. These derivatives are natural colorants which could have interesting bioactive potential. The aim of this study was to obtain an extract enriched in anthraquinones from K. uvaria seeds which mainly contains glycerides. First, the separation of the seed compounds was studied by using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the goal to provide a rapid quantification method of these bioactive compounds. A screening of numerous polar stationary phases was achieved for selecting the most suited phase to the separation of the four anthraquinones founded in the seeds. A gradient elution was optimized for improving the separation of the bioactive compounds from the numerous other families of major compounds of the extracts (fatty acids, di- and triglycerides). Besides, a non-selective and green Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with pure CO2 was applied to seeds followed by a Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC). The CPC system was optimized by using the Arizona phase system, to enrich the extract in anthraquinones. Two systems were selected to isolate the bioactive compounds from the oily extract with varied purity target. The effect of the injection mode for these very viscous samples was also studied. Finally, in order to directly apply a selective process of extraction to the seeds, the super/subcritical fluid extraction was optimized to increase the anthraquinone yield in the final extract, by studying varied modifier compositions and nature, as well as different temperatures and backpressures. Conditions suited to favour an enrichment factor bases on the ratio of anthraquinone and trilycerides extracted are

  18. Rapid screening and quantitative determination of bioactive compounds from fruit extracts of Myristica species and their in vitro antiproliferative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Renu; Mahar, Rohit; Hasanain, Mohammad; Shukla, Sanjeev K; Sarkar, Jayanta; Rameshkumar, K B; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-11-15

    Efficient and sensitive LC-MS/MS methods have been developed for the rapid screening and determination of bioactive compounds in different fruit parts of four Myristica species, viz., Myristica beddomeii, Myristica fragrans, Myristica fatua and Myristica malabarica. Twenty-one compounds were identified and characterized on the basis of their accurate mass and MS/MS fragmentation pattern using HPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and NMR analysis. Quantitative determination of five major bioactive compounds was performed using multiple-reaction monitoring mode with continuous polarity switching by UHPLC-QqQLIT-MS/MS. Moreover, in vitro antiproliferative activity of these Myristica species was evaluated against five human cancer cell lines A549, DLD-1, DU145, FaDu and MCF-7 using SRB assay. Seventeen phytoconstituents were identified and reported for the first time from M. beddomeii and sixteen from M. fatua. Quantification result showed highest total content of five major bioactive compounds in mace of M. fragrans. Evaluation of in vitro antiproliferative activity revealed potent activity in all investigated species except M. fragrans. PMID:27283658

  19. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell survival by anticancer agents has been shown to correlate with tumor response. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence; the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to various anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell survival and proliferating signaling molecules. As a new therapeutic strategy, alternative types of cell death might be exploited to control and eradicate cancer cells. This review discusses the signaling of apoptosis and cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of marine bioactive compounds, suggesting that new therapeutic strategies might follow.

  20. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds That Relate to the Anti-Platelet Activity of Cymbopogon ambiguus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Darren Grice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Infusions and decoctions of Cymbopogon ambiguus have been used traditionally in Australia for the treatment of headache, chest infections and muscle cramps. The aim of the present study was to screen and identify bioactive compounds from C. ambiguus that could explain this plant’s anti-headache activity. A dichloromethane extract of C. ambiguus was identified as having activity in adenosine-diphosphate-induced human platelet aggregation and serotonin-release inhibition bioassays. Subsequent fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of four phenylpropenoids, eugenol, elemicin, eugenol methylether and trans-isoelemicin. While both eugenol and elemicin exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet serotonin release, only eugenol displayed potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 46.6 μM, in comparison to aspirin, with an IC50 value of 46.1 μM. These findings provide evidence to support the therapeutic efficacy of C. ambiguus in the non-conventional treatment of headache and inflammatory conditions.

  1. Petit suisse from black soybean: bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties during development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Filho, Marsilvio Lima; Hirozawa, Sabrina Satie; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Ida, Elza Iouko; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties, bioactive compounds and other physico-chemical parameters from black soybean and its derivatives over 30 days under refrigeration at 4 °C and develop a probiotic petit suisse produced from black soybean. The soymilk showed the highest levels of isoflavones (109 mg/100 g), total phenolics (600 mg/100 g) and total anthocyanins (388 mg/100 g) with the highest response in the tests with DPPH• and ABTS+• on a dry basis. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in antioxidant activity during storage due to the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in soymilk sample, having a strong linear correlation between the concentration of isoflavone aglycones and the antioxidant activity for ABTS+• (R = 0.9437, 0.9624 and 0.9992) and DPPH• (R = 0.9865, 0.9978 and 0.9911), respectively, for soymilk, quark and petit suisse. The conversion of isoflavone was influenced directly by the characteristics of each sample, inhibiting or promoting the action of the enzyme. The petit suisse developed is an alternative for consumers, providing isoflavones and anthocyanins, possessing probiotic average counts (10⁸ CFU g⁻¹) during storage.

  2. Physicochemical Parameters and Bioactive Compounds of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L. Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Ulloa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical origin, physicochemical properties (ash, colour, diastase activity, electrical conductivity (EC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, moisture, optical rotation (OP, pH, reducing sugars, total acidity, total soluble solids, and water activity, bioactive compounds (BC, and antioxidant activity obtained from strawberry tree honey from South Portugal were investigated. Results showed that the pollen analysis and physicochemical parameters were found within to meet international honey specifications. Significant differences (P<0.05 in results of ash content, EC, HMF, OP and colour when were compared with analogous famous Italian honey (Sardinia island. For BC, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were 94.47 mg gallic acid/100 g and 5.33 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. Concerning Portuguese honey, it was also found that radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay was 43.46% and antioxidant activity was 18.85 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g and 9.92 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g. These results confirmed that Portuguese strawberry tree honey has the highest antioxidant activity, when compared with other kinds of honey. This complete report demonstrates advantages and can help to promote consumption and shown their benefical properties (e.g., antioxidant; which will may increase the commercial value.

  3. Microencapsulation of lipophilic bioactive compounds using prebiotic carbohydrates: Effect of the degree of inulin polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Keven; Zabot, Giovani L; Bargas, Matheus A; Meireles, M Angela A

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents novel outcomes about the effect of degree of inulin polymerization (DP) on the technological properties of annatto seed oil powder obtained by freeze-drying. Inulins with two DP's were evaluated: GR-inulin (DP≥10) and HP-inulin (DP≥23). Micrographs obtained by confocal microscopy were analyzed to confirm the encapsulation of bioactive compounds using both inulins, especially the encapsulation of the natural fluorescent substance δ-tocotrienol. Microparticles formed with both inulins presented the same capacity for geranylgeraniol retention (77%). Glass transitions of microparticles formed with GR-inulin and HP-inulin succeeded at 144°C and 169°C, respectively. Regarding water adsorption isotherms, microparticles formed with HP-inulin and GR-inulin presented behaviors of Types II (sigmoidal) and III (non-sigmoidal), respectively. Reduction of water adsorption capacity in the matrix at high relative moistures (>70%) was presented when HP-inulin was used. At low relative moistures (<30%), the opposite behavior was observed. PMID:27516329

  4. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Ampelopsis grossedentata Stems: Process Optimization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da Sun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds including flavonoids and phenolics from Ampelopsis grossedentata stems was carried out. Extraction parameters such as pressure, temperature, dynamic time and modifier, were optimized using an orthogonal array design of L9 (34, and antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay and ferrous ion chelating (FIC assay. The best conditions obtained for SC-CO2 extraction of flavonoids was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:3, v/v, and that for phenolics extraction was 250 bar, 40 °C, 50 min, and with a modifier of methanol/ethanol (1:1, v/v. Meantime, flavonoids and phenolics were found to be mainly responsible for the DPPH scavenging activity of the extracts, but not for the chelating activity on ferrous ion according to Pearson correlation analysis. Furthermore, several unreported flavonoids such as apigenin, vitexin, luteolin, etc., have been detected in the extracts from A. grossedentata stems.

  5. Improvement of Bioactive Compound Classification through Integration of Orthogonal Cell-Based Biosensing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran N. Jovanovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of specificity for different classes of chemical and biological agents, and false positives and negatives, can limit the range of applications for cell-based biosensors. This study suggests that the integration of results from algal cells (Mesotaenium caldariorum and fish chromatophores (Betta splendens improves classification efficiency and detection reliability. Cells were challenged with paraquat, mercuric chloride, sodium arsenite and clonidine. The two detection systems were independently investigated for classification of the toxin set by performing discriminant analysis. The algal system correctly classified 72% of the bioactive compounds, whereas the fish chromatophore system correctly classified 68%. The combined classification efficiency was 95%. The algal sensor readout is based on fluorescence measurements of changes in the energy producing pathways of photosynthetic cells, whereas the response from fish chromatophores was quantified using optical density. Change in optical density reflects interference with the functioning of cellular signal transduction networks. Thus, algal cells and fish chromatophores respond to the challenge agents through sufficiently different mechanisms of action to be considered orthogonal.

  6. Microbial Communities and Bioactive Compounds in Marine Sponges of the Family Irciniidae—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane C. P. Hardoim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marine sponges harbour complex microbial communities of ecological and biotechnological importance. Here, we propose the application of the widespread sponge family Irciniidae as an appropriate model in microbiology and biochemistry research. Half a gram of one Irciniidae specimen hosts hundreds of bacterial species—the vast majority of which are difficult to cultivate—and dozens of fungal and archaeal species. The structure of these symbiont assemblages is shaped by the sponge host and is highly stable over space and time. Two types of quorum-sensing molecules have been detected in these animals, hinting at microbe-microbe and host-microbe signalling being important processes governing the dynamics of the Irciniidae holobiont. Irciniids are vulnerable to disease outbreaks, and concerns have emerged about their conservation in a changing climate. They are nevertheless amenable to mariculture and laboratory maintenance, being attractive targets for metabolite harvesting and experimental biology endeavours. Several bioactive terpenoids and polyketides have been retrieved from Irciniidae sponges, but the actual producer (host or symbiont of these compounds has rarely been clarified. To tackle this, and further pertinent questions concerning the functioning, resilience and physiology of these organisms, truly multi-layered approaches integrating cutting-edge microbiology, biochemistry, genetics and zoology research are needed.

  7. Bioactive compounds and antioxidative activity of colored rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ping Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The profiles of bioactive compounds (including phenolics and flavonoids in free and bound fractions, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, vitamin E, and γ-oryzanol of outer and inner rice bran from six colored rice samples collected from local markets were investigated. Proanthocyanidins could only be detected in red rice bran but not in black rice bran. The free fraction of the extracts dominated the total phenolics (72–92% and the total flavonoids (72–96% of colored rice bran. Most of the phenolic acids (83–97% in colored rice bran were present in the bound form. Protocatechualdehyde was identified for the first time in the bound fraction of red rice bran by high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The antioxidative activities of the free fraction of the colored rice bran were attributed to the proanthocyanidins in red colored rice and anthocyanins in black rice, while that of the bound fraction was mainly due to the phenolic acids.

  8. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Magdalena; Czerko, Zbigniew; Zarzyńska, Krystyna; Borowska-Komenda, Monika

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic), cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA) and total phenolics (TPs), and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE) in Solanum tuberosum (potato) tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave) increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer) than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers. PMID:27139188

  9. Effect of extrusion cooking on bioactive compounds in encapsulated red cactus pear powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Martha G; Amaya-Guerra, Carlos A; Quintero-Ramos, Armando; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Ruiz-Anchondo, Teresita de J; Báez-González, Juan G; Meléndez-Pizarro, Carmen O

    2015-01-01

    Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w) were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C) and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm) using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm), color (L*, a*, b*), antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k) and activation energies (Ea) were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the -0.0188 to -0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of -0.0122 to -0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products. PMID:25993418

  10. Effect of Extrusion Cooking on Bioactive Compounds in Encapsulated Red Cactus Pear Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Red cactus pear has significant antioxidant activity and potential as a colorant in food, due to the presence of betalains. However, the betalains are highly thermolabile, and their application in thermal process, as extrusion cooking, should be evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion conditions on the chemical components of red cactus pear encapsulated powder. Cornstarch and encapsulated powder (2.5% w/w were mixed and processed by extrusion at different barrel temperatures (80, 100, 120, 140 °C and screw speeds (225, 275, 325 rpm using a twin-screw extruder. Mean residence time (trm, color (L*, a*, b*, antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betacyanin, and betaxanthin contents were determined on extrudates, and pigment degradation reaction rate constants (k and activation energies (Ea were calculated. Increases in barrel temperature and screw speed decreased the trm, and this was associated with better retentions of antioxidant activity, total polyphenol, betalain contents. The betacyanins k values ranged the −0.0188 to −0.0206/s and for betaxanthins ranged of −0.0122 to −0.0167/s, while Ea values were 1.5888 to 6.1815 kJ/mol, respectively. The bioactive compounds retention suggests that encapsulated powder can be used as pigments and to provide antioxidant properties to extruded products.

  11. Modulation of Banana Polyphenol Oxidase (Ppo Activity by Naturally Occurring Bioactive Compounds From Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamelumangai. M

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO (E.C number 1.14.18.1 was extracted from banana (Musa paradisiaca and partially purified by acetone precipitation. The enzyme was found to have high affinity towards its substrate, catechol. In this study, various plant extracts like Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rubia cordifolia, Hesperethusa crenulata and oil from the seeds of Hydnocarpus laurifolia were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO. Method In this study, various plant extracts were observed to modulate the activity of banana PPO at two different concentrations (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations Result Among these 4 plant extracts, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Rubia cordifolia were found to increase the activity of PPO up to 1.35- 2.7 fold at two different concentrations (4 and 40 μg/ml. Few other two samples like Chaulmogra oil (2 and 4 μl/ml and the Hesperethusa crenulata plant extract (0.4 and 40 μg/ml concentrations, when used at low concentrations decreased the enzyme activity (38 %. Conclusion The novelty of this study is to screen their naturally occurring bioactive compounds from the plant extracts and their inhibitory activity against PPO.

  12. Effects on Animal Models of Depression of Bioactive Compounds from Entomogenous Fungi, A Novel Antioxidant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰兰; 明亮; 马传庚; 樊美珍; 程燕; 江勤

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidepressant effects and its mechanism of bioactive compounds (metabolite extract) from entomogenous fungi (BCEF) on experimental animal models of depression. Methods: The antidepressant effect of BCEF was examined on the acquired models of depression (rats and mice in forced swimming test) and unpredictable chronic stress mouse models. The behavior alterations were assayed by detecting the duration of immobility in forced swimming test. UV spectrophotometer analysis technique was used to detect the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and catalase (CAT) in mice brain mitochondria; and colorimetric method was used to detect the content of malondealdehyde (MDA), nitrogen oxide (NO) in rat brain cytoplasm and mitochondria. Results: BCEF (25, 50,100 mg/kg) could obviously shorten the immobility time in forced swimming mice and BCEF (50,100 mg/kg)could obviously shorten the immobility time in forced swimming rats. Both of them showed some extent of dose-effect relationship. BCEF (50, 100 mg/kg) could significantly inhibit the increase of MDA and NO content in brain mitochondria and cytoplasm in chronic unpredictable stress models. BCEF (25,50,100 mg/kg)could obviously enhance the activities of SOD and GSH-PX. BCEF (50 mg/kg) also enhances the activities of CAT. Conclusion: BCEF has antidepressant effects in depressed animal models. The anti-oxidation may be one of the important mechanisms.

  13. Antidepressant effect of bioactive compounds from Paecilomyces tenuipes in mice and rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Kan; Liang Ming; Chunru Li; Hongxing Kan; Bei Sun; Yan Liang

    2010-01-01

    A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes(BCPT)has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A(MAO-A)in vitro.Researchers have thought that BCPT may be a potential antidepressant.The MAO-A suppressor moclobemide served as a control,and this study investigated the mechanisms of BCPT as an antidepressant.Results demonstrated that BCPT induced significantly increased sucrose intake in chronic unpredictable stressed rats,shortened immobility time in forced swimming mice,improved the scores of blepharoptosis and akinesia in reserpine-treated mice,increased the number of 5-hydroxy tryptophan-induced head-twitches,remarkably enhanced the expression of hippocampus mineralcorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA,decreased the ratio of mineralcorticoid receptor to glucocorticoid receptor and raised the levels of dopamine,norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine,while decreasing hydroxyindole acetic acid levels or dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid in chronic unpredictable stressed rats.Behavioral test results suggested that BCPT potentially had antidepressant-like activity.Meanwhile,BCPT increased the levels of neurotransmitters,and mineralcorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the hippocampus,which may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  14. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  15. Green alga Ulva pertusa--a new source of bioactive compounds with antialgal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying-ying, Sun; Hui, Wang; Gan-lin, Guo; Yin-fang, Pu; Bin-lun, Yan; Chang-hai, Wang

    2015-07-01

    We tested the effects of solvent fractions (FA, FB, FC, and FD), which partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction from the methanol extract of Ulva pertusa, on the growth of red tide microalgae (Karenia mikimitoi, Skeletonema costatum, Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo, Prorocentrum donghaiense), and FA, FB, and FC exhibited significantly antialgal activity. The chemical constituent analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as phenols and alkaloids. Further, four solvent fractions were applied to silica gel column and repeated preparative TLC to produce 13 samples and their purity qualified as thin-layer chromatographic grade. Among these purified samples, FA111, FB411, FC411, FD111, and FD211 exhibited stronger antialgal activity. Furthermore, their functional groups were analyzed by colorimetric methods and UV spectra data. FD111 and FD211 were temptatively identified as alkaloids; the others were initially identified as phenolic acids. This is a preliminary study and the structure identification of these purified samples requires further investigation. While concentration of these purified samples in this algae was very small, they showed excellent effects against red tide microalgae. PMID:25724801

  16. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letricia Barbosa-Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1, similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1 was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6% as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  17. Bioactive Compounds in Potato Tubers: Effects of Farming System, Cooking Method, and Flesh Color.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Grudzińska

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of cultivation system (conventional or organic, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of ascorbic acid (AA and total phenolics (TPs, and on total antioxidant activity (Trolox equivalents, TE in Solanum tuberosum (potato tubers. The research material, consisting of 4 potato cultivars, was grown in experimental fields, using organic and conventional systems, at the experimental station in 2012 and 2013. The analysis showed that organically grown potatoes with creamy, light yellow, and yellow flesh had significantly higher TPs than did potatoes grown conventionally. Flesh color and cooking method also affected AA. The greatest losses of AA occurred in yellow-fleshed potatoes grown conventionally and cooked in the microwave; such losses were not observed in potatoes grown organically. A dry cooking method (baking in a microwave increased the TP contents in potatoes by about 30%, regardless of the flesh color and the production system. TE was significantly higher in organically grown potatoes (raw and cooked in a steamer than in conventionally grown potatoes. TE and AA contents showed a significant positive correlation, but only in potatoes from the organic system [R2 = 0.686]. By contrast, the positive correlation between TE and TPs was observed regardless of the production system. Therefore, we have identified the effects of farming system, cooking method, and flesh color on the contents of bioactive compounds in potato tubers.

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from wild garlic (Allium ursinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomšik, Alena; Pavlić, Branimir; Vladić, Jelena; Ramić, Milica; Brindza, Ján; Vidović, Senka

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for extraction of bioactive compounds and for production of Allium ursinum liquid extract. The experiments were carried out according to tree level, four variables, face-centered cubic experimental design (FDC) combined with response surface methodology (RSM). Temperature (from 40 to 80 °C), ethanol concentration (from 30% to 70%), extraction time (from 40 to 80 min) and ultrasonic power (from 19.2 to 38.4 W/L) were investigated as independent variables in order to obtain the optimal conditions for extraction and to maximize the yield of total phenols (TP), flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity of obtained extracts. Experimental results were fitted to the second order polynomial model where multiple regression and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal condition for investigated responses. The predicted values of the TP (1.60 g GAE/100 g DW), TF (0.35 g CE/100 g DW), antioxidant activity, IC50 (0.71 mg/ml) and EY (38.1%) were determined at the optimal conditions for ultrasound assisted extraction: 80 °C temperature, 70% ethanol, 79.8 min and 20.06 W/L ultrasonic power. The predicted results matched well with the experimental results obtained using optimal extraction conditions which validated the RSM model with a good correlation. PMID:26563916

  19. Ultraviolet Irradiation Effect on Apple Juice Bioactive Compounds during Shelf Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Juarez-Enriquez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Clarified and standardized apple juice was ultraviolet-irradiated to inactivate polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, and its effect on bioactive compounds and stability during storage was also evaluated. Apple juice was irradiated with 345.6 J/cm2 and treatment effect was evaluated in terms of color, antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content, pH, titratable acidity and total soluble solids. Using a linear regression design, inactivation kinetic of polyphenol oxidase enzyme was also described. In addition, a repeated measures design was carried out to evaluate apple juice during 24 days of storage at 4 °C and 20 °C. After irradiation, reduction of antioxidant capacity was observed while during storage, ascorbic acid content decreased up to 40% and total polyphenol content remain stable. Ultraviolet irradiation achieved a complete inactivation of polyphenol oxidase enzyme and microbiota, keeping apple juice antioxidants during ultraviolet treatment and storage available until juice consumption. UV-treated apple juice can be used as a regular beverage, ensuring antioxidant intake.

  20. Electrostatic extrusion as a dispersion technique for encapsulation of cells and bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant development of cells and bioactive compound encapsulation technologies is taking place due to an exceptional possibility of their application in various scientific disciplines, including biomedicine, pharmacy, cosmetology, food and agricultural sciences, beverage production, industrial waste treatment. Despite the broad application of microencapsulation, the literature reviews on dispersion techniques for microcapsule/microbead production, their advantages, restrictions and drawbacks are scarce. The purpose of this paper is to assess the possibilities of electrostatic extrusion for encapsulation of biological material, including living cells in hydrogel microbeads. The paper presents an overview of the mechanisms of droplet formation and controlling experimental parameters for producing microbeads by means of electrostatic extrusion. Electrostatic droplet formation utilizes a special type of physical process taking advantage of electrostatic effects occurring in flowing conductive liquids after introduction of an electric field.When an electrostatic field is applied to the metal needle and an electric charge is induced in the liquid flowing out of the needle, the size of droplet detaching from the needle tip decreases as a funcion of applied electrostatic field. It has been shown that few parameters affect microbead size: applied voltage, electrode geometry, needle size, polarity arrangement and polymer concentration. The electrostatic droplet formation is one of the most precise methods, which enables one to produce spherical and uniform particles ranging from 100 μm up to 1000 μm. Most of the authors report that the encapsulated compounds (drugs, enzymes and living cells remain unaltered after electrostatic extrusion. This technique seems to be particularly promising in biotechnology, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries, where a low-temperature process, preserving heat-sensitive material is a prerequisite. Future efforts in

  1. Accurate Dereplication of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from Marine-Derived Fungi by UHPLC-DAD-QTOFMS and a MS/HRMS Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildgaard, Sara; Mansson, Maria; Dosen, Ina;

    2014-01-01

    In drug discovery, reliable and fast dereplication of known compounds is essential for identification of novel bioactive compounds. Here, we show an integrated approach using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-...

  2. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Lignin of Empty Bunch Palm Fiber and Their Effects on in Vitro Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Prayuwidayati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of bioactive compounds isolated from purified lignin formacell (PLF of empty bunch palm fiber as natural antimicrobes and their effects on in vitro rumen fermentation. The first experiment was inhibition test of 11 bioactive compounds isolated from PLF, using disc diffusion method against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the most potential bioactive compounds were then used in the second experiment, which was an in vitro test using fresh rumen liquid of Ongole grade beef cattle, to study their effects on rumen fermentation. Six treatments with 3 replications were applied in a completely randomized block (CRB design. The treatments were R0= 0.5 g basal diet; R1= R0 + 0.3 mg Rumensin®; R2= R0 + 0.3 mg syringaldehyde; R3= R0 + 0.3 mg p-hydroxybenzoic acid; R4= R0 + 0.3 mg m-hydroxybenzoic acid; and R5= R0 + 0.3 mg oxybenzene. Isolate fraction of CC-2 (syringaldehyde, CC-3 (m-hydroxybenzoic acid, VLC-5 (oxybenzene, and VLC-9 (p-hydroxybenzoic acid exhibited antimicrobes activity against all tested bacteria. Other isolated fractions exhibited antimicrobes activity only against 1 or 2 tested bacteria. The use of syringaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, and oxybenzene improved ammonia concentration, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrients digestibility. Bioactive compounds had no effect on rumen pH but reduced total VFA concentration as well as the estimate of methane production.

  3. Traceability of Functional Bioactive Compounds in Fresh and Pasteurized Milk Obtained from Goats Fed with Orange Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Chiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products (Prache et al, 2002. In this work, were studied the bioactive compounds (total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E and antioxidant activity of goat fresh milk and pasteurized one. The goats were fed with a standard diet (control diet and then with a diet that incorporates orange pulp. The control diet (CD corresponded with a standard ration (a ration wich provide the energetic and proteic values, daily food for milking animals. From that ration, the Department of Animal Science, from Politechnic University of Valencia replaced the different proportions of the ingredients for incorporating orange pulp diet (OPD. The results of the present study show that the citrus pulp silage mixture used can be fed to goats without any negative effects on the performance of the animals. Results of this study indicate that citrus pulp silage can replace part of the conventional ration of goats, thus lowering the cost of production. The first aim of this study was to compare the two types of goat diets: a standard diet and a diet with orange pulp, by analyzing the bioactive compounds in fresh and pasteurized milk. The results demonstrate that all the bioactive compounds are bigger in the orange pulp diet than in the control diet. The second objective of this study was to analyze the bioavailability and traceability of bioactive compounds in fresh milk. 

  4. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol–water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat ass...

  5. Bioactive Compounds Screening from Zingiberaceae Family as Influenza A/Swine Flu Virus Neuraminidase Inhibitor through Docking Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Usman S. F.; Fadilah; Parikesit, Arli A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Influenza A/H1N1 is a disease caused by infection of influenza a virus subtype H1N1. It is a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. This virus constantly mutates and consequently will be developed into new drug-resistant strains. Approach: In this research, we have conducted docking study to screen bioactive compounds from Zingiberaceae family, which has a role as neuraminidase inhibitor of influenza a virus. Results: The docking res...

  6. Comparison of Bioactive Compounds and Quality Traits of Breast Meat from Korean Native Ducks and Commercial Ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Kim, Sun Hyo; Kim, Hyun Joo; Heo, Kang Nyung; Song, Ji Eun; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare the bioactive compound content and quality traits of breast meat from male and female Korean native ducks (KND) and commercial ducks (CD, Cherry Valley). Meat from three 6-wk old birds of each sex from KND and CD were evaluated for carcass and breast weights, pH, color, cooking loss, shear force, and bioactive compound (creatine, carnosine, anserine, betaine, and L-carnitine) content. KND showed significantly higher carcass weights than CD whereas no such difference (p>0.05) was found between male and female ducks. The breed and sex had no significant effects on the breast weight, pH value, and shear force. However, KND had significantly lower cooking loss values than did CD. Creatine, anserine, and L-carnitine contents were significantly higher in KND than in CD and were predominant in female ducks compared to males. The results of this study provide rare information regarding the amounts and the determinants of several bioactive compounds in duck meat, which can be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing indigenous duck meat. PMID:26761808

  7. Effect of different coatings on post-harvest quality and bioactive compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meighani, Hossein; Ghasemnezhad, Mahmood; Bakhshi, Davood

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three different coatings; resin wax (Britex Ti), carnauba wax (Xedasol M14), and chitosan (1 and 2 % w/v) on postharvest quality of pomegranate fruits were investigated. Fruits quality characteristics and bioactive compounds were evaluated during 40, 80 and 120 days storage at 4.5 °C and 3 additional days at 20 °C. The results showed that uncoated fruits showed higher respiration rate, weight loss, L* and b* values of arils, total soluble solids (TSS)/titratable acidity (TA), and pH than coated fruits during storage. Coating treatments could delay declining TSS and TA percent, a* value of arils, as well as bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The coated fruits with commercial resin and carnauba waxes showed significantly lower respiration rate and weight loss than other treatments, however carnauba wax could maintain considerably higher fruits quality and bioactive compounds than other coating treatments. The results suggested that postharvest application of carnauba wax have a potential to extend storage life of pomegranate fruits by reducing respiration rate, water loss and maintaining fruit quality. PMID:26139918

  8. Volatile compounds from leaves of the African spider plant (Gynandropsis gynandra) with bioactivity against spider mite (Tetranychus urticae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyalala, Samuel Odeyo; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Gynandropsis gynandra emits acetonitrile as a foliar volatile from intact plants and isolated leaves, and that this compound is an effective spider mite repellent. This study has used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to investigate volatile compounds...... emitted from homogenised G. gynandra leaves to evaluate their tissue acetonitrile content and to look for other compounds that might be exploited for the management of spider mites. Acetonitrile was absent from the homogenised tissues of five lines of G. gynandra, studied over two seasons. Thirteen...... volatile compounds were emitted by G. gynandra at significantly higher levels than mite-susceptible pot roses, including isothiocyanates, aldehydes, esters, alcohols and terpenes. Six representative compounds were selected to assess bioactivity. Spider mite populations were completely inactive after a 2¿h...

  9. Polyhydroxyalkanoate-based 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and its derivatives as a platform of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radivojevic, Jelena; Skaro, Sanja; Senerovic, Lidija; Vasiljevic, Branka; Guzik, Maciej; Kenny, Shane T; Maslak, Veselin; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    A library of 18 different compounds was synthesized starting from (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic acid which is derived from the bacterial polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Ten derivatives, including halo and unsaturated methyl and benzyl esters, were synthesized and characterized for the first time. Given that (R)-3-hydroxyalkanoic acids are known to have biological activity, the new compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity and in vitro antiproliferative effect with mammalian cell lines. The presence of the carboxylic group was essential for the antimicrobial activity, with minimal inhibitory concentrations against a panel of bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative) and fungi (Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in the range 2.8-7.0 mM and 0.1-6.3 mM, respectively. 3-Halogenated octanoic acids exhibited the ability to inhibit C. albicans hyphae formation. In addition, (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoic and (E)-oct-2-enoic acids inhibited quorum sensing-regulated pyocyanin production in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Generally, derivatives did not inhibit mammalian cell proliferation even at 3-mM concentrations, while only (E)-oct-2-enoic and 3-oxooctanoic acid had IC50 values of 1.7 and 1.6 mM with the human lung fibroblast cell line. PMID:26399414

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Potential Bioactive Compounds from Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv Stringy Seed Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T JN Okonkwo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Landolphia owariensis P. Beauv, a tropical climber, is economically important for latex/rubber and folklore medicine. Among other uses, it is utilized in the management of malaria and inflammatory related diseases in ethno medicine. Thus its stringy seed pulp (LOSSP was subjected to isolation and characterization of bioactive compounds. A fresh portion of LOSSP was air-dried, pulverized, defatted with petroleum ether and subsequently extracted with acetone and distilled water successively. The acetone extract was fractionated serially into chloroform, ethylacetate and acetone to obtain the respective solvent fractions. LOSSP/CF-1 was obtained by re-crystallization of the chloroform fraction. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts and fractions was performed using standard methods. The chemical structure of LOSSP/CF-1 was elucidated by ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. While the flavonoid concentrate (FC and LOSSP/CF-1 tested positive to 2, 2-diphenylpicryl hydrazyl radical and KMnO4 assays, indicating strong antioxidant properties. In addition, LOSSP/CF-1 expressed a 50% radical inhibition concentration (IC50 of 238.24 ± 3.12 µg/ml against gallic acid (37.63 ± 0.47 µg/ml. Ultraviolet/visible light, infrared, H-NMR, C-NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of LOSSP/CF-1 indicated it to be ascorbic acid. This is novel for the herb, and the first ever compound isolated and characterized from L. owariensis. Flavonoids and LOSSP/CF-1 (ascorbic acid are potent bioactive principles of L. owariensis, acting via antioxidant mechanism. Thus the herb is recommended for use as an adjuvant in the management of diseases involving pro-oxidative state.   Industrial relevance. Pro-oxidative state-induced disorders like hepatitis, cardiovascular disorders, arthritis, cancer, et c., have been identified as major course of morbidity and mortality throughout the world, especially in

  11. The polyphasic description of a Desmodesmus spp. isolate with the potential of bioactive compounds production

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    El Semary, NA.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A polyphasic approach was applied to describe a colony-forming Desmodesmus species collected from the Nile River, Maadi area, Helwan district, Egypt. The isolate grows best at moderate temperature and relatively high light intensity. The phenotypic features revealed the presence of both unicellular and colonial forms of the isolate and the latter form was either 2-4 celled. Cells were 4-6 mm ± 0.5 at their widest point and 11-15 mm ± 0.48 in their length with spiny projections that encircled the cells. Cells were heavily-granulated and enclosed within common mucilaginous sheath. Colonial forms were developed through production of daughter cells within mother cell. Molecular analysis using 18S rRNA gene showed some similarity to its nearest relative (Desmodesmus communis whereas the phylogenetic analyses clustered it together with other Desmodesmus spp. and away from Scenedesmus spp. from the database. However, the use of ITS-2 as a phylotaxonomic marker proved to be more resolving and confirmed the generic identity of the isolate as Desmodesmus spp. The fatty acid composition revealed the presence of saturated palmitic fatty acid as the most abundant component followed by monounsaturated palmitoleic acid whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acids were in relatively low abundance. The palmitoleic acid in particular is suggested to be involved in active defense mechanism. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids and saponins and absence of tannins. Fractions of methanolic extracts showed antimicrobial activities against pathogenic bacterial strains including multi-drug resistant ones. This study documents the presence of this strain in the River Nile and highlights its biotechnological potential as a source of bioactive compounds.

  12. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS. PMID:27142444

  13. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Selected Agro-Industrial By-products

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsan Karimi; Ehsan Oskoueian; Rudi Hendra; Norhani Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01) higher phenolics and f...

  14. The Use of Plant Bioactive Compounds to Mitigate Enteric Methane in Ruminants and its Application in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have become a major concern as they are now considered to be the cause of global warming. Several strategies have been planned and taken by different countries including Indonesia to mitigate this situation. Agriculture is considered to be one of major contributors to GHG, especially methane coming from ruminant digestive processes. More than 85% of the methane produced by ruminants comes from enteric fermentation. Several options have been proposed to lower this enteric methane production. This paper describes a review on diet manipulation using feed additives, especially plant bioactive compounds, to mitigate the GHG emission from ruminant livestock. Plant bioactive compounds have been found with various chemical structures. Some of them such as saponin, tannin, essential oils, organosulphur compounds, have been reported to have ability to reduce enteric methane production. Indonesia has many plant resources that have potential as methane reducing agents. Sapindus rarak fruit especially its methanol extract contain saponins which reduce the activity of methanogens in the rumen in vitro, hence reduce methane production (11%. Feeding S. rarak to sheep increased daily weight gain but not that of local cattle. Shrub legumes such as Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala contain tannins which can reduce methanogenesis (3 – 21% methane reduction. Besides tannin, these shrub legumes are a good source of protein. Feeding shrub legumes can be beneficial as a protein source and a methane reducer. Other sources of methane reducing agents have been tested in other countries and some can be applied for Indonesian situation. The strategy to reduce methane by plant bioactive compounds should be developed to be simple and relatively cheap so it will benefit the local farmers. Extraction of these compounds may be expensive, therefore, costs should be considered carefully when proposing to use the

  15. Monitoring of HTS compound library quality via a high-resolution image acquisition and processing instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Pierre; Scampavia, Louis; Einsteder, Ross; Hodder, Peter

    2011-06-01

    This report presents the high-resolution image acquisition and processing instrument for compound management applications (HIAPI-CM). The HIAPI-CM combines imaging spectroscopy and machine-vision analysis to perform rapid assessment of high-throughput screening (HTS) compound library quality. It has been customized to detect and classify typical artifacts found in HTS compound library microtiter plates (MTPs). These artifacts include (1) insufficient volume of liquid compound sample, (2) compound precipitation, and (3) colored compounds that interfere with HTS assay detection format readout. The HIAPI-CM is also configured to automatically query and compare its analysis results to data stored in a LIMS or corporate database, aiding in the detection of compound registration errors. To demonstrate its capabilities, several compound plates (n=5760 wells total) containing different artifacts were measured via automated HIAPI-CM analysis, and results compared with those obtained by manual (visual) inspection. In all cases, the instrument demonstrated high fidelity (99.8% empty wells; 100.1% filled wells; 94.4% for partially filled wells; 94.0% for wells containing colored compounds), and in the case of precipitate detection, the HIAPI-CM results significantly exceeded the fidelity of visual observations (220.0%). As described, the HIAPI-CM allows for noninvasive, nondestructive MTP assessment with a diagnostic throughput of about 1min per plate, reducing analytical expenses and improving the quality and stewardship of HTS compound libraries.

  16. Investigation of the incidence of "undesirable" molecular moieties for high-throughput screening compound libraries in marketed drug compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axerio-Cilies, Peter; Castañeda, Ivan P; Mirza, Amin; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2009-03-01

    A database of 1070 marketed drug compounds was compiled and analyzed in order to assess the occurrence of moieties described in the literature as "undesirable" for high-throughput screening compound libraries due to their ability to perturb assay formats. The study revealed a total of 277 compounds, 26% of the database, contained at least one of the moieties. As some of the drug compounds contained more than one "undesirable" moiety, the total number was 352. Electrophilic reactive groups, particularly aliphatic esters, were the most abundant type with 55% of the total. Half of the drug compounds incorporating the "undesirable" moieties were synthetic organic molecules. These findings suggest that "undesirable" moieties do not pose a major hindrance during clinical trials, the most expensive phase of drug development. In addition, their early elimination in the preclinical stage excludes large regions of known drug space due to the reliance on biochemical and cell-based assays. In general, it can be concluded that compounds with "undesirable" moieties should not simply be eliminated from compound screening libraries but rather be flagged as potentially problematic. A possible solution is to segregate the compounds containing suspect moieties and screen them when deemed appropriate. PMID:18692938

  17. Impact of molecular weight on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules as delivery vehicles for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Sanchez, Gloria; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-10-01

    The molecular weight of chitosan is one of its most determinant characteristics, which affects its processability and its performance as a biomaterial. However, information about the effect of this parameter on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules is scarce. In this work, the impact of chitosan molecular weight on its electrosprayability was studied and correlated with its effect on the viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity of solutions. A Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that the morphology of the electrosprayed chitosan materials could be correctly predicted using these three parameters for almost 85% of the samples. The suitability of using electrosprayed chitosan capsules as carriers for bioactive agents was also assessed by loading them with a model active compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). This encapsulation, with an estimated efficiency of around 80% in terms of preserved antioxidant activity, showed the potential to prolong the antiviral activity of EGCG against murine norovirus via gradual bioactive release combined with its protection against degradation in simulated physiological conditions.

  18. Characterization of bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and minerals in landraces of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata cultivated in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PRIORI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic variability for the synthesis of bioactive compounds and minerals in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata landraces. Total phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals were evaluated in 10 accessions of Cucurbita moschata landraces from the Genebank of Embrapa Temperate Agriculture (Pelotas - RS, Brazil. Twenty plants of each accession were cultivated in the field during the spring/summer of 2013/2014. After harvesting of mature fruits, the seeds were discarded and opposite longitudinal portions of the pulp were manually prepared for analysis of the bioactive compounds. For the determination of minerals, pumpkin samples were frozen in plastic bags, and after freeze-dried and milled. All analysis were performed in triplicate. The data obtained showed high genetic variability for the synthesis of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, antioxidant activity and minerals. The accessions C52, C81, C267 e C389 showed high levels of antioxidants and minerals, being recommended for use in pumpkin breeding programs. The accessions C52 and C389 are promising, especially because they present the highest levels of total carotenoids.

  19. Penicillium verruculosum SG: a source of polyketide and bioactive compounds with varying cytotoxic activities against normal and cancer lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Salma Gul; Shier, W Thomas; Jamaluddin; Tahir, Nawaz; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmad, Safia; Ali, Naeem

    2014-04-01

    A newly isolated fungus Penicillium verruculosum SG was evaluated for the production and characterization of bioactive colored secondary metabolites using solid-state fermentation along with their cytotoxic activities against normal and cancer cell lines. Logical fragmentation pattern following column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry of crude culture filtrate of fungus revealed the presence of different polyketide pigments and other bioactive compounds. Cytotoxicity of the selected colored fractions of fungal filtrate containing different compounds revealed IC50 (μg/ml) values ranging from 5 to 100. It was significantly higher in case of orevactaene (5 + 0.44) and monascorubrine followed by pyripyropene (8 + 0.63) against cancer cell line KA3IT. Overall, these compounds considerably showed less toxicity toward normal cell lines NIH3T3, HSCT6, HEK293 and MDCK. XRD of a yellow crystalline compound (224.21 m/z) confirmed its 3-dimensional structure as phenazine 1 carboxylic acid (C13H8N2O2) (broad spectrum antibiotic), and it is first time reported in fungi.

  20. Bioactive Compounds of Cold-pressed Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Oil with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Adel M A; Elbanna, Khaled; Abulreesh, Hussein H; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Herbs rich in bioactive phytochemicals were recognized to have biological activities and possess many health-promoting effects. In this work, cold-pressed thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil (TO) was studied for its lipid classes, fatty acid profile, tocols and phenolics contents. Antioxidant activity and radical scavenging potential of TO against free radicals (DPPH(・) and galvinoxyl) was determined. Antimicrobial activity (AA) of TO against food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi were also evaluated. Neutral lipids accounted for the main lipid fraction in TO, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids in TO were linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic. γ-Tocopherol (60.2% of total tocols) followed by α-tocotrienol (26.9%) and α-tocopherol (9.01% of total tocols) were the main tocols. TO contained high amounts of phenolic compounds (7.3 mg/g as GAE). TO had strong antiradical action wherein 65% of DPPH(・) radicals and 55% of galvinoxyl radical were quenched after 60 min of incubation. Rancimat assay showed that induction time (IT) for TO: sunflower oil blend (1:9, w/w) was 6.5 h, while TO: sunflower oil blend (2:8, w/w) recorded higher IT (9 h). TO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. TO exhibited various degrees of AA against different food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi, wherein the highest AA was recorded against dermatophyte fungi and yeasts including T. mentagrophytes (62 mm), T. rubrum (40 mm), and C. albicans (20 mm) followed by food spoilage fungi including A. flavus (32 mm) with minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) ranging between 80 to 320 μg/mL. Furthermore, TO exhibited broad-spectra activity against food borne bacteria including S. aureus (30 mm), E. coli (25 mm) and L. Monocytogenes (20 mm) with MLC ranging between 160 to 320 μg/mL. The results suggest that TO could be used economically as a valuable natural product with novel functional properties in food

  1. Evaluation of Bioactive Compounds, Pharmaceutical Quality, and Anticancer Activity of Curry Leaf (Murraya koenigii L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated some bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical qualities of curry leaf (Murraya koenigii L. extracts from three different locations in Malaysia. The highest TF and total phenolic (TP contents were observed in the extracts from Kelantan (3.771 and 14.371 mg/g DW, followed by Selangor (3.146 and 12.272 mg/g DW and Johor (2.801 and 12.02 mg/g DW, respectively. High quercetin (0.350 mg/g DW, catechin (0.325 mg/g DW, epicatechin (0.678 mg/g DW, naringin (0.203 mg/g DW, and myricetin (0.703 mg/g DW levels were observed in the extracts from Kelantan, while the highest rutin content (0.082 mg/g DW was detected in the leaves from Selangor. The curry leaf extract from Kelantan exhibited higher concentration of gallic acid (0.933 mg/g DW than that from Selangor (0.904 mg/g DW and Johor (0.813 mg/g DW. Among the studied samples, the ones from Kelantan exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 66.41% and ferric reduction activity potential (FRAP, 644.25 μm of Fe(II/g followed by those from Selangor (60.237% and 598.37 μm of Fe(II/g and Johor (50.76% and 563.42 μm of Fe(II/g, respectively. A preliminary screening showed that the curry leaf extracts from all the locations exhibited significant anticarcinogenic effects inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231 and maximum inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell was observed with the curry leaf extract from Kelantan. Based on these results, it is concluded that Malaysian curry leaf collected from the North (Kelantan might be potential source of potent natural antioxidant and beneficial chemopreventive agents.

  2. Bioactive Compounds of Cold-pressed Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) Oil with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, Adel M A; Elbanna, Khaled; Abulreesh, Hussein H; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    Herbs rich in bioactive phytochemicals were recognized to have biological activities and possess many health-promoting effects. In this work, cold-pressed thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil (TO) was studied for its lipid classes, fatty acid profile, tocols and phenolics contents. Antioxidant activity and radical scavenging potential of TO against free radicals (DPPH(・) and galvinoxyl) was determined. Antimicrobial activity (AA) of TO against food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi were also evaluated. Neutral lipids accounted for the main lipid fraction in TO, followed by glycolipids and phospholipids. The major fatty acids in TO were linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic. γ-Tocopherol (60.2% of total tocols) followed by α-tocotrienol (26.9%) and α-tocopherol (9.01% of total tocols) were the main tocols. TO contained high amounts of phenolic compounds (7.3 mg/g as GAE). TO had strong antiradical action wherein 65% of DPPH(・) radicals and 55% of galvinoxyl radical were quenched after 60 min of incubation. Rancimat assay showed that induction time (IT) for TO: sunflower oil blend (1:9, w/w) was 6.5 h, while TO: sunflower oil blend (2:8, w/w) recorded higher IT (9 h). TO inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms. TO exhibited various degrees of AA against different food borne bacteria, food spoilage fungi and dermatophyte fungi, wherein the highest AA was recorded against dermatophyte fungi and yeasts including T. mentagrophytes (62 mm), T. rubrum (40 mm), and C. albicans (20 mm) followed by food spoilage fungi including A. flavus (32 mm) with minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) ranging between 80 to 320 μg/mL. Furthermore, TO exhibited broad-spectra activity against food borne bacteria including S. aureus (30 mm), E. coli (25 mm) and L. Monocytogenes (20 mm) with MLC ranging between 160 to 320 μg/mL. The results suggest that TO could be used economically as a valuable natural product with novel functional properties in food

  3. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the bioactive compounds from the crude extracts of Waltheria indica and the histopathological changes induced in albino rats challenged with Naja nigricollis venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ilani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop a characteristic fingerprint of the different chemical compounds of plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR analysis and assess the effect of the crude extract on histological changes induced in Naja nigricollis (N. nigricollis envenomed albino rats. Methods: The coarsely powdered Waltheria indica (W. indica whole plant material was extracted using 70% methanol. GC-MS analysis was carried out using a Shimadzu GC-MS QP 2010 plus system of gas chromatography interfaced to a mass spectrometer. The identification of components was based on National Institute of Standard and Technology-08 and Willey-8 libraries. Hydrogen-NMR spectra of the extracts was performed using Bruker Biospin Avance 400-MHz NMR spectrophotometer with a 5 mm broad inverse probe head, equipped with shielded z-gradient accessories and C-13 NMR hetero-nuclear single quantum correction was carried out using the Brucker’s standard pulse library. The efficacy of the crude extract of W. indica whole plant was tested and the lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged with N. nigricollis were analyzed by light microscopy. Results: The identification of the bioactive compounds from W. indica by GC-MS analysis revealed 41 peaks. A total of 38 compounds were identified with majority having important pharmacological activities that included anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant antiinflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ageing, anti-arthritic, larvicidal, anti-convulsant and herbicidal activities. C-13 and hydrogen-NMR analysis of W. indica elucidated key bioactive compounds in the whole plant that were consistent with the classes of bioactive compounds detected by GC-MS analysis. The efficacy of the crude extract of W. indica whole plant in ameliorating histopathological lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged with N. nigricollis venom revealed the

  4. GC-MS and NMR analysis of the bioactive compounds from the crude extracts ofWaltheria indica and the histopathological changes induced in albino rats challenged withNaja nigricollis venom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip Ilani; Nicholas Ajodo; Folashade Adewusi; Samirat Yakubu; Victor Yakubu Cosmos; Ache Eunice; Atonila Kayode Ezekiel; Oshiedu Sarah; Emmanuel Amlabu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To develop a characteristic fingerprint of the different chemical compounds of plant by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis and assess the effect of the crude extract on histological changes induced inNaja nigricollis(N. nigricollis)envenomed albino rats. Methods: The coarsely powderedWaltheria indica (W. indica) whole plant material was extracted using 70% methanol.GC-MS analysis was carried out using a ShimadzuGC-MS QP 2010 plus system of gas chromatography interfaced to a mass spectrometer. The identification of components was based on National Institute of Standard and Technology-08 and Willey-8 libraries. Hydrogen-NMR spectra of the extracts was performed using Bruker Biospin Avance 400-MHzNMR spectrophotometer with a 5 mm broad inverse probe head, equipped with shielded z-gradient accessories andC-13 NMR hetero-nuclear single quantum correction was carried out using the Brucker’s standard pulse library. The efficacy of the crude extract ofW. indica whole plant was tested and the lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged withN. nigricollis were analyzed by light microscopy. Results:The identification of the bioactive compounds fromW. indica byGC-MS analysis revealed 41 peaks. A total of 38 compounds were identified with majority having important pharmacological activities that included anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ageing, anti-arthritic, larvicidal, anti-convulsant and herbicidal activities.C-13 and hydrogen-NMR analysis ofW. indica elucidated key bioactive compounds in the whole plant that were consistent with the classes of bioactive compounds detected byGC-MS analysis. The efficacy of the crude extract ofW. indica whole plant in ameliorating histopathological lesions induced in the liver, brain and kidney of albino rats challenged withN. nigricollis venom revealed the abrogation of tissue degeneration when

  5. Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy for the improvement of bioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, A.H., E-mail: ahwang@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang, Z.; Zheng, R.R. [State Key Laboratory of Material Processing and Die and Mould Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xia, H.B.; Wang, Y.N. [The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) and Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy is carried out by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The corresponding microstructure, phase structure, microhardness profiles, corrosion properties and bioactivity of the laser-alloyed coatings are investigated to optimize the atomic ratio of Ti–Si. The laser alloyed Ti–Si compound coatings are free of cracks, and primarily present block-like crystals, lath-like crystals and dendrite crystals. The phase structures of both laser-alloyed Ti + Si and 5Ti + 3Si coatings are mainly consisted of α-Ti and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}, while the laser-alloyed Si coating is mainly consisted of TiSi{sub 2} and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3}. Microhardness test indicates that the laser-alloyed Si coating has the highest microhardness. Also, corrosion resistance measurement reveals that the corrosion resistance of the laser-alloyed Si coating is much better than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Evaluation of bioactivity shows that cell growth on the laser-alloyed Si coating with high volume fraction of Ti–Si compounds is faster than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy.

  6. Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy for the improvement of bioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser alloying of Ti–Si compound coating on Ti–6Al–4V alloy is carried out by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The corresponding microstructure, phase structure, microhardness profiles, corrosion properties and bioactivity of the laser-alloyed coatings are investigated to optimize the atomic ratio of Ti–Si. The laser alloyed Ti–Si compound coatings are free of cracks, and primarily present block-like crystals, lath-like crystals and dendrite crystals. The phase structures of both laser-alloyed Ti + Si and 5Ti + 3Si coatings are mainly consisted of α-Ti and Ti5Si3, while the laser-alloyed Si coating is mainly consisted of TiSi2 and Ti5Si3. Microhardness test indicates that the laser-alloyed Si coating has the highest microhardness. Also, corrosion resistance measurement reveals that the corrosion resistance of the laser-alloyed Si coating is much better than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy. Evaluation of bioactivity shows that cell growth on the laser-alloyed Si coating with high volume fraction of Ti–Si compounds is faster than that of the Ti–6Al–4V alloy.

  7. Effect of thermal processing on the profile of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero-López, Blanca; Cerrillo, Isabel; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Herrero-Martín, Griselda; Berná, Genoveva; Medina, Sonia; Ferreres, Federico; Martín, Franz; Fernández-Pachón, María-Soledad

    2016-11-01

    Previously, we reported that alcoholic fermentation enhanced flavanones and carotenoids content of orange juice. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of pasteurization on the qualitative and quantitative profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant capacity of fermented orange juice. Ascorbic acid (203 mg/L), total flavanones (647 mg/L), total carotenoids (7.07 mg/L) and provitamin A (90.06 RAEs/L) values of pasteurized orange beverage were lower than those of fermented juice. Total phenolic remained unchanged (585 mg/L) and was similar to that of original juice. The flavanones naringenin-7-O-glucoside, naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-rutinoside, hesperetin-7-O-glucoside and isosakuranetin-7-O-rutinoside, and the carotenoids karpoxanthin and isomer, neochrome, lutein, ζ-carotene, zeaxanthin, mutatoxanthin epimers, β-cryptoxanthin and auroxanthin epimers were the major compounds. Pasteurization produced a decrease in antioxidant capacity of fermented juice. However, TEAC (5.45 mM) and ORAC (6353 μM) values of orange beverage were similar to those of original orange juice. The novel orange beverage could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant capacity and exert potential beneficial effects.

  8. Optimized Solid Phase-Assisted Synthesis of Dendrons Applicable as Scaffolds for Radiolabeled Bioactive Multivalent Compounds Intended for Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fischer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic structures, being highly homogeneous and symmetric, represent ideal scaffolds for the multimerization of bioactive molecules and thus enable the synthesis of compounds of high valency which are e.g., applicable in radiolabeled form as multivalent radiotracers for in vivo imaging. As the commonly applied solution phase synthesis of dendritic scaffolds is cumbersome and time-consuming, a synthesis strategy was developed that allows for the efficient assembly of acid amide bond-based highly modular dendrons on solid support via standard Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis protocols. The obtained dendritic structures comprised up to 16 maleimide functionalities and were derivatized on solid support with the chelating agent DOTA. The functionalized dendrons furthermore could be efficiently reacted with structurally variable model thiol-bearing bioactive molecules via click chemistry and finally radiolabeled with 68Ga. Thus, this solid phase-assisted dendron synthesis approach enables the fast and straightforward assembly of bioactive multivalent constructs for example applicable as radiotracers for in vivo imaging with Positron Emission Tomography (PET.

  9. Detection of Bioactive Compounds in the Mucus Nets of Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Prosobranch Gastropod Vermetidae, Mollusca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Klöppel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sessile suspension-feeding wormsnail Dendropoma maxima, Sowerby 1825 (Vermetidae secretes a mucus net to capture planktonic prey. The nets are spread out over the corals and often have remarkable deleterious effects on them like changes in growth form and pigmentation shifts not uncommonly resulting in tissue necrosis. Until now, there is no explanation for this phenomenon although the indication as well as theories about its genesis is mentioned in several publications. Vermetids are well studied concerning the intraspecific competition with neighboring individuals but not in their interaction with other taxa like corals or fish. We did extensive in situ video recording and observed that fish avoided the plankton-load nets although several specialized taxa are known to be molluscivores, mucivores, and/or feed on plankton. As many molluscs use chemical weapons to combat feeding pressure and to defend themselves against predators, we screened empty and plankton-load mucus nets for potential bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity testing was performed with a recently developed system based on a chromatographic separation (high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC and a bioassay with luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Thus, we found at least two active compounds exclusively accumulated by the wormsnails themselves. This is the first record of bioactive properties in the whole family of Vermetidae.

  10. Rescuing compound bioactivity in a secondary cell-based screening by using γ-cyclodextrin as a molecular carrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claveria-Gimeno, Rafael; Vega, Sonia; Grazu, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Lanas, Angel; Velazquez-Campoy, Adrian; Abian, Olga

    2015-01-01

    In vitro primary screening for identifying bioactive compounds (inhibitors, activators or pharmacological chaperones) against a protein target results in the discovery of lead compounds that must be tested in cell-based efficacy secondary screenings. Very often lead compounds do not succeed because of an apparent low potency in cell assays, despite an excellent performance in primary screening. Primary and secondary screenings differ significantly according to the conditions and challenges the compounds must overcome in order to interact with their intended target. Cellular internalization and intracellular metabolism are some of the difficulties the compounds must confront and different strategies can be envisaged for minimizing that problem. Using a novel screening procedure we have identified 15 compounds inhibiting the hepatitis C NS3 protease in an allosteric fashion. After characterizing biophysically the interaction with the target, some of the compounds were not able to inhibit viral replication in cell assays. In order to overcome this obstacle and potentially improve cellular internalization three of these compounds were complexed with γ-cyclodextrin. Two of them showed a five- and 16-fold activity increase, compared to their activity when delivered as free compounds in solution (while γ-cyclodextrin did not show antiviral activity by itself). The most remarkable result came from a third compound that showed no antiviral activity in cell assays when delivered free in solution, but its γ-cyclodextrin complex exhibited a 50% effective concentration of 5 μM. Thus, the antiviral activity of these compounds can be significantly improved, even completely rescued, using γ-cyclodextrin as carrier molecule. PMID:25834436

  11. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation of Rhodiola sp. – an approach to enhance the level of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Hansen, Martin; Lauridsen, Uffe Bjerre; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark;

    .liu-clarke@bioforsk.no Keywords: Natural transformation - rol-genes – roseroot – rosavin - salidroside Abstract Introduction Rhodiola rosea commonly known as roseroot has since ancient times been used against depression and for improving mental abilities mainly due to its two bioactive compounds salidroside and rosavin. Due...... into segments and the leaves were separated. Both the leaves and the stem segment were inoculated with A. rhizogenes. The inoculated explants were placed on co-cultivation media consisting of ½xMS containing acetosyringone for 3 days in darkness. The explants were washed in a timentin solution and moved...

  12. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation 60Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the compounds

  13. Effective properties of a sturgeon-based bioactive compound on stress-induced hippocampal degeneration and on in vitro neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, F; Chui, D H; Yadav, H; Lorenzetti, A; Celep, G; Jain, S; Bomba, A; Polimeni, A; Zhong, K; Allegri, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the activity of a marine bioactive compound containing high-purity caviar-derived DNA, collagen elastin and protein extracts from sturgeon (LD-1227, Caviarlieri, Laboratoires Dom, Switzerland) to exert neuroprotective properties in an experimental setting while also being potential triggers of neurogenesis in a separate in vitro study. Supplementation with high-DHA mixture of LD-1227 was applied for 30 days to stress model rats. Both supplementations significantly mitigated the histological brain damage when analyzing hippocampal subregions and corticosterone level. However, LD-1227 was most significantly efficient in preventing SOD, Catalase and ascorbic acid decrease in brain tissue. Both supplementations stimulated neurogenesis in vitro and neuron markers in particular but og olygodendrocyte markers and glia increased only in LD-1227-enriched medium. Taken together, these data suggest that LD-1227 is able to significantly protect the brain structure redox system to higher degree than DHA. Moreover, from in vitro study it appears that marine bioactive compound, through it wide array of small unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and neurotransmitter precursors, is likely to influence neuronal and glial lineage to act differently from a DHA-rich mixture. PMID:23034252

  14. Walnut Phenolic Extract and Its Bioactive Compounds Suppress Colon Cancer Cell Growth by Regulating Colon Cancer Stemness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Walnut has been known for its health benefits, including anti-cardiovascular disease and anti-oxidative properties. However, there is limited evidence elucidating its effects on cancer stem cells (CSCs which represent a small subset of cancer cells that provide resistance against chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-CSCs potential of walnut phenolic extract (WPE and its bioactive compounds, including (+-catechin, chlorogenic acid, ellagic acid, and gallic acid. In the present study, CD133+CD44+ cells were isolated from HCT116 cells using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and then treated with WPE. As a result, survival of the CD133+CD44+ HCT116 cells was inhibited and cell differentiation was induced by WPE. In addition, WPE down-regulated the CSC markers, CD133, CD44, DLK1, and Notch1, as well as the β-catenin/p-GSK3β signaling pathway. WPE suppressed the self-renewal capacity of CSCs. Furthermore, the WPE exhibited stronger anti-CSC effects than its individual bioactive compounds. Finally, the WPE inhibited specific CSC markers in primary colon cancer cells isolated from primary colon tumor. These results suggest that WPE can suppress colon cancer by regulating the characteristics of colon CSCs.

  15. Evaluation of the potential of squash pumpkin by-products (seeds and shell) as sources of antioxidant and bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, M J; Aires, A; Dias, C; Almeida, J A; De Vasconcelos, M C B M; Santos, P; Rosa, E A

    2015-02-01

    The transformation of byproducts and wastes generated by agro-food companies is of high importance since only a small portion of plant material is utilized directly for human consumption. Squash pumpkin is greatly used in Portugal and as by-products of its processing are generated tons of shell and seeds. In this study we aim to evaluate the potential of these wastes as sources of beneficial and bioactive compounds (antioxidants and antimicrobials), studying the effect of different extraction solvents and drying methods. The samples (fresh and cooked) were freeze-dried and oven-dried followed by extraction with different solvents that revealed the following decreasing order of efficiency: 70 % ethanol, 70 % methanol, 70 % acetone, ultra-pure water and 100 % dichloromethane. The oven-dried samples showed higher values of antioxidant activity and phenolic content, with exception of the values of phenolics for the seeds material. The shell samples presented higher values (1.47 - 70.96 % inhibition) of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (2.00 - 10.69 mg GAE/g DW). A positive correlation was found between these two parameters on the shell samples, however the squash seeds revealed a negative correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity. The results show that these industrial agro-food residues are potentially good sources of bioactive compounds with health benefits. PMID:25694712

  16. In vitro Antioxidant Activity between Bioactive Compounds from Nine Species of Passiflora

    OpenAIRE

    DAV Montero; LC Ming; MG Borguini; Cavalcante, M.; GPP Lima; Fabian, S; LMM Meletti

    2015-01-01

    Main bioactive substances identified from the genus Passiflora include polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins and other natural antioxidants that are critical factors for maintaining optimum health. Polyphenols mainly C-glycosides are present in well studied species such as P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. alata. However, most Passiflora species remains little explored and it’s for this reason that we address our work at the comparison between species. Three experiments with complet...

  17. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos Ferreira, Rosângela; de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães, Rita; Jardim Cury Pontes, Elenir Rose; Aragão do Nascimento, Valter; Aiko Hiane, Priscila

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC) containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC). Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders. PMID:27740592

  18. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms.

  19. Using immobilized G-protein coupled receptors to screen bioactive traditional Chinese medicine compounds with multiple targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Li, Qian; Bian, Liujiao; Zheng, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianbin; Zhang, Youyi; Li, Zijian

    2012-11-01

    Demand on high-throughput methods for multi-target compounds screening continues to increase nowadays due to the decline of new drugs on the market. Two kinds of G-protein-coupled receptors, alpha1-adrenoceptor (α(1A)-AR) and beta2-adrenoceptor (β(2)-AR), were purified and immobilized on the surface of macroporous silica gel to prepare new chromatographic stationary phases. Control drugs (e.g., prazosin, terazosin, salbutamol, and terbutaline) were used to characterize the retention behavior of the obtained α(1A)-AR and β(2)-AR columns. This study also coupled both columns with a six-way switching valve to construct an automatic two-dimensional system for multi-target compounds screening in complex mixtures. Adrenaline hydrochloride was used as a representative drug to evaluate the chromatographic performance of the two dimensional system. The aqueous extracts from Salvia miltiorrhiza and Coptis chinensis were also analyzed by the automatic system. The compounds in S. miltiorrhiza had no binding to both α(1A)-AR and β(2)-AR columns. But berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine were screened as the bioactive compounds in C. chinensis, targeting both the receptors. The proposed method is an alternative for recognizing and separating the compounds targeting different proteins from a complex matrix. PMID:22651959

  20. Synthesis and bioactive evaluations of novel benzotriazole compounds as potential antimicrobial agents and the interaction with calf thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yu Ren; Hui Zhen Zhang; Shao Lin Zhang; Yun Lei Luo; Ling Zhang; Cheng He Zhou; Rong Xia Geng

    2015-12-01

    A novel series of benzotriazole derivatives were synthesized and characterized by NMR, IR and MS spectra. The bioactive assay manifested that most of the new compounds exhibited moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities against the tested strains in comparison to reference drugs chloromycin, norfloxacin and fluconazole. Especially, 2,4-dichlorophenyl substituted benzotriazole derivative 6f displayed good antibacterial activity against MRSA with MIC value of 4 g/mL, which was 2-fold more potent than Chloromycin, and it also displayed 3-fold stronger antifungal activity (MIC = 4 g/mL) than fluconazole (MIC = 16 g/mL) against Beer yeast. The preliminary interactive investigations of compound 6f with calf thymus DNA revealed that compound 6f could effectively intercalate into DNA to form compound 6f–DNA complex which might block DNA replication to exert antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking experiments suggested that compound 6f projected into base-pairs of DNA hexamer duplex forming two hydrogen bonds with guanine of DNA. The theoretical calculations were in accordance with the experimental results.

  1. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of garlic (Allium sativum L.) as affected by pre- and post-harvest conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Petropoulos, Spyridon; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is considered one of the twenty most important vegetables, with various uses throughout the world, either as a raw vegetable for culinary purposes, or as an ingredient of traditional and modern medicine. Furthermore, it has also been proposed as one of the richest sources of total phenolic compounds, among the usually consumed vegetables, and has been highly ranked regarding its contribution of phenolic compounds to human diet. This review aims to examine all the aspects related with garlic chemical composition and quality, focusing on its bioactive properties. A particular emphasis is given on the organosulfur compounds content, since they highly contribute to the effective bioactive properties of garlic, including its derived products. The important effects of pre-harvest (genotype and various cultivation practices) and post-harvest conditions (storage conditions and processing treatments) on chemical composition and, consequently, bioactive potency of garlic are also discussed. PMID:27283605

  2. Isolation of bioactive biphenyl compounds from the twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kwon, Oh Kil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-01-15

    Investigation of the MeOH extract of Chaenomeles sinensis twigs resulted in the isolation of seven biphenyl compounds (1-7) including a new compound, chaenomin (1). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR data ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC), specific optical rotation, and chemical reaction. Compounds 2 and 6 showed potent cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15), and compound 7 exhibited potent anti-neuroinflammatory and NGF-potentiating activity. PMID:26706168

  3. Communic Acids: Occurrence, Properties and Use as Chirons for the Synthesis of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro F. Arteaga

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Communic acids are diterpenes with labdane skeletons found in many plant species, mainly conifers, predominating in the genus Juniperus (fam. Cupresaceae. In this review we briefly describe their distribution and different biological activities (anti- bacterial, antitumoral, hypolipidemic, relaxing smooth muscle, etc.. This paper also includes a detailed explanation of their use as chiral building blocks for the synthesis of bioactive natural products. Among other uses, communic acids have proven useful as chirons for the synthesis of quassinoids (formal, abietane antioxidants, ambrox and other perfume fixatives, podolactone herbicides, etc., featuring shorter and more efficient processes.

  4. Bioactive Compounds of Endemic Species Sideritis raeseri subsp. raeseri Grown in National Park Galičica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Menković

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Collection of Sideritis raeseri subsp. raeseri has a long tradition in local communities in the Ohrid-Prespa region. The aim of the present study was the analysis of bioactive compounds especially those with anti-inflammatory activity. Combination of the UV and MS data allowed the characterization of 17 compounds, which could be classified into flavonoid glycosides or hydroxycynnamic acid derivatives. Six of them were isolated using preparative HPLC: isoscutellarein 7-O-[6′″-O-acetyl- β -D-allopyranosyl-(1→2]- β -D-glucopyranoside, 4′-O-methylhypolaetin 7-O-[6′″-O-acetyl- β -D-allopyranosyl-(1→2]- β -D-glucopyranoside, hypolaetin 7-O-[6′″-O-acetyl- β -D-allopyranosyl-(1→2]-6″-O-acetyl- β -D-glucopyranoside, 4′-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6′″-O-acetyl- β -D-allopyranosyl-(1→2]- β -D-glucopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-[6′″-O-acetyl- β -D-allopyranosyl-(1→2]-6″-O-acetyl- β -D-glucopyranoside and 4′-O-methylhypolaetin 7-O-[6′″-O-acetyl- β -D-allopyranosyl-(1→2]-6″-O-acetyl- β -D-glucopyranoside. The presence of phenylpropanoid glycoside martynoside was reported for the first time in the wild growing S. raeseri subsp. raeseri. Hypolaetin derivatives, known for their antiinflammatory activity, dominated and were more abundant in S. raeseri subsp. raeseri grown in NPG in comparison with S. scardica grown nearby the NPG. The type of solvent affected distribution and the amount of bioactive compounds and the advantage was given to less polar extracts which were richer in hypolaetin derivatives.

  5. Bioactivity of essential oil of Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van. and its main compounds against Lasioderma serricorne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; You, Chun-Xue; Yang, Kai; Chen, Ran; Wang, Ying; Wu, Yan; Geng, Zhu-Feng; Chen, Hai-Ping; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Su, Yang; Lei, Ning; Ma, Ping; Du, Shu-Shan; Deng, Zhi-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia argyi Lévl. et Van., a perennial herb with a strong volatile odor, is widely distrbuted in the world. Essential oil obtained from Artemisia argyi was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 32 components representing 91.74% of the total oil were identified and the main compounds in the oil were found to be eucalyptol (22.03%), β-pinene (14.53%), β-caryophyllene (9.24%) and (-)-camphor (5.45%). With a further isolation, four active constituents were obtained from the essential oil and identified as eucalyptol, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene and camphor. The essential oil and the four isolated compounds exhibited potential bioactivity against Lasioderma serricorne adults. In the progress of assay, it showed that the essential oil, camphor, eucalyptol, β-caryophyllene and β-pinene exhibited strong contact toxicity against L. serricorne adults with LD50 values of 6.42, 11.30, 15.58, 35.52, and 65.55 μg/adult, respectively. During the fumigant toxicity test, the essential oil, eucalyptol and camphor showed stronger fumigant toxicity against L. serricorne adults than β-pinene (LC50 = 29.03 mg/L air) with LC50 values of 8.04, 5.18 and 2.91 mg/L air. Moreover, the essential oil, eucalyptol, β-pinene and camphor also exhibited the strong repellency against L. serricorne adults, while, β-caryophyllene exhibited attracting activity relative to the positive control, DEET. The study revealed that the bioactivity properties of the essential oil can be attributed to the synergistic effects of its diverse major and minor components. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. argyi and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides, fumigants or repellents in controlling insects in stored grains and traditional Chinese medicinal materials. PMID:25017866

  6. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation of Rhodiola sp. - an approach to enhance the level of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Himmelboe, Martin; Lauridsen, Uffe Bjerre; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark;

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea, commonly known as roseroot, has since ancient times been used against depression and for improving mental abilities because of its bioactive compounds. Due to excessive exploitation, the natural populations have been declining. Natural transformation with root-loci (rol)-genes from...... grown Rhodiola sp. for future sustainable production of bioactive compounds. For the experiment, in vivo grown stems and leaves of R. rosea and two accessions of R. pachyclados were inoculated with A. rhizogenes strain ATCC43057 in sterile conditions. Subsequent growth of putatively transformed roots...

  7. In Vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of Bioactive Compound 2H-FURO [2,3-H]-1-Benzopyran-2-one against seed borne fungi of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal activity of bioactive compound 2HFuro[ 2,3-H]-1-benzopyran-2-one recorded a significant activity at 100-1000 ppm concentration against all the ten Aspergillus species tested. A. flavus recorded complete inhibition at 100 ppm concentration, A. niger at 500 ppm, A. fumigates at 600 ppm, A. flavus oryzae and A. flavus columnaris at 700 ppm respectively. A. ochraceous and A. flavipes recorded complete inhibition at 900 ppm concentration. Compared to synthetic fungicide Captan and Thiram at 2000ppm concentration. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC of bioactive compound was in the range of 100- 900ppm concentration against all the test fungi.

  8. Bioactive compounds, RP-HPLC analysis of phenolics, and antioxidant activity of some Portuguese shrub species extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, Angelo; Domingues, Fernanda; Duarte, Ana Paula

    2011-12-01

    In the ecosystem of Serra Da Estrela, some plant species have the potential to be used as raw material for extraction of bioactive products. The goal of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, tannin and alkaloid contents of the methanolic extracts of some shrubs (Echinospartum ibericum, Pterospartum tridentatum, Juniperus communis, Ruscus aculeatus, Rubus ulmifolius, Hakea sericea, Cytisus multiflorus, Crataegus monogyna, Erica arborea and Ipomoea acuminata), and then to correlate the phenolic compounds and flavonoids with the antioxidant activity of each extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu's method was used for the determination of total phenols, and tannins were then precipitated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP); a colorimetric method with aluminum chloride was used for the determination of flavonoids, and a Dragendorff's reagent method was used for total alkaloid estimation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and beta-carotene bleaching tests were used to assess the antioxidant activity of extracts. The identification of phenolic compounds present in extracts was performed using RP-HPLC. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of methanolic extracts was observed. The RP-HPLC procedure showed that the most common compounds were ferulic and ellagic acids and quercetin. Most of the studied shrubs have significant antioxidant properties that are probably due to the existence of phenolic compounds in the extracts. It is noteworthy to emphasize that for Echinospartum ibericum, Hakea sericea and Ipomoea acuminata, to the best of our knowledge, no phytochemical studies have been undertaken nor their use in traditional medicine been described.

  9. Fruit quality and bioactive compounds relevant to human health of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballistreri, Gabriele; Continella, Alberto; Gentile, Alessandra; Amenta, Margherita; Fabroni, Simona; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2013-10-15

    The fruit quality characteristics, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown on the mountainsides of the Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) were evaluated. High-performance liquid chromatographic methods were used to identify and quantify sugars, organic acids and phenolics. A total of seven phenolic compounds were characterised as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (neochlorogenic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acid and chlorogenic acid) and anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and peonidin 3-rutinoside). The total anthocyanin content ranged from 6.21 to 94.20mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents/100g fresh weight (FW), while the total phenol content ranged from 84.96 to 162.21mg gallic acid equivalents/100g FW. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay indicated that fruit of all genotypes possessed considerable antioxidant activity. The high level of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of some sweet cherry fruits implied that they might be sources of bioactive compounds that are relevant to human health. PMID:23692746

  10. Effect of certain indigenous processing methods on the bioactive compounds of ten different wild type legume grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadivel, Vellingiri; Biesalski, Hans K

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, research efforts are under-way on the possibilities of utilization of natural source of bioactive compounds for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. In this connection, seed materials of promising wild type under-utilized food legume grains such as Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Delile, Bauhinia purpurea L., Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC., Cassia hirsuta L., Caesalpinia bonducella F., Erythrina indica L., Mucuna gigantea (Willd.) DC., Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre, Sebania sesban (L.) Merr. and Xylia xylocarpa Roxb. Taub., collected from South India, were investigated for certain bioactive compounds. All the samples were found to constitute a viable source of total free phenolics (3.12-6.69 g/100 g DM), tannins (1.10-4.41 g/100 g DM), L-Dopa (1.34-5.45 g/100 g DM) and phytic acid (0.98-3.14 g/100 g DM). In general, the seed materials of X. xylocarpa recorded high levels of total free phenolics and tannins, whereas the maximum levels of L-Dopa and phytic acid were noticed in M. gigantea and S. sesban, respectively. Further, presently investigated all the bioactive compounds were drastically reduced during soaking in tamarind solution + cooking as well as soaking in alkaline solution + cooking, and thus these treatments were considered to be more aggressive practices. Open-pan roasting also demonstrated a significant reduction of total free phenolics, tannins and moderate loss of L-Dopa and phytic acid. Alternatively, sprouting + oil-frying showed significant level of increase of total free phenolics (9-27%) and tannins (12-28%), but diminishing effect on phytic acid and L-Dopa. Hence, among the presently employed treatments, sprouting + oil-frying could be recommended as a suitable treatment for the versatile utilization of these wild under-utilized legume grains for the dietary management of certain chronic diseases. PMID:24293686

  11. Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra chari, K L; Manasa, D; Srinivas, P; Sowbhagya, H B

    2013-08-15

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used in various foods and beverages. 6-Gingerol is the major bioactive constituent responsible for the antiinflammatory, antitumour and antioxidant activities of ginger. The effect of application of α-amylase, viscozyme, cellulase, protease and pectinase enzymes to ginger on the oleoresin yield and 6-gingerol content has been investigated. Pre-treatment of ginger with α-amylase or viscozyme followed by extraction with acetone afforded higher yield of oleoresin (20%±0.5) and gingerol (12.2%±0.4) compared to control (15%±0.6 oleoresin, 6.4%±0.4 gingerol). Extraction of ginger pre-treated with enzymes followed by extraction with ethanol provided higher yield of gingerol (6.2-6.3%) than the control (5.5%) with comparable yields of the oleoresin (31-32%). Also, ethanol extract of cellulase pre-treated ginger had the maximum polyphenol content (37.5 mg/g). Apart from 6-gingerol, 6-paradol along with 6- and 8-methyl shogaols were the other important bio-active constituents in the oleoresin from cellulase-treated ginger. PMID:23561138

  12. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  13. Impact of molecular weight on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules as delivery vehicles for bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Mascaraque, Laura G; Sanchez, Gloria; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2016-10-01

    The molecular weight of chitosan is one of its most determinant characteristics, which affects its processability and its performance as a biomaterial. However, information about the effect of this parameter on the formation of electrosprayed chitosan microcapsules is scarce. In this work, the impact of chitosan molecular weight on its electrosprayability was studied and correlated with its effect on the viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity of solutions. A Discriminant Function Analysis revealed that the morphology of the electrosprayed chitosan materials could be correctly predicted using these three parameters for almost 85% of the samples. The suitability of using electrosprayed chitosan capsules as carriers for bioactive agents was also assessed by loading them with a model active compound, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). This encapsulation, with an estimated efficiency of around 80% in terms of preserved antioxidant activity, showed the potential to prolong the antiviral activity of EGCG against murine norovirus via gradual bioactive release combined with its protection against degradation in simulated physiological conditions. PMID:27312621

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni (C. hornemanni on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of bioactive compounds obtained from the seaweed Chondrococcus hornemanni on ichthyopathogenic bacteria affecting marine ornamental fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raghunathan Ganeshamurthy; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial effects of extracts from the seaweed Chondrococcushornemanni (C. hornemanni) on bacterial pathogens of marine ornamental fish. Method: Methanol extract obtained from C. hornemanni showed a broad and high antibacterial activity against four fish pathogens including Providencia rettgeri, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrioalginoticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The crude extract obtained from the dried seaweeds was fractionated and purified using column chromatography. Purified extracts were analyzed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for identifying the functional groups. Phytoconstituents of the active fraction were further identified by means of gas chromatography and mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Result: The first fraction of the extracts showed effective inhibitory activity against Aeromonashydrophila and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at a concentration of 100 µL. However, Vibrio alginolyticus and Providencia rettgeri had shown a moderately lesser inhibitory response to the extract.Conclusion:Hence, it is concluded that extracts of seaweed C. hornemanni, contain potential bioactive compounds with a considerable antibiotic activity.

  16. A New Acetylenic Compound and Other Bioactive Metabolites from a Shark Gill-derived Penicillium Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine chiral compounds (1−9 were isolated from the static fermentation culture of a shark gill-derived fungus Penicillium polonicum AP2T1. These compounds include a new acetylenic aromatic ether (1 , (--WA , four alkaloids ( a urantiomide C ( 2 , fructigenine A (3, cyclopenin (4 and cyclopenol (5 and four oxygenated compounds ((R-penipratynolene (6, (3S,4S-3,4-dihydro-3,4,8-trihydroxyl-naphthalenone (7, verrucosidin (8 and norverrucosidin (9. Their structures were elucidated by MS, NMR , optical rotation and circular dichroism (CD . In antimicrobial tests , compounds 1–4, 6 and 8–9 showed weak antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and/or Escherichia coli.Compounds 3, 8 and 9 also exhibited moderate toxicity against Artemia salina larva , and showed cytotoxicity against human colon cancer cell line HCT116.

  17. Effect of germination time on proximate analysis, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed Fouad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The lentil plant, Lens culinaris L., is a member of the Leguminoceae family and constitutes one of the most important traditional dietary components. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of sprouting for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days on proximate, bioactive compounds and antioxidative characteristics of lentil (Lens culinaris sprouts. Material and methods. Lentil seeds were soaked in distilled water (1:10, w/v for 12 h at room temperature (~25°C, then kept between thick layers of cotton cloth and allowed to germinate in the dark for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days. The nutritional composition, protein solubility, free amino acids, antinutritional factors, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of raw and germinated samples were determined using standard official procedures. Results. Sprouting process caused significant (P ≤ 0.05 increases in moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, protein solubility, free amino acids, total, reducing and nonreducing sugars. However, oil content, antinutritional factors (tannins and phytic acid significantly (P ≤ 0.05 decreased. Results indicated that total essential amino acids of lentil seeds protein formed 38.10% of the total amino acid content. Sulfur-containing amino acids were the first limiting amino acid, while threonine was the second limiting amino acid in raw and germinated lentil seeds. Sprouting process has a positive effect on the essential amino acid contents and protein efficiency ratio (PER of lentil sprouts. Phenolics content increased from 1341.13 mg/100 g DW in raw lentil seeds to 1411.50, 1463.00, 1630.20 and 1510.10 in those samples germinated for 3, 4, 5 and 6 days, respectively. Sprouted seeds had higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power activities. Conclusions. Based on these results, sprouting process is recommended to increase nutritive value, and antioxidant activity of lentil seeds.

  18. Effect of adding ball-milled achenes to must on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities in fruit wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pao-Ju; Chen, Shaun

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the utilization of ball-milled achenes in fermentation to increase the levels of ellagic acid and total phenol content, as well as to enhance the antioxidant capacity of strawberry wine. Achenes were micronized using ball-milling process, and then added to strawberry must prior to fermentation. The effects of the addition of ball-milled achenes on the ellagic acid and total phenol content in strawberry wine were determined, and the free radical scavenging and iron chelation activities were also analyzed. Quality attributes and acceptance were studied in comparison with a leading commercial strawberry wine for market application. The particle sizes of achenes were reduced from 1.1 mm to 400 nm after 30 min of ball-milling, and this led to an increase in the amount of extracted ellagic acid from 550.72 to 915.24 μg/g. The addition of ball-milled achenes to must led to a 19.72 % and 52.37 % increase in ellagic acid and total phenol content in strawberry wine, respectively. The increase in bioactive compounds resulted in increases of 54.09 %, 51.49 % and 56.97 % in ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging, and ferrous ion chelating activities, respectively. Although the commercial strawberry wine showed greater aroma intensity, no significant differences in overall quality and acceptance among the conventional process, added ball-milled achenes and the leading commercial strawberry wines were found. This study demonstrates that supplementation of ball-milled achenes in fermentation can be beneficial in increasing the levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidative capacity, indicating a good market potential. PMID:27570280

  19. Binding, Antioxidant and Anti-proliferative Properties of Bioactive Compounds of Sweet Paprika (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Gi; Bae, Jong-Hyang; Jastrzebski, Zenon; Cherkas, Andriy; Heo, Buk-Gu; Gorinstein, Shela; Ku, Yang-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to determine the bioactive composition, antioxidant, binding, and anti-proliferative properties of red sweet paprika growing under artificial light. The amounts of carotenoids, chlorophyll, polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids in red paprika (RP), cultivated in Korea, before and after light treatments under high pressure sodium (HPS) and lighting emitting plasma (LEP) lamps (RPControl, RPHPS, RPLEP), were analyzed in water (W) and ethanolic extracts (Et). Spectroscopic, radical scavenging assays, fluorescence and cytotoxicity measurements were applied. The results of this study showed that total chlorophyll and carotenes were the highest in RPHPS (10.50 ± 1.02 and 33.90 ± 3.26 μg/g dry weight (DW)). The strongest antioxidant capacity (μM TE/g DW) in a 2, 2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+)) assay was in RPControlEt (24.34 ± 2.36), in a ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in RPHPSW (27.08 ± 2.4) and in a cupric reducing antioxidant (CUPRAC) in RPLEPW (70.99 ± 7.11). The paprika ethanolic extracts showed lower values in their bioactivity than the water ones. The binding and cytotoxicity abilities of extracted polyphenols correlated with their amounts. LEP treatment is better for plant growth characteristics than other conventional treatments. The investigated paprika samples can be used as a source of antioxidants. PMID:27184000

  20. Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor: A New Technology for Biotreatment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani Shahna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological treatment is a new established technology for the air pollutants. This technology can be an alternative for physical and chemical treatment methods. Among bioreators, the Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor (BFER is a new alternative that has not the problems of the conventional ones. In this reactor bed clogging in the conventional bioreactor was resolved by bioactive foam as a substitute of packing bed. The pollutant absorption has been increased using biocompatible organic phase in liquid .This reactor can be used for higher inlet toluene concentration. The objective of this study was designing and optimizing the operational parameters of BFER for toluene treatment.Materials & Methods: In the first step of this experimental-analytic study, the toluene degradation microorganisms were identified, extracted and concentrated for injection to bioreactor. Then the effect of several parameters such as Kind and concentration of organic phase,and residence time oxygen content on bioreactor performance were studied and the optimum conditions were selected for continuous operation. The continuous operation of bioreactor was monitored at the optimum conditions.Results: Experimental results showed that the residence time of 15s, oxygen content of 40%, and the 4 % (v/v n-hexadecane as organic phase were the optimum conditions. The average elimination capacity (EC and removal efficiency of bioreactor were 231.68 g/m3h and 88.44% respectively for the inlet concentration about of 1 g/m3. The statistical developed model predicted that the maximum EC of this reactor could reach to 426.21 g/m3h.Conclusion: Since the elimination capacity of this reactor is several times more than the other bioreactors, it has the potential to be applied instead of biofilters and biotrickling filters.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of eight bioactive compounds in Danning tablet by HPLC-ESI-MS and HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Jiye; Liang, Mingjin; Zhang, Weidong; Yan, Shikai; Lin, Min

    2007-02-19

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ultraviolet detector (UV) has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of eight bioactive compounds in Danning tablet (including hyperin, hesperidin, resveratrol, nobiletin, curcumine, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion), a widely used prescription of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The chromatographic separation was performed on a ZORBAX Extend C(18) analytical column by gradient elution with acetonitrile and formate buffer (containing 0.05% formic acid, adjusted with triethylamine to pH 5.0) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The eight compounds in Danning tablet were identified and their MS(n) fractions were elucidated by using HPLC-ESI-MS, and the contents of these compounds were determined by using HPLC-UV method. The standard calibration curves were linear between 5.0 and 100 microg/ml for hyperin, 10-200 microg/ml for hesperidin, 1.0-150 microg/ml for resveratrol, 2.0-120 microg/ml for nobiletin, 2.0-225 microg/ml for curcumine, 20-300 microg/ml for emodin, 2.0-200 microg/ml for chrysophanol, and 20-250 microg/ml for physcion with regression coefficient r(2)>0.9995. The intra-day and inter-day precisions of this method were evaluated with the R.S.D. values less than 0.7% and 1.3%, respectively. The recoveries of the eight investigated compounds were ranged from 99.3% to 100.2% with R.S.D. values less than 1.5%. This method was successfully used to determine the 8 target compounds in 10 batches of Danning tablet. PMID:17079108

  2. Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzi, Diego; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Valtorta, Flavia; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Valle, Giuseppe Della; Ramponi, Roberta; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Cerullo, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged.

  3. Green chemistry approach to the synthesis of potentially bioactive aminobenzylated Mannich bases through active hydrogen compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. VASOYA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available An efficient and high yield method for the synthesis of aminobenzylated Mannich bases is described. The synthesis occurs in aqueous medium at 0 ºC. The compounds show moderate antitubercular and antimicrobial activities.

  4. Femtosecond Laser Microfabrication of an Integrated Device for Optical Release and Sensing of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cerullo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash photolysis of caged compounds is one of the most powerful approaches to investigate the dynamic response of living cells. Monolithically integrated devices suitable for optical uncaging are in great demand since they greatly simplify the experiments and allow their automation. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of an integrated bio-photonic device for the optical release of caged compounds. Such a device is fabricated using femtosecond laser micromachining of a glass substrate. More in detail, femtosecond lasers are used both to cut the substrate in order to create a pit for cell growth and to inscribe optical waveguides for spatially selective uncaging of the compounds present in the culture medium. The operation of this monolithic bio-photonic device is tested using both free and caged fluorescent compounds to probe its capability of multipoint release and optical sensing. Application of this device to the study of neuronal network activity can be envisaged.

  5. African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam. fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling

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    Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  6. Effect of light exposure on sensorial quality, concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of radish microgreens during low temperature storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikon radish microgreens constitute a good source of bioactive compounds. However, the quality deteriorates rapidly during postharvest storage. In this study, we investigated the effects of light exposure and modified atmosphere packaging conditions on changes in sensorial quality and retention of ...

  7. Use of Time-Resolved Fluorescence to Monitor Bioactive Compounds in Plant Based Foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, M. Adília; Sárniková, Katarína; Bot, Francesca; Anese, Monica; Hungerford, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The study of compounds that exhibit antioxidant activity has recently received much interest in the food industry because of their potential health benefits. Most of these compounds are plant based, such as polyphenolics and carotenoids, and there is a need to monitor them from the field through processing and into the body. Ideally, a monitoring technique should be non-invasive with the potential for remote capabilities. The application of the phenomenon of fluorescence has proved to be well...

  8. Terpenoid bioactive compound from Streptomyces rochei (M32): taxonomy, fermentation and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhanimurugan, Raasaiyah; Radhakrishnan, Manikkam; Shanmugasundaram, Thangavel; Gopikrishnan, Venugopal; Balagurunathan, Ramasamy

    2016-10-01

    The present study emphasized the production of biologically active terpenoid compound from Streptomyces rochei M32, which was isolated from Western Ghats ecosystem, South India. The presence of resistant genes like mecA, vanA of Staphylococcus aureus and bla SHV, bla TEM of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was confirmed by molecular studies. The isolated compound from Streptomyces rochei M32 inhibited wide range of standard and clinical drug resistant pathogens and enteric pathogens. The rice bran supplemented basal medium influenced the active compound production on 8th day of fermentation and yielded 1875 mg of crude extract from 10 g of rice bran substrate. Purification and characterization of crude ethyl acetate extract was achieved by preparative thin layer chromatography. The active fraction was identified as terpenoid class compound by chemical screening. Based on the results of spectral studies (NMR, LC-MS, FTIR, etc.), the active compound was tentatively identified as 1, 19-bis (3-hydroxyazetidin-1-yl) nonadeca-5, 14-diene-1, 8, 12, 19-tetraone with molecular weight 462.41 g/mol. Minimum inhibitory concentration value ranges between 7.6 and 31.2 µg/mL against test organisms was observed. The cytotoxicity results on cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line showed IC50 value of 2.034 µg/mL. The corresponding compound is not previously reported from any microbial resources. PMID:27562595

  9. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community. PMID:27057765

  10. A Wide-Field Fluorescence Microscope Extension for Ultrafast Screening of One-Bead One-Compound Libraries Using a Spectral Image Subtraction Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusermann, Wolf; Ludin, Beat; Pham, Nhan T; Auer, Manfred; Weidemann, Thomas; Hintersteiner, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The increasing involvement of academic institutions and biotech companies in drug discovery calls for cost-effective methods to identify new bioactive molecules. Affinity-based on-bead screening of combinatorial one-bead one-compound libraries combines a split-mix synthesis design with a simple protein binding assay operating directly at the bead matrix. However, one bottleneck for academic scale on-bead screening is the unavailability of a cheap, automated, and robust screening platform that still provides a quantitative signal related to the amount of target protein binding to individual beads for hit bead ranking. Wide-field fluorescence microscopy has long been considered unsuitable due to significant broad spectrum autofluorescence of the library beads in conjunction with low detection sensitivity. Herein, we demonstrate how such a standard microscope equipped with LED-based excitation and a modern CMOS camera can be successfully used for selecting hit beads. We show that the autofluorescence issue can be overcome by an optical image subtraction approach that yields excellent signal-to-noise ratios for the detection of bead-associated target proteins. A polymer capillary attached to a semiautomated bead-picking device allows the operator to efficiently isolate individual hit beads in less than 20 s. The system can be used for ultrafast screening of >200,000 bead-bound compounds in 1.5 h, thereby making high-throughput screening accessible to a wider group within the scientific community.

  11. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    OpenAIRE

    Wronkowska Małgorzata; Honke Joanna; Piskuła Mariusz Konrad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid)...

  12. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±-(4R*,5S*,6S*-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1 and (±-(4S*,5S*-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2, and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3 and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4, along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5, were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass, one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM.

  13. Isolation of bioactive antioxidant compounds from the aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar.typicum Regel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lamia Sakka Rouis-Soussi; Asma El Ayeb; Saoussen Ben Salem; Hichem Ben Jannet; Fethia Harzallah-Skhiri

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antioxidant activity of aerial parts ofAllium roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. (A. roseumvar.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel.) for the first time, as well as to isolate the main bioactive compounds. Methods: The chloroformic extract ofAllium roseum(A. roseum) and their fractions obtained by subjection to a chromatographic study were tested for their antioxidant activities by using 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. An activity-guided purification was conducted to isolate five compounds in pure form where their structures were identified by means of nuclear magnetic resonance analyses, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. Results:The evaluation of the antioxidant activity of chloroformic extract and their fractions fromA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. showed interesting results. The active chloroformic extract afforded five isolated compounds where their structures were identified asβ-sitosterol (1), chrysoeriol (2), luteolin (3), apigenin (4), andβ-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucoside (5). All the compounds were isolated for the first time from theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. The three flavonoids (2–4) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 62.28, 21.26 and 513.42μg/mL, respectively (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay) and 218.00, 73.50 and 877.66μg/mL, respectively [2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay]. An important value of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (2.10 mmol/L) was reported for luteolin (3). Conclusions:These results may suggest that theA. roseum var.grandiflorum subvar. typicum Regel. have great potential as a source of a natural preservative ingredient in beneficial for natural health products.

  14. Sapwood of Carob Tree (Ceratonia siliqua L. as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Custódio

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Methanol (ME and hot water extracts (WE of carob tree sapwood (Ceratonia siliqua L. exhibited high antioxidant activity and were rich in phenolic compounds, with the main compounds identified by HPLC/DAD as gentisic acid and (--epicatechin. The ME displayed a high in vitro antitumor activity against human tumoural cell lines and reduced intracellular ROS production by HeLa cells after treatment with H 2O 2. (--Epicatechin was shown to contribute to the cytotoxic activity of the ME. This is the first report on the biological activity of carob tree sapwood.

  15. Impact of Species and Variety on Concentrations of Minor Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Oils Recovered from Plum Kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Soliven, Arianne; Lācis, Gunārs; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-02-01

    The profile of bioactive compounds (carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, and squalene) in oils recovered from the kernels of 28 plum varieties of hexaploid species Prunus domestica L. and diploid plums Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and their crossbreeds were studied. Oil yields in plum kernels of both P. cerasifera and P. domestica was in wide ranges of 22.6-53.1 and 24.2-46.9% (w/w) dw, respectively. The contents of total tocochromanols, carotenoids, phytosterols, and squalene was significantly affected by the variety and ranged between 70.7 and 208.7 mg/100 g of oil, between 0.41 and 3.07 mg/100 g of oil, between 297.2 and 1569.6 mg/100 g of oil, and between 25.7 and 80.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, β-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol were the main minor lipophilic compounds in plum kernel oils and constituted between 208.5 and 1258.7 mg/100 g of oil and between 60.5 and 182.0 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Between the studied plum species, significant differences were recorded for δ-tocopherol (p = 0.007), 24-methylenecycloartanol (p = 0.038), and citrostadienol (p = 0.003), but they were insufficient for discrimination by PCA.

  16. Bioactive compounds and nutritional significance of virgin argan oil--an edible oil with potential as a functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Marfil, Rocío; Giménez, Rafael; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2012-05-01

    This review compiles recently published scientific reports on the bioactive compounds present in virgin argan oil along with their possible beneficial effects on human health, which could justify consideration of this oil as a new functional food. Virgin argan oil is characterized by high levels of linoleic and oleic acids, tocopherols (especially γ-tocopherol), and minor compounds such as sterols, carotenoids, and squalene. The total antioxidant capacity of virgin argan oil is higher than that of other vegetable oils. Recent studies suggest that this edible oil, as a functional food, may play a role in disease prevention. For example, some authors have found it to have hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antihypertensive effects as well as a possible role in cancer prevention. This review demonstrates the need for further studies in order to fully characterize argan oil from bromatological, nutritional, culinary, and technological perspectives. In particular, the scarcity of clinical data hampers relevant conclusions from being drawn regarding the therapeutic effects of virgin argan oil.

  17. Biopolymer-prebiotic carbohydrate blends and their effects on the retention of bioactive compounds and maintenance of antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Eric Keven; Zabot, Giovani L; Cazarin, Cinthia B B; Maróstica, Mário R; Meireles, M Angela A

    2016-06-25

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of inulin (IN), a prebiotic carbohydrate without superficial activity, as an encapsulating matrix of lipophilic bioactive compounds. For achieving the encapsulation, IN was associated with biopolymers that present superficial activity: modified starch (HiCap), whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum acacia (GA). Encapsulation was performed through emulsification assisted by ultrasound followed by freeze-drying (FD) process to dry the emulsions. All blends retained geranylgeraniol. GA-IN blend yielded the highest geranylgeraniol retention (96±2wt.%) and entrapment efficiency (94±3wt.%), whilst WPI-IN blend yielded the highest encapsulation efficiency (88±2wt.%). After encapsulation, composition of geranylgeraniol in the annatto seed oil was maintained (23.0±0.5g/100g of oil). Such findings indicate that the method of encapsulation preserved the active compound. All blends were also effective for maintaining the antioxidant activity of the oil through ORAC and DPPH analyses. PMID:27083804

  18. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  19. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L. Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Campos Nunes

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health.

  20. Physico-Chemical Characterization, Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Malay Apple [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Polyana Campos; Aquino, Jailane de Souza; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physico-chemical characteristics, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Malay apple fruit (Syzygium malaccense) grown in Brazil with regard to the geographical origin and its peel fractions and edible portion analyzed independently. Fruit diameter, weight, yield, and centesimal composition, ascorbic acid, reductive sugars, total soluble solids, pH and fiber content were determined. Total phenolics (1293 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g) and total anthocyanins (1045 mg/100 g) contents were higher in the peel, with the major anthocyanin identified using HPLC-DAD-MS/MS as cyanidin 3-glucoside. Higher values for DPPH antiradical scavenging activity (47.52 μMol trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity/g) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Potential (FRAP, 0.19 mM ferreous sulfate/g) were also observed in the peel fraction. All extracts tested showed the ability to inhibit oxidation in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. This study highlights the potential of Malay apple fruit as a good source of antioxidant compounds with potential benefits to human health. PMID:27352306

  1. The effect of high-pressure processing on colour, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity in smoothies during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Víctor; Villanueva, María J; Tenorio, María D

    2016-02-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing--HPP--(450 and 600 MPa/3 min/20 °C) on the colour, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, polyphenols and antioxidant activity (FRAP and DPPH) of a smoothie were compared to thermal processing (80 °C/3 min). Stability during 45 days at 4 °C was also evaluated. HPP samples showed slight differences (p colour compared to untreated smoothies. Both HPP significantly increased the extractability of lycopene, β-carotene and polyphenols compared to untreated samples. After HPP, ascorbic acid was retained by more than 92% of the initial content. The best results for antioxidant activity were obtained when HPP was applied at 600 MPa. FRAP and DPPH showed a high correlation with ascorbic acid (R(2) = 0.7135 and 0.8107, respectively) and polyphenolic compounds (R(2) = 0.6819 and 0.6935, respectively), but not with total carotenoids. Changes in bioactive compounds during the storage period were lower in the HPP smoothie than in the thermal-treated sample.

  2. Screening SIRT1 Activators from Medicinal Plants as Bioactive Compounds against Oxidative Damage in Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD+ dependent histone deacetylases and plays a critical role in cellular metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs, as an important part of natural products, have been reported to exert protective effect against oxidative stress in mitochondria. In this study, we screened SIRT1 activators from TCMs and investigated their activities against mitochondrial damage. 19 activators were found in total by in vitro SIRT1 activity assay. Among those active compounds, four compounds, ginsenoside Rb2, ginsenoside F1, ginsenoside Rc, and schisandrin A, were further studied to validate the SIRT1-activation effects by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and confirm their activities against oxidative damage in H9c2 cardiomyocytes exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP. The results showed that those compounds enhanced the deacetylated activity of SIRT1, increased ATP content, and inhibited intracellular ROS formation as well as regulating the activity of Mn-SOD. These SIRT1 activators also showed moderate protective effects on mitochondrial function in t-BHP cells by recovering oxygen consumption and increasing mitochondrial DNA content. Our results suggested that those compounds from TCMs attenuated oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial damage in cardiomyocytes through activation of SIRT1.

  3. Two new naphthalene glucosides and other bioactive compounds from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Van; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Dat, Le Duc; Huong, Phan Thi Thanh; Lee, Sang Hyun; Jang, Hae Dong; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Nam, Nguyen Hoai; Kiem, Phan Van; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-10-01

    Two new naphthalene diglucosides named nepenthosides A (1) and B (2), together with eleven known compounds (3-13), were isolated from the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR, and MS. The antioxidant activities of compounds 1-13 were evaluated in terms of their peroxyl radical-scavenging (trolox equivalent, TE) and reducing capacities. All isolates showed peroxyl radical-scavenging and reducing activities at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 μM. Anti-osteoporotic activities were investigated using murine osteoclastic RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds 1-7 and 9-12 significantly suppressed tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity down to 91.13 ± 1.18 to 42.39 ± 1.11%, relative to the control (100%) in nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANκL)-induced osteoclastic RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. PMID:25724283

  4. Hyphenated GC-FTIR and GC-MS techniques applied in the analysis of bioactive compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosav, Steluta; Paduraru, Nicoleta; Praisler, Mirela

    2014-08-01

    The drugs of abuse, which affect human nature and cause numerous crimes, have become a serious problem throughout the world. There are hundreds of amphetamine analogues on the black market. They consist of various alterations of the basic amphetamine molecular structure, which are yet not yet included in the lists of forbidden compounds although they retain or slightly modify the hallucinogenic effects of their parent compound. It is their important variety that makes their identification quite a challenge. A number of analytical procedures for the identification of amphetamines and their analogues have recently been reported. We are presenting the profile of the main hallucinogenic amphetamines obtained with the hyphenated techniques that are recommended for the identification of illicit amphetamines, i. e. gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (GC-FTIR). The infrared spectra of the analyzed hallucinogenic amphetamines present some absorption bands (1490 cm-1, 1440 cm-1, 1245 cm-1, 1050 cm-1 and 940 cm-1) that are very stable as position and shape, while their intensity depends of the side-chain substitution. The specific ionic fragment of the studied hallucinogenic compounds is the 3,4-methylenedioxybenzyl cation (m/e = 135) which has a small relative abundance (lesser than 20%). The complementarity of the above mentioned techniques for the identification of hallucinogenic compounds is discussed.

  5. Bioactive compounds in edible flowers processed by radiation; Compostos bioativos em flores comestiveis processadas por radiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda Cristina Ramos

    2015-07-01

    Edible flowers are increasingly being used in culinary preparations, being also recognized for their potential valuable effects in human health, which require new approaches to improve their conservation and safety. These highly perishable products should be grown without using any pesticide. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, ensuring food quality, increasing shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Irradiation treatment might be the answer to these problems, to ensure food quality, to increase shelf-life and disinfestation of foods. Tropaeolum majus L. (nasturtium) and Viola tricolor L. (johnny-jump-up) flowers are widely used in culinary preparations, being also acknowledged for their antioxidant properties and high content of phenolics. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation (doses of 0, 0.5, 0.8 and 1 kGy) on the antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, physical aspects and antiproliferative potential of edible flowers. Kaempferol-O-hexoside-O-hexoside was the most abundant compound in all samples of Tropaeolum majus flower while pelargonidin-3-O-sophoroside was the major anthocyanin. In general, irradiated samples gave higher antioxidant activity, probably due to their higher amounts of phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source . The Viola tricolor samples displayed flavonols as the most abundant phenolic compounds, particularly those derived from quercetin. In general, gamma-irradiated samples, independently of the applied dose, showed higher amounts in phenolic compounds, which were also favored by the 1.0 kGy dose, regardless of the source. The antioxidant activity was also higher among irradiated samples. The two species of edible flowers have not provided the samples did not show potential antiproliferative and cytotoxicity. Accordingly, the applied irradiation treatments seemed to represent a feasible technology

  6. In vitro Antioxidant Activity between Bioactive Compounds from Nine Species of Passiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAV Montero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Main bioactive substances identified from the genus Passiflora include polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanins and other natural antioxidants that are critical factors for maintaining optimum health. Polyphenols mainly C-glycosides are present in well studied species such as P. edulis, P. incarnata and P. alata. However, most Passiflora species remains little explored and it’s for this reason that we address our work at the comparison between species. Three experiments with completely randomized designs were performed in order to compare the total amount of flavonoids, phenols and in vitro free radical DPPH scavenger activity (%DPPH of nine species of Passiflora (P. edulis, P. alata, P. incarnata, P. ligularis, P. tripartite, P. coccinea, P. gardneri, P. laurifólia and P. mucronata. Non parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests (for flavonoids, parametric analyses of variances (Anova and the last significant differences (LSD tests (for phenols and free radical scavenger activity were performed to compare the studied species and then a correlation analysis was carried out to assess the interaction between the variables using RStudio statistical software. Results showed significant differences between the studied passionflowers for the total amount of flavonoids (p=4.4e-5, total amount of phenols (p=2.2e-16 and scavenger activity of the free radical DPPH (p=2.2e-16. Also, we found a positive correlation between %DPPH scavenging activity and the total content of polyphenols (Pearson’s coefficient=0.706 and a negative one between flavonoid (Pearson’s coefficient=-0.485. The results suggest that in passionflower leaf samples the scavenging activity of the free radical DPPH is more related with polyphenols rather than flavonoids.

  7. Antileishmanial activity of compounds produced by endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant Vernonia polyanthes and their potential as source of bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Adriana M; Soares, Mateus Gonçalves; da Silva Torchelsen, Fernanda K V; de Araujo, Jorge A Viana; Lage, Paula S; Duarte, Mariana C; Andrade, Pedro H R; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Coelho, Eduardo A F; do Nascimento, Andréa M

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Vernonia polyanthes plant and their prospective use in the discovery of bioactive compounds. Sixteen endophytes were isolated by using potato dextrose agar medium and submitted to cultivation in rice medium. The fungal cultures were extracted with ethanol and used as crude extracts for testing their antileishmanial activity. The most active ethanol extract was obtained from P2-F3 strain, which was identified as Cochliobolus sativus by ITS rRNA gene sequence data. Followed by a bioassay-guided fractionation, the cochlioquinone A, isocochlioquinone A and anhydrocochlioquinone A compounds were isolated from the crude extracts and demonstrated to inhibit the parasites. From the present work, it is possible to conclude that endophytic fungi derived from medicinal plant V. polyanthes may be considered promising source for the discovery of bioactive compounds. PMID:26318306

  8. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects.

  9. Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, followed by the petunidin derivatives, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative in all wines. The anthocyanin content was mainly affected by the grape variety and to a less extent by the yeast used in fermentation. In particular, the use of locally isolated yeasts affected higher amount of anthocyanins and phenolic acids compared to the wines fermented with commercial yeasts. Principal Component Analysis showed a satisfactory grouping of red wines according to the grape variety.

  10. Bioactivity-guided isolation of new antiproliferative compounds from Juniperus foetidissima Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood; Suleimani Dehkordi, Ibrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Syed Majid, Ayatollahi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Based on a literature survey on cytotoxic medicinal plants, Juniper species were identified as interesting source of antitumor compounds. Using bioassay-guided fractionation against Caov-4 cancer cells on acetone extract of leaves and branchlets of Juniperus foetidissima led to the isolation of a new 3H-benzofuaran-2-one: 4-methyl-3-methoxy-3H-benzofuaran-2-one (1), a new sesquiterpene: 4,9(α)-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en (2) and an already known labdane-type diterpene: 15-hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxilic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxic effects, with moderate cytotoxicity against the EJ-138 bladder and CAOV-4 ovary cancer cell lines. PMID:26506268

  11. Optimization of the extraction process for the seven bioactive compounds in Yukmijihwang-tang, an herbal formula, using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Yukmijihwang-tang (YJT contains multiple bioactive compounds. Heat-reflux extraction was employed and optimized for the extraction of the bioactive compounds in YJT. Objective: The determination of optimal conditions with maximum yields of bioactive compounds, gallic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid and paeonol, in YJT. Materials and Methods: The extraction ratio (ratio of water to herbal formula, extraction time and extraction number were set as individual values and the yields of the seven compounds were the response values that were optimized with a Box-Behnken design. Results: The optimal conditions obtained from response surface methodology (RSM were 1:11.99 for the extraction ratio, 94.53 min for the extraction time and 2.21 for the extraction number. Under the optimal conditions, the response value of the experiment closely agreed with the predicted response value. Conclusions: The result suggests that RSM is successfully applied for optimizing the extraction of the marker compounds in YJT.

  12. Inflorescences of Brassicacea species as source of bioactive compounds: a comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    C. Sousa; Taveira, M.; Valentão, P.; Fernandes, F; Pereira, J.A.; Leticia M. Estevinho; Bento, Albino; Ferreres, F.; Seabra, R.M.; P. B. Andrade

    2008-01-01

    Two Brassica oleracea varieties (B. oleracea L. var. costata DC and B. oleracea L. var. acephala) and Brassica rapa L. var. rapa inflorescences were studied for their chemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Phenolic compounds and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC–DAD and HPLC–UV, respectively. B. oleracea var. costata and B. oleracea L. var. acephala inflorescences presented a similar qualitative phenolic composition, exhibiting several complex kaempferol deriv...

  13. Effects of Processing Treatments on the Bioactive Compounds of Campbell Grape Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley G. Cabrera; Kwang-Deog Moon

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that phenolic compounds and flavonoids have a lot of health benefits. Most current heat treatments especially those that are using too high temperature and longer period of processing produce juice with unacceptable analytical and sensory properties. Thus, microwave heating, ultrasonication and blanching before grape juice processing were employed in this study. Each juice sample was subjected to total phenolics, total flavonoid, total anthocyanin and % radical sc...

  14. Innovative minimal processing of mini broccoli for keeping quality and safety and enhancing bioactive compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Hernández, Ginés Benito

    2012-01-01

    [ENG] Broccoli has been described as the ‘super–vegetable’ in the media after a great number of epidemiological and laboratory studies on this Brassica specie. These studies have shown numerous health–promoting properties of broccoli such as chemopreventive, antioxidant, antitumor, antimutagenicity, anti–inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral and reduction of coronary heart disease risk. These properties are related to the high content of broccoli in phenolic compounds, glucosinolates (isothi...

  15. Variation in the Bioactive Compound Content at Three Ripening Stages of Strawberry Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Voća; Jana Šic Žlabur; Nadica Dobričević; Lidija Jakobek; Marijan Šeruga; Ante Galić; Stjepan Pliestić

    2014-01-01

    During the harvest season of two consecutive years, five strawberry cultivars (‘Arosa’, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Marmolada’, ‘Miss’ and ‘Raurica’), grown in the continental part of the Republic of Croatia, were examined. Strawberry fruits quality was evaluated by individual phenol compounds, individual anthocyanins and fruit color. Fruits were harvested in three different periods. Analyzed strawberry cultivars show very good average values of the studied phenolic acids and flavonoids with predominant caff...

  16. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of Rosa canina L. biotypes from spontaneous flora of Transylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Ioana; Stănilă, Andreea; Sorin STĂNILĂ

    2013-01-01

    Background The theoretical, but especially the practical values of identifying the biochemical compounds from the Rosa canina L. fruits are of present interest, this aspect being illustrated by the numerous researches. It was reported that the Rosa canina L. fruit, with its high ascorbic acid, phenolics and flavonoids contents, have antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. This study was performed on order to evaluate the amount of the main phytochemicals (vitamin C, total pol...

  17. Phytochemical characterization of bioactive compounds on methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia F. Naspolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the native species of importance in Brazil, jabuticabeira (Myrciaria sp. is a native fruit tree from several Brazilian regions. Few studies report the chemical constituents of the leaves and its pharmacological and nutraceutical properties. The aim of this study was to identify the phenolic compounds of the methanolic (MeOH and ethanolic (EtOH leaf extracts of Myrciaria sp. Phytochemical profile of the extracts was carried-out using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by radical scavenging capacity with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH and total phenolics were determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent. A total of nine different compounds were identified in the free and bound phenolics extractions: 2,4 dihydroxybenzoic, vanillin, p-coumaric, ferulic, sinapinic, rutin, epicatechin, trans-caffeic and myricetin. The extracts demonstrated high radical scavenging capacity (MeOH: 1.83 and EtOH: 8.05 mg/mL and high phenolic content (MeOH: 1.15; and EtOH: 1.04 mg/g dry matter. The wide variability of compounds revealed and the amount of peaks not identified, gives us a background of a potential plant matrix for further investigations in order to develop a nutraceutical agent.

  18. Properties of modified carboxymethyl cellulose and its use as bioactive compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basta, Altaf H; El-Saied, Houssni; El-Deftar, Mervat M; El-Henawy, Ahmed A; El-Sheikh, Hussein H; Abdel-Shakour, Essam H; Hasanin, Mohamed S

    2016-11-20

    The present study deals with synthesizing novel cellulose derivative, from modifying the carboxymethyl cellulose with amino phenylpropanoic acid (CMC-APP). The synthesized CMC-APP was evaluated as biological and anti-cancer active compound. The molecular structures of this active compound were built using the HyperChem program 7.5, together with conventional analysis (nitrogen content, FT-IR, and non-isothermal TGA analysis). Optimizing the CMC/APPA ratio was carried out as preliminary assessment step, via undetected antimicrobial activity measurement. The TEM study showed that, the synthesized cellulose CMC-APP derivative in the nano-scale particle size (range from 12.5 to 89.3nm). Among all the tested microorganisms and MCF-7 breast cancer cells, the synthesized nano-cellulose derivative is possible used as safety medicine for microbial infections and cancers. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Gram-positive bacteria, and gram-negative bacteria are 48.82μg/mL and 97μg/mL, respectively. While, the unicellular fungi and filamentous fungi are 12.2μg/mL and 97.65μg/mL, respectively. The cytotoxic index (IC50) for MCF-7 breast cancers is 50μg/mL. Moreover, the computational study of ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination and toxic) properties, of the molecules showed that, this investigated nano-compound is good oral bioavailability. PMID:27561536

  19. Bioactivity Screening of Fermentation Crude Extracts from Deep Sea Metagenomic Library Clones%深海宏基因组文库克隆子发酵产物的生物活性筛选

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤熙翔; 易志伟; 李宁; 马群; 李慧; 秦丹; 肖湘

    2011-01-01

    目的:对前期构建的深海宏基因组文库克隆子发酵产物进行生物活性筛选.方法:利用CCK8法及琼脂扩散法和双层琼脂法进行了细胞毒活性及抗菌活性筛选,利用荧光定量PCR法进行了抗乙肝病毒活性筛选.结果:筛选发现3个具有细胞毒活性的混合克隆子.HPLC指纹图谱分析表明这3个混合克隆子具有与大肠杆菌宿主对照不同的指纹图谱,其活性与出现的指纹峰成分可能相关.结论:研究结果提示对深海宏基因组文库克隆子发酵产物进行化学筛选为常规的生物活性功能筛选之外的有意义途径.%Objective: Detect bioactivities of fermentation crude extracts originated from previously constructed deep sea metagenomic libraries. Methods : Functional screening of antitumor( cytotoxic ) ,antibacterial and anti HBV activity from fermentation crude extracts was performed by CCK-8 method, agar diffusion method,double agar method and real time PCR method. Results: No antibacterial and anti HBV clones were identified and three mixed clones showed good cytotoxic activity. HPLC analysis of these three mixed clones fingerprints indicated they possess obviously different fingerprints with E. coli host which could be useful to next isolation of cytotoxic compounds from deep sea metagenomic library. Conclusion: These results indicated that chemical screening could be potential way for screening bioactivity substance from deep sea metagenomic libraries besides functional screening and homology screening.

  20. Extraction, identification, and functional characterization of a bioactive substance from automated compound-handling plastic tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Greenough, Emily B; Leet, John E; Ford, Michael J; Drexler, Dieter M; Belcastro, James V; Herbst, John J; Chatterjee, Moneesh; Banks, Martyn

    2009-06-01

    Disposable plastic labware is ubiquitous in contemporary pharmaceutical research laboratories. Plastic labware is routinely used for chemical compound storage and during automated liquid-handling processes that support assay development, high-throughput screening, structure-activity determinations, and liability profiling. However, there is little information available in the literature on the contaminants released from plastic labware upon DMSO exposure and their resultant effects on specific biological assays. The authors report here the extraction, by simple DMSO washing, of a biologically active substance from one particular size of disposable plastic tips used in automated compound handling. The active contaminant was identified as erucamide ((Z)-docos-13-enamide), a long-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acid amide commonly used in plastics manufacturing, by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of the DMSO-extracted material. Tip extracts prepared in DMSO, as well as a commercially obtained sample of erucamide, were active in a functional bioassay of a known G-protein-coupled fatty acid receptor. A sample of a different disposable tip product from the same vendor did not release detectable erucamide following solvent extraction, and DMSO extracts prepared from this product were inactive in the receptor functional assay. These results demonstrate that solvent-extractable contaminants from some plastic labware used in the contemporary pharmaceutical research and development (R&D) environment can be introduced into physical and biological assays during routine compound management liquid-handling processes. These contaminants may further possess biological activity and are therefore a potential source of assay-specific confounding artifacts.

  1. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  2. Assessment of wild mint from Tunceli as source of bioactive compounds, and its antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, S

    2015-01-01

    The types of wild mint (Mentha spicata L.) were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) in order to find out their vitamin, mineral, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 77.7±0.242 to 52.34±0.351 mg of GAEs/g of dry mint. The highest radical effect of scavenging was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 6.17±0.245 mg/mL. The highest reducing power and metal chelating were observed in the mint from Cicekli parting of the ways 6.5 km Demirkapı. Among the various macronutrients which were estimated in the plant samples, potassium was presented in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Although rutin and resveratrol were not determined in any samples, kaempferol and catechin levels were found out in almost all samples. The concentrations of vitamin A ranged between 42,14±5.70 and 13.61±3.00 (mg/kg dry weight). These results show that plants of mint are quite rich in phenolic compounds, and these have been appeared to have antioxidant activity, which agrees with this work, since the extract showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity and mint may be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors. PMID:26718431

  3. Assessment of wild mint from Tunceli as source of bioactive compounds, and its antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, S

    2015-12-19

    The types of wild mint (Mentha spicata L.) were sampled from different geographical regions in Tunceli (Turkey) in order to find out their vitamin, mineral, phenolic contents and their antioxidant properties. The total phenol varied from 77.7±0.242 to 52.34±0.351 mg of GAEs/g of dry mint. The highest radical effect of scavenging was observed in Mazgirt parting of the ways 7.5 km with 6.17±0.245 mg/mL. The highest reducing power and metal chelating were observed in the mint from Cicekli parting of the ways 6.5 km Demirkapı. Among the various macronutrients which were estimated in the plant samples, potassium was presented in the highest quantity followed by calcium and phosphate. Although rutin and resveratrol were not determined in any samples, kaempferol and catechin levels were found out in almost all samples. The concentrations of vitamin A ranged between 42,14±5.70 and 13.61±3.00 (mg/kg dry weight). These results show that plants of mint are quite rich in phenolic compounds, and these have been appeared to have antioxidant activity, which agrees with this work, since the extract showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant activity and mint may be considered as a natural alternative source for food, pharmacology and medicine sectors.

  4. Wild Prunus Fruit Species as a Rich Source of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Sircelj, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Sugars, organic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, chlorophylls, and phenolic compounds were quantified in fruit of 4 wild growing Prunus species (wild cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, and mahaleb cherry) using HPLC-DAD-MSn. In wild Prunus, the major sugars were glucose and fructose, whereas malic and citric acids dominated among organic acids. The most abundant classes of phenolic compounds in the analyzed fruit species were anthocyanins, flavonols, derivatives of cinnamic acids, and flavanols. Two major groups of anthocyanins measured in Prunus fruits were cyanidin-3-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Flavonols were represented by 19 derivatives of quercetin, 10 derivatives of kaempferol, and 2 derivatives of isorhamnetin. The highest total flavonol content was measured in mahaleb cherry and bird cherry, followed by blackthorn and wild cherry fruit. Total phenolic content varied from 2373 (wild cherry) to 11053 mg GAE per kg (bird cherry) and ferric reducing antioxidant power antioxidant activity from 7.26 to 31.54 mM trolox equivalents per kg fruits. PMID:27464261

  5. Construction and screening of marine metagenomic libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiland, Nancy; Löscher, Carolin; Metzger, Rebekka;

    2010-01-01

    microbial consortia on marine tissues of multicellular organisms are rich sources for isolating novel bioactive compounds and genes. Here we describe the sampling, construction of large-insert metagenomic libraries from marine habitats and exemplarily one function based screen of metagenomic clones....

  6. 果品生物活性物质纳米粒研究现状%Current Status of Research on Nanoparticles Containing Fruit Bioactive Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡艳; 周志钦

    2016-01-01

    Fresh fruits and their derived products are rich in nutrients and various bioactive compounds which are important to human health. However, many problems exist with fruit bioactives, such as low solubility, easy degradation, instability, slow absorption and weak bioavailability. Nanotechnology can overcome these defects effectively. In this paper, the current status of research on nanoparticles containing fruit bioactive compounds is reviewed. The principles, techniques and methods for preparing fruit bioactive nanoparticles are discussed. Their biological functions and applications in foods, medicines and health products and cosmetics are systematically summarized. In addition, existing problems and future research directions are proposed with an attempt to provide new information on the utilization of fruit bioactive compounds.%果品富含各种营养与活性成分,对人体健康具有重要作用。但天然的活性物质存在水溶性差、易降解、不稳定、人体吸收和生物利用度低等一系列问题,纳米技术能有效克服这些缺陷。本文全面分析了果品生物活性物质纳米粒的研究现状,系统介绍了有关物质纳米粒的制备原理、技术和方法,总结了纳米粒活性物质的生物学功能及其在食品、医药保健和日化产品等领域的应用情况,指出了存在的问题并提出了未来研究方向,以期为高效利用果品生物活性物质提供新信息。

  7. Characterization of physiochemical and microbiological properties, and bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soquetta, Marcela Bromberger; Stefanello, Flávia Santi; Huerta, Katira da Mota; Monteiro, Sabrina Sauthier; da Rosa, Claudia Severo; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as the bioactive compounds, of flour made from the skin and bagasse of two varieties (Bruno and Monty) of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa) at two stages of maturation. The flour made with kiwi fruit peel from both varieties showed higher levels of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity that the flour made with bagasse from both varieties. The flour made with green kiwi fruit skin from the Bruno variety had higher DPPH values and levels of phenolic compounds (1262.34 mg GAE/100g flour), while the Monty variety showed higher FRAP values, vitamin C (189.06 mg/100g flour), flavonoids (486.47 mg/100g flour), chlorophylls (12.13 mg/100g flour) and carotenoids (246.91 μg/100g flour). Flour made from kiwi fruit bagasse can be used to reduce agro-industrial waste. This flour is a promising ingredient which can be used to enrich products providing dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant action.

  8. Review of clinical studies of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. and its isolated bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Armel Bounda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (PMT, officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is one of the most popular perennial Chinese traditional medicines known as He shou wu in China and East Asia, and as Fo-ti in North America. Mounting pharmacological studies have stressed out its key benefice for the treatment of various diseases and medical conditions such as liver injury, cancer, diabetes, alopecia, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative diseases as well. International databases such as PubMed/Medline, Science citation Index and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies recently published on P. multiflorum. Various clinical studies published articles were retrieved, providing information relevant to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics analysis, sleep disorders, dyslipidemia treatment, and neurodegenerative diseases. This review is an effort to update the clinical picture of investigations ever carried on PMT and/or its isolated bio-compounds and to enlighten its therapeutic assessment.

  9. Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Thi, Nhuan Do

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays. PMID:27752502

  10. Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography

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    Zhen Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C 18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 μm and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v and (b acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ≥ 0.9999 within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32-102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L.

  11. Novel fiber-rich lentil flours as snack-type functional foods: an extrusion cooking effect on bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, P; Berrios, J De J; Varela, A; Burbano, C; Cuadrado, C; Muzquiz, M; Pedrosa, M M

    2015-09-01

    Novel snack-type functional foods based on extruded lentil flours could convey the related health benefit of their bioactive compounds, provide a gluten-free alternative to consumers, and potentially increase the consumption of pulses. Extrusion treatment promoted an increase in galactopinitol, ciceritol, raffinose, stachyose and total α-galactoside content, in most lentil flours. As α-galactosides may act as prebiotics, they could convey beneficial effects to human and monogastric animals. Conversely, extrusion significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the inositol hexaphosphate content to less phosphorylated phytates (inositol pentaphosphate and inositol tetraphosphate), which provide health effects. The gluten-free formulation (control formulation #3) presented the highest significant (p < 0.05) drop in the inositol hexaphosphate of 14.7-fold decrease, but had a large increase in inositol pentaphosphate, due to extrusion processing. These two results are desirable in the finished product. Extrusion also caused a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the trypsin content and completely inactivated lectin, in all processed samples. PMID:26221783

  12. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries. PMID:24684635

  13. Immunomodulatory Effects of a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella

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    Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated effects of compound kaempferol 3-a-L-(4-O-acetylrhamnopyranoside-7-a-L-rhamnopyranoside (SA isolated from Dryopteris crassirhizoma during immune-related gene expression in Ctenopharyngodon idella head kidney macrophages (CIHKM. The expression of immune-related genes (IL-1β, TNF-α, MyD88, and Mx1 were investigated using real-time PCR at 2 h, 8 h, 12 h, and 24 h after incubation with 1, 10, and 50 μg mL−1 of SA. Furthermore, fish were injected intraperitoneally with 100 μL of SA, and immune parameters such as lysozyme activity, complement C3, SOD, phagocytic activity, and IgM level were examined at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after injection. The differential expression of cytokines was observed after exposure to SA. IL-1β genes displayed significant expression at 2 and 8 h after exposure to 1–10 μg mL−1 of SA. SA also induced gene expression of cytokines such as MyD88, Mx1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, enhanced immune parameters in grass carp confirmed the immunomodulatory activity of SA. Interestingly, this compound has no toxic effect on CIHKM cells as tested by MTT assay. In addition, fish immunised with 10 μg mL−1 of SA exhibited maximum resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila infection. These results suggest that SA has the potential to stimulate immune responses in grass carp.

  14. The Effectiveness of a Bioactive Food Compound in the Lipid Control of Individuals with HIV/AIDS

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    Rosângela dos Santos Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular events due to decompensated lipid metabolism are commonly found in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS patients using anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the effect of a bioactive food compound (BFC containing functional foods on individuals with HIV undergoing HAART. Particularly, this study aims to verify the clinical outcome in the change of the lipid profile due to the use of this compound. This study includes 115 individuals with HIV on HAART. All patients received dietary guidelines; however, sixty-one consumed BFC while fifty-one did not (NO BFC. Biochemical examinations and socio-demographic and clinical profiles were evaluated. As result, in patients using hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs, there was 28.6% decrease in triglyceride levels (p < 0.001 in the NO BFC group, and 18.3% reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C (p < 0.001 in the BFC group. In patients who did not use hypolipidemic and/or hypoglycemic drugs in the NO BFC group, there was 30.6% increase in triglycerides, 11.3% total cholesterol and 15.3% LDL-C levels (p < 0.001 while for the BFC group there was 4.5% reduction in total cholesterol (p < 0.001. In conclusion, this study evidenced that the dietary intervention containing BFC positively affected in lipid control, since these HIV/AIDS patients using HAART are more vulnerable to lipid disorders.

  15. Metabonomics classifies pathways affected by bioactive compounds. Artificial neural network classification of NMR spectra of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Karl-Heinz; Araníbar, Nelly; Singh, Bijay; Stockton, Gerald W

    2003-03-01

    The biochemical mode-of-action (MOA) for herbicides and other bioactive compounds can be rapidly and simultaneously classified by automated pattern recognition of the metabonome that is embodied in the 1H NMR spectrum of a crude plant extract. The ca. 300 herbicides that are used in agriculture today affect less than 30 different biochemical pathways. In this report, 19 of the most interesting MOAs were automatically classified. Corn (Zea mays) plants were treated with various herbicides such as imazethapyr, glyphosate, sethoxydim, and diuron, which represent various biochemical modes-of-action such as inhibition of specific enzymes (acetohydroxy acid synthase [AHAS], protoporphyrin IX oxidase [PROTOX], 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase [EPSPS], acetyl CoA carboxylase [ACC-ase], etc.), or protein complexes (photosystems I and II), or major biological process such as oxidative phosphorylation, auxin transport, microtubule growth, and mitosis. Crude isolates from the treated plants were subjected to 1H NMR spectroscopy, and the spectra were classified by artificial neural network analysis to discriminate the herbicide modes-of-action. We demonstrate the use and refinement of the method, and present cross-validated assignments for the metabolite NMR profiles of over 400 plant isolates. The MOA screen also recognizes when a new mode-of-action is present, which is considered extremely important for the herbicide discovery process, and can be used to study deviations in the metabolism of compounds from a chemical synthesis program. The combination of NMR metabolite profiling and neural network classification is expected to be similarly relevant to other metabonomic profiling applications, such as in drug discovery. PMID:12590124

  16. Anti-cancer and other bioactivities of Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) and its major pyranocoumarin compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinhui; Li, Li; Jiang, Cheng; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lü, Junxuan

    2012-12-01

    Korean Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) is a major medicinal herb used in Asian countries such as Korea and China. Traditionally, its dried root has been used to treat anemia, pain, infection and articular rheumatism in Korea, most often through boiling in water to prepare the dosage forms. The pyranocoumarin compound decursin and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are the major chemical components in the alcoholic extracts of the root of AGN. The in vitro anti-tumor activities of decursin and/or DA against prostate cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, sarcoma, myeloma and leukemia have been increasingly reported in the past decade whereas the in vivo efficacy in mouse models was established only for a few organ sites. Preliminary pharmacokinetic studies by us and others in rodent models indicated that decursinol (DOH), which has much less in vitro direct anticancer activities by itself, is the major and rapid in vivo hydrolysis metabolite of both decursin and DA. Besides decursin, DA and DOH, other chemical components in AGN such as polysaccharides and polyacetylenes have been reported to exert anti-cancer and anti-inflammation activities as well. We systematically reviewed the published literature on the anti-cancer and other bio-activities effects of AGN extract and decursin, DA and DOH, as well as other chemicals identified from AGN. Although a number of areas are identified that merit further investigation, one critical need is first-in-human studies of the pharmacokinetics of decursin/DA to determine whether humans differ from rodents in absorption and metabolism of these compounds.

  17. Identification of entry inhibitors of Ebola virus pseudotyped vectors from a myxobacterial compound library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Simon; Henß, Lisa; Weidner, Tatjana; Herrmann, Jennifer; Müller, Rolf; Chao, Yu-Kai; Grimm, Christian; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-08-01

    Myxobacteria produce secondary metabolites many of which were described to have various biological effects including anti-fungal, anti-bacterial and anti-viral activity. The majority of these metabolites are novel scaffolds with unique modes-of-action and hence might be potential leads for drug discovery. Here, we tested a myxobacterial natural product library for compounds with inhibitory activity against Ebola virus (EBOV). The assay was performed with a surrogate system using Ebola envelope glycoprotein (GP) pseudotyped lentiviral vectors. EBOV specificity was proven by counter-screening with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped vectors. Two compounds were identified that preferentially inhibited EBOV GP mediated cell entry: Chondramides that act on the actin skeleton but might be too toxic and noricumazole A, a potassium channel inhibitor, which might constitute a novel pathway to inhibit Ebola virus cell entry. PMID:27241689

  18. Nutritional composition, bioactive compounds and volatile profile of cocoa beans from different regions of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Fiorini, Dennis; Maggi, Filippo; Nicoletti, Marcello; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Toniolo, Chiara; Prosper, Biapa; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of the complex composition of cocoa beans provides fundamental information for evaluating the quality and nutritional aspects of cocoa-based food products, nutraceuticals and supplements. Cameroon, the world's fourth largest producer of cocoa, has been defined as "Africa in miniature" because of the variety it habitats. In order to evaluate the nutritional characteristics of cocoa beans from five different regions of Cameroon, we studied their polyphenolic content, volatile compounds and fatty acids composition. The High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) analysis showed that the Mbalmayo sample had the highest content of theobromine (11.6 mg/g) and caffeic acid (2.1 mg/g), while the Sanchou sample had the highest level of (-)-epicatechin (142.9 mg/g). Concerning fatty acids, the lowest level of stearic acid was found in the Mbalmayo sample while the Bertoua sample showed the highest content of oleic acid. Thus, we confirmed that geographical origin influences the quality and nutritional characteristics of cocoa from these regions of Cameroon. PMID:27055484

  19. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh and Processed White Cauliflower

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    Fouad A. Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica species are very rich in health-promoting phytochemicals, including phenolic compounds, vitamin C, and minerals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different blanching (i.e., water and steam and cooking (i.e., water boiling, steam boiling, microwaving, and stir-frying methods on the nutrient components, phytochemical contents (i.e., polyphenols, carotenoids, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid, antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, and phenolic profiles of white cauliflower. Results showed that water boiling and water blanching processes had a great effect on the nutrient components and caused significant losses of dry matter, protein, and mineral and phytochemical contents. However, steam treatments (blanching and cooking, stir-frying, and microwaving presented the lowest reductions. Methanolic extract of fresh cauliflower had significantly the highest antioxidant activity (68.91% followed by the extracts of steam-blanched, steam-boiled, stir-fried, and microwaved cauliflower 61.83%, 59.15%, 58.93%, and 58.24%, respectively. HPLC analysis revealed that the predominant phenolics of raw cauliflower were protocatechuic acid (192.45, quercetin (202.4, pyrogallol (18.9, vanillic acid (11.90, coumaric acid (6.94, and kaempferol (25.91 mg/100 g DW, respectively.

  20. Spectrophotometric determination of bio-active compounds with chloramine-T and gallocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, C S; Srinivas, K R; Prasad, K M

    1996-10-01

    A simple, sensitive and selective method for the spectrophotometric determination of drugs, viz., sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline HCl, amidopyrine, nifurtimox and isoniazid and biologically important amino acids, cysteine, aspartic acid and arginine based on their reactivity with chloramine-T (CAT) is proposed. The method involves the addition of excess CAT of a known concentration in the presence of 0.25 M HCl and the determination of the unreacted CAT by measurement of the decrease in the absorbance of the dye, gallocyanine (lambda(max): 540 nm), the most suitable of several dyes that were tested. This method was applied to the determination of drug contents in pharmaceutical formulations and to the measurement of the aspartic acid content of some protein hydrolysates. The method is useful for the determination of the target compounds in microgram quantities from 0.4-5.6 microg mL(-1) with the exceptions of arginine (1.0-8.0 microg mL(-1)) and nifurtimox (0.8-5.6 microg mL(-1)). Standard deviations were typically 0.5 mg per dose (RSD 0.5-1.2%). No interferences were observed from common excipients in formulations, and detailed interference studies of other amino acids in the determination of cysteine, aspartic acid and arginine are reported. The validity of the method was tested against spectrophotometric and titrimetric reference methods. Recoveries were 99.8-102.1%. PMID:18966644

  1. Diversity of Micromonospora strains from the deep Mediterranean Sea and their potential to produce bioactive compounds

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    Andrea Gärtner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During studies on bacteria from the Eastern Mediterranean deep-sea, incubation under in situ conditions (salinity, temperature and pressure and heat treatment were used to selectively enrich representatives of Micromonospora. From sediments of the Ierapetra Basin (4400 m depth and the Herodotos Plain (2800 m depth, 21 isolates were identified as members of the genus Micromonospora. According to phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the Micromonospora isolates could be assigned to 14 different phylotypes with an exclusion limit of ≥ 99.5% sequence similarity. They formed 7 phylogenetic clusters. Two of these clusters, which contain isolates obtained after enrichment under pressure incubation and phylogenetically are distinct from representative reference organism, could represent bacteria specifically adapted to the conditions in situ and to life in these deep-sea sediments. The majority of the Micromonospora isolates (90% contained at least one gene cluster for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites for non-ribosomal polypeptides and polyketides (polyketide synthases type I and type II. The determination of biological activities of culture extracts revealed that almost half of the strains produced substances inhibitory to the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. Chemical analyses of culture extracts demonstrated the presence of different metabolite profiles also in closely related strains. Therefore, deep-sea Micromonospora isolates are considered to have a large potential for the production of new antibiotic compounds.

  2. AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA (MILLER SWINGLE: A SOURCE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS WITH ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

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    Ângelo Luís,

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ailanthus altissima (Miller Swingle is a tree used in Chinese traditional medicine as a bitter aromatic drug and in the treatment of colds and gastric diseases. Previous phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of quassinoids in the plant, as well as indole alkaloids. The purpose of this work was to determine the phenolic, flavonoid, and total alkaloid contents of the ethanolic, methanolic, acetone, and hydroalcoholic crude extracts of A. altissima and then try to correlate them with antioxidant activity of corresponding extracts. Moreover, the phenolic compounds present in the extracts were analyzed by RP-HPLC. Extracts from leaves have greater phenolic content than the other parts of this tree. Concerning the extraction process, it is possible to conclude that the mixture of water and ethanol is the best solvent to extract substances with antioxidant activity. Analysis by RP-HPLC showed that ferulic acid was the most dominant hydroxycinnamic acid, with an occurrence percentage of 25.59%. These results presented a positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity index and total phenolic content of all the extracts.

  3. Rapid screening and distribution of bioactive compounds in different parts of Berberis petiolaris using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Awantika Singh; Vikas Bajpai; Mukesh Srivastava; Kamal Ram Arya; Brijesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Berberis petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don, an unexplored medicinal plant belonging to the family Berberidaceae, is a large deciduous shrub found in Western Himalaya between 1800-3000 m. Chemical profiling of fruit, leaf, root and stem was done by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry followed by multivariate analysis for discrimination among the plant parts. The bioactive compounds, including magnoflorine, berberine, jatrorrhizine, thalifendine/berberrubine, demethyleneberberine, reticuline, 8-oxoberberine, N-methyltetrahydroberberine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydroberberine and palmatine, were identified by their exact mass measurement and the corresponding molecular formula of each compound. A comparative study of distribution pattern for all these bioactive alkaloids showed qualitative and quantitative variations in different parts of B. petiolaris. Principal component analysis clearly dis-criminated each part of B. petiolaris plant.

  4. Moringa oleifera: bioactive compounds and nutritional potential Moringa oleifera: compostos bioativos e potencialidade nutricional

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    Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to review the nutritional properties of the Moringa oleifera tree, emphasizing its main constituents and nutritional applications for humans and animals. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae is a cosmopolitan tree that grows in many tropical countries showing uncountable folk uses due to its various nutritional and pharmacological applications. The young leaves, flowers and pods are common vegetables in the Asian diet. All parts of this plant are renewable sources of tocopherols (γ and α, phenolic compounds, β-carotene, vitamin C and total proteins, including the essential sulfur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The seed protein and fat contents are higher than those reported for important grain legumes and soybean varieties, respectively. Unsaturated fatty acids, especially oleic acid, carbohydrates and minerals are present in the seed in reasonable amounts. In general, there are low concentrations of antinutritional factors in the plant, although the seeds possess glucosinolates (65.5µmol/g dry matter, phytates (41g/kg and hemagglutination activity while the leaves have appreciable amounts of saponins (80g/kg, besides low quantity of phytates (21g/kg and tannins (12g/kg. Taking into consideration the excellent nutritional properties, the low toxicity of the seeds and the excellent ability of the plant to adapt to poor soils and dry climates, Moringa oleifera can be an alternative to some leguminous seeds as a source of high-quality protein, oil and antioxidant compounds and a way to treat water in rural areas where appropriate water resources are not available.O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão sobre as propriedades nutricionais da planta Moringa oleifera, enfatizando seus principais constituintes e suas aplicações nutricionais para o homem e os animais. Moringa oleifera é uma planta que cresce em muitos países tropicais, possuindo inúmeros usos populares devido às suas aplicações nutricionais e farmacol

  5. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory, Tyrosinase Inhibitory and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Selected Agro-Industrial By-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Karimi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of abundantly available agro-industrial by-products for their bioactive compounds and biological activities is beneficial in particular for the food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, rapeseed meal, cottonseed meal and soybean meal were investigated for the presence of bioactive compounds and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Methanolic extracts of rapeseed meal showed significantly (P < 0.01 higher phenolics and flavonoids contents; and significantly (P < 0.01 higher DPPH and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activities when compared to that of cottonseed meal and soybean meal extracts. Ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid tests results showed rapeseed meal with the highest antioxidant activity (P < 0.01 followed by BHT, cotton seed meal and soybean meal. Rapeseed meal extract in xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory assays showed the lowest  IC50 values  followed by cottonseed and soybean meals. Anti-inflammatory assay using IFN-γ/LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells indicated rapeseed meal is a potent source of anti-inflammatory agent. Correlation analysis showed that phenolics and flavonoids were highly correlated to both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Rapeseed meal was found to be promising as a natural source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities in contrast to cotton and soybean meals.

  6. Impact of Cultivar on Profile and Concentration of Lipophilic Bioactive Compounds in Kernel Oils Recovered from Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) by-Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górnaś, Paweł; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Raczyk, Marianna; Mišina, Inga; Segliņa, Dalija

    2016-06-01

    Lipophilic bioactive compounds in oils recovered from the kernels of seven sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, harvested at single location in 2013, were studied. Oil yield in sweet cherry ranged between 30.3-40.3 % (w/w) dw. The main fatty acids were oleic acid (39.62-49.92 %), linoleic acid (31.13-38.81 %), α-eleostearic acid (7.23-10.73 %) and palmitic acid (5.59-7.10 %), all four represented approximately 95 % of the total detected fatty acids. The ranges of total tocochromanols and sterols were between 83.1-111.1 and 233.6-419.4 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Regardless of the cultivar, the γ-tocopherol and β-sitosterol were the main lipophilic minor bioactive compounds. The content of the carotenoids and squalene were between 0.38-0.62 and 60.9-127.7 mg/100 g of oil, respectively. Three significant correlations were found between oil yield and total contents of sterols (r = -0.852), tocochromanols (r = -0.880) and carotenoids (r = -0.698) in sweet cherry kernel oils. The oil yield, as well as the content of lipophilic bioactive compounds in oil was significantly affected by the cultivar. PMID:26984340

  7. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Allyson M; Real Hernandez, Luis M; Berhow, Mark A; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2014-07-01

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims were to characterize and examine extracts from greenhouse-grown or commercially purchased herbs for their ability to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), enzymes that play a role in insulin secretion and insulin signaling, respectively. Greenhouse herbs contained more polyphenols (302.7-430.1 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight of extract (DWE)) and flavonoids (370.1-661.4 μg of rutin equivalents/mg of DWE) compared to the equivalent commercial herbs. Greenhouse rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram extracts were the best inhibitors of DPP-IV (IC₅₀=16, 29, and 59 μM, respectively). Commercial rosemary, Mexican oregano, and marjoram were the best inhibitors of PTP1B (32.4-40.9% at 500 μM). The phytochemicals eriodictyol, naringenin, hispidulin, cirsimaritin, and carnosol were identified by LC-ESI-MS as being present in greenhouse-grown Mexican oregano and rosemary. Computational modeling indicated that hispidulin, carnosol, and eriodictyol would have the best binding affinities for DPP-IV. Biochemically, the best inhibitors of DPP-IV were cirsimaritin (IC₅₀=0.43±0.07 μM), hispidulin (IC₅₀=0.49±0.06 μM), and naringenin (IC₅₀=2.5±0.29 μM). Overall, herbs contain several flavonoids that inhibit DPP-IV and should be investigated further regarding their potential in diabetes management. PMID:24881464

  8. Bioactive compounds from Paecilomyces tenuipes regulating the function of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal system axis in chronic unpredictable stress rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yan-yan; MING Liang; ZHENG Li-fang; KAN Hong-wei; LI Chun-ru; LI Wei-ping

    2007-01-01

    Background A bioactive compound from Paecilomyces tenuipes (BGPT) has an inhibitory effect on monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in vitro and in vivo, which indicates BCPT may be a potential antidepressant. In this study we aimed to study the antidepressant effects of BCPT in the chronic unpredictable stress(CUS) model in rats and explore underlying mechanisms in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.Methods The antidepressant effects of BCPT were studied in the chronic unpredictable stress model in rats. Animals were housed isolated, except the control group. Rats were exposed daily to different random stressors from day 1 to 21.Awarding response was detected by calculating the 24-hour consumption of sucrose water. Cortisol (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH) contents in serum and arginine vasopressin (AVP) contents in the pituitary body were detected by radio immunoassays. Total RNA of hippocampus or hypothalamus was extracted and subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the measurement of corticotrophin releasing hormone(CRH) mRNA or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mRNA and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA levels. Statistical analyses were performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test.Results Chronic unpredictable stress resulted in reduction of sensitivity to reward and abnormality in the HPA axis in the animal model. BCPT improved the reward reaction as measured by increasing sucrose consumption, remarkably reduced serum CORT and ACTH levels and the AVP content in the pituitary body in the CUS-treated rats, decreased the expression of CRH mRNA, enhanced the expression of hippocampus MR mRNA, GR mRNA and decreased the ratio of MR/GR.Conclusions BCPT has potentially antidepressant-like activity and normalized the HPA axis hyperactivity in a CUS model of depression in rats. This may be an important mechanism of its antidepressant effect.

  9. A high-throughput screen for aggregation-based inhibition in a large compound library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Brian Y; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Babaoglu, Kerim; Inglese, James; Shoichet, Brian K; Austin, Christopher P

    2007-05-17

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is the primary technique for new lead identification in drug discovery and chemical biology. Unfortunately, it is susceptible to false-positive hits. One common mechanism for such false-positives is the congregation of organic molecules into colloidal aggregates, which nonspecifically inhibit enzymes. To both evaluate the feasibility of large-scale identification of aggregate-based inhibition and quantify its prevalence among screening hits, we tested 70,563 molecules from the National Institutes of Health Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC) library for detergent-sensitive inhibition. Each molecule was screened in at least seven concentrations, such that dose-response curves were obtained for all molecules in the library. There were 1274 inhibitors identified in total, of which 1204 were unambiguously detergent-sensitive. We identified these as aggregate-based inhibitors. Thirty-one library molecules were independently purchased and retested in secondary low-throughput experiments; 29 of these were confirmed as either aggregators or nonaggregators, as appropriate. Finally, with the dose-response information collected for every compound, we could examine the correlation between aggregate-based inhibition and steep dose-response curves. Three key results emerge from this study: first, detergent-dependent identification of aggregate-based inhibition is feasible on the large scale. Second, 95% of the actives obtained in this screen are aggregate-based inhibitors. Third, aggregate-based inhibition is correlated with steep dose-response curves, although not absolutely. The results of this screen are being released publicly via the PubChem database.

  10. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition.

  11. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes.

  12. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition. PMID:25872434

  13. Relationship between the elemental composition of grapeyards and bioactive compounds in the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes Vitis vinífera harvested in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Avila, Pedro Estanislao; Vásquez-Murrieta, María Soledad; Franco Hernández, Marina Olivia; López-Cortéz, Ma del Socorro

    2016-07-15

    The red grape Vitis vinífera is an important source of phenolic compounds, which can prevent disease if included as a part of a diet. The levels of these compounds in grapes have been associated with various environmental factors, such as climate, soil composition, and biotic stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes and the presence of bioactive compounds, such as catechin, epicatechin, piceid and resveratrol. Ethanol-based extracts of red grapes were used to quantify total and individual phenolic compounds by HPLC. It was observed that the elemental compositions of the soil and the grapes were related to their locations within different wine-producing regions. A principal component analysis showed a relationship between high metal content (Sr, Mn, Si and Pb) and higher concentrations of antioxidants in the grapes. PMID:26948592

  14. Molecular descriptor data explain market prices of a large commercial chemical compound library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanski, Jaroslaw; Kucia, Urszula; Duszkiewicz, Roksana; Kurczyk, Agata; Magdziarz, Tomasz; Gasteiger, Johann

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between the structure and a property of a chemical compound is an essential concept in chemistry guiding, for example, drug design. Actually, however, we need economic considerations to fully understand the fate of drugs on the market. We are performing here for the first time the exploration of quantitative structure-economy relationships (QSER) for a large dataset of a commercial building block library of over 2.2 million chemicals. This investigation provided molecular statistics that shows that on average what we are paying for is the quantity of matter. On the other side, the influence of synthetic availability scores is also revealed. Finally, we are buying substances by looking at the molecular graphs or molecular formulas. Thus, those molecules that have a higher number of atoms look more attractive and are, on average, also more expensive. Our study shows how data binning could be used as an informative method when analyzing big data in chemistry.

  15. Bioactive Compounds in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo; Ohata, Motoko

    Since health-conscious consumers have made functional foods the leading trends in the food industry, efforts have been taken in many countries to develop new functional foods and to establish regulations for functional foods (Arihara, 2004; Dentali, 2002; Eve, 2000; Hutt, 2000). For example, in 1991, the concept of foods for specified health use (FOSHU) was established by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (Arihara, 2004, 2006b). FOSHU are foods that, based on the knowledge of the relationship between foods or food components and health, are expected to have certain health benefits and have been licensed to bear the label claiming that a person using them may expect to obtain that health use through the consumption of these foods. As of June 2008, 786 FOSHU products have been approved in Japan.

  16. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Barot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for identification of bioactive compounds present in crude extract. Results: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of all the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, fatty acids and esters compounds. Among the three species, the maximum crude extract yield (53.46% and the largest inhibition zone (36 mm were recorded in methanol extract of Ulva lactuca, whereas the minimum crude extract yield and inhibition zone were recorded in chloroform extract of the same species as 0.5% and 10 mm, respectively. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum antifungal activity and the major important compounds like steroids, fatty acids and esters were detected with higher amount in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the different seaweed extracts showed moderate to significant antifungal activity against the strains tested as compared with the standard fungicides, and polar solvents methanol and ethyl acetate were comparatively efficient for extraction of different metabolites that are responsible for antifungal activity.

  17. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed speciesUlva lactuca,Sargassum tenerrimum andLaurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megha Barot; Nirmal Kumar J.I.; Rita N. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for identification of bioactive compounds present in crude extract. Results: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of all the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, fatty acids and esters compounds. Among the three species, the maximum crude extract yield (53.46%) and the largest inhibition zone (36 mm) were recorded in methanol extract ofUlva lactuca, whereas the minimum crude extract yield and inhibition zone were recorded in chloroform extract of the same species as 0.5% and 10 mm, respectively. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum antifungal activity and the major important compounds like steroids, fatty acids and esters were detected with higher amount in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the different seaweed extracts showed moderate to significant antifungal activity against the strains tested as compared with the standard fungicides, and polar solvents methanol and ethyl acetate were comparatively efficient for extraction of different metabolites that are responsible for antifungal activity.

  18. USING OF Agrobacterium-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION FOR THE BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENT OF COMPOSITAE PLANTS. ІІ. SYNTHESIS OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN TRANSGENIC PLANTS AND «HAIRY» ROOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Matvieieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review focused on the data concerning current state in the field of Compositae “hairy” roots and transgenic plants construction using A.tumefaciens- and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation to obtain biologically active compounds, including recombinant proteins. The article presents data on the results of genetic transformation of Cichorium intybus, Lactuca sativa, Artemisia annua, Artemisia vulgaris, Calendula officinalis, Withania somnifera and other Compositae plants as well as studies on the artemisinin, flavonoids, polyphenols, fructans and other compounds accumulation in transgenic plants and roots. The data show that the use of biotechnological approaches for construction of "hairy" roots and transgenic plants with new features are of great interest. The possibility of increase in the accumulation of naturally synthesized bioactive compounds and recombinant proteins production via A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation have been shown. In vitro cultivation of transgenic plants characterized by high level of bioactive compounds accumulation and synthesis of recombinant proteins makes it possible to obtain guaranteed pure raw material. Using of biotechnological approaches preserved natural populations of plants is particularly important for rare and endangered plant species.

  19. Compostos bioativos presentes em amora-preta (Rubus spp. Bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus spp. grown in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Souza Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    and, or, inhibitors of degenerative disorders; however, data regarding the bioactive compounds in blackberry cultivated in Brazil are rare. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to identify the anthocyanins and carotenoids in blackberry (Rubus spp., to determine the total contents of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, carotenoids, and total, monomeric, polimeric and co-pigmented anthocyanins, and the antioxidant capacity against the free radicals ABTS and DPPH. The total carotenoids level was low (86.5 ± 0.2 µg/100 g, with all-trans-β-carotene (39.6 % and all-trans-lutein (28.2 % as the major ones. The blackberries showed high antioxidant status mainly due to the high level of monomeric anthocyanins (104.1 ± 1.8 mg/100 g de fruta, presence of polimeric anthocyanins (22.9 ± 0.4 %, low percentage of co-pigmented anthocyanins (1.6 ± 0.1 % and high contents of phenolic compounds (241.7 ± 0.8 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g and total flavonoids (173.7 ± 0.7 mg catechin equivalent/100 g. Cyanidin 3-glucoside was the major anthocyanin (92.9 %. These results indicate that the blackberry cultivated in Brazil can be considered a rich natural source of antioxidants and pigments.

  20. Bio-active Compounds of Bitter Melon Genotypes (Momordica charantia L. in Relation to Their Physiological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navam S. Hettiarachchy

    2011-02-01

    protein, most of the essential amino acid contents of Bitter Melon were similar as in soy proteins. Some amino acids such as Alanine, Glycine, and Valanine were relatively higher in Bitter Melon flesh than in soy protein. Phenolics contents of the flesh, seed, and seed coat tissue [SCT] were significantly different [p<0.05] among the four varieties. The four varieties were similar in their antioxidant activities of the flesh tissues; however, they were significantly different in their antioxidant activities in the seed and seed coat tissues [SCT]. Bitter melon varieties IW and CG, tested for antimutagenic effects, both flesh and seed had considerably high activities against benzo[a]pyrene with Salmonella TA98 [92-100% inhibition] and Salmonella TA100 [79-86% inhibition].Conclusion: Based on these studies, Bitter Melon is a good source of phenolic compounds. All four varieties tested showed considerably high antioxidant and antimutagenic activities. Therefore, these natural plant phenolics can be a good source of biologically active compounds that may be applied in many food systems to enhance food values and special nutritional qualities. Further studies will be needed using more genetically diverse varieties to pin point the bioactive and functional compounds and their physiological properties.

  1. Compound library development guided by protein structure similarity clustering and natural product structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marcus A; Wittenberg, Lars-Oliver; Basu, Sudipta; Jeyaraj, Duraiswamy A; Gourzoulidou, Eleni; Reinecke, Kerstin; Odermatt, Alex; Waldmann, Herbert

    2004-11-30

    To identify biologically relevant and drug-like protein ligands for medicinal chemistry and chemical biology research the grouping of proteins according to evolutionary relationships and conservation of molecular recognition is an established method. We propose to employ structure similarity clustering of the ligand-sensing cores of protein domains (PSSC) in conjunction with natural product guided compound library development as a synergistic approach for the identification of biologically prevalidated ligands with high fidelity. This is supported by the concepts that (i) in nature spatial structure is more conserved than amino acid sequence, (ii) the number of fold types characteristic for all protein domains is limited, and (iii) the underlying frameworks of natural product classes with multiple biological activities provide evolutionarily selected starting points in structural space. On the basis of domain core similarity considerations and irrespective of sequence similarity, Cdc25A phosphatase, acetylcholinesterase, and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 1 and type 2 were grouped into a similarity cluster. A 147-member compound collection derived from the naturally occurring Cdc25A inhibitor dysidiolide yielded potent and selective inhibitors of the other members of the similarity cluster with a hit rate of 2-3%. Protein structure similarity clustering may provide an experimental opportunity to identify supersites in proteins.

  2. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  3. Rapid access to compound libraries through flow technology: fully automated synthesis of a 3-aminoindolizine library via orthogonal diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Paul P; James, Keith

    2012-10-01

    A novel methodology for the synthesis of druglike heterocycle libraries has been developed through the use of flow reactor technology. The strategy employs orthogonal modification of a heterocyclic core, which is generated in situ, and was used to construct both a 25-membered library of druglike 3-aminoindolizines, and selected examples of a 100-member virtual library. This general protocol allows a broad range of acylation, alkylation and sulfonamidation reactions to be performed in conjunction with a tandem Sonogashira coupling/cycloisomerization sequence. All three synthetic steps were conducted under full automation in the flow reactor, with no handling or isolation of intermediates, to afford the desired products in good yields. This fully automated, multistep flow approach opens the way to highly efficient generation of druglike heterocyclic systems as part of a lead discovery strategy or within a lead optimization program.

  4. Comparison of the levels of bioactive benzoxazinoids in different wheat and rye fractions and the transformation of these compounds in homemade foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Fredholm, Maria; Gregersen, Per L.;

    2013-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly, an understan......Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly, an...... analysis of seed fractions obtained from the milling of wheat and rye showed significantly higher concentrations of these bioactive compounds in the germ than in the other fractions, i.e. the bran and endosperm. Di-hexoses of 2,4-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc-hexose) and 2-hydroxy-1, 4...

  5. Effect of the Production of Dried Fruits and Juice from Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L. on the Content and Antioxidative Activity of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oszmiański

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of dried fruits and juices from chokeberry as potential sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Dry powders and juices from chokeberry were analyzed for the contents of sugars with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method, and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid tests. Polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer and a photodiode-array detector (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS, and their quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-MS/MS (using a Q/TOF detector and a PDA detector. A total of 27 polyphenolic compounds was identified in chokeberry products, including 7 anthocyanins, 11 flavonols, 5 phenolic acids, 3 flavan-3-ols and 1 flavanone. Three anthocyanin derivatives were reported for the first time from chokeberry fruit. A higher activity of the bioactive compounds was determined in dried fruit pomace and in juice obtained from crushed fruits than in those from the whole fruits. In addition, the pomace was found to be a better material for the production of dry powders, compared to chokeberry fruits.

  6. Effect of the Production of Dried Fruits and Juice from Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) on the Content and Antioxidative Activity of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszmiański, Jan; Lachowicz, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of dried fruits and juices from chokeberry as potential sources of bioactive compounds with beneficial effects on human health. Dry powders and juices from chokeberry were analyzed for the contents of sugars with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD method), and the antioxidant capacity was analyzed by the FRAP (ferric-reducing ability of plasma) and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) tests. Polyphenols were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer and a photodiode-array detector (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS), and their quantitative analysis was carried out by UPLC-MS/MS (using a Q/TOF detector and a PDA detector). A total of 27 polyphenolic compounds was identified in chokeberry products, including 7 anthocyanins, 11 flavonols, 5 phenolic acids, 3 flavan-3-ols and 1 flavanone. Three anthocyanin derivatives were reported for the first time from chokeberry fruit. A higher activity of the bioactive compounds was determined in dried fruit pomace and in juice obtained from crushed fruits than in those from the whole fruits. In addition, the pomace was found to be a better material for the production of dry powders, compared to chokeberry fruits. PMID:27556441

  7. Synthesis of hexahydropyrrolo[2,1-a>]isoquinoline compound libraries through a Pictet–Spengler cyclization/metal-catalyzed cross coupling/amidation sequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rico; Cohrt, A. Emil; Petersen, Michael Åxman;

    2015-01-01

    Molecular libraries of natural product-like and structurally diverse compounds are attractive in early drug discovery campaigns. In here, we present synthetic methodology for library production of hexahydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline (HPIQ) compounds. Two advanced HPIQ intermediates, both incorpor...

  8. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata and different species of bacterial film on larval attachment of Balanus amphitrite (cirripedia, crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswambaran Ganapiriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antifouling activity of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy and five species of bacterial biofilm were studied. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cyprids and nauplii were used to monitor the settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The crude extract and partially purified fractions of A.elongata showed significant inhibition over the settlement individually, and with the interaction of bacterial species. No bacterial film stimulated the barnacle settlement. The high but variable levels of antifouling activity in combination with less amount of toxicity showed the potential of these metabolites in environmentally-friendly antifouling preparations.

  9. Library

    OpenAIRE

    Dulaney, Ronald E. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This study began with the desire to design a public town library of the future and became a search for an inkling of what is essential to Architecture. It is murky and full of contradictions. It asks more than it proposes, and the traces of its windings are better ordered through collage than logical synthesis. This study is neither a thesis nor a synthesis. When drawing out the measure of this study it may be beneficial to state what it attempts to place at the ...

  10. Antiaggregation Potential of Padina gymnospora against the Toxic Alzheimer's Beta-Amyloid Peptide 25-35 and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Its Bioactive Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan Shanmuganathan

    Full Text Available Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ aggregation in the cerebral cortex of the brain is a promising therapeutic and defensive strategy in identification of disease modifying agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD. Since natural products are considered as the current alternative trend for the discovery of AD drugs, the present study aims at the evaluation of anti-amyloidogenic potential of the marine seaweed Padina gymnospora. Prevention of aggregation and disaggregation of the mature fibril formation of Aβ 25-35 by acetone extracts of P. gymnospora (ACTPG was evaluated in two phases by Thioflavin T assay. The results were further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic analysis. The results of antiaggregation and disaggregation assay showed that the increase in fluorescence intensity of aggregated Aβ and the co-treatment of ACTPG (250 μg/ml with Aβ 25-35, an extensive decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed in both phases, which suggests that ACTPG prevents the oligomers formation and disaggregation of mature fibrils. In addition, ACTPG was subjected to column chromatography and the bioactivity was screened based on the cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Finally, the active fraction was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the bioactive compound alpha bisabolol present in the alga might be responsible for the observed cholinesterase inhibition with the IC50 value < 10 μg/ml for both AChE and BuChE when compared to standard drug donepezil (IC50 value < 6 μg/ml and support its use for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  11. Bioactive compounds contents, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during ripening of Prunus persica L. varieties from the North West of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Feten; Somrani, Imen; Aissaoui, Neyssene; Messaoud, Chokri; Boussaid, Mohamed; Marzouki, M Nejib

    2016-08-01

    Bioactive molecules from fruits of four varieties of Prunus persica at different stages of ripening (green, small orange, red) were studied. For example, contents on polyphenols (20.36mg GAE/g FW) and flavonoids (0.764mg RE/g FW) were high and varied according variety. The antioxidant activity, using four different tests (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, β carotene bleaching system and TBARS assay) showed that the variety Chatos exhibited the highest antioxidant activity comparing with others varieties. The antibacterial activity of Prunus persica varieties studied seems to be more sensitive against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes. The capacity of peach DMSO extracts to inhibit Candida albicans growth was more pronounced, especially, in the presence of Chatos DMSO extract. Enzymes inhibition gives results which correlate with polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins contents, and so, confirm the fascinating bioactivity of this fruit. PMID:26988472

  12. Pre-harvest treatments of pepper plants with nitrophenolates increase crop yield and enhance nutritive and bioactive compounds in fruits at harvest and during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, D; Zapata, P J; Martínez-Romero, D; Guillén, F; Castillo, S; Serrano, M

    2014-06-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv Lamuyo) were treated with a mix of nitrophenolates either by foliar spray or in the irrigation system, and its effect on crop yield and the content of nutritive and bioactive compounds in fruit were analysed at harvest and after post-harvest storage. Treatments were applied at 2-week intervals from the development of first floral bunch (1 March) to end of August. Pepper fruits were harvested at commercial ripening stage (red surface colour) along the growth cycle (from May to September). Total yield (cumulative kilogram per plant) was increased ( 4.5% more) by nitrophenolate treatments due to significant increases in fruit mass, although the number of fruits per plant was unaffected. Pepper fruit quality (weight, firmness and pericarp thickness), its content in nutritive (sugars and organic acids) and bioactive compounds (vitamin C and total phenolics) and antioxidant activity were also enhanced by nitrophenolate treatments at the three harvested dates assayed (end May, mid July and end August). In addition, all these parameters were maintained at higher levels in treated peppers during storage, while diminutions in these parameters occurred generally in control fruit. Thus, nitrophenolate treatments were able to improve crop yield as well as the nutritional value and antioxidant properties of peppers at harvest and after fruit storage. PMID:23751541

  13. Impact of high pressure processing on color, bioactive compounds, polyphenol oxidase activity, and microbiological attributes of pumpkin purée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Cebrino, Francisco; Durán, Rocío; Delgado-Adámez, Jonathan; Contador, Rebeca; Bernabé, Rosario Ramírez

    2016-04-01

    Physicochemical parameters, bioactive compounds' content (carotenoids and total phenols), total antioxidant activity, and enzymatic activity of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated after high pressure processing (HPP) on a pumpkin purée (cv. 'Butternut'). Three pressure levels (400, 500, and 600 MPa) were combined with three holding times (200, 400, and 600 s). The applied treatments reduced the levels of total aerobic mesophilic (TAM), total psychrophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria (TPP), and molds and yeasts (M&Y). All applied treatments did not affect enzymatic activity of PPO. Pressure level increased CIE L* values, which could enhance the lightness perception of high pressure (HP)-treated purées. No differences were found between the untreated and HP-treated purées regarding total phenols and carotenoids content (lutein, α-carotene, and β-carotene) and total antioxidant activity. HPP did not affect most quality parameters and maintained the levels of bioactive compounds. However, it did not achieve the complete inhibition of PPO, which could reduce the shelf-life of the pumpkin purée. PMID:26123635

  14. Chemistry, Nutrition, and Health-Promoting Properties of Hericium erinaceus (Lion's Mane) Mushroom Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia and Their Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2015-08-19

    The culinary and medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is widely consumed in Asian countries, but apparently not in the United States, for its nutritional and health benefits. To stimulate broader interest in the reported beneficial properties, this overview surveys and consolidates the widely scattered literature on the chemistry (isolation and structural characterization) of polysaccharides and secondary metabolites such as erinacines, hericerins, hericenones, resorcinols, steroids, mono- and diterpenes, and volatile aroma compounds, nutritional composition, food and industrial uses, and exceptional nutritional and health-promoting aspects of H. erinaceus. The reported health-promoting properties of the mushroom fruit bodies, mycelia, and bioactive pure compounds include antibiotic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, antifatigue, antihypertensive, antihyperlipodemic, antisenescence, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties and improvement of anxiety, cognitive function, and depression. The described anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunostimulating properties in cells, animals, and humans seem to be responsible for the multiple health-promoting properties. A wide range of research advances and techniques are described and evaluated. The collated information and suggestion for further research might facilitate and guide further studies to optimize the use of the whole mushrooms and about 70 characterized actual and potential bioactive secondary metabolites to help prevent or treat human chronic, cognitive, and neurological diseases.

  15. Antiproliferative activity and apoptosis induction of Eucalyptus Citriodora resin and its major bioactive compound in melanoma B16F10 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Pin-Der; Chen, Zong-Tsi; Lee, Shwu-Woan; Lin, Tsuey-Pin; Wang, Ya-Ting; Yen, Wen-Jye; Kuo, Ling-Feng; Chu, Heuy-Ling

    2012-08-15

    Antiproliferative activity and apoptosis induction of ethyl acetate of Eucalyptus citriodora resin (EAEER), and its major bioactive compound in melanoma B16F10 cells were investigated. 6-[1-(p-Hydroxy-phenyl)ethyl]-7-O-methyl aromadendrin (HEMA), a flavanol derivative, was isolated from EAEER and identified on the basis of its mass and NMR spectra. The results from MTT assay showed high antiproliferative effects of EAEER and HEMA on B16F10 cells. Moreover, EAEER- and HEMA-induced cell apoptosis was association with the decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potentials (Δψ(m)), increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and activation of caspase-3. Cells treated with EAEER and HEMA generated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), indicating that ROS and RNS play important roles in the induction of apoptosis in B16F10 cells. Taken together, EAEER and its major bioactive compound, HEMA, inhibited the proliferation of B16F10 cells via apoptosis and may be a potential antimelanoma agent. PMID:22838509

  16. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds. PMID:27192193

  17. Effects of Illumination Pattern during Cultivation of Fruiting Body and Bioactive Compound Production by the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chiu-Yeh; Liang, Zeng-Chin; Tseng, Chin-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of light intensity in the 3 cultivation stages separately-the mycelium colonization stage, the primordial initiation stage, and the fruiting stage (in order)-on fruiting body and bioactive compound production by Cordyceps militaris. In the mycelium colonization stage, rice substrates were incubated in a spawn running room at 23°C. During the primordial initiation stage, C. militaris was grown at 18°C and illuminated 12 hours/day. In the fruiting stage the temperature was 23°C, with illumination provided 12 hours/day. The highest fruiting body yield and biological efficiency were 4.06 g dry weight/bottle and 86.83%, respectively, under 1750 ± 250 lux during the second and third stages. The cordycepin content was highest during the second and third stages under 1250 ± 250 lux. The mannitol and polysaccharide contents were highest under 1250 ± 250 and 1750 ± 250 lux during the primordial initiation stage and the fruiting stage, respectively. Thus, with controlled lighting, C. militaris can be cultivated in rice-water medium to increase fruiting body yield and bioactive compound production. PMID:27649728

  18. Metabolomic-Based Study of the Leafy Gall, the Ecological Niche of the Phytopathogen Rhodococcus fascians, as a Potential Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Duez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Leafy gall is a plant hyperplasia induced upon Rhodococcus fascians infection. Previously, by genomic and transcriptomic analysis, it has been reported that, at the early stage of symptom development, both primary and secondary metabolisms are modified. The present study is based on the hypothesis that fully developed leafy gall, could represent a potential source of new bioactive compounds. Therefore, non-targeted metabolomic analysis of aqueous and chloroform extracts of leafy gall and non-infected tobacco was carried out by 1H-NMR coupled to principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Polar metabolite profiling reflects modifications mainly in the primary metabolites and in some polyphenolics. In contrast, main modifications occurring in non-polar metabolites concern secondary metabolites, and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS evidenced alterations in diterpenoids family. Analysis of crude extracts of leafy galls and non-infected tobacco leaves exhibited a distinct antiproliferative activity against all four tested human cancer cell lines. A bio-guided fractionation of chloroformic crude extract yield to semi-purified fractions, which inhibited proliferation of glioblastoma U373 cells with IC50 between 14.0 and 2.4 µg/mL. Discussion is focused on the consequence of these metabolic changes, with respect to plant defense mechanisms following infection. Considering the promising role of diterpenoid family as bioactive compounds, leafy gall may rather be a propitious source for drug discovery.

  19. Accumulation of three important bioactive compounds in different plant parts of Withania somnifera and its determination by the LC-ESI-MS-MS (MRM) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Narendra A; Makasana, Jayanti; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive experiment was conducted to study the accumulation pattern and determination of three important bioactive compounds namely withaferin-A (WA), 12-deoxywithastramonolide (WO) and withanolide-A (WD) and its determination by the liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method in root, stem, fruits and leaves of Withania somnifera. A rapid and sensitive LC-ESI-MS-MS method was developed and validated for the determination of these three important bioactive compounds, having same molecular weight. The multiple reaction monitoring method was established by two transitions for each analyte and intense transition used for quantification. Separation of the three analytes was achieved within a run time of 5 min on an RP-18 column using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water in an isocratic condition. The developed method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The developed method was found to be suitable for identification and quantification of WA, WO and WD in different plant parts such as roots, stems, fruits and leaves of W. somnifera. The accumulation of WA was highest in leaves samples (8.84 ± 0.37 mg/g) and it was 2.23, 5.85 and 27.26 times higher than its concentration in fruits, stems and roots, respectively. WO and WD contents were highest (0.44 ± 0.016 and 0.72 ± 0.016 mg/g, respectively) in root.

  20. The Cooking Effect on Two Edible Mushrooms in Anatolia: Fatty Acid Composition, Total Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anticholinesterase Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Öztürk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of baking practices on the fatty acid and bioactivity of edible mushrooms; namely, Lactarius delicious and Ramaria flava, naturally growing in Anatolia were investigated. Each mushroom species was divided into two parts and one of the parts was baked. Both baked and unbaked materials were extracted with hexane and methanol, successively. The fatty acid contents of baked and unbaked extracts of both species were carried out by GC and GC-MS analytical techniques. In the unbaked extracts palmitic acid (9.7-14.43%, stearic acid (41.41-6.68%, oleic acid (25.94-47.12% and linoleic acid (22.85-9.78% were identified as major fatty acids, respectively. In the baked extracts, however, palmitic acid (7.92-19.12%, stearic acid (49.94-6.23%, oleic acid (18.07-45.13% and linoleic acid (23.36-9.25% were identified as major fatty acids, as well. The antioxidative effect of the extracts of baked and unbaked mushroom species was also determined by using four complimentary assays. In addition, the extracts and the major fatty acids were also evaluated for anticholinesterase activity against acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE which are the chief enzymes of Alzheimer’s disease. The baked methanol extract of R. flava showed the highest activity in DPPH scavenging, ABTS scavenging and BChE assays, while the unbaked hexane extract of R. flava exhibited the best lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In conclusion, baking proved to have influence in nutritional values and bioactivity properties of L. delicious and R. flava. The nutrient concentration and bioactivities of L. delicious were decreased when baked; however, baked R. flava proved to have higher nutrient concentrations and higher bioactivities than unbaked samples.

  1. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  2. Bioactive compounds in green tea leaves attenuate the injury of retinal ganglion RGC-5 cells induced by H2O2 and ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianchang; Ying, Hao; Huang, Meirong; Du, Qizhen

    2015-11-01

    The Chinese commonly believe that tea helps maintain clear vision. This viewpoint has been recorded in Chinese medical books also. The key bioactive compounds in green tea leaves, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), L-theanine (theanine) and caffeine, were investigated for their abilities to attenuate the injury of retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5) induced by H2O2 and ultraviolet radiation. Theanine and caffeine promoted cell growth while concentrations of EGCG greater than 10μg/ml inhibited cell growth. The nine and caffeine both protected RGC-5 cells from injury as well as enhanced their recovery, while EGCG only protected the cells from injury and did not help them to recover. Tea is a unique drink, which is simultaneously enriched with EGCG, theanine and caffeine. The role of these compounds in optic nerve protection may partially explain why some tea drinkers feel enhanced vision. PMID:26687755

  3. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF. PMID:27211645

  4. Postharvest treatments with salicylic acid, acetylsalicylic acid or oxalic acid delayed ripening and enhanced bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Daniel; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Castillo, Salvador; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María

    2011-05-25

    Sweet cherry cultivars ('Cristalina' and 'Prime Giant') harvested at commercial ripening stage were treated with salicylic acid (SA), acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or oxalic acid (OA) at 1 mM and then stored for 20 days under cold temperature. Results showed that all treatments delayed the postharvest ripening process, manifested by lower acidity, color changes and firmness losses, and maintained quality attributes for longer periods than controls. In addition, total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity increased in untreated fruit during the first 10 days of storage and then decreased, while in fruits of all treatments, these parameters increased continuously during storage without significant differences among treatments. Thus, postharvest treatments with natural compounds, such as SA, ASA or OA, could be innovative tools to extend the storability of sweet cherry with higher content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity as compared with control fruits. PMID:21506518

  5. Technological characteristics and selected bioactive compounds of Opuntia dillenii cactus fruit juice following the impact of pulsed electric field pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa-Ayoub, Tamer E; Jaeger, Henry; Youssef, Khaled; Knorr, Dietrich; El-Samahy, Salah; Kroh, Lothar W; Rohn, Sascha

    2016-11-01

    Selected technological characteristics and bioactive compounds of juice pressed directly from the mash of whole Opuntia dillenii cactus fruits have been investigated. The impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) for a non-thermal disintegration on the important juice characteristics has been evaluated in comparison to microwave heating and use of pectinases. Results showed that the cactus juice exhibited desirable technological characteristics. Besides, it also contained a high amount of phenolic compounds being the major contributors to the overall antioxidant activity of juice. HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS(n) measurements in the fruits' peel and pulp showed that isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside was determined as the single flavonol found only in the fruit's peel. Treating fruit mash with a moderate electric field strength increased juice yield and improved juice characteristics. Promisingly, the highest release of isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside from fruit's peel into juice was maximally achieved by PEF.

  6. Correlation, by multivariate statistical analysis, between the scavenging capacity against reactive oxygen species and the bioactive compounds from frozen fruit pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizziane Cynara Vissotto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC, total flavonoids (TF, and ascorbic acid (AA of 18 frozen fruit pulps and their scavenging capacities against peroxyl radical (ROO•, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (•OH were determined. Principal Component Analysis (PCA showed that TPC (total phenolic compounds and AA (ascorbic acid presented positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against ROO•, and TF (total flavonoids showed positive correlation with the scavenging capacity against •OH and ROO• However, the scavenging capacity against H2O2 presented low correlation with TF (total flavonoids, TPC (total phenolic compounds, and AA (ascorbic acid. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA allowed the classification of the fruit pulps into three groups: one group was formed by the açai pulp with high TF, total flavonoids, content (134.02 mg CE/100 g pulp and the highest scavenging capacity against ROO•, •OH and H2O2; the second group was formed by the acerola pulp with high TPC, total phenolic compounds, (658.40 mg GAE/100 g pulp and AA , ascorbic acid, (506.27 mg/100 g pulp contents; and the third group was formed by pineapple, cacao, caja, cashew-apple, coconut, cupuaçu, guava, orange, lemon, mango, passion fruit, watermelon, pitanga, tamarind, tangerine, and umbu pulps, which could not be separated considering only the contents of bioactive compounds and the scavenging properties.

  7. Synthesis of hexahydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline compound libraries through a Pictet-Spengler cyclization/metal-catalyzed cross coupling/amidation sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Rico; Cohrt, A Emil; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Wu, Peng; Clausen, Mads H; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-06-01

    Molecular libraries of natural product-like and structurally diverse compounds are attractive in early drug discovery campaigns. In here, we present synthetic methodology for library production of hexahydropyrrolo[2,1-a]isoquinoline (HPIQ) compounds. Two advanced HPIQ intermediates, both incorporating two handles for diversification, were synthesized through an oxidative cleavage/Pictet-Spengler reaction sequence in high overall yields. A subsequent metal-catalyzed cross coupling/amidation protocol was developed and its utility in library synthesis was validated by construction of a 20-membered natural product-like molecular library in good overall yields. PMID:25703308

  8. 汉麻叶的生物活性成分研究现状%Advancesin Bioactive Compounds in Hemp Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何锦风; 杜军强; 陈天鹏

    2011-01-01

    本文对汉麻植株叶子中化学成分的生物活性研究概况进行了综述.汉麻叶中生物活性成分可分为大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物,其中很多成分在医药领域具有显著的利用价值,有些已经应用于临床.本文对汉麻叶中不同种类的化合物的提取、分离和分析方法进行了总结,较为全面地论述了国内外有关大麻酚类化合物,特别是△9-THC、CBD、CBN等,以及非大麻酚类化合物,如黄酮、生物碱、多酚类和有机酸等,在抗癌、治疗神经疾病、抗菌、抗紫外、抗氧化等方面的研究进展和应用价值.此外,还对汉麻叶中化学成分在药物和护肤品领域中的应用前景进行了展望.汉麻叶可以作为多种生物活性成分的提取原料,生产具有高附加值的产品,是汉麻综合利用产业链中必不可少的环节.%The article reviewed the advances in phytochemicals with bioactivity in hemp (Cannabis saliva L.) leaves. The bioactive components could be divided as cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid, and many of those have significant practical value in pharmaceutical industry and some have been already utilized in clinic. It summarized the separation, isolation, and analysis methods for phytochemicals in hemp leaves and demonstrated the activities of cannabinoid (such as A'-THC, CBD, and CBN) and non-cannabinoid (such as flavone, alkaloids, polyphenols, organic acid) on anti-cancer, treatment on neurological diseases, anti-bacterial, anti-UV, and antioxidation. Finally, the article brings a prospective on the utilization of hemp leaves bioactive compounds in medicine and skin care product. In general, the hemp leaves could be used as material for bioactive compounds with high value, which is a necessary content of comprehensive utilization industry train of hemp

  9. 高校复合图书馆信息资源建设探究%Discussion on Information Resources Construction of University Compound Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘小芹

    2012-01-01

    简述复合图书馆的含义及特点,分析影响复合图书馆信息资源建设的因素,提出高校复合图书馆信息资源建设的策略。%This paper simply narrates the meaning and characteristics of compound library,analyses the factors which influence the information resources construction of compound library,and puts forward the information resources construction strategies of university compound library.

  10. Tandem Mannich/Diels–Alder reactions for the synthesis of indole compound libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Petersen, Rico;

    2016-01-01

    A tandem Mannich/Diels–Alder sequence for the synthesis of small-molecule libraries with an indolyl-octahydro-3a,6-epoxy-isoindole core structure is demonstrated in this study. Representative diversification examples based on this scaffold were performed, and a library is being produced within th...

  11. Synthesis of Surface-Modified Iron Oxides for the Solvent-Free Recovery of Bacterial Bioactive Compound Prodigiosin and Its Algicidal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arivizhivendhan, K V; Mahesh, M; Boopathy, R; Patchaimurugan, K; Maharaja, P; Swarnalatha, S; Regina Mary, R; Sekaran, G

    2016-09-15

    Prodigiosin (PG) is a bioactive compound produced by several bacterial species. Currently, many technologies are being developed for the production of PG by fermentation processes. However, new challenges are being faced with regard to the production of PG in terms of the recovery and purification steps, owing to the labile nature of PG molecules and the cost of the purification steps. Conventional methods have limitations due to high cost, low reusability, and health hazards. Hence, the present investigation was focused on the development of surface-functionalized magnetic iron oxide ([Fe3O4]F) for solvent-free extraction of bioactive PG from the bacterial fermented medium. Fe3O4 was functionalized with diethanolamine and characterized by FT-IR, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. The various process parameters, such as contact time, temperature, pH, and mass of Fe3O4, were optimized for the extraction of PG using functionalized Fe3O4. Instrumental analyses confirmed that the PG molecules were cross-linked with functional groups on [Fe3O4]F through van der Waals forces of attraction. PG extracted through Fe3O4 or [Fe3O4]F was separated from the fermentation medium by applying an external electromagnetic field and regenerated for successive reuse cycles. The purity of the extracted PG was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography, FT-IR, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The iron oxide-diethanolamine-PG cross-linked ([Fe3O4]F-PG) composite matrix effectively deactivates harmful fouling by cyanobacterial growth in water-treatment plants. The present investigation provides the possibility of solvent-free extraction of bacterial bioactive PG from a fermented medium using functionalized magnetic iron oxide. PMID:27487290

  12. Neural network methods for identification and optimization of quantum mechanical features needed for bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunheim, B B; Schwartz, S D

    2000-09-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the discovery and design of bioactive compounds. The focus of this application will be on the analysis of enzymatic inhibitors. At present the discovery of enzymatic inhibitors for therapeutic use is often accomplished through random searches. The first phase of discovery is a random search through a large pre-fabricated chemical library. Many molecules are tested with refined enzyme for signs of inhibition. Once a group of lead compounds have been discovered the chemical intuition of biochemists is used to find structurally related compounds that are more effective. This step requires new molecules to be conceived and synthesized, and it is the most time-consuming and expensive step. The development of computational and theoretical methods for prediction of the molecular structure that would bind most tightly prior to synthesis and testing, would facilitate the design of novel inhibitors. In the past, our work has focused on solving the problem of predicting the bioactivity of a molecule prior to synthesis. We used a neural network trained with the bioactivity of known compounds to predict the bioactivity of unknown compounds. In our current work, we use a separate neural network in conjunction with a trained neural network in an attempt to gain insight as to how to modify existing compounds and increase their bioactivity.

  13. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  14. Identification of bioactive candidate compounds responsible for oxidative challenge from hydro-ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Tangestani Fard, Masoumeh; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Abas, Faridah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2013-09-01

    Free radicals trigger chain reaction and inflict damage to the cells and its components, which in turn ultimately interrupts their biological activities. To prevent free radical damage, together with an endogenous antioxidant system, an exogenous supply of antioxidant components to the body in the form of functional food or nutritional diet helps undeniably. Research conducted by the Natl. Inst. of Health claimed that Moringa oleifera Lam possess the highest antioxidant content among various natural food sources based on an oxygen radical absorbent capacity assay. In this study, a 90% (ethanol:distilled water--90:10) gradient solvent was identified as one of the best gradient solvents for the effectual extraction of bioactive components from M. oleifera leaves. This finding was confirmed by various antioxidant assays, including radical scavenging activity (that is, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H(2)O(2), and NO radical scavenging assay) and total antioxidant capacity (that is, ferric reducing antioxidant power and molybdenum assay). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprints of the 90% gradient extract visually showed few specific peaks, which on further analysis, using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS, were identified as flavonoids and their derivatives. Despite commonly reported flavonoids, that is, kaempferol and quercetin, we report here for the 1st time the presence of multiflorin-B and apigenin in M. oleifera leaves. These findings might help researchers to further scrutinize this high activity exhibiting gradient extract and its bio-active candidates for fruitful clinical/translational investigations. PMID:24024688

  15. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Sakthivel Manikkam; Balamurugan Sadaiyappan; George Edward Gnana Jothi

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii) were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS). Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%). Conclusions:From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  16. Simultaneous quantification of 50 bioactive compounds of the traditional Chinese medicine formula Gegen-Qinlian decoction using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Song, Wei; Qiao, Xue; Ji, Shuai; Kuang, Yi; Zhang, Zheng-Xiang; Bo, Tao; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

    2016-07-01

    The quality evaluation of patent drugs derived from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound formulas has been challenging due to their complex chemical composition. In this study, we developed a solution to evaluate the quality of Gegen-Qinlian Decoction (GQD), an ancient four-herb TCM formula for the treatment of diarrhea and diabetes, together with its derived patent drugs by simultaneously quantifying 50 bioactive compounds. The samples were extracted by 100% methanol (for hydrophobic compounds) and 50% methanol in water (for hydrophilic compounds), respectively, and were separated on a Waters Acquity charged surface hybrid C18 column (2.1×100mm, 1.7μm) eluted with gradients of acetonitrile and water containing 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 400μL/min. The analytes were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. The 50 compounds (including acidic and alkaline, hydrophilic and hydrophobic) were well resolved within 14min, and were determined using an internal standard method. The method was fully validated for precision, repeatability, and recovery. The limits of detection were 0.3-10.0ng/mL. Finally, this method was used to analyze 24 batches of GQD samples, including water decoction, pills, tablets, and oral solutions. Principal component analysis indicated significantly varied chemical compositions among these formulations. The tablets and pills contained higher concentrations of Scutellaria and Coptis compounds than the oral solutions, and the water decoction contained abundant glycosides and saponins. Moreover, the contents of flavanones and flavone O-glucuronides varied remarkably. This study provides a feasible solution for the comprehensive quality control of TCM patent drugs. PMID:27262372

  17. Production of the Bioactive Compounds Violacein and Indolmycin Is Conditional in a maeA Mutant of Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea S4054 Lacking the Malic Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen, Mariane S.; Delpin, Marina W.; Melchiorsen, Jette; Kilstrup, Mogens; Månsson, Maria; Bunk, Boyke; Spröer, Cathrin; Overmann, Jörg; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Gram, Lone

    2016-01-01

    It has previously been reported that some strains of the marine bacterium Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea produce the purple bioactive pigment violacein as well as the antibiotic compound indolmycin, hitherto only found in Streptomyces. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative role of each of these two compounds as antibacterial compounds in P. luteoviolacea S4054. Using Tn10 transposon mutagenesis, a mutant strain that was significantly reduced in violacein production in mannose-containing substrates was created. Full genome analyses revealed that the vio-biosynthetic gene cluster was not interrupted by the transposon; instead the insertion was located to the maeA gene encoding the malic enzyme. Supernatant of the mutant strain inhibited Vibrio anguillarum and Staphylococcus aureus in well diffusion assays and in MIC assays at the same level as the wild type strain. The mutant strain killed V. anguillarum in co-culture experiments as efficiently as the wild type. Using UHPLC-UV/Vis analyses, we quantified violacein and indolmycin, and the mutant strain only produced 7–10% the amount of violacein compared to the wild type strain. In contrast, the amount of indolmycin produced by the mutant strain was about 300% that of the wild type. Since inhibition of V. anguillarum and S. aureus by the mutant strain was similar to that of the wild type, it is concluded that violacein is not the major antibacterial compound in P. luteoviolacea. We furthermore propose that production of violacein and indolmycin may be metabolically linked and that yet unidentified antibacterial compound(s) may be play a role in the antibacterial activity of P. luteoviolacea.

  18. High content screening of a kinase-focused library reveals compounds broadly-active against dengue viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deu John M Cruz

    Full Text Available Dengue virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has a large impact in global health. It is considered as one of the medically important arboviruses, and developing a preventive or therapeutic solution remains a top priority in the medical and scientific community. Drug discovery programs for potential dengue antivirals have increased dramatically over the last decade, largely in part to the introduction of high-throughput assays. In this study, we have developed an image-based dengue high-throughput/high-content assay (HT/HCA using an innovative computer vision approach to screen a kinase-focused library for anti-dengue compounds. Using this dengue HT/HCA, we identified a group of compounds with a 4-(1-aminoethyl-N-methylthiazol-2-amine as a common core structure that inhibits dengue viral infection in a human liver-derived cell line (Huh-7.5 cells. Compounds CND1201, CND1203 and CND1243 exhibited strong antiviral activities against all four dengue serotypes. Plaque reduction and time-of-addition assays suggests that these compounds interfere with the late stage of viral infection cycle. These findings demonstrate that our image-based dengue HT/HCA is a reliable tool that can be used to screen various chemical libraries for potential dengue antiviral candidates.

  19. Use of ethyl lactate to extract bioactive compounds from Cytisus scoparius: Comparison of pressurized liquid extraction and medium scale ambient temperature systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lores, Marta; Pájaro, Marta; Álvarez-Casas, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge; García-Jares, Carmen

    2015-08-01

    An important trend in the extraction of chemical compounds is the application of new environmentally friendly, food grade solvents. Ethyl lactate (ethyl 2-hydroxypropanoate), produced by fermentation of carbohydrates, is miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds being a potentially good solvent for bioactive compounds. Despite its relatively wide use as a general solvent, the utilization of ethyl lactate as an extraction solvent has only recently been considered. Here, we evaluate the possible use of ethyl lactate to extract phenolic compounds from wild plants belonging to Cytisus scoparius, and we compare the characteristics of the extracts obtained by Pressurized Solvent Extraction (the total phenolics content, the antioxidant activity and the concentration of the major polyphenols) with those of other extracts obtained with methanol. In order to explore the industrial production of the ethyl lactate Cytisus extract, we also evaluate medium scale ambient temperature setups. The whole plant and the different parts (flowers, branches, and seed pods) were evaluated separately as potential sources of polyphenols. All extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for accurate identification of the major polyphenols. Similar phenolic profiles were obtained when using ethyl lactate or methanol. The main bioactives found in the Cytisus extract were the non-flavonoid phenolic compounds caffeic and protocatechuic acids and 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde; the flavonoids rutin, kaempferol and quercetin; the flavones chrysin, orientin and apigenin; and the alkaloid lupanine. Regarding the comparison of the extraction systems, although the performance of the PLE was much better than that of the ambient-temperature columns, the energy consumption was also much higher. Ethyl lactate has resulted an efficient extraction solvent for polyphenols from C. scoparius, yielding extracts with high levels of plant phenolics and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of these

  20. Bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. and their semi-synthetic derivatives as promising anti-Helicobacter pylori, anti-malarial and anti-leishmanial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Monte, Celeste; Bizzarri, Bruna; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Carradori, Simone; Mollica, Adriano; Luisi, Grazia; Granese, Arianna; Alcaro, Stefano; Costa, Giosuè; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Scaltrito, Maria Maddalena; Masia, Carla; Sisto, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Crocus sativus L. is known in herbal medicine for the various pharmacological effects of its components, but no data are found in literature about its biological properties toward Helicobacter pylori, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. In this work, the potential anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects of crocin and safranal, two important bioactive components in C. sativus, were explored, and also some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal were tested in order to establish which modifications in the chemical structure could improve the biological activity. According to our promising results, we virtually screened our compounds by means of molecular modeling studies against the main H. pylori enzymes in order to unravel their putative mechanism of action.

  1. Novel insights into appropriate encapsulation methods for bioactive compounds into polymers: a study with peptides and HDAC inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Dorle; Schubert, Stephanie; Dargatz, Harald; Kostenis, Evi; Fahr, Alfred; Schubert, Ulrich S; Heinzel, Thorsten; Imhof, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The use of different nanoparticles (NPs) for successful encapsulation of bioactive substances is discussed. The inclusion efficiency into liposomes, acetalated dextran (Ac-Dex), and variants of poly[(lactic acid)-co-(glycolic acid)] (PLGA) NPs is analyzed after chemical degradation. Efficient inclusion of SIRT1 inhibitor Ex527 in liposomes, Ac-Dex- and PLGA-NPs is observed for all procedures used. Activity of Ex527 is demonstrated by monitoring the acetylation status of SIRT1-target p53. In contrast, small peptides are only incorporated into acid-terminated PLGA-NPs and marginally into Ac-Dex-NPs. The yield depends on peptide sequence and terminal modifications. Activity is exemplified for angiotensin II using the dynamic mass redistribution technology.

  2. Measurement of volatile organic compounds emitted in libraries and archives: an inferential indicator of paper decay?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lorraine T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A sampling campaign of indoor air was conducted to assess the typical concentration of indoor air pollutants in 8 National Libraries and Archives across the U.K. and Ireland. At each site, two locations were chosen that contained various objects in the collection (paper, parchment, microfilm, photographic material etc. and one location was chosen to act as a sampling reference location (placed in a corridor or entrance hallway. Results Of the locations surveyed, no measurable levels of sulfur dioxide were detected and low formaldehyde vapour (-3 was measured throughout. Acetic and formic acids were measured in all locations with, for the most part, higher acetic acid levels in areas with objects compared to reference locations. A large variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was measured in all locations, in variable concentrations, however furfural was the only VOC to be identified consistently at higher concentration in locations with paper-based collections, compared to those locations without objects. To cross-reference the sampling data with VOCs emitted directly from books, further studies were conducted to assess emissions from paper using solid phase microextraction (SPME fibres and a newly developed method of analysis; collection of VOCs onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS elastomer strip. Conclusions In this study acetic acid and furfural levels were consistently higher in concentration when measured in locations which contained paper-based items. It is therefore suggested that both acetic acid and furfural (possibly also trimethylbenzenes, ethyltoluene, decane and camphor may be present in the indoor atmosphere as a result of cellulose degradation and together may act as an inferential non-invasive marker for the deterioration of paper. Direct VOC sampling was successfully achieved using SPME fibres and analytes found in the indoor air were also identified as emissive by-products from paper. Finally a new non

  3. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind. PMID:27481299

  4. Comparison of Major Bioactive Compounds of the Caterpillar Medicinal Mushroom, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes), Fruiting Bodies Cultured on Wheat Substrate and Pupae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingmin; Guo, Suping; Huaijun, Yang; Bu, Ning; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the main bioactive compounds of the fruit bodies of Cordyceps militaris-such as adenosine, cordycepin, polysaccharides, mannitol, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and carotenoids-were cultivated on wheat and pupae, as well as sclerotium (the pupae portion) and sclerotium with fruiting bodies. The amounts of adenosine and polysaccharide in all the tested samples (except for the polysaccharides of sclerotium) are higher than the quality standards (adenosine ≥0.055% and polysaccharide ≥2.5%) determined by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China. As the most important bioactive compound in C. militaris, cordycepin is the highest in the fruiting bodies on pupae than in other samples, whereas it is the lowest in the sclerotium. The amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD were higher in the fruiting bodies on pupae than that in the fruiting bodies on wheat, whereas the amounts of adenosine, polysaccharides, and mannitol were higher in the fruiting bodies on wheat than in the fruiting bodies on pupae. There was no significant difference in the amounts of cordycepin, carotenoids, and SOD in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies and the fruiting bodies on wheat. The adenosine, polysaccharide, and mannitol contents in the sclerotium with fruiting bodies were significantly lower than those of the fruiting bodies on wheat. Overall, the results of this evaluation could not distinguish which is better: the fruiting bodies on pupae or those on wheat; each has its own merits. The fruiting bodies of C. militaris cultivated on both wheat and pupae are important candidates for medicinal and tonic use for the welfare of humankind.

  5. Novel Anti-Campylobacter Compounds Identified Using High Throughput Screening of a Pre-selected Enriched Small Molecules Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Drozd, Mary; Pina-Mimbela, Ruby; Xu, Xiulan; Helmy, Yosra A.; Antwi, Janet; Fuchs, James R.; Nislow, Corey; Templeton, Jillian; Blackall, Patrick J.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and infections can be fatal. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter spp. necessitates the development of new antimicrobials. We identified novel anti-Campylobacter small molecule inhibitors using a high throughput growth inhibition assay. To expedite screening, we made use of a “bioactive” library of 4182 compounds that we have previously shown to be active against diverse microbes. Screening for growth inhibition of Campylobacter jejuni, identified 781 compounds that were either bactericidal or bacteriostatic at a concentration of 200 μM. Seventy nine of the bactericidal compounds were prioritized for secondary screening based on their physico-chemical properties. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration against a diverse range of C. jejuni and a lack of effect on gut microbes, we selected 12 compounds. No resistance was observed to any of these 12 lead compounds when C. jejuni was cultured with lethal or sub-lethal concentrations suggesting that C. jejuni is less likely to develop resistance to these compounds. Top 12 compounds also possessed low cytotoxicity to human intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 cells) and no hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Next, these 12 compounds were evaluated for ability to clear C. jejuni in vitro. A total of 10 compounds had an anti-C. jejuni effect in Caco-2 cells with some effective even at 25 μM concentrations. These novel 12 compounds belong to five established antimicrobial chemical classes; piperazines, aryl amines, piperidines, sulfonamide, and pyridazinone. Exploitation of analogs of these chemical classes may provide Campylobacter specific drugs that can be applied in both human and animal medicine. PMID:27092106

  6. Pilot-scale culture of Hypericum perforatum L. adventitious roots in airlift bioreactors for the production of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xi-Hua; Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's Wort) is an important medicinal plant which is widely used in the treatment for depression and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also used as a dietary supplement. Major bioactive phytochemicals of H. perforatum are phenolics and flavonoids. Quality of these phytochemicals is dramatically influenced by environmental and biological factors in the field grown plants. As an alternative, we have developed adventitious root cultures in large-scale bioreactors for the production of useful phytochemicals. Adventitious roots of H. perforatum were cultured in 500 l pilot-scale airlift bioreactors using half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with an ammonium and nitrate ratio of 5:25 mM and supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) indole butyric acid, 0.1 mg l(-1) kinetin, and 3 % sucrose for the production of bioactive phenolics and flavonoids. Then 4.6 and 6.3 kg dry biomass were realized in the 500 l each of drum-type and balloon-type bioreactors, respectively. Accumulation of 66.9 mg g(-1) DW of total phenolics, 48.6 mg g(-1) DW of total flavonoids, 1.3 mg g(-1) DW of chlorogenic acid, 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of hyperin, 0.04 mg g(-1) DW of hypericin, and 0.01 mg g(-1) DW of quercetin could be achieved with adventitious roots cultured in 500 l balloon-type airlift bioreactors. Our findings demonstrate the possibilities of using H. perforatum adventitious root cultures for the production of useful phytochemicals to meet the demand of pharmaceutical and food industry.

  7. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Alicia M; Vásquez, A Marina; Padilla, Fanny C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and some bioactive compounds in the peel's flour of some of the most consumed citrus fruits cultivated in Venezuela. Chemical composition as well as some trace elements, ascorbic acid, carotenoids dietary fiber, total polyphenols and their antiradical efficiency, using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhidracyl (DPPH) were assessed in the dried peels of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and white grapefruit (Citrus paradisi). Moisture, fat, protein and ash content for all samples showed statistical differences (p peel showed the highest magnesium and carotenoid content, while highest ascorbic acid and carotenoid content was found in the grapefruit's peel. Dietary fiber content presented significant high value in the tangerine peel. All samples presented high content of extractable polyphenols (4.33; 7.6 and 5.1 g/100g). The highest antiradical efficiency was shown by the tangerine's peel, value which correlates with the polyphenol content. These results suggest that tangerine peel should be the most suitable, to reduce risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular and some associated to lipid oxidation. Studied samples are good sources of dietary fiber and phenolic compounds, whose use could be useful in the formulation of functional foods, taking advantage of the presence of dietary fiber and antioxidant compounds in only one ingredient. PMID:16454058

  8. Bioactive compounds of fourth generation gamma-irradiated Typhoniumflagelliforme Lodd. mutants based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sianipar, N. F.; Purnamaningsih, R.; Rosaria

    2016-08-01

    Rodent tuber (Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd.) is an Indonesian anticancer medicinal plant. The natural genetic diversity of rodent tuber is low due to vegetative propagation. Plant's genetic diversity has to be increased for obtaining clones which contain a high amount of anticancer compounds. In vitro calli were irradiated with 6 Gy of gamma ray to produce in vitro mutant plantlets. Mutant plantlets were acclimated and propagated in a greenhouse. This research was aimed to identify the chemical compounds in the leaves and tubers ofthe fourth generation of rodent tuber's vegetative mutant clones (MV4) and control plantsby using GC- MS method. Leaves and tubers of MV4 each contained 2 and 5 anticancer compounds which quantities were higher compared to control plants. MV4 leaves contained 5 new anticancer compounds while its tubers contained 3 new anticancer compounds which were not found in control. The new anticancer compounds in leaves were hexadecanoic acid, stigmast-5-en-3-ol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, farnesol isomer a, and oleic acid while the new anticancer compounds in tubers were alpha tocopherol, ergost-5-en-3-ol, and beta-elemene. Rodent tuber mutant clones are very potential to be developed into anticancer drugs.

  9. Anti-nociceptive Activity of Ethnomedicinally Important Analgesic Plant Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth: Mechanistic Study and Identifications of Bioactive Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Anwar; Ahmad, Sajjad; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Isodon rugosus Wall. ex Benth. is extensively used as traditional medicine for the management of various types of pain including tooth ache, gastric pain, abdominal pain, ear ache, and generalized body pain. The current study is designed to scientifically verify the purported uses of I. rugosus as analgesic agent and to figure out its possible mechanism of action. Bioactive compounds responsible for analgesic activity were identified using GC and GC-MS analysis. Analgesic potentials were evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate test, and formalin induced paw licking test. In acetic acid induced writhing chloroform fraction (Ir.Chf) exhibited 53% analgesia while formalin test displayed 61% inhibition at phase-I and 45% at phase-II respectively at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Similarly, in hot plate test Ir.Chf displayed average reaction time of 7 min at 15, 30, 45, and 60 min intervals. The possible mechanism of action was found to be the central pathway via opioidergic receptors as the mice showed morphine like analgesic activity at pre-administration of naloxone (opioid antagonist) in hot plate and formalin tests. In GC-MS analysis, 83 compounds were identified among which eight compounds including benzyl alcohol, sebacic acid, myristic acid, phytol, sugiol, Tocopherol, α-Amyrin, and stigmasterol were sorted out as previously reported analgesic compounds. Current study revealed that analgesic potential of I. rugosus can attributed to the presence of analgesic compounds. It may also be concluded that opioids receptors are involved in the analgesic mechanism of I. rugosus due to effective antagonism of nalaxone. PMID:27458379

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of bioactive compounds and various extracts obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.): a review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaiee, Somayeh; Moini, Sohrab; Hashemi, Maryam; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L. stigma), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. These properties are basically related to its crocins, picrocrocin and safranal contents which have all demonstrated health promoting properties. The present review article highlights the phytochemical constituents (phenolic and flavonoid compounds, degraded carotenoid compounds crocins and crocetin) that are important in a...

  11. Potential bioactive Schiff base compounds: Synthesis, characterization, X-ray structures, biological screenings and interaction with Salmon sperm DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Uddin, Noor; Ali, Saqib; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2013-12-01

    Three Schiff base compounds ofN‧-substituted benzohydrazide and sulfonohydrazide derivatives: N‧-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-4-tert-butyl- benzohydrazide (1), N‧-(5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-tert-butylbenzohydrazide (2) and N‧-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-4-methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide (3) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal analysis. The title compounds have been screened for their biological activities including, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, cytotoxic, enzymatic activities as well as interaction with SS-DNA which showed remarkable activities in each area of research. The DNA binding of the compounds 1-3 with SS-DNA has been carried out with absorption spectroscopy, which reveals the binding propensity towards SS-DNA via intercalation mode of interaction. The intercalative mode of interaction is also supported by viscometric results. The synthesized compounds were also found to be effective against alkaline phosphatase enzyme. They also show significant to good antimicrobial activity against six bacterial and five fungal strains. The MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) for antibacterial activity ranges from 1.95-500 μg/mL. Compounds 1-3 show cytotoxic activity comparable to the control. At higher conc. (100 μg/L) compound 3 shows 100% activity means that it has killed all brine shrimps. They were also found to be effective antioxidant of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and show almost comparable antioxidant activity to that of the standard and known antioxidant, ascorbic acid.

  12. LAS ANTOCIANINAS COMO COLORANTES NATURALES Y COMPUESTOS BIOACTIVOS: REVISIÓN Anthocyanins As Natural Colorants And Bioactive Compounds: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA ASTRID GARZÓN

    Full Text Available En la actualidad existe una demanda considerable de colorantes naturales alternativos a los colorantes sintéticos, como el rojo No. 40, debido a su toxicidad en alimentos, cosméticos y productos farmacéuticos. Las antocianinas son pigmentos vegetales con gran potencial para el reemplazo competitivo de colorantes sintéticos; por tanto es de gran importancia conocer los aspectos bioquímicos que enmarcan estos pigmentos. El objetivo de esta revisión es ofrecer un esquema actualizado sobre el potencial de las antocianinas como colorantes de origen natural, y de sus propiedades químicas y bioactivas. Las antocianinas son pigmentos responsables de la gama de colores que abarcan desde el rojo hasta el azul de muchas frutas, vegetales y cereales. El interés en estos pigmentos se ha intensificado gracias a sus posibles efectos terapéuticos y benéficos, dentro de los cuales se encuentran la reducción de la enfermedad coronaria, los efectos anticancerígenos, antitumorales, antiinflamatorios y antidiabéticos; además del mejoramiento de la agudeza visual y del comportamiento cognitivo. Las propiedades bioactivas de las antocianinas abren una nueva perspectiva para la obtención de productos coloreados con valor agregado para el consumo humano.At present there is a considerable demand for natural colorants to replace synthetic ones such red No. 40 due to their toxicity when added to food products, pharmaceuticals or cosmetics. Anthocyanins are vegetable pigments with high potential for replacement of synthetic dyes. Consequently, it is important to know the biochemical aspects that characterize these pigments. The objective of this review is to offer an updated overview of the potential of anthocyanins as natural colorants and their chemical and bioactive properties. Anthocyanins are pigments responsible for colors varying between red and purple in many fruits, vegetables and cereals. Interest in these pigments has intensified due not only to

  13. Comparison of the levels of bioactive benzoxazinoids in different wheat and rye fractions and the transformation of these compounds in homemade foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwir, Fariha; Fredholm, Maria; Gregersen, Per L; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2013-11-01

    Benzoxazinoids are important phytochemicals found in wheat and rye that are associated with plant resistance against pathogens, and recent studies have emphasized the potential health-promoting role of these compounds i.e. anti-cancer, anti-allergy and anti-inflammation. Accordingly, an understanding of their distribution in seeds and the effect of different processing techniques on their transformation will be helpful in identifying the mechanisms of their production and distribution and will support the on-going efforts to utilize these compounds in health-promoting food products. The analysis of seed fractions obtained from the milling of wheat and rye showed significantly higher concentrations of these bioactive compounds in the germ than in the other fractions, i.e. the bran and endosperm. Di-hexoses of 2,4-dihydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA-glc-hexose) and 2-hydroxy-1, 4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA-glc-hexose) were the predominant compounds found in the different wheat and rye seed fractions followed by DIBOA-glc and DIBOA. The soaking and boiling of three rye-based breakfast cereals resulted in considerable changes in the benzoxazinoid contents. The soaking of pearled rye promoted the conversion of DIBOA-glc-hexose into DIBOA-glc. When these cereals were boiled, the increase in the DIBOA-glc content was much lower than that observed for soaking. For rye flakes, the pattern of these benzoxazinoids was different from that in pearled rye seeds. A considerable amount of the benzoxazinoids was also leached into the water during soaking or boiling. This study contributes to the understanding of the underlying processes involved in the biochemical changes of benzoxazinoids and will be the basis for future studies on other food-processing techniques. PMID:23768378

  14. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and HPLC Determination of Bioactive Compound That Relate to the Antiplatelet Activity (Adhesion, Secretion, and Aggregation from Solanum lycopersicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In seeking the functionality of foodstuff applicable to medicine, ripe tomato fruits were found to show an antiplatelet activity. Therefore, the bioactive compound was isolated, structurally identified, and studied for an inhibitory effects on platelet adhesion, secretion, and aggregation. The concentration of adenosine in ripe tomato fruits (pulp and skin extracts and its processing by-products (paste and pomace was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. According to platelet aggregation inhibition induced by ADP, the total extract residual was fractionated by liquid-liquid separation, obtaining aqueous, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts. The aqueous extract was subjected to repeated permeation over sephadex LH-20 and semipreparative TLC. The isolate finally obtained was identified as adenosine on the basis of ESI-MS, 1H NMR, HPLC, and UV spectra. Adenosine concentration dependently (2.3–457 μM platelet aggregation inhibited induced by ADP. Also, adenosine present inhibition of platelet secretion and thrombus formation under flow conditions. The quantitative HPLC analysis revealed significant amounts of adenosine in ripe tomato fruits and its processing by-products. From these results, extracts/fractions of ripe tomato fruits and their processing by-products may be referred to as functional food and functional ingredients containing a compound that inhibits platelet function with a potent preventive effect on thrombus formation, as those that occur in stroke.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts from Atacama Desert fungi against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and identification of Aspergillus felis as a promising source of natural bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Graziele; Gonçalves, Vívian N; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Kohlhoff, Markus; Rosa, Carlos A; Zani, Carlos L; Cota, Betania B; Rosa, Luiz H; Johann, Susana

    2016-03-01

    Fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides are responsible for paracoccidioidomycosis. The occurrence of drug toxicity and relapse in this disease justify the development of new antifungal agents. Compounds extracted from fungal extract have showing antifungal activity. Extracts of 78 fungi isolated from rocks of the Atacama Desert were tested in a microdilution assay against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. Approximately 18% (5) of the extracts showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ≤ 125.0 µg/mL. Among these, extract from the fungus UFMGCB 8030 demonstrated the best results, with an MIC of 15.6 µg/mL. This isolate was identified as Aspergillus felis (by macro and micromorphologies, and internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and ribosomal polymerase II gene analyses) and was grown in five different culture media and extracted with various solvents to optimise its antifungal activity. Potato dextrose agar culture and dichloromethane extraction resulted in an MIC of 1.9 µg/mL against P. brasiliensis and did not show cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested in normal mammalian cell (Vero). This extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation using analytical C18RP-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and an antifungal assay using P. brasiliensis. Analysis of the active fractions by HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry allowed us to identify the antifungal agents present in the A. felis extracts cytochalasins. These results reveal the potential of A. felis as a producer of bioactive compounds with antifungal activity. PMID:27008375

  16. Structural elucidation of novel bioactive compound (2-chloro-1-(2-chlorocyclopropyl-2-(4-nitrophenylethanone from basidiomycetous fungus Lentinus squarrosulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha N.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While screening for bioactive compounds from macrofungi of Western Ghats of Karnataka, Lentinus squarrosulus a member of polyporaceae was collected and mycelium of the fungus was obtained on potato dextrose agar medium and cultured in a liquid medium (containing 2% glucose, 1% peptone and 2% yeast extract for 20 days on a rotary shaker for the production of secondary metabolites. The cell free culture fluid (100ml was subjected to solvent extraction with dichloromethane (100ml and the extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity by agar diffusion method and cytotoxic activity of the extract was also determined by MTT and SRB assay on MCF7 cell line. The results revealed that the dichloromethane extract was inhibitory against Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilus and also fungi such as Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani and Trichoderma harzianum. The extract showed 13-27% cell inhibition at 63-1000 µg/ml concentration by MTT and SRB assays on MCF7 cell line. The structural elucidation of the compound by spectroscopic NMR (1H and C13, IR and mass spectrometric analysis confirmed the presence of 2-chloro-1-(2-chlorocyclopropyl-2-(4-nitrophenylethanone responsible for antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.

  17. African eggplant (Solanum anguivi Lam.) fruit with bioactive polyphenolic compounds exerts in vitro antioxidant properties and inhibits Ca2+-induced mitochondrial swelling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olusola Olalekan Elekofehinti; Jean Paul Kamdem; Aline Augusti Bolingon; Margareth Linde Athayde; Seeger Rodrigo Lopes; Emily Pansera Waczuk; Ige Joseph Kade; Isaac Gbadura Adanlawo; Joao Batista Teixeira Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of Solanum anguivi fruit (SAG) and its possible effect on mitochondrial permeability transition pore as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) isolated from rat liver. Methods: Antioxidant activity of SAG was assayed by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power, iron chelation and ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation in both liver and brain homogenate of rats. Also, the effect of SAG on mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were determined. Identification and quantification of bioactive polyphenolics was done by HPLC-DAD. Results: SAG exhibited potent and concentration dependent free radical-scavenging activity (IC50/DPPH=275.03±7.8 µg/mL). Reductive and iron chelation abilities also increase with increase in SAG concentration. SAG also inhibited peroxidation of cerebral and hepatic lipids subjected to iron oxidative assault. SAG protected against Ca2+ (110 µmol/L)-induced mitochondrial swelling and maintained theΔΨm. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid [(17.54±0.04) mg/g], chlorogenic acid (21.90±0.02 mg/g), caffeic acid (16.64±0.01 mg/g), rutin [(14.71±0.03) mg/g] and quercetin [(7.39±0.05) mg/g]. Conclusions:These effects could be attributed to the bioactive polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. Our results suggest that SAG extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants that may be used not only in pharmaceutical and food industry but also in the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  18. Characterization of bioactive compounds in Tunisian bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) peel and juice and determination of their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri Karoui, Iness; Marzouk, Brahim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus aurantium peel and juice aroma compounds were investigated by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), whereas phenolic compounds analysis was performed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Limonene was the major volatile compound of bitter orange peel (90.25%) and juice (91.61%). HPLC analysis of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts indicated that phenolic acids constitute their main phenolic class representing 73.80% and 71.25%, respectively, followed by flavonoids (23.02% and 23.13%, resp.). p-Coumaric and ferulic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds representing 24.68% and 23.79%, respectively, in the peel, while the juice contained 18.02% and 19.04%, respectively. The antioxidant activities of bitter orange peel and juice methanolic extracts have been evaluated using four in vitro assays, and the results were compared with the standard antioxidants (BHT, BHA, and ascorbic acid). Our findings demonstrated that Citrus aurantium peel and juice possess antioxidant activities which were less effective than those of antioxidant standards. Both extracts may be suggested as a new potential source of natural antioxidant.

  19. Rescuing compound bioactivity in a secondary cell-based screening by using γ-cyclodextrin as a molecular carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claveria-Gimeno R

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Claveria-Gimeno,1–3 Sonia Vega,3 Valeria Grazu,4 Jesús M de la Fuente,4–6 Angel Lanas,2,8–10 Adrian Velazquez-Campoy,2,3,7 Olga Abian1–3,8 1Instituto Aragonés de Ciencias de la Salud (IACS, Zaragoza, Spain; 2IIS Aragón, Zaragoza, Spain; 3Institute of Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI, Joint Unit IQFR-CSIC-BIFI, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 4Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 5Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 6Institute NanoBiomedicine and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 7Fundacion ARAID, Government of Aragon, Spain; 8Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd, Barcelona, Spain; 9Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Hospital Clínico Universitario Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain; 10Department of Medicine, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain Abstract: In vitro primary screening for identifying bioactive compounds (inhibitors, activators or pharmacological chaperones against a protein target results in the discovery of lead compounds that must be tested in cell-based efficacy secondary screenings. Very often lead compounds do not succeed because of an apparent low potency in cell assays, despite an excellent performance in primary screening. Primary and secondary screenings differ significantly according to the conditions and challenges the compounds must overcome in order to interact with their intended target. Cellular internalization and intracellular metabolism are some of the difficulties the compounds must confront and different strategies can be envisaged for minimizing that problem. Using a novel screening procedure we have identified 15 compounds inhibiting the hepatitis C NS3 protease in an allosteric fashion. After characterizing biophysically the interaction

  20. Compostos bioativos em café integral e descafeinado e qualidade sensorial da bebida Bioactive compounds in whole and decaffeinated coffee and sensorial quality of the beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andrade Abrahão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a qualidade sensorial de café (Coffea arabica descafeinado e integral, os níveis de compostos bioativos, antes e após a torração, e a estabilidade destes após a extração da bebida. A análise sensorial foi realizada por meio do método oficial brasileiro de classificação do café. As análises de cafeína, trigonelina e ácido clorogênico foram realizadas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em parcelas subdivididas com quatro tipos de café, cinco tempos de análise e três repetições. Na análise sensorial, foi observado que as características sensoriais, presentes na amostra integral, foram perdidas após o processo de descafeinação. Na variável concentração de trigonelina, não houve diferença significativa entre as amostras integrais e descafeinadas. As concentrações para as amostras de café descafeinado verde e integral torrado não foram alteradas após 4 horas de extração. Houve redução significativa na concentração do ácido clorogênico após a torração, após o processo de descafeinação, e com o decorrer do tempo de extração. Quanto à cafeína, não houve diferença significativa após a torração e nem com o passar do tempo após a extração. A descafeinação e a torração afetaram a qualidade sensorial do café e alteraram a concentração dos compostos bioativos.The aims of this study were to determine the sensorial quality of both decaffeinated and whole coffee (Coffea arabica, the levels of bioactive compounds, before and after toasting, and bioactive compound stability after beverage extraction. The sensorial analysis was accomplished according to the official Brazilian method for coffee classification. The analyses of caffeine, trigonelline and chlorogenic acid were performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The experimental design was completely randomized with split plot

  1. Simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in Jaeumganghwa-tang by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Ra Yun; Jin Bae Weon; Jiwoo Lee; Min Rye Eom; Choong Je Ma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Jaeumganghwa-tang (JEGH) is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, nephritis and diabetes mellitus. Objective: A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds such as 5- hydroxymethylfurfural, mangiferin, paeoniflorin, nodakenin, naringin, hesperidin, decursinol, berberine, glycyrrhizin, atractylenolide III and decursin, in JEGH. Materials and M...

  2. Bioactive compounds of red grapes from Dão region (Portugal): Evaluation of phenolic and organic profile

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Rodrigues Silva; Mafalda Queiroz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To improve the knowledge on the metabolite profile of five red grapes from Dão region (Portugal), concerning to the phenolic characteristics (coloured and non-coloured phenolics) and organic acid composition. Methods: Five red grapes collected from Dão region were studied. The profiles of phenolic compounds and organic acids were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detector, respectivel...

  3. Effect-Directed Discovery of Bioactive Compounds Followed by Highly Targeted Characterization, Isolation and Identification, Exemplarily Shown for Solidago virgaurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Ott, Péter G; Häbe, Tim T; Darcsi, András; Böszörményi, Andrea; Alberti, Ágnes; Krüzselyi, Dániel; Csontos, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2016-08-16

    A nontargeted, effect-directed screening (bioprofiling) and a subsequent highly targeted characterization of antibacterial compounds from plant matrices is demonstrated on the example of Solidago virgaurea root extracts. The procedure comprises high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with six bacterial bioassays including two plant pathogens, a radical scavenging assay, an acetylcholinesterase assay as well as in situ and ex situ mass spectrometric analyses. In situ mass spectra were directly recorded from the adsorbent using the Direct Analysis in Real Time interface (HPTLC-DART-MS), whereas ex situ mass spectra were recorded using an elution head-based interface (HPTLC-ESI-MS). For further bioassay-guided isolation of the main antimicrobial compounds, flash chromatographic fractionation and semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatographic purification were used and nuclear magnetic resonance data allowed the identification of the unknown antimicrobial compounds as 2Z,8Z- and 2E,8Z-matricaria esters. The discovered antibacterial activity was confirmed and specified by a luminometric assay and as minimal inhibitory concentration in the liquid phase. PMID:27433973

  4. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09) and characterisation by FTIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; George Edward Gnana Jothi; Sakthivel Manikkam; Balamurugan Sadaiyappan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera,Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta), Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii), Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu) of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity.Methods:All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether) to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09) purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR.Results:The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11) cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78) cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05) cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25) cm and diethyl ether extract of S.wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11) cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii.Conclusions:Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweedS. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should be used for

  5. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should

  6. COMPARISON OF SIMCA PATTERN RECOGNITION & LIBRARY SEARCH IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUNDS FROM MASS SPECTRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMCA pattern recognition methods have been applied to mass spectral data from a target list of hazardous chemicals. cheme has been proposed for classification and identification of five classes of compounds including aromatics, chlorocarbons, bromocarbons, hydrocarbons, and poly...

  7. COMPARISON OF SIMCA PATTERN RECOGNITION AND LIBRARY SEARCH IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDOUS COMPOUNDS FROM MASS SPECTRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIMCA pattern recognition methods have been applied to mass spectral data from a target list of hazardous chemicals. cheme has been proposed for classification and identification of five classes of compounds including aromatics, chlorocarbons, bromocarbons, hydrocarbons, and poly...

  8. Simultaneous determination of 11 bioactive compounds in Jaeumganghwa-tang by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Ra Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Jaeumganghwa-tang (JEGH is a traditional Korean herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, nephritis and diabetes mellitus. Objective: A high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD method was developed for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds such as 5- hydroxymethylfurfural, mangiferin, paeoniflorin, nodakenin, naringin, hesperidin, decursinol, berberine, glycyrrhizin, atractylenolide III and decursin, in JEGH. Materials and Methods: The separation was conducted on Shishedo C 18 column with gradient elution of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid-acetonitrile. Detection of wavelength was set at 205, 250, 280 and 330 nm. Results: The developed analysis showed a good linearity (R2 >0.9997. The range of limit of detection and limit of quantification were observed from 0.04 to 0.43 and from 0.11 to 1.30, respectively. The intra- and inter-day test relative standard deviations (RSD were less than 3% and the accuracy was 95.98-108.44%. The recoveries were between 92.75% and 109.19% and RSD range of recoveries was measured from 0.52% to 2.78%. Conclusion: This HPLC-DAD method can be successfully applied for simultaneous determination of 11 major compounds in JEGH samples.

  9. The Herbal Drug Melampyrum pratense L. (Koch: Isolation and Identification of Its Bioactive Compounds Targeting Mediators of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vogl

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melampyrum pratense L. (Koch is used in traditional Austrian medicine for the treatment of different inflammation-related conditions. In this work, we show that the extracts of M. pratense stimulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- (PPARs-α and -γ that are well recognized for their anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, the extract inhibited the activation of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB and induction of its target genes interleukin-8 (IL-8 and E-selectin in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified several active flavonoids and iridoids including melampyroside and mussaenoside and the phenolic compound lunularin that were identified in this species for the first time. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were distinguished as the main components accountable for the anti-inflammatory properties. Apigenin and luteolin effectively inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α-induced NF-κB-mediated transactivation of a luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, the two compounds dose-dependently reduced IL-8 and E-selectin protein expression after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or TNF-α in endothelial cells (ECs. The iridoids melampyroside and mussaenoside prevented the elevation of E-selectin in LPS-stimulated ECs. Lunularin was found to reduce the protein levels of the proinflammatory mediators E-selectin and IL-8 in ECs in response to LPS. These data validate the ethnomedical use of M. pratense for the treatment of inflammatory conditions and point to the constituents accountable for its anti-inflammatory activity.

  10. Elicitation, an Effective Strategy for the Biotechnological Production of Bioactive High-Added Value Compounds in Plant Cell Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ramirez-Estrada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant in vitro cultures represent an attractive and cost-effective alternative to classical approaches to plant secondary metabolite (PSM production (the “Plant Cell Factory” concept. Among other advantages, they constitute the only sustainable and eco-friendly system to obtain complex chemical structures biosynthesized by rare or endangered plant species that resist domestication. For successful results, the biotechnological production of PSM requires an optimized system, for which elicitation has proved one of the most effective strategies. In plant cell cultures, an elicitor can be defined as a compound introduced in small concentrations to a living system to promote the biosynthesis of the target metabolite. Traditionally, elicitors have been classified in two types, abiotic or biotic, according to their chemical nature and exogenous or endogenous origin, and notably include yeast extract, methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, vanadyl sulphate and chitosan. In this review, we summarize the enhancing effects of elicitors on the production of high-added value plant compounds such as taxanes, ginsenosides, aryltetralin lignans and other types of polyphenols, focusing particularly on the use of a new generation of elicitors such as coronatine and cyclodextrins.

  11. Probing the bioactivity-relevant chemical space of robust reactions and common molecular building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenfeller, Markus; Eberle, Martin; Meier, Peter; Nieto-Oberhuber, Cristina; Altmann, Karl-Heinz; Schneider, Gisbert; Jacoby, Edgar; Renner, Steffen

    2012-05-25

    In the search for new bioactive compounds, there is a trend toward increasingly complex compound libraries aiming to target the demanding targets of the future. In contrast, medicinal chemistry and traditional library design rely mainly on a small set of highly established and robust reactions. Here, we probe a set of 58 such reactions for their ability to sample the chemical space of known bioactive molecules, and the potential to create new scaffolds. Combined with ~26,000 common available building blocks, the reactions retrieve around 9% of a scaffold-diverse set of compounds active on human target proteins covering all major pharmaceutical target classes. Almost 80% of generated scaffolds from virtual one-step synthesis products are not present in a large set of known bioactive molecules for human targets, indicating potential for new discoveries. The results suggest that established synthesis resources are well suited to cover the known bioactivity-relevant chemical space and that there are plenty of unexplored regions accessible by these reactions, possibly providing valuable "low-hanging fruit" for hit discovery. PMID:22512717

  12. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts. PMID:25232708

  13. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL.

  14. Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica as a Source of Bioactive Compounds for Nutrition, Health and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karym El-Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  15. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL. PMID:26387442

  16. Nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) as a source of bioactive compounds for nutrition, health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mostafa, Karym; El Kharrassi, Youssef; Badreddine, Asmaa; Andreoletti, Pierre; Vamecq, Joseph; El Kebbaj, M'Hammed Saïd; Latruffe, Norbert; Lizard, Gérard; Nasser, Boubker; Cherkaoui-Malki, Mustapha

    2014-09-17

    Opuntia ficus-indica, commonly referred to as prickly pear or nopal cactus, is a dicotyledonous angiosperm plant. It belongs to the Cactaceae family and is characterized by its remarkable adaptation to arid and semi-arid climates in tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. In the last decade, compelling evidence for the nutritional and health benefit potential of this cactus has been provided by academic scientists and private companies. Notably, its rich composition in polyphenols, vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids has been highlighted through the use of a large panel of extraction methods. The identified natural cactus compounds and derivatives were shown to be endowed with biologically relevant activities including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial and neuroprotective properties. The present review is aimed at stressing the major classes of cactus components and their medical interest through emphasis on some of their biological effects, particularly those having the most promising expected health benefit and therapeutic impacts.

  17. Characterization and stability studies of bioactive compounds and food matrices as evidence in support of health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrero, Carolina; Sáiz-Abajo, María-José

    2015-07-01

    The characterization and stability evaluation of food and food constituents (chemical active ingredient/microorganism) for which nutrition or health claims want to be requested are essential for the success of an application to EFSA. This work reviews the requirements that must be fulfilled for a full characterization of the active substance, comprising origin, elaboration, or extraction method, and chemical/microbiological composition, using validated analytical methods. The review focuses not only on establishing the specifications of the final active ingredient or food but also on ensuring homogeneity between batches. In addition, the article discusses the methodologies and conditions of the stability studies that need to be performed on food and food constituents to verify that the relevant compounds--chemical and microbiological active ingredients--will get to the consumer in the intended state and concentration to accomplish the claimed health effect over shelf life. PMID:26241010

  18. A comparative evaluation of biological activities and bioactive compounds of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Luísa; Laukaityte, Simona; Engelen, Aschwin H; Rodrigues, Maria João; Pereira, Hugo; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina; Barreira, Luísa; Rodríguez, Hortensia; Alberício, Fernando; Varela, João

    2016-01-01

    This work assessed the antioxidant potential, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and the in vitro cytotoxic activity of extracts of the seagrasses Zostera marina and Zostera noltei collected from southern Portugal. The total phenolic contents (TPCs), the rosmarinic acid (RA) concentration (HPLC/DAD) and the fatty acid (FA) profile (GC/MS) are also described. Z. marina had the highest TPC, radical scavenging activity against DPPH radicals and copper chelating activity. Z. noltei had metal chelation capacity to copper and iron ions. None of the species was able to inhibit AChE. Both seagrasses had high levels of polyunsaturated FAs. Z. marina significantly and selectively reduced the viability of tumorous neuronal cells. Z. noltei was highly toxic for the three cell lines tested and was selective against hepatocarcinoma cells at the concentration of 100 μg/mL. RA was the main compound identified in Z. marina, but not in Z. noltei.

  19. Characterization and stability studies of bioactive compounds and food matrices as evidence in support of health claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferrero, Carolina; Sáiz-Abajo, María-José

    2015-07-01

    The characterization and stability evaluation of food and food constituents (chemical active ingredient/microorganism) for which nutrition or health claims want to be requested are essential for the success of an application to EFSA. This work reviews the requirements that must be fulfilled for a full characterization of the active substance, comprising origin, elaboration, or extraction method, and chemical/microbiological composition, using validated analytical methods. The review focuses not only on establishing the specifications of the final active ingredient or food but also on ensuring homogeneity between batches. In addition, the article discusses the methodologies and conditions of the stability studies that need to be performed on food and food constituents to verify that the relevant compounds--chemical and microbiological active ingredients--will get to the consumer in the intended state and concentration to accomplish the claimed health effect over shelf life.

  20. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface. PMID:26964951

  1. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Carbone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates, bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols, HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH• and ABTS+• assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  2. Dehydrated olive-waste cake as a source of high value-added bioproduct: Drying kinetics, physicochemical properties, and bioactive compounds

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    Elsa Uribe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive (Olea europaea L. oil processing produces significant amount of waste that can be utilized for the production of high value-added ingredients for various industrial applications. In this work, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and quality indexes of the olive-waste cake during convective dehydration (40-90 °C were investigated. Results on effective moisture diffusivity, physicochemical parameters, fatty acid profile, total phenolic, flavonoid, and flavanol contents as well as antioxidant capacity are also reported. Most of the fatty acids increased their content with respect to control sample with a temperature increase, i.e. oleic and linoleic acids increased 48% and 43% at 70 and 40 °C, respectively. Total flavanol content increased with temperature (48-62 mg catechin equivalents [CTE] 100 g-1 DM except for 80 °C. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were highly correlated to antioxidant capacity (0.923 < r < 0.992, except for 70 and 80 °C, the rest of the samples maintained their initial antioxidant capacity by ORAC analysis. Thus, these parameters show that dried olive-waste cake has a high bioactive compounds with potential use as additives for the food or other industries.

  3. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  4. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  5. The effects of pre-harvest application of aminoethoxyvinylglycine on the bioactive compounds and fruit quality of 'Fortune' plum variety during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Sedat; Ozturk, Burhan; Aksit, Huseyin; Erdogdu, Tugce

    2013-12-01

    The effects of pre-harvest aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments on fruit quality parameters and bioactive compounds of 'Fortune' plum during cold storage were investigated. Two different aminoethoxyvinylglycine doses were applied to plum trees two weeks prior to the estimated harvest date, and harvested fruit samples were kept in cold storage at 0 (°)C temperature and with 90 ± 5% relative humidity for 4 weeks. Lightness (L*) and hue angle values decreased in all treatments during cold storage. Weight loss (%) was significantly decreased (p 100 mg/L aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatment at the end of the storage. Fruit firmness at the end of the storage was significantly increased with aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments. Total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were increased with aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatments till the 21st day of storage and decreased by the 28th day. Total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were significantly decreased (p 100 mg/L aminoethoxyvinylglycine treatment at the end of cold storage. PMID:23382556

  6. Nutrient Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology for Simultaneous Biomass and Bioactive Compound Production by Lion's Mane Medicinal Mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (Agaricomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofosu, Fred K; Yu, Xiaobin; Wang, Qiang; Li, Hanguang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unpleasant side effects of long-term use of commercially available drugs, the discovery and development of natural therapeutic agents to prevent life-debilitating diseases is urgently needed. In the present study, the optimization of medium composition for maximum mycelial biomass and bioactive compounds production by Hericium erinaceus was studied using response surface methodology based on a central composite design. Under the optimal conditions and at a pH of 5.41 ± 0.28, the maximum mycelial biomass and exopolysaccharide production reached 25.0 ± 1.38 g/L and 1.73 ± 0.06 g/L, respectively, compared with 22.65 ± 0.10 g/L and 1.56 ± 0.23 g/L in the basal medium, after 7 days of cultivation. Furthermore, we report for the first time the production of adenosine, both intra- and extracellularly in submerged cultures of H. erinaceus. Although most of the adenosine detected existed in the culture medium, the highest intracellular and extracellular adenosine concentrations of 150.84 ± 1.87 mg/L and 142.48 ± 3.78 mg/L were achieved after 7 and 6 days of cultivation, respectively. PMID:27481155

  7. Estimation of Bioactive Compound, Maslinic Acid by HPTLC, and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Activity on Fruit Pulp of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Cultivars in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagha Rajopadhye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (family: Rhamnaceae, known as Indian jujube or “Ber,” are of potential nutritional and medicinal value. The objectives of the present study were to estimate bioactive compound maslinic acid by HPTLC method and to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of eight cultivars of Indian jujube. Maslinic acid and the fruit pulp of various cultivars of Indian jujube, namely, Gola, Sannur, Umaran, Mehrun, and Chhuhara, exhibited significantly high antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity. HPTLC-densitometric method was developed for quantification of maslinic acid from fruits of Indian jujube cultivars. The trend of occurrence of maslinic acid in fruits pulp extracts was as follows: Gola > Sannur > Umaran > Mehrun > Chhuhara > Wild > Kadaka > Apple. A significant correlation was shown by maslinic acid content and prevention of oxidative stress induced by CCl4 in liver slice culture cell treated with extract. Maslinic acid along with its other phytoconstituents like phenols, flavonoids, and ascorbic acid may act as a possible therapeutic agent for preventing hepatotoxicity caused by oxidative stress generated due to the prooxidants like CCl4. This is the first report of fruit pulp extracts of Z. jujube cultivars in India and maslinic acid preventing CCl4 induced damage in liver slice culture cell of mice.

  8. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  9. Direct Phenotypic Screening in Mice: Identification of Individual, Novel Antinociceptive Compounds from a Library of 734,821 Pyrrolidine Bis-piperazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghten, Richard A; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P; Dooley, Colette T; Eans, Shainnel O; Santos, Radleigh G; LaVoi, Travis; Nefzi, Adel; Welmaker, Greg; Giulianotti, Marc A; Toll, Lawrence

    2016-01-11

    The hypothesis in the current study is that the simultaneous direct in vivo testing of thousands to millions of systematically arranged mixture-based libraries will facilitate the identification of enhanced individual compounds. Individual compounds identified from such libraries may have increased specificity and decreased side effects early in the discovery phase. Testing began by screening ten diverse scaffolds as single mixtures (ranging from 17,340 to 4,879,681 compounds) for analgesia directly in the mouse tail withdrawal model. The "all X" mixture representing the library TPI-1954 was found to produce significant antinociception and lacked respiratory depression and hyperlocomotor effects using the Comprehensive Laboratory Animal Monitoring System (CLAMS). The TPI-1954 library is a pyrrolidine bis-piperazine and totals 738,192 compounds. This library has 26 functionalities at the first three positions of diversity made up of 28,392 compounds each (26 × 26 × 42) and 42 functionalities at the fourth made up of 19,915 compounds each (26 × 26 × 26). The 120 resulting mixtures representing each of the variable four positions were screened directly in vivo in the mouse 55 °C warm-water tail-withdrawal assay (ip administration). The 120 samples were then ranked in terms of their antinociceptive activity. The synthesis of 54 individual compounds was then carried out. Nine of the individual compounds produced dose-dependent antinociception equivalent to morphine. In practical terms what this means is that one would not expect multiexponential increases in activity as we move from the all-X mixture, to the positional scanning libraries, to the individual compounds. Actually because of the systematic formatting one would typically anticipate steady increases in activity as the complexity of the mixtures is reduced. This is in fact what we see in the current study. One of the final individual compounds identified, TPI 2213-17, lacked significant respiratory

  10. Activity Profile of an FDA-Approved Compound Library against Schistosoma mansoni.

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    Gordana Panic

    Full Text Available As plans to expand mass drug treatment campaigns to fight schistosomiasis form, worries about reliance on praziquantel as the sole available treatment motivate the investigation for novel antischistosomal compounds. Drug repurposing might be an inexpensive and effective source of novel antischistosomal leads.1600 FDA approved compounds were first assayed against Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula at a concentration of 10 µM. Active compounds identified from this screen were advanced to the adult worm screen at 33.33 µM, followed by hit characterization. Leads with complementary pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles were then selected for in vivo studies.The in vitro screen identified 121 and 36 compounds active against the schistosomula and adult stage, respectively. Further, in vitro characterization and comparison with already available pharmacokinetic and toxicity data identified 11 in vivo candidates. Doramectin (10 mg/kg and clofazimine (400 mg/kg were found to be active in vivo with worm burden reductions of 60.1% and 82.7%, respectively.The work presented here expands the knowledge of antischistosomal properties of already approved compounds and underscores variations observed between target-based and phenotypic approaches and among laboratories. The two in vivo-active drugs identified in this study, doramectin and clofazimine are widely available and present as novel drug classes as starting points for further investigation.

  11. Bioactive compounds of Eriocaulon sieboldianum blocking proliferation and inducing apoptosis of HepG2 cells might be involved in Aurora kinase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanhua; Lu, Hongyuan; Ma, Hongda; Feng, Fan; Hu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qiao; Wang, Jian; Xu, Yongnan; Zhao, Qingchun

    2015-12-01

    Eriocaulon sieboldianum (Sieb. & Zucc. ex Steud.) is an edible and medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine. Often in combination with other herbs, it is processed into healthcare beverages for expelling wind-heat, protecting eyes, and reducing blood lipids. Besides, its water decoction together with other herbs has been utilized to treat cancer in China. However, the active ingredients and the precise cellular mechanisms of E. sieboldianum remain to be elucidated. The Aurora kinase family plays critical roles in the regulation of cell division and has attracted great attention to the identification of small-molecule Aurora kinase inhibitors for potential treatment of cancer. A molecular docking study was employed for docking of the most bioactive compounds. Hispidulin (HPDL) and quercetin-3-O-(6''-O-galloyl)-β-D-galactopyranoside (QGGP) were singled out as potent inhibitors of Aurora kinase. Their inhibitory activity towards Aurora kinase was further confirmed by the obvious decrease in autophosphorylation of Aurora-A (Thr288) and Aurora-B (Thr232). Moreover, the induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells and the suppressed phosphorylation of histone H3 were also consistent with the inhibition of Aurora kinase. The data indicate that the E. sieboldianum extract and its two active compounds, HPDL and QGGP, could effectively induce apoptosis via p53, MAPKs and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. These findings could improve the understanding and enhance the development of drugs based on E. sieboldianum and raise its application value in anticancer therapy or prevention. In addition, our results indicated that Aurora kinase might be a novel target of HPDL and QGGP. PMID:26369427

  12. Bioactivity-guided isolation of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as active compounds in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez, Ana Laura; Moreno, Julia; González-Trujano, Ma Eva

    2007-09-01

    Tilia species have been used as anxiolytics for many years. In a previous study anxiolytic-like effects of a hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences were observed in experimental models in mice. To get additional insights into the neuroactive actions of this particular Tilia species, in this study we report a bioactivity guided-fractionation of the extract and separation by column chromatographic methods to isolate three fatty acids and a triterpene identified as beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Our results revealed that the crude extract at 10 and 30 mg/kg I. P. and some pooled fractions at the same dosages potentiated sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and caused a significant increase in the time spent at the open-arm sides in the plus-maze test. A reduction in the exploratory behavioral pattern manifested as ambulatory activity, as well as head dipping and rearing tests was also observed. Further fractionation and purification yielded four major fractions containing fatty acids and beta-sitosterol as the active compounds. A dose-response curve of beta-sitosterol in the range 1 to 30 mg/kg doses indicated that this compound produced an anxiolytic-like action from 1 to 10 mg/kg and a sedative response when the dose was increased to 30 mg/kg, these effects resemble those produced by diazepam (0.1 mg/kg). Our results suggest that hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana produces depressant actions on the central nervous system, at least in part, because of the presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids that remain to be identified.

  13. Gene-Set Local Hierarchical Clustering (GSLHC--A Gene Set-Based Approach for Characterizing Bioactive Compounds in Terms of Biological Functional Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiang Chung

    Full Text Available Gene-set-based analysis (GSA, which uses the relative importance of functional gene-sets, or molecular signatures, as units for analysis of genome-wide gene expression data, has exhibited major advantages with respect to greater accuracy, robustness, and biological relevance, over individual gene analysis (IGA, which uses log-ratios of individual genes for analysis. Yet IGA remains the dominant mode of analysis of gene expression data. The Connectivity Map (CMap, an extensive database on genomic profiles of effects of drugs and small molecules and widely used for studies related to repurposed drug discovery, has been mostly employed in IGA mode. Here, we constructed a GSA-based version of CMap, Gene-Set Connectivity Map (GSCMap, in which all the genomic profiles in CMap are converted, using gene-sets from the Molecular Signatures Database, to functional profiles. We showed that GSCMap essentially eliminated cell-type dependence, a weakness of CMap in IGA mode, and yielded significantly better performance on sample clustering and drug-target association. As a first application of GSCMap we constructed the platform Gene-Set Local Hierarchical Clustering (GSLHC for discovering insights on coordinated actions of biological functions and facilitating classification of heterogeneous subtypes on drug-driven responses. GSLHC was shown to tightly clustered drugs of known similar properties. We used GSLHC to identify the therapeutic properties and putative targets of 18 compounds of previously unknown characteristics listed in CMap, eight of which suggest anti-cancer activities. The GSLHC website http://cloudr.ncu.edu.tw/gslhc/ contains 1,857 local hierarchical clusters accessible by querying 555 of the 1,309 drugs and small molecules listed in CMap. We expect GSCMap and GSLHC to be widely useful in providing new insights in the biological effect of bioactive compounds, in drug repurposing, and in function-based classification of complex diseases.

  14. Gene-Set Local Hierarchical Clustering (GSLHC)--A Gene Set-Based Approach for Characterizing Bioactive Compounds in Terms of Biological Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Feng-Hsiang; Jin, Zhen-Hua; Hsu, Tzu-Ting; Hsu, Chueh-Lin; Liu, Hsueh-Chuan; Lee, Hoong-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Gene-set-based analysis (GSA), which uses the relative importance of functional gene-sets, or molecular signatures, as units for analysis of genome-wide gene expression data, has exhibited major advantages with respect to greater accuracy, robustness, and biological relevance, over individual gene analysis (IGA), which uses log-ratios of individual genes for analysis. Yet IGA remains the dominant mode of analysis of gene expression data. The Connectivity Map (CMap), an extensive database on genomic profiles of effects of drugs and small molecules and widely used for studies related to repurposed drug discovery, has been mostly employed in IGA mode. Here, we constructed a GSA-based version of CMap, Gene-Set Connectivity Map (GSCMap), in which all the genomic profiles in CMap are converted, using gene-sets from the Molecular Signatures Database, to functional profiles. We showed that GSCMap essentially eliminated cell-type dependence, a weakness of CMap in IGA mode, and yielded significantly better performance on sample clustering and drug-target association. As a first application of GSCMap we constructed the platform Gene-Set Local Hierarchical Clustering (GSLHC) for discovering insights on coordinated actions of biological functions and facilitating classification of heterogeneous subtypes on drug-driven responses. GSLHC was shown to tightly clustered drugs of known similar properties. We used GSLHC to identify the therapeutic properties and putative targets of 18 compounds of previously unknown characteristics listed in CMap, eight of which suggest anti-cancer activities. The GSLHC website http://cloudr.ncu.edu.tw/gslhc/ contains 1,857 local hierarchical clusters accessible by querying 555 of the 1,309 drugs and small molecules listed in CMap. We expect GSCMap and GSLHC to be widely useful in providing new insights in the biological effect of bioactive compounds, in drug repurposing, and in function-based classification of complex diseases. PMID:26473729

  15. Ozone-induced changes in the content of bioactive compounds and enzyme activity during storage of pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachadyn-Król, Monika; Materska, Małgorzata; Chilczuk, Barbara; Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Perucka, Irena; Jackowska, Izabella

    2016-11-15

    This paper presents for the first time the results of investigations concerning the effect of treatment of whole pepper fruits with gaseous ozone and the refrigeration storage period conditions on pepper quality. The effects are reflected in changes in the flavonoid contents, the antioxidant activity of the phenolic compound fraction and the enzymes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism. The investigations were carried out on a hot pepper fruit cultivar, Cyklon. It was found that the levels of a majority of flavonoids, in particular those of quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside-7-O-glucoside increased in the pericarp of fruits treated with ozone for 3h and stored for 20days (by 25% relative to the control). Simultaneously, reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity were noted, which implies slight degradation of enzymes caused by the ozone treatment and enhancement of the polyphenol oxidase and guaiacol oxidase activity involved in response to increased oxidative stress. PMID:27283607

  16. HPLC and GC-MS determination of bioactive compounds in microwave obtained extracts of three varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Ehsan; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2011-01-01

    Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS. PMID:21829154

  17. The application of bioactive compounds from the food industry to control mold growth in indoor waterborne coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, N; Salvatore, L; Deyá, C; Del Panno, M T; del Amo, B; Romagnoli, R

    2013-04-01

    Microbial growth in indoor environments creates health problems, especially in people with asthma; approximately 80% of these patients are allergic to mold. Antimicrobial coatings are formulated to generate surfaces that are easy to clean and may also incorporate active agents, commonly called biocides, which inhibit microbial colonization, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. Some research lines seek to replace traditional organometallic and organochlorines biocides with environmentally acceptable ones. The aim of this research was, primarily, to explore the possible application of different compounds used in food industry like preservatives to be used as antimicrobial additives for antimicrobial coatings. Four biocides were tested against two different ambient molds isolated from an interior painted wall (Chaetomium globosum and Alternaria alternate). The selected biocides were zinc salicylate, zinc benzoate, calcium benzoate and potassium sorbate. The resulting paints were subjected to biological and physical tests (viscosity, hiding power, humidity absorption and biocides leaching rate). Bioassays revealed that zinc benzoate and zinc salicylate resulted active against both fungi. PMID:23298599

  18. HPLC and GC-MS Determination of Bioactive Compounds in Microwave Obtained Extracts of Three Varieties of Labisia pumila Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Microwave extraction of phytochemicals from medicinal plant materials has generated tremendous research interest and shown great potential. This research highlights the importance of microwave extraction in the analysis of flavonoids, isoflavonoid and phenolics and the antioxidant properties of extracts from three varieties of the Malaysian medicinal herb, Labisia pumila Benth. High and fast extraction performance ability, equal or higher extraction efficiencies than other methods, and the need for small samples and reagent volumes are some of the attractive features of this new promising microwave assisted extraction (MAE technique. The aims of the present research were to determine the foliar phenolics and flavonoids contents of extracts of three varieties of L. pumila obtained by a microwave extraction method while flavonoid, isoflavonoid and phenolic compounds were analyzed using RP-HPLC. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were measured by the DPPH and FRAP methods and finally, the chemical composition of the crude methanolic extracts of the leaves of all three varieties were analyzed by GS-MS.

  19. Enhanced Production of Bioactive Isoprenoid Compounds from Cell Suspension Cultures of Artemisia annua L. Using β-Cyclodextrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Rizzello

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell cultures as valuable tools for the production of specific metabolites can be greatly improved by the application of elicitors including cyclodextrins (CDs for enhancing the yields of the desired plant compounds. Here the effects of 2,6-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrins (DIMEB on the production of carotenoids and quinones from Artemisia annua L. cell suspension cultures were investigated. The addition of 50 mM DIMEB induced an early increase of intracellular carotenoid and quinone contents, which could be observed to a higher extent for lutein (10-fold, Q9 (3-fold and Q10 (2.5-fold. Real Time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR gene in DIMEB treated cell cultures after three days was 2.5-fold higher than in untreated samples, thus suggesting that the DIMEB induced increase of carotenoids and quinones could be due to the induction of the plastidial isoprenoid biosynthetic route. In addition, the DIMEB treatment induced an enhanced release of carotenoids and quinones into the culture medium of A. annua cell suspension cultures possibly due to the ability of CDs to form inclusion complexes with hydrophobic molecules.

  20. Can bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. influence the metabolic activity of selected CYP enzymes in the rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovrtělová, G; Nosková, K; Juřica, J; Turjap, M; Zendulka, O

    2015-01-01

    Safranal and crocin are biologically active compounds isolated from Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron. Clinical trials confirm that saffron has antidepressant effect, thus being a potential valuable alternative in the treatment of depression. The aim of the present study was to determine, whether systemic administration of safranal and crocin can influence the metabolic activity of CYP3A, CYP2C11, CYP2B, and CYP2A in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The experiments were carried out on male Wistar albino rats intragastrically administered with safranal (4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day) or with intraperitoneal injections of crocin (4, 20, and 100 mg/kg/day). Our results demonstrate the ability of safranal and crocin to increase the total protein content and to change the metabolic activity of several CYP enzymes assessed as CYP specific hydroxylations of testosterone in RLM. Crocin significantly decreased the metabolic activity of all selected CYP enzymes, while safranal significantly increased the metabolic activity of CYP2B, CYP2C11 and CYP3A enzymes. Therefore, both substances could increase the risk of interactions with co-administered substances metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  1. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  2. Bioactivity of Essential Oil of Zingiber purpureum Rhizomes and Its Main Compounds against Two Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; You, C X; Yang, K; Wu, Y; Chen, R; Zhang, W J; Liu, Z L; Du, S S; Deng, Z W; Geng, Z F; Han, J

    2015-06-01

    The insecticidal and repellent activities of the essential oil extracted from Zingiber purpureum Roscoe rhizomes were evaluated against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (L.) adults. During our screening program for agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, the essential oil of Z. purpureum rhizomes was found to possess strong contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne adults, with LD50 values of 39.0 and 16.3 µg per adult, respectively, and also showed strong fumigant toxicity against the two grain storage insects with LC50 values of 13.6 and 9.3 mg/liter of air, respectively. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main components of the essential oil were identified to be sabinene (48.1%), terpinen-4-ol (25.1%), and γ-terpinene (6.7%), followed by α-terpinene (4.3%), β-thujene (3.4%), and α-phellandrene (2.7%). Sabinene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin-layer chromatography. Terpinen-4-ol showed the strongest contact toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne (LD50=19.7 and 5.4 µg per adult, respectively) and also the strongest fumigant toxicity against T. castaneum and L. serricorne (LC50=3.7 and 1.3 mg/liter of air, respectively). Otherwise, sabinene and terpinen-4-ol were strongly repellent against T. castaneum as well as the essential oil, while γ-terpinene exhibited weaker repellency against T. castaneum compared with the positive control, DEET (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). Moreover, only the essential oil exhibited strong repellency against L. serricorne, the three compounds exhibited weaker repellency against L. serricorne relative to DEET. PMID:26470212

  3. Molecular modeling methods in the study and design of bioactive compounds: An introduction [Métodos de Modelagem Molecular para estudo e planejamento de compostos bioativos: Uma introdução

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Mauricio R. Sant´Anna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the main methods used in molecular modeling calculations applied in the design of bioactive compounds. An introductory description of the two approaches methods predominantly used in molecular modeling studies is presented: the classical approach, which includes molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics; and the quantum mechanical approach, which includes ab initio and semi-empirical methods. We discuss how these methods can be applied to determine the ...

  4. Identification of novel compounds inhibiting chikungunya virus-induced cell death by high throughput screening of a kinase inhibitor library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deu John M Cruz

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness in humans accompanied by joint pains and in many cases, persistent arthralgia lasting weeks to years. The re-emergence of CHIKV has resulted in numerous outbreaks in the eastern hemisphere, and threatens to expand in the foreseeable future. Unfortunately, no effective treatment is currently available. The present study reports the use of resazurin in a cell-based high-throughput assay, and an image-based high-content assay to identify and characterize inhibitors of CHIKV-infection in vitro. CHIKV is a highly cytopathic virus that rapidly kills infected cells. Thus, cell viability of HuH-7 cells infected with CHIKV in the presence of compounds was determined by measuring metabolic reduction of resazurin to identify inhibitors of CHIKV-associated cell death. A kinase inhibitor library of 4,000 compounds was screened against CHIKV infection of HuH-7 cells using the resazurin reduction assay, and the cell toxicity was also measured in non-infected cells. Seventy-two compounds showing ≥50% inhibition property against CHIKV at 10 µM were selected as primary hits. Four compounds having a benzofuran core scaffold (CND0335, CND0364, CND0366 and CND0415, one pyrrolopyridine (CND0545 and one thiazol-carboxamide (CND3514 inhibited CHIKV-associated cell death in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values between 2.2 µM and 7.1 µM. Based on image analysis, these 6 hit compounds did not inhibit CHIKV replication in the host cell. However, CHIKV-infected cells manifested less prominent apoptotic blebs typical of CHIKV cytopathic effect compared with the control infection. Moreover, treatment with these compounds reduced viral titers in the medium of CHIKV-infected cells by up to 100-fold. In conclusion, this cell-based high-throughput screening assay using resazurin, combined with the image-based high content assay approach identified compounds against

  5. Molecular modeling methods in the study and design of bioactive compounds: An introduction [Métodos de Modelagem Molecular para estudo e planejamento de compostos bioativos: Uma introdução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mauricio R. Sant´Anna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an introduction to the main methods used in molecular modeling calculations applied in the design of bioactive compounds. An introductory description of the two approaches methods predominantly used in molecular modeling studies is presented: the classical approach, which includes molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics; and the quantum mechanical approach, which includes ab initio and semi-empirical methods. We discuss how these methods can be applied to determine the molecular structure and properties from these compounds and how to make the best choice according to the problem being addressed.

  6. 二叔丁基取代的苯酚类化合物的生物活性及研究进展%ADVANCES IN RESEARCH AND BIOACTIVITIES OF COMPOUNDS CONTAINNING DI-TERT-BUTYLPHENOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志斌; 郭宗儒

    2001-01-01

    @@ @@With the development of radical biology, it is noted that the free radicals, especially the oxygen free radical, have positive relationship with many diseas es. The synthetic compound 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT), a strong antioxidant, has been put into use in food[1] and cosmetics[2] as additives. It has been reported recently that many compounds containing di-t ert-butyl phenol groups have various bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities and treatment of atherosclerosis.

  7. In vitro activity of natural honey alone and in combination with curcuma starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in correlation with bioactive compounds and diastase activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moussa Ahmed; Noureddine Djebli; Saad Aissat; Baghdad Khiati; Abdelmalek Meslem; Salima Bacha

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the in vitro activity and synergism of the combinations of natural honey and curcuma starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in correlation with total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and diastase activity. Methods:The Folin-Ciocalteu test was used to determine the total polyphenols content and the flavonoid content was analyzed using by the aluminum chloride method. The antifungal activity of the natural honey, determined by an agar well diffusion assay and agar incorporation method. Results:Total phenolic content varied from (63.93±0.11) to (95.36±6.08) mg GAE/100 g honey as gallic acid equivalent. Total flavonoids content varied from (5.41±0.04) to (9.94±0.54) mg CE/100 g. Diastase activity values were between (7.3±2.8) and (26±2.8). The zone inhibition diameter for the six honey samples without starch ranged between 6 and 20 mm. When starch was mixed with honey and then added to well, a zone inhibition increase diameter 7 and 21 mm. The percentage increase was noticed with each variety and it ranged between 5% and 62.5%. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for the six varieties of honey without starch against Rhodotorula mucilaginosa ranged between 28%and 36%(v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a minimal inhibitory concentration drop has been noticed with each variety. It ranged between 6.66%and 20%(w/v). No significant correlation was established between diastase activity and bioactive compounds. Conclusions:The mixture of curcuma starch and honey could lead to the development of new combination antibiotics against Rhodotorula infections.

  8. Production of biomass and bioactive compounds from adventitious roots by optimization of culturing conditions of Eurycoma longifolia in balloon-type bubble bioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulu, Tao; Park, So-Young; Ibrahim, Rusli; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to optimize the conditions for the production of adventitious roots from Eurycoma longifolia Jack, an important medicinal woody plant, in bioreactor culture. The effects of the type and concentration of auxin on root growth were studied, as well as the effects of the NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio on adventitious root growth and the production of phenolics and flavonoids. Approximately 5 g L(-1) fresh weight of adventitious roots was inoculated into a 3 L balloon-type bubble bioreactor, which contained 2 L 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose and cultures were maintained in the dark for 7 weeks at 24 ± 1°C. Higher concentrations of IBA (7.0 and 9.0 mg L(-1)) and NAA (5.0 mg L(-1)) enhanced the biomass and accumulation of total phenolics and flavonoids. The adventitious roots were thin, numerous, and elongated in 3/4 MS medium supplemented with 5.0 and 7.0 mg L(-1) IBA, whereas the lateral roots were shorter and thicker with 5.0 mg L(-1) NAA compared with IBA treatment. The optimum biomasses of 50.22 g L(-1) fresh weight and 4.60 g L(-1) dry weight were obtained with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 15:30. High phenolic and flavonoid productions (38.59 and 11.27 mg L(-1) medium, respectively) were also obtained with a ratio of 15:30. Analysis of the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity indicated higher antioxidant activity with an NH4(+):NO3(-) ratio of 30:15. These results suggest that balloon-type bubble bioreactor cultures are suitable for the large-scale commercial production of E. longifolia adventitious roots which contain high yield of bioactive compounds.

  9. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  10. Bioactive compounds from Carissa opaca roots and xanthine oxidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions in different solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsha Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carissa opaca is known for its many ethnomedicinal uses. There was a need to study its bioactivities and identify its phytochemicals. Objective: The objective was to isolate and identify phytochemicals from roots of C. opaca and to evaluate xanthine oxidase (XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of their methanolic extract and its fractions. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of finely divided powder of roots of C. opaca was obtained by cold maceration, followed by its fractionation to obtain hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic, and aqueous fractions. Phytochemicals screening was done by standard protocols. XO and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of the methanolic extract and its fractions were studied. The most active ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to the column and thin layer chromatography to isolate its compounds, which were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography comparison. Results: Methanolic extract displayed significant activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 156.0 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Ethyl acetate fraction showed highest activity against both the enzymes with IC 50 of 129 mg/mL and 4.9 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Chloroform fraction had IC 50 of 154.2 mg/mL and 5.5 mg/mL for XO and alpha-amylase, respectively. Aqueous fraction exhibited significant efficacy against alpha-amylase (IC 50 5.0 mg/mL. Hexane fraction showed good activity against alpha-amylase in a dose-dependent manner but exhibited opposite trend against XO. The compounds isolated from ethyl acetate fraction included limonene, vanillin, lupeol, rutin, quercetin, b-sitosterol, Vitamin E, 2-hydroxyacetophenone, naphthalenone, 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-(3-methylbuta-1,3-dienyl-6-methylenecyclohexanone, and 2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl ester. Conclusions: Moderately polar phytochemicals of C. opaca roots

  11. Bioactive phytochemicals in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds. Among plant foods, flaxseed has the highest content of lignans, mainly in the form of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Flaxseed oil also has a very high concentration of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). This thesis presents studies on both SDG and ALA. An HPLC method for quantification of SDG in hydrolysed flaxseed extracts was developed and used to compare the SDG content in ...

  12. COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the production of a combinatorial library of compound of general formula (I) using solid phase methodologies. The cleavage of the array of immobilised compounds of the phthalimido type from the solid support matrix is accomplished by using an array of dinucleop......The invention provides a method for the production of a combinatorial library of compound of general formula (I) using solid phase methodologies. The cleavage of the array of immobilised compounds of the phthalimido type from the solid support matrix is accomplished by using an array of...... dinucleophiles, e.g. hydrazines (hydrazinolysis) or N-hydroxylamines, whereby a combinatorial dimension is introduced in the cleavage step. The invention also provides a compound library....

  13. Technologies for the Synthesis of mRNA-Encoding Libraries and Discovery of Bioactive Natural Product-Inspired Non-Traditional Macrocyclic Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Suga

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss emerging technologies for drug discovery, which yields novel molecular scaffolds based on natural product-inspired non-traditional peptides expressed using the translation machinery. Unlike natural products, these technologies allow for constructing mRNA-encoding libraries of macrocyclic peptides containing non-canonical sidechains and N-methyl-modified backbones. The complexity of sequence space in such libraries reaches as high as a trillion (>1012, affording initial hits of high affinity ligands against protein targets. Although this article comprehensively covers several related technologies, we discuss in greater detail the technical development and advantages of the Random non-standard Peptide Integration Discovery (RaPID system, including the recent identification of inhibitors against various therapeutic targets.

  14. SENYAWA BIOAKTIF RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscue MENINGKATKAN RESPON SITOLITIK SEL NK TERHADAP SEL KANKER DARAH K-562 IN VITRO [Ginger Root Bioactive Compounds Increased Cytolitic Response of Natural Killer (NK Cells Against Leucemic Cell Line K-562 In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Rungkat Zakaria 2

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell, a kind of lymphocyte cells, plays an important role in attacking infectious, immature, and cancer cell. Its function could be modulated by food bioactive compounds. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger root bioactive compounds such as oleoresin, gingerol, and shogaol on cytolitic response of NK cell in vitro. Lymphocyte cells were isolated by centrifugation on ficoll-hypaque density (1,77 ?0,001 g/ml method. Leukemic cells line K-562 as target cells(TC labelled by [3H]-timidin, together with lymphocyte as effector cell (EC were cultured in two ratio levels of EC : TC equal to 1:50 and 1:100, and two culture conditions, for 4 hours, respectively. Paraquate dichloride (1,1-dimethyl-4,4-bipyridilium dichloride 3 mM was used to induce stress oxidative circumstance. Cytolytic capacity of NK cells was determined by percentage of TC lysed by NK cells, in normal and oxidative stress conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the effects of ginger bioactive compounds on cytolytic response of NK cell depended on the culture conditions, as shown by cultures in the presence of oleoresin, and gingerol, but not shogaol. In the lymphocyte culture without stress oxidative, oleoresin, gingerol and shogaol compounds increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC : EC equal to 1:50, with the highest increament of 65 % at oleoresin concentration of 50 ?g/ml. However, in culture at a ratio of TC : EC equals to 1:100, only oleoresin at a concentration of 50 ?g/ml increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells with the highest increament of 8 %. Shogaol did not affect significantly NK cells cytolytic response. Under stress oxidative conditions, shogaol increased significantly cytolytic response of NK cells cultured at a ratio of TC:EC equal to 1:50, but the highest increament of 56 % , was by oleoresin at concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Meanwhile, oleoresin and gingerol did

  15. Acoustic Sample Deposition MALDI-MS (ASD-MALDI-MS): A Novel Process Flow for Quality Control Screening of Compound Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jefferson; Wood, Elizabeth; Peters, Grace S; Drexler, Dieter M

    2016-02-01

    In the early stages of drug discovery, high-throughput screening (HTS) of compound libraries against pharmaceutical targets is a common method to identify potential lead molecules. For these HTS campaigns to be efficient and successful, continuous quality control of the compound collection is necessary and crucial. However, the large number of compound samples and the limited sample amount pose unique challenges. Presented here is a proof-of-concept study for a novel process flow for the quality control screening of small-molecule compound libraries that consumes only minimal amounts of samples and affords compound-specific molecular data. This process employs an acoustic sample deposition (ASD) technique for the offline sample preparation by depositing nanoliter volumes in an array format onto microscope glass slides followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (MALDI-MS) analysis. An initial study of a 384-compound array employing the ASD-MALDI-MS workflow resulted in a 75% first-pass positive identification rate with an analysis time of <1 s per sample. PMID:26203056

  16. Semi-automated high-throughput fluorescent intercalator displacement-based discovery of cytotoxic DNA binding agents from a large compound library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Lateca S; Bapat, Aditi; Kelley, Mark R; Georgiadis, Millie M; Long, Eric C

    2010-03-01

    High-throughput fluorescent intercalator displacement (HT-FID) was adapted to the semi-automated screening of a commercial compound library containing 60,000 molecules resulting in the discovery of cytotoxic DNA-targeted agents. Although commercial libraries are routinely screened in drug discovery efforts, the DNA binding potential of the compounds they contain has largely been overlooked. HT-FID led to the rapid identification of a number of compounds for which DNA binding properties were validated through demonstration of concentration-dependent DNA binding and increased thermal melting of A/T- or G/C-rich DNA sequences. Selected compounds were assayed further for cell proliferation inhibition in glioblastoma cells. Seven distinct compounds emerged from this screening procedure that represent structures unknown previously to be capable of targeting DNA leading to cell death. These agents may represent structures worthy of further modification to optimally explore their potential as cytotoxic anti-cancer agents. In addition, the general screening strategy described may find broader impact toward the rapid discovery of DNA targeted agents with biological activity.

  17. Study of bioactive compounds in spices (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Myristica fragrans Houtt) processed by ionizing radiation; Estudo dos compostos bioativos em especiarias (Syzygium aromaticum L, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume e Myristica fragans Houtt) processadas por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Renato Cesar

    2014-07-01

    Spices and aromatic herbs are divided into leaves, flowers, bud, seeds bark or dry roots from different plants and it is possible to define them as products of highly flavored vegetal origin that volatize easily when incorporated in small quantities to food products and contribute to its aroma, flavor, color or even to its preservation. Nowadays, people look for its functional properties, bioactive compounds and sensory qualities. A big problem is the reduction of the quantity of these compounds throughout the production chain from the harvest process, storage and distribution. For a long time researchers and industries have concentrated on perfecting the processes of the production chain seeking to guarantee the sanitary and food safety, preserving foodstuffs for a long period and an increase in its lifespan without drastically altering its properties. Due to homemade products and the lack of compliance with good practices in its production chain, the spices can contain a high amount of microbiology causing serious complications to the health of the consumer and the radiation processing is often used for reduce these problems. With this finding, the objectives of this work were: Analyze the oil antifungal properties of spices irradiated with average doses (2.5; 5; 7.5 and 10 kGy); Study the average doses (5 and 10 kGy) and high dose (20 and 30 kGy) effects of gamma radiation {sup 60}Co in the bioactive compounds of the spices - cloves, cinnamon and nutmeg; Identify the oils compounds; Identify the volatile compounds in the headspace of the oils and the in natura spices. Identify the compounds of the nonvolatile part of the nutmeg; Identify the chiral compounds of the cinnamon. Comparing the control samples (not irradiated) with the processed at the described doses, regarding the oil antifungal properties it was possible to verify the efficiency and later that the irradiation did not interfered in its efficiency; Regarding to the others tests in this work, the

  18. Effect of the perforation level of recycled-LDPE bags on the modification of the atmosphere development, bioactive compounds content, and other qualities of Jalapeño peppers during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José; Castañeda-Jiménez, Andrés C; Estrada-Alvarado, María I; Ramos-Aguilar, Olivia P; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; Guevara-Arauza, Juan C; Ruiz-Cruz, Saúl

    2015-10-01

    The impact of modified atmosphere packaging on the content of selected bioactive compounds and other quality attributes of Jalapeño peppers has not been well studied. In this study, Jalapeño peppers were packed in low-cost bags (composed of recycled-LDPE) that had been perforated at several levels (0-4 holes). Packages were stored at 7 °C for 6 weeks. Samples of unpacked peppers were stored at 23 and 7 °C and were used as control groups. The quality of the peppers and the gas composition inside of the packages were evaluated during storage. The best modified atmosphere was obtained with unperforated bags. Significant loss of weight and firmness were prevented by packaging. The loss of weight and firmness were 20.2-82.6 and 32-100 % in unpacked peppers. Low levels of fermentative metabolites accumulated in packed peppers in unperforated bags and in bags with 1 perforation. The tristimulus color and the bioactive compounds content (phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and capsaicinoids) remained unchanged in packed peppers. These quality attributes changed gradually in peppers that were stored at 23 °C. The tested bags represent a cost-effective alternative to preserve the quality of intact Jalapeño peppers. PMID:26396386

  19. AKTIVITAS STIMULASI KOMPONEN BIOAKTIF RIMPANG JAHE (Zingiber officinale Roscoe PADA SEL LIMFOSIT B MANUSIA SECARA IN VITRO [Effects of Bioactive Compounds of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe Root on B Cell Lymphocyte Function using In Vitro System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dondin Sajuthi 3

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two fractions of oleoresin compounds from ginger root on lymphocyte function were studied by observing B cell proliferations, which were measured by the incorporation of 3H-thymidine during cell incubation. The doses of oleoresin compounds and its two fractions tested were 50,100, 150, and 200 g per ml. Lymphocyte from human peripheral blood were isolated using ficoll density gradient technique, and cultured in the presence of the compounds in RPMI-1640 medium for 4 days, with or without the addition of 3 mM paraquat as the oxidizing agent. The results showed that the effects of oleoresin and its two fractions depended on its doses. Oleoresin and its two fractions increased B cell proliferation with the highest activity of 456 percent at low dose of 50 g per ml. These result showed a positive effect of oleoresin compound and its two fractions on B cell functions at low doses. It indicated that bioactive compounds of ginger root at low concentration have positive effects on humoral immune response and this supports the traditional belief that ginger increases body resistance to common cold.

  20. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  1. Bioactive saponins from Dioscorea futschauensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Hu, K; Zhao, Q C; Cui, C B; Kobayashi, H; Yao, X S

    2002-08-01

    A new anti-neoplastic spirostanol saponin, (25S)-spirost-5-en-3 beta, 27-diol-3O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and three known compounds viz. prosapogenin A of dioscin, dioscin and gracilin were isolated from Dioscorea futschauensis by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated mainly by means of spectroscopic analysis. Their bioactivity against Pyricularia oryzae and cytotoxic activity on ts-FT210 cell line was evaluated. PMID:12227201

  2. Planctomycetes as novel source of bioactive molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Graça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes.In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS and polyketide synthases (PKS genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95 % of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85 % amplified with PKS-I primers and 55 % with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8 and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43 % and antibacterial (54 % activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively

  3. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Ana P; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  4. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Ana P.; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  5. Novel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Aoife Louise

    2013-01-01

    Functional food ingredients, with scientifically proven and validated bioactive effects, present an effective means of inferring physiological health benefits to consumers to reduce the risk of certain diseases. The search for novel bioactive compounds for incorporation into functional foods is particularly active, with brewers’ spent grain (BSG, a brewing industry co-product) representing a unique source of potentially bioactive compounds. The DNA protective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory...

  6. Identification of Novel Anti-mycobacterial Compounds by Screening a Pharmaceutical Small-Molecule Library against Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Thulasi; Martinez-Hoyos, Maria; Marin-Amieva, Manuel; Colmenarejo, Gonzalo; Porras-De Francisco, Esther; Alvarez-Pedraglio, Ana Isabel; Fraile-Gabaldon, Maria Teresa; Torres-Gomez, Pedro Alfonso; Lopez-Quezada, Landys; Gold, Ben; Roberts, Julia; Ling, Yan; Somersan-Karakaya, Selin; Little, David; Cammack, Nicholas; Nathan, Carl; Mendoza-Losana, Alfonso

    2015-12-11

    Identification of compounds that target metabolically diverse subpopulations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may contribute to shortening the course of treatment for tuberculosis. This study screened 270,000 compounds from GlaxoSmithKline's collection against Mtb in a nonreplicating (NR) state imposed in vitro by a combination of four host-relevant stresses. Evaluation of 166 confirmed hits led to detailed characterization of 19 compounds for potency, specificity, cytotoxicity, and stability. Compounds representing five scaffolds depended on reactive nitrogen species for selective activity against NR Mtb, and two were stable in the assay conditions. Four novel scaffolds with activity against replicating (R) Mtb were also identified. However, none of the 19 compounds was active against Mtb in both NR and R states. There was minimal overlap between compounds found active against NR Mtb and those previously identified as active against R Mtb, supporting the hypothesis that NR Mtb depends on distinct metabolic pathways for survival. PMID:27623055

  7. Chemical characterization of the medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis) Teng and contribution of different fractions to its bioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, F.S.; Barreira, J.C.M.; Calhelha, R.C.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated for their organoleptic qualities, being also recognized as good sources of bioactive compounds that provide antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Polysaccharides (including glucans) are often pointed out as the most bioactive compounds isolated from mu

  8. GC/MS DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Priya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bioactive components of Pleurotus ostreatus have been evaluated using GC/MS. The chemical compositions of the hydroalcholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST library. GC/MS analysis of hydroalcholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus revealed the existence of Cholestane-3,7,1,25-tetrol tetraacetate,(3a,5a,7a,12 a-55.20, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid,methyl ester(E,E-18.55,14,17- Octadecadienoic acid,methyl ester(E,E-5.59,Pentadecanoic acid, ethyl ester-3.84.. The results of this study offer a platform for using Pleurotus ostreatus as herbal alternative for the current synthetic antimicrobial agents.

  9. Flavonoid-mediated inhibition of intestinal ABC transporters may affect the oral bioavailability of drugs, food-borne toxic compounds and bioactive ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, W.; Schutte, M.E.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.

    2006-01-01

    The transcellular transport of ingested food ingredients across the intestinal epithelial barrier is an important factor determining bioavailability upon oral intake. This transcellular transport of many chemicals, food ingredients, drugs or toxic compounds over the intestinal epithelium can be high

  10. Comparative study of chromatographic medium-associated mass and potential antitumor activity loss with bioactive extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2013-04-26

    Natural product drug discovery programs often rely on the use of silica (Si) gel, reversed-phase media, or size-exclusion resins (e.g., RP-C18, Sephadex LH-20) for compound purification. The synthetic polymer-based sorbent Diaion HP20SS (cross-linked polystyrene matrix) is used as an alternative to prepare purified natural product libraries. To evaluate the impact of chromatographic media on the isolation of biologically active, yet chromatographically unstable natural products, Diaion HP20SS was evaluated side-by-side with normal-phase sorbents for irreversible binding of extract constituents and their effects on bioactivity. An array of chemically diverse natural product-rich extracts was selected as a test panel, and a cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was employed to monitor potential change(s) in bioactivity. Silica gel caused significant irreversible binding of three out of 10 extracts. Curcuma longa, Saururus cernuus, and Citrus reticulata extracts showed decreased HIF-1 inhibitory activity after elution through Si gel. An additional nonpolar column wash of HP20SS with EtOAc retained considerable bioactivities of active extracts. In general, Si gel produced the greatest loss of bioactivity. However, HP20SS elution reduced significantly HIF-1 inhibitory activity of certain extracts (e.g., Asimina triloba). PMID:23441686

  11. Virtual Screening Approaches in Identification of Bioactive Compounds Akin to Delphinidin as Potential HER2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Kavisha; Deshmukh, Aruna; Bandaru, Srinivas; Lakkaraju, Chandana; Girdhar, Amandeep; Vr, Gutlapalli; Banerjee, Tushar; Nayarisseri, Anuraj; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting HER 2 receptors have emerged as an important therapeutic approach in inhibition of downstream proliferation and survival signals for the treatment of breast cancers. Recent drug discovery efforts have demonstrated that naturally occurring polyphenolic compounds like delphinidin have potential to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of breast cancer cells by targeting HER2 receptors. While delphinidin may thus reduce tumour size, it is associated with serious side effects like dysphonia. Owing to the narrow therapeutic window of delphinidin, the present study aimed to identify high affinity compounds targeting HER2 with safer pharmacological profiles than delphinidin through virtual screening approaches. Delphinidin served as the query parent for identification of structurally similar compounds by Tanimoto-based similarity searching with a threshold of 95% against the PubChem database. The compounds retrieved were further subjected to Lipinski and Verber's filters to obtain drug like agents, then further filtered by diversity based screens with a cut off of 0.6. The compound with Pubchem ID: 91596862 was identified to have higher affinity than its parent. In addition it also proved to be non-toxic with a better ADMET profile and higher kinase activity. The compound identified in the study can be put to further in vitro drug testing to complement the present study. PMID:27221932

  12. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  13. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  14. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  15. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Barreiro, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this co...

  16. Drug discovery for schistosomiasis: hit and lead compounds identified in a library of known drugs by medium-throughput phenotypic screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha-Hamadien Abdulla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel (PZQ is the only widely available drug to treat schistosomiasis. Given the potential for drug resistance, it is prudent to search for novel therapeutics. Identification of anti-schistosomal chemicals has traditionally relied on phenotypic (whole organism screening with adult worms in vitro and/or animal models of disease-tools that limit automation and throughput with modern microtiter plate-formatted compound libraries. METHODS: A partially automated, three-component phenotypic screen workflow is presented that utilizes at its apex the schistosomular stage of the parasite adapted to a 96-well plate format with a throughput of 640 compounds per month. Hits that arise are subsequently screened in vitro against adult parasites and finally for efficacy in a murine model of disease. Two GO/NO GO criteria filters in the workflow prioritize hit compounds for tests in the animal disease model in accordance with a target drug profile that demands short-course oral therapy. The screen workflow was inaugurated with 2,160 chemically diverse natural and synthetic compounds, of which 821 are drugs already approved for human use. This affords a unique starting point to 'reposition' (re-profile drugs as anti-schistosomals with potential savings in development timelines and costs. FINDINGS: Multiple and dynamic phenotypes could be categorized for schistosomula and adults in vitro, and a diverse set of 'hit' drugs and chemistries were identified, including anti-schistosomals, anthelmintics, antibiotics, and neuromodulators. Of those hits prioritized for tests in the animal disease model, a number of leads were identified, one of which compares reasonably well with PZQ in significantly decreasing worm and egg burdens, and disease-associated pathology. Data arising from the three components of the screen are posted online as a community resource. CONCLUSIONS: To accelerate the identification of novel anti-schistosomals, we have developed a

  17. The bioactive compounds alpha-chaconine and gallic acid in potato extracts decrease survival and induce apoptosis in LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddivari, Lavanya; Vanamala, Jairam; Safe, Stephen H; Miller, J Creighton

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that colored potato extracts and an anthocyanin rich fraction suppressed lymph-node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) and prostate cancer-3 (PC-3) prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid, catechin, malvidin, and glycoalkaloids (alpha-chaconine and solanine) have now been identified as the major bioactive components of potato, and their effects on LNCaP and PC-3 cell proliferation and apoptosis have been investigated. alpha-chaconine (5 microg/ml) and gallic acid (15 microg/ml) exhibited potent antiproliferative properties and increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 levels in both cell lines. Both alpha-chaconine and gallic acid induced poly [adenosine diphosphate (ADP)] ribose polymerase cleavage and caspase-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells; however, caspase-independent apoptosis through nuclear translocation of endonuclease G was observed in both LNCaP and PC-3 cells. alpha-chaconine and gallic acid activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and this response played a major role in induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis in LNCaP cells; whereas modulation of JNK and mitogen-activated protein kinase did not affect alpha-chaconine- and gallic acid-induced caspase-independent apoptosis. These results suggest that apoptosis induced by whole potato extracts in prostate cancer cell lines may be in part due to alpha-chaconine and gallic acid.

  18. Antifungal testing and high-throughput screening of compound library against Geomyces destructans, the etiologic agent of geomycosis (WNS in bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Bats in the northeastern U.S. are affected by geomycosis caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans (Gd. This infection is commonly referred to as White Nose Syndrome (WNS. Over a million hibernating bats have died since the fungus was first discovered in 2006 in a cave near Albany, New York. A population viability analysis conducted on little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus, one of six bat species infected with Gd, suggests regional extinction of this species within 20 years. The fungus Gd is a psychrophile ("cold loving", but nothing is known about how it thrives at low temperatures and what pathogenic attributes allow it to infect bats. This study aimed to determine if currently available antifungal drugs and biocides are effective against Gd. We tested five Gd strains for their susceptibility to antifungal drugs and high-throughput screened (HTS one representative strain with SpectrumPlus compound library containing 1,920 compounds. The results indicated that Gd is susceptible to a number of antifungal drugs at concentrations similar to the susceptibility range of human pathogenic fungi. Strains of Gd were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole and voriconazole. In contrast, very high MICs (minimum inhibitory concentrations of flucytosine and echinocandins were needed for growth inhibition, which were suggestive of fungal resistance to these drugs. Of the 1,920 compounds in the library, a few caused 50%--to greater than 90% inhibition of Gd growth. A number of azole antifungals, a fungicide, and some biocides caused prominent growth inhibition. Our results could provide a theoretical basis for future strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of most affected bat species and for decontamination of Gd in the cave environment.

  19. 香榧坚果生物活性成分与抗氧化研究进展%Recent Advances in Research on Bioactive Compounds and Anfioxidant Activity of Torreya grandis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴飞; 郜海燕; 陈杭君; 房祥军; 葛林梅

    2012-01-01

    香榧为浙江著名的坚果,其富含多种生物活性成分,诸如油脂、二萜类、多酚类等都具有一定的药用及生物活性。本文综述了香榧的生物活性成分,并探讨其与氧化劣变之间的关系,可为更好的贮存坚果提供借鉴,也为进一步发展利用香榧资源提供参考。%Torreya grandis is a conifer of the Cephalotaxaceae family. It is found only in China, mostly in Zhejiang Province. The seed of Torreya grandis, known as 'Xiangfei', is edible and has been recognized as a valuable tree nut for their high content of various medical and biological active compounds, such as essential fatty acids, polyphenols and diterpenoids. Here we review bioactive compounds in the seeds and discuss their association with oxidative deteriorations during storage with the purpose to provide some reference for better storage and utilization of Torreya grandis seeds.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Bioactive Compounds from Aromatic Plants by Means of Dynamic Headspace Extraction and Multiple Headspace Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alonso, Ibone; Vallejo, Asier; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Seven monoterpenes in 4 aromatic plants (sage, cardamom, lavender, and rosemary) were quantified in liquid extracts and directly in solid samples by means of dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DHS-GC-MS) and multiple headspace extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MHSE), respectively. The monoterpenes were 1st extracted by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by an optimized DHS-GC-MS. The optimization of the dynamic extraction step and the desorption/cryo-focusing step were tackled independently by experimental design assays. The best working conditions were set at 30 °C for the incubation temperature, 5 min of incubation time, and 40 mL of purge volume for the dynamic extraction step of these bioactive molecules. The conditions of the desorption/cryo-trapping step from the Tenax TA trap were set at follows: the temperature was increased from 30 to 300 °C at 150 °C/min, although the cryo-trapping was maintained at -70 °C. In order to estimate the efficiency of the SFE process, the analysis of monoterpenes in the 4 aromatic plants was directly carried out by means of MHSE because it did not require any sample preparation. Good linearity (r2) > 0.99) and reproducibility (relative standard deviation % <12) was obtained for solid and liquid quantification approaches, in the ranges of 0.5 to 200 ng and 10 to 500 ng/mL, respectively. The developed methods were applied to analyze the concentration of 7 monoterpenes in aromatic plants obtaining concentrations in the range of 2 to 6000 ng/g and 0.25 to 110 μg/mg, respectively. PMID:26925555

  1. Identification of Selective Inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum Hexose Transporter PfHT by Screening Focused Libraries of Anti-Malarial Compounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz

    Full Text Available Development of resistance against current antimalarial drugs necessitates the search for novel drugs that interact with different targets and have distinct mechanisms of action. Malaria parasites depend upon high levels of glucose uptake followed by inefficient metabolic utilization via the glycolytic pathway, and the Plasmodium falciparum hexose transporter PfHT, which mediates uptake of glucose, has thus been recognized as a promising drug target. This transporter is highly divergent from mammalian hexose transporters, and it appears to be a permease that is essential for parasite viability in intra-erythrocytic, mosquito, and liver stages of the parasite life cycle. An assay was developed that is appropriate for high throughput screening against PfHT based upon heterologous expression of PfHT in Leishmania mexicana parasites that are null mutants for their endogenous hexose transporters. Screening of two focused libraries of antimalarial compounds identified two such compounds that are high potency selective inhibitors of PfHT compared to human GLUT1. Additionally, 7 other compounds were identified that are lower potency and lower specificity PfHT inhibitors but might nonetheless serve as starting points for identification of analogs with more selective properties. These results further support the potential of PfHT as a novel drug target.

  2. Effects of energy drink major bioactive compounds on the performance of young adults in fitness and cognitive tests: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kammerer, Maximiliano; Jaramillo, Jaime A; García, Adriana; Juan C. Calderón; Valbuena, Luis H

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of beverages containing caffeine and taurine before exercising has been associated with increased physical and psychological performances and has been promoted to support the emotional state and provide vitality to consumers. However, there are contradictory results on these issues, it is not clear the effect of every major compound in relation to the whole effect of the beverages and there is a lack in knowledge about their degree of safety for consumption. Methods...

  3. Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L. and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Menga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, hydrolyzed (HTC and condensed tannin (CTC, antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L. and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L. cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%, HTC (73%, TFC (85% and CTC (41%, passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively. In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively. Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001 and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea.

  4. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli.

  5. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta) Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjiang Dong; Lehe Tan; Jianping Zhao; Rongsuo Hu; Minquan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA) were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemic...

  6. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids. PMID:27542503

  7. Development of garlic bioactive compounds analytical methodology based on liquid phase microextraction using response surface design. Implications for dual analysis: Cooked and biological fluids samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniela Andrea; Locatelli, Daniela Ana; Torres-Palazzolo, Carolina Andrea; Altamirano, Jorgelina Cecilia; Camargo, Alejandra Beatriz

    2017-01-15

    Organosulphur compounds (OSCs) present in garlic (Allium sativum L.) are responsible of several biological properties. Functional foods researches indicate the importance of quantifying these compounds in food matrices and biological fluids. For this purpose, this paper introduces a novel methodology based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector (HPLC-UV) for the extraction and determination of organosulphur compounds in different matrices. The target analytes were allicin, (E)- and (Z)-ajoene, 2-vinyl-4H-1,2-dithiin (2-VD), diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS). The microextraction technique was optimized using an experimental design, and the analytical performance was evaluated under optimum conditions. The desirability function presented an optimal value for 600μL of chloroform as extraction solvent using acetonitrile as dispersant. The method proved to be reliable, precise and accurate. It was successfully applied to determine OSCs in cooked garlic samples as well as blood plasma and digestive fluids.

  8. Pine Bark and Green Tea Concentrated Extracts: Antioxidant Activity and Comprehensive Characterization of Bioactive Compounds by HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of polyphenols has frequently been associated with low incidence of degenerative diseases. Most of these natural antioxidants come from fruits, vegetables, spices, grains and herbs. For this reason, there has been increasing interest in identifying plant extract compounds. Polymeric tannins and monomeric flavonoids, such as catechin and epicatechin, in pine bark and green tea extracts could be responsible for the higher antioxidant activities of these extracts. The aim of the present study was to characterize the phenolic compounds in pine bark and green tea concentrated extracts using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS. A total of 37 and 35 compounds from pine bark and green tea extracts, respectively, were identified as belonging to various structural classes, mainly flavan-3-ol and its derivatives (including procyanidins. The antioxidant capacity of both extracts was evaluated by three complementary antioxidant activity methods: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC. Higher antioxidant activity values by each method were obtained. In addition, total polyphenol and flavan-3-ol contents, which were determined by Folin–Ciocalteu and vanillin assays, respectively, exhibited higher amounts of gallic acid and (+-catechin equivalents.

  9. 对复合图书馆编目工作重心的思考%Thought on Cataloging Work Core in the Compound Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓燕

    2012-01-01

    In the compound library era,the library cataloging work core will turn to deepen the connotation of the traditional cataloging work,broaden the extension of the digital resource cataloging,enhance the OPAC function and strengthen the construction of the authority file of the online bibliography database.Catalogers should foot on the practice,innovate the cataloging work,pay attention to the international cataloging development,and guide the daily cataloging work,in order to improve the professional competitiveness.%在复合图书馆时代,图书馆编目工作的重心将转向深化传统编目工作内涵、拓宽数字化资源编目的外延、增强OPAC功能、加强联机书目数据库的规范文档建设工作4个方面。编目员应立足实践,创新编目工作,关注国际编目新动态,指导日常编目工作,以提升职业竞争力。

  10. Physico-chemical characterization and bioactive compounds of blackberry fruits (Rubus sp. grown in Brazil Caracterização físico-química e de compostos bioativos em amora-preta (Rubus sp. cultivada no Brasil

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    Neuza Mariko Aymoto Hassimotto

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Five blackberry cultivars (Rubus sp. were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, bioactive compounds and composition. Ascorbic acid levels, consisting of dehydro-ascorbic acid, ranged from 9.8 to 21.4 mg.100 g-1 fresh weight. Cyanidin (66 to 80% of total flavonoids, epicatechin, quercetin and traces of kaempferol were the main flavonoids found in all cultivars. The five cultivars presented high antioxidant capacity in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, with inhibition similar to the synthetic antioxidant BHT, at a 50 µM concentration. Caingangue cultivar presented high vitamin C and total phenolics content, while Guarani had the highest cyanidin, total anthocyanin and total flavonoids levels and also the highest antioxidant capacity. These cultivars also presented good TSS/TA ratios. From the data, at a quantitative level, blackberry can be considered a good source of bioactive compounds, as well as potentially beneficial to human health.Cinco cultivares de amora-preta (Rubus sp. foram avaliadas quanto a sua capacidade antioxidante, perfil de compostos bioativos e composição físico-química. Os níveis de ácido ascórbico total, presentes na forma de ácido desidroascórbico, variaram entre 9,8 a 21,4 mg.100 g-1 (b.u.. Os principais flavonóides presentes nas cinco cultivares foram: a antocianina cianidina (66 a 80% do total de flavonóides; o flavan-3-ol epicatequina; e os flavonóis quercetina e traços de caenferol. As cinco cultivares apresentaram alta capacidade antioxidante quando avaliadas pelo sistema de co-oxidação β-caroteno/ácido linoléico, similar ao antioxidante sintético BHT, na concentração de 50 µM. A cultivar Guarani apresentou os maiores teores de flavonóides totais, antocianina total, cianidina e de capacidade antioxidante, enquanto que a cultivar Caigangue apresentou alto conteúdo de vitamina C e de fenólicos totais. Estas duas cultivares também apresentaram uma boa correlação TSS/TA. Assim, a amora

  11. Effect of cooking on the concentration of bioactive compounds in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. Avenger) and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. Alphina F1) grown in an organic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis, Luzia Caroline Ramos; de Oliveira, Viviani Ruffo; Hagen, Martine Elisabeth Kienzle; Jablonski, André; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; de Oliveira Rios, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Brassica vegetables have been shown to have antioxidant capacities due to the presence of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamins. This study evaluates the influence of different processing conditions (boiling, steaming, microwaving and sous vide) on the stability of flavonoids, carotenoids and vitamin A in broccoli and cauliflower inflorescences grown in an organic system. Results indicated that sous vide processing resulted in greater antioxidant capacity and that all processes contributed in some way to an increased content of antioxidant compounds in both cauliflower and broccoli. PMID:25442619

  12. Characterization of Fatty Acid, Amino Acid and Volatile Compound Compositions and Bioactive Components of Seven Coffee (Coffea robusta Cultivars Grown in Hainan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiang Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compositions of fatty acid, amino acids, and volatile compound were investigated in green coffee beans of seven cultivars of Coffea robusta grown in Hainan Province, China. The chlorogenic acids, trigonelline, caffeine, total lipid, and total protein contents as well as color parameters were measured. Chemometric techniques, principal component analysis (PCA, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, and analysis of one-way variance (ANOVA were performed on the complete data set to reveal chemical differences among all cultivars and identify markers characteristic of a particular botanical origin of the coffee. The major fatty acids of coffee were linoleic acid, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and arachic acid. Leucine (0.84 g/100 g DW, lysine (0.63 g/100 g DW, and arginine (0.61 g/100 g DW were the predominant essential amino acids (EAAs in the coffee samples. Seventy-nine volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified by HS-SPME/GC-MS. PCA of the complete data matrix demonstrated that there were significant differences among all cultivars, HCA supported the results of PCA and achieved a satisfactory classification performance.

  13. Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

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    Eldina Castro Sousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Grape pomace (Vitis vinifera L., Benitaka variety, grown in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil was evaluated in relation to chemical composition, and content of minerals and functional properties. Its microbiological quality and toxic potential, using Artemia salina sp, were also investigated. The results showed that the flour obtained from these residues had below neutral pH (3.82, moisture (3.33g/100g, acidity of (0.64g of citric acid/100g, and ash (4.65 g/100g. The amount of total dietary fiber (46.17g/100g stood out quantitatively compared to the content of carbohydrate (29.2g/100 g, protein (8.49g/100g, and lipids (8.16g/100g. The total energy was 224Kcal/100g. With regard to the compounds with functional properties, higher values of insoluble fiber 79% (36.4 g/100 g; vitamin C (26.25 mg of acid ascorbic/100g, and anthocyanins (131mg/100g were found. The minerals iron, potassium, zinc, manganese, and calcium were present in higher concentrations. There were no significant copper values. The results showed that the grape residues are an important source of nutrients and compounds with functional properties suggesting that they can be incorporated as an ingredient in the diet and/or used as a dietary supplement aiming at health benefits. The residues did not show microbiological contamination and were considered nontoxic.

  14. TRENDS ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR RESVERATROL, A MAJOR BIOACTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, Maria João; Martins, Nuno; Soares, Bruno; Costa Freitas, Ana Maria; Garcia, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is a member of the stilbene group of phenolic compounds, comprising two aromatic rings linked by an ethylene bridge and is considered one of the most promising bioactive compounds due to its bioactivity. Wine is one of the main source of this bioactive compound in Mediterranean diet. Several authors have dedicated their research to the relationship between diet and health, and concerning wine and health studies, ‘‘French Paradox’’ was the starting ...

  15. Identification of bioactive compounds from jambolão (Syzygium cumini) and antioxidant capacity evaluation in different pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adelia F; Marques, Marcella C; Mercadante, Adriana Z

    2011-06-15

    The composition of carotenoids and phenolic compounds from jambolão fruits (Syzygium cumini) was determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS. Two main carotenoids were found in the fruits, all-trans-lutein (43.7%) and all-trans-β-carotene (25.4%). The anthocyanin composition was characterised by the presence of 3,5-diglucosides of five out of six aglycones commonly found in foods. This pattern was also observed for the other flavonoids, since diglucosides of dihydromyricetin, methyl-dihydromyricetin and dimethyl-dihydromyricetin, along with myricetin glucoside and a galloyl-glucose ester were identified. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of a functional extract rich in anthocyanins was evaluated through the scavenging capacities of ABTS(+) and peroxyl radical (ORAC) and the protective effect against singlet oxygen ((1)O2). The TEAC values indicated that the hemiacetals/chalcones and quinonoidal bases species (pH⩾5) possess higher scavenging capacity as compared to the flavylium cation (pHextract also showed 60% of dimethylanthracene protection against (1)O2 and an ORAC value of 16.4μmolTrolox/gfruit. PMID:25213929

  16. Characterization of bioactive compounds and ameliorative effects of Ceratonia siliqua leaf extract against CCl₄ induced hepatic oxidative damage and renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsouna, Anis Ben; Saoudi, Mongi; Trigui, Mohamed; Jamoussi, Kamel; Boudawara, Tahia; Jaoua, Samir; Feki, Abdelfattah El

    2011-12-01

    Ceratonia siliqua is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and Tunisian traditional folk medicine. Among the tested extracts, the ethyl acetate fraction (EACs) exhibited the highest total phenolic and flavonoids content. The antioxidant activity in vitro systems showed a more significant potent free radical scavenging activity of this extract than other analysis fractions. The HPLC finger print of EACs active extract showed the presence of six phenolic compounds. The in vivo results showed that oral administration of CCl(4) enhanced levels of hepatic and renal markers (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH, γ-GT, urea and creatinine) in the serum of experimental animals. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in increased levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both liver and kidney. The pre-treatment of experimental rats with 250 mg/kg (BW) of the EACs, by intraperitoneal injection for 8 days, prevented CCl(4) induced disorders in the levels of hepatic and kidney markers. The biochemical changes were in accordance with histopathological observations suggesting a marked hepatoprotective and nephroprotective effect of the EACs extract.

  17. Preparation of Orally Disintegrating Tablets Containing Powdered Tea Leaves with Enriched Levels of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Microwave Irradiation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hironori; Iwao, Yasunori; Izumikawa, Masahiro; Sano, Syusuke; Ishida, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a microwave treatment process has been applied to prepare orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing powdered tea leaves with enriched levels of the anti-inflammatory compounds such as chafuroside A (CFA) and chafuroside B (CFB). The use of distilled water as the adsorbed and granulation solvents in this preparation process afforded tablets with a long disintegration time (more than 120 s). The CFA and CFB contents of these tablets did not also change after 4 min of microwave irradiation due to the tablet temperature, which only increased to 100°C. In contrast, the tablet temperature increased up to 140°C after 3 min of microwave irradiation when a 1.68 M Na2HPO4 solution instead of distilled water. Notably, the disintegration time of these tablets was considerably improved (less than 20 s) compared with the microwave-untreated tablets, and there were 7- and 11-fold increases in their CFA and CFB contents. In addition, the operational conditions for the preparation of the tablets were optimized by face-centered composite design based on the following criteria: tablet hardness greater than 13 N, disintegration time less than 30 s and friability less than 0.5%. The requirements translated into X1 (the amount of granulation solvent), X2 (tableting pressure) and X3 (content of the powdered tea leaves) values of 45%, 0.43 kN and 32%, respectively, and the ODTs containing powdered tea leaves prepared under these optimized conditions were found to show excellent tablet properties and contain enriched levels of CFA and CFB. PMID:27581633

  18. Bioactive furanonaphthoquinones from Crescentia cujete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C E; Gunatilaka, A A; Glass, T E; Kingston, D G; Hoffmann, G; Johnson, R K

    1993-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the MeCOEt extract of Crescentia cujete (Bignonaceae) resulted in the isolation of (2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [1], (2R)-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [2], (2R)-5-methoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [3], 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [4], 5-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [5], 2-isopropenylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [6], and 5-hydroxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [7]. Compounds 1-3 are new, and all compounds are bioactive, showing selective activity towards DNA-repair-deficient yeast mutants. The isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of these compounds are reported. PMID:8254347

  19. Fluorescence studies by quenching and protein unfolding on the interaction of bioactive compounds in water extracts of kiwi fruit cultivars with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo Park, Yong, E-mail: ypark@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Horticultural Science, Mokpo National University, Muan, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Polovka, Martin [National Agricultural and Food Centre VUP, Food Research Institute, SK-824 75 Bratislava (Slovakia); Leticia Martinez-Ayala, Alma [Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carretera Yautepec-Jojutla, Km. 6, calle CEPROBI No. 8, Col. San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos 62731 (Mexico); González-Aguilar, Gustavo A. [Research Center for Food & Development, A.C. (CIAD), Carretera a Ejido La Victoria, Km 0.6, Hermosillo, Sonora 83304 (Mexico); Ham, Kyung-Sik; Kang, Seong-Gook; Park, Yang-Kyun [Department of Food Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan, Jeonnam (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Buk-Gu [Naju Foundation of Natural Dyeing Culture, Naju 520-931 (Korea, Republic of); Namiesnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology, 80 952 Gdańsk (Poland); Gorinstein, Shela, E-mail: shela.gorin@mail.huji.ac.il [The Institute for Drug Research, School of Pharmacy, The Hebrew University, Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)

    2015-04-15

    The main aim of this investigation was to characterize new kiwi fruit cultivars after cold storage treatment and to determine the similarities and differences between them, using spectroscopic methods. The chemometric comparison of kiwi fruit cultivars based on physicochemical indices during cold storage was carried out. All kiwi fruit cultivars showed a high level of correlation between the contents of phenolic compounds (polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids) and their antioxidant capacities. The interactions of soluble polyphenols of different kiwi fruit cultivars with human serum albumin (HSA) were investigated by fluorescence. The obtained statistical and fluorescence results allow to classify the investigated kiwi fruit cultivars according to their properties. The antioxidant properties of different cultivars monitored by β-carotene assay showed that the highest percentage of antioxidant activity (%AA) at the end of the cold storage was detected for ‘SKK-12’ (27.61±2.44) %AA with the lowest shelf life (8 weeks) and the lowest was found for ‘Hayward’ variety (8.33±0.74) %AA with the highest shelf life (24 weeks). The averaged amount of polyphenols in ‘Bidan’ and ‘SKK-12’ 13.97±1.95 mg GAE/g was much higher than in other cultivars 3.93±3.26 mg GAE/g, without respect on time of cold storage. The HSA-binding capacities of these cultivars were the highest and correlated with their antioxidant capacities. To our knowledge this is the first report showing differences and similarities in new kiwi fruit cultivars, using spectroscopic techniques. The fact that fluorescence spectral methods are applied as a powerful tool to show the photophysical properties of intrinsic fluorophores in protein molecules in the presence of fruit extracts is important in this study. In conclusion, the obtained knowledge would contribute to the pharmaceutical development and clinical application of kiwi fruit extracts. - Highlights: • Different kiwi fruit cultivars

  20. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

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    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.