WorldWideScience

Sample records for bioactive alternative daily

  1. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily

  2. Development and In Vitro Bioactivity Profiling of Alternative Sustainable Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable, environmentally benign nanomaterials (NMs) are being designed as alternatives based on functionality to conventional metal-based nanomaterials (NMs) in order to minimize potential risk to human health and the environment. Development of rapid methods to evaluate the ...

  3. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  4. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  5. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia-Varvara Ferlemi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Once daily baclofen sustained release or gastro-retentive system are acceptable alternatives to thrice daily baclofen immediate release at same daily dosage in patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampat Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Baclofen, a GABA-agonist, is currently available as an immediate release (IR formulation for relieving neurogenic spasticity in a variety of disorders. Baclofen IR requires to be administered three times a day which inadvertently increases the chances of medication noncompliance among patients and is also associated with side effects such as drowsiness and muscle weakness. Aim: To overcome the shortcomings of baclofen IR, two modified formulations, baclofen sustained release (SR and gastric retentive system (GRS, have been proposed to be equivalent in efficacy to baclofen IR with the administration of a single daily dose. Materials and Methods: Ninety patients with chronic neurogenic muscular spasticity were enrolled requiring 10-20 mg of baclofen IR every eight hours. The patients were randomized to two treatment arms: SR (n = 46 or GRS (n = 44 at the same once-daily dose for four weeks. Efficacy was measured by Ashworth score for muscle tone, spasm score, reflex score, 30-item functional independence score, and patient′s diary score for three most affected activities of daily life. Results: The mean Ashworth score changed significantly (P = 0.00 for patients in the SR group from 3.03-2.69 (-0.35 and 3.07-2.70 (-0.37 for patients in the GRS group. There was no significant difference (P = 0.87 between baseline-adjusted Ashworth score reductions on SR (-0.35 and GRS (-0.37. Similar results were obtained for spasm, reflex, and functional independence scores. The mean baseline-adjusted patient-diary scores did not differ significantly between 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm (P = 0.96, either on SR (-5.3 to -6.1 or GRS (-7.3 to -8.1, indicating a uniform effect round-the-day on both. Further, sedation scores (mean ± SEM decreased significantly (P < 0.05 on both SR (10.36 ± 1.37 to 6.18 ± 0.92 and GRS (8.14 ± 1.57 to 5.33 ± 1.11, suggesting better toleration. Conclusion: Once-daily baclofen SR and GRS are efficacious, convenient, and

  7. LCA comparison of windrow composting of yard wastes with use as alternative daily cover (ADC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haaren, Rob; Themelis, Nickolas J; Barlaz, Morton

    2010-12-01

    This study compared the environmental impacts of composting yard wastes in windrows with using them in place of soil as alternative daily cover (ADC) in landfills. The Life Cycle Assessment was made using the SimaPro LCA software and showed that the ADC scenario is more beneficial for the environment than windrow composting. ADC use is also a less costly means of disposal of yard wastes. This finding applies only in cases where there are sanitary landfills in the area that are equipped with gas collection systems and can use yard wastes as alternative daily cover. Otherwise, the environmentally preferable method for disposal of source-separated yard wastes is composting rather than landfilling.

  8. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovacheva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic daily headache (CDH is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mainstay of the current approach to treating patients with CDH. Standard, alternative, and auxiliary therapies are identified. The paper describes different types of current auxiliary and alternative therapy used in the world’s leading headache centers and clinics. It describes experience with cerebrolysin used as auxiliary and alternative pharmacotherapies for CDH.

  9. Recommended alternative daily intake of fruits and vegetables for Indonesian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Organisasi Kesehatan se Dunia (WHO merekomendasin konsumsi sayur dan buah paling sedikit 400 gr atau 5 (lima porsi sayur dan buah sehari. Penelitian ini untuk menentukan alternatif jumlah dan jenis anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk usia 65 tahun atau lebih untuk kecukupan zat gizi vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, asam folat, dan serat. Metode:Penelitian menggunakan data konsumsi sayur dan buah dari data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas tahun 2010. Analisis data menggunakan program analisis linier untuk memperoleh lima alternatif jumlah dan jenis sayur dan buah untuk usia lebih dari 65 tahun.Hasil:Subjek yang dapat dianalisis sebanyak 7087 orang. Lima jenis buah yang paling banyak dikonsumsi adalah pisang, jeruk, pepaya, apel dan semangka. Lima jenis sayur yang paling banyak dikonsumsi adalah sayur bayam, sayur kangkung, sayur daun singkong, sayur asam, dan sayur sop. Berdasarkan hasil analisis progam linier dan ngka Kecukupan Gizi tahun 2004 untuk vitamin A, vitamin C, asam folat, serat, dan potasium bagi usia lebih dari 65 tahun, maka jumlah anjuran konsumsi sayur dan buah adalah 300 gram sayuran dan 200-400 gram buah.Kesimpulan: Anjuran alternatif konsumsi sayur dan buah untuk usia lebih dari 65 tahun adalah 300 gram (3 mangkok sayuran dan 200-400 gram (2-4 potong buah. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:30-4Kata kunci:anjuran konsumsi harian, sayur, buah, usia lajut AbstractBackground: The WHO recommends the daily consumption of fruits and vegetables of at least 400 grams or 5 servings. This study was conducted to assess consumption of fruits and vegetables in 65 year-old and above Indonesians, and the adequacy of daily requirements of vitamin A, vitamin C, potassium, folic acid, and fiber. Methods: The study used data from 2010 National Health Survey Indonesia. Using linier programming, 5 alternatives of combination of fruits and vegetables were presented for 65 year-old and above.Result: The number of subjects that

  10. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmović, Marko; Karlović, Sven; Biškić, Matija; Brnčić, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. PMID:25148960

  11. Redirecting photosynthetic electron flow into light-driven synthesis of alternative products including high-value bioactive natural compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Lærke Münter; Nielsen, Agnieszka Zygadlo; Ziersen, Bibi; Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-17

    Photosynthesis in plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria converts solar energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH, both of which are used in primary metabolism. However, often more reducing power is generated by the photosystems than what is needed for primary metabolism. In this review, we discuss the development in the research field, focusing on how the photosystems can be used as synthetic biology building blocks to channel excess reducing power into light-driven production of alternative products. Plants synthesize a large number of high-value bioactive natural compounds. Some of the key enzymes catalyzing their biosynthesis are the cytochrome P450s situated in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, bioactive compounds are often synthesized in low quantities in the plants and are difficult to produce by chemical synthesis due to their often complex structures. Through a synthetic biology approach, enzymes with a requirement for reducing equivalents as cofactors, such as the cytochrome P450s, can be coupled directly to the photosynthetic energy output to obtain environmentally friendly production of complex chemical compounds. By relocating cytochrome P450s to the chloroplasts, reducing power can be diverted toward the reactions catalyzed by the cytochrome P450s. This provides a sustainable production method for high-value compounds that potentially can solve the problem of NADPH regeneration, which currently limits the biotechnological uses of cytochrome P450s. We describe the approaches that have been taken to couple enzymes to photosynthesis in vivo and to photosystem I in vitro and the challenges associated with this approach to develop new green production platforms.

  12. DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT OF ALTERNATIVE PRACTICUM II BASIC CHEMICAL THROUGH CHEMISTRY FAIR PROJECT ( CFP BASED CONSERVATION USING CHEMICAL DAILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Urwatin Wusqo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 develop an alternative assessment on the 2nd General Chemistry Experiment through conservation-based chemistry fair project by utilizing the daily chemical (2 Determine the level of validity, practicality and effectiveness. This research is the development (Research Development development model applied Dick and Carey (1985. The subject of limited testing and field trials is subject lecturers and students of Science Education UNNES. Determined by purposive sample, the lecturers and the students who take the course 2nd General Chemistry Experiment. The data obtained from this trial are: (1 input from experts, to determine the content and construct validity of the assessment feature; (2 input from a limited sample testing, to determine the practicality of chemistry clue fair project (CFP based conservation by utilizing chemical daily; Instrument data collectors in the form of a questionnaire legibility chemistry making instructions fair project (CFP based conservation by utilizing daily chemical, scoring guidelines. (3 student learning outcomes data to determine the effectiveness of the assessment. Input from experts student questionnaire, and the value of chemistry fair project (CFP limited test samples analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Assessment of 2nd General Chemistry Experiment alternative developed is successful well-developed assessment if valid, practical, and effective.

  13. Treatment for chronic daily headache by using auxiliary and alternative methods

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Golovacheva; V. A. Parfenov; Zakharov, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic daily headache (CDH) is one of the top 10 causes of adult disability and one of the 5 most common causes of female disability. To treat patients with CDH is one of the most difficult tasks in neurological practice. Difficulties in managing patients with CHD are associated with the high prevalence of comorbid mental disorders, analgesic abuse, pain syndromes at another site, and misconceptions of a patient about his/her disease. A combination of drug and non-drug therapies is the mains...

  14. Fabrication and formation of bioactive anodic zirconium oxide nanotubes containing presynthesized hydroxyapatite via alternative immersion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating has been widely applied on metallic biomedical implants to enhance their biocompatibility. It has been reported that HA coating can be formed on annealed zirconium with anodic zirconium oxide nanotubular arrays after immersion in simulated biological fluid (SBF) for about 14 days. In the present study, we apply an alternative immersion method (AIM) to form presynthesized HA on ZrO2 nanotubes. The AIM-treated specimen was then moved to the SBF to evaluate the capability for the formation of HA on it. The HA coating formed after only 2 days immersion and thickened after 5 days in the SBF. The HA coating is the carbonated HA with a ratio of Ca to P of about 1.4, similar to the physiological HA containing other minor elements such as Mg and Na. The results demonstrate that the AIM treatment is indeed suitable for the zirconium oxide nanotubes and highly accelerates the formation of HA coating in comparison with the existing methods, i.e. the annealing of the as-formed zirconium oxide nanotubular arrays.

  15. Host-Mediated Bioactivation of Pyrazinamide: Implications for Efficacy, Resistance, and Therapeutic Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Laura E.; Savic, Rada; Weiner, Danielle M.; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Prideaux, Brendan; Irwin, Scott M.; Lyon, Eddie; O’Brien, Paul; Gopal, Pooja; Eum, Seokyong; Lee, Myungsun; Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Dutta, Noton K.; Shim, TaeSun; Cho, Jeong Su; Kim, Wooshik; Karakousis, Petros C.; Lenaerts, Anne; Nuermberger, Eric; Barry, Clifton E.; Dartois, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Pyrazinamide has played a critical role in shortening therapy against drug-sensitive, drug-resistant, active, and latent tuberculosis (TB). Despite widespread recognition of its therapeutic importance, the sterilizing properties of this 60-year-old drug remain an enigma given its rather poor activity in vitro. Here we revisit longstanding paradigms and offer pharmacokinetic explanations for the apparent disconnect between in vitro activity and clinical impact. We show substantial host-mediated conversion of prodrug pyrazinamide (PZA) to the active form, pyrazinoic acid (POA), in TB patients and in animal models. We demonstrate favorable penetration of this pool of circulating POA from plasma into lung tissue and granulomas, where the pathogen resides. In standardized growth inhibition experiments, we show that POA exhibits superior in vitro potency compared to PZA, indicating that the vascular supply of host-derived POA may contribute to the in vivo efficacy of PZA, thereby reducing the apparent discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo activity. However, the results also raise the possibility that subinhibitory concentrations of POA generated by the host could fuel the emergence of resistance to both PZA and POA. In contrast to widespread expectations, we demonstrate good oral bioavailability and exposure in preclinical species in pharmacokinetic studies of oral POA. Baseline exposure of oral POA can be further increased by the xanthine oxidase inhibitor and approved gout drug allopurinol. These promising results pave the way for clinical investigations of oral POA as a therapeutic alternative or an add-on to overcome PZA resistance and salvage this essential TB drug. PMID:26086040

  16. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  17. Alternative ozone metrics and daily mortality in Suzhou: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Yang, Haibing; Guo, Shu; Wang, Zongshuang; Xu, Xiaohui; Duan, Xiaoli; Kan, Haidong

    2012-06-01

    Controversy remains regarding the relationship between various metrics of ozone (O(3)) and mortality. In China, the largest developing country, there have been few studies investigating the acute effect of O(3) on death. We used three exposure metrics of O(3) (1-hour maximum, maximum 8-hour average and 24-hour average) to examine its short-term association with daily mortality in Suzhou, China. We used a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) with penalized splines to analyze the mortality, O(3), and covariate data. We examined the association by season, age group, sex and educational level. We found that the current level of O(3) in Suzhou is associated with death rates from all causes and cardiovascular diseases. Among various metrics of O(3), maximum 8-hour average and 1-hour maximum concentrations seem to be more strongly associated with increased mortality rate compared to 24-hour average concentrations. Using maximum 8-hour average, an inter-quartile range increase of 2-day average O(3) (lag 01) corresponds to 2.15% (95%CI, 0.36 to 3.93), 4.47% (95%CI, 1.43 to 7.51), -1.85% (95%CI, -6.91 to 3.22) increase in all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. The associations between O(3) and daily mortality appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. In conclusion, maximum 8-hour average and 1-hour maximum concentrations of O(3) are associated with daily mortality in Suzhou. Our analyses strengthen the rationale for further limiting levels of O(3) pollution in the city. PMID:22521098

  18. Daily Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know Online Tools Enhancing Daily Life Daily Plan Activities Communication Food & Eating Music & Art Personal Care Incontinence Bathing ... Tweet Email | Print Create a Daily Routine Daily Plan Activities Communication Food/Eating Get Tips on Personal Care Bathing ...

  19. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  20. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  1. Efficacy of once-daily indacaterol 75 μg relative to alternative bronchodilators in COPD: A study level and a patient level network meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cope Shannon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy of indacaterol 75 μg once daily (OD, tiotropium 18 μg OD, salmeterol 50 μg twice daily (BID, formoterol 12 μg BID, and placebo for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD based on individual patient data (IPD from randomized controlled trials (RCTs from the indacaterol trial program and aggregate data (AD identified from a systematic review of RCTs. Methods 22 RCTs were included in the AD analysis that evaluated: indacaterol 75 μg (n = 2 studies, indacaterol 150 μg n = 5 (i.e. salmeterol 50 μg (n = 5, indacaterol 300 μg (n = 2, tiotropium 18 μg (n = 10, salmeterol 50 μg (n = 7, and formoterol 12 μg (n = 4. All of the studies except for one head-to-head comparison (tiotropium vs. salmeterol were placebo controlled. Outcomes of interest were trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ total score at week 12. The AD from all trials was analysed simultaneously using a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA and relative treatment effects between all regimens were obtained. In a separate analysis, the IPD available from the 6 indacaterol RCTs was analysed in a NMA. Treatment-by-covariate interactions were included in both analyses to improve similarity of the trials. Results All interventions compared were more efficacious than placebo regarding FEV1 at 12 weeks. Indacaterol 75 μg is expected to result in a comparable FEV1 at 12 weeks to tiotropium and salmeterol based on both IPD and AD analyses. In comparison to formoterol, the IPD and AD results indicate indacaterol 75 μg is more efficacious (IPD = 0.07 L difference; 95%Credible Interval (CrI 0.02 to 0.11; AD = 0.05 L difference; 95%CrI 0.01; 0.09. In terms of SGRQ total score at 12 weeks, indacaterol 75 μg and formoterol were more efficacious than

  2. Daily Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Karin; Giro, Francesca; Graham, Todd;

    Although the ubiquity of social media points to everyday concerns, when it comes to analysing its use by politicians research typically focuses on the exceptional, namely election campaigns. While this provides insight into a highly visible and strategically mediated phase of the political process...... for bottom-up reciprocity between politicians and citizens engaging with social media. We dicuss our findings in light of ongoing debates about postmodern politics and the empowering potential of new media. We argue that social media practices may foster new (more personal, intimate) forms of connectivity......, it ignores the communicative mundaneness of daily democracy. This paper accordingly in- vestigates and compares the ways in which members of parliament (MPs) in three European countries – Italy, Sweden and United Kingdom – utilize Twit- ter during off-peak periods, focusing on the extent to which social...

  3. 几种替代杀线剂对甘薯茎线虫的毒力与活性%Toxicity and bioactivity of several alternative nematocides against Ditylenchus destructor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高德良; 于伟丽; 苗建强; 刘峰

    2011-01-01

    采用熏蒸法和浸渍法测定了4种土壤熏蒸杀线剂和6种非熏蒸杀线剂对甘薯茎线虫的毒力,在此基础上以各药剂的致死中浓度剂量处理线虫,设置不同时间处理,观察了药剂对线虫的活性动态变化.结果表明:熏蒸杀线剂棉隆、1,3-二氯丙烯、威百亩、氯化苦对甘薯茎线虫的LC50依次为0.49、0.89、0.91、3.60 mg·L-1,非熏蒸杀线剂甲维盐、阿维菌素、灭线磷、噻唑膦、涕灭威、丁硫克百威对甘薯茎线虫的LC50依次为31.2、48.1、224.3、288.4、632.3、823.9 mg·L-1.致死中浓度处理线虫后,各药剂校正死亡率随处理时间延长有不同幅度升高,棉隆、1,3-二氯丙烯、阿维菌素和甲维盐对线虫有较高的持续抑制效果,处理48 h脱离药剂处理后校正死亡率没有降低,而传统杀线剂品种灭线磷和涕灭威处理均出现线虫明显复苏的现象.表明棉隆、1,3-二氯丙烯、阿维菌素和甲维盐可以替代传统杀线剂应用于甘薯茎线虫的防治.%By the methods of fumigation and contact assay, this paper determined the toxicity of four kinds of soil fumigants and six kinds of non-fumigants against Ditylenchus destructor. In the meantime, the bioactivity of the agents was evaluated by the corrected mortality rate of D. Destructor after treated with the LC50 dose of each agent for different time. The LC50, values of soil fumigants dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, metham-sodium, and chloropierin were 0.49, 0. 89, 0.91, and 3. 60 mg · L-1, and those of non-fumigants emamectin benzoate, abamectin, ethoprophos, fosthia-zate, aldicarb, and carbosulfan were 31.2, 48.1, 224.3, 288.4, 632.3, and 823.9 mg · L-1, respectively. The corrected mortality rate increased with treating time. After treated with LC50, dose, the inhibitory effects of dazomet, 1,3-dichloropropene, abamectin, and emamectin benzoate kept on a higher level at the time, and the corrected mortality rate did not decline after breaking away

  4. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD. PMID:27485440

  5. Absorption and metabolic fate of bioactive dietary benzoxazinoids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Khem B; Laursen, Bente B; Gregersen, Per L;

    2013-01-01

    of bioactive benzoxazinoids in humans. Methods and results The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of ten different dietary benzoxazinoids were examined by LC-MS/MS by analyzing plasma and urine from 20 healthy human volunteers after daily intake of 143 μmol of total benzoxazinoids from rye bread and rye...

  6. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  7. Bioactive phytochemicals in flaxseed

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Pernilla

    2009-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is rich in health-promoting bioactive compounds. Among plant foods, flaxseed has the highest content of lignans, mainly in the form of secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG). Flaxseed oil also has a very high concentration of the essential omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). This thesis presents studies on both SDG and ALA. An HPLC method for quantification of SDG in hydrolysed flaxseed extracts was developed and used to compare the SDG content in ...

  8. Managing Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Duchenne / Managing Daily Life Print Email Managing Daily Life Environmental accessibility As the person with Duchenne starts ... such as wider doorways and ramps, can make life easier once the person with Duchenne cannot climb ...

  9. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  10. DailyMed Webservices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DailyMed RESTful API is a web service for accessing current SPL information. It is implemented using HTTP and can be thought of as a collection of resources,...

  11. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  12. DailyMed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — DailyMed provides high quality information about marketed drugs. This information includes FDA labels (package inserts). This Web site provides health information...

  13. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Rethna Priya; S. Ravichandran; R. Ezhilmathi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment.Methods:Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains.Results:Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm) and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm). In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm) and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm). Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups.Conclusions:It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  14. Chronic daily headaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache is a descriptive term that includes disorders with headaches on more days than not and affects 4% of the general population. The condition has a debilitating effect on individuals and society through direct cost to healthcare and indirectly to the economy in general. To successfully manage chronic daily headache syndromes it is important to exclude secondary causes with comprehensive history and relevant investigations; identify risk factors that predict its development and recognise its sub-types to appropriately manage the condition. Chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache and medication overuse headache accounts for the vast majority of chronic daily headaches. The scope of this article is to review the primary headache disorders. Secondary headaches are not discussed except medication overuse headache that often accompanies primary headache disorders. The article critically reviews the literature on the current understanding of daily headache disorders focusing in particular on recent developments in the treatment of frequent headaches.

  15. Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily), Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily (GHCN-Daily) dataset integrates daily climate observations from approximately 30 different data sources. Version 3...

  16. Effects of rosuvastatin daily or alternate-day on lipid profile and inflammatory markers%瑞舒伐他汀隔日与每日治疗对血脂异常患者血脂及炎症标志物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静; 徐瑞霞; 刘俊; 贾燕珺; 郭远林; 吴娜琼; 李建军

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究瑞舒伐他汀隔日给药10mg与每日给药10mg对血脂异常患者的血脂和炎症标志物的治疗差异.方法 将37例患者随机分为2组,分别接受瑞舒伐他汀隔日给药10mg (N=19)和每日给药10mg (N=18)治疗6周后,比较用药前后血清中的低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C),和血浆中C-反应蛋白(CRP)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)的浓度变化.结果 服药6周后,隔日治疗组和每日治疗组患者血清LDL-C、CRP、IL-6浓度与治疗前相比均有明显下降,高密度脂蛋白胆固醇和甘油三酯均有明显改善,但治疗效果两组间相比无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 10mg瑞舒伐他汀隔日治疗和每日治疗能同样有效改善中国患者的血脂和炎性标记物水平.%Background Statins are commonly administrated daily,while rosuvastatin can be given every other day due to its longer half-lives.We evaluated the potential efficacy of alternate-day dosing of 10 mg rosuvastatin compared with daily dosing of 10 mg rosuvastatin with regarding to lipid and inflammatory markers in pa-tients with dyslipidemia.Methods Thirty-seven patients were randomly divided into the 2 groups:alternateday group (rosuvastatin 10 mg every other day,n=19) and once-daily group (rosuvastatin 10 mg every day,n=18) for 6 weeks.The primary endpoints of the study were changes of the serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein choles-terol (LDL-C),C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) following 6-week rosuvastatin therapy.Results Baseline characteristics of the 2 groups were well balanced.LDL-C decreased by 37.5% after the once-daily dosing period and by 36.9% after alternate-day dosing period (p > 0.05).Both dosing regimens provided similar improvement in highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride.And also,both dosing regimens significantly decreased serum concentrations of CRP,which had an 18.3% reduction in once-daily dosing and a 16.7% reduction in alternate-day dosing of

  17. The future of bioactive ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hench, Larry L

    2015-02-01

    Two important worldwide needs must be satisfied in the future; (1) treatment of the deteriorating health of an aging population and, (2) decreasing healthcare costs to meet the needs of an increased population. The ethical and economic dilemma is how to achieve equality in quality of care while at the same time decreasing cost of care for an ever-expanding number of people. The limited lifetime of prosthetic devices made from first-generation nearly inert biomaterials requires new approaches to meet these two large needs. This paper advises an expanded emphasis on: (1) regeneration of tissues and (2) prevention of tissue deterioration to meet this growing need. Innovative use of bioactive ceramics with genetic control of in situ tissue responses offers the potential to achieve both tissue regeneration and prevention. Clinical success of use of bioactive glass for bone regeneration is evidence that this concept works. Likewise the use of micron sized bioactive glass powders in a dentifrice for re-mineralization of teeth provides evidence that prevention of tissue deterioration is also possible. This opinion paper outlines clinical needs that could be met by innovative use of bioactive glasses and ceramics in the near future; including: regeneration of skeletal tissues that is patient specific and genetic based, load-bearing bioactive glass-ceramics for skeletal and ligament and tendon repair, repair and regeneration of soft tissues, and rapid low-cost analysis of human cell-biomaterial interactions leading to patient specific diagnoses and treatments using molecularly tailored bioceramics.

  18. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: 84004@cch.org.tw [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  19. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO2-CaO-P2O5 mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  20. Bioactive saponins from Dioscorea futschauensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H W; Hu, K; Zhao, Q C; Cui, C B; Kobayashi, H; Yao, X S

    2002-08-01

    A new anti-neoplastic spirostanol saponin, (25S)-spirost-5-en-3 beta, 27-diol-3O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and three known compounds viz. prosapogenin A of dioscin, dioscin and gracilin were isolated from Dioscorea futschauensis by bioactivity-guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated mainly by means of spectroscopic analysis. Their bioactivity against Pyricularia oryzae and cytotoxic activity on ts-FT210 cell line was evaluated. PMID:12227201

  1. Preparation and bioactivity of sol-gel macroporous bioactive glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhihua Zhou; Jianming Ruan; Jianpeng Zou; Zhongcheng Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Bioactive glass is well known for its ability of bone regeneration, and sol-gel bioactive glass has many advantages com-pared with melt-derived bioactive glass. 3-D scaffold prepared by the sol-gel method is a promising substrate material for bone tissue engineering and large-scale bone repair. Porous sol-gel glass in the CaO-SiO2-P2O5 system with macropores larger than 100 μm was prepared by the addition of stearic acid as a pore former. The diameter of the pore created by the pore former varied from 100 to 300μm. The formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the glass was analyzed by studying the surface of the porous glass by scanning elec-tron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectra after they had been immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for some time, and the porous glass shows good bioactivity.

  2. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  3. Study on bioactivity of NiTinol after surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Chrzanowski

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the work was to assess bioactive properties and corrosion resistance of nickel titanium alloyafter alkali treatment and spark oxidation in Hank’s Balance Salt Solution.Design/methodology/approach: Surfaces of samples were prepared by chemical treatment in NaOHfollowed by heat treatment, and spark oxidation. Corrosion resistance was investigated using potentiodynamicmethod. Chemical composition of the samples surface was measured using SEM EDX. Surface roughness andtopography was analyzed using AFM. Bioactive properties were analyses on the basis of the chemical compositionof the samples immersed in HBSS for 14 days.Findings: The chemical composition analysis of the samples showed that alkali treatment increased significantlynickel content in top layer and also increase in roughness was observed. Spark oxidation results also in roughnessincrease. Corrosion test showed insignificant increase of the corrosion resistance after oxidation while alkalitreatment caused drop of the resistance. Bioactivity study revealed that both applied treatments did not improvebioactive properties of the NiTinol when compared with simply ground samples.Research limitations/implications: Two types of the treatment applied for nickel titanium and intended toimprove bioactive properties were investigated. There was no improvement in bioactivity observed after surfacetreatment. However, alternation in chemical composition, corrosion resistance, and topography were observed.Further analysis of biocompatibility and mechanical properties are required.Practical implications: Both chemical and electrochemical treatment, as presented in the paper, gave promisingresults in terms of wetting ability, topography and apatite film formation, however further study are required toconfirm suitability of the treatments for medical applications.Originality/value: The obtained results revealed unsuitability of the alkali treatment intended to improvebioactivity of the

  4. Azadirachta indica Mediated Bioactive Lyocell Yarn: Chemical and Colour Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with preparing aesthetic textiles using methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. The extract with metallic and natural mordents was utilized to create various shades on lyocell yarn using exhaust technique of dyeing. Aesthetic values of dyed yarns were analyzed in terms of colourimetric parameters, that is, CIE L*  a*  b* and colour fastness. The attachment of Azadirachta indica compounds has been confirmed by using infrared spectroscopy (IR analysis. The dyed samples exhibit moderate to good fastness properties. The study showed that lyocell yarn treated at 15% (owf methanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves can be utilized as effective bioactive textiles. Azadirachta indica is an alternative to synthetic antimicrobial agents. This bioactive yarn can be used in fashion as well as in medicinal industry.

  5. Chelating Tendencies of Bioactive Aminophosphonates

    OpenAIRE

    Kiss, Tamas; Lázár, István; Kafarski, Pawel

    1994-01-01

    The metal-binding abilities of a wide variety of bioactive aminophosphonates, from the simple aminoethanephosphonic acids to the rather large macrocyclic polyaza derivatives, are discussed with special emphasis on a comparison of the analogous carboxylic acid and phosphonic acid systems. Examples are given of the biological importance of metal ion – aminophosphonate interactions in living systems, and also of their actual and potential applicability in medicine.

  6. Bioactivity of Rumex obtusifolius (Polygonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Harshaw Diane; Nahar Lutfun; Vadla Brahmachari; Saif-E-Naser Gadria M.; Sarker Satyajit D.

    2010-01-01

    Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), commonly known as 'broad-leaf dock', is one of the most common Irish wayside weeds, and it also occurs in silage fields, on river banks, in ditches and on waste grounds. The ethnobotanical uses of this species include its use as an antidote to nettle, depurative, astringent, laxative, and tonic, and in the treatment of sores, blisters, burns, cancer and tumors. The bioactivities of n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the leaves...

  7. Physics in daily life

    CERN Document Server

    Hermans, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This book provides answers to everyday questions that any curious mind would ask, like : Why is water blue ? What makes ice so slippery ? How do we localize sound ? How do we keep our body temperature so nice and constant ? How do we survive the sauna at 90 C ? Why do large raindrops fall faster than small ones, and what exactly is their speed ? The answers are given in an accessible and playful way, and are illustrated with funny cartoons. In this book forty "Physics in Daily Life" columns, which appeared earlier in Europhysics News, are brought together in one inspiring volume. As well as being a source of enjoyment and satisfying insights for anyone with some physics background, it also serves as a very good teaching tool for science students. This booklet is a feast of erudition and humour.

  8. Bioactive peptides in dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Marletta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are specific protein fragments that have a positive impact on body functions and conditions and may ultimately influence health. Most of the biological activities are encrypted within the primary sequence of the native protein and can be released by enzymatic hydrolysis and proteolysis or by food processing. Milk is a rich source of bioactive peptides which may contribute to regulate the nervous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems as well as the immune system, confirming the added value of dairy products that, in certain cases, can be considered functional foods. The main biological activities of these peptides and their bioavailability in dairy products are reviewed. The natural concentration of these biomolecules is quite low and, to date one of the main goals has been to realize products enriched with bioactive peptides that have beneficial effects on human health and proven safety. Even though several health-enhancing products have already been launched and their integration in the diet could help in the prevention of chronic diseases such as hypertension, cancer and osteoporosis, more clinical trials are required in order to develop a deeper understanding of the activity of biopeptides on the human physiological mechanisms and also to assess the efficacy of their effects in a long term view. New scientific data are also needed to support their commercialisation in compliance with current regulations.

  9. Hierarchical Structures and Shaped Particles of Bioactive Glass and Its In Vitro Bioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Boonyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bioactive glass particles with controllable structure and porosity were prepared using dual-templating methods. Block copolymers used as one template component produced mesopores in the calcined samples. Polymer colloidal crystals as the other template component yielded either three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM products or shaped bioactive glass nanoparticles. The in vitro bioactivity of these bioactive glasses was studied by soaking the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF at body temperature (37°C for varying lengths of time and monitoring the formation of bone-like apatite on the surface of the bioactive glass. A considerable bioactivity was found that all of bioactive glass samples have the ability to induce the formation of an apatite layer on its surface when in contact with SBF. The development of bone-like apatite is faster for 3DOM bioactive glasses than for nanoparticles.

  10. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  11. Alternative security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview

  12. Secondary Metabolites from Higher Fungi: Discovery, Bioactivity, and Bioproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xiao, Jian-Hui

    Medicinal higher fungi such as Cordyceps sinensis and Ganoderma lucidum have been used as an alternative medicine remedy to promote health and longevity for people in China and other regions of the world since ancient times. Nowadays there is an increasing public interest in the secondary metabolites of those higher fungi for discovering new drugs or lead compounds. Current research in drug discovery from medicinal higher fungi involves a multifaceted approach combining mycological, biochemical, pharmacological, metabolic, biosynthetic and molecular techniques. In recent years, many new secondary metabolites from higher fungi have been isolated and are more likely to provide lead compounds for new drug discovery, which may include chemopreventive agents possessing the bioactivity of immunomodulatory, anticancer, etc. However, numerous challenges of secondary metabolites from higher fungi are encountered including bioseparation, identification, biosynthetic metabolism, and screening model issues, etc. Commercial production of secondary metabolites from medicinal mushrooms is still limited mainly due to less information about secondary metabolism and its regulation. Strategies for enhancing secondary metabolite production by medicinal mushroom fermentation include two-stage cultivation combining liquid fermentation and static culture, two-stage dissolved oxygen control, etc. Purification of bioactive secondary metabolites, such as ganoderic acids from G. lucidum, is also very important to pharmacological study and future pharmaceutical application. This review outlines typical examples of the discovery, bioactivity, and bioproduction of secondary metabolites of higher fungi origin.

  13. Solvent-free microwave extraction of bioactive compounds provides a tool for green analytical chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Ying LI; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview on solvent-free microwave-extraction techniques of bioactive compounds from natural products. This new technique is based on the concept of green analytical chemistry. It has proved to be an alternative to other techniques with the advantages of reducing extraction times, energy consumption, solvent use and CO2 emissions.

  14. Alternative energies; Energies alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonal, J.; Rossetti, P

    2007-07-01

    The earth took millions years to made the petroleum, the gas the coal and the uranium. Only a few centuries will be needed to exhaust these fossil fuels and some years to reach expensive prices. Will the wold continue on this way of energy compulsive consumption? The renewable energies and some citizen attitudes are sufficient to break this spiral. This book proposes to discuss these alternative energies. It shows that this attitude must be supported by the government. It takes stock on the more recent information concerning the renewable energies. it develops three main points: the electricity storage, the housing and the transports. (A.L.B.)

  15. Bioactivity of plasma implanted biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Paul K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII&D) is an effective technique to enhance the surface bioactivity of materials. In this paper, recent progress made in our laboratory on plasma surface modification of biomedical materials is described. NiTi alloys have unique super-elastic and shape memory properties and are suitable for orthopedic implants but the leaching of toxic Ni may pose health hazards in humans. We have recently investigated the use of acetylene, oxygen and nitrogen PIII&D to prevent out-diffusion of nickel and good results have been obtained. Silicon is the most important material in the microelectronics industry but its surface biocompatibility has not been investigated in details. We have recently performed hydrogen PIII into silicon to improve the surface bioactivity and observed biomimetic growth of apatite on the surface in simulated body fluids. Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is widely used in the industry due to its excellent mechanical properties and chemical inertness and by incorporation of elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus, the surface blood compatibility can be improved. The properties as well as in vitro biological test results are discussed in this article.

  16. Bioactive components in fish venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegman, Rebekah; Alewood, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Animal venoms are widely recognized excellent resources for the discovery of novel drug leads and physiological tools. Most are comprised of a large number of components, of which the enzymes, small peptides, and proteins are studied for their important bioactivities. However, in spite of there being over 2000 venomous fish species, piscine venoms have been relatively underrepresented in the literature thus far. Most studies have explored whole or partially fractioned venom, revealing broad pharmacology, which includes cardiovascular, neuromuscular, cytotoxic, inflammatory, and nociceptive activities. Several large proteinaceous toxins, such as stonustoxin, verrucotoxin, and Sp-CTx, have been isolated from scorpaenoid fish. These form pores in cell membranes, resulting in cell death and creating a cascade of reactions that result in many, but not all, of the physiological symptoms observed from envenomation. Additionally, Natterins, a novel family of toxins possessing kininogenase activity have been found in toadfish venom. A variety of smaller protein toxins, as well as a small number of peptides, enzymes, and non-proteinaceous molecules have also been isolated from a range of fish venoms, but most remain poorly characterized. Many other bioactive fish venom components remain to be discovered and investigated. These represent an untapped treasure of potentially useful molecules. PMID:25941767

  17. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine J. Andersen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk.

  18. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  20. Logistiline Daily Service / Paavo Kangur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kangur, Paavo, 1966-

    2005-01-01

    Sügisel ostis Leedu endise majandusministri Valetntinas Milaknise firma Daily Service ära kõik bürootarvetemüüja Reval Impexi aktsiad. 300 miljoni kroonise aastakäibega firma Eesti tütarettevõte prognoosib oma tänavuseks käibeks 31,2 miljonit krooni. Lisa: Daily Service'i struktuur

  1. Bioactive furanonaphthoquinones from Crescentia cujete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C E; Gunatilaka, A A; Glass, T E; Kingston, D G; Hoffmann, G; Johnson, R K

    1993-09-01

    Bioassay-directed fractionation of the MeCOEt extract of Crescentia cujete (Bignonaceae) resulted in the isolation of (2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [1], (2R)-5,6-dimethoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [2], (2R)-5-methoxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [3], 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [4], 5-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [5], 2-isopropenylnaphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione [6], and 5-hydroxydehydroiso-alpha-lapachone [7]. Compounds 1-3 are new, and all compounds are bioactive, showing selective activity towards DNA-repair-deficient yeast mutants. The isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activities of these compounds are reported. PMID:8254347

  2. Daily and Sub-daily Precipitation for the Former USSR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily and hourly meteorological observations for the former USSR initially obtained within the framework of several joint...

  3. Planctomycetes as novel source of bioactive molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia Graça

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes.In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS and polyketide synthases (PKS genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95 % of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85 % amplified with PKS-I primers and 55 % with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8 and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43 % and antibacterial (54 % activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively

  4. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Ana P; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  5. Planctomycetes as Novel Source of Bioactive Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Ana P.; Calisto, Rita; Lage, Olga M.

    2016-01-01

    Marine environments are a fruitful source of bioactive compounds some of which are the newest leading drugs in medicinal therapeutics. Of particular importance are organisms like sponges and macroalgae and their associated microbiome. Planctomycetes, abundant in macroalgae biofilms, are promising producers of bioactive compounds since they share characteristics, like large genomes and complex life cycles, with the most bioactive bacteria, the Actinobacteria. Furthermore, genome mining revealed the presence of secondary metabolite pathway genes or clusters in 13 analyzed Planctomycetes genomes. In order to assess the antimicrobial production of a large and diverse collection of Planctomycetes isolated from macroalgae from the Portuguese coast, molecular, and bioactivity assays were performed in 40 bacteria from several taxa. Two genes commonly associated with the production of bioactive compounds, nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), and polyketide synthases (PKS) genes were screened. Molecular analysis revealed that 95% of the planctomycetes potentially have one or both secondary bioactive genes; 85% amplified with PKS-I primers and 55% with NRPS primers. Some of the amplified genes were confirmed to be involved in secondary metabolite pathways. Using bioinformatic tools their biosynthetic pathways were predicted. The secondary metabolite genomic potential of strains LF1, UC8, and FC18 was assessed using in silico analysis of their genomes. Aqueous and organic extracts of the Planctomycetes were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against an environmental Escherichia coli, E. coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, and a clinical isolate of Candida albicans. The screening assays showed a high number of planctomycetes with bioactive extracts revealing antifungal (43%) and antibacterial (54%) activity against C. albicans and B. subtilis, respectively. Bioactivity was observed in

  6. Progress towards daily "swath" solutions from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Save, H.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Sakumura, C.

    2015-12-01

    The GRACE mission has provided invaluable and the only data of its kind that measures the total water column in the Earth System over the past 13 years. The GRACE solutions available from the project have been monthly average solutions. There have been attempts by several groups to produce shorter time-window solutions with different techniques. There is also an experimental quick-look GRACE solution available from CSR that implements a sliding window approach while applying variable daily data weights. All of these GRACE solutions require special handling for data assimilation. This study explores the possibility of generating a true daily GRACE solution by computing a daily "swath" total water storage (TWS) estimate from GRACE using the Tikhonov regularization and high resolution monthly mascon estimation implemented at CSR. This paper discusses the techniques for computing such a solution and discusses the error and uncertainty characterization. We perform comparisons with official RL05 GRACE solutions and with alternate mascon solutions from CSR to understand the impact on the science results. We evaluate these solutions with emphasis on the temporal characteristics of the signal content and validate them against multiple models and in-situ data sets.

  7. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  8. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-08-04

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits.

  9. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Wild Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Wild fruits are exotic or underutilized. Wild fruits contain many bioactive compounds, such as anthocyanins and flavonoids. Many studies have shown that wild fruits possess various bioactivities and health benefits, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, wild fruits have the potential to be developed into functional foods or pharmaceuticals to prevent and treat several chronic diseases. In the present article, we review current knowledge about the bioactivities and health benefits of wild fruits, which is valuable for the exploitation and utilization of wild fruits. PMID:27527154

  10. Bioactivity of bioresorbable composite based on bioactive glass and poly-L-lactide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-hua; RUAN Jian-ming; ZOU Jian-peng; ZHOU Zhong-cheng; SHEN Xiong-jun

    2007-01-01

    Bioactive and bioresorbable composite was fabricated by a solvent evaporation technique using poly-L-lactide(PLLA) and bioactive glass (average particle size: 6.8 μm). Bioactive glass granules are homogeneously distributed in the composite with microcrack structure. The formation of hydroxyapatite(HA) on the composite in simulated body fluid(SBF) was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS), X-ray diffraction(XRD), and Raman spectra. Rod-like HA crystals deposit on the surface of PLLA/bioactive glass composite after soaking for 3 d. Both rod-like crystals and HA layer form on the surface for 14 d in SBF. The high bioactivity of PLLA/bioactive glass composite indicates the potential of materials for integration with bone.

  11. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Peptides in Foods: An Overview of Sources, Downstream Processing Steps and Associated Bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Maria; Tiwari, Brijesh K

    2015-01-01

    Bioactive peptides and carbohydrates are sourced from a myriad of plant, animal and insects and have huge potential for use as food ingredients and pharmaceuticals. However, downstream processing bottlenecks hinder the potential use of these natural bioactive compounds and add cost to production processes. This review discusses the health benefits and bioactivities associated with peptides and carbohydrates of natural origin and downstream processing methodologies and novel processes which may be used to overcome these.

  12. Hydrogel/bioactive glass composites for bone regeneration applications: Synthesis and characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killion, John A., E-mail: jkillion@research.ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Rd, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland); Kehoe, Sharon, E-mail: sh625116@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 34R2 (Canada); Geever, Luke M., E-mail: lgeever@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Rd, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland); Devine, Declan M., E-mail: ddevine@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Rd, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland); Sheehan, Eoin, E-mail: eoinsheehan@aol.com [Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, MRHT, Tullamore, Co. Offaly (Ireland); Boyd, Daniel, E-mail: d.boyd@dal.ca [Department of Applied Oral Sciences, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 34R2 (Canada); Higginbotham, Clement L., E-mail: chigginbotham@ait.ie [Materials Research Institute, Athlone Institute of Technology, Dublin Rd, Athlone, Co. Westmeath (Ireland)

    2013-10-15

    Due to the deficiencies of current commercially available biological bone grafts, alternative bone graft substitutes have come to the forefront of tissue engineering in recent times. The main challenge for scientists in manufacturing bone graft substitutes is to obtain a scaffold that has sufficient mechanical strength and bioactive properties to promote formation of new tissue. The ability to synthesise hydrogel based composite scaffolds using photopolymerisation has been demonstrated in this study. The prepared hydrogel based composites were characterised using techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), rheological studies and compression testing. In addition, gel fraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), porosity and swelling studies of the composites were carried out. It was found that these novel hydrogel bioglass composite formulations did not display the inherent brittleness that is typically associated with bioactive glass based bone graft materials and exhibited enhanced biomechanical properties compared to the polyethylene glycol hydrogel scaffolds along. Together, the combination of enhanced mechanical properties and the deposition of apatite on the surface of these hydrogel based composites make them an ideal candidate as bone graft substitutes in cancellous bone defects or low load bearing applications. Highlights: • Young's modulus increases with the addition of bioactive glasses. • Hydrogel based composites formed an apatite layer in simulated body fluid. • Storage modulus increases with addition of bioactive glasses. • Compressive strength is dependent on molecular weight and bioactive glass loading.

  13. Going viral: designing bioactive surfaces with bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Olsson, Adam L J; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-12-01

    Bacteriophage-functionalized bioactive surfaces are functional materials that can be used as antimicrobial surfaces in medical applications (e.g., indwelling medical devices or wound dressings) or as biosensors for bacterial capture and detection. Despite offering immense potential, designing efficient phage-functionalized bioactive surfaces is hampered by a number of challenges. This review offers an overview of the current state of knowledge in this field and presents a critical perspective of the technological promises and challenges.

  14. Release of bioactive active iodine in kelp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xiang-wu; WENG Huan-xin; QIN Ya-chao

    2005-01-01

    The release process and influencing factors of bioactive iodine of kelp are systemically studied by leaching experiment. The results showed that the bioactive iodine of kelp can be released rapidly and the principal form of iodine in lixivium is I- . There is a dynamic process between the release and absorption of iodine. With the increase of leaching water, the gross amounts of released iodine rise.There also exists a transforming process among I- , IO3- and organic iodine in lixivium.

  15. Microencapsulation of bioactives for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Maria Inês; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira; Barreiro, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Health issues are an emerging concern to the world population, and therefore the food industry is searching for novel food products containing health-promoting bioactive compounds, with little or no synthetic ingredients. However, there are some challenges in the development of functional foods, particularly in which the direct use of some bioactives is involved. They can show problems of instability, react with other food matrix ingredients or present strong odour and/or flavours. In this co...

  16. Bioactive molecules from sea hares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, H; Sakai, R; Jimbo, M

    2006-01-01

    Sea hares, belonging to the order Opisthobranchia, subclass Gastropoda, are mollusks that have attracted many researchers who are interested in the chemical defense mechanisms of these soft and "shell-less" snails. Numbers of small molecules of dietary origin have been isolated from sea hares and some have ecologically relevant activities, such as fish deterrent activity or toxicity. Recently, however, greater attention has been paid to biomedically interesting sea hare isolates such as dolastatins, a series of antitumor peptide/macrolides isolated from Dolabella auricularia. Another series of bioactive peptide/macrolides, as represented by aplyronines, have been isolated from sea hares in Japanese waters. Although earlier studies indicated the potent antitumor activity of aplyronines, their clinical development has never been conducted because of the minute amount of compound available from the natural source. Recent synthetic studies, however, have made it possible to prepare these compounds and analogs for a structure-activity relationship study, and started to uncover their unique action mechanism towards their putative targets, microfilaments. Here, recent findings of small antitumor molecules isolated from Japanese sea hares are reviewed. Sea hares are also known to produce cytotoxic and antimicrobial proteins. In contrast to the small molecules of dietary origin, proteins are the genetic products of sea hares and they are likely to have some primary physiological functions in addition to ecological roles in the sea hare. Based on the biochemical properties and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins, we propose that they belong to one family of molecule, the "Aplysianin A family," although their molecular weights are apparently divided into two groups. Interestingly, the active principles in Aplysia species and Dolabella auricularia were shown to be L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO), a flavin enzyme that oxidizes an alpha-amino group of the substrate with

  17. Bioactivity of Rumex obtusifolius (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshaw Diane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae, commonly known as 'broad-leaf dock', is one of the most common Irish wayside weeds, and it also occurs in silage fields, on river banks, in ditches and on waste grounds. The ethnobotanical uses of this species include its use as an antidote to nettle, depurative, astringent, laxative, and tonic, and in the treatment of sores, blisters, burns, cancer and tumors. The bioactivities of n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the leaves of R. obtusifolius were assessed using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, the newly developed micro-titer-based antimicrobial assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth, and the brine shrimp lethality assay. The most potent free radical scavenging activity was displayed by the MeOH extract with a RC50 value of 7.80 x 10-2 mg/mL. Among the fractions obtained from solid-phase extraction (SPE of the MeOH extract, the 50% aqueous methanolic SPE fraction exhibited the highest levels of free radical scavenging property (RC50 = 1.05 x 10-2 mg/mL. While the n-hexane extract did not show any antibacterial activity at test concentrations, the DCM extract was active only against Escherichia coli. However, the MeOH extract as well as the 50% and 80% SPE fractions of the MeOH extract showed significant antibacterial property against all bacterial strains tested. None of the extracts or fractions exhibited any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps.

  18. Tractor Operation and Daily Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, J. M.; And Others

    Written for the tractor operator, the manual describes, with the aid of colored illustrations and diagrams, the tasks involved in the proper operation and daily maintenance of tractors. It offers explanations for the desirability of the various servicing and adjustment operations, as well as guidelines for tractor operation and safety. The…

  19. Digital daily cycles of individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We...

  20. On polar daily geomagnetic variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Michelis

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the nature of the daily magnetic field perturbations produced by ionospheric and magnetospheric currents at high latitudes. We analyse the hourly means of the X and Y geomagnetic field components recorded by a meridian chain of permanent geomagnetic observatories in the polar region of the Northern Hemisphere during a period of four years (1995-1998 around the solar minimum. We apply a mathematical method, known as natural orthogonal component (NOC, which is capable of characterizing the dominant modes of the geomagnetic field daily variability through a set of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. Using the first two modes we reconstruct a two-dimensional equivalent current representation of the ionospheric electric currents, which contribute substantially to the geomagnetic daily variations. The obtained current structures resemble the equivalent current patterns of DP2 and DP1. We characterize these currents by studying their evolution with the geomagnetic activity level and by analysing their dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field. The obtained results support the idea of a coexistence of two main processes during all analysed period although one of them, the directly driven process, represents the dominant component of the geomagnetic daily variation.

  1. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Lehmann, Sune; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-10-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness) to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  2. Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talayeh eAledavood

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, from personal traits (morningness/eveningness to variation in activity level and external constraints, and outline possibilities for future research.

  3. Facilitated Uptake of a Bioactive Metabolite of Maritime Pine Bark Extract (Pycnogenol) into Human Erythrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Max Kurlbaum; Melanie Mülek; Petra Högger

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other t...

  4. GC/MS DETERMINATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS OF PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Priya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bioactive components of Pleurotus ostreatus have been evaluated using GC/MS. The chemical compositions of the hydroalcholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus were investigated using Perkin-Elmer Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry, while the mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST library. GC/MS analysis of hydroalcholic extract of Pleurotus ostreatus revealed the existence of Cholestane-3,7,1,25-tetrol tetraacetate,(3a,5a,7a,12 a-55.20, 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid,methyl ester(E,E-18.55,14,17- Octadecadienoic acid,methyl ester(E,E-5.59,Pentadecanoic acid, ethyl ester-3.84.. The results of this study offer a platform for using Pleurotus ostreatus as herbal alternative for the current synthetic antimicrobial agents.

  5. Bioactivity of microencapsulated soursop seeds extract on Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Barros Gomes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioactivity of microencapsulated extract from the soursop seeds, Annona muricata L. ( Annonaceae , on diamondback moth, Plutella xylostela L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae . Microencapsulation was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer model B-290 using 50mL of ethanolic and hexanic extracts plus 150mL of ethanol and 150mL of ultrapure water, mixed with aerosil (first polymer or arabic gum (second polymer. It was possible to microencapsulate the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds only by using the polymer arabic gum at 20%. The microencapsulated extract caused significant acute toxicity (LC50=258mg L-1 and chronic effects, especially reduction of larval viability and increased larval stage. We concluded that the microencapsulation of the ethanolic extract of soursop seeds can be a viable alternative for controlling diamondback moth with possible gains for the environment.

  6. Pressurization of bioactive bone cement in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, H; Iida, H; Kawanabe, K; Okada, Y; Oka, M; Masuda, T; Kitamura, Y; Nakamura, T

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a bioactive bone cement consisting of MgO-CaO-SiO2-P2O5-CaF2 glass-ceramic powder (AW glass-ceramic powder), silica glass powder as an inorganic filler, and bisphenol-a-glycidyl methacrylate (bis-GMA) based resin as an organic matrix. The efficacy of this bioactive bone cement was investigated by evaluating its pressurization in a 5-mm hole and small pores using a simulated acetabular cavity. Two types of acetabular components were used (flanged and unflanged sockets) and a commercially available polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement (CMW 1 Radiopaque Bone Cement) was selected as a comparative control. Bioactive bone cement exerted greater intrusion volume in 5-mm holes than PMMA bone cement in both the flanged and unflanged sockets 10 minutes after pressurization (p anchor holes than PMMA bone cement.

  7. Hierarchically Nanoporous Bioactive Glasses for High Efficiency Immobilization of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, W.; Min, D.D.; Zhang, X.D.;

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive glasses with hierarchical nanoporosity and structures have been heavily involved in immobilization of enzymes. Because of meticulous design and ingenious hierarchical nanostructuration of porosities from yeast cell biotemplates, hierarchically nanostructured porous bioactive glasses can...

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of novel bioactive composite starch/bioactive glass microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, G. A.; Costa, F. J.; Coutinho, O. P.; Radin, S.; Ducheyne, P.; Reis, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the development of composite materials is to combine the most desired properties of two or more materials. In this work, the biodegradable character, good controlled-release properties, and natural origin of starch-based biomaterials are combined with the bioactive and bone-bonding properties of bioactive glass (BG). Novel, bioactive composite starch-BG microparticles were synthesized starting from a blend of starch and polylactic acid (50%/50% wt) with BG 45S5 powder using a simpl...

  9. Daily Occupations among asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morville, Anne-Le

    2014-01-01

    Asylum seekers often find themselves in a situation where the structure and content of daily occupations have been disrupted and they might have limited access to paid work and education. Studies have shown that asylum seekers experience occupational deprivation and a change in daily occupations...... which might even influence their identity. Such deprivation can eventually lead to dissatisfaction with everyday life and to occupational dysfunction, i.e. a decline in ADL ability. Asylum seekers are a group who are more likely to suffer from health problems than the background population. Especially...... torture survivors suffer from ill health. Pain and psychological symptoms are among the most frequent health issues for both asylum seekers and torture survivors and may cause occupation-related problems. The overarching aim of this thesis was to investigate how staying in an asylum centre influenced...

  10. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  11. Perspectives on daily cannabis use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbæk, Mette; Asmussen Frank, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    AIM - To discuss similarities and differences in the way cannabis users with and without treatment experiences present their trajectories into daily use of cannabis. To observe the differences in patterns between the cannabis users’ descriptions of their recreational use and the development from...... a recreational to a more problematic use of cannabis. METHODS - Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 adult cannabis users in Denmark. All respondents used cannabis daily. The respondents were 22-61 years old; 16 had had experiences with cannabis treatment while 16 had not. By using a mixed sample...... of respondents with and without treatment experiences, we were able to compare perspectives on cannabis initiation and trajectories not commonly examined. FINDINGS - All the respondents had started to use cannabis socially as adolescents in the company of peers, using it with specific peer groups...

  12. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  13. Methods of Manufacturing Bioactive Gels from Extracellular Matrix Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, Kimberly A. (Inventor); Stuart, Katherine A. (Inventor); Janis, Abram D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is directed to methods of manufacturing bioactive gels from ECM material, i.e., gels which retain bioactivity, and can serve as scaffolds for preclinical and clinical tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches to tissue reconstruction. The manufacturing methods take advantage of a new recognition that bioactive gels from ECM material can be created by digesting particularized ECM material in an alkaline environment and neutralizing to provide bioactive gels.

  14. Alternative Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your chapter: search by state Home > Alzheimer's Disease > Treatments > Alternative Treatments Overview What Is Dementia? What Is Alzheimer's? Younger/Early Onset Facts and Figures Know the 10 Signs Stages Inside the Brain: ...

  15. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  16. Comparative study of chromatographic medium-associated mass and potential antitumor activity loss with bioactive extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2013-04-26

    Natural product drug discovery programs often rely on the use of silica (Si) gel, reversed-phase media, or size-exclusion resins (e.g., RP-C18, Sephadex LH-20) for compound purification. The synthetic polymer-based sorbent Diaion HP20SS (cross-linked polystyrene matrix) is used as an alternative to prepare purified natural product libraries. To evaluate the impact of chromatographic media on the isolation of biologically active, yet chromatographically unstable natural products, Diaion HP20SS was evaluated side-by-side with normal-phase sorbents for irreversible binding of extract constituents and their effects on bioactivity. An array of chemically diverse natural product-rich extracts was selected as a test panel, and a cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was employed to monitor potential change(s) in bioactivity. Silica gel caused significant irreversible binding of three out of 10 extracts. Curcuma longa, Saururus cernuus, and Citrus reticulata extracts showed decreased HIF-1 inhibitory activity after elution through Si gel. An additional nonpolar column wash of HP20SS with EtOAc retained considerable bioactivities of active extracts. In general, Si gel produced the greatest loss of bioactivity. However, HP20SS elution reduced significantly HIF-1 inhibitory activity of certain extracts (e.g., Asimina triloba). PMID:23441686

  17. Preparation of bioactive glasses with controllable degradation behavior and their bioactive characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO AiHua; WANG DePing; FU Qiang; HUANG WenHai; Mohamed N. RAHAMAN

    2007-01-01

    Bioactive glasses and ceramics have been widely investigated for bone repair because of their excellent bioactive characteristics. However, these biomaterials undergo incomplete conversion into a bone-like material, which severely limits their biomedical application. In this paper, borosilicate bioactive glasses were prepared by traditional melting process. The results showed that borosilicate glasses possessed high biocompatibility and bioactivity. In addition, when immersed in a 0.02 mol/L K2HPO4 solution, particles of a borate glass were fully converted to HA. The desirable conversion rate to HA may be achieved through the adjustment of the B2O3/SiO2 ratio. The results of XRD and FTIR analysis indicated that the degradation product was carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite, which was similar to the inorganic component of bone.

  18. Bioactive Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Elissawy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  19. Glutathione conjugation as a bioactivation reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladeren, P.J. van

    2000-01-01

    In general, glutathione conjugation is regarded as a detoxication reaction. However, depending on the properties of the substrate, bioactivation is also possible. Four types of activation reaction have been recognized: direct-acting compounds, conjugates that are activated through cysteine conjugate

  20. Marine Bioactives and Potential Application in Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alessandra Gammone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP, such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB, macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  1. Bioactive alkaloids in vertically transmitted fungal endophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants form mutualistic symbioses with a variety of microorganisms, including endophytic fungi that live inside the plant and cause no symptoms of infection. Some endophytic fungi form defensive mutualisms based on the production of bioactive metabolites that protect the plant from herbivores in exc...

  2. Citrus Limonoids: Analysis, Bioactivity, and Biomedical Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a review of the chemistry, biochemistry and bioactivity of limonoids occurring in citrus. The review chronologically relates the evolution of research in citrus limonoids beginning with their association with bitterness development in citrus juices. The chemical and biochemical...

  3. Marine bioactives and potential application in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2014-04-30

    An enriched diet with antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic compounds, has always been suggested to improve oxidative stress, preventing related diseases. In this respect, marine natural product (MNP), such as COX inhibitors, marine steroids, molecules interfering with factors involved in the modulation of gene expression (such as NF-κB), macrolides, many antioxidant agents, thermogenic substances and even substances that could help the immune system and that result in the protection of cartilage, have been recently gaining attention. The marine world represents a reserve of bioactive ingredients, with considerable potential as functional food. Substances, such as chitin, chitosan, n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive peptides, can provide several health benefits, such as the reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. In addition, new marine bioactive substances with potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and thermogenic capacity may provide health benefits and performance improvement, especially in those who practice physical activity, because of their increased free radical and Reacting Oxygen Species (ROS) production during exercise, and, particularly, in athletes. The aim of this review is to examine the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactive substances in sports.

  4. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  5. Preparation and bioactive properties of nano bioactive glass and segmented polyurethane composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pérez, Fernando J; Vargas-Coronado, Rossana F; Cervantes-Uc, Jose M; Cauich-Rodríguez, Juan V; Covarrubias, Cristian; Pedram-Yazdani, Merhdad

    2016-04-01

    Composites of glutamine-based segmented polyurethanes with 5 to 25 wt.% bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared, characterized, and their mineralization potential was evaluated in simulated body fluid. Biocompatibility with dental pulp stem cells was assessed by MTS to an extended range of compositions (1 to 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles). Physicochemical characterization showed that composites retained many of the matrix properties, i.e. those corresponding to semicrystalline elastomeric polymers as they exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg) between -41 and -36℃ and a melting temperature (Tm) between 46 and 49℃ in agreement with X-ray reflections at 23.6° and 21.3°. However, with bioactive glass nanoparticles addition, tensile strength and strain were reduced from 22.2 to 12.2 MPa and 667.2 to 457.8%, respectively with 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. Although Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy did not show evidence of mineralization after conditioning of these composites in simulated body fluid, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed the formation of an apatite layer on the surface which increased with higher bioactive glass concentrations and longer conditioning time. Dental pulp stem cells proliferation at day 5 was improved in bioactive glass nanoparticles composites containing lower amounts of the filler (1-2.5 wt.%) but it was compromised at day 9 in composites containing high contents of nBG (5, 15, 25 wt.%). However, Runx2 gene expression was particularly upregulated for the dental pulp stem cells cultured with composites loaded with 15 and 25 wt.% of bioactive glass nanoparticles. In conclusion, low content bioactive glass nanoparticles and segmented polyurethanes composites deserve further investigation for applications such as guided bone regeneration membranes, where osteoconductivity is desirable but not a demanding mechanical performance.

  6. Bioactive macroporous titanium implants highly interconnected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparrós, Cristina; Ortiz-Hernandez, Mónica; Molmeneu, Meritxell; Punset, Miguel; Calero, José Antonio; Aparicio, Conrado; Fernández-Fairén, Mariano; Perez, Román; Gil, Francisco Javier

    2016-10-01

    Intervertebral implants should be designed with low load requirements, high friction coefficient and low elastic modulus in order to avoid the stress shielding effect on bone. Furthermore, the presence of a highly interconnected porous structure allows stimulating bone in-growth and enhancing implant-bone fixation. The aim of this study was to obtain bioactive porous titanium implants with highly interconnected pores with a total porosity of approximately 57 %. Porous Titanium implants were produced by powder sintering route using the space holder technique with a binder phase and were then evaluated in an in vivo study. The size of the interconnection diameter between the macropores was about 210 μm in order to guarantee bone in-growth through osteblastic cell penetration. Surface roughness and mechanical properties were analyzed. Stiffness was reduced as a result of the powder sintering technique which allowed the formation of a porous network. Compression and fatigue tests exhibited suitable properties in order to guarantee a proper compromise between mechanical properties and pore interconnectivity. Bioactivity treatment effect in novel sintered porous titanium materials was studied by thermo-chemical treatments and were compared with the same material that had undergone different bioactive treatments. Bioactive thermo-chemical treatment was confirmed by the presence of sodium titanates on the surface of the implants as well as inside the porous network. Raman spectroscopy results suggested that the identified titanate structures would enhance in vivo apatite formation by promoting ion exchange for the apatite formation process. In vivo results demonstrated that the bioactive titanium achieved over 75 % tissue colonization compared to the 40 % value for the untreated titanium. PMID:27582071

  7. Cosmic alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  8. Chronic Daily Headache - A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic Daily Headache (CDH generally refers to frequent headache occuring more than 15 days/month for over three months. Such headaches may be primary or secondary - the latter referring to headaches related to identifiable intra and extracranial vascular or other pathologies or systemic illnesses. The primary type may be subclassified as short and long lasting ones, depending upon whether the headache spells are more or less than four hours in duration. The present review would deal with the four major types of long lasting primary CDH which include Chronic migraine (CM, Chronic tension type headache (CTTH, New daily persistent headache (NDPH and Hemicrania continua (HC. The first part of the article would focus on the clinical pattern recognising features of these types. The relationship of medication overuse to CM would be critically evaluated. In the second part, the status of CDH in the recently proposed classification of headache disorders by the International Headache Society would be briefly evaluated. In the next section the clinical Profile or CDH in Indian patients would be highlighted based on available published data. Lastly, the pathophysiology of this vexing condition would be discussed specially in relation to CM and postulating on how it may evolve from episodic migraine.

  9. Intent to Quit among Daily and Non-Daily College Student Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, E. A.; Berg, C. J.; Nehl, E. J.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Buchanan, T. S.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of young adult smoking, we examined (i) psychosocial factors and substance use among college students representing five smoking patterns and histories [non-smokers, quitters, native non-daily smokers (i.e. never daily smokers), converted non-daily smokers (i.e. former daily smokers) and daily smokers] and (ii) smoking…

  10. Growing Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2014-01-01

    From 2014, Anhui Province will pilot a reform of the residential land market in China, thus integrating rural Anhui in the national housing market. In contrast, artist and activist Ou Ning has proposed the Bishan time money currency, intending to establish an alternative economic circuit in Bishan...

  11. Electrophoretic deposition of chitosan/45S5 bioactive glass composite coatings doped with Zn and Sr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eMiola

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the original 45S5 bioactive glass (BG was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6% mol in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation, Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology, while compositional analysis (EDS demonstrated the effective addition of these elements inside the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF up to one month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD. Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD. The stability of the suspension was analysed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, while the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behaviour of 45S5-Sr containing coating, while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation.

  12. Electrophoretic Deposition of Chitosan/45S5 Bioactive Glass Composite Coatings Doped with Zn and Sr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miola, Marta; Verné, Enrica; Ciraldo, Francesca Elisa; Cordero-Arias, Luis; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    In this research work, the original 45S5 bioactive glass was modified by introducing zinc and/or strontium oxide (6 mol%) in place of calcium oxide. Sr was added for its ability to stimulate bone formation and Zn for its role in bone metabolism, antibacterial properties, and anti-inflammatory effect. The glasses were produced by means of melting and quenching process. SEM and XRD analyses evidenced that Zr and Sr introduction did not modify the glass structure and morphology while compositional analysis (EDS) demonstrated the effective incorporation of these elements in the glass network. Bioactivity test in simulated body fluid (SBF) up to 1 month evidenced a reduced bioactivity kinetics for Zn-doped glasses. Doped glasses were combined with chitosan to produce organic/inorganic composite coatings on stainless steel AISI 316L by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Two EPD processes were considered for coating development, namely direct current EPD (DC-EPD) and alternating current EPD (AC-EPD). The stability of the suspension was analyzed and the deposition parameters were optimized. Tape and bending tests demonstrated a good coating-substrate adhesion for coatings containing 45S5-Sr and 45S5-ZnSr glasses, whereas the adhesion to the substrate decreased by using 45S5-Zn glass. FTIR analyses demonstrated the composite nature of coatings and SEM observations indicated that glass particles were well integrated in the polymeric matrix, the coatings were fairly homogeneous and free of cracks; moreover, the AC-EPD technique provided better results than DC-EPD in terms of coating quality. SEM, XRD analyses, and Raman spectroscopy, performed after bioactivity test in SBF solution, confirmed the bioactive behavior of 45S5-Sr-containing coating while coatings containing Zn exhibited no hydroxyapatite formation. PMID:26539431

  13. Three-dimensional, bioactive, biodegradable, polymer-bioactive glass composite scaffolds with improved mechanical properties support collagen synthesis and mineralization of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Helen H; El-Amin, Saadiq F; Scott, Kimberli D; Laurencin, Cato T

    2003-03-01

    In the past decade, tissue engineering-based bone grafting has emerged as a viable alternative to biological and synthetic grafts. The biomaterial component is a critical determinant of the ultimate success of the tissue-engineered graft. Because no single existing material possesses all the necessary properties required in an ideal bone graft, our approach has been to develop a three dimensional (3-D), porous composite of polylactide-co-glycolide (PLAGA) and 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) that is biodegradable, bioactive, and suitable as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering (PLAGA-BG composite). The objectives of this study were to examine the mechanical properties of a PLAGA-BG matrix, to evaluate the response of human osteoblast-like cells to the PLAGA-BG composite, and to evaluate the ability of the composite to form a surface calcium phosphate layer in vitro. Structural and mechanical properties of PLAGA-BG were measured, and the formation of a surface calcium phosphate layer was evaluated by surface analysis methods. The growth and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells on PLAGA-BG were also examined. A hypothesis was that the combination of PLAGA with BG would result in a biocompatible and bioactive composite, capable of supporting osteoblast adhesion, growth and differentiation, with mechanical properties superior to PLAGA alone. The addition of bioactive glass granules to the PLAGA matrix resulted in a structure with higher compressive modulus than PLAGA alone. Moreover, the PLAGA-BA composite was found to be a bioactive material, as it formed surface calcium phosphate deposits in a simulated body fluid (SBF), and in the presence of cells and serum proteins. The composite supported osteoblast-like morphology, stained positively for alkaline phosphatase, and supported higher levels of Type I collagen synthesis than tissue culture polystyrene controls. We have successfully developed a degradable, porous, polymer bioactive glass composite possessing

  14. Influence of barium substitution on bioactivity, thermal and physico-mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arepalli, Sampath Kumar, E-mail: askumar.rs.cer11@iitbhu.ac.in; Tripathi, Himanshu; Vyas, Vikash Kumar; Jain, Shubham; Suman, Shyam Kumar; Pyare, Ram; Singh, S.P., E-mail: spsinghceram@gmail.com

    2015-04-01

    Barium with low concentration in the glasses acts as a muscle stimulant and is found in human teeth. We have made a primary study by substituting barium in the bioactive glass. The chemical composition containing (46.1 − X) SiO{sub 2−}–24.3 Na{sub 2}O–26.9 CaO–2.6 P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, where X = 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 mol% of BaO was chosen and melted in an electric furnace at 1400 ± 5 °C. The glasses were characterized to determine their use in biomedical applications. The nucleation and crystallization regimes were determined by DTA and the controlled crystallization was carried out by suitable heat treatment. The crystalline phase formed was identified by using XRD technique. Bioactivity of these glasses was assessed by immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various time periods. The formation of hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer was identified by FTIR spectrometry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and XRD which showed the presence of HCA as the main phase in all tested bioactive glass samples. Flexural strength and densities of bioactive glasses have been measured and found to increase with increasing the barium content. The human blood compatibility of the samples was evaluated and found to be pertinent. - Highlights: • In vitro bioactivity of soda-lime–baria-phospho-silicate glass was investigated. • HCA formed on surface of glasses was confirmed by XRD, SEM and FTIR spectrometry. • Mechanical properties of glasses were found to increase with barium addition. • Hemolysis showed that 1.2 mol% BaO bioactive glass exhibited better biocompatibility. • Barium substituted bioactive glasses can be used as bone implants.

  15. Coloristic and antimicrobial behaviour of polymeric substrates using bioactive substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, D.; Vrînceanu, N.; Oancea, S.; Rîmbu, C.

    2016-08-01

    A major concern in reducing microbial contamination of healthcare and hygiene products motivated us to seek viable alternatives in order to create such barriers. The antimicrobial and anti-oxidant effects of natural extracts are well-known, their application onto polymeric supports is still challenging in terms of investigation. To our knowledge, the method of natural dyeing of different polymeric substrates using bioactive substances derived from black currant and green walnut shells, in conjunction with biomordants, and their long term effects have not been very consistently reported. The main objective of the study is based on the comparative study of different polymeric fibrous substrates dyed by means of laboratory scaled classic methodology with extracts from black currant fruits and green walnut shells, with the assistance of conventional and biomordants (copper sulphate, citric and tannic acids). The assistance of biomordant in the dyeing process seems to conduct to improved synergetic colouring and antibacterial performances. The main results demonstrated that the extract of green walnut shells reinforced by the biomordants solutions expressed the best antimicrobial behaviour. The present research is a milestone in the identification of potential technological alternatives applied in dyeing of synthetic and natural textile supports, quantified and controlled by antimicrobial response correlated with colorimetric features.

  16. NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (or daily OISST) is an analysis constructed by combining observations from different platforms...

  17. CDC WONDER: Daily Fine Particulate Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning...

  18. Daily Medicine Record for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Daily Medicine Record for Your Child (English) Share Tweet Linkedin ... Age: ____ 2 years old___ Weight: ___ 30 pounds ___ Daily Medicine Record Child’s name: ___________________ Today’s date: _________________ Age: ____________ Weight: ________________ (pounds) ...

  19. Global Daily Climatology Network: Kazakhstan subset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of in situ daily meteorological observations for Kazakhstan within the framework of joint efforts to create Global Daily Climatology...

  20. Bioactivity of propolis from different geographical origins on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Maldonado, Luis M; Alvarez, Alejandro R; Eguaras, Martín J; Marcangeli, Jorge A

    2010-06-01

    Varroa destructor is an ectoparasitic mite that affects colonies of honey bee Apis mellifera worldwide. In the last years, substances of botanical origin have emerged as natural alternative acaricides to diminish the population levels of the mite. In the present work, the bioactivity of propolis from different geographical locations of Pampean region from Argentina on V. destructor was evaluated. Fourteen propolis samples were organoleptic and physicochemically characterized and, by means topical applications, their activity was tested on mites. All propolis had a homogeneous composition and the bioactivity levels against mites were comparable among the different propolis samples. The percentage of mites killed by the treatments ranged between 60.5% and 90% after 30 s of exposure. Thus, V. destructor was highly susceptible to propolis. Moreover, the mites remained anesthetized during the first hours after topical treatment. The results suggest that propolis from Argentinean pampas could be incorporated in honey bee colonies as acaricidal treatment by spraying.

  1. Microwave-assisted rapid discharge sintering of a bioactive glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, Kevin P; Twomey, Barry; Breen, Aidan; Dowling, Denis P; Stanton, Kenneth T

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glass-ceramics have been developed as successful bone graft materials. Although conventional sintering in an electrically-heated furnace is most commonly used, an alternative microwave plasma batch processing technique, known as rapid discharge sintering (RDS), is examined to crystallise the metastable base glass to form one or more ceramic phases. Apatite-mullite glass-ceramics (AMGC) were examined to elucidate the effects of RDS on the crystallization of a bioactive glass-ceramic. By increasing the fluorine content of the glass, the fluorapatite (FAp) and mullite crystallization onset temperatures can be reduced. Samples were sintered in a hydrogen and hydrogen/nitrogen discharge at temperatures of ≈800 and 1000 °C respectively with the higher sintering temperature required to form mullite. Results show that the material can be densified and crystallised using RDS in a considerably shorter time than conventional sintering due to heating and cooling rates of ≈400 °C/min. PMID:21574014

  2. Physiological removal of silicon from bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Garino, J. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery; Flaitz, C.M. [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Div. of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology; Ducheyne, P. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Bioactive glass granules were implanted in the paraspinal muscle and tibiae of rabbits in order to determine the pathway of the silicon released from bioactive glass in vivo. We traced and quantified the silicon released by obtaining 24-hour urine samples, as well as blood samples for up to 7 months after implantation. Furthermore, local muscle and bone tissue as well as the following organs were resected for chemical and histopathological analyses: brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus. The concentrations of silicon found in the urine were well below saturation and no accumulation of silicon was found in the major organs after silicon excretion had halted. The removal of silicon from the body matrix was slower overall compared to an intramuscular site, taking a total of 24 weeks versus 19 weeks to complete silicon removal, respectively. (orig.)

  3. Bioactivity of mica/apatite glass ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bioactivity of mica/apatite glass ceramic composites, including the in vitro behavior in simulated body fluid and the histological appearance of the interface between the mica/apatite glass ceramics and the rabbit mandible defect in vivo under a dynamic condition. The results show that biological apatite layer forms on the surface of the mica/apatite glass ceramics after 1 d of immersion in the simulated body fluid, and becomes dense after 14 d. In vivo tests indicate that bone formation occurs after implantation for 14 d, and strong bonding of bone to the implant occurs after 42 d. No aseptic loosening occurs during 42 d of implantation. The finding shows that mica/apatite glass ceramics have good bioactivity and osteoconductivity for constructing bone graft, and can be promising for biomedical application.

  4. Bioactive foods and ingredients for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Connie M

    2014-05-01

    Bioactive compounds in foods have been gaining interest, and processes to consider them for public health recommendations are being discussed. However, the evidence base is difficult to assemble. It is difficult to demonstrate causality, and there often is not a single compound-single effect relation. Furthermore, health benefits may be due to metabolites produced by the host or gut microbiome rather than the food constituent per se. Properties that can be measured in a food may not translate to in vivo health effects. Compounds that are being pursued may increase gut microbial diversity, improve endothelial function, improve cognitive function, reduce bone loss, and so forth. A new type of bioactive component is emerging from epigenetic modifications by our diet, including microRNA transfer from our diet, which can regulate expression of human genes. Policy processes are needed to establish the level of evidence needed to determine dietary advice and policy recommendations and to set research agendas.

  5. Bioactive Compounds from Marine Bacteria and Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H.; Lin, Wen H.; Proksch, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Summary Marine bacteria and fungi are of considerable importance as new promising sources of a huge number of biologically active products. Some of these marine species live in a stressful habitat, under cold, lightless and high pressure conditions. Surprisingly, a large number of species with high diversity survive under such conditions and produce fascinating and structurally complex natural products. Up till now, only a small number of microorganisms have been investigated for bioactive me...

  6. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão; Ivano Alessandro Devilla; Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição; Leonardo Luiz Borges

    2015-01-01

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provi...

  7. Purification, structure and function of bioactive peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Eriste, Elo

    2004-01-01

    Peptides are vitally important molecules and many evoke cellular responses. The completion of several genome sequencing projects has revealed a number of new genes. However, as functional peptides often contain posttranslational modifications and/or occur at various lengths, it is of great importance to detect, purify and characterize novel bioactive peptides. To achieve these goals, new methods for peptide detection, isolation and functional characterization have to be d...

  8. Nanoencapsulation of bioactive compounds for food applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sessa, Mariarenata

    2012-01-01

    2010 - 2011 The increase in dietary-intake-related illnesses, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, have made in recent years the development of health-and-wellness promoting foods a priority of the food industry. Clinical studies have demonstrated tangible health benefits that may be derived from the intake of bioactive compounds. However many difficulties are associated with their inclusion in food matrices, due to a very low solubility in water and...

  9. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses: Glass design, structure, bioactivity, cellular interactions, and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Furqan A

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive glasses (BGs) are known to bond to both hard and soft tissues. Upon exposure to an aqueous environment, BG undergoes ion exchange, hydrolysis, selective dissolution and precipitation of an apatite layer on their surface, which elicits an interfacial biological response resulting in bioactive fixation, inhibiting further dissolution of the glass, and preventing complete resorption of the material. Fluorine is considered one of the most effective in-vivo bone anabolic factors. In low concentrations, fluoride ions (F(-)) increase bone mass and mineral density, improve the resistance of the apatite structure to acid attack, and have well documented antibacterial properties. F(-) ions may be incorporated into the glass in the form of calcium fluoride (CaF2) either by part-substitution of network modifier oxides, or by maintaining the ratios of the other constituents relatively constant. Fluoride-containing bioactive glasses (FBGs) enhance and control osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralisation. And with their ability to release fluoride locally, FBGs make interesting candidates for various clinical applications, dentinal tubule occlusion in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. This paper reviews the chemistry of FBGs and the influence of F(-) incorporation on the thermal properties, bioactivity, and cytotoxicity; and novel glass compositions for improved mechanical properties, processing, and bioactive potential.

  10. Once-daily aminoglycoside therapy: potential ototoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, C. M.; Duffull, S. B.; Begg, E J

    1996-01-01

    Current data indicate that once-daily aminoglycoside therapy is as efficacious as traditional multiple daily dosing and equally or less toxic. Our experience with once-daily gentamicin, 6 mg/kg of body weight led to a 10% (3 of 33 patients) occurrence of documented ototoxicity after prolonged aminoglycoside exposure.

  11. A new bio-active glass ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1960 fine ceramics such as alumina have been used side by side with metallic materials for bone and joint replacement. They have high mechanical strength and are free from corrosion problem faced by metals. However they don't bond to the natural living bone and hence are called bio-inactive. This was followed by the development of bio-active glasses and glass-ceramics which bond to the natural bone but have low mechanical strength. In the present work a new bio-active glass-ceramic, based on CaO-SiO/sub 2/-P/sub 2/O/sub 3/-MgO composition, has been developed which has mechanical strength compared to that of a bio-inactive glass ceramic and also bonds strongly to the natural bone. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals wollastanite and apatite phases in the glass ceramic. A new bio-active cement has also been developed which can be used to join broken pieces of bone or by itself at a filler. (author)

  12. Are bioactive-rich fractions functionally richer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ismail, Maznah; Ooi, Der Jiun; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Sarega, Nadarajan; Chan, Kim Wei; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Plant bioresources are relied upon as natural, inexpensive, and sustainable remedies for the management of several chronic diseases worldwide. Plants have historically been consumed for medicinal purposes based on traditional belief, but this trend is currently changing. The growing interest in the medicinal properties of plant bioresources stems from concerns of side effects and other adverse effects caused by synthetic drugs. This interest has yielded a better understanding of the roles of plant bioactive compounds in health promotion and disease prevention, including the underlying mechanisms involved in such functional effects. The desire to maximize the potential of phytochemicals has led to the development of "rich fractions," in which extracts contain bioactive compounds in addition to elevated levels of the primary compound. Although a rich fraction effectively increases the bioactivity of the extract, the standardization and quality assurance process can be challenging. However, the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) system is a promising green technology in this regard. Future clinical and pharmacological studies are needed to fully elucidate the implications of these preparations in the management of human diseases, thereby fostering a move toward evidence-based medicine. PMID:25641328

  13. Transfersomes: self-optimizing carriers for bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Kavita; Gupta, Yashwant; Jain, Anekant; Jain, Sanjay K

    2008-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. The major barrier in transdermal delivery of drug is the skin intrinsic barrier, the stratum corneum, the outermost envelop of the skin that offers the principal hurdle for diffusion of hydrophilic ionizable bioactives. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include iontophoresis, electrophoresis, sonophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, and vesicular system (liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes). Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. Transport of this vesicular system through skin and epithelial hurdle depends upon the flexibility of their membrane, which can be attained using appropriate ratio of surfactant. Transfersomes have shown immense potential in drug delivery across the skin. Recent success also demonstrates the potential of transfersome in vaccine, steroid, protein, and peptide delivery across the skin. It is also used for transporting genetic material and achieving transfection. This review highlights the various aspects of the transferosomes in the effective delivery of drug/bioactives across the skin. PMID:19055232

  14. EFFECTS OF INCORPORATING NATURAL MINERALS ON PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF BIOACTIVE GLASS CERAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Matias Stabile

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two glass-ceramics composition were produced from natural minerals. Quartzes and feldspars were pre-selected on the basis of their purities studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD and chemical analysis. Prepared compositions of glasses precursors were two different theoretical leucite (KAlSi₂O₆ /Bioglass 45S5 (L/Bg ratios. Transformations of raw materials mixtures and glass precursors were studied by differential thermal analyses. On the basis of thermal analysis results, glass ceramics were produced and characterized by XRD. Glass-ceramics were composed of two major crystalline phases, leucite and sodium calcium silicate. Bioactivity tests were performed submerging the glass-ceramics into simulated body fluid (SBF for different periods (1, 5 and 10 days. Bioactive behavior was monitored by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Studied samples were found to be bioactive, in which hydroxyapatite layer was developed within 5 days of contact with SBF.

  15. Mannich reaction: A versatile and convenient approach to bioactive skeletons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selva Ganesan Subramaniapillai

    2013-05-01

    This review gives an insight into the recent applications of Mannich reaction and its variants in the construction of bioactive molecules. Emphasis is given to the Mannich reaction that provides bioactive molecules and/or modifies the property of an existing bioactive molecule. The role of Mannich reaction in the construction of antimalarial, antitumour, antimicrobial, antitubercular, antiinflammatory and anticonvulsant molecules and also the significance of aminoalkyl Mannich side chain on the biological property of molecules is discussed here.

  16. Alternative crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surplus cereal production in the EEC and decreasing product prices, mainly for cereals, has prompted considerable interest for new earnings in arable farming. The objective was to examine whether suggested new crops (fibre, oil, medicinal and alternative grains crops) could be considered as real alternatives. Whether a specific crop can compete economically with cereals and whether there is a market demand for the crop is analyzed. The described possibilities will result in ca. 50,000 hectares of new crops. It is expected that they would not immediately provide increased earnings, but in the long run expected price developments are more positive than for cereals. The area for new crops will not solve the current surplus cereal problem as the area used for new crops is only 3% of that used for cereals. Preconditions for many new crops is further research activities and development work as well as the establishment of processing units and organizational initiatives. Presumably, it is stated, there will then be a basis for a profitable production of new crops for some farmers. (AB) (47 refs.)

  17. History and trends of bioactive glass-ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montazerian, Maziar; Dutra Zanotto, Edgar

    2016-05-01

    The interest around bioactive glass-ceramics (GCs) has grown significantly over the last two decades due to their appropriate biochemical and mechanical properties. The intense research effort in this field has led to some new commercial products for biomedical applications. This review article begins with the basic concepts of GC processing and development via controlled heat treatments of monolithic pieces or sinter-crystallization of powdered glasses. We then go on to describe the processing, properties, and applications of some commercial bioactive GCs and discuss selected valuable reported researches on several promising types of bioactive GCs. The article finishes with a section on open relevant research directions for bioactive GC development.

  18. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Stanton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory and antioxidant peptides.

  19. Bioactive Hierarchical Structures for Genetic Control of Bone Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepulveda

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available For thirty years it has been known that certain compositions of Na2O-CaO-P2O5-SiO 2 glasses will form a mechanically strong, chemical bond to bone. These materials have become known as bioactive glasses and the process of bonding is called bioactive fixation. Bioactive glasses are widely used clinically in the repair of bone defects. Recent research at the Imperial College Tissue Engineering Centre has now established that there is a genetic control of the cellular response to bioactive materials. Seven families of genes are up-regulated when primary human osteoblasts are exposed to the ionic dissolution products of bioactive glasses. The gene expression occurs very rapidly, within two days, and includes enhanced expression of cell cycle regulators. The consequence is rapid differentiation of the osteoblasts into a mature phenotype and formation of large three-dimensional bone nodules within six days in vitro. These cell culture results correlate with extensive human clinical results using the same bioactive material. The new genetic theory of bioactive materials provides a scientific foundation for molecular design of new generation of resorbable bioactive materials for tissue engineering and in situ tissue regeneration and repair. Application of this theory to the synthesis of bioactive foams for tissue engineering of bone is described.

  20. Avicenna’s View on Optimal Daily Water Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fluid intake is an essential factor in having a normal homeostasis. However, proper amount of daily water intake in a healthy individual is controversial. There is a prevalent thought that we all have to drink eight glasses of water daily, however, it lacks enough supportive evidence at least for healthy individuals. Here, we try to clarify this topic from the perspective of Avicenna and traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Methods: The most important traditional Persian medical encyclopedia, Al-Qanun fil-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), was reviewed. Furthermore, Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, IranMedex, and Science Iranian Database (SID) focusing on the keywords “traditional medicine”, “water intake”, “fluid‘’, and “complementary and alternative medicine” were reviewed to find relevant information. Results: Avicenna believed that the demand for daily water is not the same in different individuals. The determinant variables mentioned in his book, The Canon of Medicine, comprises mizaj (temperament), health status, age, sex, season, place, habits, occupation, etc. He believed that water in extra amount quenches the hararat-e-ghariezi, which is the basal internal heat to convey normal homeostasis and metabolism in the body. Conclusion: Several factors determine the actual need of any person to drink water. Consequently, recommending a specific amount of daily water intake for all is illogical. Moreover, important recommendations of TPM sages on an appropriate amount of water intake should be considered to prevent associated disorders.

  1. Investigation of simple daily solar radiation models suitable for use in the design of solar heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillman, S.

    1980-08-01

    Solar heating system simulations typically require hourly weather data and the use of a main-line computer. A simpler alternative is to use daily steps with a model for daily solar collection. This report investigates the accuracy of sinusoidal radiation models for use in solar heating simulation. Accuracy of daily radiation models is assessed in two ways: by a theoretical comparison with hourly weather data, and by analysis of results of daily simulation. Results indicate that a daily radiation model can be designed with errors of less than 2%.

  2. Novel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products

    OpenAIRE

    McCarthy, Aoife Louise

    2013-01-01

    Functional food ingredients, with scientifically proven and validated bioactive effects, present an effective means of inferring physiological health benefits to consumers to reduce the risk of certain diseases. The search for novel bioactive compounds for incorporation into functional foods is particularly active, with brewers’ spent grain (BSG, a brewing industry co-product) representing a unique source of potentially bioactive compounds. The DNA protective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory...

  3. COMPARISON OF BIOACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN OCIMUM SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Caroline Jeba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for health care approaches, resurgence of herbal medicines has taken up great dimensions in changing the health care scenario across the globe. However, identification of the correct species of therapeutic importance is of utmost necessity to deliver quality products to the global market. Hence, modern approach in the standardization of single herbal preparations employing sophisticated techniques is the need of the hour. The evaluation of a product in its entirety, so-called “fingerprinting” can be accomplished by appropriate methods, which may include HPLC, GC-MS, HPTLC-densitometry, FT-NIR, high-field NMR or a combination of these techniques. Using chemical fingerprinting, plants can be demarcated on the basis of their species, strain and geographical origin. Chemical fingerprinting of plants, through chromatographic fingerprinting is highly informative which includes its use as an absolute indicator of the chemical characteristics of plants. Adulterants can be distinguished even in processed samples, enabling the authentication of the drug. Herein, in the present study two varieties of Ocimum species with green and purple coloured leaves collected from Tirunelvelli district commonly known as “Tulasi” in Tamil or “Holy Basil” in English and widely used in both ayurvedic and siddha drugs was subjected to chemical fingerprinting using HPTLC and GC. Moreover, the secondary metabolities such as polyphenols, tannins, and flavonoids were quantified to check the potency of the crude drug material. The bioactive molecule such as eugenol was found to be varying in both the species and the purple variety was found to contain more of the bioactive molecules. The fingerprinting of chemical profile as well as the quantification of the bioactive molecules in the two varieties of Ocimum species exemplified that fingerprinting using analytical techniques are comprehensive and more informative to identify and

  4. Alternative Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planting, A.; De saint Jacob, Y.; Verwijs, H.; Belin, H.; Preesman, L.

    2009-03-15

    In two articles, one interview and one column attention is paid to alternative energies. The article 'A new light on saving energy' discusses the option to save energy by modernising lighting systems in urban areas. The column 'View from Paris' focuses on investment decisions in France with regard to renewable energy and energy savings. The article 'Europe turns a blind eye to big battery' discusses developments in batteries to store energy. The interview concerns fuel cell expert and formerly President of UTC Power Jan van Dokkum. The last article gives a brief overview of the European Energy Research Alliance (EERA) and the challenges this alliance will have to face with regard to climate change and energy security.

  5. Energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English. A special committe of the Canadian House of Commons was established on 23 May 1980 to investigate the use of alternative energy sources such as 'gasohol', liquified coal, solar energy, methanol, wind and tidal power, biomass, and propane. In its final report, the committee envisions an energy system for Canada based on hydrogen and electricity, using solar and geothermal energy for low-grade heat. The committe was not able to say which method of generating electricty would dominate in the next century, although it recommends that fossil fuels should not be used. The fission process is not specifically discussed, but the outlook for fusion was investigated, and continued governmental support of fusion research is recommended. The report proposes some improvements in governmental energy organizations and programs

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Bioactive Composites of Pcl/bioactive Fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Cheah, Chi Mun; Chang, Hengky; Loh, Leonard; Kum, Adeline

    A variety of bioactive composites have been invested over the last two decades as substitute materials for diseased or damaged tissues in the human body. In this paper, bioactive composites were prepared using polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA). The influence of micro-sized and nano-sized HA on composite properties was investigated. The nano-HA was prepared by wet chemical co-precipitation reaction method. Studies of biocomposite specimen morphology were performed by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) and DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) were used to assess the crystal structure of HA and thermal properties of the composites, respectively. The synthesized nano-HA is found to be of high purity HA structure. The relationship between composition, structure and properties was studied. Different methods to prepare uniform composites were tried, and the outcome of this work suggests that by proper manipulation of biodegradable polymers and bioactive ceramics through material design, bioactive composites with controlled properties might be achievable.

  7. Bioactive glass coupling with natural polyphenols: Surface modification, bioactivity and anti-oxidant ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Martina; Corazzari, Ingrid; Prenesti, Enrico; Bertone, Elisa; Vernè, Enrica; Ferraris, Sara

    2016-03-01

    Polyphenols are actually achieving an increasing interest due to their potential health benefits, such as antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and bone stimulation abilities. However their poor bioavailability and stability hamper an effective clinical application as therapeutic principles. The opportunity to couple these biomolecules with synthetic biomaterials, in order to obtain local delivery at the site of interest, improve their bioavailability and stability and combine their properties with the ones of the substrate, is a challenging opportunity for the biomedical research. A silica based bioactive glass, CEL2, has been successfully coupled with gallic acid and natural polyphenols extracted from red grape skins and green tea leaves. The effectiveness of grafting has been verified by means of XPS analyses and the Folin&Ciocalteu tests. In vitro bioactivity has been investigated by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). Surface modification after functionalization and early stage reactivity in SBF have been studied by means of zeta potential electrokinetic measurements in KCl and SBF. Finally the antioxidant properties of bare and modified bioactive glasses has been investigated by means of the evaluation of free radical scavenging activity by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR)/spin trapping technique after UV photolysis of H2O2 highlighting scavenging activity of the bioactive glass.

  8. Estrogen bioactivity in fo-ti and other herbs used for their estrogen-like effects as determined by a recombinant cell bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerter Klein, Karen; Janfaza, Mona; Wong, Jeffrey A; Chang, R Jeffrey

    2003-09-01

    One of the most important issues in women's health concerns the risks and benefits of estrogen replacement therapy. Continual uncertainty and lack of consensus regarding estrogen replacement therapy has driven many women to seek alternative sources of estrogen, including herbal remedies. We adapted a recombinant cell bioassay to measure estrogen bioactivity in herbs. We studied, in vitro, estrogen bioactivity in red clover, dong quai, black cohosh, soy, licorice, chaste tree berry, fo-ti, and hops. Soy, clover, licorice, and hops have a large amount of measurable estrogen bioactivity, as suspected, based on previous reports using other methods. We discovered surprisingly high estrogen activity in extracts of fo-ti not previously reported. Chaste tree berry, black cohosh, and dong quai did not have measurable activity with this method. We also discovered that removal of a glycone group from soy increases its estrogen bioactivity significantly. We conclude that this recombinant cell bioassay for estradiol can be used to measure bioactivity in herbal products. The preparations of fo-ti studied had estrogen activity of 409 +/- 55 pmol/liter estradiol equivalents per microgram of herb, which is 1/300 the activity of 17 beta-estradiol. Clinical studies are underway to determine the estrogen bioactivity in women using dietary supplements containing these herbs. PMID:12970265

  9. Bioactive surfaces with atomic layer deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kvalvik, Julie Nitsche

    2015-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to make bioactive surfaces with atomic layer deposition (ALD). To do this, a new ALD system with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and lysine as precursors was developed with emphasis on studying the effects of pulsing times and deposition temperatures. TTIP was chosen as titanium is regarded to be biocompatible and lysine was chosen as poly-L-lysine is a part of the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and hence affects cell adhesion. The effect of a water pulse...

  10. Bioactive "self-sensing" optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domachuk, Peter; Perry, Hannah; Amsden, Jason J; Kaplan, David L; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G

    2009-12-21

    Free-standing silk films are useful materials to manufacture nanopatterned optical elements and to immobilize bio-dopants such as enzymes while maintaining their biological activity. These traits were combined by incorporating hemoglobin into free-standing silk diffraction gratings to fabricate chemically responsive optofluidic devices responsive to ambient gas conditions, constituting a simple oxygen sensor. This type of self-analyzing optical system is enabled by the unique ability to reproduce high-fidelity optical structures in silk while maintaining the activity of entrapped proteins such as hemoglobin. These bioactive optical devices offer a direct readout capability, adding utility into the bioresponsive material arena. PMID:20087427

  11. Bioactive “self-sensing” optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domachuk, Peter; Perry, Hannah; Amsden, Jason J.; Kaplan, David L.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G.

    2009-01-01

    Free-standing silk films are useful materials to manufacture nanopatterned optical elements and to immobilize bio-dopants such as enzymes while maintaining their biological activity. These traits were combined by incorporating hemoglobin into free-standing silk diffraction gratings to fabricate chemically responsive optofluidic devices responsive to ambient gas conditions, constituting a simple oxygen sensor. This type of self-analyzing optical system is enabled by the unique ability to reproduce high-fidelity optical structures in silk while maintaining the activity of entrapped proteins such as hemoglobin. These bioactive optical devices offer a direct readout capability, adding utility into the bioresponsive material arena. PMID:20087427

  12. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verné, Enrica, E-mail: enrica.verne@polito.it [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Bruno, Matteo [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Miola, Marta [Institute of Materials Physics and Engineering, Applied Science and Technology Department, Politecnico di Torino, C. so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta [Traumatology Orthopedics and Occupational Medicine Dept., Università di Torino, Via G. Zuretti 29, 10126 Torino (Italy); Cochis, Andrea [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Rimondini, Lia [Department of Health Sciences, Università del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”, Via Solaroli 17, 28100 Novara (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario Nazionale per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali, Via G. Giusti, 9, 50121 Firenze (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO{sub 2}–Na{sub 2}O–CaO–P{sub 2}O{sub 5}–FeO–Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and contains magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite – HAp – layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. - Highlights: • An in vitro biological characterization was carried out on ferromagnetic and bioactive composite cements. • No release of iron was revealed in the physiological solution. • Bioactivity tests

  13. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Bioactivity of Chemically Deposited Hydroxyapatite on Polyether Ether Ketone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Almasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyether ether ketone (PEEK is considered the best alternative material for titanium for spinal fusion cage implants due to its low elasticity modulus and radiolucent property. The main problem of PEEK is its bioinert properties. Coating with hydroxyapatite (HA showed very good improvement in bioactivity of the PEEK implants. However the existing methods for deposition of HA have some disadvantages and damage the PEEK substrate. In our previous study a new method for deposition of HA on PEEK was presented. In this study cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cell and apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF tests were conducted to probe the effect of this new method in improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK. The mesenchymal stem cell proliferation result showed better cells proliferation on the treated layer in comparison with untreated PEEK. The apatite formation results showed the growth of the HA on the treated PEEK but there was not any sight of the growth of HA on the untreated PEEK even after 2 weeks. The results showed the new method of the HA deposition improved the bioactivity of the treated PEEK in comparison with the bare PEEK.

  15. Composite bone cements loaded with a bioactive and ferrimagnetic glass-ceramic: Leaching, bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verné, Enrica; Bruno, Matteo; Miola, Marta; Maina, Giovanni; Bianco, Carlotta; Cochis, Andrea; Rimondini, Lia

    2015-08-01

    In this work, composite bone cements, based on a commercial polymethylmethacrylate matrix (Palamed®) loaded with ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic particles (SC45), were produced and characterized in vitro. The ferrimagnetic bioactive glass-ceramic belongs to the system SiO2-Na2O-CaO-P2O5-FeO-Fe2O3 and contains magnetite (Fe3O4) crystals into a residual amorphous bioactive phase. Three different formulations (containing 10, 15 and 20 wt.% of glass-ceramic particles respectively) have been investigated. These materials are intended to be applied as bone fillers for the hyperthermic treatment of bone tumors. The morphological, compositional, calorimetric and mechanical properties of each formulation have been already discussed in a previous paper. The in vitro properties of the composite bone cements described in the present paper are related to iron ion leaching test (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer), bioactivity (i.e. the ability to stimulate the formation of a hydroxyapatite - HAp - layer on their surface after soaking in simulated body fluid SBF) and cytocompatibility toward human osteosarcoma cells (ATCC CRL-1427, Mg63). Morphological and chemical characterizations by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion spectrometry have been performed on the composite samples after each test. The iron release was negligible and all the tested samples showed the growth of HAp on their surface after 28 days of immersion in a simulated body fluid (SBF). Cells showed good viability, morphology, adhesion, density and the ability to develop bridge-like structures on all investigated samples. A synergistic effect between bioactivity and cell mineralization was also evidenced. PMID:26042695

  16. Daily Public Assistance Grants Award Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Daily activity of Public Assistance Grant Awards, including FEMA Region, State, Disaster Declaration Number, Event description, Mission Assigned agency, Assistance...

  17. Antioxidant-enriched leaf water extracts of Cinnamomum osmophloeum from eleven provenances and their bioactive flavonoid glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Lin Wu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activities of water extracts of C. osmophloeum leaves from eleven provenances (CO1-CO11 and their bioactive phytochemicals. Results revealed that leaf water extracts contained antioxidant phytochemicals and showed efficacy as antioxidants. Among varied leaf water extracts, water extract of CO4 showed the highest total phenolic content (160.9 mg/g and superior free radical scavenging ability with the IC50 values of 10.3 and 16.9 μg/mL for DPPH and superoxide radical scavenging assays, respectively. It was also found to exhibit the best metal chelating ability and reducing power. According to the multiple spectral analyses, bioactive phytochemicals of leaf water extracts were flavonoid glycosides, including kaempferol-7-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3,7-O-dirhamnoside. Leaf water extracts of C. osmophloeum with high performance of antioxidant efficacy have great potential as a natural daily supplement.

  18. Use of Jatropha curcas hull biomass for bioactive compost production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, A.K.; Lata [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2009-01-15

    The paper deals with utilization of biomass of Jatropha hulls for production of bioactive compost. In the process of Jatropha oil extraction, a large amount of hull waste is generated. It has been found that the direct incorporation of hull into soil is considerably inefficient in providing value addition to soil due to its unfavorable physicochemical characteristics (high pH, EC and phenolic content). An alternative to this problem is the bioconversion of Jatropha hulls using effective lignocellulolytic fungal consortium, which can reduce the phytotoxicity of the degraded material. Inoculation with the fungal consortium resulted in better compost of jatropha hulls within 1 month, but it takes nearly 4 months for complete compost maturation as evident from the results of phytotoxicity test. Such compost can be applied to the acidic soil as a remedial organic manure to help maintaining sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. Likewise, high levels of cellulolytic enzymes observed during bioconversion indicate possible use of fungi for ethanol production from fermentation of hulls. (author)

  19. Cyndi: a multi-objective evolution algorithm based method for bioactive molecular conformational generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Honglin

    2009-03-01

    other four multiple conformer generators in the case of reproducing the bioactive conformations against 329 structures. The speed advantage indicates Cyndi is a powerful alternative method for extensive conformational sampling and large-scale conformer database preparation.

  20. Quantification and bioaccessibility of california pistachio bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuntao; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2014-02-19

    The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios ( Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three tocols in the skin, nutmeat, and whole nut of California pistachios. The dominant bioactives in whole pistachios are lutein [42.35 μg/g fresh weight (FW)], chlorophyll a (142.24 μg/g FW), γ-tocopherol (182.20 μg/g FW), flavan-3-ols (catechins) (199.18 μg/g FW), luteolin (217.89 μg/g FW), myricetin (135.18 μg/g FW), and cyanidin-3-galactose (38.34 μg/g FW) in each nutrient class. Most phenolics are present in the skin, while the lipophilic nutrients are dominantly present in the nutmeat. Digestion with a gastrointestinal mimic showed pistachio matrices. In conclusion, 9 lipophilic and 11 hydrophilic bioactives in pistachios are systematically quantified.

  1. Quantification and bioaccessibility of california pistachio bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuntao; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Chen, C-Y Oliver

    2014-02-19

    The content of carotenoids, chlorophylls, phenolics, and tocols in pistachios ( Pistacia vera L.) has not been methodically quantified. The objective of this study was to first optimize extraction protocols for lipophilic nutrients and then quantify the content of two phenolic acids, nine flavonoids, four carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and three tocols in the skin, nutmeat, and whole nut of California pistachios. The dominant bioactives in whole pistachios are lutein [42.35 μg/g fresh weight (FW)], chlorophyll a (142.24 μg/g FW), γ-tocopherol (182.20 μg/g FW), flavan-3-ols (catechins) (199.18 μg/g FW), luteolin (217.89 μg/g FW), myricetin (135.18 μg/g FW), and cyanidin-3-galactose (38.34 μg/g FW) in each nutrient class. Most phenolics are present in the skin, while the lipophilic nutrients are dominantly present in the nutmeat. Digestion with a gastrointestinal mimic showed <10% of most hydrophilic compounds are released from pistachio matrices. In conclusion, 9 lipophilic and 11 hydrophilic bioactives in pistachios are systematically quantified. PMID:24460079

  2. Bioactive borate glass coatings for titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddi, Laxmikanth; Brow, Richard K; Brown, Roger F

    2008-09-01

    Bioactive borate glass coatings have been developed for titanium and titanium alloys. Glasses from the Na(2)O-CaO-B(2)O(3) system, modified by additions of SiO(2), Al(2)O(3), and P(2)O(5), were characterized and compositions with thermal expansion matches to titanium were identified. Infrared and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that a hydroxyapatite surface layer forms on the borate glasses after exposure to a simulated body fluid for 2 weeks at 37 degrees C; similar layers form on 45S5 Bioglass((R)) exposed to the same conditions. Assays with MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells show the borate glasses exhibit in vitro biocompatibility similar to that of the 45S5 Bioglass((R)). An enameling technique was developed to form adherent borate glass coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy, with adhesive strengths of 36 +/- 2 MPa on polished substrates. The results show these new borate glasses to be promising candidates for forming bioactive coatings on titanium substrates.

  3. Bioactivation of biomorphous silicon carbide bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Julia; Hoppe, Alexander; Müller, Frank A; Raya, Carmen T; Fernández, Julián M; Greil, Peter

    2010-12-01

    Wood-derived silicon carbide (SiC) offers a specific biomorphous microstructure similar to the cellular pore microstructure of bone. Compared with bioactive ceramics such as calcium phosphate, however, silicon carbide is considered not to induce spontaneous interface bonding to living bone. Bioactivation by chemical treatment of biomorphous silicon carbide was investigated in order to accelerate osseointegration and improve bone bonding ability. Biomorphous SiC was processed from sipo (Entrandrophragma utile) wood by heating in an inert atmosphere and infiltrating the resulting carbon replica with liquid silicon melt at 1450°C. After removing excess silicon by leaching in HF/HNO₃ the biomorphous preform consisted of β-SiC with a small amount (approximately 6wt.%) of unreacted carbon. The preform was again leached in HCl/HNO₃ and finally exposed to CaCl₂ solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared analyses proved that oxidation of the residual carbon at the surface induced formation of carboxyl [COO⁻] groups, which triggered adsorption of Ca(2+), as confirmed by XPS and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy measurements. A local increase in Ca(2+) concentration stimulated in vitro precipitation of Ca₅(PO₄)₃OH (HAP) on the silicon carbide preform surface during exposure to simulated body fluid, which indicates a significantly increased bone bonding activity compared with SiC.

  4. Bioactive compounds: Safety and efficacy (Consensus Meeting - Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Dragsted, L.O.; Elmadfa, I.; Grossklaus, R.; Müller, M.R.; Schrenk, D.; Walter, P.; Weber, P.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of bioactive compounds depend on a few known and unknown parameters. What is a physiologic dose and how can that dose be defined in cases of bioactive compounds with a poor knowledge of supply and distribution? What safety sets are needed? How can individual aspects such as p

  5. Nutrient reference values for bioactives: new approaches needed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biesalski, Hans Konrad; Erdman Jr., John W.; Hathcock, John;

    2013-01-01

    Nutrients can be classified as either "essential" or "non-essential," the latter are also termed bioactive substances. Whereas the absence of essential nutrients from the diet results in overt deficiency often times with moderate to severe physiological decrements, the absence of bioactive substa...

  6. Recent Advances in Separation of Bioactive Natural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任其龙; 邢华斌; 鲍宗必; 苏宝根; 杨启炜; 杨亦文; 张治国

    2013-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are a main source of new drugs, functional foods and food additives. The separation of bioactive natural products plays an important role in transformation and use of biomass. The isolation and purification of bioactive principle from a complex matrix is often inherent bottleneck for the utilization of natural products, so a series of extraction and separation techniques have been developed. This review covers recent advances in the separation of bioactive natural products with an emphasis on their solubility and diffusion coeffi-cients, recent extraction techniques and isolation techniques. This overview of recent technological advances, dis-cussion of pertinent problems and prospect of current methodologies in the separation of bioactive natural products may provide a driving force for development of novel separation techniques.

  7. Avoiding mastoid cavity Problems: Mastoid obliteration using Bioactive glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Shokry, Al`Sayed Hossieni Al`Sayed, Mohammed Fatehy Zidan,

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate bioactive glass as an ideal material for the purpose of mastoid cavity elimination after mastoid surgery to avoid mastoid cavity problems.Materials and methods: In 20 patients diagnosed as cholesteatoma or chronic unsafe ear, we used different surgical techniques according to pathology and situation during surgical exploration, basically adhering to standard principles of eradicating disease in chronic unsafe ear. After performing the canal wall down (CWD or the canal wall up (CWU technique, mastoidectomy was followed by obliteration of mastoid cavity by particulate form Bioglass®. Cases were divided according to operative procedures, type of reconstruction and material used into 3 groups A- Canal wall up mastoidectomy followed by obliteration of mastoid cavity by particulate form Bioglass®. B- Canal wall down mastoidectomy followed by reconstruction of posterior meatal wall and obliteration of mastoid cavity by particulate form Bioglass®. C- Canal wall down mastoidectomy followed by reconstruction of posterior meatal wall by conchal cartilage and obliteration of mastoid cavity by Bioglass®.Results: Bioactiveglass paste is very effective for mastoid obliteration in the three groups with good integration to the surrounding tissues either connective tissue, bone, meninges or lateral dural sinus without any adverse reaction on the dura even with contact to Bioglass®. Infection was seen in 2 cases (10%, however was readily controlled by topical application of antibiotics daily for one week. In both cases no extrusion of the material occurred. Conclusion: The successful formation of bone with elimination of mastoid cavity problems proved that using Bioglass is appropriate for performing clinical mastoid obliteration.

  8. Daily House Price Indices: Construction, Modeling, and Longer-Run Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Wang, Wenjing

    We construct daily house price indices for ten major U.S. metropolitan areas. Our calculations are based on a comprehensive database of several million residential property transactions and a standard repeat-sales method that closely mimics the methodology of the popular monthly Case-Shiller house...... price indices. Our new daily house price indices exhibit dynamic features similar to those of other daily asset prices, with mild autocorrelation and strong conditional heteroskedasticity of the corresponding daily returns. A relatively simple multivariate time series model for the daily house price...... index returns, explicitly allowing for commonalities across cities and GARCH effects, produces forecasts of monthly house price changes that are superior to various alternative forecast procedures based on lower frequency data....

  9. Stochastic Modelling of Daily Rainfall sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buishand, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    Rainfall series of different climatic regions were analysed with the aim of generating daily rainfall sequences. A survey of the data is given in I, 1. When analysing daily rainfall sequences one must be aware of the following points:a. Seasonality. Because of seasonal variation of features of the r

  10. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  11. Daily Oral Language: Is It Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittingham, Jeff L.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the Daily Oral Language (DOL) program aimed at helping students learn mechanics of writing through daily editing exercises. This nine-month study sought to determine if DOL improved editing skills and actual writing skills of seventy fourth-grade students. While the results of this study did not statistically demonstrate the…

  12. Daily Spiritual Experiences and Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einolf, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale (DSES) relates to range of prosocial behaviors, using a large, nationally representative U.S. data set. It finds that daily spiritual experiences are a statistically and substantively significant predictor of volunteering, charitable giving, and helping individuals one knows personally.…

  13. Effect of particle size on the in vitro bioactivity, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass-reinforced polycaprolactone composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) composite films containing 5 wt.% bioactive glass (BG) particles of different sizes (6 μm, 250 nm, 3) and sodium calcium silicate (Na2CaSiO4) phases were formed. The introduction of submicron BG particles (250 nm) was shown to improve the bioactivity of PCL films. In contrast to BG microparticles, the submicron BG particles were distributed on the film surfaces, providing a high surface exposure to SBF with an improved nanotopography. A notable increase in the stiffness and elastic modulus of the composite was also obtained. As compared to submicron BG particles, lower bioactivity and elastic modulus were acquired for PCL/BG nanoparticles. It was also shown that in spite of high specific surface area of the nanoparticles, partial crystallization during mechanical milling and agglomeration of the nanoparticles during processing decrease the bioactivity, hydrophilicity and mechanical response of the BG-reinforced PCL composites. Highlights: → The effect of Bioglass particle size on the in vitro bioactivity of polycaprolactone/Bioglass composites was studied. → Partial crystallization of bioactive glass particles during high-energy mechanical milling was shown. → The submicron BG particles (250 nm) were shown to improve the bioactivity of PCL films. → Lower bioactivity was acquired for the nanocomposite due to agglomeration and partial crystallization. → The hydrophilicity and elastic modulus of the composites were shown to depend on the size of Bioglass particles.

  14. Improved and targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with magnetic layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Anton M.; Gabriel, Samantha A.; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Gould, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of cell biology and the recognition of an increasing repertoire of druggable intracellular therapeutic targets, there remain a limited number of approaches to deliver bioactive molecules to cells and even fewer that enable targeted delivery. Layer-by-layer (LbL) microcapsules are assembled using alternate layers of oppositely charged molecules and are potential cell delivery vehicles for applications in nanomedicine. There are a wide variety of charged molecules that can be included in the microcapsule structure including metal nanoparticles that introduce physical attributes. Delivery of bioactive molecules to cells with LbL microcapsules has recently been demonstrated, so in this study we explore the delivery of bioactive molecules (luciferase enzyme and plasmid DNA) to cells using biodegradable microcapsules containing a layer of magnetite nanoparticles. Interestingly, significantly improved intracellular luciferase enzyme activity (25 fold) and increased transfection efficiency with plasmid DNA (3.4 fold) was observed with magnetic microcapsules. The use of a neodymium magnet enabled efficient targeting of magnetic microcapsules which further improved the delivery efficiency of the cargoes as a consequence of increased microcapsule concentration at the magnetic site. Microcapsules were well tolerated by cells in these experiments and only displayed signs of toxicity at a capsule : cell ratio of 100 : 1 and with extended exposure. These studies illustrate how multi-functionalization of LbL microcapsules can improve and target delivery of bioactive molecules to cells.

  15. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of novel bioactive composite starch/bioactive glass microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, G A; Costa, F J; Coutinho, O P; Radin, S; Ducheyne, P; Reis, R L

    2004-09-01

    The aim of the development of composite materials is to combine the most desired properties of two or more materials. In this work, the biodegradable character, good controlled-release properties, and natural origin of starch-based biomaterials are combined with the bioactive and bone-bonding properties of bioactive glass (BG). Novel, bioactive composite starch-BG microparticles were synthesized starting from a blend of starch and polylactic acid (50%/50% wt) with BG 45S5 powder using a simple emulsion method. Morphological and chemical characterization showed that these particles exhibited a spherical morphology with sizes up to 350 microm and that BG 45S5 was incorporated successfully into the composite particles. Upon immersion in a solution simulating body fluids, for periods up to 3 weeks, their bioactive nature was confirmed, as a calcium-phosphate layer resembling biological apatite was formed onto their surface. The short-term cytotoxicity of these materials was also tested by placing 24-h leachables of the materials extracted in culture medium in contact with a fibroblastic cell line (L929) up to 72 h. At this time period, two biochemical tests--MTT and total protein quantification--were performed. The results showed that these materials are not cytotoxic. These results constitute the basis of future encapsulation studies using bone-acting therapeutic agents such as bone morphogenetic proteins or other bone-relevant factors. The particles developed here may be very useful for applications in which controlled release, degradability, and bone-bonding ability are the main requirements. PMID:15293318

  17. Looking for an Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jack

    1999-01-01

    Argues that high school newspapers might do well to create stronger ties with alternative weeklies. Discusses issues of niche marketing, alternative content, and alternative presentation. Notes that high school papers could learn a lot from alternative newspapers. (SR)

  18. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Albizia anthelmintica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahia K Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Albizia species are rich in phenolics and terpenes in the different plant organs. They are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. So this study investigated the phytochemical and biological activities of Albizia Anthelmintica. Materials and Methods: Column chromatography has been performed for the isolation of compounds. Bioactivity studies of A. anthelmintica leaves were carried out on aqueous ethanol extract and some pure compounds were tested for their antioxidant activities. Results: Eight compounds have been isolated for the first time from A. anthelmintica. The aqueous ethanol extract of A. anthelmintica showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity and significant for both analgesic and antioxidant activities. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-(6β-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside exhibited potent antioxidant scavenging activity towards diphenyl-picrylhydrazine.

  19. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  20. Bioactive glass coatings for orthopedic metallic implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Saiz, Eduardo; Fujino, Sigheru; Oku, Takeo; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2003-06-30

    The objective of this work is to develop bioactive glass coatings for metallic orthopedic implants. A new family of glasses in the SiO2-Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-P2O5 system has been synthesized and characterized. The glass properties (thermal expansion, softening and transformation temperatures, density and hardness) are in line with the predictions of established empirical models. The optimized firing conditions to fabricate coatings on Ti-based and Co-Cr alloys have been determined and related to the glass properties and the interfacial reactions. Excellent adhesion to alloys has been achieved through the formation of 100-200 nm thick interfacial layers (Ti5Si3 on Ti-based alloys and CrOx on Co-Cr). Finally, glass coatings, approximately 100 mu m thick, have been fabricated onto commercial Ti alloy-based dental implants.

  1. Fluorescent Bioactive Corrole Grafted-Chitosan Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Joana F B; Pinto, Ricardo J B; Vaz Serra, Vanda I R C; Silvestre, Armando J D; Trindade, Tito; Neves, Maria Graça P M S; Cavaleiro, José A S; Daina, Sara; Sadocco, Patrizia; Freire, Carmen S R

    2016-04-11

    Transparent corrole grafted-chitosan films were prepared by chemical modification of chitosan with a corrole macrocycle, namely, 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole (TPFC), followed by solvent casting. The obtained films were characterized in terms of absorption spectra (UV-vis), FLIM (fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy), structure (FTIR, XPS), thermal stability (TGA), thermomechanical properties (DMA), and antibacterial activity. The results showed that the chemical grafting of chitosan with corrole units did not affect its film-forming ability and that the grafting yield increased with the reaction time. The obtained transparent films presented fluorescence which increases with the amount of grafted corrole units. Additionally, all films showed bacteriostatic effect against S. aureus, as well as good thermomechanical properties and thermal stability. Considering these features, promising applications may be envisaged for these corrole-chitosan films, such as biosensors, bioimaging agents, and bioactive optical devices.

  2. Bioactive Triterpenes from the Fungus Piptoporus betulinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyad Alresly

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fruiting bodies from the basidiomycete Piptoporus betulinus led to the isolation of a new bioactive lanostane triterpene identified as 3 b -acetoxy-16-hydroxy-24-oxo-5α-lanosta-8- ene-21-oic acid (1. In addition, ten known triterpenes, polyporenic acid A (5, polyporenic acid C (4, three derivatives of polyporenic acid A (8, 10, 11, betulinic acid (3, betulin (2, ergosterol peroxide (6, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (7, and fomefficinic acid (9, were also isolated from the fungus. All isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as against a fungal strain. The new triterpene and some of the other compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  3. Bioactivity and Functionality of Bonghwa Sweetfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Ju Woon; Choi, Jong Il; Song, Beom Seok; Yoon, Yo Han; Sung, Nak Yun; Jeong, Pil Mun

    2010-04-15

    - Smoked sweetfish had higher contents of calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat sodium, and calcium than unsmoked sweetfish - DHA and EPA which are omega-3 fatty acid and have therapeutic effects on arthritis and high blood pressure - Proteins and peptide from sweetfish had various bioactivities such as antioxidation, hypertensive, especially for antiinflammatory, and whitening effects. However no anticancer effect was observed - The proteins and peptide suppressed nitric oxide and cytokines (a-TNF, IL-6, IL-1 beta), and prostaglandin (PGE2) productions, and mRNA related iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which are related to inflammation - The proteins and peptide prevented tyrosinase formation, which is related formation of melanin, and also showed preventive effects of melanin synthesis, antioxidation and anti-aging effects. Thus, the proteins and peptides from sweetfish may be useful source for cosmetics

  4. Bioactive properties of honey with propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osés, S M; Pascual-Maté, A; Fernández-Muiño, M A; López-Díaz, T M; Sancho, M T

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, propolis is used as an innovative preservative and as a bioactive food supplement. Due to its bitter and astringent flavour, propolis is hardly accepted by consumers. The aim of this study was to obtain a likeable food product made with honey and propolis, whose antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties were enhanced in comparison with those of the base honeys used. 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% soft propolis extracts were added to honeys and the products that most appealed to the users were subjected to further research. Total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS free radical and hydroxyl radicals scavenging and anti-inflammatory activities increased in all mixtures. Antimicrobial activity of the combined products showed synergic effects, resulting in higher results than those of the base honeys and propolis extracts. Therefore, honeys enriched with small amounts of propolis extracts are promising functional foods. PMID:26593609

  5. Bioactivity and Functionality of Bonghwa Sweetfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Smoked sweetfish had higher contents of calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat sodium, and calcium than unsmoked sweetfish - DHA and EPA which are omega-3 fatty acid and have therapeutic effects on arthritis and high blood pressure - Proteins and peptide from sweetfish had various bioactivities such as antioxidation, hypertensive, especially for antiinflammatory, and whitening effects. However no anticancer effect was observed - The proteins and peptide suppressed nitric oxide and cytokines (a-TNF, IL-6, IL-1 beta), and prostaglandin (PGE2) productions, and mRNA related iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2), which are related to inflammation - The proteins and peptide prevented tyrosinase formation, which is related formation of melanin, and also showed preventive effects of melanin synthesis, antioxidation and anti-aging effects. Thus, the proteins and peptides from sweetfish may be useful source for cosmetics

  6. Onion, a natural alternative to artificial food preservatives. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Santas, Jonathan; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar; Carbó Moliner, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand of minimally processed foods without synthetic preservatives has led to a growing interest in their replacement for more natural alternatives. Onion is widely used as a food ingredient and it is known as a good source of bioactive compounds, such as sulphur-containing compounds and flavonoids with well known health beneficial effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. Consequently, onion has been proposed as a promising and safer source of food preservatives. The overa...

  7. Bioactivity and mechanical behaviour of cobalt oxide-doped bioactive glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikash Kumar Vyas; Arepalli Sampath Kumar; Sunil Prasad; S P Singh; Ram Pyare

    2015-08-01

    Bioactive glasses are materials capable of bonding implants to tissues. 45S5 Bio-glass® is one such material capable of bonding strongly to bone within 6 weeks. It develops a hydroxy-carbonate apatite layer on the implant that is chemically and crystallographically equivalent to the mineral phase of bone. However, it suffers from a mechanical weakness and low fracture toughness due to an amorphous glass network and is not suitable for load-bearing applications. In order to improve its mechanical strength and bioactivity, the present work explores the effects of cobalt oxide additions. Bioactivity of the glass samples was assessed through their hydroxyapatite formation ability by immersing them in the simulated body fluid for different soaking periods. The formation of hydroxyapatite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, pH measurement and microstructure evaluation through scanning electron microscopy. Densities and mechanical properties of the samples were found to increase considerably with an increase in the concentration of cobalt oxide.

  8. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  9. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  10. Photocurable bioactive bone cement based on hydroxyethyl methacrylate-poly(acrylic/maleic) acid resin and mesoporous sol gel-derived bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesaraki, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports on strong and bioactive bone cement based on ternary bioactive SiO2-CaO-P2O5 glass particles and a photocurable resin comprising hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and poly(acrylic/maleic) acid. The as-cured composite represented a compressive strength of about 95 MPa but it weakened during soaking in simulated body fluid, SBF, qua its compressive strength reached to about 20 MPa after immersing for 30 days. Biodegradability of the composite was confirmed by reducing its initial weight (~32%) as well as decreasing the molecular weight of early cured resin during the soaking procedure. The composite exhibited in vitro calcium phosphate precipitation in the form of nanosized carbonated hydroxyapatite, which indicates its bone bonding ability. Proliferation of calvarium-derived newborn rat osteoblasts seeded on top of the composite was observed during incubation at 37 °C, meanwhile, an adequate cell supporting ability was found. Consequently, it seems that the produced composite is an appropriate alternative for bone defect injuries, because of its good cell responses, high compressive strength and ongoing biodegradability, though more in vivo experiments are essential to confirm this assumption. PMID:27040248

  11. Circadian Role in Daily Pattern of Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael F.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven A.

    2004-03-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies demonstrate that sudden cardiac death, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, and stroke have a 24-hour daily pattern with a broad peak between 9-11am. Such a daily pattern in cardiovascular risk could be attributable to external factors, such as the daily behavior patterns, including sleep-wake cycles and activity levels, or internal factors, such as the endogenous circadian pacemaker. Findings of significant alternations in the temporal organization and nonlinear properties of heartbeat fluctuations with disease and with sleep-wake transitions raise the intriguing possibility that changes in the mechanism of control associated with behavioral sleep-wake transition may be responsible for the increased cardiac instability observed in particular circadian phases. Alternatively, we hypothesize that there is a circadian clock, independent of the sleep-wake cycle, which affects the cardiac dynamics leading to increased cardiovascular risk. We analyzed continuous recordings from healthy subjects during 7 cycles of forced desynchrony routine wherein subjects' sleep-wake cycles are adjusted to 28 hours so that their behaviors occur across all circadian phases. Heartbeat data were divided into one-hour segments. For each segment, we estimated the correlations and the nonlinear properties of the heartbeat fluctuations at the corresponding circadian phase. Since the sleep and wake contributions are equally weighted in our experiment, a change of the properties of the heartbeat dynamics with circadian phase suggest a circadian rhythm. We show significant circadian-mediated alterations in the correlation and nonlinear properties of the heartbeat resembling those observed in patients with heart failure. Remarkably, these dynamical alterations are centered at 60 degrees circadian phase, coinciding with the 9-11am window of cardiac risk.

  12. TRENDS ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR RESVERATROL, A MAJOR BIOACTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, Maria João; Martins, Nuno; Soares, Bruno; Costa Freitas, Ana Maria; Garcia, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4-trans-trihydroxystilbene) is a member of the stilbene group of phenolic compounds, comprising two aromatic rings linked by an ethylene bridge and is considered one of the most promising bioactive compounds due to its bioactivity. Wine is one of the main source of this bioactive compound in Mediterranean diet. Several authors have dedicated their research to the relationship between diet and health, and concerning wine and health studies, ‘‘French Paradox’’ was the starting ...

  13. Cyclodextrins as encapsulation agents for plant bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eva; Grootveld, Martin; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-30

    Plants possess a wide range of molecules capable of improve healing: fibre, vitamins, phytosterols, and further sulphur-containing compounds, carotenoids, organic acid anions and polyphenolics. However, they require an adequate level of protection from the environmental conditions to prevent losing their structural integrity and bioactivity. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides arising from the degradation of starch, which can be a viable option as encapsulation technique. Cyclodextrins are inexpensive, friendly to humans, and also capable of improving the biological, chemical and physical properties of bioactive molecules. Therefore, the aim of this review is to highlight the use of cyclodextrins as encapsulating agents for bioactive plant molecules in the pharmaceutical field.

  14. Development and clinical trial of a novel bioactive bone cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Strontium(Sr)and related compounds have become more attractive in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Previously,we developed a novel bioactive bone cement which is mainly composed of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite(Sr-HA)filler and bisphenol A diglycidylether dimethacrylate(Bis-GMA)resin.This bone cement is superior to conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)bone cement in bioactivity,biocompatibility,and osseointegration.It also has shown sufficient mechanical strength properties for its use in percutaneous vertebroplasty(PVP)and total hip replacement(THR).In this paper,we review the in vitro,in vivo and clinical evidence for the effectiveness of this bioactive bone cement.

  15. Vesicular system: Versatile carrier for transdermal delivery of bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deependra; Pradhan, Madhulika; Nag, Mukesh; Singh, Manju Rawat

    2015-01-01

    The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained immense interest for pharmaceutical researchers. The major hurdle for diffusion of drugs and bioactives through transdermal route is the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin. Currently, various approaches such as physical approach, chemical approach, and delivery carriers have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. This review provides a brief overview of mechanism of drug transport across skin, different lipid vesicular systems, with special emphasis on lipid vesicular systems including transfersomes, liposomes, niosomes, ethosomes, virosomes, and pharmacosomes and their application for the delivery of different bioactives. PMID:24564350

  16. MOPITT Gridded Daily CO Retrievals V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product averages the daily L2 swath data into a 1x1 degree grid. Day and night passes are kept separate. Averaging kernels for each retrieval are provided...

  17. Biomimetic component coating on 3D scaffolds using high bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun HS

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hui-suk Yun1, Sang-Hyun Kim2, Dongwoo Khang3, Jungil Choi4, Hui-hoon Kim2, Minji Kang31Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Gyeongnam, Korea; 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Jung-Gu, Daegu, Korea; 3School of Nano and Advanced Materials Science and Engineering and Center for NMBE, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea; 4Department of Anatomy, Institute of Health Science and School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Gyeongnam, KoreaBackground: Mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs are very attractive materials for use in bone tissue regeneration because of their extraordinarily high bone-forming bioactivity in vitro. That is, MBGs may induce the rapid formation of hydroxy apatite (HA in simulated body fluid (SBF, which is a major inorganic component of bone extracellular matrix (ECM and comes with both good osteoconductivity and high affinity to adsorb proteins. Meanwhile, the high bioactivity of MBGs may lead to an abrupt initial local pH variation during the initial Ca ion-leaching from MBGs at the initial transplant stage, which may induce unexpected negative effects on using them in in vivo application. In this study we suggest a new way of using MBGs in bone tissue regeneration that can improve the strength and make up for the weakness of MBGs. We applied the outstanding bone-forming bioactivity of MBG to coat the main ECM components HA and collagen on the MBG-polycarplolactone (PCL composite scaffolds for improving their function as bone scaffolds in tissue regeneration. This precoating process can also expect to reduce initial local pH variation of MBGs.Methods and materials: The MBG-PCL scaffolds were immersed in the mixed solution of the collagen and SBF at 37°C for 24 hours. The coating of ECM components on the MBG-PCL scaffolds and the effect of ECM coating on in vitro cell behaviors were confirmed.Results: The ECM components were fully

  18. Forecasting Daily Demand in Cash Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wagner

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Previous studies focused on explaining the long run determinants of currency demand offering limited insight into the short-run determinants and co-variability of daily demand in cash supply chains. Approach: This study contrasted competing techniques of forecasting daily demand in cash supply chains in order to determine the overall performance and the potential of joint forecasting for integrated planning. A joint forecasting approach was compared with...

  19. Thermoluminescence as a probe in bioactivity studies; the case of 58S sol-gel bioactive glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, George S; Tsirliganis, Nestor C [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute (CETI), RC Athena, Tsimiski 58, 67100-Xanthi (Greece); Goudouri, Ourania Menti; Paraskevopoulos, Konstantinos M [Solid State Section, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, Eleana [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Kitis, George, E-mail: polymers@auth.gr [Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-10-05

    The formation of a carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer on the surface of bioactive materials is the main reaction that takes place upon their immersion in physiological fluids. To date, all techniques used for the identification of this HCAp formation are rather time consuming and not well suited to detailed and rapid monitoring of changes in the bioactivity response of the material. The aim of this work is to explore the possibility of using thermoluminescence (TL) for the discrimination between different bioactive responses in the case of the 58S bioactive glass. Results provided strong indications that the 110 deg. C TL peak of quartz can be used effectively in the study of the bioactive behaviour of 58S bioactive glass, since it is unambiguously present in all samples and does not require deconvolution analysis. Furthermore, the intensity of the 110 deg. C TL peak is proven to be very sensitive to the different bioactive responses, identifying the loss of silica which takes place at the first stages of the sequence. The discontinuities of the 110 deg. C TL peak intensity plot versus immersion time at 8 and 1440 min provide experimental indications regarding the timescale for both the beginning of amorphous CaP formation as well as the end of crystalline hydroxyl-apatite formation respectively, while the spike in the sensitization of the 110 deg. C TL peak, which was observed for immersion times ranging between 20 and 40 min, could be an experimental feature indicating the beginning of the crystalline HCAp formation.

  20. In vitro bioactivity and antimicrobial tuning of bioactive glass nanoparticles added with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, M; Ruby Priscilla, S; Kavitha, K; Manivasakan, P; Rajendran, V; Kulandaivelu, P

    2014-01-01

    Silica and phosphate based bioactive glass nanoparticles (58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5) with doping of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf powder and silver nanoparticles were prepared and characterised. Bioactive glass nanoparticles were produced using sol-gel technique. In vitro bioactivity of the prepared samples was investigated using simulated body fluid. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of prepared glass particles reveals amorphous phase and spherical morphology with a particle size of less than 50 nm. When compared to neem doped glass, better bioactivity was attained in silver doped glass through formation of hydroxyapatite layer on the surface, which was confirmed through XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. However, neem leaf powder doped bioactive glass nanoparticles show good antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and less bioactivity compared with silver doped glass particles. In addition, the biocompatibility of the prepared nanocomposites reveals better results for neem doped and silver doped glasses at lower concentration. Therefore, neem doped bioactive glass may act as a potent antimicrobial agent for preventing microbial infection in tissue engineering applications.

  1. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of a sponge-like bioactive-glass/gelatin composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeem, Danish [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom); Kiamehr, Mostafa [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); Yang, Xuebin [Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering Group, Leeds Dental Institute, University of Leeds, LS2 9LU (United Kingdom); NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Chapel Allerton Hospital, Leeds LS7 4SA (United Kingdom); Su, Bo, E-mail: b.su@bristol.ac.uk [Biomaterials Engineering Group, School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, BS1 2LY (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a bioactive composite scaffold, comprised of bioactive-glass and gelatin, is introduced. Through direct foaming a sponge-like composite of a sol–gel derived bioactive-glass (70S30C; 70% SiO{sub 2}, 30% CaO) and porcine gelatin was developed for use as a biodegradable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The composite was developed to provide a suitable alternative to synthetic polymer based scaffolds, allowing directed regeneration of bone tissue. The fabricated scaffold was characterised through X-ray microtomography, scanning electron and light microscopy demonstrating a three dimensionally porous and interconnected structure, with an average pore size (170 μm) suitable for successful cell proliferation and tissue ingrowth. Acellular bioactivity was assessed through apatite formation during submersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) whereby the rate and onset of apatite nucleation was found to be comparable to that of bioactive-glass. Modification of dehydrothermal treatment parameters induced varying degrees of crosslinking, allowing the degradation of the composite to be tailored to suit specific applications and establishing its potential for a wide range of applications. Use of genipin to supplement crosslinking by dehydrothermal treatment provided further means of modifying degradability. Biocompatibility of the composite was qualified through successful cultures of human dental pulp stem cells (HDPSCs) on samples of the composite scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of HDPSCs and extracellular matrix deposition were confirmed through positive alkaline phosphatase staining and immunohistochemistry. - Highlights: ► Optimised composition and fabrication produced sponge-like porosity (pore size ∼ 170 μm). ► Maximum aqueous stability via dehydrothermal treatment at 145 °C, for 48 h ► Biocompatibility and osteogenic potential confirmed via successful HDPSC cultures. ► Minimal toxicity exhibited in optimally crosslinked samples (10 m

  2. Bioactive proteins against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Z. Sitohy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is likely that both human nutrition and the nutrition of livestock are benefited by the presence of bioactive proteins within their respective diet regimes. Bioactive proteins have been defined as specific protein fragments that positively impact bodily functions or conditions and may, ultimately, influence overall human health. The ingestion of bioactive proteins may have an effect on the major body systems—namely, the cardiovascular, digestive, immune and nervous systems. According to their functional properties, bioactive proteins may be classified as antimicrobial, antithrombotic, antihypertensive, opioid, immune-modulatory, mineral binding and anti-oxidative. There are many examples of biologically active food proteins and active peptides that can be obtained from various food protein sources. They have a physiological significance beyond the pure nutritional requirements; in other wordsthey have the acquisition of nitrogen for normal growth and maintenance. Objective: This study aims to specify and characterize the extent and mode of action of bioactive proteins in their native form, (glycinin, glycinin basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin against specific main pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. We will be using standard media while identifying the main constituents responsible for this action. Methods: Glycinin, basic sub-unit and β-conglycinin were isolated from soybean protein and tested for their antimicrobial action against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, They were thencompared to the properties of penicillin. Methylated soybean protein and also methylated chickpea protein (MSP and MCP, with isoelectric points around pI 8, were prepared by esterifying. 83 % of their free carboxyl groups and their interactions with Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were examined. Results: The three divisions of cationic proteins exhibited antibacterial

  3. Biotinylated recombinant human erythropoietins: Bioactivity and utility as receptor ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojchowski, D.M.; Caslake, L. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA))

    1989-08-15

    Recombinant human erythropoietin labeled covalently with biotin at sialic acid moieties has been prepared, and has been shown to possess high biological activity plus utility as a receptor ligand. Initially, the effects on biological activity of covalently attaching biotin to erythropoietin alternatively at carboxylate, amino, or sialic acid groups were compared. Biotinylation of erythropoietin at carboxylate groups using biotin-amidocaproyl hydrazide plus 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide led to substantial biological inactivation, although biotinylated molecules retained detectable activity when prepared at low stoichiometries. Biotinylation at amino groups using sulfosuccinimidyl 6-(biotinamido) hexanoate resulted in a high level of biological inactivation with little, if any, retention of biological activity, regardless of labeling stoichiometries. Biotinylation at sialic acid moieties using periodate and biotinamidocaproyl hydrazide proceeded efficiently (greater than 95% and 80% labeling efficiencies for human urinary and recombinant erythropoietin, respectively) and yielded stably biotinylated erythropoietin molecules possessing comparably high biological activity (ie, 45% of the activity of unmodified hormone). Utility of recombinant biotin-(sialyl)-erythropoietin (in combination with 125I-streptavidin) in the assay of cell surface receptors was demonstrated using two distinct murine erythroleukemia cell lines, Friend 745 and Rauscher Red 1. The densities and affinities of specific hormone binding sites were 116 +/- 4 sites, 3.3 +/- 0.4 nmol/L kd and 164 +/- 5 sites, 2.7 +/- 0.4 nmol/L kd, respectively. It is predicted that the present development of biotin-(sialyl)-erythropoietin as a chemically and biologically stable, bioactive ligand will assist in advancing an understanding of the regulated expression and physicochemistry of the human and murine erythropoietin receptors.

  4. Current Strategies to Improve the Bioactivity of PEEK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic thermoplastic polymer polyetheretherketone (PEEK is becoming a popular component of clinical orthopedic and spinal applications, but its practical use suffers from several limitations. Although PEEK is biocompatible, chemically stable, radiolucent and has an elastic modulus similar to that of normal human bone, it is biologically inert, preventing good integration with adjacent bone tissues upon implantation. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK to improve the bone-implant interface. Two main strategies have been used to overcome the inert character of PEEK. One approach is surface modification to activate PEEK through surface treatment alone or in combination with a surface coating. Another strategy is to prepare bioactive PEEK composites by impregnating bioactive materials into PEEK substrate. Researchers believe that modified bioactive PEEK will have a wide range of orthopedic applications.

  5. Bioactive compounds in berries relevant to human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battino, M.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Denoyes-Rothan, B.; Laimer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Berries contain powerful antioxidants, potential allergens, and other bioactive compounds. Genetic and environmental factors affect production and storage of such compounds. For this reason breeding and biotechnological approaches are currently used to control or to increase the content of specific

  6. Enzymatic induction of supramolecular order and bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chengbiao; Ren, Xinrui; Ding, Dan; Wang, Ling; Yang, Zhimou

    2016-05-01

    We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine adjuvant because it accelerated the DC maturation and elicited stronger T-cells cytokine production than the nanofibers. Our study demonstrated that biocatalytic triggering is a useful method for preparing supramolecular nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order and probably better bioactivity.We showed in this study that enzymatic triggering is a totally different pathway for the preparation of self-assembling nanomaterials to the heating-cooling process. Because the molecules were under lower energy levels and the molecular conformation was more ordered during the enzymatic triggeration under mild conditions, nanomaterials with higher supramolecular order could be obtained through biocatalytic control. In this study, nanoparticles were obtained by an enzymatic reaction and nanofibers were observed through the heating-cooling process. We observed a distinct trough at 318 nm from the CD spectrum of a particle sample but not a fiber sample, suggesting the long range arrangement of molecules and helicity in the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles with higher supramolecular order possessed much better potency as a protein vaccine

  7. Minor bioactive compounds in milk and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Kocmanová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    Milk is an essential part of human nutrition at every stage of life, due to the balanced content of all necessary nutrients, valuable protein, lactose, fat and easily digestible bioactive minor components, especially vitamins and minerals. Milk is used as so - called ‘functional food’ due to its composition and positive effects on human health. Through the use of literature search it was possible to dispose compendium of minor bioactive substances found in milk and their effect on human he...

  8. Bioactive compounds of goat milk and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Petránková, Barbora

    2013-01-01

    Summary Milk is for centuries the basic natural food of man. It is more than a source of nutrients. Due to its nutritional composition, specific effects on physiological and biochemical functions of the organism and the content of a wide range of bioactive substances, milk is ranked into the group of so-called functional foods. In this literature review was drawn sketch effect, particularly goat's milk, and it's bioactive substances on the human organism. At the end of this work are a...

  9. Influence of Surface Treatments on the Bioactivity of Ti

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Carl; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Several techniques have been described to modify the surface of titanium to make it more bioactive. Heat treatment (HT) and sodium hydroxide treatment (NaOH) have been used and can change the crystallinity and surface chemistry of titanium implants. However, no studies have systemically focused on comparing these different methods and their effect on the bioactivity of Ti. Therefore, in this study, Ti substrates were systematically treated using HT, NaOH, and a combination of HT and NaOH. The...

  10. Structural and synthetic studies of bioactive natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Heltzel, Carl E.

    1993-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation for anticancer agents from natural resources, four plant extracts were determined to contain interesting bioactivity. These extracts were separated by chromatography to afford a number of bioactive compounds that were characterized by spectral analysis. Fractionation of the fruit extract of Cryptocarya crassifolia led to the isolation of two known flavonoids and two known cryptocaryalactones. Fractionation of the bark extract of the same plant also g...

  11. Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Subhadeep Chakrabarti; Forough Jahandideh; Jianping Wu

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of these pathological conditions. Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have been evaluated for various beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this review, we summarize the roles of various food-derived bioactive peptides in inflammation and oxidative stress and...

  12. Bioactive Titania Layer Fabricated on Metallic Biomaterials by Electrodeposition

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, T.; Otsuyama, T.; Ishida, E.

    2009-01-01

    Improvement of bone integration ability of metallic biomaterials is needed for long-term stable fIxation to bone tissues. Essential prerequisite for materials to show bone-integrating bioactivity is formation of apatite layer on their surfaces in body environments. Several functional groups have potential to trigger the apatite nucleation. In the present study, we attempted fabrication of bioactive titania layer which provides Ti-OH groups effective for the apatite formation on bioinert metal...

  13. Bioactive glass-polymer composite for experimental bone reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aho, A.J.; Tirri, T.; Strandberg, N.; Jaakkola, T.; Naerhi, T.; Kukkonen, J. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Biomaterials Project of Turku; Seppaelae, J.; Rich, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    Thermoplastic composite of bioactive glass (S53P4) and copolymer of lactones (Glepron) can be used as liquid, injectable or paste like form, as solid plugs or thin membranes for filling bone defects. This bone substitute is bioactive, osteoconductive and biocompatible resulting in bone bonding contacts between glass granules and bone in defects on the distal femur and ulna of experimental animals. Properties of the material can be adjusted by polymer chemistry. (orig.)

  14. Monitoring Abacavir Bioactivation in Humans: Screening for an Aldehyde Metabolite

    OpenAIRE

    Grilo, N; Antunes, A.; Caixas, U; Marinho, A; Charneira, C; Oliveira, MC; Monteiro, E.; Marques, MM; Pereira, S

    2013-01-01

    The anti-HIV drug abacavir is associated with idiosyncratic hypersensitivity reactions and cardiotoxicity. Although the mechanism underlying abacavir-toxicity is not fully understood, drug bioactivation to reactive metabolites may be involved. This work was aimed at identifying abacavir-protein adducts in the hemoglobin of HIV patients as biomarkers of abacavir bioactivation and protein modification. The protocol received prior approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee, patients gave their ...

  15. Bioactivation of myelotoxic xenobiotics by human neutrophil myeloperoxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many environmental pollutants and drugs are toxic to the bone marrow. Some of these xenobiotics may initiate toxicity after undergoing bioactivation to free radicals and/or other reactive electrophiles. Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the one-electron oxidative bioactivation of a variety of xenobiotics in vitro. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidative enzyme found in very high concentration in the neutrophils of human bone marrow. In this study, human MPO was evaluated to determine its ability to catalyze the in vitro bioactivation of known bone marrow toxicants that contain the aromatic hydroxyl (Ar-OH), aromatic amine (Ar-N-R2), or heterocyclic tertiary amine (double-bond N-R) moieties. The formation of free radical metabolites during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of hydroquinone and catechol (benzene metabolites), mitoxantrone and ametantrone (antitumor drugs), and chlorpromazine and promazine (antipsychotic drugs) was demonstrated by EPR spectroscopy. The reactivity of the products formed during the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of [14C]hydroquinone and [14C]catechol was shown by their covalent binding to protein and DNA in vitro. The covalently binding metabolite in each case is postulated to be the quinone form of the xenobiotic. In addition, both GSH and NADH were oxidized by the reactive intermediate(s) formed during the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of many of the bone marrow toxicants tested. It was also shown that p,p-biphenol stimulated the MPO catalyzed bioactivation of both hydroquinone and catechol, while p-cresol stimulated the MPO-catalyzed bioactivation of catechol

  16. Effect of Gastrointestinal Protease Digestion on Bioactivity of Marine Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Ossum, Carlo Gunnar;

    2014-01-01

    Focus in nutritional science has turned towards components in, or added to, foods that may possess health beneficial activities beyond the classical nutritional value, namely functional food. Bioactive peptides are examples of such components. In vitro studies on bioactivities have mainly been...... executed without concerning subsequent digestion after intake and the aim of this work was hence to investigate how the in vitro antioxidative, antihypertensive and caspase activating activities of peptides are affected by digestion with gastrointestinal (GI) proteases. Five different fish protein...

  17. Pharmacokinetics of once and twice daily dosing of intravenous tobramycin in paediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigg Turner, R; Elbarbry, Fawzy; Biondo, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    The optimal dosing of intravenous tobramycin for treatment of pulmonary exacerbations in paediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has not been completely delineated. We performed a retrospective study evaluating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of once daily dosing (ODD) of IV tobramycin compared to twice daily dosing (TDD). Fifty-nine and 44 patients were included in the ODD and TDD groups, respectively. Once daily dosing achieved higher Cmax as compared to TDD (29.5 ± 11.0 vs 19.0 ± 4.9, P 1.0 mg/l. Twice daily dosing may be a viable alternative to ODD in treating organisms with MICs ≤ 1.0 mg/l; however, with MICs >1.0 mg/l, ODD is likely necessary to achieve goal Cmax:MIC ratios. PMID:26430825

  18. Daily ionospheric forecasting service (DIFS III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Butcher

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The daily variability of the ionosphere can greatly affect HF or SATCOM communications. HF skywave operators plan frequency schedules months in advance, however, they also require daily knowledge of the ionospheric conditions in order to modify assignments. SATCOM operators also require daily information about the levels of scintillation, which are variations in phase, amplitude, polarisation and angle of arrival that can cause severe degradation of the received signal.

    Using a number of ionosonde measurements and geomagnetic and solar values, a Daily Ionospheric Forecasting Service (DIFS has been developed, which provides HF and SATCOM operators with daily forecasts of predicted ionospheric conditions. The system uses in-house algorithms and an externally developed Global Ionospheric Scintillation Model (GISM to generate HF and SATCOM forecasts. HF forecasts consist of a past summary and a forecast section, primarily displaying observed values and predicted categories for the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF, as well as an Ionospheric Correction factor (ICF that can be fed into the ionospheric propagation prediction tool, WinHF. SATCOM forecasts give predictions of global scintillation levels, for the polar, mid and equatorial latitude regions. Thorough analysis was carried out on DIFS and the results conclude that the service gives good accuracy, with user feedback also confirming this, as well.

  19. Triterpene Composition and Bioactivities of Centella asiatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi Palanisamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Centella asiatica (Centella were analysed for their triterpene composition and bioactivity such as collagen enhancement, antioxidant, anticellulite and UV protection capacity properties. Triterpenes of Centella were measured using HPLC-PAD on an Excil ODS 5 mm (C18 column for the simultaneous determination of asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside and madecassoside. Centella was found to contain significant amounts of madecassoside (3.10 ± 4.58 mg/mL and asiaticoside (1.97 ± 2.65 mg/mL, but was low in asiatic and madecassic acid. The highest collagen synthesis was found at 50 mg/mL of Centella extracts. The antioxidant activity of Centella (84% was compared to grape seed extract (83% and Vitamin C (88%. Its lipolytic activity was observed by the release of glycerol (115.9 µmol/L at 0.02% concentration. Centella extracts exhibited similar UV protection effect to OMC at 10% concentration. In view of these results, the potential application of Centella in food and pharmaceutical industries is now widely open.

  20. Thermal decomposition of bioactive sodium titanate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelingien, Matthieu; Mullens, Steven; Luyten, Jan; Meynen, Vera; Vinck, Evi; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul

    2009-09-01

    Alkali-treated orthopaedic titanium surfaces have earlier shown to induce apatite deposition. A subsequent heat treatment under air improved the adhesion of the sodium titanate layer but decreased the rate of apatite deposition. Furthermore, insufficient attention was paid to the sensitivity of titanium substrates to oxidation and nitriding during heat treatment under air. Therefore, in the present study, alkali-treated titanium samples were heat-treated under air, argon flow or vacuum. The microstructure and composition of their surfaces were characterized to clarify what mechanism is responsible for inhibiting in vitro calcium phosphate deposition after heat treatment. All heat treatments under various atmospheres turned out to be detrimental for apatite deposition. They led to the thermal decomposition of the dense sodium titanate basis near the interface with the titanium substrate. Depending on the atmosphere, several forms of Ti yO z were formed and Na 2O was sublimated. Consequently, less exchangeable sodium ions remained available. This pointed to the importance of the ion exchange capacity of the sodium titanate layer for in vitro bioactivity.

  1. Radiation technology for immobilization of bioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Agency's coordinated research programme on ''Application of Radiation Technology in Immobilization of Bioactive Materials'', the third and final research coordination meeting was held at Beijing University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 15-18 June 1987. The present publication compiles all presentations made at the meeting. Fundamental processes for the immobilization of enzymes, antibodies, cells and drugs were developed and established using gamma radiation, electron beams and plasma discharge. Applications of various biofunctional components, immobilized by radiation techniques in different processes, were studied. A range of backbone polymers has been examined together with various monomers. Coupling procedures have been developed which are relevant to our particular requirements. Enzymes of various types and characteristics have been immobilized with considerable efficiency. The immobilized biocatalysts have been shown to possess significant activity and retention of activity on storage. There appears to be a high degree of specificity associated with the properties of the immobilised biocatalysts, their activity and the ease of their preparation. Novel additives which lower the total radiation dose in grafting have been discovered and their value in immobilization processes assessed. Potential applications include: medical (diagnostic, therapeutic), and industrial processes (fermentation, bioseparation, etc.). Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2016-08-17

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual.

  3. Bioactivation of Phytoestrogens: Intestinal Bacteria and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, J M; Arqués, J; Medina, M; Gaya, P; de Las Rivas, B; Muñoz, R

    2016-08-17

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenols similar to human estrogens found in plants or derived from plant precursors. Phytoestrogens are found in high concentration in soya, flaxseed and other seeds, fruits, vegetables, cereals, tea, chocolate, etc. They comprise several classes of chemical compounds (stilbenes, coumestans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, and lignans) which are structurally similar to endogenous estrogens but which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects. Although epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that intake of phytoestrogens in foods may be protective against certain chronic diseases, discrepancies have been observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments. The microbial transformations have not been reported so far in stilbenes and coumestans. However, isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans are metabolized by intestinal bacteria to produce equol, urolithins, and enterolignans, respectively. Equol, urolithin, and enterolignans are more bioavailable, and have more estrogenic/antiestrogenic and antioxidant activity than their precursors. Moreover, equol, urolithins and enterolignans have anti-inflammatory effects and induce antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activities. The transformation of isoflavones, ellagitanins, and lignans by intestinal microbiota is essential to be protective against certain chronic diseases, as cancer, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and menopausal symptoms. Bioavailability, bioactivity, and health effects of dietary phytoestrogens are strongly determined by the intestinal bacteria of each individual. PMID:25848676

  4. Traceability of Functional Bioactive Compounds in Fresh and Pasteurized Milk Obtained from Goats Fed with Orange Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simona Chiş

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Traceability is the ability to identify and trace the history, distribution, location, and application of products, parts, and materials. A traceability system records and follows the trail as products, parts, and materials come from suppliers and are processed and ultimately distributed as end products (Prache et al, 2002. In this work, were studied the bioactive compounds (total vitamin C, ascorbic acid, total phenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamin A and vitamin E and antioxidant activity of goat fresh milk and pasteurized one. The goats were fed with a standard diet (control diet and then with a diet that incorporates orange pulp. The control diet (CD corresponded with a standard ration (a ration wich provide the energetic and proteic values, daily food for milking animals. From that ration, the Department of Animal Science, from Politechnic University of Valencia replaced the different proportions of the ingredients for incorporating orange pulp diet (OPD. The results of the present study show that the citrus pulp silage mixture used can be fed to goats without any negative effects on the performance of the animals. Results of this study indicate that citrus pulp silage can replace part of the conventional ration of goats, thus lowering the cost of production. The first aim of this study was to compare the two types of goat diets: a standard diet and a diet with orange pulp, by analyzing the bioactive compounds in fresh and pasteurized milk. The results demonstrate that all the bioactive compounds are bigger in the orange pulp diet than in the control diet. The second objective of this study was to analyze the bioavailability and traceability of bioactive compounds in fresh milk. 

  5. Interactions of bioactive glass materials in the oral environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efflandt, Sarah Elizabeth

    The aim of this research was to investigate bioactive glass materials for their use in dental restorations. Mechanical properties such as strength, toughness and wear resistance were considered initially, but the focus of this thesis was the biological properties such as reactions with saliva and interactions with natural dental tissues. Bioactive composite materials were created by incorporating bioactive glass and alumina powders into an aqueous suspension, slip casting, and infiltrating with resin. Microstructure, mechanical properties and wear resistance were evaluated. Mechanically, the composites are comparable to natural dental tissues and current dental materials with a strength of 206 +/- 18.7 MPa and a toughness of 1.74 +/- 0.08 MPa(m)1/2. Interfacial reactions were examined using bulk bioactive glasses. Disks were prepared from a melt, placed in saliva and incubated at 37°C. Surfaces were analyzed at 2, 5, 10, 21, and 42 days using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microdiffraction. Results showed changes at 2 days with apatite crystallization by 10 days. These glass disks were then secured against extracted human dentin and incubated in saliva for 21 or 42 days. Results from SEM, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microdiffraction showed that dentin and bioactive glasses adhered in this in vitro environment due to attraction of collagen to bioactive glasses and growth of an interfacial apatite. After investigating these bulk glass responses, particulate bioactive glasses were placed in in vitro and in vivo set-ups for evaluation. Particles immersed in biologically buffered saliva showed crystallization of apatite at 3 days. These bioactive glass particles were placed in the molars of mini-pigs and left in vivo. After 30 days the bioactive paste was evaluated using SEM, EMPA and microdiffraction analyses. Results showed that the paste gained structural integrity and had chemical changes in vivo. These sets of experiments show that bioactive

  6. Associations between daily musicking and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekholm, Ola; Juel, Knud; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the associations between singing/playing musical instruments daily and various outcomes such as health-related quality of life and health behaviour. METHODS: Data originates from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013. The survey was based on a random sample of 25,000 adult...... Danes (response rate: 57%). Besides standard health-related questions the survey included eight specific music questions, based on a review of the sparse literature on music and health. On the same basis, 'daily musicking' was defined as normally singing/playing musical instruments at least 1 h...

  7. Effect of nickel oxide substitution on bioactivity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    VIKASH KUMAR VYAS; A SAMPATH KUMAR; S P SINGH; RAM PYARE

    2016-09-01

    A small amount of nickel oxide is doped in bioglass$^{\\circledR}$ system and it is replaced by silica. The use of 45S5 glass composition is one such material able to bond strongly to bone within 42 days. The 45S5 bioglass$^{\\circledR}$ system develops a hydroxyl carbonate apatite (HCA) layer, which is chemically and crystallographically similar to mineral phase of bone. But it has low fracture toughness and mechanical weakness due to an amorphous glass network andit is not compatible for load-bearing applications. In the present work, the effect of addition of nickel oxide that annualizes the improvement in its mechanical strength and bioactivity is studied. Bioactivity of base glass and doped glass samples were tested through their HCA abilities by immersing them in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different days. The formation of HCA was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and pH measurement. Densities and mechanical properties of samples were also increased considerably by increasing the concentration of nickel oxide.

  8. Synchrotron X-ray Absorption and In Vitro Bioactivity of Magnetic Macro/Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanida Charoensuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxides in macro/mesoporous bioactive glasses were characterized by synchrotron X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES spectroscopy. This magnetic phase was introduced by adding Fe(NO33 9H2O during the sol-gel synthesis. The obtained bioactive glass scaffolds exhibited superparamagnetism, in which the magnetization was increased with the increase in the Fe molar ratio from 10 to 20%. The linear combination fits of the XANES spectra indicated that the increase in the Fe molar ratio to 20% enhanced the γ-Fe2O3 formation at the expense of the α- Fe2O3 phase. This variation also promoted the formation of fine-grained bone-like apatites on the surface of the scaffolds in the in vitro test. The apatite growth between three and seven days was confirmed by the changing elemental compositions. However, the highest magnetic proportion led to the distortion of the skeleton walls and the collapse of the porous networks.

  9. Bioactive Peptides in Milk and Dairy Products: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Nam, Myoung Soo

    2015-01-01

    Functionally and physiologically active peptides are produced from several food proteins during gastrointestinal digestion and fermentation of food materials with lactic acid bacteria. Once bioactive peptides (BPs) are liberated, they exhibit a wide variety of physiological functions in the human body such as gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. These functionalities of the peptides in human health and physiology include antihypertensive, antimicrobial, antioxidative, antithrombotic, opioid, anti-appetizing, immunomodulatory and mineral-binding activities. Most of the bioactivities of milk proteins are latent, being absent or incomplete in the original native protein, but full activities are manifested upon proteolytic digestion to release and activate encrypted bioactive peptides from the original protein. Bioactive peptides have been identified within the amino acid sequences of native milk proteins. Due to their physiological and physico-chemical versatility, milk peptides are regarded as greatly important components for health promoting foods or pharmaceutical applications. Milk and colostrum of bovine and other dairy species are considered as the most important source of natural bioactive components. Over the past a few decades, major advances and developments have been achieved on the science, technology and commercial applications of bioactive components which are present naturally in the milk. Although the majority of published works are associated with the search of bioactive peptides in bovine milk samples, some of them are involved in the investigation of ovine or caprine milk. The advent of functional foods has been facilitated by increasing scientific knowledge about the metabolic and genomic effects of diet and specific dietary components on human health. PMID:26877644

  10. Porous surface modified bioactive bone cement for enhanced bone bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate bone cement cannot provide an adhesive chemical bonding to form a stable cement-bone interface. Bioactive bone cements show bone bonding ability, but their clinical application is limited because bone resorption is observed after implantation. Porous polymethylmethacrylate can be achieved with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose, alginate and gelatin microparticles to promote bone ingrowth, but the mechanical properties are too low to be used in orthopedic applications. Bone ingrowth into cement could decrease the possibility of bone resorption and promote the formation of a stable interface. However, scarce literature is reported on bioactive bone cements that allow bone ingrowth. In this paper, we reported a porous surface modified bioactive bone cement with desired mechanical properties, which could allow for bone ingrowth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The porous surface modified bioactive bone cement was evaluated to determine its handling characteristics, mechanical properties and behavior in a simulated body fluid. The in vitro cellular responses of the samples were also investigated in terms of cell attachment, proliferation, and osteoblastic differentiation. Furthermore, bone ingrowth was examined in a rabbit femoral condyle defect model by using micro-CT imaging and histological analysis. The strength of the implant-bone interface was also investigated by push-out tests. RESULTS: The modified bone cement with a low content of bioactive fillers resulted in proper handling characteristics and adequate mechanical properties, but slightly affected its bioactivity. Moreover, the degree of attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblast cells was also increased. The results of the push-out test revealed that higher interfacial bonding strength was achieved with the modified bone cement because of the formation of the apatite layer and the osseointegration after implantation in the bony

  11. Bioactive and thermally compatible glass coating on zirconia dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, A; Hausmann, A; Weber, M; Fischer, J; Fischer, H

    2015-02-01

    The healing time of zirconia implants may be reduced by the use of bioactive glass coatings. Unfortunately, existing glasses are either bioactive like Bioglass 45S5 but thermally incompatible with the zirconia substrate, or they are thermally compatible but exhibit only a very low level of bioactivity. In this study, we hypothesized that a tailored substitution of alkaline earth metals and alkaline metals in 45S5 can lead to a glass composition that is both bioactive and thermally compatible with zirconia implants. A novel glass composition was analyzed using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and heating microscopy to investigate its chemical, physical, and thermal properties. Bioactivity was tested in vitro using simulated body fluid (SBF). Smooth and microstructured glass coatings were applied using a tailored spray technique with subsequent thermal treatment. Coating adhesion was tested on implants that were inserted in bovine ribs. The cytocompatibility of the coating was analyzed using L929 mouse fibroblasts. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the novel glass was shown to be slightly lower (11.58 · 10(-6) K(-1)) than that of the zirconia (11.67 · 10(-6) K(-1)). After storage in SBF, the glass showed reaction layers almost identical to the bioactive glass gold standard, 45S5. A process window between 800 °C and 910 °C was found to result in densely sintered and amorphous coatings. Microstructured glass coatings on zirconia implants survived a minimum insertion torque of 60 Ncm in the in vitro experiment on bovine ribs. Proliferation and cytotoxicity of the glass coatings was comparable with the controls. The novel glass composition showed a strong adhesion to the zirconia substrate and a significant bioactive behavior in the SBF in vitro experiments. Therefore, it holds great potential to significantly reduce the healing time of zirconia dental implants.

  12. Bias Corrected Constructed Analogs V2 Daily Climate Projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This archive contains projections of daily BCCA CMIP3 and CMIP5 projections of precipitation, daily maximum, and daily minimum temperature over the contiguous...

  13. Radiation Parameters of Some Potential Bioactive Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeynep Gedik; Mehtap Tugrak; Aysenur Dastan; Haliseinci Gul; Demet YIlmaz

    2015-01-01

    In this study ,we aimed to determine the radiation parameters of some potential bioactive com‐pounds .1‐Aryl‐3‐dibenzylamino‐propane‐1‐on hydrochloride type Mannich bases were synthesized via classical conventional heating method .Aryl part was changed as phenyl (C6 H5 ) ,4‐methylphenyl (4‐CH3 C6 H4 ) ,4‐flu‐orophenyl (4‐FC6 H4 ) , 4‐nitrophenyl (4‐NO2 C6 H4 ) , 4‐chlorophenyl (4‐ClC6 H4 ) , 4‐bromophenyl (4‐BrC6 H4 ) ,and 2‐thienyl (C4 H3 S‐2‐yl) .Mass attenuation coefficient (μm ) ,effective atomic number (Zef ) and effective electron density (Nel ) of compounds were determined experimentally and theoretically for at 8.040 , 8.910 ,13.40 ,14.96 ,17.48 ,19.61 ,22.16 ,24.94 ,32.19 ,36.38 ,44.48 ,50.38 and 59.54 keV photon en‐ergies by using an HPGe detector with a resolution of 182 eV at 5.9 keV .Radiation parameters of these com‐pounds which can be anti‐cancer drug candidate were given in the tables .The results show that phenyl ring be‐have like thiophene ring in terms of radiation absorption .It is thought that the results of study may drive allow the development of drug candidate new compounds in medical oncology .

  14. Effect of particle size on the in vitro bioactivity, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of bioactive glass-reinforced polycaprolactone composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamjid, E. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (INST), Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave. P.O. Box: 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bagheri, R., E-mail: rezabagh@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave. P.O. Box: 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vossoughi, M. [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (INST), Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave. P.O. Box: 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave. P.O. Box: 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (INST), Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave. P.O. Box: 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave. P.O. Box: 11365-9466, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-10-10

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) composite films containing 5 wt.% bioactive glass (BG) particles of different sizes (6 {mu}m, 250 nm, < 100 nm) were prepared by solvent casting methods. The ultra-fine BG particles were prepared by high-energy mechanical milling of commercial 45S5 Bioglass (registered) particles. The characteristics of bioactive glass particles were studied by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. In vitro bioactivity of the PCL/BG composite films was evaluated through immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF). The films were analyzed by FE-SEM, energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), XRD, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mechanical properties of highly-porous PCL/BG composites were examined on cylindrical specimens under quasi-static compression load. It was found that partial crystallization of amorphous BG particles during a prolonged mechanical milling occurred and calcium silicate (CaSiO{sub 3}) and sodium calcium silicate (Na{sub 2}CaSiO{sub 4}) phases were formed. The introduction of submicron BG particles (250 nm) was shown to improve the bioactivity of PCL films. In contrast to BG microparticles, the submicron BG particles were distributed on the film surfaces, providing a high surface exposure to SBF with an improved nanotopography. A notable increase in the stiffness and elastic modulus of the composite was also obtained. As compared to submicron BG particles, lower bioactivity and elastic modulus were acquired for PCL/BG nanoparticles. It was also shown that in spite of high specific surface area of the nanoparticles, partial crystallization during mechanical milling and agglomeration of the nanoparticles during processing decrease the bioactivity, hydrophilicity and mechanical response of the BG-reinforced PCL composites. Highlights: {yields} The effect of Bioglass particle size on the in vitro bioactivity of

  15. Focus on therapy: hemicrania continua and new daily persistent headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo; Tassorelli, Cristina; Allena, Marta; Ferrante, Enrico; Lisotto, Carlo; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) and new daily-persistent headache (NDPH) represent the only two forms of chronic daily headache in Chap. IV "Other Primary Headaches" of the second edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. HC and NDPH are rare and poorly defined from a pathophysiological point of view; as a consequence, their management is largely empirical. Indeed, there is a lack of prospective, controlled trials in this field, and treatment effectiveness is basically inferred from the results of sparse open-label trials, retrospective case series, clinical experience and expert opinions. In this narrative review we have summarised the information collected from an extensive analysis of the literature on the treatment of HC and NDPH in order to provide the best available and up-to-date evidence for the management of these two rare forms of primary headache. Indomethacin is the mainstay of HC management. The reported effective dose of indomethacin ranges from 50 to 300 mg/day. Gabapentin 600-3,600 mg tid, topiramate 100 mg bid, and celecoxib 200-400 mg represent the most interesting alternative choices in the patients who do not tolerate indomethacin or who have contraindications to its use. NDPH is very difficult to treat and it responds poorly only to first-line options used for migraine or tension-type headache.

  16. Large neutral amino acids in daily practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten Kiær

    2010-01-01

    sampling to measure plasma amino acid (AA) concentrations. The aim of this analysis and treatment is that the patient receives 25-30% of the daily protein requirement from LNAA supplementation and the remaining 70-75% from natural, low-phenylalanine proteins (although some patients have difficulties...

  17. Cognitive profile and activities of daily living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Thuesen, A M; Olsen, K J;

    2015-01-01

    on the cognitive function and activities of daily living in patients with AM. METHODS: Thirty five AM patients, age 6-35 years, were included in the study. As a cognitive function test, we used the Leiter international performance scale-revised (Leiter-R), which consists of two batteries: the visual function...

  18. Big Ideas behind Daily 5 and CAFE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Gail; Moser, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The Daily 5 and CAFE were born out of The Sister's research and observations of instructional mentors, their intense desire to be able to deliver highly intentional, focused instruction to small groups and individuals while the rest of the class was engaged in truly authentic reading and writing, and their understanding that a one size fits all…

  19. Daily U.S. Snow Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily U.S. Snow Monitoring is a web based product extracted from the digital dataset U.S. COOP Summary of the Month (DSI-3220). This is meteorological data from the...

  20. On the Digital Daily Cycles of Individuals

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Humans, like almost all animals, are phase-locked to the diurnal cycle. Most of us sleep at night and are active through the day. Because we have evolved to function with this cycle, the circadian rhythm is deeply ingrained and even detectable at the biochemical level. However, within the broader day-night pattern, there are individual differences: e.g., some of us are intrinsically morning-active, while others prefer evenings. In this article, we look at digital daily cycles: circadian patterns of activity viewed through the lens of auto-recorded data of communication and online activity. We begin at the aggregate level, discuss earlier results, and illustrate differences between population-level daily rhythms in different media. Then we move on to the individual level, and show that there is a strong individual-level variation beyond averages: individuals typically have their distinctive daily pattern that persists in time. We conclude by discussing the driving forces behind these signature daily patterns, ...

  1. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.

  2. Modelling erosion on a daily basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikha Shrestha, Dhruba; Jetten, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Effect of soil erosion causing negative impact on ecosystem services and food security is well known. To assess annual erosion rates various empirical models have been extensively used in all the climatic regions. While these models are simple to operate and do not require lot of input data, the effect of extreme rain is not taken into account in the annual estimations. For analysing the effects of extreme rain the event- based models become handy. These models can simulate detail erosional processes including particle detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments during a storm. But they are not applicable for estimating annual erosion rates. Moreover storm event data may not be available everywhere which prohibits their extensive use. In this paper we describe a method by adapting the revised MMF model to assess erosion on daily basis so that the effects of extreme rains are taken into account. We couple it to a simple surface soil moisture balance on a daily basis and include estimation of daily vegetation cover changes. Annual soil loss is calculated by adding daily erosion rates. We compare the obtained results with that obtained from applying the revised MMF model in a case study in the Mamora plateau in northwest Morocco which is affected by severe gully formation. The results show clearly the effects of exceptional rain in erosional processes which cannot be captured in an annual model.

  3. Do daily retail gasoline prices adjust asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, L.; van der Geest, S. A.; Kuper, G. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004, taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out that the volatility

  4. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); S.A. van der Geest (Stéphanie); G. Kuper

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the vola

  5. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile and bioactive compounds of guava seeds (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Athayde Uchôa-thomaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition, determine the fatty acid profile, and quantify the bioactive compounds present in guava seed powder (Psidium guajava L.. The powder resulted from seeds obtained from guava pulp processing. The agro-industrial seeds from red guava cv. paluma were used, and they were donated by a frozen pulp fruit manufacturer. They contain varying amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, with a high content of total dietary fiber (63.94 g/100g, protein (11.19 g/100g, iron (13.8 mg/100g, zinc (3.31 mg/100g, and reduced calorie content (182 kcal/100g. Their lipid profile showed a predominance of unsaturated fatty acids (87.06%, especially linoleic acid (n6 and oleic acid (n9. The powder obtained contained significant amounts of bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acid (87.44 mg/100g, total carotenoids (1.25 mg/100 g and insoluble dietary fiber (63.55 g/100g. With regard to their microbiological quality, the samples were found suitable for consumption. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the powder produced has favorable attributes for industrial use, and that use of these seeds would be a viable alternative to prevent various diseases and malnutrition in our country and to reduce the environmental impact of agricultural waste.

  6. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol) into human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlbaum, Max; Mülek, Melanie; Högger, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-γ-valerolactone (M1), that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated. PMID:23646194

  7. Facilitated uptake of a bioactive metabolite of maritime pine bark extract (pycnogenol into human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Kurlbaum

    Full Text Available Many plant secondary metabolites exhibit some degree of biological activity in humans. It is a common observation that individual plant-derived compounds in vivo are present in the nanomolar concentration range at which they usually fail to display measurable activity in vitro. While it is debatable that compounds detected in plasma are not the key effectors of bioactivity, an alternative hypothesis may take into consideration that measurable concentrations also reside in compartments other than plasma. We analysed the binding of constituents and the metabolite δ-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-γ-valerolactone (M1, that had been previously detected in plasma samples of human consumers of pine bark extract Pycnogenol, to human erythrocytes. We found that caffeic acid, taxifolin, and ferulic acid passively bind to red blood cells, but only the bioactive metabolite M1 revealed pronounced accumulation. The partitioning of M1 into erythrocytes was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of M1 and in the presence of glucose, suggesting a facilitated transport of M1 via GLUT-1 transporter. This concept was further supported by structural similarities between the natural substrate α-D-glucose and the S-isomer of M1. After cellular uptake, M1 underwent further metabolism by conjugation with glutathione. We present strong indication for a transporter-mediated accumulation of a flavonoid metabolite in human erythrocytes and subsequent formation of a novel glutathione adduct. The physiologic role of the adduct remains to be elucidated.

  8. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamunuwa, Geethi; Karunaratne, D Nedra; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  9. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethi Pamunuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means.

  10. Towards the synthesis of an experimental bioactive dental ceramic. Part I: Crystallinity characterization and bioactive behavior evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudouri, O.-M. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kontonasaki, E. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulou, L.; Kantiranis, N. [Department of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lazaridis, N.K. [Chemistry Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chrissafis, K.; Chatzistavrou, X. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koidis, P. [School of Dentistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Paraskevopoulos, K.M., E-mail: kpar@auth.gr [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2014-05-01

    An attachment between the dental ceramic and the surrounding marginal tissues in fixed prosthetic restorations could eliminate secondary carries prevalence. The development of dental ceramics with apatite forming ability could provide the biological surface required for selective spread and attachment of specific cell types able to promote tissue attachment. Dental ceramics/bioactive glass composites synthesized by the sol gel method have been previously reported to develop carbonated hydroxyapatite (HCAp) in biomimetic solutions, requiring though a high amount of bioactive glass, which resulted in the compromise of their mechanical integrity. Thus, the aim of the present work was the synthesis and characterization of an experimental sol–gel derived dental ceramic with low amount of bioactive glass and the evaluation of its in vitro bioactivity. Differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis (TG–DTA), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) were used to evaluate the crystal structure and the in vitro apatite forming ability of the synthesized material. The results of this study indicated the successful sol–gel synthesis of an experimental dental ceramic containing low amount of bioactive glass that presented similar structural and morphological characteristics with a commercial feldspathic dental ceramic, while exhibiting in vitro bioactivity. The apatite forming ability of the experimental sol–gel derived feldspathic dental ceramic may trigger the appropriate cellular mechanisms towards the establishment of attachment with the surrounding connective tissue. This attachment could provide a barrier to oral bacteria penetration, prolonging the life expectation of the restorations. - Highlights: • Synthesis of a bioactive sol–gel dental ceramic for fixed prosthetic restorations. • The sol–gel technique promoted the crystallization of

  11. Bioinformatics approaches for identifying new therapeutic bioactive peptides in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Khaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The traditional methods for mining foods for bioactive peptides are tedious and long. Similar to the drug industry, the length of time to identify and deliver a commercial health ingredient that reduces disease symptoms can take anything between 5 to 10 years. Reducing this time and effort is crucial in order to create new commercially viable products with clear and important health benefits. In the past few years, bioinformatics, the science that brings together fast computational biology, and efficient genome mining, is appearing as the long awaited solution to this problem. By quickly mining food genomes for characteristics of certain food therapeutic ingredients, researchers can potentially find new ones in a matter of a few weeks. Yet, surprisingly, very little success has been achieved so far using bioinformatics in mining for food bioactives.The absence of food specific bioinformatic mining tools, the slow integration of both experimental mining and bioinformatics, and the important difference between different experimental platforms are some of the reasons for the slow progress of bioinformatics in the field of functional food and more specifically in bioactive peptide discovery.In this paper I discuss some methods that could be easily translated, using a rational peptide bioinformatics design, to food bioactive peptide mining. I highlight the need for an integrated food peptide database. I also discuss how to better integrate experimental work with bioinformatics in order to improve the mining of food for bioactive peptides, therefore achieving a higher success rates.

  12. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Bhatnagar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and diatoms that are potent producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Extensive research has been done to unveil the bioactive potential of marine microbes (free living and symbiotic and the results are amazingly diverse and productive. Some of these bioactive secondary metabolites of microbial origin with strong antibacterial and antifungal activities are being intensely used as antibiotics and may be effective against infectious diseases such as HIV, conditions of multiple bacterial infections (penicillin, cephalosporines, streptomycin, and vancomycin or neuropsychiatric sequelae. Research is also being conducted on the general aspects of biophysical and biochemical properties, chemical structures and biotechnological applications of the bioactive substances derived from marine microorganisms, and their potential use as cosmeceuticals and nutraceuticals. This review is an attempt to consolidate the latest studies and critical research in this field, and to showcase the immense competence of marine microbial flora as bioactive metabolite producers. In addition, the present review addresses some effective and novel approaches of procuring marine microbial compounds utilizing the latest screening strategies of drug discovery.

  13. Fatty Acids and Bioactive Lipids of Potato Cultivars: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Oraby, Hesahm Farouk

    2016-01-01

    Potato tuber is a highly nutritious, wherein genotype and environmental differences are known to exist in the shape, size and nutritional value of potatoes. Owing to its high consumption, potato could be an ideal carrier of health-promoting phytochemicals. Potato cultivars contain many bioactive lipidic compounds such as fatty acids, glycolipids, phospholipids, sterols, tocols and carotenoids, which are highly desirable in diet because of their health-promoting effects. In the scientific literature, information on the content and profile of bioactive lipidic compounds in potato cultivars are few. The concentration and stability of bioactive lipids are affected by many factors such as genotype, agronomic factors, postharvest storage, cooking and processing conditions. In this review levels and composition of bioactive lipids in terms of lipid classes, fatty acids, phytosterols, tocopherols, and caroteinoids distribution in different potato cultivars including genetically modified potato (GMP) were highlighted and discussed. In addition, factors affecting bioactive lipids levels, stability and health benefits are reviewed. In consideration of potential nutritional value, detailed knowledge on lipids of potato cultivars is of major importance. PMID:27250559

  14. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis. PMID:26968402

  15. Tramadol use in premature ejaculation: Daily versus sporadic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amil H Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results : Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment.

  16. Daily albedo estimation and comparison to MCD43 product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Sobrino, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    using the 5param Rsqr. We obtain an overall RMSE of 5% when using the VJB and 5.1% for the 5param Rsqr method. Since both methods meet the absolute requirement of 5% accuracy we conclude that they have an equivalent performance in deriving the albedo to the MODIS product with the advantage of daily temporal resolution. We demonstrate then that a simple four (or five) parameter NDVI-scaled model performs as well as a more complex model with many more degrees of freedom. Additionally, we propose the 5param Rsqr method as an alternative to the VJB method due to its decrease data processing time reducing it 44%. Figure 1. Percentage RMSE of the VJB (right) and 5param Rsqr (left) against the MCD43 product.

  17. Tramadol Use in Premature Ejaculation: Daily Versus Sporadic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amil H.; Rasaily, Deepa

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Premature ejaculation (PME) is defined as ejaculation with the minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and or before a person wishes it. It is a function of the time between intra-vaginal penetration and intra-vaginal ejaculation. Tramadol has shown efficacy in PME when used as sporadic basis. In this study, we compared the use of 100 mg of tramadol as sporadic treatment (administered 6-8 h before coitus) versus continued treatment with the objective of evaluating the therapeutic results of both modalities. We assumed our alternative hypothesis that they have similar effects. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out on 60 patients divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and coital frequency were measured both prior to and after the treatment. Group A received tramadol 100 mg daily for 4 weeks and on request (sporadically) for 4 weeks more. Group B was given placebo in the same manner. Results were statistically analyzed using the Student t-test. Results: Mean IELT prior to treatment was 59.2 s in Group A and 58.7 s in Group B. Mean pre-treatment coital frequency was 2.44 times/week for Group A and 2.13 times/week for Group B. Mean IELT was 202.5 s after continued tramadol treatment and 238.2 s after sporadic treatment in Group A. Mean IELT with daily placebo was 94.8 s and with sporadic placebo was 96.6 s. Coital frequency increased to 4.32 times/week with daily tramadol treatment and 4.86 times with sporadic treatment. Coital frequency increased to 2.88 times/week with daily placebo treatment and 3.23 times with sporadic treatment. Conclusions: The results of PME treatment with tramadol are similar with both continued and sporadic administration. The sex life of patients improved and they reported greater satisfaction with the sporadic treatment. PMID:24249927

  18. Bioactive polymers for cardiac tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Samuel Thomas

    2007-05-01

    stabilized injured ventricles, reducing functional loss over 6 weeks, and promoted the survival of transplanted stem cells. In addition, modifications to the hydrogel to impart novel bioactivity through a developed tethered form of the protein sonic hedgehog were synthesized and characterized. This tethered form increased protein potency, induced angiogenesis, and could be incorporated into the hydrogel material for future implantation studies in the injured ventricle.

  19. Silicon Utilizing Microbial Bioactivities in the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, M. M.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    potential as a source of biomass for the production of biofuels, due to their high growth rates and high cellular lipid content. Petroleum pollutant degradation can also be done by these organisms-Achanthes minutissima has degradable effects involving petroleum hydocarbons. Stephanopyxis turris a silicon utilizing organism releases a blend of chlorinated C8 hydrocarbons. This adds a fundamentally new pathway to the limited set of halogenating enzymatic activities known from nature. Many silicon utilizing organisms can produce PUFA from saturated fatty acids which ultimately produce many important bioactive chemicals like hormosirene, finaverrene, heptadienal, dietyopterene, cystophorene, decadienal. Trienoic acid, octadiene and many other important agents. Similarly terpenoid biosynthetic pathway is activated by them with formation of diterpenoids, sesterpenoids, triterpenoids and sterols.

  20. Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Soon Jae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Min Young

    2014-04-01

    In the bioethanol production process employing citrus peels, a large amount of enzymatic hydrolyzed residues is generated as waste material. The bioactive compounds, and antioxidant and anticancer activities of these residues were investigated in the present study. Hydrolyzed citrus residues exhibited similar antioxidant activity as the unhydrolyzed control, which was positively correlated to the contents of total phenols, flavonoids and total carotenoid. Some flavonoids (naringin, naringenin, hesperetin and neohesperidin) and two high value co-products (D-limonene and galacturonic acid) were detected only in hydrolyzed residues. In addition, hydrolyzed residues showed antiproliferative activity and sub-G1 arrest in human melanoma A375 and colon cancer HCT116 cells. These results provide an alternative use for hydrolyzed citrus residues in the functional food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24868862

  1. Bioactivity of calcium phosphate bioceramic coating fabricated by laser cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhi; Liu, Qibin; Xu, Peng; Li, Long; Jiang, Haibing; Bai, Yang

    2016-05-01

    There were always strong expectations for suitable biomaterials used for bone regeneration. In this study, to improve the biocompatiblity of titanium alloy, calcium phosphate bioceramic coating was obtained by laser cladding technology. The microstructure, phases, bioactivity, cell differentiation, morphology and resorption lacunae were investigated by optical microscope (OM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and scanning electronic microscope (SEM), respectively. The results show that bioceramic coating consists of three layers, which are a substrate, an alloyed layer and a ceramic layer. Bioactive phases of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) were found in ceramic coating. Osteoclast precursors have excellent proliferation on the bioceramic surface. The bioceramics coating could be digested by osteoclasts, which led to the resorption lacunae formed on its surface. It revealed that the gradient bioceramic coating has an excellent bioactivity.

  2. Bioactive molecules: current trends in discovery, synthesis, delivery and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Beng Kang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important bioactive molecules are moleculesthat are pharmacologically active derived from naturalsources and through chemical synthesis. Over the yearsmany of such molecules have been discovered throughbioprospective endeavours. The discovery of taxol fromthe pacific yew tree bark that has the ability in stabilisingcellular microtubules represents one of the hallmarks ofsuccess of such endeavours. In recent years, the discoveryprocess has been aided by the rapid developmentof techniques and technologies in chemistry andbiotechnology. The progress in advanced genetics andcomputational biology has also transformed the wayhypotheses are formulated as well as the strategies for drugdiscovery. Of equal importance is the use of advanceddrug delivery vehicles in enhancing the efficacy andbioavailability of bioactive molecules. The availability ofsuitable animal models for testing and validation is yetanother major determinant in increasing the prospect forclinical trials of bioactive molecules.

  3. Bioactive lipids as modulators of immunity, inflammation and emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiurchiù, Valerio; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Lipids are not only constituents of cellular membranes but also key signaling mediators, thus acting as 'bioactive lipids'. Among the prominent roles exerted by bioactive lipids are immune regulation, inflammation and maintenance of homeostasis. Accumulated evidence indicates the existence of a bidirectional relationship between immune and nervous systems, whereby inflammatory mediators can directly modulate emotions that, in turn, can strongly influence immune responses, thus affecting health. This review summarizes current knowledge on the ability of several families of bioactive lipids to regulate immunity and inflammation (through pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory effects), as well as to control emotions and mood-related manifestations, advocating these substances as an attractive interface between 'mind' and 'body', and as a potential target to treat inflammatory/immune-mediated mood disorders. PMID:27372887

  4. PREPARATION OF BIOACTIVE NANOSTRUCTURE SCAFFOLD WITH IMPROVED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. EMADI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly porous scaffolds with open structure are today the best candidates for bone substitution to ensure bone oxygenation and angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new route to enhance the compressive strength of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made of natural bone. Briefly, the spongy bone of an adult bovine was extracted, annealed, and coated by a nanostructure bioactive glass layer to be subsequently sintered at different temperatures. The apatite formation ability on the surfaces of the coated scaffolds was investigated by standard procedures. Our results showed that the scaffold and coating microstructure consisted of the grains smaller than 100 nm. These nanostructures improved the compressive strength and bioactivity of highly porous scaffold. The results showed that with increasing the sintering temperature, the compressive strength of scaffolds increased while their in vitro bioactivity decreased.

  5. Bioactivities of fish protein hydrolysates from defatted salmon backbones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Slizyte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivities of bulk fish protein hydrolysates (FPH from defatted salmon backbones obtained with eight different commercial enzymes and their combinations were tested. All FPH showed antioxidative activity in vitro. DPPH scavenging activity increased, while iron chelating ability decreased with increasing time of hydrolysis. All FPH showed ACE inhibiting effect which depended on type of enzyme and increased with time of hydrolysis. The highest effect was found for FPH produced with Trypsin. Bromelain + Papain hydrolysates reduced the uptake of radiolabelled glucose into CaCo-2 cells, a model of human enterocytes, indicating a potential antidiabetic effect of FPH. FPH obtained by Trypsin, Bromelain + Papain and Protamex showed the highest ACE inhibitory, cellular glucose transporter (GLUT/SGLT inhibitory and in vitro antioxidative activities, respectively. Correlation was observed between the measured bioactivities, degree of hydrolysis and molecular weight profiles, supporting prolonged hydrolysis to obtain high bioactivities.

  6. Biological Impact of Bioactive Glasses and Their Dissolution Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Alexander; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2015-01-01

    For many years, bioactive glasses (BGs) have been widely considered for bone tissue engineering applications due to their ability to bond to hard as well as soft tissue (a property termed bioactivity) and for their stimulating effects on bone formation. Ionic dissolution products released during the degradation of the BG matrix induce osteogenic gene expression leading to enhanced bone regeneration. Recently, adding bioactive metallic ions (e.g. boron, copper, cobalt, silver, zinc and strontium) to silicate (or phosphate and borate) glasses has emerged as a promising route for developing novel BG formulations with specific therapeutic functionalities, including antibacterial, angiogenic and osteogenic properties. The degradation behaviour of BGs can be tailored by adjusting the glass chemistry making these glass matrices potential carrier systems for controlled therapeutic ion release. This book chapter summarises the fundamental aspects of the effect of ionic dissolution products from BGs on osteogenesis and angiogenesis, whilst discussing novel BG compositions with controlled therapeutic ion release. PMID:26201273

  7. Edible berries: bioactive components and their effect on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-02-01

    The importance of food consumption in relation to human health has increased consumer attention in nutraceutical components and foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Berries are a rich source of a wide variety of non-nutritive, nutritive, and bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, phenolics, anthocyanins, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and tannins, as well as nutritive compounds such as sugars, essential oils, carotenoids, vitamins, and minerals. Bioactive compounds from berries have potent antioxidant, anticancer, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antineurodegenerative properties, both in vitro and in vivo. The following is a comprehensive and critical review on nutritional and non-nutritional bioactive compounds of berries including their absorption, metabolism, and biological activity in relation to their potential effect on human health. PMID:24012283

  8. Bioactive Compounds and Their Neuroprotective Effects in Diabetic Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yoon Sin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and impaired insulin signaling during the development of diabetes can cause diabetic complications, such as diabetic neuropathy, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Although various therapeutics are available for the treatment of diabetic neuropathy, no absolute cure exists, and additional research is necessary to comprehensively understand the underlying pathophysiological pathways. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of bioactive compounds, i.e., flavonoids and vitamins, which may be effective as supplementary treatments for diabetes and its complications. In this review, we highlight the most recent reports about the mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds (flavonoids and vitamins) possessing potential neuroprotective properties in diabetic conditions. Additional clinical studies are required to determine the appropriate dose and duration of bioactive compound supplementation for neuroprotection in diabetic patients. PMID:27483315

  9. Bioactive benzopyrone derivatives from new recombinant fusant of marine Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Mervat M A; Shaaban, M; El-Bondkly, A M; Shaaban, K A

    2008-07-01

    In our searching program for bioactive secondary metabolites from marine Streptomycetes, three microbial benzopyrone derivatives (1-3), 7-methylcoumarin (1) and two flavonoides, rhamnazin (2) and cirsimaritin (3), were obtained during the working up of the ethyl acetate fraction of a marine Streptomyces fusant obtained from protoplast fusion between Streptomyces strains Merv 1996 and Merv 7409. The structures of the three compounds (1-3) were established by nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, UV spectra, and by comparison with literature data. Marine Streptomyces strains were identified based on their phenotypic and chemotypic characteristics as two different bioactive strains of the genus Streptomyces. We described here the fermentation, isolation, as well as the biological activity of these bioactive compounds. The isolated compounds (1-3) are reported here as microbial products for the first time. PMID:18551256

  10. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Types of Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Skrovankova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Berries, especially members of several families, such as Rosaceae (strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, and Ericaceae (blueberry, cranberry, belong to the best dietary sources of bioactive compounds (BAC. They have delicious taste and flavor, have economic importance, and because of the antioxidant properties of BAC, they are of great interest also for nutritionists and food technologists due to the opportunity to use BAC as functional foods ingredients. The bioactive compounds in berries contain mainly phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, flavonoids, such as anthocyanins and flavonols, and tannins and ascorbic acid. These compounds, either individually or combined, are responsible for various health benefits of berries, such as prevention of inflammation disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or protective effects to lower the risk of various cancers. In this review bioactive compounds of commonly consumed berries are described, as well as the factors influencing their antioxidant capacity and their health benefits.

  11. Synthesis of nano-bioactive glass-ceramic powders and its in vitro bioactivity study in bovine serum albumin protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabian, Nima; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Rabiee, Sayed Mahmood

    2011-07-01

    Bioactive glasses and ceramics have proved to be able to chemically bond to living bone due to the formation of an apatite-like layer on its surface. The aim of this work was preparation and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic by sol-gel method. Nano-bioglass-ceramic material was crushed into powder and its bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of hydroxyapatite layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. The obtained nano-bioactive glass-ceramic was analyzed before and after contact with BSA solution. This study used scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis to examine its morphology, crystallinity and composition. The TEM images showed that the NBG particles size were 10-40 nm. Bioactivity of nanopowder was confirmed by SEM and XRD due to the presence of a rich bone-like apatite layer. Therefore, this nano-BSA-bioglass-ceramic composite material is promising for medical applications such as bone substitutes and drug carriers.

  12. Maximum daily rainfall in South Korea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saralees Nadarajah; Dongseok Choi

    2007-08-01

    Annual maxima of daily rainfall for the years 1961–2001 are modeled for five locations in South Korea (chosen to give a good geographical representation of the country). The generalized extreme value distribution is fitted to data from each location to describe the extremes of rainfall and to predict its future behavior. We find evidence to suggest that the Gumbel distribution provides the most reasonable model for four of the five locations considered. We explore the possibility of trends in the data but find no evidence suggesting trends. We derive estimates of 10, 50, 100, 1000, 5000, 10,000, 50,000 and 100,000 year return levels for daily rainfall and describe how they vary with the locations. This paper provides the first application of extreme value distributions to rainfall data from South Korea.

  13. Daily rhythms in mobile telephone communication

    CERN Document Server

    Aledavood, Talayeh; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I M; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals' social networks. Further, women's calls were longer than men's calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls wer...

  14. Professional ideals and daily practice in journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Professional ideals are crucial in terms of guiding and committing journalists in modern media organizations. But what happens if there are discrepancies between the journalists’ professional ideals and their daily working practice? Research suggests negative consequences, such as withdrawal...... it examines the journalists’ reactions to discrepancies in relation to their organizational commitment. The results suggest that discrepancies do have a negative impact on journalists’ commitment. Further implications for research and practice of the findings are discussed....

  15. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  16. Do Daily Retail Gasoline Prices adjust Asymmetrically?

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, Leon; Geest, Stéphanie; Kuper, G.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes adjustments in the Dutch retail gasoline prices. We estimate an error correction model on changes in the daily retail price for gasoline (taxes excluded) for the period 1996-2004 taking care of volatility clustering by estimating an EGARCH model. It turns out the volatility process is asymmetrical: an unexpected increase in the producer price has a larger effect on the variance of the producer price than an unexpected decrease. We do not find evidence for amount asymmetry,...

  17. Daily Water Use in Nine Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, David R.; Miaou, Shaw-Pin

    1986-06-01

    Transfer functions are used to model the short-term response of daily municipal water use to rainfall and air temperature variations. Daily water use data from nine cities are studied, three cities each from Florida, Pennsylvania, and Texas. The dynamic response of water use to rainfall and air temperature is similar across the cities within each State; in addition the responses of the Texas and Florida cities are very similar to one another while the response of the Pennsylvania cities is more sensitive to air temperature and less to rainfall. There is little impact of city size on the response functions. The response of water use to rainfall depends first on the occurrence of rainfall and second on its magnitude. The occurrence of a rainfall more than 0.05 in./day (0.13 cm/day) causes a drop in the seasonal component of water use one day later that averages 38% for the Texas cities, 42% for the Florida cities, and 7% for the Pennsylvania cities. In Austin, Texas, a spatially averaged rainfall series shows a clearer relationship with water use than does rainfall data from a single gage. There is a nonlinear response of water use to air temperature changes with no response for daily maximum air temperatures between 40° and 70°F (4-21°C) an increase in water use with air temperature beyond 70°F; above 85°-90°F (29°-32°C) water use increases 3-5 times more per degree than below that limit in Texas and Florida. The model resulting from these studies can be used for daily water use forecasting and water conservation analysis.

  18. Chronic daily headache: biochemical and neurotransmitter abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Gallai, Virgilio; Sarchielli, Paola; Genco, Sergio; Alberti, Andrea; D'Andrea, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Although chronic daily headache (CDH) represents one of the most relevant complaints of patients in headache centers, the mechanisms underlying the chronicization of head pain are poorly understood. Experimental animal models of chronic pain suggest the involvement of a functional disturbance of several neuronal pathways. The disturbances include an abnormal excitability of nociceptive fibers supplying pain-sensitive structures in the brain responsible for peripheral sensitization (chronic ne...

  19. Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor: A New Technology for Biotreatment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani Shahna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological treatment is a new established technology for the air pollutants. This technology can be an alternative for physical and chemical treatment methods. Among bioreators, the Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor (BFER is a new alternative that has not the problems of the conventional ones. In this reactor bed clogging in the conventional bioreactor was resolved by bioactive foam as a substitute of packing bed. The pollutant absorption has been increased using biocompatible organic phase in liquid .This reactor can be used for higher inlet toluene concentration. The objective of this study was designing and optimizing the operational parameters of BFER for toluene treatment.Materials & Methods: In the first step of this experimental-analytic study, the toluene degradation microorganisms were identified, extracted and concentrated for injection to bioreactor. Then the effect of several parameters such as Kind and concentration of organic phase,and residence time oxygen content on bioreactor performance were studied and the optimum conditions were selected for continuous operation. The continuous operation of bioreactor was monitored at the optimum conditions.Results: Experimental results showed that the residence time of 15s, oxygen content of 40%, and the 4 % (v/v n-hexadecane as organic phase were the optimum conditions. The average elimination capacity (EC and removal efficiency of bioreactor were 231.68 g/m3h and 88.44% respectively for the inlet concentration about of 1 g/m3. The statistical developed model predicted that the maximum EC of this reactor could reach to 426.21 g/m3h.Conclusion: Since the elimination capacity of this reactor is several times more than the other bioreactors, it has the potential to be applied instead of biofilters and biotrickling filters.

  20. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  1. Food-Derived Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadeep Chakrabarti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of these pathological conditions. Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have been evaluated for various beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this review, we summarize the roles of various food-derived bioactive peptides in inflammation and oxidative stress and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using these compounds against the burden of chronic diseases.

  2. In vitro bioactivity and cytocompatibility of tricalcium silicate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xiaoming Liao; Hongyang Zhu; Guangfu Yin; Zhongbing Huang; Yadong Yao; Xianchun Chen

    2011-08-01

    The in vitro bioactivity of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5) ceramics was investigated by the bone-like apatite-formation ability in simulated body fluid (SBF), and the cytocompatibility was evaluated through osteoblast adhesion and proliferation assay. The results show that the Ca3SiO5 ceramics possess bone-like apatite formation ability in SBF. In vitro cytocompatible evaluation reveals that osteoblasts adhere and spread well on the Ca3SiO5 ceramics, indicating good bioactivity and cytocompatibility.

  3. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Zhang, Pei; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarizes the bioactivities and health benefits of mushrooms, and could be useful for full utilization of mushrooms. PMID:27447602

  4. 20 CFR 330.3 - Daily rate of compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Daily rate of compensation. 330.3 Section 330... INSURANCE ACT DETERMINATION OF DAILY BENEFIT RATES § 330.3 Daily rate of compensation. (a) Definition. An employee's daily rate of compensation is his or her straight-time rate of pay, including any...

  5. Chronic job burnout and daily functioning: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold B. Bakker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the individual employee's role in the development of his/her job burnout. We review the antecedents and consequences of burnout, and propose a model with chronic burnout as a moderator of daily functioning in the workplace. Specifically, we argue that chronic burnout strengthens the loss cycle of daily job demands, daily exhaustion, and daily self-undermining. Additionally, we argue that chronic burnout weakens the gain cycle of daily job resources, daily work engagement, and daily job crafting. We conclude that employees with high levels of burnout need help in structurally changing their working conditions and health status.

  6. Investigation of the bioactivity and biocompatibility of different glass interfaces with hydroxyapatite, fluorohydroxyapatite and 58S bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuling Jamie; Loo, Say Chye Joachim; Lee, Joel; Ma, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The current review investigates the bioactivity of different glass interfaces created on thin glass cover slips as substrates. The interfaces studied are plain glass, functionalized glass using 0.5 M and 5 M of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 24 hrs, and glass coated with bioactive 58S Bioglass (58S). A biomimetic method, involving the exposure of the three interfaces to 1.5 times simulated body fluid (SBF) tests the bioactivity of the interfaces via creation of layer of Hydroxyapatite (HA). Fluorinated SBF will precipitate fluorine doped HA (FHA) on a bioactive interface. Higher concentration of 1.5 times of SBF used in this study intended to accelerate the formation of HA and FHA layer over the substrate. HA and FHA is found to be precipitated on the thinly coated 58S. This paper, study also the thin film coatings of three forms of bioceramics - bioactive 58S, HA and FHA. The study, also proposes to draw a relation between the morphology of HA particles with duration of exposure to SBF, the effects of fluorine on the morphology and the cell interaction with bioactive 58S, HA and FHA interfaces using pre-differentiated osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The analysis of cells in this study is confined to three parameters that include the attachment, proliferation and viability of cells. Tests employed for the analysis of the thin film coating of HA and FHA is restricted to qualitative X-Ray Diffraction and quantitative Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. Other mechanical tests such as shear test are not used to test the mechanical properties of this thin layer, due to the fact that the thin film is too thin for such analysis. PMID:18607070

  7. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in order to explore the possibility of utilizing plant tissue culture techniques for production of secondary metabolites from callus culture of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and to investigate the bioactivity of the established callus extract in comparison with the extract from the intact leaves. The presence of secondary metabolites in the extracts was detected by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Both the callus and leaf extracts eluted five fraction of compounds and it were observed that callus extract had a good resolution. various extract concentration (5.10. and 20 mg/ml) were determined for the rate and extent of inhibition kinetics against staphylococcus aureus. Escherichia coli, and candida albicans. Results showed that callus extract of A. indica wiped out all viable cells of C. albicans within 18 hours and the subsequent concentration 5 and 10 mg/ m1 retard the growth after 24 h. A higher concentration of 20 mg/ ml had the same effect on S. aureus after 6 h and the E. coli cells were completely inhibited by the extracts after 24 h. Similar kinetics were showed by leaf extract but in slight rate as compared to the callus extract. In general both extract posses antimicrobial activity with notable efficient rates. For assaying of the inhibitory effect on some phyto pathogens the effect of different concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts on the radial growth of Drechslera rostrata. Fusarium oxysporum and Alterneria alternata were in vitro assessed. Obvious inhibitory effect was observed on the mycelia radial growth of the three treated fungi. The level of inhibition increased with the increase of te extract concentration. The maximum inhibitory effect (84%) was recorded with Drechslera rostrata when inoculated in media contain 20 mg/ ml of callus while the inhibition rate of mycelia growth of the same species reaches 61% when inoculated in a medium contain the same concentration of the neem leaf extract. The subsequent

  8. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  10. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  11. Daily lsa-saf evapotranspiration product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Rodallega, Alirio; Ghilain, Nicolas; Meulenberghs, Francoise

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF), some models have been implemented in view to characterize continental surfaces by using information obtained from MSG and EPS satellites. In this context a method has been developed in order to monitor the flux of water (Evapotranspiration) between the land surface and the atmosphere. The method is based on a physical approach in which radiative data derived from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites together with land-cover information are used to constrain a physical model of energy exchange between the soil-vegetation system and the atmosphere. The implemented algorithm provides instantaneous ET estimates over four regions defined in the MSG FOV (the defined regions cover Europe, Africa and the west of south America), with MSG spatial resolution (3km at sub satellite point) and a temporal time step of 30 minutes. The scope of the method is limited to evaporation from terrestrial surfaces rather than from lakes or oceans. The instantaneous product has been validated over different vegetation cover and climatic conditions, providing evidence that the algorithm is able to reproduce ET estimates with accuracy equivalent to the accuracy of ET obtained from observations. In 2009 the instantaneous ET product has been declared pre-operational by EUMETSAT, allowing the product to be disseminated to a larger community of users (http://landsaf.meteo.pt). In some areas like agriculture, hydrology, water management, ecology and climate studies the main concern is not instantaneous but accumulated values over days, months or longer periods. To encompass the need for these community of users, a daily ET product in which daily evapotranspiration is obtained as temporal integration of instantaneous values has been developed. In this contribution we will present the methodology used to obtain instantaneous ET estimates and the procedure applied to derive daily

  12. Assessing the potential of support vector machine for estimating daily solar radiation using sunshine duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Support vector machine is used to estimate daily solar radiation from sunshine duration. • Seven SVM models using different input attributes are evaluated using 35 years long term data. • SVM models significantly outperform the empirical models. • The optimal SVM model is proposed. - Abstract: Estimation of solar radiation from sunshine duration offers an important alternative in the absence of measured solar radiation. However, due to the dynamic nature of atmosphere, accurate estimation of daily solar radiation has been being a challenging task. This paper presents an application of Support vector machine (SVM) to estimation of daily solar radiation using sunshine duration. Seven SVM models using different input attributes and five empirical sunshine-based models are evaluated using meteorological data at three stations in Liaoning province in China. All the SVM models give good performances and significantly outperform the empirical models. The newly developed model, SVM1 using sunshine ratio as input attribute, is preferred due to its greater accuracy and simple input attribute. It performs better in winter, while highest root mean square error and relative root mean square error are obtained in summer. The season-dependent SVM model is superior to the fixed model in estimation of daily solar radiation for winter, while consideration of seasonal variation of the data sets cannot improve the results for spring, summer and autumn. Moreover, daily solar radiation could be well estimated by SVM1 using the data from nearby stations. The results indicate that the SVM method would be a promising alternative over the traditional approaches for estimation of daily solar radiation

  13. Excipient Nanoemulsions for Improving Oral Bioavailability of Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salvia-Trujillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The oral bioavailability of many hydrophobic bioactive compounds found in natural food products (such as vitamins and nutraceuticals in fruits and vegetables is relatively low due to their low bioaccessibility, chemical instability, or poor absorption. Most previous research has therefore focused on the design of delivery systems to incorporate isolated bioactive compounds into food products. However, a more sustainable and cost-effect approach to enhancing the functionality of bioactive compounds is to leave them within their natural environment, but specifically design excipient foods that enhance their bioavailability. Excipient foods typically do not have functionality themselves but they have the capacity to enhance the functionality of nutrients present in natural foods by altering their bioaccessibility, absorption, and/or chemical transformation. In this review article we present the use of excipient nanoemulsions for increasing the bioavailability of bioactive components from fruits and vegetables. Nanoemulsions present several advantages over other food systems for this application, such as the ability to incorporate hydrophilic, amphiphilic, and lipophilic excipient ingredients, high physical stability, and rapid gastrointestinal digestibility. The design, fabrication, and application of nanoemulsions as excipient foods will therefore be described in this article.

  14. Greener and Expeditious Synthesis of Bioactive Heterocycles using Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utilization of green chemistry techniques is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times as has recently been proven in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. To illustrate these advantages in the synthesis of bio-active heterocycles, we have stud...

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and bioactivity of rosin quaternary ammonium salt derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Two series of rosin quaternary ammonium salts (QAS were synthesized using the same path. The structure of the target products was characterized by HPLC, MS, IR, and 1HNMR, and the bioactivity was determined by filter paper method using Trametes versicolor (white-rot fungus and Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown-rot fungus, which are two kinds of general wood decay fungi in nature. The results showed that all compounds tested had a satisfactory anti-fungal effect at the molarity of 0.025 mmol/mL. Hereinto, acrylpimaric Gemini QAS had better bioactivity than dehydrogenated or tetrahydrogenated rosin QAS against Trametes versicolor. To this fungus, quaternary ammonium groups, which wraps up the membrane of microorganism and disrupts the balance in cell membrane, plays the leading role for its bioactivity. To Gloeophyllum trabeum, the inhibition activity of acrylpimaric QAS and dehydrogenated rosin QAS are almost at the same level and larger than tetrahydrogenated rosin QAS, so we conclude that both quaternary ammonium group and aromatic group play important roles. Compared with dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1227, which is a commercially available quaternary ammonium salt type fungicide, acrylpimaric acid quaternary ammonium salts have approximate bioactivity against Gloeophyllum trabeum. In conclusion, rosin derivatives with functional groups would do well in wood preservative applications.

  16. Case studies of the synthesis of bioactive cyclodepsipeptide natural products

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Kaiser; Stolze, Sara C.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclodepsipeptide natural products often display intriguing biological activities that along with their complex molecular scaffolds, makes them interesting targets for chemical synthesis. Although cyclodepsipeptides feature highly diverse chemical structures, their synthesis is often associated with similar synthetic challenges such as the establishment of a suitable macrocyclization methodology. This review therefore compiles case studies of synthetic approaches to different bioactive cyclod...

  17. A novel graded bioactive high adhesion implant coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One method to increase the clinical success rate of metal implants is to increase their bone bonding properties, i.e. to develop a bone bioactive surface leading to reduced risks of interfacial problems. Much research has been devoted to modifying the surface of metals to make them become bioactive. Many of the proposed methods include depositing a coating on the implant. However, there is a risk of coating failure due to low substrate adhesion. This paper describes a method to obtain bioactivity combined with a high coating adhesion via a gradient structure of the coating. Gradient coatings were deposited on Ti (grade 5) using reactive magnetron sputtering with increasing oxygen content. To increase the grain size in the coating, all coatings were post annealed at 385 deg. C. The obtained coating exhibited a gradual transition over 70 nm from crystalline titanium oxide (anatase) at the surface to metallic Ti in the substrate, as shown using cross-section transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth profiling. Using scratch testing, it could be shown that the adhesion to the substrate was well above 1 GPa. The bioactivity of the coating was verified in vitro by the spontaneous formation of hydroxylapatite upon storage in phosphate buffer solution at 37 deg. C for one week. The described process can be applied to implants irrespective of bulk metal in the base and should introduce the possibility to create safer permanent implants like reconstructive devices, dental, or spinal implants.

  18. Advancement into the Arctic Region for Bioactive Sponge Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Porifera have long been a reservoir for the discovery of bioactive compounds and drug discovery. Most research in the area has focused on sponges from tropical and temperate waters, but more recently the focus has shifted to the less accessible colder waters of the Antarctic and, to a lesser extent, the Arctic. The Antarctic region in particular has been a more popular location for natural products discovery and has provided promising candidates for drug development. This article reviews groups of bioactive compounds that have been isolated and reported from the southern reaches of the Arctic Circle, surveys the known sponge diversity present in the Arctic waters, and details a recent sponge collection by our group in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The collection has yielded previously undescribed sponge species along with primary activity against opportunistic infectious diseases, malaria, and HCV. The discovery of new sponge species and bioactive crude extracts gives optimism for the isolation of new bioactive compounds from a relatively unexplored source.

  19. Dereplication of phorbol bioactives: Lyngbya majuscula and Croton cuneatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutler, J.A.; Alvarado, A.B.; Schaufelberger, D.E.; Andrews, P.; McCloud, T.G. (Developmental Therapeutics Program, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Lyngbya majuscula and Croton cuneatus were used as prototypes for the dereplication of phorbol ester receptor binding activity using a combination of hplc-uv and online phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) receptor binding and batch fractionation over either Si gel or diolbonded Si gel. Debromoaplysiatoxin was responsible for the bioactivity of Lyngbya, whereas a complex of potent phorbol esters was detected in C. cuneatus.

  20. Synthetic derivatives of spiromesifen and their bioactivity research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Hao Zhao; Ming Hua Ji; Xu Hui Xu; Jing Li Cheng; Guo Nian Zhu

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen new derivatives of spiromesifen were synthesized from 3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-△~3-dihydrofuran-2-one. Their bioactivities against diarnondbackmoth (Plutella xylostella) and spider mites (Tetranychus cinnabarinus) were also evaluated. The structures of these derivatives were confirmed by ~1H NMR, MS.

  1. Fabrication of bioactive composite scaffolds by electrospinning for bone regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandakumar, Anandkumar; Fernandes, Hugo; Boer, de Jan; Moroni, Lorenzo; Habibovic, Pamela; Blitterswijk, van Clemens A.

    2010-01-01

    Electrospun scaffolds are widely used for various biomedical applications. In this study, we prepared electrospun bioactive composite scaffolds combining hydroxyapatite, collagen (Col) and a synthetic polymer—PolyActive™—to mimic naturally occurring extracellular matrix for in situ bone regeneration

  2. Bioactive Natural Products From Chinese Tropical Marine Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO,Yue-Wei

    2004-01-01

    @@ The oceans contain a vast biological diversity of species that have so far been utilized by mankind mainly as a source of protein. In the last few decades, however, natural products chemists have started to discover the wealth of bioactive secondary metabolites that are produced by marine invertebrates such as sponges, soft corals, molluscs and others.

  3. Phenolic waste valorization through bioenergy and bioactive compounds production [Resumo

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Isabel Paula Ramos; Morana, A; La Cara, F.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural and industrial processing activities produce large amounts of waste that are only partially valorised at different value-added levels (spread on land, animal feed, composting), whereas the main volumes are managed as waste of environmental worry. These by-products are rich sources of bioactive compounds, including phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity.

  4. Bioactivities and Health Benefits of Mushrooms Mainly from China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao-Jiao Zhang; Ya Li; Tong Zhou; Dong-Ping Xu; Pei Zhang; Sha Li; Hua-Bin Li

    2016-01-01

    Many mushrooms have been used as foods and medicines for a long time. Mushrooms contain polyphenols, polysaccharides, vitamins and minerals. Studies show that mushrooms possess various bioactivities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic properties, therefore, mushrooms have attracted increasing attention in recent years, and could be developed into functional food or medicines for prevention and treatment of se...

  5. Chitosan/bioactive glass nanoparticle composite membranes for periodontal regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, J.; Yu, N.; Caridade, S.G.; Luz, G.M.; Gomes, M.E.R.; Reis, R.L.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Mano, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Barrier membranes are used in periodontal applications with the aim of supporting periodontal regeneration by physically blocking migration of epithelial cells. The present work proposes a combination of chitosan (CHT) with bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG-NPs) in order to produce a novel guided ti

  6. Polyamines: total daily intake in adolescents compared to the intake estimated from the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations Objectified (SNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Atiya Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary polyamines have been shown to give a significant contribution to the body pool of polyamines. Knowing the levels of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine in different foods and the contribution of daily food choice to polyamine intake is of interest, due to the association of these bioactive amines to health and disease. Objective: To estimate polyamine intake and food contribution to this intake in adolescents compared to a diet fulfilling the Swedish Nutrition Recommendations. Design: A cross-sectional study of dietary intake in adolescents and an ‘ideal diet’ (Swedish nutrition recommendations objectified [SNO] list of foods was used to compute polyamine intake using a database of polyamine contents of foods. For polyamine intake estimation, 7-day weighed food records collected from 93 adolescents were entered into dietetic software (Dietist XP including data on polyamine contents of foods. The content of polyamines in foods recommended according to SNO was entered in the same way. Results: The adolescents’ mean daily polyamine intake was 316±170 µmol/day, while the calculated contribution according to SNO was considerably higher with an average polyamine intake of 541 µmol/day. In both adolescent's intake and SNO, fruits contributed to almost half of the total polyamine intake. The reason why the intake among the adolescents was lower than the one calculated from SNO was mainly due to the low vegetable consumption in the adolescents group. Conclusions: The average daily total polyamine intake was similar to that previously reported in Europe. With an ‘ideal’ diet according to Swedish nutrition recommendations, the intake of this bioactive non-nutrient would be higher than that reported by our adolescents and also higher than that previously reported from Europe.

  7. Chronic daily headache in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özge, Aynur

    2013-12-01

    Disabling headache disorders are ubiquitous in all age groups, including the elderly, yet they are under-recognized, underdiagnosed and undertreated worldwide. Surveys and clinic-based research reports on headache disorders in elderly populations are extremely limited in number. Chronic daily headache (CDH) is an important and growing subtype of primary headache disorders, associated with increased burden and disruption to quality of life. CDH can be divided into two forms, based on headache duration. Common forms of primary headache disorders of long duration (>4 hours) were comprehensively defined in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). These include chronic migraine, chronic tension-type headache, new daily persistent headache, and hemicrania continua. Rarer short-duration (hemicrania, SUNCT, and hypnic headache. Accurate diagnosis, management, and relief of the burden of CDH in the elderly population present numerous unique challenges as the "aging world" continues to grow. In order to implement appropriate coping strategies for the elderly, it is essential to establish the correct diagnosis at each step and to exercise caution in differentiating from secondary causes, while always taking into consideration the unique needs and limitations of the aged body.

  8. Daily practices of health among sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elouyse Fernandes Leitão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the health practices adopted by sex workers in their daily lives. Methods: A qualitative study that took place at bars where sex workers of Maceió –AL, Brazil, work. The universe of participant subjects was integrated by 15 female sex workers, aged between 20 and 39 years, assisted by the team of a Street Clinic. The research took place between August and October 2011 and women were randomly selected. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, which were all audio-recorded and transcribed for further analysis and interpretation. Results: Thematic analysis of the data produced and the theoretical framework of health promotion enabled the categorization of the health practices in daily life of these women, such as: prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, body care and aesthetics, physical activity, nutrition, leisure, interpersonal relationships, consumption of alcohol and others drugs, self-medication, and quest for health services. The ways they appropriate themselves of such practices are conditioned by the social vulnerability and economic and sociocultural context they are in. Conclusion: Despite the deficiencies found in the development of these practices, sex workers seek to preserve habits that improve their physical, social and mental health, as well as the pursuit of professional care and services to promote their health.

  9. The Use of Plant Bioactive Compounds to Mitigate Enteric Methane in Ruminants and its Application in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, increasing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions have become a major concern as they are now considered to be the cause of global warming. Several strategies have been planned and taken by different countries including Indonesia to mitigate this situation. Agriculture is considered to be one of major contributors to GHG, especially methane coming from ruminant digestive processes. More than 85% of the methane produced by ruminants comes from enteric fermentation. Several options have been proposed to lower this enteric methane production. This paper describes a review on diet manipulation using feed additives, especially plant bioactive compounds, to mitigate the GHG emission from ruminant livestock. Plant bioactive compounds have been found with various chemical structures. Some of them such as saponin, tannin, essential oils, organosulphur compounds, have been reported to have ability to reduce enteric methane production. Indonesia has many plant resources that have potential as methane reducing agents. Sapindus rarak fruit especially its methanol extract contain saponins which reduce the activity of methanogens in the rumen in vitro, hence reduce methane production (11%. Feeding S. rarak to sheep increased daily weight gain but not that of local cattle. Shrub legumes such as Calliandra calothyrsus and Leucaena leucocephala contain tannins which can reduce methanogenesis (3 – 21% methane reduction. Besides tannin, these shrub legumes are a good source of protein. Feeding shrub legumes can be beneficial as a protein source and a methane reducer. Other sources of methane reducing agents have been tested in other countries and some can be applied for Indonesian situation. The strategy to reduce methane by plant bioactive compounds should be developed to be simple and relatively cheap so it will benefit the local farmers. Extraction of these compounds may be expensive, therefore, costs should be considered carefully when proposing to use the

  10. Bioplotting of a bioactive alginate dialdehyde-gelatin composite hydrogel containing bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Álvaro J; Sarker, Bapi; Zehnder, Tobias; Silva, Raquel; Mano, João F; Boccaccini, Aldo R

    2016-01-01

    Alginate dialdehyde-gelatin (ADA-GEL) constructs incorporating bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGNPs) were produced by biofabrication to obtain a grid-like highly-hydrated composite. The material could induce the deposition of an apatite layer upon immersion in a biological-like environment to sustain cell attachment and proliferation. Composites were formulated with different concentrations of BGNPs synthetized from a sol-gel route, namely 0.1% and 0.5% (w/v). Strontium doped BGNPs were also used. EDS analysis suggested that the BGNPs loading promoted the growth of bone-like apatite layer on the surface when the constructs were immersed in a simulated body fluid. Moreover, the composite constructs could incorporate with high efficiency ibuprofen as a drug model. Furthermore, the biofabrication process allowed the successful incorporation of MG-63 cells into the composite material. Cells were distributed homogeneously within the hydrogel composite, and no differences were found in cell viability between ADA-GEL and the composite constructs, proving that the addition of BGNPs did not influence cell fate. Overall, the composite material showed potential for future applications in bone tissue engineering. PMID:27432012

  11. Fabrication and characterization of strontium incorporated 3-D bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue from biosilica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özarslan, Ali Can; Yücel, Sevil

    2016-11-01

    Bioactive glass scaffolds that contain silica are high viable biomaterials as bone supporters for bone tissue engineering due to their bioactive behaviour in simulated body fluid (SBF). In the human body, these materials help inorganic bone structure formation due to a combination of the particular ratio of elements such as silicon (Si), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na) and phosphorus (P), and the doping of strontium (Sr) into the scaffold structure increases their bioactive behaviour. In this study, bioactive glass scaffolds were produced by using rice hull ash (RHA) silica and commercial silica based bioactive glasses. The structural properties of scaffolds such as pore size, porosity and also the bioactive behaviour were investigated. The results showed that undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds have better bioactivity than that of commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds. Moreover, undoped and Sr-doped RHA silica-based bioactive glass scaffolds will be able to be used instead of undoped and Sr-doped commercial silica based bioactive glass scaffolds for bone regeneration applications. Scaffolds that are produced from undoped or Sr-doped RHA silica have high potential to form new bone for bone defects in tissue engineering. PMID:27524030

  12. Risk-based high-throughput chemical screening and prioritization using exposure models and in vitro bioactivity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a risk-based high-throughput screening (HTS) method to identify chemicals for potential health concerns or for which additional information is needed. The method is applied to 180 organic chemicals as a case study. We first obtain information on how the chemical is used and identify relevant use scenarios (e.g., dermal application, indoor emissions). For each chemical and use scenario, exposure models are then used to calculate a chemical intake fraction, or a product intake fraction, accounting for chemical properties and the exposed population. We then combine these intake fractions with use scenario-specific estimates of chemical quantity to calculate daily intake rates (iR; mg/kg/day). These intake rates are compared to oral equivalent doses (OED; mg/kg/day), calculated from a suite of ToxCast in vitro bioactivity assays using in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation and reverse dosimetry. Bioactivity quotients (BQs) are calculated as iR/OED to obtain estimates of potential impact associated with each relevant use scenario. Of the 180 chemicals considered, 38 had maximum iRs exceeding minimum OEDs (i.e., BQs > 1). For most of these compounds, exposures are associated with direct intake, food/oral contact, or dermal exposure. The method provides high-throughput estimates of exposure and important input for decision makers to identify chemicals of concern for further evaluation with additional information or more refined models

  13. Mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for efficient delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie; Fan, Wei; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we, for the first time, investigated mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds for the delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor. We have found that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds have significantly higher loading efficiency and more sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor than non-mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. In addition, vascular endothelial growth factor delivery from mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds has improved the viability of endothelial cells. The study has suggested that mesopore structures in mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds play an important role in improving the loading efficiency, decreasing the burst release, and maintaining the bioactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor, indicating that mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds are an excellent carrier of vascular endothelial growth factor for potential bone tissue engineering applications.

  14. Transition from hospital to daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene; Schønau, Mai Nanna; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the effect of nurse-led systematic rehabilitation counseling performed before discharge to prevent concerns in the hospital-to-home gap in rehabilitation of lung cancer patients after surgery. DESIGN AND METHOD: A quasi-experimental intervention study. One hundred twenty patients...... with operable non-small cell lung cancer admitted for surgery participated. Outcome was assessed by a validated self-rating questionnaire. The intervention was performed at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Denmark. RESULTS: Following nurse-led rehabilitation counseling...... in the transition from hospital to daily life. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Despite promising results, there is still a need to improve support for patients with lung cancer requiring rehabilitation....

  15. Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-11-24

    This 60 second public service announcement (PSA) is based on the November 24, 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Preexposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is a daily medicine that can be used to prevent getting HIV. PrEP is for people who don’t have HIV but who are at very high risk for getting it from sex or injection drug use. Unfortunately, many people who can benefit from PrEP aren’t taking it.  Created: 11/24/2015 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/24/2015.

  16. Appraisal-emotion relationships in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezlek, John B; Vansteelandt, Kristof; Van Mechelen, Iven; Kuppens, Peter

    2008-02-01

    Using a daily process design, the present study examined relationships between momentary appraisals and emotional experience based on Smith and Lazarus' (1993) theory of emotions (1993). Nine times a day for 2 weeks, participants (N = 33, 23 women) recorded their momentary experience of 2 positive emotions (joy, love) and 4 negative emotions (anger, guilt, fear, sadness) and the core relational theme appraisal contents Smith and Lazarus hypothesized as corresponding to these emotions. A series of multilevel modeling analyses found that the hypothesized relationships between appraisal contents and these emotions were stronger than relationships between contents and other emotions, although appraisals were related to other emotions in many cases. Moreover, there were some individual differences in the strength of these relationships. These results suggest that there are no one-to-one relationships between appraisal contents and specific emotional experiences, and that specific emotions are associated with different appraisal contents, and that specific appraisals are associated with different emotions.

  17. Climatology: Contrails reduce daily temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2002-08-01

    The potential of condensation trails (contrails) from jet aircraft to affect regional-scale surface temperatures has been debated for years, but was difficult to verify until an opportunity arose as a result of the three-day grounding of all commercial aircraft in the United States in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001. Here we show that there was an anomalous increase in the average diurnal temperature range (that is, the difference between the daytime maximum and night-time minimum temperatures) for the period 11-14 September 2001. Because persisting contrails can reduce the transfer of both incoming solar and outgoing infrared radiation and so reduce the daily temperature range, we attribute at least a portion of this anomaly to the absence of contrails over this period.

  18. CDC WONDER: Daily Air Temperatures and Heat Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Daily Air Temperature and Heat Index data available on CDC WONDER are county-level daily average air temperatures and heat index measures spanning the years...

  19. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) US daily temperature analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. daily temperature analyses are maps depicting various temperature quantities utilizing daily maximum and minimum temperature data across the US. Maps are...

  20. Metabolite Profiling and Comparison of Bioactivity in Antrodia cinnamomea and Antrodia salmonea Fruiting Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chieh-Yin; Chien, Shih-Chang; Tsao, Nai-Wen; Lai, Chiem-Sing; Wang, Ya-Yun; Hsiao, Wen-Wei; Chu, Fang-Hua; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2016-02-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a precious edible mushroom endemic to Taiwan that has been claimed to have significant health promotion activities. Antrodia salmonea is a new species of the genus Antrodia. In this study, we compared the metabolites and bioactivity of A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea fruiting bodies. The volatiles of A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea were characterized and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzaldehyde was found to be the most abundant compound in A. cinnamomea; the other abundant compounds were δ-guaiene, isolongifolene, 1-octen-3-ol, 4-terpinenol, α-guaiene, and p-cymene. In A. salmonea, the main volatiles were α-cedrene, 1-octen-3-ol, D-limonene, cadinadiene, germacrene D, isolongifolene, and α-muurolene. Furthermore, five ergostane-type triterpenoids and two lanostane-type triterpenoids were selected as index compounds characterizing A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea extracts. The content of each compound varied between the two species. (R,S)-antcin B was the most abundant compound in A. cinnamomea fruiting bodies (75.18 ± 0.11 µg/mg). However, (R,S)-antcin C (184.85 ± 0.96 µg/mg) was the major triterpenoid in the A. salmonea fruiting body. Furthermore, two compounds, antcin M and methyl antcinate K, were only present in the A. salmonea fingerprint; therefore, antcin M and methyl antcinate K may be important for distinguishing between A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea fruiting bodies. Finally, examination of anti-inflammation activity and cytotoxicity showed that A. salmonea had more anti-inflammatory activity than A. cinnamomea; however, A. salmonea was more cytotoxic than A. cinnamomea. In conclusion, the composition and bioactivity of the fruiting bodies of A. cinnamomea and A. salmonea varies. Therefore, it is recommended that further toxicological evaluation and investigation of the biological activity of A. salmonea is carried out to ensure its safe and efficacious use as an alternative to A. cinnamomea.

  1. On an Alternative Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Vankov, A

    1998-01-01

    The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.

  2. Polyphase alternating codes

    CERN Document Server

    Markkanen, Markku

    2007-01-01

    This work introduces a method for constructing polyphase alternating codes in which the length of a code transmission cycle can be $p^m$ or $p-1$, where $p$ is a prime number and $m$ is a positive integer. The relevant properties leading to the construction alternating codes and the algorithm for generating alternating codes is described. Examples of all practical and some not that practical polyphase code lengths are given.

  3. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  4. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  5. Glutathione transferases in the bioactivation of azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modén, Olof; Mannervik, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    The prodrug azathioprine is primarily used for maintaining remission in inflammatory bowel disease, but approximately 30% of the patients suffer adverse side effects. The prodrug is activated by glutathione conjugation and release of 6-mercaptopurine, a reaction most efficiently catalyzed by glutathione transferase (GST) A2-2. Among five genotypes of GST A2-2, the variant A2*E has threefold-fourfold higher catalytic efficiency with azathioprine, suggesting that the expression of A2*E could boost 6-mercaptopurine release and adverse side effects in treated patients. Structure-activity studies of the GST A2-2 variants and homologous alpha class GSTs were made to delineate the determinants of high catalytic efficiency compared to other alpha class GSTs. Engineered chimeras identified GST peptide segments of importance, and replacing the corresponding regions in low-activity GSTs by these short segments produced chimeras with higher azathioprine activity. By contrast, H-site mutagenesis led to decreased azathioprine activity when active-site positions 208 and 213 in these favored segments were mutagenized. Alternative substitutions indicated that hydrophobic residues were favored. A pertinent question is whether variant A2*E represents the highest azathioprine activity achievable within the GST structural framework. This issue was addressed by mutagenesis of H-site residues assumed to interact with the substrate based on molecular modeling. The mutants with notably enhanced activities had small or polar residues in the mutated positions. The most active mutant L107G/L108D/F222H displayed a 70-fold enhanced catalytic efficiency with azathioprine. The determination of its structure by X-ray crystallography showed an expanded H-site, suggesting improved accommodation of the transition state for catalysis.

  6. Gap Filling of Daily Sea Levels by Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubka Pashova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, intelligent methods as artificial neural networks are successfully applied for data analysis from different fields of the geosciences. One of the encountered practical problems is the availability of gaps in the time series that prevent their comprehensive usage for the scientific and practical purposes. The article briefly describes two types of the artificial neural network (ANN architectures - Feed-Forward Backpropagation (FFBP and recurrent Echo state network (ESN. In some cases, the ANN can be used as an alternative on the traditional methods, to fill in missing values in the time series. We have been conducted several experiments to fill the missing values of daily sea levels spanning a 5-years period using both ANN architectures. A multiple linear regression for the same purpose has been also applied. The sea level data are derived from the records of the tide gauge Burgas, which is located on the western Black Sea coast. The achieved results have shown that the performance of ANN models is better than that of the classical one and they are very promising for the real-time interpolation of missing data in the time series.

  7. Daily variations of indoor air-ion and radon concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarz, P M; Filipović, D M; Marinković, B P

    2009-11-01

    Air-ions and radon are two atmospheric trace constituents which have two opposite effects on human health: the ions are beneficial, and radon gas is potentially lethal as it increases the risk of lung cancer. In the lower troposphere, radon is the most important generator of the air-ions. Ionization by cosmic rays and radioactive minerals is almost constant in daily cycles, and variation of air-ion concentrations is attributed to changes of the radon activity. Air-ion and radon concentrations in outdoor and indoor space and their vertical gradients in residential buildings were measured. Gerdien type air-ion detector "CDI-06" made in our laboratory and radon monitor "RAD7" were utilized for these measurements. Correlation coefficient between positive air-ion and Rn indoor concentrations was approximately 0.7. Outdoor and indoor peak values were simultaneous while vertical gradient of concentrations in indoor measurements was evident. The indoor experiments showed that positive air-ion concentration could be an alternative method of radon activity concentration evaluation. PMID:19700332

  8. Declining average daily census. Part 2: Possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P

    1986-01-01

    Several possible solutions are available to hospitals experiencing a declining average daily census, including: Closure of some U.S. hospitals; Joint ventures between physicians and hospitals; Development of integrated and coordinated medical-fiscal-management information systems; Improvements in the hospital's short-term marketing strategy; Reduction of the facility's internal operation expenses; Vertical more than horizontal diversification to develop a multilevel (acute through home care) regional health care system with an alternative health care payment system that is a joint venture with the medical staff(s); Acquisition or management by a not-for-profit or investor-owned multihospital system (emphasis on horizontal versus vertical integration). Many reasons exist for an institution to choose the solution of developing a regional multilevel health care system rather than being part of a large, geographically scattered, multihospital system. Geographic proximity, lenders' preferences, service integration, management recruitment, and local remedies to a declining census all favor the regional system. More answers lie in emphasizing the basics of health care regionalization and focusing on vertical integration, including a prepayment plan, rather than stressing large multihospital systems with institutions in several states or selling out to the investor-owned groups.

  9. 1 CFR 6.1 - Index to daily issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Index to daily issues. 6.1 Section 6.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE FEDERAL REGISTER INDEXES AND ANCILLARIES § 6.1 Index to daily issues. Each daily issue of the Federal Register shall be appropriately indexed....

  10. 17 CFR 242.301 - Requirements for alternative trading systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS M, SHO, ATS, AC, AND NMS AND CUSTOMER MARGIN REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY... forth in paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section, with respect to any NMS stock in which the alternative... volume of 5 percent or more of the aggregate average daily share volume for such NMS stock as reported...

  11. Photocleavable linker for the patterning of bioactive molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Seraphine V.; Sentürk, Oya I.; Spatz, Joachim P.

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we report the use of a versatile photocleavable nitrobenzyl linker to micropattern a wide variety of bioactive molecules and photorelease them on demand. On one end, the linker has an NHS group that can be coupled with any amine, such as peptides, proteins or amine-linkers, and on the other end an alkyne for convenient attachment to materials with an azide functional group. This linker was conjugated with NTA-amine or the cell adhesion peptide cRGD to enable straightforward patterning of His6-tagged proteins or cells, respectively, on PEGylated glass surfaces. This approach provides a practical way to control the presentation of a wide variety of bioactive molecules with high spatial and temporal resolution. The extent of photocleavage can also be controlled to tune the biomolecule density and degree of cell attachment to the surface.

  12. Enhanced Antifungal Bioactivity of Coptis Rhizome Prepared by Ultrafining Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify the bioactive constituents in the methanol extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology. The indicator compound was identified by spectroscopic method and its purity was determined by HPLC. Moreover, the crude extracts and indicator compound were examined for their ability to inhibit the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG-4 on potato dextrose agar plates. The indicator compound is a potential candidate as a new plant derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off in vegetable seedlings. In addition, the extracts of Coptis Rhizome prepared by ultrafining technology displayed higher contents of indicator compound; they not only improve their bioactivity but also reduce the amount of the pharmaceuticals required and, thereby, decrease the environmental degradation associated with the harvesting of the raw products.

  13. Bioactive compounds of sea cucumbers and their therapeutic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shujuan; Feng, Wenjing; Hu, Song; Liang, Shixiu; An, Nina; Mao, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    Sea cucumbers belong to the Class Holothuroidea of marine invertebrates. They are commercially valuable and prized as a food and folk medicine in Asia. Nutritionally, sea cucumbers have an impressive profile of valuable nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids. A number of unique biological and pharmacological activities/properties, including anticancer, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antihypertension and radioprotective, have been ascribed to various compounds isolated from sea cucumbers. The therapeutic properties and medicinal benefits of sea cucumbers can be linked to the presence of a wide array of bioactives, especially triterpene glycosides, acid mucopolysaccharide, sphingoid bases, glycolipids, fucosylated chondroitin sulfate, polysaccharides, phospholipids, cerebrosides, phosphatidylcholines, and other extracts and hydrolysates. This review highlights the valuable bioactive components as well as the multiple therapeutic properties of sea cucumbers with a view to exploring their potential uses as functional foods and a natural source of new multifunctional drugs.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of a tricalcium silicate cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricalcium silicate is the major constituent of Portland cement and the responsible for their mechanical strength at early stages. In order to be used as and additive of conventional calcium phosphate cement (CPC), in vitro bioactivity of a calcium silicate cement (CSC) after soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 14 days was study. The cement was obtained by mixing Ca3SiO5, obtained by sol-gel process, and a Na2HPO4 solution. The morphological and structural changes of the material before and after soaking were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed the formation of a layer of a Hydroxyapatite (HA) onto the CSC cement after soaking for 1h in SBF that became denser with the increase of soaking time. The study suggests that Ca3SiO5 would be an effective additive to improve the bioactivity and long term strength of conventional CPC. (author)

  15. Chemical constituents and bioactivity of Formosan lauraceous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Shuo Chang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is rich in lauraceous plants. A review of 197 references based on the chemical analysis and bioactivity of indigenous lauraceous plants carried out by native scientists from 1963 to 2014 has been compiled. About 303 new compounds and thousands of known compounds comprising alkaloids and non-alkaloids with diverse structures have been isolated or identified from indigenous plants belonging to the 11 lauraceous genera. The volatile components, however, have been excluded from this review. This review provides an overview of the past efforts of Taiwan scientists working on secondary metabolites and their bioactivity in native lauraceous plants. The potential of lauraceous plants worthy of further study is also noted. The contents will be helpful for the chemotaxonomy of Lauraceae and be of value for the development of native Formosan lauraceous plants.

  16. Natural bioactive compounds of Citrus limon for food and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Molina, E; Domínguez-Perles, R; Moreno, D A; García-Viguera, C

    2010-01-20

    Citrus genus is the most important fruit tree crop in the world and lemon is the third most important Citrus species. Several studies highlighted lemon as an important health-promoting fruit rich in phenolic compounds as well as vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, essential oils and carotenoids. Lemon fruit has a strong commercial value for the fresh products market and food industry. Moreover, lemon productive networks generate high amounts of wastes and by-products that constitute an important source of bioactive compounds with potential for animal feed, manufactured foods, and health care. This review focuses on the phytochemistry and the analytical aspects of lemon compounds as well as on the importance for food industry and the relevance of Citrus limon for nutrition and health, bringing an overview of what is published on the bioactive compounds of this fruit. PMID:19748198

  17. Chemistry and Functionality of Bioactive Compounds Present in Persimmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Yaqub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has related the consumption of persimmon with the reduced risk of various diseases and particularly highlighted the presence of bioactive phenolic compounds for their therapeutic properties. Major phenolic compounds present in persimmon are ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and gallic acid. β-Cryptoxanthin, lycopene, β-carotene, zeaxanthin, and lutein are important carotenoids having antioxidant potential. They are important to prevent oxidation of low-density lipoproteins, safeguard beta cells of the pancreas, and reduce cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and damage caused by chronic alcohol consumption. In this paper, the chemistry and health benefits of bioactive compounds present in persimmon are reviewed to encourage impending applications and to facilitate further research activities.

  18. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUDASIR DAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.

  19. Dendrimeric nanoarchitectures mediated transdermal and oral delivery of bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajbhiye V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal route is an evolving panorama in novel drug deliverance and with oral route they proffer immense potential. Most recently there is hastening in approaches for delivering bioactives via these routes, amongst them revolution has been made by dendrimers. Encapsulation and conjugation of bioactives with these virus sized robots have shown immense employment for delivery of hydrophobic and labile remedies. Transport of these nano-cruises from corner to corner of skin and through epithelial hurdle of gastrointestinal tract depends upon dendrimer characteristics. An improved thoughtful of these characteristics is an obligation for their use in these rambling fields. These characteristics embrace generation size, molecular weight, surface charge, incubation time and concentration. This context demarcates the imperative role of dendrimers in transdermal and oral drug delivery. This review also highlights concerning mechanism of convey of nanoarrays via epithelial hurdle of GIT.

  20. Relationship between Glycation and Polyphenol Content and the Bioactivity of Selected Commercial Soy Milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arques, M Carmen; Pastoriza, Silvia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Clemente, Alfonso; Rufián-Henares, José A

    2016-03-01

    Soy milk is a health-promoting beverage of which consumption is steadily expanding. Different bioactivities have been associated with soy products such as antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory properties, or decrease of cancer development risk. These activities have been related to the presence of several compounds, including polyphenols and serine protease inhibitors, although factors influencing such activities have been scarcely studied. In this study, we have determined the antioxidant capacity (ABTS and FRAP methods measured with the global antioxidant response, GAR protocol), total phenolic content, serine protease inhibitory activity, and presence of heat damage indicators in commercial soy milks. Polyphenols were primarily responsible for the antioxidant capacity of soy milks, increasing their concentration after digestion. Glycation under heat treatment might be responsible for decreasing protease inhibitory activities in soy milks. The results obtained support a role for furosine, a known marker of Maillard reaction and glycation, as a potential indicator to monitor both thermal treatment and effects on protease inhibitory activities in soy milk. The contribution of soy milk consumption to the daily intake of antioxidants and serine protease inhibitory activities is discussed. PMID:26878080

  1. Bioactive compounds in blood oranges (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck): Level and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallico, Biagio; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Arena, Elena; Brighina, Selina; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2017-01-15

    Both the composition and the intake of antioxidants (anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and hydroxycinnamic acids) were reported for all blood oranges including the single cultivars (Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) and industrially produced juices. The mean values of the studied bioactive compounds in the edible part oranges were: 9.6mg/100g of orange edible part for the anthocyanins; 8.1, 0.7, 1.3, 3.8, 2.5mg/100g for total hydroxycinnamic acids, caffeic, sinapic, ferulic and coumaric acids, respectively and 59.1mg/100g for ascorbic acid. The consumption of blood oranges contributes to a daily intake of: 9.4mg/d (up to 55mg/d) of anthocyanins and 58.5mg/d (up to 340mg/d) of vitamin C, respectively. Data suggest that the 50% of consumers, males and females, receive more than the 70% and 90% of EAR value of vitamin C, respectively. The 25% of males and the 40% of females has an intake higher than the EAR. PMID:27542451

  2. Bioactive molecules: current trends in discovery, synthesis, delivery and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yew Beng Kang; Pichika R Mallikarjuna; Davamani A Fabian; Adinarayana Gorajana; Chooi Ling Lim; Eng Lai Tan

    2013-01-01

    Important bioactive molecules are moleculesthat are pharmacologically active derived from naturalsources and through chemical synthesis. Over the yearsmany of such molecules have been discovered throughbioprospective endeavours. The discovery of taxol fromthe pacific yew tree bark that has the ability in stabilisingcellular microtubules represents one of the hallmarks ofsuccess of such endeavours. In recent years, the discoveryprocess has been aided by the rapid developmentof techniques and t...

  3. Bioactive compounds of the main milk constituents and their determination

    OpenAIRE

    Malecký, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Diet is a blend of nutrients that the body needs to obtain energy and building materials needed for growth and repair of cells, tissues and organs. The nutrients or bioactive subtances are divided into two main groups: basic nutrients (macronutritients) and additional nutrients (micronutritients). Essential nutrients are divided into proteins, fats, carbohydrates and the body needs in large doses. The first part of this work with the available literature focuses on the milk, its general d...

  4. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Barbosa-Filho; Maria de Fátima V. de Souza; Luis C. Rodrigues; Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Lira, Narlize S.; Camila De A. Montenegro; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Batista, Leônia M.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested fo...

  5. Isolation and identification of bioactive compounds in Andrographis paniculata (Chuanxinlian)

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Bi-Fong; Chao Wen-Wan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant used in many countries. Its major constituents are diterpenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. Among the single compounds extracted from A. paniculata, andrographolide is the major one in terms of bioactive properties and abundance. Among the andrographolide analogues, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide is immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-atherosclerotic; neoandrographolide is anti-inflammatory, a...

  6. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Viladomiu; Raquel Hontecillas; Pinyi Lu; Josep Bassaganya-Riera

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Man...

  7. Total synthesis and development of bioactive natural products

    OpenAIRE

    TATSUTA, Kuniaki

    2008-01-01

    The first total synthesis and development of a variety of bioactive natural products have been accomplished by using carbohydrates as a chiral source. In addition, practically useful intermediates have been created, analogs of natural products have been prepared, their structure-activity relationships studied, and the large-scale preparations of medicinally useful compounds established. The key target molecules have been the “Big Four” antibiotics (macrolides, aminoglycosides, β-lactams and t...

  8. Neutral atom beam technique enhances bioactivity of PEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, Joseph, E-mail: jkhoury@exogenesis.us [Exogenesis Corporation, Billerica, MA 01821 (United States); Kirkpatrick, Sean R.; Maxwell, Melissa; Cherian, Raymond E.; Kirkpatrick, Allen; Svrluga, Richard C. [Exogenesis Corporation, Billerica, MA 01821 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is currently gaining popularity in orthopedic and spinal applications but has potential drawbacks in use. PEEK is biocompatible, similar in elasticity to bone, and radiolucent; however, it has been shown to be inert and does not integrate well with bone. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK by modifying the surface to improve the bone-implant interface. We have employed a novel Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam technique (ANAB) to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK. ANAB employs an intense beam of cluster-like packets of accelerated unbonded neutral argon (Ar) gas atoms. These beams are created by first producing a highly energetic Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) comprised of van der Waals bonded Ar atoms, then transferring energy to the clusters so as to cause release of most of the interatomic bonds, and finally deflecting away the remaining electrically charged cluster cores of still bonded atoms. We identified that ANAB treatment of PEEK results in nanometer scale surface modifications as well as increased surface hydrophilicity. Human osteoblasts seeded onto the surface of ANAB-treated PEEK exhibited enhanced growth as compared to control PEEK as evidenced by cell proliferation assays and microscopy. This increase in bioactivity resulted in cell proliferation levels comparable to native titanium. An in vivo study using a rat calvarial critical size defect model revealed enhanced osseointegration where bone tissue formation was evident only on the ANAB treated PEEK. Taken together, these data suggest that ANAB treatment of PEEK has the potential to enhance its bioactivity, resulting in bone formation and significantly decreasing osseointegration time of orthopedic and spinal implants.

  9. The interaction of bioactive peptides with an immobilized phosphatidylcholine monolayer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mozsolits, H; Lee, T. H.; Wirth, H J; Perlmutter, P; Aguilar, M I

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of three bioactive peptides, bombesin, beta-endorphin, and glucagon with a phosphatidylcholine monolayer that was immobilized to porous silica particles and packed into a stainless steel column cartridge, has been studied using dynamic elution techniques. This immobilized lipid monolayer provides a biophysical model system with which to study the binding of peptides to a lipid membrane. In particular, the influence of temperature and methanol concentration on the affinity of e...

  10. Study on bioactivity of NiTinol after surface treatment

    OpenAIRE

    W. Chrzanowski; W. Walke; Armitage, D. A.; Knowles, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to assess bioactive properties and corrosion resistance of nickel titanium alloyafter alkali treatment and spark oxidation in Hank’s Balance Salt Solution.Design/methodology/approach: Surfaces of samples were prepared by chemical treatment in NaOHfollowed by heat treatment, and spark oxidation. Corrosion resistance was investigated using potentiodynamicmethod. Chemical composition of the samples surface was measured using SEM EDX. Surface roughness andtopograp...

  11. The Constituents of Michelia compressa var. formosana and Their Bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Yi Chan; Shin-Hun Juang; Guan-Jhong Huang; Yu-Ren Liao; Yu-Fon Chen; Chia-Che Wu; Hui-Ting Chang; Tian-Shung Wu

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the heartwood of Michelia compressa afforded forty-four compounds, which were identified by comparison of experimental and literature analytical and spectroscopic data. Some compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and anticancer bioactivities. The result showed that soemerine (1) and cyathisterol (2) exhibited significant nitric oxide (NO) inhibition, with IC50 values of 8.5 ± 0.3 and 9.6 ± 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, liriodenine (3) and ...

  12. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... to extracts most of the bioactive compounds, before the main process for carrageenan extraction, leading to a future multiproduct extraction (biorefinery) approach, instead of the traditional single-extraction procedure....

  13. Bioinformatics approaches for identifying new therapeutic bioactive peptides in food

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Khaldi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT:The traditional methods for mining foods for bioactive peptides are tedious and long. Similar to the drug industry, the length of time to identify and deliver a commercial health ingredient that reduces disease symptoms can take anything between 5 to 10 years. Reducing this time and effort is crucial in order to create new commercially viable products with clear and important health benefits. In the past few years, bioinformatics, the science that brings together fast computational b...

  14. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans Aerial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Tu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1–3, and 2-cis-entadamide A (4, were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  15. Chemical Constituents and Bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans Aerial Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Shu-Fen Tu; Rosa Huang Liu; Yuan-Bin Cheng; Yu-Ming Hsu; Ying-Chi Du; Mohamed El-Shazly; Yang-Chang Wu; Fang-Rong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1–3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR.

  16. Chemical constituents and bioactivities of Clinacanthus nutans aerial parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shu-Fen; Liu, Rosa Huang; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsu, Yu-Ming; Du, Ying-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Four new sulfur-containing compounds, named clinamides A-C (1-3), and 2-cis-entadamide A (4), were isolated together with three known compounds from the bioactive ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Clinacanthus nutans. These secondary metabolites possess sulfur atoms and acrylamide functionalities. The structures of the isolated components were established by interpretation of their spectroscopic data, especially 1D and 2D NMR. PMID:25490430

  17. Bioactivity and phytochemical characterization of Arenaria montana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Dueñas, Montserrat; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The bioactivity (antioxidant and cytotoxic activities) of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Arenaria montana L., a plant commonly used in Portuguese folk medicine, was evaluated and compared. Furthermore, the phytochemical composition was determined regarding hydrophilic (sugars, organic acids and phenolic compounds) and lipophilic (fatty acids and tocopherols) compounds, in order to valorize this plant material as a functional food/nutraceutical. Fructose, oxalic acid, methyl-luteolin 2...

  18. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and its bioactive constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laribi, Bochra; Kouki, Karima; M'Hamdi, Mahmoud; Bettaieb, Taoufik

    2015-06-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), a member of the Apiaceae family, is among most widely used medicinal plant, possessing nutritional as well as medicinal properties. Thus, the aim of this updated review is to highlight the importance of coriander as a potential source of bioactive constituents and to summarize their biological activities as well as their different applications from data obtained in recent literature, with critical analysis on the gaps and potential for future investigations. A literature review was carried out by searching on the electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar for studies focusing on the biological and pharmacological activities of coriander seed and herb bioactive constituents. All recent English-language articles published between 2000 and 2014 were searched using the terms 'C. sativum', 'medicinal plant', 'bioactive constituents', and 'biological activities'. Subsequently, coriander seed and herb essential oils have been actively investigated for their chemical composition and biological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant and anti-cancer activities, among others. Although coriander has been reported to possess a wide range of traditional medicinal uses, no report is available in its effectiveness use in reactive airway diseases such as asthma and bronchiolitis. In brief, the information presented herein will be helpful to create more interest towards this medicinal species by defining novel pharmacological and clinical applications and hence, may be useful in developing new drug formulations in the future or by employing coriander bioactive constituents in combination with conventional drugs to enhance the treatment of diseases such as Alzheimer and cancer. PMID:25776008

  19. Unbiased Evaluation of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites in Complex Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Taichi; Wang, Yuehong; Pro, Samuel M.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Pauli, Guido F.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of bioactive principles in a complex matrix such as natural products and botanical medicines are secondary rather than primary metabolites. In addition to being chemically diverse, the bioactivity of an ethnobotanical can comprise from one to several bioactive compounds, present in a complex mixture. Conventional discovery efforts utilize bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) to isolate individual active compounds. When applied to complex natural products, BGF is often challenged by an apparent loss of activity during fractionation, resulting in weakly active isolated compounds. Metabolomic analysis can potentially complement existing the BGF paradigm by capturing the chemical complexity of the metabolites. The proposed biochemometric approach establishes a link between the chemistry of a secondary metabolome and a deserved health impact, using a high-throughput, high-resolution capable biological endpoint. The proof of principle is demonstrated for the anti-tuberculosis (TB) activity of the Alaskan ethnobotanical, Oplopanax horridus. Biochemometric analysis identified the 100 most active constituents from thousands of metabolites in the active extract by means of 2D orthogonal chromatography using countercurrent and GC-MS methods. Previously isolated O. horridus phytoconstituents were used as reference markers of known structure and bio(in)activity. Positive correlations allowed distinction of anti-TB actives from inactive compounds. A total of 29 bioactives from 3 main structural classes were assigned based on MS data. Biochemometric analysis is a new tool for the standardization of herbal medicines and ethnobotanicals, as well as for drug discovery from nature. The method can assign multiple active compounds in complex mixtures without their prior isolation or structure elucidation, while still providing an interface to structural information. PMID:22766306

  20. Bioactive compounds in baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Bergquist, Sara

    2006-01-01

    A high intake of fruit and vegetables is well known to have positive effects on human health, and has been correlated to a decreased risk of most degenerative diseases of ageing, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts and several forms of cancer. These protective effects have been attributed to high concentrations of bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, flavonoids, carotenoids) in fruit and vegetables, partly due to the antioxidative action of some of these compounds. Maintaining a high lev...

  1. Bioactive substances of plant origin in food - impact on genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Orzechowski, Arkadiusz; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Jank, Michał; Berwid, Sybilla

    2002-01-01

    International audience In the past decade, substantial progress has been made concerning our knowledge of bioactive components in plant foods and their links to health. Human diets of plant origin contain many hundreds of compounds which cannot be considered as nutrients, but appear to play a role in the maintenance of health. These substances are called nutraceuticals. In some cases where the disease process is at least partially understood, elements of protection can be related to a sing...

  2. Nanocellulose-based composites and bioactive agents for food packaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Avik; Huq, Tanzina; Khan, Ruhul A.; Riedl, Bernard; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-01-01

    International audience Global environmental concern, regarding the use of petroleum-based packaging materials, is encouraging researchers and industries in the search for packaging materials from natural biopolymers. Bioactive packaging is gaining more and more interest not only due to its environment friendly nature but also due to its potential to improve food quality and safety during packaging. Some of the shortcomings of biopolymers, such as weak mechanical and barrier properties can ...

  3. Investigation of daily covering material for biocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendere, R.; Smigins, R.; Medne, O.; Berzina-Cimdina, L.; Rugele, K.

    2014-02-01

    Bioreactor landfilling, with the acceptance of landfill Directive 1999/31/EC has lost its actuality in European Union; at the same time, this method can still be used for acceleration of biowaste degradation and biogas production. One of the possibilities to reduce the disposal of biowaste is to use biocells for its anaerobic pre-treatment before landfilling. The daily filling up of such a cell requires isolation of the main volume to limit gas emissions, reduce smells, etc. Bioprocesses that are of the utmost importance for biocell treatment are often not taken into account in selection of materials to be used as daily landfill covers. Based on physical, chemical and biological methods the investigations have been carried out into different covering materials offered in the market, with identification of parameters that are the most important for daily covering the biocells. It is found that the materials fitted best this purpose should be of biological origin and consist of small bio-particles with large surface, without the inhibitors of anaerobic processes such as sulphuric compounds. Bioreaktoru pielietošana atkritumu uzglabāšanas sfērā, sakarā ar Direktīvas 1999/31/EC pieņemšanu, ir zaudējusi savu aktualitāti, taču šī metode vēl joprojām var tikt izmantota bioatkritumu noārdīšanai un biogāzes ražošanai. Viena no iespējām kā samazināt bioatkritumu izvietošanu ir biošūnu izmantošana bioatkritumu anaerobai pirmsapstrādei pirms to noglabāšanas. Šūnas piepildīšana ikdienā prasa nepieciešamību izolēt lielāko tās daļu, lai samazinātu gāzes emisiju, smakas, utt. Materiāli, kas ikdienā tiek izmantoti atkritumu pārklāšanai, nepietiekami ietekmē bioprocesus, kas pamatā ir galvenais biošūnas izmantošanas mērķis. Šajā sakarā ir veikta dažādu tirdzniecībā pieejamu pārklājuma materiālu izpēte, pielietojot virkni fizikālo, ķīmisko un bioloģisko metožu, un nosakot svarīgākos parametrus, kas ir b

  4. The Correlation of Surfactant Concentrations on the Properties of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ju Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass (BG, a potential biomaterial, has received increasing attention since the discovery of its superior bioactivity. One of the main research objectives is to improve the bioactive property of BGs; therefore, surfactant-derived mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs were developed to provide a high specific surface area for achieving higher bioactivity. In this study, various concentrations of typical triblock F127 surfactant were used to manipulate the morphology, specific surface area, and bioactivity of MBG particles. Two typical morphologies of smooth (Type I and wrinkled (Type II spheres were observed, and the population of Type II particles increased with an increase in the surfactant concentration. A direct correlation between specific surface area and bioactivity was observed by comparing the data obtained using the nitrogen adsorption-desorption method and in vitro bioactive tests. Furthermore, the optimal surfactant concentration corresponding to the highest bioactivity revealed that the surfactant aggregated to form Type II particles when the surface concentration was higher than the critical micelle concentration, and the high population of Type II particles may reduce the specific surface area because of the loss of bioactivity. Moreover, the formation mechanism of SP-derived MBG particles is discussed.

  5. Nocardiopsis species: a potential source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennur, T; Ravi Kumar, A; Zinjarde, S S; Javdekar, V

    2016-01-01

    Members of the genus Nocardiopsis are an ecologically versatile and biotechnologically important group of Actinomycetes. Most of the isolates are halotolerant or halophilic and they prevail in soils, marine environments or hypersaline locations. To aid their survival under these conditions, they mainly produce extremozymes, compatible solutes, surfactants and bioactive compounds. The current review details the bioactive compounds obtained for this genus. Important antimicrobial agents obtained from this genus include polyketides, phenzines, quinoline alkaloids, terphenyls, proteins, thiopeptides and amines. Polyketides and peptides displaying potent anticancer activities are also significant. Tumour promoting agents, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, immunomodulators and protein kinase inhibitors are other relevant products obtained from Nocardiopsis species. Structurally, polyketides (synthesized by polyketide synthases) and peptides (made by nonribosomal peptide synthetases or cyclodipeptide synthases) are important compounds. Considered here are also toxins, anti photoaging and adipogenic agents produced by this genus. The gene clusters mediating the synthesis of bioactive compounds have been described. Commercially available products (Apoptolidins and K-252a) derived from this genus have also been described. This review highlights the significance of a single genus in producing an assortment of compounds with varied biological activities. On account of these features, the members of this genus have established a place for themselves and are of considerable value in producing compounds with profound bio-medical applications. PMID:26369300

  6. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits.

  7. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential fruit of Ximenia americana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Lucilania Bezerra; Freitas, Wallace Edelky de Souza; de Morais, Patrícia Lígia Dantas; Sarmento, José Dárcio Abrantes; Alves, Ricardo Elesbão

    2016-02-01

    The caatinga ecoregion in northeast Brazil presents a wide variety in plant species. However, the potential of these species as a source of energy, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and bioactive properties beneficial to health is still unknown. Among these species we can find the wild plum (Ximenia americana). Due to its various phytotherapeutic properties and absence of studies on the chemical composition of the fruit this article aimed to evaluate the bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential of the X. americana in different stages of maturation. The fruits of X. americana showed considerable amounts of bioactive compounds, as well as antioxidant activity and antioxidant enzymes. The fruits at green maturity stage showed higher content of yellow flavonoids (22.07 mg/100g), anthocyanins (1.92 mg/100 g), polyphenols (3051.62 mg/100 g), starch (4.22%), antioxidant activity (489.40 g fruit/g DPPH and 198.77 μmol Trolox/g) and activity of antioxidant enzymes; the antioxidant activity allocated to the fruit was shown to be related to the contents of extractable polyphenols, yellow flavonoids, total anthocyanins and antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Enhanced bioactivity of glass ionomer cement by incorporating calcium silicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Cai, Yixiao; Engqvist, Håkan; Xia, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are known as a non-bioactive dental cement. During setting the GIC have an acidic pH, driven by the acrylic acid component. It is a challenge to make GIC alkaline without disturbing its mechanical properties. One strategy was to add slowly reacting systems with an alkaline pH. The aim of the present study is to investigate the possibility of forming a bioactive dental material based on the combination of glass ionomer cement and calcium silicates. Two types of GIC were used as control. Wollastonite (CS also denoted β-CaSiO3) or Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) was incorporated into the 2 types of GIC. The material formulations' setting time, compressive strength, pH and bioactivity were compared between modified GIC and GIC control. Apatite crystals were found on the surfaces of the modified cements but not on the control GIC. The compressive strength of the cement remained with the addition of 20% calcium silicate or 20% MTA after one day immersion. In addition, the compressive strength of GIC modified with 20% MTA had been increased during the 14 d immersion (p < 0 .05). PMID:26787304

  9. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity analysis of Malaysian pineapple cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiet, Chong Hang; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Hidayat, Topik; Yaakob, Harisun

    2014-03-01

    Pineapple industry is one of the important agricultural sectors in Malaysia with 76 cultivars planted throughout the country. This study aims to generate useful nutritional information as well as evaluating antioxidant properties of different pineapple commercial cultivars in Malaysia. The bioactive compound content and antioxidant capacity of `Josapine', `Morris' and `Sarawak' pineapple (Ananas comosus) were studied. The pineapple varieties were collected at commercial maturity stage (20-40% yellowish of fruit peel) and the edible portion of the fruit was used as sample for evaluation. The bioactive compound of the fruit extracts were evaluated by total phenolic and tannin content assay while the antioxidant capacity was determined by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). From the results obtained, total phenolic and tannin content was highest for `Josapine' followed by `Morris' and `Sarawak'. With respect to FRAP, `Josapine' showed highest reducing capacity, followed by `Morris' and then `Sarawak' having the least value. The bioactive compounds content are positively correlated with the antioxidant capacities of the pineapple extracts. This result indicates that the total phenolics and tannin content present in the pineapples may contribute to the antioxidant capacity of the pineapples.

  10. Bioactivity of polyurethane-based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyurethane (PUR) and polyurethane/poly(d, l-lactide) acid (PUR/PDLLA) based scaffolds coated with Bioglass (registered) particles for application in bone tissue engineering were fabricated. The slurry-dipping method was used for coating preparation. The homogeneous structure of the Bioglass (registered) coatings on the surface of the PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams indicated a good adhesion of the bioactive glass particles to polyurethane without any additional surface treatment. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to study the influence of Bioglass (registered) coating on biodegrability and bioactivity of PUR-based scaffolds. The surface of Bioglass (registered) -coated samples was covered by a layer of carbonate-containing apatite after 7 days of immersion in SBF, while in uncoated polymer samples apatite crystals were not detected even after 21 days of immersion in SBF. The apatite layer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDS analysis and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR-ATR). Weight loss measurements showed that the in vitro degradation rate of the composite scaffolds in SBF was higher in comparison to uncoated polyurethane samples. PUR and PUR/PDLLA foams with Bioglass (registered) coating have potential to be used as bioactive, biodegradable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering

  11. Bioactive substances in food: identification and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, D D

    1994-04-01

    Bioactive substances in foods can represent "extranutritional" constituents naturally present in small quantities in the food matrix, produced upon either in vivo or industrial enzymatic digestion, the latter being a result of food-processing activities. Bioactive constituents of food evoke physiological, behavioral, and immunological effects. Evidence from both epidemiological and animal studies has suggested chemopreventative roles for phytochemicals in certain forms of cancers and in the control of hyperlipidemia. Secondary products of plant metabolism can modulate xenobiotic metabolizing and cholesterol synthetic enzymes. Unique physicochemical properties of food-derived peptides with characteristic amino acid composition and sequences have been reported to influence intestinal transit, modify nutrient absorption and excretion, and exhibit immunostimulating and antihypertensive activity. Biologically active peptides derived from casein, fish muscle, and plant protein hydrolysates have been isolated, purified, and identified in peptide sequence studies. Therapeutic proteins (e.g., specific antibodies) derived from animal products such as milk may offer the potential for developing specialized food products with prophylactic as well as nutritive quality. This paper discusses the physicochemical mechanism of action of specific bioactive substances naturally present in or derived from foods. The biotechnologies employed to develop these products and the issues concerning acceptance by consumer and regulatory bodies are also addressed. PMID:7922875

  12. Bioactive amines and internal quality of commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, T C; Viegas, R P; Lara, L J C; Baião, N C; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of commercial eggs produced by layer hens of different ages (approximately 30 and 60 wk old) were submitted to storage under room temperature or refrigeration for 28 d. A total of 600 eggs were subjected to microbiological analyses of their inner contents and another 600 to a determination of Haugh units (HU) and bioactive amine content. A decrease in the quality of the inner contents of the eggs was observed during the experiment, mainly in the eggs from the 60-wk-old layers, which presented the worst HU values when stored at room temperature (P Pseudomonas spp., mesophilic aerobic bacteria, and fungi were also recorded. The chromatographic analysis of bioactive amines detected the presence of phenylethylamine in all albumens (38.0 mg/kg) and spermidine in the yolks (1.02 mg/kg). It was concluded that the age of the hens and the time and temperature of storage influenced the quality parameters of the eggs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, despite the low levels of microbial contamination found, phenylethylamine was detected in the albumen. It was not possible to establish index of quality of eggs using bioactive amines present in the yolk and albumen of eggs. PMID:23571349

  13. Functional properties of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) phytochemicals and bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joseph L; Moreau, Régis

    2016-08-10

    Overwhelming evidence indicates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables are protective against common chronic diseases, such as cancer, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Leafy green vegetables, in particular, are recognized as having substantial health-promoting activities that are attributed to the functional properties of their nutrients and non-essential chemical compounds. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is widely regarded as a functional food due to its diverse nutritional composition, which includes vitamins and minerals, and to its phytochemicals and bioactives that promote health beyond basic nutrition. Spinach-derived phytochemicals and bioactives are able to (i) scavenge reactive oxygen species and prevent macromolecular oxidative damage, (ii) modulate expression and activity of genes involved in metabolism, proliferation, inflammation, and antioxidant defence, and (iii) curb food intake by inducing secretion of satiety hormones. These biological activities contribute to the anti-cancer, anti-obesity, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic properties of spinach. Despite these valuable attributes, spinach consumption remains low in comparison to other leafy green vegetables. This review examines the functional properties of spinach in cell culture, animals and humans with a focus on the molecular mechanisms by which spinach-derived non-essential phytochemicals and bioactives, such as glycolipids and thylakoids, impart their health benefits. PMID:27353735

  14. Chromatographic on-line detection of bioactives in food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remmelt Van der Werf

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTFindings were focused on the anti-oxidative activity of numerous fruits and vegetables by means of an on-line HPLC radical scavenging detection method. The reactant used was the ABTS•+ green radical cation. The system has been optimized in terms of reactor design, and chemical reactions kinetics. It has been qualified to classify molecules in order of their increasing activity to scavenge exogenous radicals. It may be used as a powerful high resolution screening tool to investigate the radical scavenging activities of natural plants. Bioassays consisting in cellular in vitro antioxidant assay using pancreatic β-cells have been used to confirm the bioactivity of the selected micronutrients. This study demonstrated that it is possible to screen at the molecular level, the bioactivity of numerous natural samples and to point out the richness of the local biodiversity in terms of natural resource of functional food ingredients usable for their potential benefits for consumer’s health, wellbeing and wellaging.Key words: HPLC radical scavenging detection method, bioactivity of natural samples

  15. Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KB). Alternate Language URL Alternative Devices for Taking Insulin Page Content On this page: What alternative devices ... the skin. [ Top ] What alternative devices for taking insulin are available? Insulin pens provide a convenient, easy- ...

  16. Alternative health insurance schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...... competitive insurance; this situation turns out to be at least as good as either of the alternatives...

  17. Sub-daily runoff simulations with parameters inferred at the daily time scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Reynolds

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentration times in small and medium-sized watersheds (~ 100–1000 km2 are commonly less than 24 h. Flood-forecasting models then require data at sub-daily time scales, but time-series of input and runoff data with sufficient lengths are often only available at the daily time scale, especially in developing countries. This has led to a search for time-scale relationships to infer parameter values at the time scales where they are needed from the time scales where they are available. In this study, time-scale dependencies in the HBV-light conceptual hydrological model were assessed within the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE approach. It was hypothesised that the existence of such dependencies is a result of the numerical method or time-stepping scheme used in the models rather than a real time-scale-data dependence. Parameter values inferred showed a clear dependence on time scale when the explicit Euler method was used for modelling at the same time steps as the time scale of the input data (1–24 h. However, the dependence almost fully disappeared when the explicit Euler method was used for modelling in 1 h time steps internally irrespectively of the time scale of the input data. In other words, it was found that when an adequate time-stepping scheme was implemented, parameter sets inferred at one time scale (e.g., daily could be used directly for runoff simulations at other time scales (e.g., 3 or 6 h without any time scaling and this approach only resulted in a small (if any model performance decrease, in terms of Nash–Sutcliffe and volume-error efficiencies. The overall results of this study indicated that as soon as sub-daily driving data can be secured, flood forecasting in watersheds with sub-daily concentration times is possible with model-parameter values inferred from long time series of daily data, as long as an appropriate numerical method is used.

  18. Non-stationarity in daily and sub-daily intense rainfall – Part 1: Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jakob

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was driven by a need to clarify how variations in climate might affect intense rainfall and the potential for flooding. Sub-daily durations are of particular interest for urban applications. Worldwide, few such observation-based studies exist, which is mainly due to limitations in data. While there are still large discrepancies between precipitation data sets from observations and models, both show that there is a tendency for moist regions to become wetter and for dry regions to become drier. However, changes in extreme conditions may show the opposite sign to those in average conditions. Where changes in observed intense precipitation have been studied, this has typically been for daily durations or longer.

    The purpose of this two-part study is to examine daily and sub-daily rainfall extremes for evidence of non-stationarity. Here the problem was addressed by supplementing one long record (Part 1 by a set of shorter records for a 30-yr concurrent period (Part 2. Variations in frequency and magnitude of rainfall extremes across durations from 6 min to 72 h were assessed using data from sites in the south-east of Australia. For the analyses presented in this paper, a peaks-over-threshold approach was chosen since it allows investigating changes in frequency as well as magnitude. Non-parametric approaches were used to assess changes in frequency, magnitude, and quantile estimates as well as the statistical significance of changes for one station (Sydney Observatory Hill for the period 1921 to 2005. Deviations from the long-term average vary with season, duration, and threshold. The effects of climate variations are most readily detected for the highest thresholds. Deviations from the long-term average tend to be larger for frequencies than for magnitudes, and changes in frequency and magnitude may have opposite signs.

    Investigations presented in this paper show that variations in frequency and magnitude of events at

  19. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  20. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy matters in daily life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasmohan S Bajaj

    2008-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is a neuro-cognitive dysfunction which occurs in an epidemic proportion of cirrhotic patients, estimated as high as 80% of the population tested. It is characterized by a specific, complex cognitive dysfunction which is independent of sleep dysfunction or problems with overall intelligence. Although named "minimal", minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can have a far-reaching impact on quality of life, ability to function in daily life and progression to overt hepatic encephalopathy. Importantly, MHE has a profound negative impact on the ability to drive a car and may be a significant factor behind motor vehicle accidents. A crucial aspect of the clinical care of MHE patients is their driving history, which is often ignored in routine care and can add a vital dimension to the overall disease assessment. Driving history should be an integral part of care in patients with MHE. The lack of specific signs and symptoms, the preserved communication skills and lack of insight make MHE a difficult condition to diagnose. Diagnostic strategies for MHE abound, but are usually limited by financial, normative or time constraints. Recent studies into the inhibitory control and critical flicker frequency tests are encouraging since these tests can increase the rates of MHE diagnosis without requiring a psychologist. Although testing for MHE and subsequent therapy is not standard of care at this time, it is important to consider this in cirrhotics in order to improve their ability to live their life to the fullest.

  1. TRENDS IN ESTIMATED MIXING DEPTH DAILY MAXIMUMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R; Amy DuPont, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Matt Parker, M

    2007-11-12

    Mixing depth is an important quantity in the determination of air pollution concentrations. Fireweather forecasts depend strongly on estimates of the mixing depth as a means of determining the altitude and dilution (ventilation rates) of smoke plumes. The Savannah River United States Forest Service (USFS) routinely conducts prescribed fires at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a heavily wooded Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwest South Carolina. For many years, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided forecasts of weather conditions in support of the fire program, including an estimated mixing depth using potential temperature and turbulence change with height at a given location. This paper examines trends in the average estimated mixing depth daily maximum at the SRS over an extended period of time (4.75 years) derived from numerical atmospheric simulations using two versions of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This allows for differences to be seen between the model versions, as well as trends on a multi-year time frame. In addition, comparisons of predicted mixing depth for individual days in which special balloon soundings were released are also discussed.

  2. Hibernation and daily torpor minimize mammalian extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Fritz; Turbill, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Small mammals appear to be less vulnerable to extinction than large species, but the underlying reasons are poorly understood. Here, we provide evidence that almost all (93.5%) of 61 recently extinct mammal species were homeothermic, maintaining a constant high body temperature and thus energy expenditure, which demands a high intake of food, long foraging times, and thus exposure to predators. In contrast, only 6.5% of extinct mammals were likely heterothermic and employed multi-day torpor (hibernation) or daily torpor, even though torpor is widespread within more than half of all mammalian orders. Torpor is characterized by substantial reductions of body temperature and energy expenditure and enhances survival during adverse conditions by minimizing food and water requirements, and consequently reduces foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Moreover, because life span is generally longer in heterothermic mammals than in related homeotherms, heterotherms can employ a ‘sit-and-wait’ strategy to withstand adverse periods and then repopulate when circumstances improve. Thus, torpor is a crucial but hitherto unappreciated attribute of small mammals for avoiding extinction. Many opportunistic heterothermic species, because of their plastic energetic requirements, may also stand a better chance of future survival than homeothermic species in the face of greater climatic extremes and changes in environmental conditions caused by global warming.

  3. In vitro study of polycaprolactone/bioactive glass composite coatings on corrosion and bioactivity of pure Mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyun; Michalczyk, Carolin; Singer, Ferdinand; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Boccaccini, Aldo R.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of the addition of nano-scaled bioactive glass (nBG) powder into polycaprolactone (PCL) coatings on the biodegradation and bioactivity of pure Mg was investigated in the present work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the morphology, chemical composition and anticorrosion properties of the coatings. The results indicate that nBG addition in PCL increases the degradation of PCL in physiological solution; depending on the amount of nBG in the composite coating, the barrier properties of PCL therefore can be modified. At the same time, the addition of nBG facilitates the formation of hydroxyapatite during 7 days immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF).

  4. Structure, dynamics, and surface reactions of bioactive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Todd R.

    Three bioactive glasses (45S5, 55S4.3, and 60S3.8) have been investigated using atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations in attempt to explain differences in observed macroscopic bioactivity. Bulk and surface structures and bulk dynamics have been characterized. Ion exchange and hydrolysis reactions, the first two stages in Hench's model describing the reactions of bioactive glass surfaces in vivo, have been investigated in detail. The 45S5 composition shows a much greater network fragmentation: it is suggested that this fragmentation can play a role in at least the first two stages of Hench's model for HCA formation on the surfaces of bioactive glasses. In terms of dynamic behavior, long-range diffusion was only observed for sodium. Calcium showed only jumps between adjacent sites, while phosphorus showed only local vibrations. Surface simulations show the distinct accumulation of sodium at the immediate surface for each composition. Surface channels are also shown to exist and are most evident for 45S5 glass. Results for a single ion exchange showed that the ion-exchange reaction is preferred (more exothermic) for Na+ ions near Si, rather than P. A range of reaction energies were found, due to a range of local environments, as expected for a glass surface. The average reaction energies are not significantly different among the three glass compositions. The results for bond hydrolysis on as-created surfaces show no significant differences among the three compositions for simulations involving Si-O-Si or Si-O-P. All average values are greater than zero, indicating endothermic reactions that are not favorable by themselves. However, it is shown that the hydrolysis reactions became more favorable (in fact, exothermic for 45S5 and 55S4.3) when simulated on surfaces that had already been ion-exchanged. This is significant because it gives evidence supporting Hench's proposed reaction sequence. Perhaps even more significantly, the reaction energies for hydrolysis

  5. Bioactive Metabolites Produced by Pseudonocardia endophytica VUK-10 from Mangrove Sediments: Isolation, Chemical Structure Determination and Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangamuri, Usha Kiranmayi; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Poda, Sudhakar; Manavathi, Bramanandam; Bhujangarao, Ch; Venkateswarlu, Y

    2015-05-01

    Chemical investigation of the actinobacterial isolate Pseudonocardia endophytica VUK-10 has led to the segregation of two known bioactive compounds, namely 4-(2-acetamidoethyl) phenyl acetate and 4-((1, 4-dioxooctahydropyrrolo [1, 2-a] pyrazin-3-yl) methyl) phenyl acetate. The strain was isolated from a sediment sample of the Nizampatnam mangrove ecosystem, south coastal Andhra Pradesh, India. The chemical structure of the active compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopies, FTIR, and EIMS. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of the bioactive compounds produced by the strain were tested against opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria and fungi and on MDA-MB-231, OAW, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. The compounds exhibited antimicrobial activities against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi and also showed potent cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231, OAW, HeLa, and MCF-7 cell lines. This is the first example for this class of bioactive compounds isolated from Pseudonocardia of mangrove origin.

  6. Preparation, characterization, in vitro bioactivity, and cellular responses to a polyetheretherketone bioactive composite containing nanocalcium silicate for bone repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Tang, Songchao; Tan, Honglue; Qian, Jun; Lin, Wentao; Wang, Yugang; Liu, Changsheng; Wei, Jie; Tang, Tingting

    2014-08-13

    In this study, a nanocalcium silicate (n-CS)/polyetheretherketone (PEEK) bioactive composite was prepared using a process of compounding and injection-molding. The mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, and in vitro bioactivity of the composite, as well as the cellular responses of MC3T3-E1 cells (attachment, proliferation, spreading, and differentiation) to the composite, were investigated. The results showed that the mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of the composites were significantly improved by the addition of n-CS to PEEK. In addition, an apatite-layer formed on the composite surface after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 7 days. In cell culture tests, the results revealed that the n-CS/PEEK composite significantly promoted cell attachment, proliferation, and spreading compared with PEEK or ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Moreover, cells grown on the composite exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, more calcium nodule-formation, and higher expression levels of osteogenic differentiation-related genes than cells grown on PEEK or UHMWPE. These results indicated that the incorporation of n-CS to PEEK could greatly improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the composite. Thus, the n-CS/PEEK composite may be a promising bone repair material for use in orthopedic clinics.

  7. Effects of Converting Tacrolimus Formulation from Twice-Daily to Once-Daily in Liver Transplantation Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Thorat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Typically, tacrolimus is administrated twice daily. Prolonged-release tacrolimus is the once-daily formulation and may be more convenient for patients. Experience with the administration of the once-daily formulation is still limited. This study enrolled 210 liver transplant recipients who had stable liver function and converted tacrolimus from a twice-daily to once-daily formulation on a 1 mg to 1 mg basis. Among 210 patients, seven patients (3.3% were withdrawn from the once-daily formulation due to allergy and fatigue. For the other patients, the trough concentration after converting to the once-daily formulation was lower than that of the twice-daily formulation. Liver enzymes were mildly elevated in 3 months after formulation conversion and serum creatinine and uric acid were mildly decreased. Seven patients (3.4% had clinical suspicion of acute rejection after the formulation conversion and three of them were caused by nonadherence. 155 patients (76.4% experienced a more convenient life with an increase of social activity. Forty-seven patients (23.2% experienced the convenience of once-daily formulation during overseas trips. In conclusion, tacrolimus can be safely converted from the twice-daily to the once-daily formulation for most stable liver recipients. Acute rejection may occur in a minority of patients during formulation conversion and should be carefully monitored.

  8. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering.

  9. Effect of crystallinity on crack propagation and mineralization of bioactive glass 45S5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Satadru

    Bioactive glasses are a type of ceramic material designed to be used as bioresorbable therapeutic bone implants. Thermal treatment of bioactive glass ceramics dictates many important features such as microstructure, degree of crystallinity, mechanical properties, and mineralization. This study investigates the effects of temperature, time, and heating rates on the crystallization kinetics of melt cast bioactive glass 45S5. Bulk crystallization (three dimensional crystallite formation) was found to always occur in bulk bioactive glass 45S5 irrespective of the processing conditions. A comparative study of crack paths in amorphous and crystalline phases of bioactive glass 45S5 revealed crack deflections and higher fracture resistance in partially crystallized bioactive glass. Such toughening is likely attributed to different crystallographic orientations of crystals or residual thermal mismatch strains. Furthermore, in vitro immersion testing of partially crystalline glass ceramic revealed higher adhesion capabilities of the mineralized layer formed on amorphous regions as compared to its crystalline counterpart.

  10. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles: From Synthesis to Materials Design for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Vichery

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their high biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are very promising materials for soft and hard tissue repair and engineering. Because bioactivity and specific surface area intrinsically linked, the last decade has seen a focus on the development of highly porous and/or nano-sized materials. This review emphasizes the synthesis of bioactive glass nanoparticles and materials design strategies. The first part comprehensively covers mainly soft chemistry processes, which aim to obtain dispersible and monodispersed nanoparticles. The second part discusses the use of bioactive glass nanoparticles for medical applications, highlighting the design of materials. Mesoporous nanoparticles for drug delivery, injectable systems and scaffolds consisting of bioactive glass nanoparticles dispersed in a polymer, implant coatings and particle dispersions will be presented.

  11. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  12. HL-LHC alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; White, S

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC parameters assume unexplored regimes for hadron colliders in various aspects of accelerator beam dynamics and technology. This paper reviews three alternatives that could potentially improve the LHC performance: (i) the alternative filling scheme 8b+4e, (ii) the use of a 200 MHz RF system in the LHC and (iii) the use of proton cooling methods to reduce the beam emittance (at top energy and at injection). The alternatives are assessed in terms of feasibility, pros and cons, risks versus benefits and the impact on beam availability.

  13. Semantic Modulation in a Daily Occupational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsuk Maitra

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational therapy practice places extra emphasis in finding a way to influence the meaning of an object to a person, because many of our daily occupations are object related. Meaning is an interpretive cognitive process that a person undergoes when deciding on an occupational interaction with an object or form. Within the past few years, a series of studies by Gentilucci have found a priming effect of object related words on the motor performance. The purpose of the present study was to extend Gentilucci’s (2003 study by adding a speech component to investigate whether the language induced effect of motor performance is further enhanced by speech production of the action congruent words. Twenty-eight adult participants either read aloud or read silently four object related words (‘far’, ‘near’, ‘large’, and ‘small’ written on a water bottle while reaching, grasping, and placing the bottle on a second spot. A movement recording and analysis system measured movements of the fingers and arm. A counterbalanced repeated measures analysis of variance, results showed a no significant differences between reading aloud and reading silently conditions b grasping aperture was significantly larger when participants read ‘large’ and reaching was significantly faster when participants read ‘far’ on the bottle. No other significance was found. The results indicated that it is possible to cognitively prime an occupational performance by using object or action congruent words in a specific manner. Occupational therapists might incorporate action congruent words as a priming cue to enhance performance of their clients

  14. Effect og bioactive products on innate immunity and development of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Rut Hermannsdóttir

    2008-01-01

    Halibut larvae were treated with various bioactive products and the effects on selected components of the innate immune system investigated. Effects on growth, survival and normal development of larvae were also studied. The bioactive products which were tested were chitosan and protein hydrolysates from cod, blue whiting and pollock. The larvae where treated with bioactive products from the onset of feeding or from 4-5 weeks after the onset of feeding and throughout the first feeding period....

  15. Surface functionalization of bioactive glasses with natural molecules of biological significance

    OpenAIRE

    Xin ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Natural or artificial materials used for replacement or supplement the functions of living tissues, termed as biomaterials, may be bioinert (i.e. alumina and zorconia,) resorbable (i.e. tricalcium phosphate), bioactive (i.e. hydroxyapatite, bioactive glasses, and glass-ceramics) or porous for tissue ingrowth (i.e. hydroxyapatite-coated metals). Among all the biomaterials, bioactive glass and glass-ceramics are widely used in orthopedic and dental applications and are being developed for tissu...

  16. Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Once-Daily Tacrolimus in Solid-Organ Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Christine E; Tett, Susan E

    2015-10-01

    formulations, indicating that trough measurements may not always give a good indication of overall drug exposure. Further investigation is required into whether the prolonged-release formulations have reduced within-subject pharmacokinetic variability, which would be a distinct advantage. Whether the effects of factors that influence tacrolimus absorption and pre-systemic metabolism (patient genotype status; gastrointestinal disease and disorders) and drug interactions differ across the formulations needs to be further elucidated. Most pharmacokinetic comparison studies to date have involved relatively stable patients, and many have been sponsored by the pharmaceutical companies manufacturing the new formulations. Larger randomized, controlled trials are needed in different transplant populations to determine whether there are differences in efficacy and toxicity across the formulations and whether formulation conversion is worthwhile in the longer term. While it has been suggested that once-daily administration of tacrolimus may improve patient compliance, further studies are required to demonstrate this. Mistakenly interchanging different tacrolimus formulations can lead to serious patient harm. Once-daily tacrolimus is now available as an alternative to twice-daily tacrolimus and can be used de novo in solid-organ transplant recipients or as a different formulation for existing patients, with appropriate dosage modifications. Clinicians need to be fully aware of pharmacokinetic and possible outcome differences across the different formulations of tacrolimus.

  17. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  18. Evaluation of Expenditure Alternates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlein, Gary W.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Illustrates a system of calculating dollar expenditures over periods of time in terms of present value. The system enables planners, school boards, and administrators to compare expenditure alternatives as a decisionmaking factor. (Author)

  19. Alternatives to Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this website may not be available. Alternatives to nursing homes Before you make any decisions about long ... live and what help you may need. A nursing home may not be your only choice. Discharge ...

  20. Alternative disinfectant water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative disinfestant water treatments are disinfestants not as commonly used by the horticultural industry. Chlorine products that produce hypochlorous acid are the main disinfestants used for treating irrigation water. Chlorine dioxide will be the primary disinfestant discussed as an alternativ...

  1. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a day. Soybeans contain plant-based substances called isoflavones. These substances have an effect on the body ... soy for vasomotor symptoms: the Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study. Menopause . 2008;15(1):51-58. ...

  2. An alternative currency

    OpenAIRE

    Frendo, Mario; Duca, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Malta- a tiny island, a minute social reality, a precursory canovaccio of European unification- has a unique asset it ought to be prouder of: culture. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/an-alternative-currency/

  3. Alternative fuel information sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  4. Seal design alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

  5. Marine algae-derived bioactive peptides for human nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaodan; Bai, Lu; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Li; Zhang, Xuewu

    2014-09-24

    Within the parent protein molecule, most peptides are inactive, and they are released with biofunctionalities after enzymatic hydrolysis. Marine algae have high protein content, up to 47% of the dry weight, depending on the season and the species. Recently, there is an increasing interest in using marine algae protein as a source of bioactive peptides due to their health promotion and disease therapy potentials. This review presents an overview of marine algae-derived bioactive peptides and especially highlights some key issues, such as in silico proteolysis and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies, in vivo fate of bioactive peptides, and novel technologies in bioactive peptides studies and production. PMID:25179496

  6. Alternative fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium resource utilization and economic considerations provide incentives to study alternative fuel cycles as future options to the PHWR natural uranium cycle. Preliminary studies to define the most favourable alternatives and their possible introduction dates are discussed. The important and uncertain components which influence option selection are reviewed, including nuclear capacity growth, uranium availability and demand, economic potential, and required technological developments. Finally, a summary of Ontario Hydro's program to further assess cycle selection and define development needs is given. (auth)

  7. The in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass and gentamicin impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, István; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Man, Adrian; Zuh, Sándor György; Pop, Tudor Sorin

    2014-06-01

    Osteomyelitis is a disease that is still difficult to treat, with considerable morbidity and associated costs. The current "gold standard" in treatment - debridement and implantation of antibiotic impregnated polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads - presents the disadvantage of a second surgical intervention required for the removal of the beads. We comparatively investigated the in vitro antibacterial effect of S53P4 bioactive glass (BAG) and gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads. Bacterial viability was assessed hourly by Standard Plate Count during 24 hours of incubation, by determining the number of colony forming units (CFU) of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Both tested materials showed an antibacterial effect on all studied bacteria. In case of S. aureus, BAG granules were almost as effective as gentamicin impregnated PMMA beads, with no statistically significant differences. In contrast, PMMA beads had a superior antibacterial effect on S. epidermidis and K. pneumoniae. The antibacterial effect of BAG was greatly influenced by granule size and contact time. There was a statistically significant correlation between pH values and the number of CFU in the case of S53P4 BAG granules. As a biocompatible and biodegradable bone substitute, S53P4 bioactive glass can be a good alternative in the local management of osteomyelitis.

  8. Daily Stress Recognition from Mobile Phone Data, Weather Conditions and Individual Traits

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomolov, Andrey; Ferron, Michela; Pianesi, Fabio; Alex,; Pentland,

    2014-01-01

    Research has proven that stress reduces quality of life and causes many diseases. For this reason, several researchers devised stress detection systems based on physiological parameters. However, these systems require that obtrusive sensors are continuously carried by the user. In our paper, we propose an alternative approach providing evidence that daily stress can be reliably recognized based on behavioral metrics, derived from the user's mobile phone activity and from additional indicators, such as the weather conditions (data pertaining to transitory properties of the environment) and the personality traits (data concerning permanent dispositions of individuals). Our multifactorial statistical model, which is person-independent, obtains the accuracy score of 72.28% for a 2-class daily stress recognition problem. The model is efficient to implement for most of multimedia applications due to highly reduced low-dimensional feature space (32d). Moreover, we identify and discuss the indicators which have stron...

  9. Quenched/unquenched nano bioactive glass-ceramics: Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity evaluation in Ringer’s solution with BSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabian Nima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the first attempt at changing cooling treatment of synthesizing method in order to investigate its effect on the physical properties of sol-gel derived nano bioactive glass-ceramic in the system 58SiO2-33CaO-9P2O5 (wt.%. We hypothesized that the method of cooling may affect the properties of nano bioactive glass-ceramic. To test this hypothesis, two different method of cooling treatment was applied after calcinations in synthesizing method. Both quenched and unquenched nano bioactive glass-ceramics were soaked in Ringer’s solution with bovine serum albumin (BSA for bioactivity evaluation. The obtained samples were analyzed for their composition, crystalinity and morphology through X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, surface electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The SEM images showed that the morphology of nano bioactive glass-ceramics was completely changed by quenching process. Results of in vitro bioactivity evaluation revealed that the unquenched attains faster apatite formation ability than the quenched sample. Other properties of these two morphologically different nano bioactive glass-ceramics were strongly discussed.

  10. Direct oral anticoagulants: a guide for daily practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Pierre; Robert-Ebadi, Helia; Bounameaux, Henri; Boehlen, Françoise; Righini, Marc

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, small oral compounds that specifically block activated coagulation factor X (FXa) or thrombin (FIIa) have become alternatives to the anticoagulants that had been used for several decades. As of today, these direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) include dabigatran etexilate (thrombin inhibitor) and apixaban, edoxaban and rivaroxaban (inhibitors of FXa). While there is no doubt that DOACs represent a major step forward in the management of patients with venous thromboembolic disease and atrial fibrillation, new challenges have arisen. They need to be addressed with the necessary pragmatism on the basis of evidence. Indeed, a better understanding of the management of these last-generation antithrombotics will favour safer use and increase confidence of the practitioner for the prescription of these drugs. The aim of this article is to present practical suggestions for the prescription and use of these drugs in everyday clinical practice, based on clinical experience and recently updated recommendations of the European Heart Rhythm Association and the American College of Chest Physicians among other scientific organisations. We address issues such as pharmacokinetics, dosing, side effects, limitations of use, drug interactions, switching from and to other anticoagulants, renal function, concomitant administration of antiplatelet agents and perioperative use. We also address the issue of monitoring and reversal, taking advantage of the most recent development in this latter area. Rather than being one additional set of recommendations, our narrative review aims at assisting the practicing physician in his or her daily handling of these novel anticoagulant compounds, based on frequently asked questions to the authors, a group of experienced specialists in the field who have, however, no commitment to issue guidelines. PMID:26964028

  11. Air pollution and daily mortality in Inchon, Korea.

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Y. C.; Leem, J. H.; Ha, E H

    1999-01-01

    The association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 1-year period (January 1995 to December 1995) in Inchon, Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality. Concentration of total suspended particulates (TSP), inhalable particles (PM10), and gaseous pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, were measured daily during the stu...

  12. Daily Physical Activity in Stable Heart Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dontje, Manon L.; van der Wal, Martje H.L; Stolk, Ronald P; Brügemann, Johan; Jaarsma, Tiny; Wijtvliet, Petra E P J; van der Schans, Cees P; Greef, Mathieu H.G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Physical activity is the only nonpharmacological therapy that is proven to be effective in heart failure (HF) patients in reducing morbidity. To date, little is known about the levels of daily physical activity in HF patients and about related factors. OBJECTIVE:: The objectives of this study were to (a) describe performance-based daily physical activity in HF patients, (b) compare it with physical activity guidelines, and (c) identify related factors of daily physical activity. ...

  13. A Healthier Alternative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Dining is a very important part of daily life for Chinese people.Often, a standard form of greeting is"Have you eaten?"Usually,the Chinese ar- range lavish banquets for births,weddings and even funerals and prepare big meal celebrations for house-warmings,school admissions and job promotions.For thousands of years,the essence of China’s unique and diverse food culture has formed the legacy of the nation.

  14. Estimation of daily albedo on Tottori sand surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily albedos of a bare sand surface were measured with a solarimeter (Eko MS-62) between 23 August and 30 November in 1997 at Tottori sand dune, Japan. These quickly decreased on rainy days, and recovered during dry spells (days between rainfalls). A strong exponential relationship was found between daily albedos and the number of dry days. The daily albedos on dry days also showed a direct relationship with daily transmissivities in the range less than 0.55. Two simple models were developed to estimate daily albedos for dry spell days on bare Tottori sand surface using routine meteorological data. Daily albedos were calculated using these two models, and compared with the measured daily albedos. For Model #1, the daily albedos were successfully predicted only using the number of dry spell days; the correlation coefficient between the estimated and measured albedo was 0.73, and the standard error was 1.2%. For Model #2, the number of dry spell days and transmissivity were considered in order to calculate the daily albedo on dry spell days; the correlation coefficient was 0.85, and the standard error was 0.9%. Estimated albedos were in good agreement with measured albedos. (author)

  15. Alginate-Casein Microspheres as Bioactive Vehicles for Nutrients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志敏; 张茜青; 齐崴; 黄仁亮; 苏荣欣

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an alginate-casein composite microsphere as a bioactive vehicle for oral administration of nutrients by a simple extrusion dripping method. Riboflavin was selected as a model drug, and the microencapsulation efficiency was raised to 97.94%after optimizing the preparation conditions by response surface methodology. In vitro release studies showed that riboflavin was released completely from alginate-casein microspheres in simulated intestinal fluids. Meanwhile, the morphology, structure and interaction between alginate and casein were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra.

  16. Attachment and conformational changes of collagen on bioactive glass surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, K; Vanea, E; Baia, L; Simon, V

    2016-05-12

    The proteins adsorption on biomaterials surface leads to changes in their structural conformation that may further influence the adhesion, migration and growth of cells. The aim of this study was to examine the attachment of collagen (calf skin type I) on bioactive glass powders and the conformational changes of the protein. Scanning electron microscopy analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that the collagen cover the glass surface in a nanometric thin layer. The infrared amide I absorption signal shows pronounced changes in the secondary structure of the adsorbed collagen. PMID:27175468

  17. Production of bioactive secondary metabolites by marine Vibrionaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Gram, Lone; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and studies have been limited to only a few species. Most of the compounds isolated from vibrios so far are non-ribosomal peptides or hybrids thereof, with examples of N-containing compounds produced independent of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS...... also been isolated from other distantly related bacteria. This cosmopolitan occurrence of metabolites indicates a high incidence of horizontal gene transfer, which raises interesting questions concerning the ecological function of some of these molecules. This account underlines the pending potential...

  18. Bioactive Components of Soybeans and Their Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Özcan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depending on scientific developments and advancement in consumer awareness differences in types of nutrition and choice of foods resulted in increment on tendance to functional foods which have favorable effects on human health. The occurrence of positive effects on human health and inclusion of functional characteristics of the bioactive components in soybean compound has made possible adding of these soybean components in to the foods. In this compilation the importance of soybean active components in food are mentioned and along with this their positive effects on human health are introduced.

  19. Influence of absorption promoters on pulmonary insulin bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, T. Mahesh; Misra, Ambikanandan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to enhance the bioactivity of insulin by the pulmonary route using a combination of absorption promoters. Aliquots (100 μL) containing 1.0 IU/kg to 7.0 IU/kg doses of porcine insulin solutions with different classes of absorption promoters and combinations of these at 3 concentration levels were instilled intratracheally to the anesthetized rats. Blood concentrations of glucose were measured at specific time points. Out of 3 concentration levels of each of the...

  20. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Barbosa-Filho

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS, inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted.

  1. Constituents from Senecio scandens and their antioxidant bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kuo, Ping-Chung

    2011-03-01

    Forty-one compounds including two new constituents, senecainin A (1) and 3-methoxyisonicotinic acid (2), were characterized from the methanol extracts of the whole plant of Senecio scandens. The structures of the new compounds were comprehensively established with the aid of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. The chemical structures of known compounds were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. In addition, the antioxidant activity of some of the isolates was examined in the DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Among the tested compounds, (-)-monoepoxylignanolide, (-)-pinoresinol and (-)-epi-pinoresinol displayed significant antioxidant bioactivity. PMID:21547668

  2. Bioactivities from Marine Algae of the Genus Gracilaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Cynthia Layse F.; Falcão, Heloina de S.; Lima, Gedson R. de M.; Montenegro, Camila de A.; Lira, Narlize S.; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio F.; Rodrigues, Luis C.; de Souza, Maria de Fátima V.; Barbosa-Filho, José M.; Batista, Leônia M.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds are an important source of bioactive metabolites for the pharmaceutical industry in drug development. Many of these compounds are used to treat diseases like cancer, acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), inflammation, pain, arthritis, as well as viral, bacterial, and fungal infections. This paper offers a survey of the literature for Gracilaria algae extracts with biological activity, and identifies avenues for future research. Nineteen species of this genus that were tested for antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antihypertensive, cytotoxic, spermicidal, embriotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities are cited from the 121 references consulted. PMID:21845096

  3. Bioactive phytoconstituents and plant extracts from genus Heliotropium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heliotropium is a genus of herbs and rarely shrubs of family Boraginaceae. Heliotropium species have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gout, rheumatism and as antiseptic, febrifuge, cholagogue, anti-inflammatory and healing agents. The alkaloids mainly pyrrolizidine alkaloids are the main constituents of Heliotropium species, which are responsible for several biological activities viz. anti-tumoural, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. Phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and quinones have also been reported in this genus. The present review summarizes the various biological studies done on the extracts and bioactive phytoconstituents from the plants of the genus Heliotropium over the past few decades.

  4. Bioactive substances of cyanobacteria (Nostoc muscorum: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi Rimsha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria is one of the most important organism (algae due to its different classical activities like nitrogen fixation, which is most prevailing function of cyanobacteria. But, recent reports are demonstrating their pharmaceutical importance also. Nostoc muscorum is a species of cyanobacterium belonging to the family Nostocaceae. Which contains different bioactive components like phenolics, phycocyanin, triterpenoids amino acids, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, sulphates polysaccharides and carotenoids. These components are specific for antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibacterial activity. However, Different chemical compounds make it incredible and highly significant algae.

  5. Bioactive peptides generated from meat industry by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Leticia; Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    There is a large generation of meat by-products, not only from slaughtering but also in the meat industry from trimming and deboning during further processing. This results in extraordinary volumes of by-products that are primarily used as feeds with low returns or, more recently, to biodiesel generation. The aim of this work was to review the state of the art to generate bioactive peptides from meat industry by-products giving them an added value. Hydrolysis with commercial proteases constit...

  6. Anticancer activities of artemisinin and its bioactive derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Gary L; Sundar, Shyam N

    2009-01-01

    Artemisinin, a sesquiterpene lactone derived from the sweet wormwood plant Artemisia annua, and its bioactive derivatives exhibit potent anticancer effects in a variety of human cancer cell model systems. The pleiotropic response in cancer cells includes growth inhibition by cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, disruption of cell migration, and modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness. These effects of artemisinin and its derivatives result from perturbations of many cellular signalling pathways. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of these cellular responses, and considers the ramifications for the potential development of artemisinin-based compounds in anticancer therapeutic and preventative strategies. PMID:19883518

  7. Isolation, identification and application of special bioactive plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The wide application of natural and bioactive compounds has became a central issue in the last years. The use of these materials as food additives can be advantageous in several aspects: their natural origin, health protecting properties, possibility for combination of beneficial physiological properties and the recognition and exploitation of synergetic properties can be used in the production of wide range of functional food products. The main objective of the work is - to compare the efficiency of extraction procedures used to obtain different bioactive compounds from different plants, - to identify bioactive components, - to examine the biological activity and bioavailability of the isolated compounds, - to separate and purify the active substances, - to examine the possibility to use these components as functional food additives, - (optimal retrieval, stability, interactions with the food matrix, bio-accessibility). We have examined carrot, purple corn, red cabbage, red pepper, garlic and sea buckthorn extracts. The extraction was carried out with seven different solvents (ethanol: acetic acid:water, acetone, ethanol, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate and hot water). The analysis of the different extraction methods showed that hot water and ethanol were the most efficient solvents, while ethyl-acetate and n-hexane were less effective. The antioxidant activities were determined by FRAP and DPPH methods, antioxidant activities were found to be high in case of garlic and purple corn, while carrot showed lower activity. The components of the extracts were identified by HPLC-MS technique; three unique components were identified in carrot, eleven components in purple corn and nine components in red cabbage. The expected bioavailability and utilization of the components were determined with the application of digestion models: 1 gram of the sample was shaken for 4 hours with 25 ml 0.01 M NaCl solution containing 1 gram pepsin at pH=2.0 in

  8. Alternative fuels for vehicles; Alternative drivmidler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-02-15

    Up until 2020 and onwards the analysis indicates that especially electricity, biogas and natural gas as propellants is economically attractive compared to conventional gasoline and diesel while other fuels have the same or higher costs for petrol and diesel. Especially biogas and electricity will also offer significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions, but also hydrogen, methanol, DME and to a lesser extent the second generation bioethanol and most of the other alternative fuels reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Use of the traditional food-based first generation biofuels involves, at best, only modest climate benefits if land use changes are counted, and at worst, significant negative climate effects. Natural gas as a propellant involves a moderate climate gain, but may play a role for building infrastructure and market for gaseous fuels in large fleets, thereby contributing to the phasing in of biogas for transport. The electric-based automotive fuels are the most effective due to a high efficiency of the engine and an increasing proportion of wind energy in the electricity supply. The methanol track also has a relatively high efficiency. Among the others, the track based on diesel engines (biodiesel) is more effective than the track based on gasoline/Otto engines (gas and ethanol) as a result of the diesel engine's better efficiency. For the heavy vehicles all the selected alternative fuels to varying degrees reduce emissions of CO{sub 2}, particularly DME based on wood. The only exception to this is - as for passenger cars - the propellant synthetic diesel based on coal. (LN).

  9. Poly (L-lactide-co-e caprolactone) microspheres laden with bioactive glass-ceramic and alendronate sodium as bone regenerative scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Titash [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India); Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Sunny, M.C. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India); Khastgir, D. [Rubber Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Varma, H.K. [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India); Ramesh, P., E-mail: rameshsct@gmail.com [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Biomedical Technology Wing, Thiruvananthpuram-695012 (India)

    2012-05-01

    Microspheric scaffolds of poly-(lactide-co-caprolactone) loaded with alendronate sodium, a family precursor of bisphosphonate drug and bioactive glass-ceramic (BGS) were prepared for the treatment of osteoporosis like bone defects with the rationale of getting a combined effect/concurrent advantage of osteoclast apoptosis as well as the augmentation of bone regeneration. The porous microspheres were generated by oil in water/solvent evaporation technique. The distribution of bioactive glass-ceramic was evidenced by the microcomputed tomography ({mu}-CT) and scanning electron microscopy analyses. The microspheres were evaluated for their in vitro cytocompatibility using L929 cell line and were found to be noncytotoxic. The osteoinductivity of the scaffold was assessed by its response in simulated body fluid and observed an excellent hydroxy carbonate apatite (HCA) layer formation on the surface which revealed the bone bonding and bone regeneration capability of the scaffold. The cell adhesion studies was performed with L-929 cell line and a marking cell growth on the surface as well as in the pores of the bioactive glass-ceramic as well as bioactive glass-ceramic cum drug incorporated microspheres was evidenced by the Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) investigation. No cell adhesion was observed onto the surface of the bare microspheres prepared by the copolymer alone where as the bioactive glass-ceramic and drug cum bioactive glass-ceramic loaded microspheres were found to promote the cell adhesion. The viability of the adhered cells on the microspheres was checked by flourescein diacetate (FDA) staining and it was observed that the adhered cells were viable and metabolically active. The release of the drug, alendronate sodium, directly into the problem site makes the presently prepared microsphere superior to the oral variety of drug available which is associated with oral discomfort and low bioavailability. - Highlights: Black

  10. Cuidados cotidianos Cuidados cotidianos Daily care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Coelho

    2010-10-01

    in a 527-bed hospital, with data collection using the nursing notes. RESULTS: Care movement; client conditions; client situations; the care that took place was one from the moment the client checked in to the moment he checked out of the hospital. Conclusion: The data consolidate what observed in the Hospital Routine: that the recovery of the client is not over within the possibilities of attention and balance of the organic ills predicted by the cure of these subjects, based on the model which identifies the cure as well as the pathology as the main references. From the total number of patients, a great number were able to leave the hospital, which shows the impact/result of the care received during their recovery, and a complex network in a continuous and daily chain in those three axis.

  11. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1→3)-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1→3)- and (1→4)-linked α......-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1→6)-β-d-galacto- and/or (1→2)-β-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions...

  12. Simulating daily water temperatures of the Klamath River under dam removal and climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Russell W.; Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Jones, Edward C.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A one-dimensional daily averaged water temperature model was used to simulate Klamath River temperatures for two management alternatives under historical climate conditions and six future climate scenarios. The analysis was conducted for the Secretarial Determination on removal of four hydroelectric dams on the Klamath River. In 2012, the Secretary of the Interior will determine if dam removal and implementation of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (KBRA) (Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement, 2010) will advance restoration of salmonid fisheries and is in the public interest. If the Secretary decides dam removal is appropriate, then the four dams are scheduled for removal in 2020.

  13. Bioactive coating with low-fouling polymers for the development of biocompatible vascular implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalla, Pradeep Kumar

    The replacement of occluded blood vessels and endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) are performed with the use of synthetic vascular grafts and stent grafts, respectively. Both implants lead to frequent clinical complications that are different but due to a similar problem, namely the inadequate surface properties of the polymeric biomaterials used (generally polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)). Therefore the general objective of this thesis was to create a versatile bioactive coating on vascular biomaterials that reduce material-induced thrombosis and promote desired cell interactions favorable to tissue healing around implants. The use of low-fouling backgrounds was decided in order to reduce platelet adhesion as well as the non-specific protein adsorption and thus increase the bioactivity of immobilized biomolecules. As part of the preliminary objective, a multi-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chosen to create a versatile low-fouling surface, since the current coating methods are far from being versatile and rely on the availability of compatible functional groups on both PEG and the host surface. This PEG coating method was developed by taking advantage of novel primary amine-rich plasma polymerized coatings (LP). As demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), fluorescence measurements and platelet adhesion assays, our PEG coatings exhibited low protein adsorption and almost no platelet adhesion after 15 min perfusion in whole blood. Although protein adsorption was not completely abrogated and short-term platelet adhesion assay was clearly insufficient to draw conclusions for long-term prevention of thrombosis in vivo, the low-fouling properties of this PEG coating were sufficient to be exploited for further coupling of bioactive molecules to create bioactive coatings. Therefore, as a part of the second objective, an innovative and versatile bioactive coating was developed on PEG and

  14. Evaluation of different methods to estimate daily reference evapotranspiration in ungauged basins in Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia

    2016-04-01

    Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s‑1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m‑ 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than

  15. Spatial patterns in the oxygen isotope composition of daily rainfall in the British Isles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jonathan J.; Jones, Matthew; Arrowsmith, Carol; Allott, Tim; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the modern day relationship between climate and the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation (δ18OP) is crucial for obtaining rigorous palaeoclimate reconstructions from a variety of archives. To date, the majority of empirical studies into the meteorological controls over δ18OP rely upon daily, event scale, or monthly time series from individual locations, resulting in uncertainties concerning the representativeness of statistical models and the mechanisms behind those relationships. Here, we take an alternative approach by analysing daily patterns in δ18OP from multiple stations across the British Isles ( n = 10-70 stations). We use these data to examine the spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of regression statistics between δ18OP and common predictors (temperature, precipitation amount and the North Atlantic Oscillation index; NAO). Temperature and NAO are poor predictors of daily δ18OP in the British Isles, exhibiting weak and/or inconsistent effects both spatially and between seasons. By contrast δ18OP and rainfall amount consistently correlate at most locations, and for all months analysed, with spatial and temporal variability in the regression coefficients. The maps also allow comparison with daily synoptic weather types, and suggest characteristic δ18OP patterns, particularly associated with Cylonic Lamb Weather Types. Mapping daily δ18OP across the British Isles therefore provides a more coherent picture of the patterns in δ18OP, which will ultimately lead to a better understanding of the climatic controls. These observations are another step forward towards developing a more detailed, mechanistic framework for interpreting stable isotopes in rainfall as a palaeoclimate and hydrological tracer.

  16. Multiple hydrological attractors under stochastic daily forcing: 1. Can multiple attractors exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, T. J.; Western, A. W.

    2014-04-01

    Including positive feedbacks in hydrological models has recently been shown to result in complex behavior with multiple steady states. When a large disturbance, say a major drought, is simulated within such models the hydrology changes. Once the disturbance ends the hydrology does not return to that prior to the disturbance, but rather, persists within an alternate state. These multiple steady states (henceforth attractors) exist for a single model parameterization and cause the system to have a finite resilience to such transient disturbances. A limitation of past hydrological resilience studies is that multiple attractors have been identified using mean annual or mean monthly forcing. Considering that most hydrological fluxes are subject to significant forcing stochasticity and do not operate at such large timescales, it remains an open question whether multiple hydrological attractors can exist when a catchment is subject to stochastic daily forcing. This question is the focus of this paper and it needs to be addressed prior to searching for multiple hydrological attractors in the field. To investigate this, a previously developed semidistributed hillslope ecohydrological model was adopted which exhibited multiple steady states under average monthly climate forcing. In this paper, the ecohydrological model was used to explore if feedbacks between the vegetation and a saline water table result in two attractors existing under daily stochastic forcing. The attractors and the threshold between them (henceforth repellor) were quantified using a new limit cycle continuation technique that upscaled climate forcing from daily to monthly (model and limit cycle code is freely available). The method was used to determine the values of saturated lateral hydraulic conductivity at which multiple attractors exist. These estimates were then assessed against time-integration estimates, which they agreed with. Overall, multiple attractors were found to exist under stochastic

  17. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell survival by anticancer agents has been shown to correlate with tumor response. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence; the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to various anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell survival and proliferating signaling molecules. As a new therapeutic strategy, alternative types of cell death might be exploited to control and eradicate cancer cells. This review discusses the signaling of apoptosis and cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of marine bioactive compounds, suggesting that new therapeutic strategies might follow.

  18. Petit suisse from black soybean: bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties during development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes Filho, Marsilvio Lima; Hirozawa, Sabrina Satie; Prudencio, Sandra Helena; Ida, Elza Iouko; Garcia, Sandra

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant properties, bioactive compounds and other physico-chemical parameters from black soybean and its derivatives over 30 days under refrigeration at 4 °C and develop a probiotic petit suisse produced from black soybean. The soymilk showed the highest levels of isoflavones (109 mg/100 g), total phenolics (600 mg/100 g) and total anthocyanins (388 mg/100 g) with the highest response in the tests with DPPH• and ABTS+• on a dry basis. There was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in antioxidant activity during storage due to the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones in soymilk sample, having a strong linear correlation between the concentration of isoflavone aglycones and the antioxidant activity for ABTS+• (R = 0.9437, 0.9624 and 0.9992) and DPPH• (R = 0.9865, 0.9978 and 0.9911), respectively, for soymilk, quark and petit suisse. The conversion of isoflavone was influenced directly by the characteristics of each sample, inhibiting or promoting the action of the enzyme. The petit suisse developed is an alternative for consumers, providing isoflavones and anthocyanins, possessing probiotic average counts (10⁸ CFU g⁻¹) during storage.

  19. Bioactivity of nanosilver in Caenorhabditis elegans: Effects of size, coat, and shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piper Reid Hunt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vivo toxicity to eukaryotes of nanosilver (AgNP spheres and plates in two sizes each was assessed using the simple model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. For each shape, smaller AgNP size correlated with higher toxicity, as indicated by reduced larval growth. Smaller size also correlated with significant increases in silver uptake for silver nanospheres. Citrate coated silver spheres of 20 nm diameter induced an innate immune response that increased or held steady over 24 h, while regulation of genes involved in metal metabolism peaked at 4 h and subsequently decreased. For AgNP spheres, coating altered bioactivity, with a toxicity ranking of polyethylene glycol (PEG > polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP ≅ branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI > citrate, but silver uptake ranking of PEG > PVP > citrate > BPEI. Our findings in C. elegans correlate well with findings in rodents for AgNP size vs. uptake and toxicity, as well as for induction of immune effectors, while using methods that are faster and far less expensive, supporting the use of C. elegans as an alternative model for early toxicity screening.

  20. Screening of Herbal-Based Bioactive Extract Against Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Monalisa; Roy, Ranita; Tiwari, Vishvanath

    2016-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is grouped in the ESKAPE pathogens by Infectious Disease Society of America, which is linked to high degree of morbidity, mortality, and increased costs. The high level of acquired and intrinsic resistance mechanisms of these bacteria makes it an urgent requirement to find a suitable alternative to carbapenem, a commonly prescribed drug for Acinetobacter infection. In this study, methanolic extracts of six medicinal plants were subjected to phytochemical screening and their antimicrobial activity was tested against two strains of A. baumannii (ATCC 19606, carbapenem-sensitive strain, and RS 307, carbapenem-resistant strain). Synergistic effect of the plant extracts and antibiotics was also tested. Bael or Aegle marmelos contains tannin, phenol, terpenoids, glycoside, alkaloids, coumarine, steroid, and quinones. Flowers of madar or Calotropis procera possess tannin, phenol, terpenoids, glycoside, quinone, anthraquinone, anthocyanin, coumarin, and steroid. An inhibitory growth curve was seen for both the bacterial strains when treated with A. marmelos, Curcuma longa, and leaves and flowers of C. procera. Antibiotics alone showed a small zone of inhibition, but when used with herbal extracts they exhibited larger zone of inhibition. Synergistic effect of A. marmelos and imipenem was the best against both the strains of A. baumannii. From this study, it can be concluded that extracts from A. marmelos and leaves and flowers of C. procera exhibited the most effective antibacterial activity. These herbal extracts may be used to screen the bioactive compound against the carbapenem-resistant strain of A. baumannii. PMID:26910023

  1. Preparation, characterization and cytocompatibility of bioactive coatings on porous calcium-silicate-hydrate scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major goal of this research was to investigate and characterize the deposition of a biomimetic apatite-like coating onto the surface of 3D porous calcium-silicate-hydrate scaffolds with suitable bioactivity for potential application in bone tissue engineering. Basically, Portland cement, water, sand and lime were mixed for preparing the slurry which was poured into molds, and fine aluminum powder was added as foaming agent resulting on the formation of porous 3D structures. After aging for 28 days, these porous inorganic scaffolds were immersed in calcium chloride supersaturated solution in PBS for 7 days at 37 deg. C for the biomimetic layer deposition. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques were used in order to characterize the porous scaffolds and the apatite-like biomimetic coating. The results have showed that 3D constructs were successfully produced with interconnected porosity, compressive strength and cytocompatibility appropriate for potential use as an alternative in trabecular bone repair.

  2. Bioactive vegetable proteins and peptides in lipid-lowering: nutraceutical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carlos Ruiz Ruiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As the last century saw a decline in the burden of nutritional deficiency and infectious disease, the global burden of chronic disease, cardiovascular disease (CVD in particular, is increasing. CVD is the leading cause of death in the developed countries. Significant research efforts on the prevention and treatment of this disease have identified elevated plasma cholesterol as a primary risk factor for CVD. Although CVD progresses with hypercholesterolemia, it seems possibility to delay and prevent its development through improvement of diet. Recent findings demonstrate that protein concentrates, protein hydrolysates, and peptides derived from vegetables may promote a significant decrease in blood cholesterol concentration. This reduction in cholesterol and lipid levels by protein, protein hydrolysates, and peptides can be the result of dietary changes, reduced cholesterol biosynthesis, changes in bile acid synthesis, and reduced absorption of lipid cholesterol and bile acid. Combination drug/diet therapies may reduce the number of drug prescriptions, the progressive rise in "optimal" drug dosage and costs associated with pharmaceutical management of disease. These bioactive vegetable proteins, hydrolysates and peptides may be used in formulation of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and natural drugs because of their health benefit effects suggesting their use as an alternative in treatment of various dyslipidemias, and a potential agent for reducing cardiovascular diseases risk factors.

  3. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  4. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen.

  5. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  6. Catalysis for alternative energy generation

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Summarizes recent problems in using catalysts in alternative energy generation and proposes novel solutions  Reconsiders the role of catalysis in alternative energy generation  Contributors include catalysis and alternative energy experts from across the globe

  7. 1,3-DIPOLAR CYCLOADDITIONS APPROACH TO BIOACTIVE SPIROHETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS 1,3-dipolare Cycloadditionen Ansatz zur BIOACTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam M. Hussein

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spiro compounds represent an important class of naturally occurring substances characterized by highly pronounced biological properties. The most developed avenue for the synthesis of these compounds depends on the cycloaddition to an exocyclic bond. 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions are considered to be one of the most useful processes for the construction of five membered heterocyclic ring systems in highly regio- and stereoselective manner. This review describes 1 general methods for generation and preparation of most important 1,3- dipoles such as nitrones, nitrile oxides and azomethine ylides; and 2 the most recent examples of synthetic applications of 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions to bioactive spiroheterocyclic compounds.

  8. Presentation of chronic daily headache : A clinical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, E L H; Schroevers, M.; Honkoop, P.C.; Sorbi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the presentation of chronic daily headache in 258 patients from a private headache practice, 50 men and 208 women. Chronic daily headache was defined as headaches, occurring at least 5 days per week for at least 1 year. Seventy-seven percent of the patients experienced the onset of headac

  9. Probability Distribution and Projected Trends of Daily Precipitation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO; Li-Ge; ZHONG; Jun; SU; Bu-Da; ZHAI; Jian-Qing; Macro; GEMMER

    2013-01-01

    Based on observed daily precipitation data of 540 stations and 3,839 gridded data from the high-resolution regional climate model COSMO-Climate Limited-area Modeling(CCLM)for 1961–2000,the simulation ability of CCLM on daily precipitation in China is examined,and the variation of daily precipitation distribution pattern is revealed.By applying the probability distribution and extreme value theory to the projected daily precipitation(2011–2050)under SRES A1B scenario with CCLM,trends of daily precipitation series and daily precipitation extremes are analyzed.Results show that except for the western Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and South China,distribution patterns of the kurtosis and skewness calculated from the simulated and observed series are consistent with each other;their spatial correlation coefcients are above 0.75.The CCLM can well capture the distribution characteristics of daily precipitation over China.It is projected that in some parts of the Jianghuai region,central-eastern Northeast China and Inner Mongolia,the kurtosis and skewness will increase significantly,and precipitation extremes will increase during 2011–2050.The projected increase of maximum daily rainfall and longest non-precipitation period during flood season in the aforementioned regions,also show increasing trends of droughts and floods in the next 40 years.

  10. 19 CFR 159.35 - Certified daily rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.35 Certified daily rate... the conversion of foreign currency whenever a proclaimed rate or certified quarterly rate is not... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certified daily rate. 159.35 Section...

  11. The Determinants of Daily Function in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Shieh, Jeng-Yi; Lu, Lu; Huang, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify determinants of daily function in a population-based sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The study took into consideration factors from the entire scope of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). Furthermore, the determinants of daily function were examined from…

  12. Long daily movements of wolves (Canis lupus) during pup raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2009-01-01

    Wolves, Canis lupus, on Ellesmere Island traveled a daily round-trip distance of 40.2 km from their den to a landfill during July 2008, plus an undetermined distance hunting after leaving the landfill. Although long travels by Wolves are well known, this appears to be the first documentation of long daily movements by Wolves rearing pups.

  13. The Flying Newsboy: A Small Daily Attempts Air Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Elizabeth A.

    For 10 months in 1929-30, subscribers to "The McCook (Nebraska) Daily Gazette" (a daily newspaper serving 33 towns in southwestern Nebraska and northwestern Kansas) received their newspapers via air delivery with "The Newsboy," a Curtis Robin cabin monoplane. In an age when over-the-road travel was difficult and air travel was just emerging,…

  14. Domestic energy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These alternatives include biomass, clean coal, geothermal, hydropower, natural gas, nuclear, solar and photovoltaic, and wind. With the current, volatile situation in the Middle East, this nation's political leaders appear to be left scratching their heads in their attempts to come up with new, sound, energy policies to reduce our dependence on foreign oil. Therefore, the FORTNIGHTLY's editorial staff thought that this might be an opportune time to briefly examine some home-grown and environmentally responsible fuel alternatives to black gold. While some of these electricity-producing technologies are still on the horizon, others are available now

  15. Preventive and Prophylactic Mechanisms of Action of Pomegranate Bioactive Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Viladomiu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate fruit presents strong anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiobesity, and antitumoral properties, thus leading to an increased popularity as a functional food and nutraceutical source since ancient times. It can be divided into three parts: seeds, peel, and juice, all of which seem to have medicinal benefits. Several studies investigate its bioactive components as a means to associate them with a specific beneficial effect and develop future products and therapeutic applications. Many beneficial effects are related to the presence of ellagic acid, ellagitannins (including punicalagins, punicic acid and other fatty acids, flavonoids, anthocyanidins, anthocyanins, estrogenic flavonols, and flavones, which seem to be its most therapeutically beneficial components. However, the synergistic action of the pomegranate constituents appears to be superior when compared to individual constituents. Promising results have been obtained for the treatment of certain diseases including obesity, insulin resistance, intestinal inflammation, and cancer. Although moderate consumption of pomegranate does not result in adverse effects, future studies are needed to assess safety and potential interactions with drugs that may alter the bioavailability of bioactive constituents of pomegranate as well as drugs. The aim of this review is to summarize the health effects and mechanisms of action of pomegranate extracts in chronic inflammatory diseases.

  16. In vivo bone regeneration using a novel porous bioactive composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie En [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Hu Yunyu [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)], E-mail: orth1@fmmn.edu.cn; Chen Xiaofeng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology University, Guangzhou (China); Bai Xuedong; Li Dan [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Ren Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang Ziru [Foreign Languages School, Northwest University Xi' an (China)

    2008-11-15

    Many commercial bone graft substitutes (BGS) and experimental bone tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed for bone repair and regeneration. This study reports the in vivo bone regeneration using a newly developed porous bioactive and resorbable composite that is composed of bioactive glass (BG), collagen (COL), hyaluronic acid (HYA) and phosphatidylserine (PS), BG-COL-HYA-PS. The composite was prepared by a combination of sol-gel and freeze-drying methods. A rabbit radius defect model was used to evaluate bone regeneration at time points of 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Techniques including radiography, histology, and micro-CT were applied to characterize the new bone formation. 8 weeks results showed that (1) nearly complete bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composite that was combined with a bovine bone morphogenetic protein (BMP); (2) partial bone regeneration was achieved for the BG-COL-HYA-PS composites alone; and (3) control remained empty. This study demonstrated that the novel BG-COL-HYA-PS, with or without the grafting of BMP incorporation, is a promising BGS or a tissue engineering scaffold for non-load bearing orthopaedic applications.

  17. Effects of manufacturing method on surface mineralization of bioactive glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirayesh, Hamidreza

    Amorphous bioactive glass powders are used as bone-filling materials in many medical applications. Bioactivity is achieved through ion exchange with bodily fluids, leading to surface apatite mineral formation---a necessity for tissue development. Traditional fabrication is by melt-casting and grinding, however sol-gel synthesis is another method which directly produces powders with higher specific surface area and potential for increased ion exchange rates. In this study sol-gel derived powders were manufactured and compared with melt-cast powders to determine the effects of crystallinity, composition, and specific surface area on apatite formation. Powders were immersed in simulated body fluid as a function of time and the evolution of apatite minerals was characterized. Apatite formation was most significantly affected by powder composition, followed by specific surface area; merely having sodium in the powder was more influential than altering the surface area and/or atomic structure, yet high specific surface area was found to enhance reactions on crystalline powders.

  18. Fruits Bioactive Compounds Characterization from a New Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Mariana RUS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was (I to create a new product, smart bar type which can be consumed as protective food by adults and children (II to characterize the bioactive compounds from the designed food. The bioactive compounds were identified from nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds. Secoisolariciresinol (683 ppm has been identified as a major compound in flax seeds.  The vitamin C was quantified by HPLC in a concentration of 35.02 mg% in cranberries extract. The total phenolic content varied from 7.1 mg/g for walnut to 71.8 mg/g for cranberries. In addition, the antioxidative capability of phenolic compounds was monitored and evaluated using a colored free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH. Almond showed better results than walnut in the antioxidant capacity test. The results obtained in this study collect information that enables the use of nuts, raw seeds of almonds, dry cranberries, dry plums and flax seeds as raw material for the production of smart bar which may serve as a new product for food market.

  19. Food Derived Bioactive Peptides and Intestinal Barrier Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Martínez-Augustin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of food-derived bioactive peptides have been shown to exert health-promoting actions and are therefore considered functional foods or nutraceuticals. Some of these actions are related to the maintenance, reinforcement or repairment of the intestinal barrier function (IBF whose role is to selectively allow the absorption of water, nutrients and ions while preventing the influx of microorganisms from the intestinal lumen. Alterations in the IBF have been related to many disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease or metabolic syndrome. Components of IBF are the intestinal epithelium, the mucus layer, secretory immunoglobulin A and cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Here we review the effects of food derived bioactive peptides on these IBF components. In vitro and in vivo effects, both in healthy and disease states, have been reviewed. Although limited, the available information indicates a potential for food-derived peptides to modify IBF and to contribute to disease treatment, but further research is needed to better isolate responsible peptides, and to help define their mode of action.

  20. Effect of Dietary Bioactive Compounds on Mitochondrial and Metabolic Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C. E. Serrano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility is the capacity of an organism to adequately respond to changes in the environment, such as nutritional input, energetic demand, etc. An important player in the capacity of adaptation through different stages of metabolic demands is the mitochondrion. In this context, mitochondrial dysfunction has been attributed to be the onset and center of many chronic diseases, which are denoted by an inability to adapt fuel preferences and induce mitochondrial morphological changes to respond to metabolic demands, such as mitochondrial number, structure and function. Several nutritional interventions have shown the capacity to induce changes in mitochondrial biogenesis/degradation, oxidative phosphorylation efficiency, mitochondrial membrane composition, electron transfer chain capacity, etc., in metabolic inflexibility states that may open new target options and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic diseases. This review is focused in three well-recognized food bioactive compounds that modulate insulin sensitivity, polyphenols, ω-3 fatty acids and dietary fiber, by several mechanism of action, like caloric restriction properties and inflammatory environment modulation, both closely related to mitochondrial function and dynamics.

  1. Design and characterization of protein-quercetin bioactive nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Xiaojing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The synthesis of bioactive nanoparticles with precise molecular level control is a major challenge in bionanotechnology. Understanding the nature of the interactions between the active components and transport biomaterials is thus essential for the rational formulation of bio-nanocarriers. The current study presents a single molecule of bovine serum albumin (BSA, lysozyme (Lys, or myoglobin (Mb used to load hydrophobic drugs such as quercetin (Q and other flavonoids. Results Induced by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, BSA, Lys, and Mb formed spherical nanocarriers with sizes less than 70 nm. After loading Q, the size was further reduced by 30%. The adsorption of Q on protein is mainly hydrophobic, and is related to the synergy of Trp residues with the molecular environment of the proteins. Seven Q molecules could be entrapped by one Lys molecule, 9 by one Mb, and 11 by one BSA. The controlled releasing measurements indicate that these bioactive nanoparticles have long-term antioxidant protection effects on the activity of Q in both acidic and neutral conditions. The antioxidant activity evaluation indicates that the activity of Q is not hindered by the formation of protein nanoparticles. Other flavonoids, such as kaempferol and rutin, were also investigated. Conclusions BSA exhibits the most remarkable abilities of loading, controlled release, and antioxidant protection of active drugs, indicating that such type of bionanoparticles is very promising in the field of bionanotechnology.

  2. Bioactive fractions from cantabrian anchovy (Engraulis encrarischolus viscera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando BURGOS-HERNÁNDEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential of cantabrian anchovy (Engraulis encrarischolus viscera as a source of bioactive compounds is of interest for both, pharmaceutical and food industries. Cantabrian anchovy guts and heads were freeze-dried, extracted with methanol and subjected to fractionation by solvent partitioning using hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. Fractions were tested for antimutagenic, antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial activity using the Ames test; DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays; the radial grown inhibition assay; and the microbroth dilution method, respectively. Five fractions were obtained from the anchovy gut methanolic extract, in addition to the hexane- (HF, ethyl acetate- (EAF, and butanol-soluble (BF fractions, an aqueous-soluble fraction (ALF and precipitated crystals (ACF in this were also obtained. HF and EAF resulted to be antimutagenic, HF and ALF showed antifungal activity, BF and ACF showed the highest antioxidant potential, and HF and BF were antibacterial against several strains. Anchovy gut, which to the present study had not been reported for any bioactivity, has antimutagenic, antifungal, antioxidant, and antibacterial compounds, which need to be isolated for full characterization and study.

  3. Interstitial fluid contains higher in vitro IGF bioactivity than serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bjerring, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    MEASURE: Serum and SBF concentrations of bioactive IGF (determined in vitro by specific IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) phosphorylation assay), immunoreactive IGF and IGF binding protein (IGFBP) levels, Western ligand blotting (WLB) of IGFBPs and IGFBP-3 Western immunoblotting (WiB). RESULTS: The ability of SBF...... to phosphorylate the IGF-IR in vitro was 41±27% higher than that of serum (P=0.007 by repeated measures ANOVA). By contrast, immunoreactive IGF and IGFBP-concentrations were approximately 50% lower in SBF than in serum (all P≤0.002). A marked difference in the composition of IGFBPs between serum and...... SBF was observed, including 3-fold elevated amounts of IGFBP-3 fragments in SBF (P<0.001). For both IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-2, the effect of food intake differed between serum and SBF (all P≤0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite lower concentrations, the in vitro IGF bioactivity was higher in SBF than in serum...

  4. Computer-Aided Drug Design of Bioactive Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Songtawee, Napat; Simeon, Saw; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been an integral part of sustaining civilizations because of their medicinal properties. Past discoveries of bioactive natural products have relied on serendipity, and these compounds serve as inspiration for the generation of analogs with desired physicochemical properties. Bioactive natural products with therapeutic potential are abundantly available in nature and some of them are beyond exploration by conventional methods. The effectiveness of computational approaches as versatile tools for facilitating drug discovery and development has been recognized for decades, without exception, in the case of natural products. In the post-genomic era, scientists are bombarded with data produced by advanced technologies. Thus, rendering these data into knowledge that is interpretable and meaningful becomes an essential issue. In this regard, computational approaches utilize the existing data to generate knowledge that provides valuable understanding for addressing current problems and guiding the further research and development of new natural-derived drugs. Furthermore, several medicinal plants have been continuously used in many traditional medicine systems since antiquity throughout the world, and their mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, the utilization of computational approaches and advanced synthetic techniques would yield great benefit to improving the world's health population and well-being.

  5. Prospects and challenges for industrial production of seaweed bioactives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafting, Jeff T; Craigie, James S; Stengel, Dagmar B; Loureiro, Rafael R; Buschmann, Alejandro H; Yarish, Charles; Edwards, Maeve D; Critchley, Alan T

    2015-10-01

    Large-scale seaweed cultivation has been instrumental in globalizing the seaweed industry since the 1950s. The domestication of seaweed cultivars (begun in the 1940s) ended the reliance on natural cycles of raw material availability for some species, with efforts driven by consumer demands that far exceeded the available supplies. Currently, seaweed cultivation is unrivaled in mariculture with 94% of annual seaweed biomass utilized globally being derived from cultivated sources. In the last decade, research has confirmed seaweeds as rich sources of potentially valuable, health-promoting compounds. Most existing seaweed cultivars and current cultivation techniques have been developed for producing commoditized biomass, and may not necessarily be optimized for the production of valuable bioactive compounds. The future of the seaweed industry will include the development of high value markets for functional foods, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. Entry into these markets will require a level of standardization, efficacy, and traceability that has not previously been demanded of seaweed products. Both internal concentrations and composition of bioactive compounds can fluctuate seasonally, geographically, bathymetrically, and according to genetic variability even within individual species, especially where life history stages can be important. History shows that successful expansion of seaweed products into new markets requires the cultivation of domesticated seaweed cultivars. Demands of an evolving new industry based upon efficacy and standardization will require the selection of improved cultivars, the domestication of new species, and a refinement of existing cultivation techniques to improve quality control and traceability of products. PMID:26986880

  6. Highly bioactive nano-hydroxyapatite/partially stabilized zirconia ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing-liang; GE Shi-rong; ZHANG De-kun

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) powders have been synthesized by precipitation using Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and (NH4)2 HPO4 at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Nanocomposites of HA and partially stabilized zirconia (HA/PSZ) were sintered at atmospheric pressure and 1300℃ for 2h in air. The preparation techniques, structure and mechanical properties of these materials were characterized. The addition of nanosized PSZ reinforcing phase to HA may lead to an improvement of the macro and micro mechanical properties and not affect its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The bending strength, fracture toughness and nano-hardness were near to or greater than those for human cortical bone and human tooth (dentine and enamel). The composite was incubated in a fresh human plasma which confirmed the bioactivity of nanosized HA/PSZ materials. The bonding reaction between HA/PSZ ceramic and the plasma proteins was found, and hematopoietic cell phosphatase (HCP) layers formed on surface of each composite incubated in human plasma for two weeks.The diameter of a single HCP globule was less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the precipitating mechanism investigation was carried out through a comparative experiment in this paper.

  7. A modular and supramolecular approach to bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, PYW; Harmsen, MC; Brouwer, LA; Van Luyn, MJA; Meijer, EW

    2005-01-01

    Bioactive polymeric scaffolds are a prerequisite for the ultimate formation of functional tissues. Here, we show that supramolecular polymers based on quadruple hydrogen bonding ureido- pyrimidinone ( UPy) moieties are eminently suitable for producing such bioactive materials owing to their low- tem

  8. Fabrication and characterization of bioactive glass-ceramic using soda–lime–silica waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Mojtaba; Hashemi, Babak, E-mail: hashemib@shirazu.ac.ir

    2014-04-01

    Soda–lime–silica waste glass was used to synthesize a bioactive glass-ceramic through solid-state reactions. In comparison with the conventional route, that is, the melt-quenching and subsequent heat treatment, the present work is an economical technique. Structural and thermal properties of the samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The in vitro test was utilized to assess the bioactivity level of the samples by Hanks' solution as simulated body fluid (SBF). Bioactivity assessment by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was revealed that the samples with smaller amount of crystalline phase had a higher level of bioactivity. - Highlights: • A bioactive glass-ceramic was synthesized using soda–lime–silica waste glass. • Solid-state reaction method was used to synthesize bioactive glass-ceramic. • Ca{sub 2}Na{sub 2}Si{sub 3}O{sub 9} and CaNaPO{sub 4} were formed with a one-step thermal treatment condition. • The amounts of crystalline and amorphous phases influenced the bioactivity. • The sample with a smaller amount of the crystalline phase had a higher bioactivity.

  9. Once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing for infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Kristine; Larsen, Carsten Toftager; Schaadt, Bente;

    2011-01-01

    to guidelines were randomized to either once (n = 37) or twice daily (n = 34) doses of gentamicin. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) was measured with an isotope method ( 51 Cr-EDTA) at the beginning of treatment and at discharge. Treatment efficacy was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) time...... to half-life, mean CRP and leukocytes. Results: Baseline GFR was similar in the two groups. Both groups displayed a significant fall in GFR from admission to discharge. The mean decrease in GFR was as follows: with once daily gentamicin, 17.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5– 26.5), and with twice daily...... gentamicin, 20.4% (95% confidence interval 12.0–28.8). However, there was no significant difference in the GFR decrease between the once and twice daily regimens (p = 0.573). No difference in infection parameters was demonstrated between the two dosing regimens. Conclusions: A twice daily gentamicin dosing...

  10. Chemical characterization of the medicinal mushroom Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis) Teng and contribution of different fractions to its bioactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, F.S.; Barreira, J.C.M.; Calhelha, R.C.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.; Ciric, A.; Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Mushrooms are widely appreciated for their organoleptic qualities, being also recognized as good sources of bioactive compounds that provide antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. Polysaccharides (including glucans) are often pointed out as the most bioactive compounds isolated from mu

  11. Mechanism for Alternating Electric Fields Induced-Effects on Cytosolic Calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Ming-Yan; SONG Kun; ZHANG Xu; LEE Imshik

    2009-01-01

    In this work, from the point of calcium ions in the cytosol, we extend a Vm-[Ca2+]cyt model to explain the changes of action potential Vm of the plasma membrane and the calcium concentration in the cytosol [Ca2+]cyt under an alternating electric field in cells. An alternating external electric field may exert an oscillating force to each of the free electrolytes, existing on both sides of the plasma membrane. The mechanism for the alternating electric field induced-effects on Vm and [Ca2+]cyt is elucidated. The simulation results show a correlation between the changes of [Ca2+]cyt and the alternating electric field. When the numerical ratio between the intensity Eo(mV/m) and the frequency ν, (Hz) of the field was about 1-2, the [Ca2+]cyt signal is changed dramatically. The bioactive changes of [Ca2+]cyt appear at low frequency, in the range of 0-100 Hz.

  12. Characterisation of the bioactive behaviour of sol-gel hydroxyapatite-CaO and hydroxyapatite-CaO-bioactive glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fabrication and characterization of sol-gel derived hydroxyapatite-calcium oxide (HAp-CaO) material is investigated focusing on the effect of the addition of a bioactive glass on the material bioactive behaviour through the fabrication of a novel HAp-CaO (70 wt.%)-bioactive glass (30 wt.%) composite material. The bioactive behaviour of the materials was assessed by immersion studies in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) and the alterations of the materials surfaces after soaking periods in SBF were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A brittle and weakly crystalline carbonate hydroxyapatite (HCAp) layer was found to develop on the surface of all samples, few hours after immersion in SBF, confirming the high bioactivity of the material. Alterations of the morphology of the developed HCAp layer, which led to a more compact structure, were observed on the surface of composite samples after 7 days of immersion in SBF. The presence of the CaO phase seems to accelerate the formation of HCAp, while the bioactive glass affects both the morphology and cohesion of the developed layer.

  13. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Najeeb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Glass ionomer cements (GICs are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties.

  14. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Abdul Samad; Zohaib, Sana; Martí, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Sauro, Salvatore; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. PMID:27428956

  15. Alternative and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are the healthcare rituals practiced by a given culture (eg, Asian, Indian, African). Homeopathic Medicine: This alternative medicine system is based on the principle that “like cures like.” In other words, the same substance ... American Brain Tumor Association 8550 W. Bryn Mawr Ave. ...

  16. Alternative Energy Busing

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFee, Scott

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, school districts have converted portions of their bus fleets to cleaner-burning, sometimes cheaper, alternative fossil fuels, such as compressed natural gas or propane. Others have adopted biodiesel, which combines regular diesel with fuel derived from organic sources, usually vegetable oils or animal fats. The number of biodiesel…

  17. Compensated pulsed alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to an electromechanical energy converter with inertial energy storage. The device, a single phase, two or multi-pole alternator with stationary field coils, and a rotating armature is provided. The rotor itself may be of laminated steel for slower pulses or for faster pulses should be nonmagnetic and electrically nonconductive in order to allow rapid penetration of the field as the armature coil rotates. The armature coil comprises a plurality of power generating conductors mounted on the rotor. The alternator may also include a stationary or counterrotating compensating coil to increase the output voltage thereof and to reduce the internal impedance of the alternator at the moment of peak output. As the machine voltage rises sinusoidally, an external trigger switch is adapted to be closed at the appropriate time to create the desired output current from said alternator to an external load circuit, and as the output current passes through zero a self-commutating effect is provided to allow the switch to disconnect the generator from the external circuit

  18. Alternatives to Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Today, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Notes that our capacity to diffuse conflict rests in our ability to recognize and verbalize feelings, develop empathy, and think of alternatives to violence. Explores the influence of role models and culture on violence and how the media can use violent images effectively in helping us confront a culture of violence. (HTH)

  19. Alternatives to Traditional Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaare, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Provides a introduction and overview to alternative music notation systems. Describes guitar tablature, accordion tablature, klavarskribo (a keyboard notational system developed by Cornelius Pot, a Dutch engineer), and the digital piano roll. Briefly discusses the history of notation reform and current efforts. Includes examples from scores. (MJP)

  20. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  1. Alternatives in solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, D. G.

    1978-01-01

    Although solar energy has the potential of providing a significant source of clean and renewable energy for a variety of applications, it is expected to penetrate the nation's energy economy very slowly. The alternative solar energy technologies which employ direct collection and conversion of solar radiation as briefly described.

  2. Mechanical, Rheological, and Bioactivity Properties of Ultra High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene Bioactive Composites Containing Polyethylene Glycol and Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazatusziha Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/high-density polyethylene (UHMWPE/HDPE blends prepared using polyethylene glycol PEG as the processing aid and hydroxyapatite (HA as the reinforcing filler were found to be highly processable using conventional melt blending technique. It was demonstrated that PEG reduced the melt viscosity of UHMWPE/HDPE blend significantly, thus improving the extrudability. The mechanical and bioactive properties were improved with incorporation of HA. Inclusion of HA from 10 to 50 phr resulted in a progressive increase in flexural strength and modulus of the composites. The strength increment is due to the improvement on surface contact between the irregular shape of HA and polymer matrix by formation of mechanical interlock. The HA particles were homogenously distributed even at higher percentage showed improvement in wetting ability between the polymer matrix and HA. The inclusion of HA enhanced the bioactivity properties of the composite by the formation of calcium phosphate (Ca-P precipitates on the composite surface as proven from SEM and XRD analysis.

  3. The role of station density for predicting daily runoff by top-kriging interpolation in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parajka Juraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct interpolation of daily runoff observations to ungauged sites is an alternative to hydrological model regionalisation. Such estimation is particularly important in small headwater basins characterized by sparse hydrological and climate observations, but often large spatial variability. The main objective of this study is to evaluate predictive accuracy of top-kriging interpolation driven by different number of stations (i.e. station densities in an input dataset. The idea is to interpolate daily runoff for different station densities in Austria and to evaluate the minimum number of stations needed for accurate runoff predictions. Top-kriging efficiency is tested for ten different random samples in ten different stations densities. The predictive accuracy is evaluated by ordinary cross-validation and full-sample crossvalidations. The methodology is tested by using 555 gauges with daily observations in the period 1987-1997. The results of the cross-validation indicate that, in Austria, top-kriging interpolation is superior to hydrological model regionalisation if station density exceeds approximately 2 stations per 1000 km2 (175 stations in Austria. The average median of Nash-Sutcliffe cross-validation efficiency is larger than 0.7 for densities above 2.4 stations/1000 km2. For such densities, the variability of runoff efficiency is very small over ten random samples. Lower runoff efficiency is found for low station densities (less than 1 station/1000 km2 and in some smaller headwater basins.

  4. Exergaming to increase the exercise capacity and daily physical activity in heart failure patients: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Klompstra, Leonie; Jaarsma, Tiny; Strömberg, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular daily physical activity is recognised as important in heart failure (HF) patients, but adherence to physical activity is low (<50%). To improve adherence to exercise in HF patients, alternative approaches to motivate and increase self-efficacy to exercise are needed. Therefore, we have studied a new phenomenon: exergames (games to improve physical exercise). The aims of the study were to assess the influence of the exergame platform Nintendo Wii on exercise capacity and ...

  5. Contribution of daily and seasonal biorhythms to obesity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sato, Maki; Witowski, Janusz

    2015-04-01

    While the significance of obesity as a serious health problem is well recognized, little is known about whether and how biometerological factors and biorhythms causally contribute to obesity. Obesity is often associated with altered seasonal and daily rhythmicity in food intake, metabolism and adipose tissue function. Environmental stimuli affect both seasonal and daily rhythms, and the latter are under additional control of internal molecular oscillators, or body clocks. Modifications of clock genes in animals and changes to normal daily rhythms in humans (as in shift work and sleep deprivation) result in metabolic dysregulation that favours weight gain. Here, we briefly review the potential links between biorhythms and obesity in humans.

  6. [Daily recovery and well-being: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Sanz Vergel, Ana Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this article is to provide a literature review on daily recovery and its effects on well-being. Specifically, we will discuss theories that help us understand the process of recovery and we will clarify how recovery and its potential outcomes have been conceptualized so far. Subsequently, we present empirical findings of diary studies addressing the activities that may facilitate or hinder daily recovery. We conclude with an overall framework from which recovery can be understood, claiming that daily recovery is an important moderator in the buffering process of the negative effects of job demands. PMID:22269367

  7. Optimal fluid intake in daily diet: Avicenna's view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Tafazoli, Vahid; Daneshfard, Babak; Zare, Manijhe

    2016-07-01

    Adequate daily water consumption is an important factor of keeping regular homeostasis. However, the best quantity of daily water consumption for a healthy individual is not virtually stated in the literature. Despite the dearth of evidence-based recommendations, it is commonly thought that ingesting eight glasses of water a day is good for a healthy person. Avicenna had a unique viewpoint. He believed that daily water intake depended on numerous elements together with age, intercourse, body temperament, season, occupation and various internal and external elements. He also cited a few essential and useful measures regarding proper water consumption, which have additionally been emphasized in Islamic hadiths. PMID:27417170

  8. Daily Needs, Income Targets and Labor Supply: Evidence from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Pascaline Dupas; Jonathan Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that daily income earners behave as if they have daily income targets. Less work has examined the determinants of the targets themselves. Using data on labor supply, shocks, and self-reported cash needs from 257 bicycle taxi drivers in Western Kenya, we provide evidence that many individuals treat their daily cash need as the day's target. We conjecture that in a physically demanding job, workers may have an incentive to quit early and so set a personal rule of "earning e...

  9. Time series ARIMA models for daily price of palm oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariff, Noratiqah Mohd; Zamhawari, Nor Hashimah; Bakar, Mohd Aftar Abu

    2015-02-01

    Palm oil is deemed as one of the most important commodity that forms the economic backbone of Malaysia. Modeling and forecasting the daily price of palm oil is of great interest for Malaysia's economic growth. In this study, time series ARIMA models are used to fit the daily price of palm oil. The Akaike Infromation Criterion (AIC), Akaike Infromation Criterion with a correction for finite sample sizes (AICc) and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used to compare between different ARIMA models being considered. It is found that ARIMA(1,2,1) model is suitable for daily price of crude palm oil in Malaysia for the year 2010 to 2012.

  10. Fluticasone furoate: once-daily evening treatment versus twice-daily treatment in moderate asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodcock Ashley

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled corticosteroids are the recommended first-line treatment for asthma but adherence to therapy is suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of once-daily (OD evening and twice-daily (BD regimens of the novel inhaled corticosteroid fluticasone furoate (FF in asthma patients. Methods Patients with moderate asthma (age ≥ 12 years; pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 40-85% predicted; FEV1 reversibility of ≥ 12% and ≥ 200 ml were randomized to FF or fluticasone propionate (FP regimens in a double-blind, crossover study. Patients were not permitted to have used any ICS for ≥ 8 weeks prior to enrolment and subsequently received doses of FF or FP 200 μg OD, FF or FP 100 μg BD and matching placebo by inhalation for 28 days each. Primary endpoint was Day 28 evening pre-dose (trough FEV1; non-inferiority of FF 200 μg OD and FF 100 μg BD was assessed, as was superiority of all active treatment relative to placebo. Adverse events (AEs and 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion were assessed. Results The intent-to-treat population comprised 147 (FF and 43 (FP patients. On Day 28, pre-dose FEV1 showed FF 200 μg OD to be non-inferior (pre-defined limit -110 ml to FF 100 μg BD (mean treatment difference 11 ml; 95% CI: -35 to +56 ml; all FF and FP regimens were significantly superior to placebo (p ≤ 0.02. AEs were similar to placebo; no serious AEs were reported. Urinary cortisol excretion at Day 28 for FF was lower than placebo (ratios: 200 μg OD, 0.75; 100 μg BD, 0.84; p ≤ 0.02. Conclusions FF 200 μg OD in the evening is an efficacious and well tolerated treatment for asthma patients and is not inferior to the same total BD dose. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00766090.

  11. Comparison of once daily versus twice daily olmesartan in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yukinao Sakai,1 Anna Suzuki,1 Koji Mugishima,1 Yuichiro Sumi,1 Yusuke Otsuka,1 Tomoyuki Otsuka,1 Dai Ohno,1 Tsuneo Murasawa,1 Shuichi Tsuruoka21Department of Nephrology, Nippon Medical School Musashikosugi Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan; 2Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The effects of olmesartan (OLM on blood pressure and kidney function in Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD were compared between 20 mg twice daily (BID and 40 mg once daily (QD treatments.Methods: The subjects were Japanese CKD patients with concurrent hypertension who had been treated with OLM 20 mg BID for at least 3 months on an outpatient basis (n=39. After a change in the treatment regimen to 40 mg OLM QD (after breakfast, blood pressure (BP (n=39, morning home BP (n=13, estimated glomerular filtration rate (n=39, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (n=17 were monitored for 2 months.Results: No significant change in office (mean ± standard deviation [SD] [mmHg], 143.9 ± 18.8/75.7 ± 12.0 to 141.6 ± 16.1/74.7 ± 11.7, not significant [ns] or early morning home (mean ± SD [mmHg], 133.8 ± 15.9/71.2 ± 11.5 to 133.8 ± 13.9/74.5 ± 10.5, ns BP was observed 2 months after the change in dose. The estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly (mean ± SD, 49.0 ± 28.0 to 51.8 ± 27.0, P<0.05, whereas urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio did not change significantly (mean ± SD, 0.551 ± 0.445 to 0.364 ± 0.5194, ns.Conclusion: High-dose OLM administered BID and QD had similar effects on outpatient and early morning home BP in CKD patients, suggesting that the BID regimen can be safely changed to a QD regimen. For CKD patients with hypertension requiring continuous long-term treatment, the possibility that the QD regimen might bring a greater therapeutic effect was suggested. However, recognizing the best blood pressure control level for a CKD

  12. Adaptive Alternating Minimization Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Niesen, Urs; Wornell, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    The classical alternating minimization (or projection) algorithm has been successful in the context of solving optimization problems over two variables or equivalently of finding a point in the intersection of two sets. The iterative nature and simplicity of the algorithm has led to its application to many areas such as signal processing, information theory, control, and finance. A general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the algorithm is quite well-known when the underlying problem parameters are fixed. In many practical situations, however, the underlying problem parameters are changing over time, and the use of an adaptive algorithm is more appropriate. In this paper, we study such an adaptive version of the alternating minimization algorithm. As a main result of this paper, we provide a general set of sufficient conditions for the convergence and correctness of the adaptive algorithm. Perhaps surprisingly, these conditions seem to be the minimal ones one would expect in ...

  13. [Alternatives to animal testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Isabelle

    2009-11-01

    The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

  14. Alternatives to Higgs scalars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss alternatives to the Higgs Scalar doublet Φ of the minimal standard model. In particular we review technicolor (TC) and extended technicolor (ETC), and show that the threat of flavour changing neutral currents (FCNC's) is avoided by walking TC and/or strongly coupled ETC. The phenomenology of minimal TC and the techni-family is discussed. Finally we consider the possibility that the Higgs doublet Φ is a composite bound state of quarks from the third (or fourth) family

  15. Alternatives to ECMO.

    OpenAIRE

    Donn, S M

    1994-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed technological advancements which are unparalleled in neonatology. ECMO has been demonstrated to be a powerful rescue treatment, but has perhaps been overutilised and is not universally available. Alternative treatments have been shown to be both safe and efficacious in the management of infants with respiratory failure. Direct head to head clinical trials will probably be necessary to establish appropriate criteria and indications for use, given the wide diversit...

  16. Alternative approaches in IVF

    OpenAIRE

    Fauser, Bart; Bouchard, P.; Coelingh Bennink, H.J.; Collins, John; Devroey, P.; Evers, Johannes; Van Steirteghem, A

    2002-01-01

    textabstractVarious new developments in clinical and basic science which may impact on IVF in the near or distant future will be discussed in this review. These key areas include the regulation of early follicle development and the extended in-vitro culture of oocytes and embryos. Moreover, alternative compounds and ovarian stimulation protocols will be discussed, along with highlights in the development of the cryopreservation of excess oocytes or embryos. Finally, the health economics of IV...

  17. Metamaterials critique and alternatives

    CERN Document Server

    Munk, Ben A

    2009-01-01

    A Convincing and Controversial Alternative Explanation of Metamaterials with a Negative Index of Refraction In a book that will generate both support and controversy, one of the world's foremost authorities on periodic structures addresses several of the current fashions in antenna design-most specifically, the popular subject of double negative metamaterials. Professor Munk provides a comprehensive theoretical electromagnetic investigation of the issues and concludes that many of the phenomena claimed by researchers may be impossible. While denying the existence of negative refractio

  18. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols

  20. Endophytes: A Treasure House of Bioactive Compounds of Medicinal Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouda, Sushanto; Das, Gitishree; Sen, Sandeep K.; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use. PMID:27746767