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Sample records for bioactivated microfluidic channels

  1. Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.

    2011-01-01

    General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…

  2. A Microfluidic Approach for Studying Piezo Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneshi, M M; Gottlieb, P A; Hua, S Z

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics is an interdisciplinary field intersecting many areas in engineering. Utilizing a combination of physics, chemistry, biology, and biotechnology, along with practical applications for designing devices that use low volumes of fluids to achieve high-throughput screening, is a major goal in microfluidics. Microfluidic approaches allow the study of cells growth and differentiation using a variety of conditions including control of fluid flow that generates shear stress. Recently, Piezo1 channels were shown to respond to fluid shear stress and are crucial for vascular development. This channel is ideal for studying fluid shear stress applied to cells using microfluidic devices. We have developed an approach that allows us to analyze the role of Piezo channels on any given cell and serves as a high-throughput screen for drug discovery. We show that this approach can provide detailed information about the inhibitors of Piezo channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of Bioactive Microcapsules Using a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Soo Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive microcapsules containing Bacillus thuringiensis (BT spores were generated by a combination of a hydro gel, microfluidic device and chemical polymerization method. As a proof-of-principle, we used BT spores displaying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP on the spore surface to spatially direct the EGFP-presenting spores within microcapsules. BT spore-encapsulated microdroplets of uniform size and shape are prepared through a flow-focusing method in a microfluidic device and converted into microcapsules through hydrogel polymerization. The size of microdroplets can be controlled by changing both the dispersion and continuous flow rate. Poly(N-isoproplyacrylamide (PNIPAM, known as a hydrogel material, was employed as a biocompatible material for the encapsulation of BT spores and long-term storage and outstanding stability. Due to these unique properties of PNIPAM, the nutrients from Luria-Bertani complex medium diffused into the microcapsules and the microencapsulated spores germinated into vegetative cells under adequate environmental conditions. These results suggest that there is no limitation of transferring low-molecular-weight-substrates through the PNIPAM structures, and the viability of microencapsulated spores was confirmed by the culture of vegetative cells after the germinations. This microfluidic-based microencapsulation methodology provides a unique way of synthesizing bioactive microcapsules in a one-step process. This microfluidic-based strategy would be potentially suitable to produce microcapsules of various microbial spores for on-site biosensor analysis.

  4. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  5. Capture of DNA in microfluidic channel using magnetic beads: increasing capture efficiency with integrated microfluidic mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Olesen, Torsten; Dufva, Hans Martin; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    We have studied the hybridization of target DNA in solution with probe DNA on magnetic beads immobilized on the channel sidewalls in a magnetic bead separator. The hybridization is carried out under a liquid flow and is diffusion limited. Two systems are compared: one with a straight microfluidic...... place on the surface in a microfluidic system....

  6. Microfluidic CODES: a scalable multiplexed electronic sensor for orthogonal detection of particles in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruxiu; Wang, Ningquan; Kamili, Farhan; Sarioglu, A Fatih

    2016-04-21

    Numerous biophysical and biochemical assays rely on spatial manipulation of particles/cells as they are processed on lab-on-a-chip devices. Analysis of spatially distributed particles on these devices typically requires microscopy negating the cost and size advantages of microfluidic assays. In this paper, we introduce a scalable electronic sensor technology, called microfluidic CODES, that utilizes resistive pulse sensing to orthogonally detect particles in multiple microfluidic channels from a single electrical output. Combining the techniques from telecommunications and microfluidics, we route three coplanar electrodes on a glass substrate to create multiple Coulter counters producing distinct orthogonal digital codes when they detect particles. We specifically design a digital code set using the mathematical principles of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) telecommunication networks and can decode signals from different microfluidic channels with >90% accuracy through computation even if these signals overlap. As a proof of principle, we use this technology to detect human ovarian cancer cells in four different microfluidic channels fabricated using soft lithography. Microfluidic CODES offers a simple, all-electronic interface that is well suited to create integrated, low-cost lab-on-a-chip devices for cell- or particle-based assays in resource-limited settings.

  7. Connecting and disconnecting nematic disclination lines in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Hakam; Bahr, Christian

    2016-05-14

    Disclination lines in nematic liquid crystals can be used as "soft rails" for the transport of colloids or droplets through microfluidic channels [A. Sengupta, C. Bahr and S. Herminghaus, Soft Matter, 2013, 9, 7251]. In the present study we report on a method to connect and disconnect disclination lines in microfluidic channels using the interplay between anchoring, flow, and electric field. We show that the application of an electric field establishes a continuous disclination that spans across a channel region in which a disclination usually would not exist (because of different anchoring conditions), demonstrating an interruptible and reconnectable soft rail for colloidal transport.

  8. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykä ri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä , R.

    2010-01-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  9. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Czajkowski, J.

    2010-06-25

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  10. Evaluation of microfluidic channels with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, J.; Prykäri, T.; Alarousu, E.; Lauri, J.; Myllylä, R.

    2010-11-01

    Application of time domain, ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in evaluation of microfluidic channels is demonstrated. Presented study was done using experimental UHR-OCT device based on a Kerr-lens mode locked Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser, a photonic crystal fibre and modified, free-space Michelson interferometer. To show potential of the technique, microfluidic chip fabricated by VTT Center for Printed Intelligence (Oulu, Finland) was measured. Ability for full volumetric reconstruction in non-contact manner enabled complete characterization of closed entity of a microfluidic channel without contamination and harm for the sample. Measurement, occurring problems, and methods of postprocessing for raw data are described. Results present completely resolved physical structure of the channel, its spatial dimensions, draft angles and evaluation of lamination quality.

  11. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabrication of the often needed microfluidic channels, have limitations in terms of their physicochemical properties. Therefore, the use of a multipurpose biocompatible material with better resistance to the chemical, thermal and electrical environment, along with capability of forming closed channel microfluidics is inevitable. This paper demonstrates a novel technique of fabricating microfluidic devices using polyimide (PI) which fulfills the aforementioned properties criteria. A fabrication process to pattern microfluidic channels, using partially cured PI, has been developed by using a dry etching method. The etching parameters are optimized and compared to those used for fully cured PI. Moreover, the formation of closed microfluidic channel on wafer level by bonding two partially cured PI layers or a partially cured PI to glass with high bond strength has been demonstrated. The reproducibility in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics.

  12. Slopes To Prevent Trapping of Bubbles in Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Harold E.; Lee, Michael C.; Smith, J. Anthony; Willis, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    The idea of designing a microfluidic channel to slope upward along the direction of flow of the liquid in the channel has been conceived to help prevent trapping of gas bubbles in the channel. In the original application that gave rise to this idea, the microfluidic channels are parts of micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. It is necessary to prevent trapping of gas bubbles in these devices because uninterrupted liquid pathways are essential for sustaining the electrical conduction and flows that are essential for CE. The idea is also applicable to microfluidic devices that may be developed for similar terrestrial microCE biotechnological applications or other terrestrial applications in which trapping of bubbles in microfluidic channels cannot be tolerated. A typical microCE device in the original application includes, among other things, multiple layers of borosilicate float glass wafers. Microfluidic channels are formed in the wafers, typically by use of wet chemical etching. The figure presents a simplified cross section of part of such a device in which the CE channel is formed in the lowermost wafer (denoted the channel wafer) and, according to the present innovation, slopes upward into a via hole in another wafer (denoted the manifold wafer) lying immediately above the channel wafer. Another feature of the present innovation is that the via hole in the manifold wafer is made to taper to a wider opening at the top to further reduce the tendency to trap bubbles. At the time of reporting the information for this article, an effort to identify an optimum technique for forming the slope and the taper was in progress. Of the techniques considered thus far, the one considered to be most promising is precision milling by use of femtosecond laser pulses. Other similar techniques that may work equally well are precision milling using a focused ion beam, or a small diamond

  13. Towards a programmable magnetic bead microarray in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian; Bruus, Henrik; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt

    2007-01-01

    to use larger currents and obtain forces of longer range than from thin current lines at a given power limit. Guiding of magnetic beads in the hybrid magnetic separator and the construction of a programmable microarray of magnetic beads in the microfluidic channel by hydrodynamic focusing is presented....

  14. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  15. Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in Tertiary Junction Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    mechanics point-of-view, the larger motivation to carry out this research work derives from its application in biomedical engineering for sorting CTCs...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0055 Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in Tertiary Junction Microfluidic Channels Shalini Gupta INDIAN INSTITUTE OF...2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 May 2015 to 13 Nov 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in

  16. Integrated microchip incorporating atomic magnetometer and microfluidic channel for NMR and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Micah P [Oakland, CA; Savukov, Igor M [Los Alamos, NM; Budker, Dmitry [El Cerrito, CA; Shah, Vishal K [Plainsboro, NJ; Knappe, Svenja [Boulder, CO; Kitching, John [Boulder, CO; Michalak, David J [Berkeley, CA; Xu, Shoujun [Houston, TX; Pines, Alexander [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-09

    An integral microfluidic device includes an alkali vapor cell and microfluidic channel, which can be used to detect magnetism for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Small magnetic fields in the vicinity of the vapor cell can be measured by optically polarizing and probing the spin precession in the small magnetic field. This can then be used to detect the magnetic field of in encoded analyte in the adjacent microfluidic channel. The magnetism in the microfluidic channel can be modulated by applying an appropriate series of radio or audio frequency pulses upstream from the microfluidic chip (the remote detection modality) to yield a sensitive means of detecting NMR and MRI.

  17. Simple approach to study biomolecule adsorption in polymeric microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubala, Vladimir; Siegrist, Jonathan; Monaghan, Ruairi; O’Reilly, Brian; Gandhiraman, Ram Prasad; Daniels, Stephen; Williams, David E.; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple tool to assess biomolecule adsorption onto the surfaces of microchannels. ► Development for dilution by surface-adsorption based depletion of protein samples. ► It can easily be done using a readily available apparatus like a spin-coater. ► The assessment tool is facile and quantitative. ► Straightforward comparison of different surface chemistries. - Abstract: Herein a simple analytical method is presented for the characterization of biomolecule adsorption on cyclo olefin polymer (COP, trade name: Zeonor ® ) substrates which are widely used in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. These Zeonor ® substrates do not possess native functional groups for specific reactions with biomolecules. Therefore, depending on the application, such substrates must be functionalized by surface chemistry methods to either enhance or suppress biomolecular adsorption. This work demonstrates a microfluidic method for evaluating the adsorption of antibodies and oligonucleotides surfaces. The method uses centrifugal microfluidic flow-through chips and can easily be implemented using common equipment such as a spin coater. The working principle is very simple. The user adds 40 L of the solution containing the sample to the starting side of a microfluidic channel, where it is moved through by centrifugal force. Some molecules are adsorbed in the channel. The sample is then collected at the other end in a small reservoir and the biomolecule concentration is measured. As a pilot application, we characterized the adsorption of goat anti-human IgG and a 20-mer DNA on Zeonor ® , and on three types of functionalized Zeonor: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified surface with mainly positive charge, negatively charged surface with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), and neutral, hydrogel-like film with polyethylene glycol (PEG) characteristics. This simple analytical approach adds to the fundamental understanding of the interaction forces in real

  18. Simple approach to study biomolecule adsorption in polymeric microfluidic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubala, Vladimir, E-mail: V.Gubala@kent.ac.uk [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent, Central Avenue, Anson 120, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom); Siegrist, Jonathan; Monaghan, Ruairi; O' Reilly, Brian; Gandhiraman, Ram Prasad [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Daniels, Stephen [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Williams, David E. [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Ducree, Jens [Biomedical Diagnostics Institute (BDI), National Centre for Sensor Research (NCSR), Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2013-01-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple tool to assess biomolecule adsorption onto the surfaces of microchannels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Development for dilution by surface-adsorption based depletion of protein samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It can easily be done using a readily available apparatus like a spin-coater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment tool is facile and quantitative. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Straightforward comparison of different surface chemistries. - Abstract: Herein a simple analytical method is presented for the characterization of biomolecule adsorption on cyclo olefin polymer (COP, trade name: Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign }) substrates which are widely used in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. These Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign} substrates do not possess native functional groups for specific reactions with biomolecules. Therefore, depending on the application, such substrates must be functionalized by surface chemistry methods to either enhance or suppress biomolecular adsorption. This work demonstrates a microfluidic method for evaluating the adsorption of antibodies and oligonucleotides surfaces. The method uses centrifugal microfluidic flow-through chips and can easily be implemented using common equipment such as a spin coater. The working principle is very simple. The user adds 40 L of the solution containing the sample to the starting side of a microfluidic channel, where it is moved through by centrifugal force. Some molecules are adsorbed in the channel. The sample is then collected at the other end in a small reservoir and the biomolecule concentration is measured. As a pilot application, we characterized the adsorption of goat anti-human IgG and a 20-mer DNA on Zeonor{sup Registered-Sign }, and on three types of functionalized Zeonor: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified surface with mainly positive charge, negatively charged surface with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), and

  19. Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S; Takayama, Shuichi

    2004-11-09

    Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use.

  20. Anisotropic transport of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris in microfluidic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Nur Izzati; Muniandy, S V; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Ng, Fong-Lee; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we study the regional dependence of transport behavior of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris inside microfluidic channel on applied fluid flow rate. The microalgae are treated as spherical naturally buoyant particles. Deviation from the normal diffusion or Brownian transport is characterized based on the scaling behavior of the mean square displacement (MSD) of the particle trajectories by resolving the displacements in the streamwise (flow) and perpendicular directions. The channel is divided into three different flow regions, namely center region of the channel and two near-wall boundaries and the particle motions are analyzed at different flow rates. We use the scaled Brownian motion to model the transitional characteristics in the scaling behavior of the MSDs. We find that there exist anisotropic anomalous transports in all the three flow regions with mixed sub-diffusive, normal and super-diffusive behavior in both longitudinal and transverse directions. (paper)

  1. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cran-McGreehin, Simon J.; Dholakia, Kishan; Krauss, Thomas F.

    2006-08-01

    We present a fabrication method for the monolithic integration of microfluidic channels into semiconductor laser material. Lasers are designed to couple directly into the microfluidic channel, allowing submerged particles pass through the output beams of the lasers. The interaction between particles in the channel and the lasers, operated in either forward or reverse bias, allows for particle detection, and the optical forces can be used to trap and move particles. Both interrogation and manipulation are made more amenable for lab-on-a-chip applications through monolithic integration. The devices are very small, they require no external optical components, have perfect intrinsic alignment, and can be created with virtually any planar configuration of lasers in order to perform a variety of tasks. Their operation requires no optical expertise and only low electrical power, thus making them suitable for computer interfacing and automation. Insulating the pn junctions from the fluid is the key challenge, which is overcome by using photo-definable SU8-2000 polymer.

  2. Shannon Meets Fick on the Microfluidic Channel: Diffusion Limit to Sum Broadcast Capacity for Molecular Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, A Ozan; Lehtomaki, Janne J; Akyildiz, Ian F

    2018-03-01

    Molecular communication (MC) over a microfluidic channel with flow is investigated based on Shannon's channel capacity theorem and Fick's laws of diffusion. Specifically, the sum capacity for MC between a single transmitter and multiple receivers (broadcast MC) is studied. The transmitter communicates by using different types of signaling molecules with each receiver over the microfluidic channel. The transmitted molecules propagate through microfluidic channel until reaching the corresponding receiver. Although the use of different types of molecules provides orthogonal signaling, the sum broadcast capacity may not scale with the number of the receivers due to physics of the propagation (interplay between convection and diffusion based on distance). In this paper, the performance of broadcast MC on a microfluidic chip is characterized by studying the physical geometry of the microfluidic channel and leveraging the information theory. The convergence of the sum capacity for microfluidic broadcast channel is analytically investigated based on the physical system parameters with respect to the increasing number of molecular receivers. The analysis presented here can be useful to predict the achievable information rate in microfluidic interconnects for the biochemical computation and microfluidic multi-sample assays.

  3. Inertial manipulation of bubbles in rectangular microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadikhani, Pooria; Hashemi, S Mohammad H; Balestra, Gioele; Zhu, Lailai; Modestino, Miguel A; Gallaire, François; Psaltis, Demetri

    2018-03-27

    Inertial microfluidics is an active field of research that deals with crossflow positioning of the suspended entities in microflows. Until now, the majority of the studies have focused on the behavior of rigid particles in order to provide guidelines for microfluidic applications such as sorting and filtering. Deformable entities such as bubbles and droplets are considered in fewer studies despite their importance in multiphase microflows. In this paper, we show that the trajectory of bubbles flowing in rectangular and square microchannels can be controlled by tuning the balance of forces acting on them. A T-junction geometry is employed to introduce bubbles into a microchannel and analyze their lateral equilibrium position in a range of Reynolds (1 < Re < 40) and capillary numbers (0.1 < Ca < 1). We find that the Reynolds number (Re), the capillary number (Ca), the diameter of the bubble (D[combining macron]), and the aspect ratio of the channel are the influential parameters in this phenomenon. For instance, at high Re, the flow pushes the bubble towards the wall while large Ca or D[combining macron] moves the bubble towards the center. Moreover, in the shallow channels, having aspect ratios higher than one, the bubble moves towards the narrower sidewalls. One important outcome of this study is that the equilibrium position of bubbles in rectangular channels is different from that of solid particles. The experimental observations are in good agreement with the performed numerical simulations and provide insights into the dynamics of bubbles in laminar flows which can be utilized in the design of flow based multiphase flow reactors.

  4. Microfluidic mixing in a Y-junction open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Nee Tan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the laminar regimes typical of microfluidic systems’, mixing is governed by molecular diffusion; however this process is slow in nature. Consequently, passive or active methods are usually sought for effective mixing. In this work, open fluidic channels will be investigated; these channels are bounded on all but one face by an air/fluid interface. Firstly, it will be shown that flow in open channels can merge at a Y-junction in a stable manner; hence two fluids can be brought into contact with each other. Secondly, the mixing of these two fluids will be studied. At high flow rates (>300 μl/min mixing occurs at the junction without need for additional intervention, this mixing is far swifter than can be expected from molecular diffusion. At lower flow rates, intervention is required. A major motivation for open fluidic channels is the ability to interact with the surrounding air environment; this feature is used to effect the desired mixing. It is shown that by blowing an air jet across the junction, shear stresses at the air/fluid interface causes a flow profile within the fluid inductive to rapid mixing of the fluids.

  5. Dynamics of ceramide channels detected using a microfluidic system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenren Shao

    Full Text Available Ceramide, a proapoptotic sphingolipid, has been shown to form channels, in mitochondrial outer membranes, large enough to translocate proteins. In phospholipid membranes, electrophysiological studies and electron microscopic visualization both report that these channels form in a range of sizes with a modal value of 10 nm in diameter. A hydrogen bonded barrel-like structure consisting of hundreds of ceramide molecules has been proposed for the structure of the channel and this is supported by electrophysiological studies and molecular dynamic simulations. To our knowledge, the mechanical strength and deformability of such a large diameter but extremely thin cylindrical structure has never been reported. Here we present evidence for a reversible mechanical distortion of the cylinder following the addition of La(3+. A microfluidic system was used to repeatedly lower and then restore the conductance by alternatively perfusing La(3+ and EDTA. Although aspects of the kinetics of conductance drop and recovery are consistent with a disassembly/diffusion/reassembly model, others are inconsistent with the expected time scale of lateral diffusion of disassembled channel fragments in the membrane. The presence of a residual conductance following La(3+ treatment and the relationship between the residual conductance and the initial conductance were both indicative of a distortion/recovery process in analogy with a pressure-induced distortion of a flexible cylinder.

  6. Salmonella detection in a microfluidic channel using orbiting magnetic beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Matt; Mills, Zachary; Owen, Drew; Hanasoge, Srinivas; Hesketh, Peter; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    We use three-dimensional simulations to model the detection of salmonella in a complex fluid sample in a microfluidic channel. Salmonella is captured using magnetic microbeads orbiting around soft ferromagnetic discs at the microchannel bottom subjected to a rotating external magnetic field. Numerical simulations are used to model the dynamics of salmonella and microbeads throughout the detection process. We examine the effect of the channel geometry on the salmonella capture, and the forces applied to the salmonella as it is dragged through the fluid after capture. Our findings guide the design of a lab-on-a-chip device to be used for detection of salmonella in food samples in a way that ensures that salmonella captured by orbiting microbeads are preserved until they can be extracted from the system for testing, and are not washed away by the fluid flow or damaged due to the experience of excessive stresses. Such a device is needed to detect bacteria at the food source and prevention of consumption of contaminated food, and also can be used for the detection of a variety of biomaterials of interest from complex fluid samples. Support from USDA and NSF is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. A versatile technology platform for microfluidic handling systems, part II : channel design and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenesteijn, Jarno; de Boer, Meint J.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidic devices often require channels of a specific size and shape. These devices are then made in a fabrication process that is often specialized to produce only those (and very similar) channels. As a result, devices requiring channels of different size and shape cannot easily be integrated

  8. Controllable Ag nanostructure patterning in a microfluidic channel for real-time SERS systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Juyoung; Kang, Hyun Wook; Ko, Seung Hwan; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2014-03-07

    We present a microfluidic patterning system for fabricating nanostructured Ag thin films via a polyol method. The fabricated Ag thin films can be used immediately in a real-time SERS sensing system. The Ag thin films are formed on the inner surfaces of a microfluidic channel so that a Ag-patterned Si wafer and a Ag-patterned PDMS channel are produced by the fabrication. The optimum sensing region and fabrication duration for effective SERS detection were determined. As SERS active substrates, the patterned Ag thin films exhibit an enhancement factor (EF) of 4.25 × 10(10). The Ag-patterned polymer channel was attached to a glass substrate and used as a microfluidic sensing system for the real-time monitoring of biomolecule concentrations. This microfluidic patterning system provides a low-cost process for the fabrication of materials that are useful in medical and pharmaceutical detection and can be employed in mass production.

  9. Motion of an elastic capsule in a square microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriakose, S; Dimitrakopoulos, P

    2011-07-01

    In the present study we investigate computationally the steady-state motion of an elastic capsule along the centerline of a square microfluidic channel and compare it with that in a cylindrical tube. In particular, we consider a slightly over-inflated elastic capsule made of a strain-hardening membrane with comparable shearing and area-dilatation resistance. Under the conditions studied in this paper (i.e., small, moderate, and large capsules at low and moderate flow rates), the capsule motion in a square channel is similar to and thus governed by the same scaling laws with the capsule motion in a cylindrical tube, even though in the channel the cross section in the upstream portion of large capsules is nonaxisymmetric (i.e., square-like with rounded corners). When the hydrodynamic forces on the membrane increase, the capsule develops a pointed downstream edge and a flattened rear (possibly with a negative curvature) so that the restoring tension forces are increased as also happens with droplets. Membrane tensions increase significantly with the capsule size while the area near the downstream tip is the most probable to rupture when a capsule flows in a microchannel. Because the membrane tensions increase with the interfacial deformation, a suitable Landau-Levich-Derjaguin-Bretherton analysis reveals that the lubrication film thickness h for large capsules depends on both the capillary number Ca and the capsule size a; our computations determine the latter dependence to be (in dimensionless form) h ~ a(-2) for the large capsules studied in this work. For small and moderate capsule sizes a, the capsule velocity Ux and additional pressure drop ΔP+ are governed by the same scaling laws as for high-viscosity droplets. The velocity and additional pressure drop of large thick capsules also follow the dynamics of high-viscosity droplets, and are affected by the lubrication film thickness. The motion of our large thick capsules is characterized by a Ux-U ~ h ~ a(-2

  10. Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Peter; Hoppe, Karsten; Leistiko, Otto

    2001-01-01

    -back technique are possible, but troublesome. We present a simple but efficient alternative: By means of changing the waveguide layout, bonding pads are formed along the microfluidic channels. With the same height as the waveguide, they effectively prevent leakage and hermetically seal the channels during...

  11. Two-ply channels for faster wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camplisson, Conor K; Schilling, Kevin M; Pedrotti, William L; Stone, Howard A; Martinez, Andres W

    2015-12-07

    This article describes the development of porous two-ply channels for paper-based microfluidic devices that wick fluids significantly faster than conventional, porous, single-ply channels. The two-ply channels were made by stacking two single-ply channels on top of each other and were fabricated entirely out of paper, wax and toner using two commercially available printers, a convection oven and a thermal laminator. The wicking in paper-based channels was studied and modeled using a modified Lucas-Washburn equation to account for the effect of evaporation, and a paper-based titration device incorporating two-ply channels was demonstrated.

  12. Control of the ZnO nanowires nucleation site using microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Lee, Hyun Jung; Oh, Dongcheol; Lee, Seog Woo; Goto, Hiroki; Buckmaster, Ryan; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Matsue, Tomokazu; Hong, Soon-Ku; Ko, HyunChul; Cho, Meoung-Whan; Yao, Takafumi

    2006-03-09

    We report on the growth of uniquely shaped ZnO nanowires with high surface area and patterned over large areas by using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channel technique. The synthesis uses first a patterned seed template fabricated by zinc acetate solution flowing though a microfluidic channel and then growth of ZnO nanowire at the seed using thermal chemical vapor deposition on a silicon substrate. Variations the ZnO nanowire by seed pattern formed within the microfluidic channel were also observed for different substrates and concentrations of the zinc acetate solution. The photocurrent properties of the patterned ZnO nanowires with high surface area, due to their unique shape, were also investigated. These specialized shapes and patterning technique increase the possibility of realizing one-dimensional nanostructure devices such as sensors and optoelectric devices.

  13. Transient sensing of liquid films in microfluidic channels with optofluidic microresonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grad, M; Attinger, D; Tsai, C C; Wong, C W; Yu, M; Kwong, D-L

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that optical ring resonators can be used as time-resolved refractive index sensors embedded in microfluidic channels. The nanophotonic structures are integrated into soft silicone microchannels interfaced with a transparent hard polymer manifold and standard microfluidic connections. The steady-state sensitivity, resolution and detection limit of the sensors are characterized using aqueous saline solutions at various concentrations. Time-resolved measurements are performed by sensing thin liquid films (0–400 nm) associated with oil/water segmented flow in microfluidic channels. The influence of the interrogation wavelength is investigated, and the optimal wavelength is determined. Millisecond resolution is demonstrated by sensing the shape of a single drop as it flows past the sensor. Finally, the film thickness between the droplet and the resonator is measured for different capillary numbers and channel diameters, and compared with existing theoretical and experimental results

  14. Metal-coated microfluidic channels: An approach to eliminate streaming potential effects in nano biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Wipf, Mathias; Mu, Luye; Adams, Chris; Hannant, Jennifer; Reed, Mark A

    2017-01-15

    We report a method to suppress streaming potential using an Ag-coated microfluidic channel on a p-type silicon nanowire (SiNW) array measured by a multiplexed electrical readout. The metal layer sets a constant electrical potential along the microfluidic channel for a given reference electrode voltage regardless of the flow velocity. Without the Ag layer, the magnitude and sign of the surface potential change on the SiNW depends on the flow velocity, width of the microfluidic channel and the device's location inside the microfluidic channel with respect to the reference electrode. Noise analysis of the SiNW array with and without the Ag coating in the fluidic channel shows that noise frequency peaks, resulting from the operation of a piezoelectric micropump, are eliminated using the Ag layer with two reference electrodes located at inlet and outlet. This strategy presents a simple platform to eliminate the streaming potential and can become a powerful tool for nanoscale potentiometric biosensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Refractive index sensor based on a 1D photonic crystal in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2010-01-01

    A refractive index sensor has been fabricated in silicon oxynitride by standard UV lithography and dry etching processes. The refractive index sensor consists of a 1D photonic crystal (PhC) embedded in a microfluidic channel addressed by fiber-terminated planar waveguides. Experimental...

  16. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yahui; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T; Yu, Yin

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. (paper)

  17. Osmosis and pervaporation in polyimide submicron microfluidic channel structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Osmosis and pervaporation of water through the roof of all-polyimide channels of 500 nm height is described. The phenomena cause both a liquid flow in the channels and a concentration change of dissolved salt. Both effects are amplified due to the thin channel roof and the small channel height.

  18. Application of Vertical Electrodes in Microfluidic Channels for Impedance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a microfluidic device with electroplated vertical electrodes in the side walls for impedance measurement. Based on the proposed device, the impedance of NaCl solutions with different concentrations and polystyrene microspheres with different sizes was measured and analyzed. The electroplating and SU-8-PDMS (SU-8-poly(dimethylsiloxane bonding technologies were firstly integrated for the fabrication of the proposed microfluidic device, resulting in a tightly three-dimensional structure for practical application. The magnitude of impedance of the tested solutions in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 100 kHz was analyzed by the Zennium electrochemical workstation. The results show that the newly designed microfluidic device has potential for impedance analysis with the advantages of ease of fabrication and the integration of 3D electrodes in the side walls. The newly designed impedance sensor can distinguish different concentrations of polystyrene microspheres and may have potential for cell counting in biological areas. By integrating with other techniques such as dielectrophoresis (DEP and biological recognition technology, the proposed device may have potential for the assay to identify foodborne pathogen bacteria.

  19. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  20. Femtosecond laser direct generation of 3D-microfluidic channels inside bulk PMMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gian-Luca; Esen, Cemal; Hellmann, Ralf

    2017-07-24

    We report on laser direct generation of 3D-microchannels for microfluidic applications inside PMMA bulk material by focused femtosecond pulses. Inner lying channels with cross sectional areas from 100 µm 2 to 4400 µm 2 are directly created in the volume of a PMMA substrate. Using the presented process, the channel length is fundamentally unlimited. Here we demonstrate a channel length of 6 meters inside a substrate with dimensions of 20 × 20 × 1.1 mm. The formation of the micro channels is based on nonlinear absorption around the focal volume that triggers a material modification. The modified volume can be selectively opened to form the channel by a subsequent annealing process. The cross section of the channel is strongly influenced by the energy distribution and illumination around the focal volume determined by the optical setup and process design. The 3D channel layout can easily be realized by moving the specimen using 3D motorized stage, allowing freely chosen complex shaped channel architectures. Within a comprehensive parameter study, varying laser power, number of multi-passes, writing speed and writing depths, we identify an optimized process in terms of attainable channel height, width and aspect ratio, as well as process stability and reproducibility. The proof of concept for an application in three dimensional microfluidic systems is provided by florescence microscopy using a dye rhodamine B solution in isopropanol.

  1. Microfluidic in-channel multi-electrode platform for neurotransmitter sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, A.; Mathault, J.; Reitz, A.; Boisvert, M.; Tessier, F.; Greener, J.; Miled, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this project we present a microfluidic platform with in-channel micro-electrodes for in situ screening of bio/chemical samples through a lab-on-chip system. We used a novel method to incorporate electrochemical sensors array (16x20) connected to a PCB, which opens the way for imaging applications. A 200 μm height microfluidic channel was bonded to electrochemical sensors. The micro-channel contains 3 inlets used to introduce phosphate buffer saline (PBS), ferrocynide and neurotransmitters. The flow rate was controlled through automated micro-pumps. A multiplexer was used to scan electrodes and perform individual cyclic voltammograms by a custom potentiostat. The behavior of the system was linear in terms of variation of current versus concentration. It was used to detect the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine and glutamate.

  2. Integrated acoustic and magnetic separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, Jonathan; Thevoz, Patrick; Bruus, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    With a growing number of cell-based biotechnological applications, there is a need for particle separation systems capable of multiparameter separations at high purity and throughput, beyond what is presently offered by traditional methods including fluorescence activated cell sorting and column......-based magnetic separation. Toward this aim, we report on the integration of microfluidic acoustic and magnetic separation in a monolithic device for multiparameter particle separation. Using our device, we demonstrate high-purity separation of a multicomponent particle mixture at a throughput of up to 10...

  3. Ultrasonic flow-through filtration of microparticles in a microfluidic channel using frequency sweep technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Dae Cheol; Ahn, Bong Young; Cho, Seung Hyun; Siddique, A. K. M. Ariful Haque; Kim, Cheol Gi

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on the filtration of microparticles using the acoustic radiation force of ultrasonic standing wave. The present work concerns a flow-through particle filtration method by utilizing frequency varying ultrasound. The periodical frequency sweep of the ultrasonic standing wave translocates particles across a microchannel, where particles in fluid flow are filtrated without barriers. The present filtration technique in a microfluidic channel was proposed conceptually in the 1990s. However, its experimental realization on actual particles in a microfluidic channel has not been carried out in a notable way. Several sizes of polystyrene microspheres (10 µm to 90 µm) and silicon carbide (SiC) particles (37 µm) suspended in water were applied as a test sample. For filtration of those particles, a Y-branched microfluidic channel with one inlet and two outlets was made out of steel and acrylic as a form of modulized device. Ultrasound of a few MHz in band frequency (1.75 MHz to 3.05 MHz) was transmitted into one side of the channel wall to generate a standing wave field in fluid flow. The periodical frequency sweep operation showed successful filtration performance, whereby particles in water flowed into one outlet and purified water flowed into the other outlet of the Y branch of the channel.

  4. Quantitative Determination of Nicotine in a PDMS Microfluidic Channel Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Choo, Jae Bum [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck Joong [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Rapid and highly sensitive determination of nicotine in a PDMS microfluidic channel was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channel was fabricated for this purpose. This channel shows a high mixing efficiency because the transverse and vertical dispersions of the fluid occur simultaneously through the upper and lower zig zag-type blocks. A higher efficiency of mixing could also be obtained by splitting each of the confluent streams into two sub-streams that then joined and recombined. The SERS signal was measured after nicotine molecules were effectively adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles by passing through the three-dimensional channel. A quantitative analysis of nicotine was performed based on the measured peak area at 1030 cm{sup -1}. The detection limit was estimated to be below 0.1 ppm. In this work, the SERS detection, in combination with a PDMS microfluidic channel, has been applied to the quantitative analysis of nicotine in aqueous solution. Compared to the other conventional analytical methods, the detection sensitivity was enhanced up to several orders of magnitude.

  5. Easy fabrication of high quality nickel mold for deep polymer microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ten It; Tan, Christina Yuan Ling; Zhou, Xiaodong; Limantoro, Julian; Fong, Kin Phang; Quan, Chenggen; Sun, Ling Ling

    2016-01-01

    Mass fabrication of disposable microfluidic chips with hot embossing is a key technology for microfluidic chip based biosensors. In this work, we develop a new method of fabricating high quality and highly durable nickel molds for hot embossing polymer chips. The process involves the addition of a thick, patterned layer of negative photoresist AZ-125nxT to a 4″ silicon wafer, followed by nickel electroplating and delamination of the nickel mold. Our investigations found that compared to a pillar mask, a hole mask can minimize the diffraction effect in photolithography of a thick photoresist, reduce the adhesion of the AZ-125nxT to the photomask in photolithography, and facilitate clean development of the photoresist patterns. By optimizing the hot embossing and chip bonding parameters, microfluidic chips with deep channels are achieved. (paper)

  6. Single step sequential polydimethylsiloxane wet etching to fabricate a microfluidic channel with various cross-sectional geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-K.; Liao, W.-H.; Wu, H.-M.; Lo, Y.-H.; Lin, T.-R.; Tung, Y.-C.

    2017-11-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has become a widely used material to construct microfluidic devices for various biomedical and chemical applications due to its desirable material properties and manufacturability. PDMS microfluidic devices are usually fabricated using soft lithography replica molding methods with master molds made of photolithogrpahy patterned photoresist layers on silicon wafers. The fabricated microfluidic channels often have rectangular cross-sectional geometries with single or multiple heights. In this paper, we develop a single step sequential PDMS wet etching process that can be used to fabricate microfluidic channels with various cross-sectional geometries from single-layer PDMS microfluidic channels. The cross-sections of the fabricated channel can be non-rectangular, and varied along the flow direction. Furthermore, the fabricated cross-sectional geometries can be numerically simulated beforehand. In the experiments, we fabricate microfluidic channels with various cross-sectional geometries using the developed technique. In addition, we fabricate a microfluidic mixer with alternative mirrored cross-sectional geometries along the flow direction to demonstrate the practical usage of the developed technique.

  7. [A novel method based on Y-shaped cotton-polyester thread microfluidic channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Shi, Yan-ru; Yan, Hong-tao

    2014-08-01

    A novel method based on Y-shaped microfluidic channel was firstly proposed in this study. The microfluidic channel was made of two cotton-polyester threads based on the capillary effect of cotton-polyester threads for the determination solutions. A special device was developed to fix the Y-shaped microfluidic channel by ourselves, through which the length and the tilt angle of the channel can be adjusted as requested. The spectrophotometry was compared with Scan-Adobe Photoshop software processing method. The former had a lower detection limit while the latter showed advantages in both convenience and fast operations and lower amount of samples. The proposed method was applied to the determination of nitrite. The linear ranges and detection limits are 1.0-70 micromol x L(-1), 0.66 micromol x L(-1) (spectrophotometry) and 50-450 micromol x L(-1), 45.10 micromol x L(-1) (Scan-Adobe Photoshop software processing method) respectively. This method has been successfully used to the determination of nitrite in soil samples and moat water with recoveries between 96.7% and 104%. It was proved that the proposed method was a low-cost, rapid and convenient analytical method with extensive application prospect.

  8. Generating multiplex gradients of biomolecules for controlling cellular adhesion in parallel microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didar, Tohid Fatanat; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2012-11-07

    Here we present a microfluidic platform to generate multiplex gradients of biomolecules within parallel microfluidic channels, in which a range of multiplex concentration gradients with different profile shapes are simultaneously produced. Nonlinear polynomial gradients were also generated using this device. The gradient generation principle is based on implementing parrallel channels with each providing a different hydrodynamic resistance. The generated biomolecule gradients were then covalently functionalized onto the microchannel surfaces. Surface gradients along the channel width were a result of covalent attachments of biomolecules to the surface, which remained functional under high shear stresses (50 dyn/cm(2)). An IgG antibody conjugated to three different fluorescence dyes (FITC, Cy5 and Cy3) was used to demonstrate the resulting multiplex concentration gradients of biomolecules. The device enabled generation of gradients with up to three different biomolecules in each channel with varying concentration profiles. We were also able to produce 2-dimensional gradients in which biomolecules were distributed along the length and width of the channel. To demonstrate the applicability of the developed design, three different multiplex concentration gradients of REDV and KRSR peptides were patterned along the width of three parallel channels and adhesion of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in each channel was subsequently investigated using a single chip.

  9. Lateral transport of solutes in microfluidic channels using electrochemically generated gradients in redox-active surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2011-04-15

    We report principles for a continuous flow process that can separate solutes based on a driving force for selective transport that is generated by a lateral concentration gradient of a redox-active surfactant across a microfluidic channel. Microfluidic channels fabricated with gold electrodes lining each vertical wall were used to electrochemically generate concentration gradients of the redox-active surfactant 11-ferrocenylundecyl-trimethylammonium bromide (FTMA) in a direction perpendicular to the flow. The interactions of three solutes (a hydrophobic dye, 1-phenylazo-2-naphthylamine (yellow AB), an amphiphilic molecule, 2-(4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-pentanoyl)-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (BODIPY C(5)-HPC), and an organic salt, 1-methylpyridinium-3-sulfonate (MPS)) with the lateral gradients in surfactant/micelle concentration were shown to drive the formation of solute-specific concentration gradients. Two distinct physical mechanisms were identified to lead to the solute concentration gradients: solubilization of solutes by micelles and differential adsorption of the solutes onto the walls of the microchannels in the presence of the surfactant concentration gradient. These two mechanisms were used to demonstrate delipidation of a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC (lipid) and MPS and purification of BODIPY C(5)-HPC from a mixture of BODIPY C(5)-HPC and yellow AB. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lateral concentration gradients of redox-active surfactants formed within microfluidic channels can be used to transport solutes across the microfluidic channels in a solute-dependent manner. The approach employs electrical potentials (solutions having high ionic strength (>0.1M), and offers the basis of continuous processes for the purification or separation of solutes in microscale systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Multiple flow profiles for two-phase flow in single microfluidic channels through site-selective channel coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logtenberg, Hella; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Feringa, Ben L; Browne, Wesley R; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2011-06-21

    An approach to control two-phase flow systems in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device using spatially selective surface modification is demonstrated. Side-by-side flows of ethanol : water solutions containing different polymers are used to selectively modify both sides of a channel by laminar flow patterning. Introduction of air pockets during modification allows for control over the length of the channel section that is modified. This approach makes it possible to achieve slug flow and side-by-side flow of water : 1-octanol simultaneously within the same PDMS channel, without the need of additional structural elements. A key finding is that conditioning of the PDMS channels with 1-octanol before polymer deposition is crucial to achieving stable side-by-side flows.

  11. Formation of a vertical MOSFET for charge sensing in a Si micro-fluidic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, Hong-Kun; Kim, Dong-Sun; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Hey-Jung; Park, Chin-Sung; Lim, Geun-Bae

    2004-01-01

    We have formed a fluidic channel that can be used in micro-fluidic systems and fabricated a 3-dimensional vertical metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (vertical MOSFET) in the convex corner of a Si micro-fluidic channel by using an anisotropic tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching solution. A Au/Cr layer was used for the gate metal and might be useful for detecting charged biomolecules. The electrical characteristics of the vertical MOSFET and its operation as a chemical sensor were investigated. At V DS = -5 V and V GS = -5 V the drain current of the device was -22.5 μA and the threshold voltage was about -1.4 V. A non-planar, non-rectangular vertical MOSFET with a trapezoidal gate was transformed into an equivalent rectangularly based one by using a Schwartz-Christoffel transformation. The LEVEL1 device parameters of the vertical MOSFET were extracted from the measured electrical device characteristics and were used in the SPICE simulation for the vertical MOSFET. The measured and the simulated results for the vertical PMOSFET showed relatively good agreement. When the vertical MOSFET was dipped into a thiol DNA solution, the drain current decreased due to charged biomolecules probably being adsorbed on the gate, which indicates that a vertical MOSFET in a Si micro-fluidic channel might be useful for sensing charged biomolecules.

  12. Three-dimensional investigations of the threading regime in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Krishne; Brouzet, Christophe; Lefranc, Thibault; Soderberg, L. Daniel; Lundell, Fredrik

    2017-11-01

    We study the flow dynamics of the threading regime in a microfluidic flow-focusing channel through 3D numerical simulations and experiments. Making strong filaments from cellulose nano-fibrils (CNF) could potentially steer to new high-performance bio-based composites competing with conventional glass fibre composites. CNF filaments can be obtained through hydrodynamic alignment of dispersed CNF by using the concept of flow-focusing. The aligned structure is locked by diffusion of ions resulting in a dispersion-gel transition. Flow-focusing typically refers to a microfluidic channel system where the core fluid is focused by the two sheath fluids, thereby creating an extensional flow at the intersection. In this study, threading regime corresponds to an extensional flow field generated by the water sheath fluid stretching the dispersed CNF core fluid and leading to formation of long threads. The experimental measurements are performed using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and 3D numerical simulations with OpenFOAM. The prime focus is laid on the 3D characteristics of thread formation such as wetting length of core fluid, shape, aspect ratio of the thread and velocity flow-field in the microfluidic channel.

  13. Manipulation of cells' position across a microfluidic channel using a series of continuously varying herringbone structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yugyung; Hyun, Ji-chul; Choi, Jongchan; Atajanov, Arslan; Yang, Sung

    2017-12-01

    Controlling cells' movement is an important technique in biological analysis that is performed within a microfluidic system. Many external forces are utilized for manipulation of cells, including their position in the channel. These forces can effectively control cells in a desired manner. Most of techniques used to manipulate cells require sophisticated set-ups and equipment to generate desired effect. The exception to this is the use of hydrodynamic force. In this study, a series of continuously varying herringbone structures is proposed for positioning cells in a microfluidic channel using hydrodynamic force. This structure was experimentally developed by changing parameters, such as the length of the herringbone's apex, the length of the herringbone's base and the ratio of the height of the flat channel to the height of the herringbone structure. Results of this study, have demonstrated that the length of the herringbone's apex and the ratio of the heights of the flat channel and the herringbone structure were crucial parameters influencing positioning of cells at 100 μl/h flow rate. The final design was fixed at 170 and 80 μm for the length of herringbone's apex and the length of herringbone's base, respectively. The average position of cells in this device was 34 μm away from the side wall in a 200 μm wide channel. Finally, to substantiate a practical application of the herringbone structure for positioning, cells were randomly introduced into a microfluidic device, containing an array of trapping structures together with a series of herringbone structures along the channel. The cells were moved toward the trapping structure by the herringbone structure and the trapping efficiency was increased. Therefore, it is anticipated that this device will be utilized to continuously control cells' position without application of external forces.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of oscillatory flows in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J.S.; Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we apply the direct non-equilibrium molecular dynamics technique to oscillatory flows of fluids in microscopic channels. Initially, we show that the microscopic simulations resemble the macroscopic predictions based on the Navier–Stokes equation very well for large channel width, high...... density and low temperature. Further simulations for high temperature and low density show that the non-slip boundary condition traditionally used in the macroscopic equation is greatly compromised when the fluid–wall interactions are the same as the fluid–fluid interactions. Simulations of a system...

  15. Patterned immobilization of antibodies within roll-to-roll hot embossed polymeric microfluidic channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Feyssa

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for the patterned immobilization of capture antibodies into a microfluidic platform fabricated by roll-to-roll (R2R hot embossing on poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA. Covalent attachment of antibodies was achieved by two sequential inkjet printing steps. First, a polyethyleneimine (PEI layer was deposited onto oxygen plasma activated PMMA foil and further cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA to provide an amine-reactive aldehyde surface (PEI-GA. This step was followed by a second deposition of antibody by overprinting on the PEI-GA patterned PMMA foil. The PEI polymer ink was first formulated to ensure stable drop formation in inkjet printing and the printed films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Anti-CRP antibody was patterned on PMMA foil by the developed method and bonded permanently with R2R hot embossed PMMA microchannels by solvent bonding lamination. The functionality of the immobilized antibody inside the microfluidic channel was evaluated by fluorescence-based sandwich immunoassay for detection of C-reactive protein (CRP. The antibody-antigen assay exhibited a good level of linearity over the range of 10 ng/ml to 500 ng/ml (R(2 = 0.991 with a calculated detection limit of 5.2 ng/ml. The developed patterning method is straightforward, rapid and provides a versatile approach for creating multiple protein patterns in a single microfluidic channel for multiplexed immunoassays.

  16. Fabrication of monolithic microfluidic channels in diamond with ion beam lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picollo, F.; Battiato, A.; Boarino, L.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Enrico, E.; Forneris, J.; Gilardino, A.; Jakšić, M.; Sardi, F.; Skukan, N.; Tengattini, A.; Olivero, P.; Re, A.; Vittone, E.

    2017-08-01

    In the present work, we report on the monolithic fabrication by means of ion beam lithography of hollow micro-channels within a diamond substrate, to be employed for microfluidic applications. The fabrication strategy takes advantage of ion beam induced damage to convert diamond into graphite, which is characterized by a higher reactivity to oxidative etching with respect to the chemically inert pristine structure. This phase transition occurs in sub-superficial layers thanks to the peculiar damage profile of MeV ions, which mostly damage the target material at their end of range. The structures were obtained by irradiating commercial CVD diamond samples with a micrometric collimated C+ ion beam at three different energies (4 MeV, 3.5 MeV and 3 MeV) at a total fluence of 2 × 1016 cm-2. The chosen multiple-energy implantation strategy allows to obtain a thick box-like highly damaged region ranging from 1.6 μm to 2.1 μm below the sample surface. High-temperature annealing was performed to both promote the graphitization of the ion-induced amorphous layer and to recover the pristine crystalline structure in the cap layer. Finally, the graphite was removed by ozone etching, obtaining monolithic microfluidic structures. These prototypal microfluidic devices were tested injecting aqueous solutions and the evidence of the passage of fluids through the channels was confirmed by confocal fluorescent microscopy.

  17. Microwave frequency sensor for detection of biological cells in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic-Jaric, M; Romanuik, S F; Ferrier, G A; Bridges, G E; Butler, M; Sunley, K; Thomson, D J; Freeman, M R

    2009-08-12

    We present details of an apparatus for capacitive detection of biomaterials in microfluidic channels operating at microwave frequencies where dielectric effects due to interfacial polarization are minimal. A circuit model is presented, which can be used to adapt this detection system for use in other microfluidic applications and to identify ones where it would not be suitable. The detection system is based on a microwave coupled transmission line resonator integrated into an interferometer. At 1.5 GHz the system is capable of detecting changes in capacitance of 650 zF with a 50 Hz bandwidth. This system is well suited to the detection of biomaterials in a variety of suspending fluids, including phosphate-buffered saline. Applications involving both model particles (polystyrene microspheres) and living cells-baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Chinese hamster ovary cells-are presented.

  18. DNA Extraction by Isotachophoresis in a Microfluidic Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, S J

    2011-08-10

    electrolyte ions. Conversely, the trailing electrolyte ions have a slow electrophoretic mobility, so they lag behind the sample, thus trapping the species of interest between the LE and TE streams. In a typical isotachophoresis configuration, the electric field is applied in a direction parallel to the direction of flow. The species then form bands that stretch across the width of the channel. A major limitation of that approach is that only a finite amount of sample can be processed at once, and the sample must be processed in batches. For our purposes, a form of free-flow isotachophoresis is more convenient, where the DNA forms a band parallel to the edges of the channel. To achieve this, in our chip, the electric field is applied transversely. This creates a force perpendicular to the direction of flow, which causes the different ions to migrate across the flow direction. Because the mobility of the DNA is between the mobility of the leading and the trailing electrolyte, the DNA is focused in a tight band near the center of the channel. The stream of DNA can then be directed to a different output to produce a highly concentrated outlet stream without batch processing. One hurdle that must be overcome for successful ITP is isolating the electrochemical reactions that result from the application of high voltage for the actual process of isotachophoresis. The electrochemical reactions that occur around metal electrodes produce bubbles and pH changes that are detrimental to successful ITP. The design of the chips we use incorporates polyacrylamide gels to serve as electrodes along the central channel. For our design, the metal electrodes are located away from the chip, and high conductivity buffer streams carry the potential to the chip, functioning as a 'liquid electrode.' The stream then runs alongside a gel barrier. The gel electrode permits ion transfer while simultaneously isolating the separation chamber from any contaminants in the outer, &apos

  19. Burst pressure of phaseguide structures of different heights in all-polymer microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, Francesca; Kistrup, Kasper; Rizzi, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the burst/overflow pressure of water and a representative surfactant-containing buffer in microfluidic channels with phaseguide structures oriented at an angle of 90° to the channel length as a function of their height, . The all-polymer chips were...... structures were found able to pin both liquids and the burst pressure was found to increase approximately linearly with the height of the phaseguide from about 100–350 Pa for water and from about 25–200 Pa for the buffer. The burst pressure was found not to depend on the channel width and it was only weakly...... influenced by the presence of a branch on the phaseguide. For phaseguides with a branch, the liquid was always found to burst at the branch location. The measured burst pressures were compared to those estimated using a simple theory. The knowledge obtained in this study enables simple tuning of liquid...

  20. Imaging through scattering microfluidic channels by digital holography for information recovery in lab on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, V; Paturzo, M; Gennari, O; Finizio, A; Ferraro, P

    2013-10-07

    We tackle the problem of information recovery and imaging through scattering microfluidic chips by means of digital holography (DH). In many cases the chip can become opalescent due to residual deposits settling down the inner channel faces, biofilm formation, scattering particle uptake by the channel cladding or its damaging by corrosive substances, or even by condensing effect on the exterior channels walls. In these cases white-light imaging is severely degraded and no information is obtainable at all about the flowing samples. Here we investigate the problem of counting and estimating velocity of cells flowing inside a scattering chip. Moreover we propose and test a method based on the recording of multiple digital holograms to retrieve improved phase-contrast images despite the strong scattering effect. This method helps, thanks to DH, to recover information which, otherwise, would be completely lost.

  1. Optimization of nanoparticle focusing by coupling thermophoresis and engineered vortex in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Cao, Zhibo; Fraser, John; Oztekin, Alparslan; Cheng, Xuanhong

    2017-01-01

    Enriching nanoparticles in an aqueous solution is commonly practiced for various applications. Despite recent advances in microfluidic technologies, a general method to concentrate nanoparticles in a microfluidic channel in a label free and continuous flow fashion is not yet available, due to strong Brownian motion on the nanoscale. Recent research of thermophoresis indicates that thermophoretic force can overcome the Brownian force to direct nanoparticle movement. Coupling thermophoresis with natural convection on the microscale has been shown to induce significant enrichment of biomolecules in a thermal diffusion column. However, the column operates in a batch process, and the concentrated samples are inconvenient to retrieve. We have recently designed a microfluidic device that combines a helical fluid motion and simple one-dimensional temperature gradient to achieve effective nanoparticle focusing in a continuous flow. The helical convection is introduced by microgrooves patterned on the channel floor, which directly controls the focusing speed and power. Here, COMSOL simulations are conducted to study how the device geometry and flow rate influence transport and subsequent nanoparticle focusing, with a constant temperature gradient. The results demonstrate a complex dependence of nanoparticle accumulation on the microgroove tilting angle, depth, and spacing, as well as channel width and flow rate. Further dimensional analyses reveal that the ratio between particle velocities induced by thermophoretic and fluid inertial forces governs the particle concentration factor, with a maximum concentration at a ratio of approximately one. This simple relationship provides fundamental insights about nanoparticle transport in coupled flow and thermal fields. The study also offers a useful guideline to the design and operation of nanoparticle concentrators based on combining engineered helical fluid motion subject to phoretic fields.

  2. Wirelessly powered micro-tracer enabled by miniaturized antenna and microfluidic channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, G; Zhao, X; Seren, H R; Chen, C; Zhang, X

    2015-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna, 380μm by 380μm in size, was fabricated and integrated with a commercialized passive RFID chip to form a micro-tracer, whose size was 2mm by 1mm in total. The micro-tracer was wirelessly powered and interrogated by a single layer spiral reader antenna through near field coupling. To maximize the working distance, the resonant frequency of micro-tracer and reader antenna were matched at 840MHz. Due to the ultra small size of the tracer antenna, power transfer efficiency decreased dramatically as the distance between tracer antenna and reader antenna increased, thus the working distance of the microtracer was limited within 1mm. To achieve massive operation of the micro-tracer, a microfluidic platform was fabricated with in channel focusing and separation. Acrylic sheets were laser cut to define the channel and cover structure, then bonded together layer by layer with a glass substrate, on which reader antenna was integrated. Pump oil was used as the fluidic media carrying the micro-tracer flowing inside the microfluidic channel. The wireless power transfer and real-time communication was demonstrated with the micro-tracer flowing above the reader antenna, as the ID of the micro-tracer was retrieved and displayed on a computer screen. (paper)

  3. Microcirculation within Grooved Substrates regulates Cell Positioning and Cell Docking inside Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manbachi, Amir; Shrivastava, Shamit; Cioffi, Margherita; Chung, Bong Geun; Moretti, Matteo; Demirci, Utkan; Yliperttula, Marjo; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Immobilization of cells inside microfluidic devices is a promising approach for enabling studies related to drug screening and cell biology. Despite extensive studies in using grooved substrates for immobilizing cells inside channels, a systematic study of the effects of various parameters that influence cell docking and retention within grooved substrates has not been performed. We demonstrate using computational simulations that the fluid dynamic environment within microgrooves significantly varies with groove width, generating micro-circulation areas in smaller microgrooves. Wall shear stress simulation predicted that shear stresses were in opposite direction in smaller grooves (25 and 50 μm wide) in comparison to those in wider grooves (75 and 100 μm wide). To validate the simulations, cells were seeded within microfluidic devices, where microgrooves of different widths were aligned perpendicularly to the direction of the flow. Experimental results showed that, as predicted, the inversion of the local direction of shear stress within the smaller grooves resulted in alignment of cells on two opposite sides of the grooves under the same flow conditions. Also, the amplitude of shear stress within microgrooved channels significantly influenced cell retainment in the channels. Therefore, our studies suggest that microscale shear stresses greatly influence cellular docking, immobilization, and retention in fluidic systems and should be considered for the design of cell-based microdevices. PMID:18432345

  4. Biodegradable microsphere-mediated cell perforation in microfluidic channel using femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Atsuhiro; Ariyasu, Kazumasa; Mitsuhashi, Tatsuki; Heinemann, Dag; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2016-05-01

    The use of small particles has expanded the capability of ultrashort pulsed laser optoinjection technology toward simultaneous treatment of multiple cells. The microfluidic platform is one of the attractive systems that has obtained synergy with laser-based technology for cell manipulation, including optoinjection. We have demonstrated the delivery of molecules into suspended-flowing cells in a microfluidic channel by using biodegradable polymer microspheres and a near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse. The use of polylactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres realized not only a higher optoinjection ratio compared to that with polylactic acid microspheres but also avoids optical damage to the microfluidic chip, which is attributable to its higher optical intensity enhancement at the localized spot under a microsphere. Interestingly, optoinjection ratios to nucleus showed a difference for adhered cells and suspended cells. The use of biodegradable polymer microspheres provides high throughput optoinjection; i.e., multiple cells can be treated in a short time, which is promising for various applications in cell analysis, drug delivery, and ex vivo gene transfection to bone marrow cells and stem cells without concerns about residual microspheres.

  5. A hemispherical microfluidic channel for the trapping and passive dissipation of microbubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Edward; Lee, Dae Ho; Kim, Chang-Beom; Yoo, Sung Ju; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present that trapping and dissipating of bubbles in a microfluidic cell culture system can be simultaneously achieved by utilizing curved geometry principles. For this end, a simple and cost-effective method to fabricate a curved hemispherical microfluidic channel is presented. On the basis of an analytical model, the mechanism that the hemispherical well can trap various sizes of bubbles better than the cylindrical well is described, and we present a quantitative comparison of the trapping capabilities of the hemispherical versus conventional cylindrical wells through experiments. The surface tension is another important factor to trap bubbles, which was also verified through the analysis and experiments. In the hemispherical wells, the trapped bubbles were spontaneously dissipated under the flowing condition without using any active source, and we characterized the degassing process by measuring the area of bubbles occupied in the well over time. For an application to a biomedical system, a cell culture chamber was combined with the bubble trapping system, and the performance of the system was verified by culturing HeLa cells with the flowing bubbled culture media. Conclusively, the suggested method demonstrated excellent performance in trapping of microbubbles and dissipation without using any peripheral device, and will be broadly applied in biomedical microfluidic research

  6. Effect of a dual inlet channel on cell loading in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2014-11-01

    Unwanted sedimentation and attachment of a number of cells onto the bottom channel often occur on relatively large-scale inlets of conventional microfluidic channels as a result of gravity and fluid shear. Phenomena such as sedimentation have become recognized problems that can be overcome by performing microfluidic experiments properly, such as by calculating a meaningful output efficiency with respect to real input. Here, we present a dual-inlet design method for reducing cell loss at the inlet of channels by adding a new " upstream inlet " to a single main inlet design. The simple addition of an upstream inlet can create a vertically layered sheath flow prior to the main inlet for cell loading. The bottom layer flow plays a critical role in preventing the cells from attaching to the bottom of the channel entrance, resulting in a low possibility of cell sedimentation at the main channel entrance. To provide proof-of-concept validation, we applied our design to a microfabricated flow cytometer system (μFCS) and compared the cell counting efficiency of the proposed μFCS with that of the previous single-inlet μFCS and conventional FCS. We used human white blood cells and fluorescent microspheres to quantitatively evaluate the rate of cell sedimentation in the main inlet and to measure fluorescence sensitivity at the detection zone of the flow cytometer microchip. Generating a sheath flow as the bottom layer was meaningfully used to reduce the depth of field as well as the relative deviation of targets in the z-direction (compared to the x-y flow plane), leading to an increased counting sensitivity of fluorescent detection signals. Counting results using fluorescent microspheres showed both a 40% reduction in the rate of sedimentation and a 2-fold higher sensitivity in comparison with the single-inlet μFCS. The results of CD4(+) T-cell counting also showed that the proposed design results in a 25% decrease in the rate of cell sedimentation and a 28% increase in

  7. Flow rate-pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christov, Ivan C.; Cognet, Vincent; Shidhore, Tanmay C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2018-04-01

    Laminar flow in devices fabricated from soft materials causes deformation of the passage geometry, which affects the flow rate--pressure drop relation. For a given pressure drop, in channels with narrow rectangular cross-section, the flow rate varies as the cube of the channel height, so deformation can produce significant quantitative effects, including nonlinear dependence on the pressure drop [{Gervais, T., El-Ali, J., G\\"unther, A. \\& Jensen, K.\\ F.}\\ 2006 Flow-induced deformation of shallow microfluidic channels.\\ \\textit{Lab Chip} \\textbf{6}, 500--507]. Gervais et. al. proposed a successful model of the deformation-induced change in the flow rate by heuristically coupling a Hookean elastic response with the lubrication approximation for Stokes flow. However, their model contains a fitting parameter that must be found for each channel shape by performing an experiment. We present a perturbation approach for the flow rate--pressure drop relation in a shallow deformable microchannel using the theory of isotropic quasi-static plate bending and the Stokes equations under a lubrication approximation (specifically, the ratio of the channel's height to its width and of the channel's height to its length are both assumed small). Our result contains no free parameters and confirms Gervais et. al.'s observation that the flow rate is a quartic polynomial of the pressure drop. The derived flow rate--pressure drop relation compares favorably with experimental measurements.

  8. Evaluation of biofouling in stainless microfluidic channels for implantable multilayered dialysis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Takashi; To, Naoya; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Miki, Norihisa

    2017-06-01

    An implantable artificial kidney can markedly improve the quality of life of renal disease patients. Our group has developed an implantable multilayered dialysis system consisting of microfluidic channels and dialysis membranes. Long-term evaluation is necessary for implant devices where biofouling is a critical factor, culminating in the deterioration of dialysis performance. Our previous work revealed that surface conditions, which depend on the manufacturing process, determine the amount of biofouling, and that electrolytic etching is the most suitable technique for forming a channel wall free of biofouling. In this study, we investigated the electrolytic etching conditions in detail. We conducted in vitro experiments for 7 d and evaluated the adhesion of biomaterials by scanning electron microscopy. The experiments revealed that a surface mirror-finished by electrolytic etching effectively prevents biofouling.

  9. A Microfluidic Channel Method for Rapid Drug-Susceptibility Testing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and lack of development of new therapeutic agents emphasize the importance of selecting appropriate antimicrobials for the treatment of infections. However, to date, the development of completely accelerated drug susceptibility testing methods has not been achieved despite the availability of a rapid identification method. We proposed an innovative rapid method for drug susceptibility testing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa that provides results within 3 h. The drug susceptibility testing microfluidic (DSTM device was prepared using soft lithography. It consisted of five sets of four microfluidic channels sharing one inlet slot, and the four channels are gathered in a small area, permitting simultaneous microscopic observation. Antimicrobials were pre-introduced into each channel and dried before use. Bacterial suspensions in cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth were introduced from the inlet slot and incubated for 3 h. Susceptibilities were microscopically evaluated on the basis of differences in cell numbers and shapes between drug-treated and control cells, using dedicated software. The results of 101 clinically isolated strains of P. aeruginosa obtained using the DSTM method strongly correlated with results obtained using the ordinary microbroth dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin caused elongation in susceptible cells, while meropenem also induced spheroplast and bulge formation. Morphological observation could alternatively be used to determine the susceptibility of P. aeruginosa to these drugs, although amikacin had little effect on cell shape. The rapid determination of bacterial drug susceptibility using the DSTM method could also be applicable to other pathogenic species, and it could easily be introduced into clinical laboratories without the need for expensive instrumentation.

  10. Evaluation of multidrug efflux pump inhibitors by a new method using microfluidic channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Fluorescein-di-β-D-galactopyranoside (FDG, a fluorogenic compound, is hydrolyzed by β-galactosidase in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli to produce a fluorescent dye, fluorescein. We found that both FDG and fluorescein were substrates of efflux pumps, and have developed a new method to evaluate efflux-inhibitory activities in E. coli using FDG and a microfluidic channel device. We used E. coli MG1655 wild-type, ΔacrB (ΔB, ΔtolC (ΔC and ΔacrBΔtolC (ΔBC harboring plasmids carrying the mexAB-oprM (pABM or mexXY-oprM (pXYM genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Two inhibitors, MexB-specific pyridopyrimidine (D13-9001 and non-specific Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN were evaluated. The effects of inhibitors on pumps were observed using the microfluidic channel device under a fluorescence microscope. AcrAB-TolC and analogous pumps effectively prevented FDG influx in wild-type cells, resulting in no fluorescence. In contrast, ΔB or ΔC easily imported and hydrolyzed FDG to fluorescein, which was exported by residual pumps in ΔB. Consequently, fluorescent medium in ΔB and fluorescent cells of ΔC and ΔBC were observed in the microfluidic channels. D13-9001 substantially increased fluorescent cell number in ΔBC/pABM but not in ΔBC/pXYM. PAβN increased medium fluorescence in all strains, especially in the pump deletion mutants, and caused fluorescein accumulation to disappear in ΔC. The checkerboard method revealed that D13-9001 acts synergistically with aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin only against the MexAB-OprM producer (ΔBC/pABM, and PAβN acts synergistically, especially with erythromycin, in all strains including the pump deletion mutants. The results obtained from PAβN were similar to the results from membrane permeabilizer, polymyxin B or polymyxin B nonapeptide by concentration. The new method clarified that D13-9001 specifically inhibited MexAB-OprM in contrast to PAβN, which appeared to be a substrate of the pumps and

  11. Combining optical trapping in a microfluidic channel with simultaneous micro-Raman spectroscopy and motion detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Penelope F.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.

    2014-03-01

    Since their invention by Ashkin optical tweezers have demonstrated their ability and versatility as a non-invasive tool for micromanipulation. One of the most useful additions to the basic optical tweezers system is micro-Raman spectroscopy, which permits highly sensitive analysis of single cells or particles. We report on the development of a dual laser system combining two spatial light modulators to holographically manipulate multiple traps (at 1064nm) whilst undertaking Raman spectroscopy using a 532nm laser. We can thus simultaneously trap multiple particles and record their Raman spectra, without perturbing the trapping system. The dual beam system is built around micro-fluidic channels where crystallisation of calcium carbonate occurs on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) beads. The setup is designed to simulate at a microscopic level the reactions that occur on items in a dishwasher, where permanent filming of calcium carbonate on drinking glasses is a problem. Our system allows us to monitor crystal growth on trapped particles in which the Raman spectrum and changes in movement of the bead are recorded. Due to the expected low level of crystallisation on the bead surfaces this allows us to obtain results quickly and with high sensitivity. The long term goal is to study the development of filming on samples in-situ with the microfl.uidic system acting as a model dishwasher.

  12. Variation of velocity profile according to blood viscosity in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2014-11-01

    The shear-thinning effect of blood flows is known to change blood viscosity. Since blood viscosity and motion of red blood cells (RBCs) are closely related, hemorheological variations have a strong influence on hemodynamic characteristics. Therefore, understanding on the relationship between the hemorheological and hemodynamic properties is importance for getting more detailed information on blood circulation in microvessels. In this study, the blood viscosity and velocity profiles in a microfluidic channel were systematically investigated. Rat blood was delivered in the microfluidic device which can measure blood viscosity by monitoring the flow-switching phenomenon. Velocity profiles of blood flows in the microchannel were measured by using a micro-particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique. Shape of velocity profiles measured at different flow rates was quantified by using a curve-fitting equation. It was observed that the shape of velocity profiles is highly correlated with blood viscosity. The study on the relation between blood viscosity and velocity profile would be helpful to understand the roles of hemorheological and hemodynamic properties in cardiovascular diseases. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  13. High-throughput microfluidic mixing and multiparametric cell sorting for bioactive compound screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Susan M; Curry, Mark S; Ransom, John T; Ballesteros, Juan A; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A; Edwards, Bruce S

    2004-03-01

    HyperCyt, an automated sample handling system for flow cytometry that uses air bubbles to separate samples sequentially introduced from multiwell plates by an autosampler. In a previously documented HyperCyt configuration, air bubble separated compounds in one sample line and a continuous stream of cells in another are mixed in-line for serial flow cytometric cell response analysis. To expand capabilities for high-throughput bioactive compound screening, the authors investigated using this system configuration in combination with automated cell sorting. Peptide ligands were sampled from a 96-well plate, mixed in-line with fluo-4-loaded, formyl peptide receptor-transfected U937 cells, and screened at a rate of 3 peptide reactions per minute with approximately 10,000 cells analyzed per reaction. Cell Ca(2+) responses were detected to as little as 10(-11) M peptide with no detectable carryover between samples at up to 10(-7) M peptide. After expansion in culture, cells sort-purified from the 10% highest responders exhibited enhanced sensitivity and more sustained responses to peptide. Thus, a highly responsive cell subset was isolated under high-throughput mixing and sorting conditions in which response detection capability spanned a 1000-fold range of peptide concentration. With single-cell readout systems for protein expression libraries, this technology offers the promise of screening millions of discrete compound interactions per day.

  14. Long-range forces affecting equilibrium inertial focusing behavior in straight high aspect ratio microfluidic channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Amy E.; Oakey, John, E-mail: joakey@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The controlled and directed focusing of particles within flowing fluids is a problem of fundamental and technological significance. Microfluidic inertial focusing provides passive and precise lateral and longitudinal alignment of small particles without the need for external actuation or sheath fluid. The benefits of inertial focusing have quickly enabled the development of miniaturized flow cytometers, size-selective sorting devices, and other high-throughput particle screening tools. Straight channel inertial focusing device design requires knowledge of fluid properties and particle-channel size ratio. Equilibrium behavior of inertially focused particles has been extensively characterized and the constitutive phenomena described by scaling relationships for straight channels of square and rectangular cross section. In concentrated particle suspensions, however, long-range hydrodynamic repulsions give rise to complex particle ordering that, while interesting and potentially useful, can also dramatically diminish the technique’s effectiveness for high-throughput particle handling applications. We have empirically investigated particle focusing behavior within channels of increasing aspect ratio and have identified three scaling regimes that produce varying degrees of geometrical ordering between focused particles. To explore the limits of inertial particle focusing and identify the origins of these long-range interparticle forces, we have explored equilibrium focusing behavior as a function of channel geometry and particle concentration. Experimental results for highly concentrated particle solutions identify equilibrium thresholds for focusing that scale weakly with concentration and strongly with channel geometry. Balancing geometry mediated inertial forces with estimates for interparticle repulsive forces now provide a complete picture of pattern formation among concentrated inertially focused particles and enhance our understanding of the fundamental limits

  15. Microfluidics without channels: highly-flexible synthesis on a digital-microfluidic chip for production of diverse PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, Robert Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is used for fundamental studies of living biological organisms and microbial ecosystems in applications ranging from biofuel production to environmental remediation to the study, diagnosis, and treatment monitoring of human disease. Routine access to PET imaging, to monitor biochemical reactions in living organisms in real time, could accelerate a broad range of research programs of interest to DOE. Using PET requires access to short-lived radioactive-labeled compounds that specifically probe the desired living processes. The overall aims of this project were to develop a miniature liquid-handling technology platform (called “microfluidics”) that increases the availability of diverse PET probes by reducing the cost and complexity of their production. Based on preliminary experiments showing that microfluidic chips can synthesis such compounds, we aimed to advance this technology to improve its robustness, increase its flexibility for a broad range of probes, and increase its user-friendliness. Through the research activities of this project, numerous advances were made; Tools were developed to enable the visualization of radioactive materials within microfluidic chips; Fundamental advances were made in the microfluidic chip architecture and fabrication process to increase its robustness and reliability; The microfluidic chip technology was shown to produce useful quantities of an example PET probes, and methods to further increase the output were successfully pursued; A “universal” chip was developed that could produce multiple types of PET probes, enabling the possibility of “on demand” synthesis of different probes; and Operation of the chip was automated to ensure minimal radiation exposure to the operator Based on the demonstrations of promising technical feasibility and performance, the microfluidic chip technology is currently being commercialized. It is anticipated that costs of microfluidic chips can be

  16. Three-dimensional continuous particle focusing in a microfluidic channel via standing surface acoustic waves (SSAW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinjie; Yazdi, Shahrzad; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Ding, Xiaoyun; Chiang, I-Kao; Sharp, Kendra; Huang, Tony Jun

    2011-07-21

    Three-dimensional (3D) continuous microparticle focusing has been achieved in a single-layer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channel using a standing surface acoustic wave (SSAW). The SSAW was generated by the interference of two identical surface acoustic waves (SAWs) created by two parallel interdigital transducers (IDTs) on a piezoelectric substrate with a microchannel precisely bonded between them. To understand the working principle of the SSAW-based 3D focusing and investigate the position of the focal point, we computed longitudinal waves, generated by the SAWs and radiated into the fluid media from opposite sides of the microchannel, and the resultant pressure and velocity fields due to the interference and reflection of the longitudinal waves. Simulation results predict the existence of a focusing point which is in good agreement with our experimental observations. Compared with other 3D focusing techniques, this method is non-invasive, robust, energy-efficient, easy to implement, and applicable to nearly all types of microparticles.

  17. Femtosecond laser ablation of polymeric substrates for the fabrication of microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriano, Raffaella; Kuznetsov, Arseniy; Eaton, Shane M.; Kiyan, Roman; Cerullo, Giulio; Osellame, Roberto; Chichkov, Boris N.; Levi, Marinella; Turri, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents a study of physical and chemical properties of microchannels fabricated by femtosecond laser processing technology in thermoplastic polymeric materials, including poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polystyrene (PS) and cyclic olefin polymer (COP). By surface electron microscopy and optical profilometry, the dimensions of microchannels in the polymers were found to be easily tunable, with surface roughness values comparable to those obtained by standard prototyping techniques such as micromilling. Through colorimetric analysis and optical microscopy, PMMA was found to remain nearly transparent after ablation while COP and PS darkened significantly. Using infrared spectroscopy, the darkening in PS and COP was attributed to significant oxidation and dehydrogenation during laser ablation, unlike PMMA, which was found to degrade by a thermal depolymerization process. The more stable molecular structure of PMMA makes it the most viable thermoplastic polymer for femtosecond laser fabrication of microfluidic channels.

  18. Blood–plasma separation in Y-shaped bifurcating microfluidic channels: a dissipative particle dynamics simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xuejin; Karniadakis, George Em; Popel, Aleksander S

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a suspension of red blood cells (RBCs) flowing in a Y-shaped bifurcating microfluidic channel is investigated using a validated low-dimensional RBC model based on dissipative particle dynamics. Specifically, the RBC is represented as a closed torus-like ring of ten colloidal particles, which leads to efficient simulations of blood flow in microcirculation over a wide range of hematocrits. Adaptive no-slip wall boundary conditions were implemented to model hydrodynamic flow within a specific wall structure of diverging three-dimensional microfluidic channels, paying attention to controlling density fluctuations. Plasma skimming and the all-or-nothing phenomenon of RBCs in a bifurcating microfluidic channel have been investigated in our simulations for healthy and diseased blood, including the size of a cell-free layer on the daughter branches. The feed hematocrit level in the parent channel has considerable influence on blood–plasma separation. Compared to the blood–plasma separation efficiencies of healthy RBCs, malaria-infected stiff RBCs (iRBCs) have a tendency to travel into the low flow-rate daughter branch because of their different initial distribution in the parent channel. Our simulation results are consistent with previously published experimental results and theoretical predictions. (paper)

  19. Dissolution without disappearing: multicomponent gas exchange for CO2 bubbles in a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Suin; Wan, Jiandi; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Panchal, Prathamesh D; Stone, Howard A

    2014-07-21

    We studied the dissolution dynamics of CO2 gas bubbles in a microfluidic channel, both experimentally and theoretically. In the experiments, spherical CO2 bubbles in a flow of a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) first shrink rapidly before attaining an equilibrium size. In the rapid dissolution regime, the time to obtain a new equilibrium is 30 ms regardless of SDS concentration, and the equilibrium radius achieved varies with the SDS concentration. To explain the lack of complete dissolution, we interpret the results by considering the effects of other gases (O2, N2) that are already dissolved in the aqueous phase, and we develop a multicomponent dissolution model that includes the effect of surface tension and the liquid pressure drop along the channel. Solutions of the model for a stationary gas bubble show good agreement with the experimental results, which lead to our conclusion that the equilibrium regime is obtained by gas exchange between the bubbles and liquid phase. Also, our observations from experiments and model calculations suggest that SDS molecules on the gas-liquid interface form a diffusion barrier, which controls the dissolution behaviour and the eventual equilibrium radius of the bubble.

  20. Acoustic streaming induced by two orthogonal ultrasound standing waves in a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2018-07-01

    A mathematical model is derived for acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between a solid wall and a rigid reflector. Acoustic streaming is produced by two orthogonal ultrasound standing waves of the same frequency that are created by two pairs of counter-propagating leaky surface waves induced in the solid wall. The magnitudes and phases of the standing waves are assumed to be different. Full analytical solutions are found for the equations of acoustic streaming. The obtained solutions are used in numerical simulations to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that the interaction of two standing waves leads to the appearance of a cross term in the equations of acoustic streaming. If the phase lag between the standing waves is nonzero, the cross term brings about circular vortices with rotation axes perpendicular to the solid wall of the channel. The vortices make fluid particles rotate and move alternately up and down between the solid wall and the reflector. The obtained results are of immediate interest for acoustomicrofluidic applications such as the ultrasonic micromixing of fluids and the manipulation of microparticles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhanced biocompatibility of neural probes by integrating microstructures and delivering anti-inflammatory agents via microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Kim, Eric; Meggo, Anika; Gandhi, Sachin; Luo, Hao; Kallakuri, Srinivas; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Biocompatibility is a major issue for chronic neural implants, involving inflammatory and wound healing responses of neurons and glial cells. To enhance biocompatibility, we developed silicon-parylene hybrid neural probes with open architecture electrodes, microfluidic channels and a reservoir for drug delivery to suppress tissue responses. Approach. We chronically implanted our neural probes in the rat auditory cortex and investigated (1) whether open architecture electrode reduces inflammatory reaction by measuring glial responses; and (2) whether delivery of antibiotic minocycline reduces inflammatory and tissue reaction. Four weeks after implantation, immunostaining for glial fibrillary acid protein (astrocyte marker) and ionizing calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (macrophages/microglia cell marker) were conducted to identify immunoreactive astrocyte and microglial cells, and to determine the extent of astrocytes and microglial cell reaction/activation. A comparison was made between using traditional solid-surface electrodes and newly-designed electrodes with open architecture, as well as between deliveries of minocycline and artificial cerebral-spinal fluid diffused through microfluidic channels. Main results. The new probes with integrated micro-structures induced minimal tissue reaction compared to traditional electrodes at 4 weeks after implantation. Microcycline delivered through integrated microfluidic channels reduced tissue response as indicated by decreased microglial reaction around the neural probes implanted. Significance. The new design will help enhance the long-term stability of the implantable devices.

  2. Identification of hydrodynamic forces around 3D surrogates using particle image velocimetry in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Sepideh; Nath, Shubhankar; Demirci, Utkan; Hasan, Tayyaba; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Rizvi, Imran; Franco, Walfre

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that flow-induced shear stress induces a motile and aggressive tumor phenotype in a microfluidic model of 3D ovarian cancer. However, the magnitude and distribution of the hydrodynamic forces that influence this biological modulation on the 3D cancer nodules are not known. We have developed a series of numerical and experimental tools to identify these forces within a 3D microchannel. In this work, we used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to find the velocity profile using fluorescent micro-spheres as surrogates and nano-particles as tracers, from which hydrodynamic forces can be derived. The fluid velocity is obtained by imaging the trajectory of a range of florescence nano-particles (500-800 μm) via confocal microscopy. Imaging was done at different horizontal planes and with a 50 μm bead as the surrogate. For an inlet current rate of 2 μl/s, the maximum velocity at the center of the channel was 51 μm/s. The velocity profile around the sphere was symmetric which is expected since the flow is dominated by viscous forces as opposed to inertial forces. The confocal PIV was successfully employed in finding the velocity profile in a microchannel with a nodule surrogate; therefore, it seems feasible to use PIV to investigate the hydrodynamic forces around 3D biological models.

  3. Ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Goswami, Prakash; Dhar, Jayabrata; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-07-01

    We report a study on the ion-size dependent electroosmosis of viscoelastic fluids in microfluidic channels with interfacial slip. Here, we derive an analytical solution for the potential distribution in a parallel plate microchannel, where the effects of finite sized ionic species are taken into account by invoking the free energy formalism. Following this, a purely electroosmotic flow of a simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner (sPTT) fluid is considered. For the sPTT model, linear, quadratic, and exponential kernels are chosen for the stress coefficient function describing its viscoelastic nature across various ranges of Deborah number. The theoretical framework presented in our analysis has been successfully compared with experimental results available in the literature. We believe that the implications of the considered effects on the net volumetric throughput will not only provide a deeper theoretical insight to interpret the electrokinetic data in the presence of ionic species but also serve as a fundamental design tool for novel electrokinetically driven lab-on-a-chip biofluidic devices.

  4. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun Kang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Custom 3D printer and resin for 18 μm × 20 μm microfluidic flow channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Bickham, Bryce P; Woolley, Adam T; Nordin, Gregory P

    2017-08-22

    While there is great interest in 3D printing for microfluidic device fabrication, to-date the achieved feature sizes have not been in the truly microfluidic regime (uses a 385 nm LED, which dramatically increases the available selection of UV absorbers for resin formulation compared to 3D printers with 405 nm LEDs. Beginning with 20 candidate absorbers, we demonstrate the evaluation criteria and process flow required to develop a high-resolution resin. In doing so, we introduce a new mathematical model for characterizing the resin optical penetration depth based only on measurement of the absorber's molar absorptivity. Our final resin formulation uses 2-nitrophenyl phenyl sulfide (NPS) as the UV absorber. We also develop a novel channel narrowing technique that, together with the new resin and 3D printer resolution, enables small flow channel fabrication. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach by fabricating 3D serpentine flow channels 41 mm long in a volume of only 0.12 mm 3 , and by printing high aspect ratio flow channels prototyping and fabrication.

  6. Microfluidic sieve valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen R; Marcus, Joshua S; Hansen, Carl L

    2015-01-13

    Sieve valves for use in microfluidic device are provided. The valves are useful for impeding the flow of particles, such as chromatography beads or cells, in a microfluidic channel while allowing liquid solution to pass through the valve. The valves find particular use in making microfluidic chromatography modules.

  7. Microfluidic Dye Lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Balslev, Søren; Gersborg-Hansen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    A technology for miniaturized, polymer based lasers, suitable for integration with planar waveguides and microfluidic networks is presented. The microfluidic dye laser device consists of a microfluidic channel with an embedded optical resonator. The devices are fabricated in a thin polymer film...

  8. Between giant oscillations and uniform distribution of droplets: The role of varying lumen of channels in microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulski, Olgierd; Jakiela, Slawomir; Garstecki, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    The simplest microfluidic network (a loop) comprises two parallel channels with a common inlet and a common outlet. Recent studies that assumed a constant cross section of the channels along their length have shown that the sequence of droplets entering the left (L) or right (R) arm of the loop can present either a uniform distribution of choices (e.g., RLRLRL...) or long sequences of repeated choices (RRR...LLL), with all the intermediate permutations being dynamically equivalent and virtually equally probable to be observed. We use experiments and computer simulations to show that even small variation of the cross section along channels completely shifts the dynamics either into the strong preference for highly grouped patterns (RRR...LLL) that generate system-size oscillations in flow or just the opposite-to patterns that distribute the droplets homogeneously between the arms of the loop. We also show the importance of noise in the process of self-organization of the spatiotemporal patterns of droplets. Our results provide guidelines for rational design of systems that reproducibly produce either grouped or homogeneous sequences of droplets flowing in microfluidic networks.

  9. Analysis of Poiseuille Flow Property in Two-Dimensional Mi-cro Channels of Microfluidic Pneumatic Micro-Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Long, Wei; Chen, Yajun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the control mechanism and mathematical description of the microfluidic flow in the microfluidic process of the PDMS membrane type pneumatic micro-valve were studied. The velocity and pressure variation law of the velocity field inside micro valve was analyzed by numerical simulation method. The influence of the two kinds of inlet drive modes on the working effect and the pressure flow characteristics of the pneumatic micro-valve was studied. The structure of the elastic solid valve diaphragm under the dual action of the airway and the liquid channel was analyzed. Deformation and stress distribution. The results show that the gas flow in the gas flow channel under the diaphragm by the vacuum part of the role of the formation of a suction gas vortex, pressure-driven mode was easier under the diaphragm to produce a strong gas vortex, resulting in internal and external pressure to promote diaphragm cut-off liquid channel; In the pressure pneumatic mode, the stress at both ends of the diaphragm was smaller, the membrane was not easy to tear failure.

  10. Microfluidic production of bioactive fibrin micro-beads embedded in crosslinked collagen used as an injectable bulking agent for urinary incontinence treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, E; Larsson, H M; Allazetta, S; Engelhardt, E M; Pinnagoda, K; Vythilingam, G; Hubbell, J A; Lutolf, M P; Frey, P

    2018-02-01

    Endoscopic injection of bulking agents has been widely used to treat urinary incontinence, often due to urethral sphincter complex insufficiency. The aim of the study was to develop a novel injectable bioactive collagen-fibrin bulking agent restoring long-term continence by functional muscle tissue regeneration. Fibrin micro-beads were engineered using a droplet microfluidic system. They had an average diameter of 140 μm and recombinant fibrin-binding insulin-like growth factor-1 (α 2 PI 1-8 -MMP-IGF-1) was covalently conjugated to the beads. A plasmin fibrin degradation assay showed that 72.5% of the initial amount of α 2 PI 1-8 -MMP-IGF-1 loaded into the micro-beads was retained within the fibrin micro-beads. In vitro, the growth factor modified fibrin micro-beads enhanced cell attachment and the migration of human urinary tract smooth muscle cells, however, no change of the cellular metabolic activity was seen. These bioactive micro-beads were mixed with genipin-crosslinked homogenized collagen, acting as a carrier. The collagen concentration, the degree of crosslinking, and the mechanical behavior of this bioactive collagen-fibrin injectable were comparable to reference samples. This novel injectable showed no burst release of the growth factor, had a positive effect on cell behavior and may therefore induce smooth muscle regeneration in vivo, necessary for the functional treatment of stress and other urinary incontinences. Urinary incontinence is involuntary urine leakage, resulting from a deficient function of the sphincter muscle complex. Yet there is no functional cure for this devastating condition using current treatment options. Applied physical and surgical therapies have limited success. In this study, a novel bioactive injectable bulking agent, triggering new muscle regeneration at the injection site, has been evaluated. This injectable consists of cross-linked collagen and fibrin micro-beads, functionalized with bound insulin-like growth factor

  11. Fabrication and characterization of gels with integrated channels using 3D printing with microfluidic nozzle for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attalla, R; Ling, C; Selvaganapathy, P

    2016-02-01

    The lack of a simple and effective method to integrate vascular network with engineered scaffolds and tissue constructs remains one of the biggest challenges in true 3D tissue engineering. Here, we detail the use of a commercially available, low-cost, open-source 3D printer modified with a microfluidic print-head in order to develop a method for the generation of instantly perfusable vascular network integrated with gel scaffolds seeded with cells. The print-head features an integrated coaxial nozzle that allows the fabrication of hollow, calcium-polymerized alginate tubes that can be easily patterned using 3D printing techniques. The diameter of the hollow channel can be precisely controlled and varied between 500 μm - 2 mm by changing applied flow rates or print-head speed. These channels are integrated into gel layers with a thickness of 800 μm - 2.5 mm. The structural rigidity of these constructs allows the fabrication of multi-layered structures without causing the collapse of hollow channels in lower layers. The 3D printing method was fully characterized at a range of operating speeds (0-40 m/min) and corresponding flow rates (1-30 mL/min) were identified to produce precise definition. This microfluidic design also allows the incorporation of a wide range of scaffold materials as well as biological constituents such as cells, growth factors, and ECM material. Media perfusion of the channels causes a significant viability increase in the bulk of cell-laden structures over the long-term. With this setup, gel constructs with embedded arrays of hollow channels can be created and used as a potential substitute for blood vessel networks.

  12. Real-time control of a microfluidic channel for size-independent deformability cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Guofeng; Chen, Peter C Y; Ong, Chong Jin; Peng, Weng Kung; Bhagat, Ali Asgar; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of cells can be correlated with various cell states and are now considered as an important class of biophysical markers. Effectiveness of existing high-throughput microfluidic techniques for investigating cell mechanical properties is adversely affected by cell-size variation in a given cell population. In this work, we introduce a new microfluidic system with real-time feedback control to evaluate single-cell deformability while minimizing cell-size dependence of the measurement. Using breast cancer cells (MCF-7), we demonstrate the potential of this system for stiffness profiling of cells in complex, diverse cell populations. (paper)

  13. Rapid fabrication of pressure-driven open-channel microfluidic devices in omniphobic R(F) paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, Ana C; Martinez, Ramses V; Maxwell, E Jane; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Nunes, Rui M D; Soh, Siowling; Whitesides, George M

    2013-08-07

    This paper describes the fabrication of pressure-driven, open-channel microfluidic systems with lateral dimensions of 45-300 microns carved in omniphobic paper using a craft-cutting tool. Vapor phase silanization with a fluorinated alkyltrichlorosilane renders paper omniphobic, but preserves its high gas permeability and mechanical properties. When sealed with tape, the carved channels form conduits capable of guiding liquid transport in the low-Reynolds number regime (i.e. laminar flow). These devices are compatible with complex fluids such as droplets of water in oil. The combination of omniphobic paper and a craft cutter enables the development of new types of valves and switches, such as "fold valves" and "porous switches," which provide new methods to control fluid flow.

  14. Behaviour of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultivated in microfluidic channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Patty P. M. F. A.; Molema, Grietje; Koster, Sander; van der Linden, Heiko J.; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Our long-term goal is to develop advanced tools for cell studies and analysis based on microfluidic systems. In this paper, we report on endothelial cell cultivation in microchannels and 96-well tissue plates, and compare cell phenotype and cellular status in the two enviroments. This was done under

  15. Multi-channel peristaltic pump for microfluidic applications featuring monolithic PDMS inlay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Sabourin, David; Dufva, Martin

    2009-01-01

    pumping system at lower flow rates. The small footprint, 40 mm by 80 mm, of the micropump renders it portable, and allows its use on microscope stages adjacent to microfluidic devices, thus reducing system dead volumes. The micropump's design allows potential use in remote and resource-limited locations...

  16. Toward a solid-phase nucleic acid hybridization assay within microfluidic channels using immobilized quantum dots as donors in fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Algar, W Russ; Tavares, Anthony J; Krull, Ulrich J

    2011-01-01

    The optical properties and surface area of quantum dots (QDs) have made them an attractive platform for the development of nucleic acid biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Solid-phase assays based on FRET using mixtures of immobilized QD-oligonucleotide conjugates (QD biosensors) have been developed. The typical challenges associated with solid-phase detection strategies include non-specific adsorption, slow kinetics of hybridization, and sample manipulation. The new work herein has considered the immobilization of QD biosensors onto the surfaces of microfluidic channels in order to address these challenges. Microfluidic flow can be used to dynamically control stringency by adjustment of the potential in an electrokinetic-based microfluidics environment. The shearing force, Joule heating, and the competition between electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities allow the optimization of hybridization conditions, convective delivery of target to the channel surface to speed hybridization, amelioration of adsorption, and regeneration of the sensing surface. Microfluidic flow can also be used to deliver (for immobilization) and remove QD biosensors. QDs that were conjugated with two different oligonucleotide sequences were used to demonstrate feasibility. One oligonucleotide sequence on the QD was available as a linker for immobilization via hybridization with complementary oligonucleotides located on a glass surface within a microfluidic channel. A second oligonucleotide sequence on the QD served as a probe to transduce hybridization with target nucleic acid in a sample solution. A Cy3 label on the target was excited by FRET using green-emitting CdSe/ZnS QD donors and provided an analytical signal to explore this detection strategy. The immobilized QDs could be removed under denaturing conditions by disrupting the duplex that was used as the surface linker and thus allowed a new layer of QD biosensors to be re-coated within the channel

  17. Separation followed by direct SERS detection of explosives on a novel black silicon multifunctional nanostructured surface prepared in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talian, Ivan; Hübner, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the multifunctionality of a novel black silicon (BS) nanostructured surface covered with a thin layer of noble metal prepared in the a microfluidic channel. It is focused on the separation properties of the BS substrate with direct detection of the separated analytes utilizing...

  18. Selective electrochemical detection of dopamine in a microfluidic channel on carbon nanoparticulate electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozniecka, Ewa; Jonsson-Niedziolka, Martin; Celebanska, Anna; Niedziolka-Jonsson, Joanna; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-06-07

    There is a continuous need for the construction of detection systems in microfluidic devices. In particular, electrochemical detection allows the separation of signals from the analyte and interfering substances in the potential domain. Here, a simple microfluidic device for the sensitive and selective determination of dopamine in the presence of interfering substances was constructed and tested. It employs a carbon nanoparticulate electrode allowing the separation of voltammetric signals of dopamine and common interfering substances (ascorbic acid and acetaminophen) both in quiescent conditions and in flow due to the electrocatalytic effect. These voltammograms were also successfully simulated. The limit of detection of dopamine detected by square wave voltammetry in 1 mM solutions of interfering substances in phosphate buffered saline is about 100 nM. In human serum a clear voltammetric signal could be seen for a 200 nM solution, sufficient to detect dopamine in the cerebral fluid. Flow injection analysis allows a decrease in the limit of detection down to 3.5 nM.

  19. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging of reactions in multiphase flow in microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2012-05-01

    Rapid, in situ, and label-free chemical analysis in microfluidic devices is highly desirable. FT-IR spectroscopic imaging has previously been shown to be a powerful tool to visualize the distribution of different chemicals in flows in a microfluidic device at near video rate imaging speed without tracers or dyes. This paper demonstrates the possibility of using this imaging technology to capture the chemical information of all reactants and products at different points in time and space in a two-phase system. Differences in the rates of chemical reactions in laminar flow and segmented flow systems are also compared. Neutralization of benzoic acid in decanol with disodium phosphate in water has been used as the model reaction. Quantitative information, such as concentration profiles of reactant and products, can be extracted from the imaging data. The same feed flow rate was used in both the laminar flow and segmented flow systems. The laminar flow pattern was achieved using a plain wide T-junction, whereas the segmented flow was achieved by introducing a narrowed section and a nozzle at the T-junction. The results show that the reaction rate is limited by diffusion and is much slower with the laminar flow pattern, whereas the reaction is completed more quickly in the segmented flow due to better mixing.

  20. Assembly of multiple cell gradients directed by three-dimensional microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwei; Feng, Xiaojun; Wang, Yachao; Du, Wei; Chen, Peng; Liu, Chao; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2015-08-07

    Active control over the cell gradient is essential for understanding biological systems and the reconstitution of the functionality of many types of tissues, particularly for organ-on-a-chip. Here, we propose a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic strategy for generating controllable cell gradients. In this approach, a homogeneous cell suspension is loaded into a 3D stair-shaped PDMS microchannel to generate a cell gradient within 10 min by sedimentation. We demonstrate that cell gradients of various profiles (exponential and piecewise linear) can be achieved by precisely controlling the height of each layer during the fabrication. With sequential seeding, we further demonstrate the generation of two overlapping cell gradients on the same glass substrate with pre-defined designs. The cell gradient-based QD cytotoxicity assay also demonstrated that cell behaviors and resistances were regulated by the changes in cell density. These results reveal that the proposed 3D microfluidic strategy provides a simple and versatile means for establishing controllable gradients in cell density, opening up a new avenue for reconstructing functional tissues.

  1. Chemical vapor deposition of aminopropyl silanes in microfluidic channels for highly efficient microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, Nicholas G; Mellors, J Scott; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Ramsey, J Michael

    2014-04-01

    We describe a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the surface modification of glass microfluidic devices designed to perform electrophoretic separations of cationic species. The microfluidic channel surfaces were modified using aminopropyl silane reagents. Coating homogeneity was inferred by precise measurement of the separation efficiency and electroosmotic mobility for multiple microfluidic devices. Devices coated with (3-aminopropyl)di-isopropylethoxysilane (APDIPES) yielded near diffusion-limited separations and exhibited little change in electroosmotic mobility between pH 2.8 and pH 7.5. We further evaluated the temporal stability of both APDIPES and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) coatings when stored for a total of 1 week under vacuum at 4 °C or filled with pH 2.8 background electrolyte at room temperature. Measurements of electroosmotic flow (EOF) and separation efficiency during this time confirmed that both coatings were stable under both conditions. Microfluidic devices with a 23 cm long, serpentine electrophoretic separation channel and integrated nanoelectrospray ionization emitter were CVD coated with APDIPES and used for capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) of peptides and proteins. Peptide separations were fast and highly efficient, yielding theoretical plate counts over 600,000 and a peak capacity of 64 in less than 90 s. Intact protein separations using these devices yielded Gaussian peak profiles with separation efficiencies between 100,000 and 400,000 theoretical plates.

  2. Complex Dynamics of Droplet Traffic in a Bifurcating Microfluidic Channel: Periodicity, Multistability, and Selection Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessoms, D. A.; Amon, A.; Courbin, L.; Panizza, P.

    2010-10-01

    The binary path selection of droplets reaching a T junction is regulated by time-delayed feedback and nonlinear couplings. Such mechanisms result in complex dynamics of droplet partitioning: numerous discrete bifurcations between periodic regimes are observed. We introduce a model based on an approximation that makes this problem tractable. This allows us to derive analytical formulae that predict the occurrence of the bifurcations between consecutive regimes, establish selection rules for the period of a regime, and describe the evolutions of the period and complexity of droplet pattern in a cycle with the key parameters of the system. We discuss the validity and limitations of our model which describes semiquantitatively both numerical simulations and microfluidic experiments.

  3. Dielectrophoretic manipulation of human chromosomes in microfluidic channels: extracting chromosome dielectric properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Casper Hyttel; Dimaki, Maria; Buckley, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of the dielectric properties of polyamine buffer prepared human chromosomes is presented in this paper. Chromosomes prepared in this buffer are only a few micrometers in size and shaped roughly like spherical discs. Dielectrophoresis was therefore chosen as the method...... of manipulation combined with a custom designed microfluidic system containing the required electrodes for dielectrophoresis experiments. Our results show that although this system is presently not able to distinguish between the different chromosomes, it can provide average data for the dielectric properties...... of human chromosomes in polyamine buffer. These can then be used to optimize system designs for further characterization and even sorting. The experimental data from the dielectrophoretic manipulation were combined with theoretical calculations to extract a range of values for the permittivity...

  4. Acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel with a reflector: Case of a standing wave generated by two counterpropagating leaky surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2017-07-01

    A theory is developed for the modeling of acoustic streaming in a microfluidic channel confined between an elastic solid wall and a rigid reflector. A situation is studied where the acoustic streaming is produced by two leaky surface waves that propagate towards each other in the solid wall and thus form a combined standing wave in the fluid. Full analytical solutions are found for both the linear acoustic field and the field of the acoustic streaming. A dispersion equation is derived that allows one to calculate the wave speed in the system under study. The obtained solutions are used to consider particular numerical examples and to reveal the structure of the acoustic streaming. It is shown that two systems of vortices are established along the boundaries of the microfluidic channel.

  5. Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Qin, Wan; Chen, Chieh-Li; Wang, Jingang; Zhang, Qinqin; Yang, Xiaoqi; Gao, Bruce Z; Wang, Ruikang K

    2016-07-01

    Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a powerful optical angio-graphic tool to visualize micro-vascular flow in vivo. Despite numerous demonstrations for the past several years of the qualitative relationship between OMAG and flow, no convincing quantitative relationship has been proven. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively correlate the OMAG signal with flow. Specifically, we develop a simplified analytical model of the complex OMAG, suggesting that the OMAG signal is a product of the number of particles in an imaging voxel and the decorrelation of OCT (optical coherence tomography) signal, determined by flow velocity, inter-frame time interval, and wavelength of the light source. Numerical simulation with the proposed model reveals that if the OCT amplitudes are correlated, the OMAG signal is related to a total number of particles across the imaging voxel cross-section per unit time (flux); otherwise it would be saturated but its strength is proportional to the number of particles in the imaging voxel (concentration). The relationship is validated using microfluidic flow phantoms with various preset flow metrics. This work suggests OMAG is a promising quantitative tool for the assessment of vascular flow.

  6. Fabrication and Application of Iron(III-Oxide Nanoparticle/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Cone in Microfluidic Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chun Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented the fabrication and applications of an iron(III-oxide nanoparticle/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS cone as a component integrated in lab on a chip. The two main functions of this component were to capture magnetic microbeads in the microfluid and to mix two laminar fluids by generating disturbance. The iron(III-oxide nanoparticle/PDMS cone was fabricated by automatic dispensing and magnetic shaping. Three consecutive cones of 300 μm in height were asymmetrically placed along a microchannel of 2 mm in width and 1.1 mm in height. Flow passing the cones was effectively redistributed for Renolds number lower than . Streptavidin-coated magnetic microbeads which were bound with biotin were successfully captured by the composite cones as inspected under fluorescence microscope. The process parameters for fabricating the composite cones were investigated. The fabricated cone in the microchannel could be applied in lab on a chip for bioassay in the future.

  7. Transport or Store? Synthesizing Flow-based Microfluidic Biochips using Distributed Channel Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Bing; Yao, Hailong

    2017-01-01

    of the performance of biochips. In this paper, we propose the first architectural synthesis framework considering distributed storage constructed temporarily from transportation channels to cache fluid samples. Since distributed storage can be accessed more efficiently than a dedicated storage unit and channels can...... switch between the roles of transportation and storage easily, biochips with this distributed computing architecture can achieve a higher execution efficiency even with fewer resources. Experimental results confirm that the execution efficiency of a bioassay can be improved by up to 28% while the number...

  8. Direct Metal Writing and Precise Positioning of Gold Nanoparticles within Microfluidic Channels for SERS Sensing of Gaseous Analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mian Rong; Lee, Hiang Kwee; Yang, Yijie; Koh, Charlynn Sher Lin; Lay, Chee Leng; Lee, Yih Hong; Phang, In Yee; Ling, Xing Yi

    2017-11-15

    We demonstrate a one-step precise direct metal writing of well-defined and densely packed gold nanoparticle (AuNP) patterns with tunable physical and optical properties. We achieve this by using two-photon lithography on a Au precursor comprising poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and ethylene glycol (EG), where EG promotes higher reduction rates of Au(III) salt via polyol reduction. Hence, clusters of monodisperse AuNP are generated along raster scanning of the laser, forming high-particle-density, well-defined structures. By varying the PVP concentration, we tune the AuNP size from 27.3 to 65.0 nm and the density from 172 to 965 particles/μm 2 , corresponding to a surface roughness of 12.9 to 67.1 nm, which is important for surface-based applications such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We find that the microstructures exhibit an SERS enhancement factor of >10 5 and demonstrate remote writing of well-defined Au microstructures within a microfluidic channel for the SERS detection of gaseous molecules. We showcase in situ SERS monitoring of gaseous 4-methylbenzenethiol and real-time detection of multiple small gaseous species with no specific affinity to Au. This one-step, laser-induced fabrication of AuNP microstructures ignites a plethora of possibilities to position desired patterns directly onto or within most surfaces for the future creation of multifunctional lab-on-a-chip devices.

  9. Monolithic Chip System with a Microfluidic Channel for In Situ Electron Microscopy of Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Eric; Burrows, Andrew; Mølhave, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    sandwiched microchips with thin membranes. We report on a new microfabricated chip system based on a monolithic design that enables membrane geometry on the scale of a few micrometers. The design is intended to reduce membrane deflection when the system is under pressure, a micro fluidic channel for improved...

  10. Microfluidic device, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Eric W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making a microfluidic device is provided. The method features patterning a permeable wall on a substrate, and surrounding the permeable wall with a solid, non-permeable boundary structure to establish a microfluidic channel having a cross-sectional dimension less than 5,000 microns and a cross-sectional area at least partially filled with the permeable wall so that fluid flowing through the microfluidic channel at least partially passes through the permeable wall.

  11. Continuous production of core-shell protein nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation using dual-channel microfluidization: Caseinate-coated zein nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Sandra; Koo, Charmaine K W; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2017-02-01

    Antisolvent precipitation is commonly used to fabricate protein nanoparticles using a simple batch method that involves injecting a protein-solvent mixture into an antisolvent. In this study, the potential of producing core-shell protein nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation using a continuous dual-channel microfluidization method was investigated. The solvent phase (zein in ethanol) and antisolvent phase (casein in water) were made to impinge on each other at high velocity, which generates intense shear, turbulent, and cavitation forces that ensure thorough mixing and breakup of the phases. Relatively small core-shell protein nanoparticles (dnanoparticles went from positive at low pH to negative at high pH, with a point of zero charge around pH5. Electron microscopy indicated that the protein particles formed had a roughly spherical shape. The results suggest that the dual-channel microfluidizer could be used to continuously form protein nanoparticles by antisolvent precipitation. Nevertheless, when the microfluidization method was compared with the simple batch method the size of the particles produced under similar conditions were fairly similar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Materials challenges for repeatable RF wireless device reconfiguration with microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Anthony S.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2018-03-01

    Recently, adaptive wireless devices have utilized displacement of EGaIn within microchannels as an electrical switching mechanism to enable reconfigurable electronics. Device reconfiguration using EGaIn in microchannels overcomes many challenges encountered by more traditional reconfiguration mechanisms such as diodes and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Reconfiguration using EGaIn is severely limited by undesired permanent shorting due to retention of the liquid in microchannels caused by wetting and rapid oxide skin formation. Here, we investigate the conditions which prevent repeatable electrical switching using EGaIn in microchannels. Initial contact angle tests of EGaIn on epoxy surfaces demonstrate the wettability of EGaIn on flat surfaces. SEM cross-sections of microchannels reveal adhesion of EGaIn residue to channel walls. Micro-computed tomography (microCT) scans of provide volumetric measurements of EGaIn remaining inside channels after flow cycling. Non-wetting coatings are proposed as materials based strategy to overcome these issues in future work.

  13. Note: Making tens of centimeter long uniform microfluidic channels using commercial glass pipette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Neil; Lee, Huang-Ming; Wu, Jong-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Producing microchannels with diameters between 10 and 20 μm and with lengths in the tens of centimeters is reported. The method can be modified to obtain diameters as narrow as 350 nm. Length-to-diameter aspect ratios that surpass 104 can be produced for a fraction of current production costs. The controllable channel is produced by applying a flame to the narrow end of a commercial pipette that is made from a soda-lime silicate. In combination with a pulling mechanism, applying heat to the composite material lengthens the pipette in a highly uniform way. Given that the materials and methods in this research are cost-effective when compared to femtosecond laser micromachining on 2D silicon-based surfaces, further research into producing microchannels from soda-lime silicates may revolutionize access to 3D controllable microchannels.

  14. Transport coefficients for electrolytes in arbitrarily shaped nano- and microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Asger; Olesen, Laurits Højgaard; Bruus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    for the hydraulic and electrical transport coefficients which satisfy Onsager relations. In the limit of non-overlapping Debye layers, the transport coefficients are simply expressed in terms of parameters of the electrolyte as well as the geometrical correction factor for the Hagen-Poiseuille part of the problem....... In particular, we consider the limits of thin non-overlapping as well as strongly overlapping Debye layers, respectively, and calculate the corrections to the hydraulic resistance due to electro-hydrodynamic interactions.......We consider laminar flow of incompressible electrolytes in long, straight channels driven by pressure and electro-osmosis. We use a Hilbert space eigenfunction expansion to address the general problem of an arbitrary cross-section and obtain general results in linear-response theory...

  15. Acoustic streaming produced by a cylindrical bubble undergoing volume and translational oscillations in a microfluidic channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doinikov, Alexander A; Combriat, Thomas; Thibault, Pierre; Marmottant, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    A theoretical model is developed for acoustic streaming generated by a cylindrical bubble confined in a fluid channel between two planar elastic walls. The bubble is assumed to undergo volume and translational oscillations. The volume oscillation is caused by an imposed acoustic pressure field and generates the bulk scattered wave in the fluid gap and Lamb-type surface waves propagating along the fluid-wall interfaces. The translational oscillation is induced by the velocity field of an external sound source such as another bubble or an oscillatory fluid flow. The acoustic streaming is assumed to result from the interaction of the volume and the translational modes of the bubble oscillations. The general solutions for the linear equations of fluid motion and the equations of acoustic streaming are calculated with no restrictions on the ratio between the viscous penetration depth and the bubble size. Approximate solutions for the limit of low viscosity are provided as well. Simulations of streamline patterns show that the geometry of the streaming resembles flows generated by a source dipole, while the vortex orientation is governed by the driving frequency, bubble size, and the distance of the bubble from the source of translational excitation. Experimental verification of the developed theory is performed using data for streaming generated by bubble pairs.

  16. Controllable liquid colour-changing lenses with microfluidic channels for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering based on soft lithography fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Songjing

    2016-01-01

    In this work, liquid colour-changing lenses for vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering are developed by circulating colour liquids through microfluidic channels on the lenses manually. Soft lithography technology is applied to fabricate the silicone liquid colour-changing layers with microfluidic channels on the lenses instead of mechanical machining. To increase the hardness and abrasion resistance of the silicone colour-changing layers on the lenses, proper fabrication parameters such as 6:1 (mass ration) mixing proportion and 100 °C curing temperature for 2 h are approved for better soft lithography process of the lenses. Meanwhile, a new surface treatment for the irreversible bonding of silicone colour-changing layer with optical resin (CR39) substrate lens by using 5 % (volume ratio) 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane solution is proposed. Vision protection, camouflage and optical filtering functions of the lenses are investigated with different designs of the channels and multi-layer structures. Each application can not only well achieve their functional demands, but also shows the advantages of functional flexibility, rapid prototyping and good controllability compared with traditional ways. Besides optometry, some other designs and applications of the lenses are proposed for potential utility in the future.

  17. Redox-Magnetohydrodynamic Microfluidics Without Channels and Compatible with Electrochemical Detection Under Immunoassay Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Melissa C.; Nash, Christena K.; Fritsch, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    A unique capability of redox-magnetohydrodynamics (redox-MHD) for handling liquids on a small scale was demonstrated. A 1.2-μL solution plug was pumped from an injection site to a detector without the need for a channel to direct the flow. The redox pumping species did not interfere with enzymatic activity in a solution compatible with enzyme-linked immunoassays. Alkaline phosphatase (AP), a common enzyme label, converted p-aminophenyl phosphate (PAPP) to p-aminophenol (PAPR) in the presence of 2.5 mM Ru(NH3)6Cl2 and 2.5 mM Ru(NH3)6 Cl3, in 0.1 M Tris buffer (pH=9). A solution plug containing PAPP (no AP) was pumped through the surrounding solution containing AP (no PAPP), and the enzymatically-generated PAPR was easily detected and distinguishable electrochemically from the pumping species with square wave voltammetry down to 0.1 mM concentrations. The test device consisted of a silicon chip containing individually-addressable microband electrodes, placed on a 0.5-T NdFeB permanent magnet with the field oriented perpendicular to the chip. A 8.0-mm wide × 15.5-mm long × 1.5-mm high volume of solution was contained by a poly(dimethylsiloxane) gasket and capped with a glass slide. A steady-state fluid velocity of ~30 μm/s was generated in a reinforcing flow configuration between oppositely polarized sets of pumping electrodes with ~2.1 μA. PMID:20681513

  18. Traffic of leukocytes in microfluidic channels with rectangular and rounded cross-sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Burns, Jennie M; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2011-10-07

    Traffic of leukocytes in microvascular networks (particularly through arteriolar bifurcations and venular convergences) affects the dynamics of capillary blood flow, initiation of leukocyte adhesion during inflammation, and localization and development of atherosclerotic plaques in vivo. Recently, a growing research effort has been focused on fabricating microvascular networks comprising artificial vessels with more realistic, rounded cross-sections. This paper investigated the impact of the cross-sectional geometry of microchannels on the traffic of leukocytes flowing with human whole blood through a non-symmetrical bifurcation that consisted of a 50 μm mother channel bifurcating into 30 μm and 50 μm daughter branches. Two versions of the same bifurcation comprising microchannels with rectangular and rounded cross-sections were fabricated using conventional multi-layer photolithography to produce rectangular microchannles that were then rounded in situ using a recently developed method of liquid PDMS/air bubble injection. For microchannels with rounded cross-sections, about two-thirds of marginated leukocytes traveling along a path in the top plane of the bifurcation entered the smallest 30 μm daughter branch. This distribution was reversed in microchannels with rectangular cross-sections--the majority of leukocytes traveling along a similar path continued to follow the 50 μm microchannels after the bifurcation. This dramatic difference in the distribution of leukocyte traffic among the branches of the bifurcation can be explained by preferential margination of leukocytes towards the corners of the 50 μm mother microchannels with rectangular cross-sections, and by the additional hindrance to leukocyte entry created by the sharp transition from the 50 μm mother microchannel to the 30 μm daughter branch at the intersection. The results of this study suggest that the trajectories of marginated leukocytes passing through non-symmetrical bifurcations are

  19. Molecular Weiss domain polarization in piezoceramics to diaphragm, cantilever and channel construction in low-temperature-cofired ceramics for micro-fluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, P.K.; Ahmad, S.; Grimme, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts made to study the process of comminution to Weiss domain polarization and phase transition in piezoceramics together with the versatility of low-temperature-cofired ceramics-based devices and components for their ready adoption for typical applications in the area of micro-fluidics. A conceptual micro-fluidic module has been presented and few unit entities necessary for its realization have been described. The purpose of these entities is to position the sensors and actuators by using piezoelectric materials. Investigations are performed to make useful constructions like diaphragms and cantilevers for laying the sensing elements, cavities for burying the electronic chip devices, and channels for fluid transportation. In order to realize these constructions, the basic step involves machining of circular, straight line, rectangular and square-shaped structure in the green ceramic tapes followed by lamination and firing with post-machining in some cases. The diaphragm and cavity includes one or more un-machined layer stacked together with several machined layers with rectangular or square slits. The cantilever is an extension of the diaphragm creation process with inclusion of a post-machining step. The channel essentially consists of a machined green ceramic layer sandwiched between an un-machined and a partially machined layer. The fabrication for all the above constructions has been exemplified and the details have been discussed

  20. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided to allow, for example, research groups to have access to microfluidic fabrication. Unlike most fabrication methods, a method is provided to fabricate a microfluidic device in one step. In an embodiment, a resolution of 50 micrometers was achieved by using maskless high-resolution digital light projection (MDLP). Bonding and channel fabrication of complex or simple structures can be rapidly incorporated to fabricate the microfluidic devices.

  1. Deformability measurement of red blood cells using a microfluidic channel array and an air cavity in a driving syringe with high throughput and precise detection of subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang Jun; Ha, Young-Ran; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2016-01-07

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been considered a potential biomarker for monitoring pathological disorders. High throughput and detection of subpopulations in RBCs are essential in the measurement of RBC deformability. In this paper, we propose a new method to measure RBC deformability by evaluating temporal variations in the average velocity of blood flow and image intensity of successively clogged RBCs in the microfluidic channel array for specific time durations. In addition, to effectively detect differences in subpopulations of RBCs, an air compliance effect is employed by adding an air cavity into a disposable syringe. The syringe was equally filled with a blood sample (V(blood) = 0.3 mL, hematocrit = 50%) and air (V(air) = 0.3 mL). Owing to the air compliance effect, blood flow in the microfluidic device behaved transiently depending on the fluidic resistance in the microfluidic device. Based on the transient behaviors of blood flows, the deformability of RBCs is quantified by evaluating three representative parameters, namely, minimum value of the average velocity of blood flow, clogging index, and delivered blood volume. The proposed method was applied to measure the deformability of blood samples consisting of homogeneous RBCs fixed with four different concentrations of glutaraldehyde solution (0%-0.23%). The proposed method was also employed to evaluate the deformability of blood samples partially mixed with normal RBCs and hardened RBCs. Thereafter, the deformability of RBCs infected by human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum was measured. As a result, the three parameters significantly varied, depending on the degree of deformability. In addition, the deformability measurement of blood samples was successfully completed in a short time (∼10 min). Therefore, the proposed method has significant potential in deformability measurement of blood samples containing hematological diseases with high throughput and precise detection of

  2. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; De Grazia, Antonio; Esposito, Francesco; Allione, Marco; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Tallerico, Rossana; Valpapuram, Immanuel; Tirinato, Luca; Das, Gobind; Giugni, Andrea; Torre, Bruno; Veltri, Pierangelo; Kruhne, Ulrich; Della Valle, Giuseppe; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels- where

  3. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  4. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were fabricated using a free-surface thermo-compression molding method on a polystyrene (PS) sheet which was then bonded on top of microfluidic channels as a cover plate, with the convex microlenses providing a magnified image of the channel for the easier observation of the flow in the microchannels. This approach for fabricating the integrated microlens in microfluidic devices is rapid, low cost and without the requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Research Progress of Microfluidic Chips Preparation and its Optical Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng WANG

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technology is the emerging technologies in researching fluid channel and related applications in the micro and nano-scale space. Microfluidic chip is a new miniaturized rapid analysis platform by microfluidic technology, it has many characteristics such as liquid flow control, minimal reagent consumption, rapid analysis, which is widely used in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering science and other fields, it has strong interdisciplinary. This paper mainly discusses research progress of materials used for microfluidic chips and the devices based on microfluidic technology, including microfluidic chip, microfluidic optical devices, microfluidic laser preparation, microfluidic chip applications, focusing on the quasi-molecular laser processing technology and femtosecond laser processing technology in the microfluidic devices preparation, and make development prospects for it.

  6. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  7. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossi, A M [Department of Biotechnology, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134, Verona (Italy); Vareijka, M; Piletska, E V; Turner, A P F; Piletsky, S A [Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Vincent Building B52, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Meglinski, I [Department of Physics, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054 (New Zealand)

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices. (paper)

  8. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, A M; Vareijka, M; Piletska, E V; Turner, A P F; Piletsky, S A; Meglinski, I

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices. (paper)

  9. Ice matrix in reconfigurable microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossi, A. M.; Vareijka, M.; Piletska, E. V.; Turner, A. P. F.; Meglinski, I.; Piletsky, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    Microfluidic devices find many applications in biotechnologies. Here, we introduce a flexible and biocompatible microfluidic ice-based platform with tunable parameters and configuration of microfluidic patterns that can be changed multiple times during experiments. Freezing and melting of cavities, channels and complex relief structures created and maintained in the bulk of ice by continuous scanning of an infrared laser beam are used as a valve action in microfluidic systems. We demonstrate that pre-concentration of samples and transport of ions and dyes through the open channels created can be achieved in ice microfluidic patterns by IR laser-assisted zone melting. The proposed approach can be useful for performing separation and sensing processes in flexible reconfigurable microfluidic devices.

  10. Nanostructures for all-polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matschuk, Maria; Bruus, Henrik; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2010-01-01

    antistiction coating was found to improve the replication fidelity (shape and depth) of nanoscale features substantially. Arrays of holes of 50 nm diameter/35 nm depth and 100 nm/100 nm diameter, respectively, were mass-produced in cyclic olefin copolymer (Topas 5013) by injection molding. Polymer microfluidic...... channel chip parts resulted from a separate injection molding process. The microfluidic chip part and the nanostructured chip part were successfully bonded to form a sealed microfluidic system using air plasma assisted thermal bonding....

  11. Advanced combinational microfluidic multiplexer for fuel cell reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D W; Kim, Y; Cho, Y-H; Doh, I

    2013-01-01

    An advanced combinational microfluidic multiplexer capable to address multiple fluidic channels for fuel cell reactors is proposed. Using only 4 control lines and two different levels of control pressures, the proposed multiplexer addresses up to 19 fluidic channels, at least two times larger than the previous microfluidic multiplexers. The present multiplexer providing high control efficiency and simple structure for channel addressing would be used in the application areas of the integrated microfluidic systems such as fuel cell reactors and dynamic pressure generators

  12. Microfluidic curved-channel centrifuge for solution exchange of target microparticles and their simultaneous separation from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Pouriya; Rezai, Pouya

    2018-05-21

    One of the common operations in sample preparation is to separate specific particles (e.g. target cells, embryos or microparticles) from non-target substances (e.g. bacteria) in a fluid and to wash them into clean buffers for further processing like detection (called solution exchange in this paper). For instance, solution exchange is widely needed in preparing fluidic samples for biosensing at the point-of-care and point-of-use, but still conducted via the use of cumbersome and time-consuming off-chip analyte washing and purification techniques. Existing small-scale and handheld active and passive devices for washing particles are often limited to very low throughputs or require external sources of energy. Here, we integrated Dean flow recirculation of two fluids in curved microchannels with selective inertial focusing of target particles to develop a microfluidic centrifuge device that can isolate specific particles (as surrogates for target analytes) from bacteria and wash them into a clean buffer at high throughput and efficiency. We could process micron-size particles at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and achieve throughputs higher than 104 particles per second. Our results reveal that the device is capable of singleplex solution exchange of 11 μm and 19 μm particles with efficiencies of 86 ± 2% and 93 ± 0.7%, respectively. A purity of 96 ± 2% was achieved in the duplex experiments where 11 μm particles were isolated from 4 μm particles. Application of our device in biological assays was shown by performing duplex experiments where 11 μm or 19 μm particles were isolated from an Escherichia coli bacterial suspension with purities of 91-98%. We envision that our technique will have applications in point-of-care devices for simultaneous purification and solution exchange of cells and embryos from smaller substances in high-volume suspensions at high throughput and efficiency.

  13. Controlling two-phase flow in microfluidic systems using electrowetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electrowetting (EW)-based digital microfluidic systems (DMF) and droplet-based two-phase flow microfluidic systems (TPF) with closed channels are the most widely used microfluidic platforms. In general, these two approaches have been considered independently. However, integrating the two

  14. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  15. Microfluidic Biochip Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles

    2004-01-01

    As humans prepare for the exploration of our solar system, there is a growing need for miniaturized medical and environmental diagnostic devices for use on spacecrafts, especially during long-duration space missions where size and power requirements are critical. In recent years, the biochip (or Lab-on-a- Chip) has emerged as a technology that might be able to satisfy this need. In generic terms, a biochip is a miniaturized microfluidic device analogous to the electronic microchip that ushered in the digital age. It consists of tiny microfluidic channels, pumps and valves that transport small amounts of sample fluids to biosensors that can perform a variety of tests on those fluids in near real time. It has the obvious advantages of being small, lightweight, requiring less sample fluids and reagents and being more sensitive and efficient than larger devices currently in use. Some of the desired space-based applications would be to provide smaller, more robust devices for analyzing blood, saliva and urine and for testing water and food supplies for the presence of harmful contaminants and microorganisms. Our group has undertaken the goal of adapting as well as improving upon current biochip technology for use in long-duration microgravity environments. In addition to developing computational models of the microfluidic channels, valves and pumps that form the basis of every biochip, we are also trying to identify potential problems that could arise in reduced gravity and develop solutions to these problems. One such problem is due to the prevalence of bubbly sample fluids in microgravity. A bubble trapped in a microfluidic channel could be detrimental to the operation of a biochip. Therefore, the process of bubble formation in microgravity needs to be studied, and a model of this process has been developed and used to understand how bubbles develop and move through biochip components. It is clear that some type of bubble filter would be necessary in Space, and

  16. Optical bio-sensors in microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Dongre, C.; Pham Van So, P.V.S.; Bernhardi, Edward; Worhoff, Kerstin; de Ridder, R.M.; Hoekstra, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Direct femtosecond laser writing is used to integrate optical waveguides that intersect the microfluidic channels in a commercial optofluidic chip. With laser excitation, fluorescently labeled DNA molecules of different sizes are separated by capillary electrophoresis with high operating speed and

  17. In-Channel-Grown Polypyrrole Nanowire for the Detection of DNA Hybridization in an Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Luyen Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A triple electrode setup with a Pt pseudo-reference electrode integrated in a polydimethylsiloxane- (PDMS- based microchamber was designed and fabricated. The integrated electrodes were deposited onto SiO2/Si substrate by sputtering. The PDMS microchamber was patterned using an SU-8 mold and sealed with electrodes in oxygen plasma. Polypyrrole nanowires (PPy NWs were electrochemically grown in situ at an accurate position of the working electrode in the sealed microchamber instead of in an open system. The DNA probe sequences were simply introduced into the channel to form bonds with the nanowires. A detection limit of 20 pM was achieved using a lock-in amplifier. The electrochemical characteristics produced by the hybridization of DNA strands in the microchamber showed a good signal/noise ratio and high sensitivity. Measurement of the DNA sensor in narrow space also required much less volume of the analytical sample compared with that in an open measuring cell. Results showed that this simple system can potentially fabricate nanostructures and detect bio/chemical molecules in a sealed system.

  18. Dissolved oxygen sensing using organometallic dyes deposited within a microfluidic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. L.; Ho, H. P.; Jin, L.; Chu, B. W.-K.; Li, M. J.; Yam, V. W.-W.

    2008-02-01

    This work primarily aims to integrate dissolved oxygen sensing capability with a microfluidic platform containing arrays of micro bio-reactors or bio-activity indicators. The measurement of oxygen concentration is of significance for a variety of bio-related applications such as cell culture and gene expression. Optical oxygen sensors based on luminescence quenching are gaining much interest in light of their low power consumption, quick response and high analyte sensitivity in comparison to similar oxygen sensing devices. In our microfluidic oxygen sensor device, a thin layer of oxygen-sensitive luminescent organometallic dye is covalently bonded to a glass slide. Micro flow channels are formed on the glass slide using patterned PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane). Dissolved oxygen sensing is then performed by directing an optical excitation probe beam to the area of interest within the microfluidic channel. The covalent bonding approach for sensor layer formation offers many distinct advantages over the physical entrapment method including minimizing dye leaching, ensuring good stability and fabrication simplicity. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the device.

  19. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  20. Pulsed laser triggered high speed microfluidic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Gao, Lanyu; Chen, Yue; Wei, Kenneth; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2008-10-01

    We report a high-speed microfluidic switch capable of achieving a switching time of 10 μs. The switching mechanism is realized by exciting dynamic vapor bubbles with focused laser pulses in a microfluidic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel. The bubble expansion deforms the elastic PDMS channel wall and squeezes the adjacent sample channel to control its fluid and particle flows as captured by the time-resolved imaging system. A switching of polystyrene microspheres in a Y-shaped channel has also been demonstrated. This ultrafast laser triggered switching mechanism has the potential to advance the sorting speed of state-of-the-art microscale fluorescence activated cell sorting devices.

  1. Theoretical microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Henrik

    Microfluidics is a young and rapidly expanding scientific discipline, which deals with fluids and solutions in miniaturized systems, the so-called lab-on-a-chip systems. It has applications in chemical engineering, pharmaceutics, biotechnology and medicine. As the lab-on-a-chip systems grow...

  2. Droplet based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seemann, Ralf; Brinkmann, Martin; Pfohl, Thomas; Herminghaus, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Droplet based microfluidics is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field of research combining soft matter physics, biochemistry and microsystems engineering. Its applications range from fast analytical systems or the synthesis of advanced materials to protein crystallization and biological assays for living cells. Precise control of droplet volumes and reliable manipulation of individual droplets such as coalescence, mixing of their contents, and sorting in combination with fast analysis tools allow us to perform chemical reactions inside the droplets under defined conditions. In this paper, we will review available drop generation and manipulation techniques. The main focus of this review is not to be comprehensive and explain all techniques in great detail but to identify and shed light on similarities and underlying physical principles. Since geometry and wetting properties of the microfluidic channels are crucial factors for droplet generation, we also briefly describe typical device fabrication methods in droplet based microfluidics. Examples of applications and reaction schemes which rely on the discussed manipulation techniques are also presented, such as the fabrication of special materials and biophysical experiments.

  3. Particle-Based Microfluidic Device for Providing High Magnetic Field Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Adam Y. (Inventor); Wong, Tak S. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic device for manipulating particles in a fluid has a device body that defines a main channel therein, in which the main channel has an inlet and an outlet. The device body further defines a particulate diverting channel therein, the particulate diverting channel being in fluid connection with the main channel between the inlet and the outlet of the main channel and having a particulate outlet. The microfluidic device also has a plurality of microparticles arranged proximate or in the main channel between the inlet of the main channel and the fluid connection of the particulate diverting channel to the main channel. The plurality of microparticles each comprises a material in a composition thereof having a magnetic susceptibility suitable to cause concentration of magnetic field lines of an applied magnetic field while in operation. A microfluidic particle-manipulation system has a microfluidic particle-manipulation device and a magnet disposed proximate the microfluidic particle-manipulation device.

  4. Applications of Microfluidics in Quantitative Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Gao, Meng; Wen, Lingling; He, Caiyun; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Chenli; Fu, Xiongfei; Huang, Shuqiang

    2018-05-01

    Quantitative biology is dedicated to taking advantage of quantitative reasoning and advanced engineering technologies to make biology more predictable. Microfluidics, as an emerging technique, provides new approaches to precisely control fluidic conditions on small scales and collect data in high-throughput and quantitative manners. In this review, the authors present the relevant applications of microfluidics to quantitative biology based on two major categories (channel-based microfluidics and droplet-based microfluidics), and their typical features. We also envision some other microfluidic techniques that may not be employed in quantitative biology right now, but have great potential in the near future. © 2017 Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Biotechnology Journal Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Microfluidic process monitor for industrial solvent extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelis, Artem; Pereira, Candido; Nichols, Kevin Paul Flood

    2016-01-12

    The present invention provides a system for solvent extraction utilizing a first electrode with a raised area formed on its surface, which defines a portion of a microfluidic channel; a second electrode with a flat surface, defining another portion of the microfluidic channel that opposes the raised area of the first electrode; a reversibly deformable substrate disposed between the first electrode and second electrode, adapted to accommodate the raised area of the first electrode and having a portion that extends beyond the raised area of the first electrode, that portion defining the remaining portions of the microfluidic channel; and an electrolyte of at least two immiscible liquids that flows through the microfluidic channel. Also provided is a system for performing multiple solvent extractions utilizing several microfluidic chips or unit operations connected in series.

  6. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  7. Micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples comprising an oblong micro-channel extending longitudinally from a support element, the micro-channel is made from at least two materials with different thermal expansion coefficients, wherein...

  8. Porous Microfluidic Devices - Fabrication adn Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; Geerken, M.J.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The major part of microfluidic devices nowadays consists of a dense material that defines the fluidic structure. A generic fabrication method enabling the production of completely porous micro devices with user-defined channel networks is developed. The channel walls can be used as a (selective)

  9. Digital microfluidic processing of mammalian embryos for vitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek G Pyne

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation is a key technology in biology and clinical practice. This paper presents a digital microfluidic device that automates sample preparation for mammalian embryo vitrification. Individual micro droplets manipulated on the microfluidic device were used as micro-vessels to transport a single mouse embryo through a complete vitrification procedure. Advantages of this approach, compared to manual operation and channel-based microfluidic vitrification, include automated operation, cryoprotectant concentration gradient generation, and feasibility of loading and retrieval of embryos.

  10. Electric field-decoupled electroosmotic pump for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J

    2003-09-26

    An electric field-free electroosmotic pump has been constructed and its pumping rate has been measured under various experimental conditions. The key component of the pump is an ion-exchange membrane grounding joint that serves two major functions: (i) to maintain fluid continuity between pump channels and microfluidic conduit and (ii) to ground the solution in the microfluidic channel at the joint through an external electrode, and hence to decouple the electric field applied to the pump channels from the rest of the microfluidic system. A theoretical model has been developed to calculate the pumping rates and its validity has been demonstrated.

  11. Accelerated Biofluid Filling in Complex Microfluidic Networks by Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zeta Tak For; Cheung, Mei Ki; Liu, Shirley Xiaosu; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Rapid fluid transport and exchange are critical operations involved in many microfluidic applications. However, conventional mechanisms used for driving fluid transport in microfluidics, such as micropumping and high pressure, can be inaccurate and difficult for implementation for integrated microfluidics containing control components and closed compartments. Here, a technology has been developed termed Vacuum-Pressure Accelerated Movement (V-PAM) capable of significantly enhancing biofluid transport in complex microfluidic environments containing dead-end channels and closed chambers. Operation of the V-PAM entails a pressurized fluid loading into microfluidic channels where gas confined inside can rapidly be dissipated through permeation through a thin, gas-permeable membrane sandwiched between microfluidic channels and a network of vacuum channels. Effects of different structural and operational parameters of the V-PAM for promoting fluid filling in microfluidic environments have been studied systematically. This work further demonstrates the applicability of V-PAM for rapid filling of temperature-sensitive hydrogels and unprocessed whole blood into complex irregular microfluidic networks such as microfluidic leaf venation patterns and blood circulatory systems. Together, the V-PAM technology provides a promising generic microfluidic tool for advanced fluid control and transport in integrated microfluidics for different microfluidic diagnosis, organs-on-chips, and biomimetic studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Microfluidic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William J.; Krulevitch, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    A miniature connector for introducing microliter quantities of solutions into microfabricated fluidic devices. The fluidic connector, for example, joins standard high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) tubing to 1 mm diameter holes in silicon or glass, enabling ml-sized volumes of sample solutions to be merged with .mu.l-sized devices. The connector has many features, including ease of connect and disconnect; a small footprint which enables numerous connectors to be located in a small area; low dead volume; helium leak-tight; and tubing does not twist during connection. Thus the connector enables easy and effective change of microfluidic devices and introduction of different solutions in the devices.

  13. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  14. Integration of an optical CMOS sensor with a microfluidic channel allows a sensitive readout for biological assays in point-of-care tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorst, Bieke; Brivio, Monica; Van Der Sar, Elfried; Blom, Marko; Reuvekamp, Simon; Tanzi, Simone; Groenhuis, Roelf; Adojutelegan, Adewole; Lous, Erik-Jan; Frederix, Filip; Stuyver, Lieven J

    2016-04-15

    In this manuscript, a microfluidic detection module, which allows a sensitive readout of biological assays in point-of-care (POC) tests, is presented. The proposed detection module consists of a microfluidic flow cell with an integrated Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS)-based single photon counting optical sensor. Due to the integrated sensor-based readout, the detection module could be implemented as the core technology in stand-alone POC tests, for use in mobile or rural settings. The performance of the detection module was demonstrated in three assays: a peptide, a protein and an antibody detection assay. The antibody detection assay with readout in the detection module proved to be 7-fold more sensitive that the traditional colorimetric plate-based ELISA. The protein and peptide assay showed a lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 200 fM and 460 fM respectively. Results demonstrate that the sensitivity of the immunoassays is comparable with lab-based immunoassays and at least equal or better than current mainstream POC devices. This sensitive readout holds the potential to develop POC tests, which are able to detect low concentrations of biomarkers. This will broaden the diagnostic capabilities at the clinician's office and at patient's home, where currently only the less sensitive lateral flow and dipstick POC tests are implemented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of Plate Reader and On-Line Microfluidic Screening to Identify Ligands of the 5-Hydroxytryptamine Binding Protein in Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka A. Otvos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 5-HT3 receptor is a ligand-gated ion channel, which is expressed in the nervous system. Its antagonists are used clinically for treatment of postoperative- and radiotherapy-induced emesis and irritable bowel syndrome. In order to better understand the structure and function of the 5-HT3 receptor, and to allow for compound screening at this receptor, recently a serotonin binding protein (5HTBP was engineered with the Acetylcholine Binding Protein as template. In this study, a fluorescence enhancement assay for 5HTBP ligands was developed in plate-reader format and subsequently used in an on-line microfluidic format. Both assay types were validated using an existing radioligand binding assay. The on-line microfluidic assay was coupled to HPLC via a post-column split which allowed parallel coupling to a mass spectrometer to collect MS data. This high-resolution screening (HRS system is well suitable for compound mixture analysis. As a proof of principle, the venoms of Dendroapsis polylepis, Pseudonaja affinis and Pseudonaja inframacula snakes were screened and the accurate masses of the found bioactives were established. To demonstrate the subsequent workflow towards structural identification of bioactive proteins and peptides, the partial amino acid sequence of one of the bioactives from the Pseudonaja affinis venom was determined using a bottom-up proteomics approach.

  16. Evaluation of a X-ray imaging method in micro-fluidics: the case of T-shaped micro-channels filling up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vabre, A.; Legoupil, S.; Manach, E.; Gal, O.; Colin, St.; Geoffroy, S.; Gue, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    X-rays methods assessment in micro-fluidics: case of 'T' shaped microchannels filling. Fluid flows within 'T' or 'Y' shaped microchannels are deeply studied in order to develop adapted modeling approaches and experimental techniques. Our technological choice lies on the attenuation measurement of X-ray in matter. The main advantage of this non-intrusive technique is to be implemented on media opaque to visible light. Moreover, X-rays methods may achieve better spatial resolutions as compared to optical methods because of their much lower wavelength. In order to validate this X-ray method, measurements obtained by this technique are compared with direct measurements carried out on similar microchannels. Finally, experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. (author)

  17. Seaweed Bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti

    . In conclusion, two brown seaweeds, Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida, inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities due to their content of several bioactive components with a potential use for future functional foods. Their effects on the postprandial insulin response and the in vitro findings...

  18. Development & Characterization of Multifunctional Microfluidic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Ahmet Burak

    The field of microfluidics has been mostly investigated for miniaturized lab on a chip devices for analytical and clinical applications. However, there is an emerging class of "smart" microfluidic materials, combining microfluidics with soft polymers to yield new functionalities. The best inspiration for such materials found in nature is skin, whose functions are maintained and controlled by a vascular "microfluidic" network. We report here the development and characterization of a few new classes of microfluidic materials. First, we introduced microfluidic materials that can change their stiffness on demand. These materials were based on an engineered microchannel network embedded into a matrix of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), whose channels were filled with a liquid photoresist (SU- 8). The elastomer filled with the photoresist was initially soft. The materials were shaped into a desired geometry and then exposed to UV-light. Once photocured, the material preserved the defined shape and it could be bent, twisted or stretched with a very high recoverable strain. As soon as the external force was removed the material returned back to its predefined shape. Thus, the polymerized SU-8 acted as the 'endoskeleton' of the microfluidic network, which drastically increased the composite's elastic and bending moduli. Second, we demonstrated a class of simple and versatile soft microfluidic materials that can be turned optically transparent or colored on demand. These materials were made in the form of flexible sheets containing a microchannel network embedded in PDMS, similar to the photocurable materials. However, this time the channels were filled with a glycerolwater mixture, whose refractive index was matched with that of the PDMS matrix. By pumping such dye solutions into the channel network and consecutively replacing the medium, we showed that we can control the material's color and light transmittance in the visible and near-infrared regions, which can be used for

  19. Printing-based fabrication method using sacrificial paper substrates for flexible and wearable microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daehan; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a simple, fast, and inexpensive new printing-based fabrication process for flexible and wearable microfluidic channels and devices. Microfluidic devices are fabricated on textiles (fabric) for applications in clothing-based wearable microfluidic sensors and systems. The wearable and flexible microfluidic devices are comprised of water-insoluable screen-printable plastisol polymer. Sheets of paper are used as sacrificial substrates for multiple layers of polymer on the fabric’s surface. Microfluidic devices can be made within a short time using simple processes and inexpensive equipment that includes a laser cutter and a thermal laminator. The fabrication process is characterized to demonstrate control of microfluidic channel thickness and width. Film thickness smaller than 100 micrometers and lateral dimensions smaller than 150 micrometers are demonstrated. A flexible microfluidic mixer is also developed on fabric and successfully tested on both flat and curved surfaces at volumetric flow rates ranging from 5.5-46 ml min-1.

  20. Materials for Microfluidic Immunoassays: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Lei; Jiang, Xingyu

    2017-08-01

    Conventional immunoassays suffer from at least one of these following limitations: long processing time, high costs, poor user-friendliness, technical complexity, poor sensitivity and specificity. Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids in channels with characteristic lengthscale of tens of micrometers, has shown considerable promise for improving immunoassays that could overcome these limitations in medical diagnostics and biology research. The combination of microfluidics and immunoassay can detect biomarkers with faster assay time, reduced volumes of reagents, lower power requirements, and higher levels of integration and automation compared to traditional approaches. This review focuses on the materials-related aspects of the recent advances in microfluidics-based immunoassays for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics of biomarkers. We compare the materials for microfluidic chips fabrication in five aspects: fabrication, integration, function, modification and cost, and describe their advantages and drawbacks. In addition, we review materials for modifying antibodies to improve the performance of the reaction of immunoassay. We also review the state of the art in microfluidic immunoassays POC platforms, from the laboratory to routine clinical practice, and also commercial products in the market. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and future developments in microfluidic immunoassays. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. elegans have ~65% similarity with human disease genes and, therefore, studies on C. elegans can be translated to human, as well as, C. elegans can be used in the study of different types of parasitic worms that infect other living organisms. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C. elegans. Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc. Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology.

  2. Rapid wasted-free microfluidic fabrication based on ink-jet approach for microfluidic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarujareet, Ungkarn; Amarit, Rattasart; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2016-11-01

    Realizing that current microfluidic chip fabrication techniques are time consuming and labor intensive as well as always have material leftover after chip fabrication, this research work proposes an innovative approach for rapid microfluidic chip production. The key idea relies on a combination of a widely-used inkjet printing method and a heat-based polymer curing technique with an electronic-mechanical control, thus eliminating the need of masking and molds compared to typical microfluidic fabrication processes. In addition, as the appropriate amount of polymer is utilized during printing, there is much less amount of material wasted. Our inkjet-based microfluidic printer can print out the desired microfluidic chip pattern directly onto a heated glass surface, where the printed polymer is suddenly cured. Our proof-of-concept demonstration for widely-used single-flow channel, Y-junction, and T-junction microfluidic chips shows that the whole microfluidic chip fabrication process requires only 3 steps with a fabrication time of 6 minutes.

  3. Polymer-based platform for microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, William [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter [Pleasanton, CA; Maghribi, Mariam [Livermore, CA; Hamilton, Julie [Tracy, CA; Rose, Klint [Boston, MA; Wang, Amy W [Oakland, CA

    2009-10-13

    A method of forming a polymer-based microfluidic system platform using network building blocks selected from a set of interconnectable network building blocks, such as wire, pins, blocks, and interconnects. The selected building blocks are interconnectably assembled and fixedly positioned in precise positions in a mold cavity of a mold frame to construct a three-dimensional model construction of a microfluidic flow path network preferably having meso-scale dimensions. A hardenable liquid, such as poly (dimethylsiloxane) is then introduced into the mold cavity and hardened to form a platform structure as well as to mold the microfluidic flow path network having channels, reservoirs and ports. Pre-fabricated elbows, T's and other joints are used to interconnect various building block elements together. After hardening the liquid the building blocks are removed from the platform structure to make available the channels, cavities and ports within the platform structure. Microdevices may be embedded within the cast polymer-based platform, or bonded to the platform structure subsequent to molding, to create an integrated microfluidic system. In this manner, the new microfluidic platform is versatile and capable of quickly generating prototype systems, and could easily be adapted to a manufacturing setting.

  4. Valve Concepts for Microfluidic Cell Handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grabowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present various pneumatically actuated microfluidic valves to enable user-defined fluid management within a microfluidic chip. To identify a feasible valve design, certain valve concepts are simulated in ANSYS to investigate the pressure dependent opening and closing characteristics of each design. The results are verified in a series of tests. Both the microfluidic layer and the pneumatic layer are realized by means of soft-lithographic techniques. In this way, a network of channels is fabricated in photoresist as a molding master. By casting these masters with PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane we get polymeric replicas containing the channel network. After a plasma-enhanced bonding process, the two layers are irreversibly bonded to each other. The bonding is tight for pressures up to 2 bar. The valves are integrated into a microfluidic cell handling system that is designed to manipulate cells in the presence of a liquid reagent (e.g. PEG – polyethylene glycol, for cell fusion. For this purpose a user-defined fluid management system is developed. The first test series with human cell lines show that the microfluidic chip is suitable for accumulating cells within a reaction chamber, where they can be flushed by a liquid medium.

  5. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Fabrication, Metrology, and Transport Characteristics of Single Polymeric Nanopores in Three-Dimensional Hybrid Microfluidic/Nanofluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Travis L.

    2009-01-01

    The incorporation of nanofluidic elements between microfluidic channels to form hybrid microfluidic/nanofluidic architectures allows the extension of microfluidic systems into the third dimension, thus removing the constraints imposed by planarity. Measuring and understanding the behavior of these devices creates new analytical challenges due to…

  7. Soft tubular microfluidics for 2D and 3D applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wang; Kong, Fang; Yeo, Joo Chuan; Yu, Longteng; Sonam, Surabhi; Dao, Ming; Gong, Xiaobo; Teck Lim, Chwee

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidics has been the key component for many applications, including biomedical devices, chemical processors, microactuators, and even wearable devices. This technology relies on soft lithography fabrication which requires cleanroom facilities. Although popular, this method is expensive and labor-intensive. Furthermore, current conventional microfluidic chips precludes reconfiguration, making reiterations in design very time-consuming and costly. To address these intrinsic drawbacks of microfabrication, we present an alternative solution for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic elements such as microtubes, valves, and pumps. In addition, we demonstrate how microtubes with channels of various lengths and cross-sections can be attached modularly into 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for functional applications. We introduce a facile method of fabricating elastomeric microtubes as the basic building blocks for microfluidic devices. These microtubes are transparent, biocompatible, highly deformable, and customizable to various sizes and cross-sectional geometries. By configuring the microtubes into deterministic geometry, we enable rapid, low-cost formation of microfluidic assemblies without compromising their precision and functionality. We demonstrate configurable 2D and 3D microfluidic systems for applications in different domains. These include microparticle sorting, microdroplet generation, biocatalytic micromotor, triboelectric sensor, and even wearable sensing. Our approach, termed soft tubular microfluidics, provides a simple, cheaper, and faster solution for users lacking proficiency and access to cleanroom facilities to design and rapidly construct microfluidic devices for their various applications and needs.

  8. Parallel imaging microfluidic cytometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Daniel J; McKenna, Brian K; Evans, James G; Belkina, Anna C; Denis, Gerald V; Sherr, David H; Cheung, Man Ching

    2011-01-01

    By adding an additional degree of freedom from multichannel flow, the parallel microfluidic cytometer (PMC) combines some of the best features of fluorescence-activated flow cytometry (FCM) and microscope-based high-content screening (HCS). The PMC (i) lends itself to fast processing of large numbers of samples, (ii) adds a 1D imaging capability for intracellular localization assays (HCS), (iii) has a high rare-cell sensitivity, and (iv) has an unusual capability for time-synchronized sampling. An inability to practically handle large sample numbers has restricted applications of conventional flow cytometers and microscopes in combinatorial cell assays, network biology, and drug discovery. The PMC promises to relieve a bottleneck in these previously constrained applications. The PMC may also be a powerful tool for finding rare primary cells in the clinic. The multichannel architecture of current PMC prototypes allows 384 unique samples for a cell-based screen to be read out in ∼6-10 min, about 30 times the speed of most current FCM systems. In 1D intracellular imaging, the PMC can obtain protein localization using HCS marker strategies at many times for the sample throughput of charge-coupled device (CCD)-based microscopes or CCD-based single-channel flow cytometers. The PMC also permits the signal integration time to be varied over a larger range than is practical in conventional flow cytometers. The signal-to-noise advantages are useful, for example, in counting rare positive cells in the most difficult early stages of genome-wide screening. We review the status of parallel microfluidic cytometry and discuss some of the directions the new technology may take. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aptamer entrapment in microfluidic channel using one-step sol-gel process, in view of the integration of a new selective extraction phase for lab-on-a-chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perréard, Camille; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Griveau, Sophie; Liu, Baohong; Bedioui, Fethi; Varenne, Anne

    2017-10-01

    There is a great demand for integrating sample treatment into μTASs. In this context, we developed a new sol-gel phase for extraction of trace compounds in complex matrices. For this purpose, the incorporation of aptamers in silica-based gel within PDMS/glass microfluidic channels was performed for the first time by a one-step sol-gel process. The effective gel attachment onto microchannel walls and aptamer incorporation in the polymerized gel were evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. A good gel stability and aptamer incorporation inside the microchannel was demonstrated upon rinsing and over storage time. The ability of gel-encapsulated aptamers to interact with its specific target (either sulforhodamine B as model fluorescent target, or diclofenac, a pain killer drug) was assessed too. The binding capacity of entrapped aptamers was quantified (in the micromolar range) and the selectivity of the interaction was evidenced. Preservation of aptamers binding affinity to target molecules was therefore demonstrated. Dissociation constant of the aptamer-target complex and interaction selectivity were evaluated similar to those in bulk solution. This opens the way to new selective on-chip SPE techniques for sample pretreatment. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Optical calorimetry in microfluidic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Jacob; Pattekar, Ashish; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh; Martini, Joerg; Recht, Michael I

    2018-05-29

    A novel microfluidic calorimeter that measures the enthalpy change of reactions occurring in 100 μm diameter aqueous droplets in fluoropolymer oil has been developed. The aqueous reactants flow into a microfluidic droplet generation chip in separate fluidic channels, limiting contact between the streams until immediately before they form the droplet. The diffusion-driven mixing of reactants is predominantly restricted to within the droplet. The temperature change in droplets due to the heat of reaction is measured optically by recording the reflectance spectra of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) that are added to one of the reactant streams. As the droplets travel through the channel, the spectral characteristics of the TLC represent the internal temperature, allowing optical measurement with a precision of ≈6 mK. The microfluidic chip and all fluids are temperature controlled, and the reaction heat within droplets raises their temperature until thermal diffusion dissipates the heat into the surrounding oil and chip walls. Position resolved optical temperature measurement of the droplets allows calculation of the heat of reaction by analyzing the droplet temperature profile over time. Channel dimensions, droplet generation rate, droplet size, reactant stream flows and oil flow rate are carefully balanced to provide rapid diffusional mixing of reactants compared to thermal diffusion, while avoiding thermal "quenching" due to contact between the droplets and the chip walls. Compared to conventional microcalorimetry, which has been used in this work to provide reference measurements, this new continuous flow droplet calorimeter has the potential to perform titrations ≈1000-fold faster while using ≈400-fold less reactants per titration.

  11. Microfluidics and microscale transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-01-01

    With an intense focus on micro- and nanotechnology from a fluidic perspective, this book details the research activities in key directions on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. As part of the IIT Kharagpur Research Monograph series, the text discusses topics such as capillary transport in microchannels, fluid friction and heat transfer in microchannels, electrokinetics, and interfacial transport in nanochannels. It also covers nanoparticle transport in colloidal suspensions, bubble generation in microfluidic channels, micro-heat pipe, the lattice Boltzmann method for phase changing

  12. Patterning of PMMA microfluidic parts using screen printing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahari Kaleibar, Aminreza; Rahbar, Mona; Haiducu, Marius; Parameswaran, Ash M.

    2010-02-01

    An inexpensive and rapid micro-fabrication process for producing PMMA microfluidic components has been presented. Our proposed technique takes advantages of commercially available economical technologies such as the silk screen printing and UV patterning of PMMA substrates to produce the microfluidic components. As a demonstration of our proposed technique, we had utilized a homemade deep-UV source, λ=254nm, a silk screen mask made using a local screen-printing shop and Isopropyl alcohol - water mixture (IPA-water) as developer to quickly define the microfluidic patterns. The prototyped devices were successfully bonded, sealed, and the device functionality tested and demonstrated. The screen printing based technique can produce microfluidic channels as small as 50 micrometers quite easily, making this technique the most cost-effective, fairly high precision and at the same time an ultra economical plastic microfluidic components fabrication process reported to date.

  13. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; De Grazia, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels-where the cells can flow one-by-one -, allowing single...... cell Raman analysis. The microfluidic channel integrates plasmonic nanodimers in a fluidic trapping region. In this way it is possible to perform Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on single cell. These allow a label-free analysis, providing information about the biochemical content of membrane and cytoplasm...

  14. Temperature Sensing in Modular Microfluidic Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna C. Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete microfluidic element with integrated thermal sensor was fabricated and demonstrated as an effective probe for process monitoring and prototyping. Elements were constructed using stereolithography and market-available glass-bodied thermistors within the modular, standardized framework of previous discrete microfluidic elements demonstrated in the literature. Flow rate-dependent response due to sensor self-heating and microchannel heating and cooling was characterized and shown to be linear in typical laboratory conditions. An acid-base neutralization reaction was performed in a continuous flow setting to demonstrate applicability in process management: the ratio of solution flow rates was varied to locate the equivalence point in a titration, closely matching expected results. This element potentially enables complex, three-dimensional microfluidic architectures with real-time temperature feedback and flow rate sensing, without application specificity or restriction to planar channel routing formats.

  15. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  16. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tunable Microfluidic Dye Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Helbo, Bjarne; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a tunable microfluidic dye laser fabricated in SU-8. The tunability is enabled by integrating a microfluidic diffusion mixer with an existing microfluidic dye laser design by Helbo et al. By controlling the relative flows in the mixer between a dye solution and a solvent......, the concentration of dye in the laser cavity can be adjusted, allowing the wavelength to be tuned. Wavelength tuning controlled by the dye concentration was demonstrated with macroscopic dye lasers already in 1971, but this principle only becomes practically applicable by the use of microfluidic mixing...

  18. Desktop aligner for fabrication of multilayer microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Geraldo, Dalton; Weng, Shinuo; Alve, Nitesh; Dun, Wu; Kini, Akshay; Patel, Karan; Shu, Roberto; Zhang, Feng; Li, Gang; Jin, Qinghui; Fu, Jianping

    2015-07-01

    Multilayer assembly is a commonly used technique to construct multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices with complex 3D architecture and connectivity for large-scale microfluidic integration. Accurate alignment of structure features on different PDMS layers before their permanent bonding is critical in determining the yield and quality of assembled multilayer microfluidic devices. Herein, we report a custom-built desktop aligner capable of both local and global alignments of PDMS layers covering a broad size range. Two digital microscopes were incorporated into the aligner design to allow accurate global alignment of PDMS structures up to 4 in. in diameter. Both local and global alignment accuracies of the desktop aligner were determined to be about 20 μm cm(-1). To demonstrate its utility for fabrication of integrated multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices, we applied the desktop aligner to achieve accurate alignment of different functional PDMS layers in multilayer microfluidics including an organs-on-chips device as well as a microfluidic device integrated with vertical passages connecting channels located in different PDMS layers. Owing to its convenient operation, high accuracy, low cost, light weight, and portability, the desktop aligner is useful for microfluidic researchers to achieve rapid and accurate alignment for generating multilayer PDMS microfluidic devices.

  19. Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2008-01-01

    We report on a novel optofluidic system consisting of a silica-based 1D photonic crystal, integrated planar waveguides, and electrically insulated fluidic channels. An array of pillars in a microfluidic channel designed for electrochromatography is used as a resonator for on-column label...

  20. Materials for microfluidic chip fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kangning; Zhou, Jianhua; Wu, Hongkai

    2013-11-19

    Through manipulating fluids using microfabricated channel and chamber structures, microfluidics is a powerful tool to realize high sensitive, high speed, high throughput, and low cost analysis. In addition, the method can establish a well-controlled microenivroment for manipulating fluids and particles. It also has rapid growing implementations in both sophisticated chemical/biological analysis and low-cost point-of-care assays. Some unique phenomena emerge at the micrometer scale. For example, reactions are completed in a shorter amount of time as the travel distances of mass and heat are relatively small; the flows are usually laminar; and the capillary effect becomes dominant owing to large surface-to-volume ratios. In the meantime, the surface properties of the device material are greatly amplified, which can lead to either unique functions or problems that we would not encounter at the macroscale. Also, each material inherently corresponds with specific microfabrication strategies and certain native properties of the device. Therefore, the material for making the device plays a dominating role in microfluidic technologies. In this Account, we address the evolution of materials used for fabricating microfluidic chips, and discuss the application-oriented pros and cons of different materials. This Account generally follows the order of the materials introduced to microfluidics. Glass and silicon, the first generation microfluidic device materials, are perfect for capillary electrophoresis and solvent-involved applications but expensive for microfabriaction. Elastomers enable low-cost rapid prototyping and high density integration of valves on chip, allowing complicated and parallel fluid manipulation and in-channel cell culture. Plastics, as competitive alternatives to elastomers, are also rapid and inexpensive to microfabricate. Their broad variety provides flexible choices for different needs. For example, some thermosets support in-situ fabrication of

  1. A Simple Opto-Fluidic Switch Detecting Liquid Filling in Polymer-Based Microfluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Frederik; Geschke, Oliver; Zengerle, R

    2007-01-01

    A novel detection scheme for detection of liquid levels and bubbles in microfluidic systems, using the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) is presented. A laser beam impinges on the side walls of a channel which are inclined at 45deg. In an unfilled channel of such a "V-groove", TIR defl...... of the microfluidic channels. The machining of the V-groves can seamlessly be integrated into common polymer microfabrication schemes such as injection molding....

  2. Intensely oscillating cavitation bubble in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siew-Wan, Ohl; Tandiono; Klaseboer, Evert; Dave, Ow; Choo, Andre; Claus-Dieter, Ohl

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the technical breakthrough in generating intense ultrasonic cavitation in the confinement of a microfluidics channel [1], and applications that has been developed on this platform for the past few years [2,3,4,5]. Our system consists of circular disc transducers (10-20 mm in diameter), the microfluidics channels on PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), and a driving circuitry. The cavitation bubbles are created at the gas- water interface due to strong capillary waves which are generated when the system is driven at its natural frequency (around 100 kHz) [1]. These bubbles oscillate and collapse within the channel. The bubbles are useful for sonochemistry and the generation of sonoluminescence [2]. When we add bacteria (Escherichia coli), and yeast cells (Pichia pastoris) into the microfluidics channels, the oscillating and collapsing bubbles stretch and lyse these cells [3]. Furthermore, the system is effective (DNA of the harvested intracellular content remains largely intact), and efficient (yield reaches saturation in less than 1 second). In another application, human red blood cells are added to a microchamber. Cell stretching and rapture are observed when a laser generated cavitation bubble expands and collapses next to the cell [4]. A numerical model of a liquid pocket surrounded by a membrane with surface tension which was placed next to an oscillating bubble was developed using the Boundary Element Method. The simulation results showed that the stretching of the liquid pocket occurs only when the surface tension is within a certain range. (paper)

  3. Logic control of microfluidics with smart colloid

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu

    2010-01-01

    We report the successful realization of a microfluidic chip with switching and corresponding inverting functionalities. The chips are identical logic control components incorporating a type of smart colloid, giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which possesses reversible characteristics via a liquid-solid phase transition under external electric field. Two pairs of electrodes embedded on the sides of two microfluidic channels serve as signal input and output, respectively. One, located in the GERF micro-channel is used to control the flow status of GERF, while another one in the ither micro-fluidic channel is used to detect the signal generated with a passing-by droplet (defined as a signal droplet). Switching of the GERF from the suspended state (off-state) to the flowing state (on-state) or vice versa in the micro-channel is controlled by the appearance of signal droplets whenever they pass through the detection electrode. The output on-off signals can be easily demonstrated, clearly matching with GERF flow status. Our results show that such a logic switch is also a logic IF gate, while its inverter functions as a NOT gate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  4. Microfluidics for chemical processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic systems, and more specifically, microfluidic chips, have a number of features that make them particularly useful for the study of chemical reactions on-line. The present paper will discuss two examples, the study of fluidic behaviour at high pressures and the excitation and detection of

  5. Microfluidic immunomagnetic separation for enhanced bacterial detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyland, James; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Ahmed, Shakil

    A combined lab-on-a-chip approach combining immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and flow cytometry was developed for the enrichment and detection of salmonella contamination in food samples. Immunomagnetic beads were immobilized in chips consisting of long fractal meanders while contaminated samples...... to obtain maximum capturing efficiency. The effects of channel volume, path length and number of bends of microfluidic chip on IMS efficiency were also determined....

  6. Merging microfluidics and sonochemistry: towards greener and more efficient micro-sono-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Cintas, P.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidics enable the manipulation of chemical reactions using very small amounts of fluid, in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers; so-called microstructured devices, from which the iconic image of chips emerges. The immediate attraction of microfluidics lies in its

  7. Field effect control of electro-osmotic flow in microfluidic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a Field Effect Flow Control (FEFC) system for the control of Electro Osmotic Flow (EOF) in microfluidic networks. For this several aspects of FEFC have been reviewed and a process to fabricate microfluidic channels with integrated electrodes has been

  8. Construction of programmable interconnected 3D microfluidic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunziker, Patrick R; Wolf, Marc P; Wang, Xueya; Zhang, Bei; Marsch, Stephan; Salieb-Beugelaar, Georgette B

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic systems represent a key-enabling platform for novel diagnostic tools for use at the point-of-care in clinical contexts as well as for evolving single cell diagnostics. The design of 3D microfluidic systems is an active field of development, but construction of true interconnected 3D microfluidic networks is still a challenge, in particular when the goal is rapid prototyping, accurate design and flexibility. We report a novel approach for the construction of programmable 3D microfluidic systems consisting of modular 3D template casting of interconnected threads to allow user-programmable flow paths and examine its structural characteristics and its modular function. To overcome problems with thread template casting reported in the literature, low-surface-energy polymer threads were used, that allow solvent-free production. Connected circular channels with excellent roundness and low diameter variability were created. Variable channel termination allowed programming a flow path on-the-fly, thus rendering the resulting 3D microfluidic systems highly customizable even after production. Thus, construction of programmable/reprogrammable fully 3D microfluidic systems by template casting of a network of interconnecting threads is feasible, leads to high-quality and highly reproducible, complex 3D geometries. (paper)

  9. System-level modeling and simulation of the cell culture microfluidic biochip ProCell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory. There are two technologies for the microfluidic biochips: droplet-based and flow-based. In this paper we are interested in flow-based microfluidic biochips, where the liquid flows continuously through pre......-defined micro-channels using valves and pumps. We present an approach to the system-level modeling and simulation of a cell culture microfluidic biochip called ProCell, Programmable Cell Culture Chip. ProCell contains a cell culture chamber, which is envisioned to run 256 simultaneous experiments (viewed...

  10. Facile fabrication of microfluidic surface-enhanced Raman scattering devices via lift-up lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanzi; Jiang, Ye; Zheng, Xiaoshan; Jia, Shasha; Zhu, Zhi; Ren, Bin; Ma, Hongwei

    2018-04-01

    We describe a facile and low-cost approach for a flexibly integrated surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate in microfluidic chips. Briefly, a SERS substrate was fabricated by the electrostatic assembling of gold nanoparticles, and shaped into designed patterns by subsequent lift-up soft lithography. The SERS micro-pattern could be further integrated within microfluidic channels conveniently. The resulting microfluidic SERS chip allowed ultrasensitive in situ SERS monitoring from the transparent glass window. With its advantages in simplicity, functionality and cost-effectiveness, this method could be readily expanded into optical microfluidic fabrication for biochemical applications.

  11. A truly Lego®-like modular microfluidics platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittayarukskul, Kevin; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2017-03-01

    Ideally, a modular microfluidics platform should be simple to assemble and support 3D configurations for increased versatility. The modular building blocks should also be mass producible like electrical components. These are fundamental features of world-renowned Legos® and why Legos® inspire many existing modular microfluidics platforms. In this paper, a truly Lego®-like microfluidics platform is introduced, and its basic feasibility is demonstrated. Here, PDMS building blocks resembling 2  ×  2 Lego® bricks are cast from 3D-printed master molds. The blocks are pegged and stacked on a traditional Lego® plate to create simple, 3D microfluidic networks, such as a single basket weave. Characteristics of the platform, including reversible sealing and automatic alignment of channels, are also analyzed and discussed in detail.

  12. A truly Lego®-like modular microfluidics platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittayarukskul, Kevin; Lee, Abraham Phillip

    2017-01-01

    Ideally, a modular microfluidics platform should be simple to assemble and support 3D configurations for increased versatility. The modular building blocks should also be mass producible like electrical components. These are fundamental features of world-renowned Legos ® and why Legos ® inspire many existing modular microfluidics platforms. In this paper, a truly Lego ® -like microfluidics platform is introduced, and its basic feasibility is demonstrated. Here, PDMS building blocks resembling 2  ×  2 Lego ® bricks are cast from 3D-printed master molds. The blocks are pegged and stacked on a traditional Lego ® plate to create simple, 3D microfluidic networks, such as a single basket weave. Characteristics of the platform, including reversible sealing and automatic alignment of channels, are also analyzed and discussed in detail. (paper)

  13. Cell manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hoyoung; Kim, Kisoo; Lee, Won Gu

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip field in association with nano/microfluidics have been made for new applications and functionalities to the fields of molecular biology, genetic analysis and proteomics, enabling the expansion of the cell biology field. Specifically, microfluidics has provided promising tools for enhancing cell biological research, since it has the ability to precisely control the cellular environment, to easily mimic heterogeneous cellular environment by multiplexing, and to analyze sub-cellular information by high-contents screening assays at the single-cell level. Various cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics have been developed in accordance with specific objectives and applications. In this review, we examine the latest achievements of cell manipulation techniques in microfluidics by categorizing externally applied forces for manipulation: (i) optical, (ii) magnetic, (iii) electrical, (iv) mechanical and (v) other manipulations. We furthermore focus on history where the manipulation techniques originate and also discuss future perspectives with key examples where available. (topical review)

  14. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  15. Review of Recent Metamaterial Microfluidic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Ahmed; Lim, Sungjoon

    2018-01-15

    Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter-nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological) sensing systems. Inkjet-printed flexible sensors find their utilization in rapidly growing wearable electronics and health-monitoring flexible devices. Adequate sensitivity and repeatability of these low profile microfluidic sensors make them a potential candidate for point-of-care testing which novice patients can use reliably. Aside from degraded sensitivity and lack of selectivity in all practical microwave chemical sensors, they require an instrument, such as vector network analyzer for measurements and not readily available as a self-sustained portable sensor. This review article presents state-of-the-art metamaterial inspired microfluidic bio/chemical sensors (passive devices ranging from gigahertz to terahertz range) with an emphasis on metamaterial sensing circuit and microfluidic detection. We also highlight challenges and strategies to cope these issues which set future directions.

  16. Review of Recent Metamaterial Microfluidic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Salim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterial elements/arrays exhibit a sensitive response to fluids yet with a small footprint, therefore, they have been an attractive choice to realize various sensing devices when integrated with microfluidic technology. Micro-channels made from inexpensive biocompatible materials avoid any contamination from environment and require only microliter–nanoliter sample for sensing. Simple design, easy fabrication process, light weight prototype, and instant measurements are advantages as compared to conventional (optical, electrochemical and biological sensing systems. Inkjet-printed flexible sensors find their utilization in rapidly growing wearable electronics and health-monitoring flexible devices. Adequate sensitivity and repeatability of these low profile microfluidic sensors make them a potential candidate for point-of-care testing which novice patients can use reliably. Aside from degraded sensitivity and lack of selectivity in all practical microwave chemical sensors, they require an instrument, such as vector network analyzer for measurements and not readily available as a self-sustained portable sensor. This review article presents state-of-the-art metamaterial inspired microfluidic bio/chemical sensors (passive devices ranging from gigahertz to terahertz range with an emphasis on metamaterial sensing circuit and microfluidic detection. We also highlight challenges and strategies to cope these issues which set future directions.

  17. Recent Advances in Magnetic Microfluidic Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Giouroudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of portable biosening devices for the detection of biological entities such as biomolecules, pathogens, and cells has become extremely significant over the past years. Scientific research, driven by the promise for miniaturization and integration of complex laboratory equipment on inexpensive, reliable, and accurate devices, has successfully shifted several analytical and diagnostic methods to the submillimeter scale. The miniaturization process was made possible with the birth of microfluidics, a technology that could confine, manipulate, and mix very small volumes of liquids on devices integrated on standard silicon technology chips. Such devices are then directly translating the presence of these entities into an electronic signal that can be read out with a portable instrumentation. For the aforementioned tasks, the use of magnetic markers (magnetic particles—MPs—functionalized with ligands in combination with the application of magnetic fields is being strongly investigated by research groups worldwide. The greatest merits of using magnetic fields are that they can be applied either externally or from integrated microconductors and they can be well-tuned by adjusting the applied current on the microconductors. Moreover, the magnetic markers can be manipulated inside microfluidic channels by high gradient magnetic fields that can in turn be detected by magnetic sensors. All the above make this technology an ideal candidate for the development of such microfluidic biosensors. In this review, focus is given only to very recent advances in biosensors that use microfluidics in combination with magnetic sensors and magnetic markers/nanoparticles.

  18. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  19. Microfluidic production of polymeric functional microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kunqiang

    -bearing beads can function as non-invasive and real-time oxygen micro-sensors. Finally, we report a co-flow microfluidic method to prepare uniform polymer microparticles with macroporous texture, and investigate their application as discrete immunological biosensors for the detection of biological species. The matrix of such microparticles is based on macroporous polymethacrylate polymers configured with tailored pores ranging from hundreds of nanometers to a few microns. Subsequently, we immobilize bioactive antibodies on the particle surface, and demonstrate the immunological performance of these functionalized porous microbeads over a range of antigen concentrations.

  20. Parameter Screening in Microfluidics Based Hydrodynamic Single-Cell Trapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic cell-based arraying technology is widely used in the field of single-cell analysis. However, among developed devices, there is a compromise between cellular loading efficiencies and trapped cell densities, which deserves further analysis and optimization. To address this issue, the cell trapping efficiency of a microfluidic device with two parallel micro channels interconnected with cellular trapping sites was studied in this paper. By regulating channel inlet and outlet status, the microfluidic trapping structure can mimic key functioning units of previously reported devices. Numerical simulations were used to model this cellular trapping structure, quantifying the effects of channel on/off status and trapping structure geometries on the cellular trapping efficiency. Furthermore, the microfluidic device was fabricated based on conventional microfabrication and the cellular trapping efficiency was quantified in experiments. Experimental results showed that, besides geometry parameters, cellular travelling velocities and sizes also affected the single-cell trapping efficiency. By fine tuning parameters, more than 95% of trapping sites were taken by individual cells. This study may lay foundation in further studies of single-cell positioning in microfluidics and push forward the study of single-cell analysis.

  1. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taparia, Nikita; Platten, Kimsey C.; Anderson, Kristin B.; Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  2. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jiaming; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive

  3. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-07

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  4. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  5. A microfluidic device for precise pipetting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new microfluidic device capable of pipetting a small amount of fluid. This microfluidic device comprises a series of pneumatic microvalves and a multi-width microchannel. The pneumatic valves are designed with specific ratios to control the volumes of the channel. Ratios of 1×, 5× and 30× are used in this study to demonstrate the multi-volume dispensing capability of the proposed device. The corresponding volumes at these ratios are 0.06, 0.3 and 1.8 µl, respectively. By means of proper combinations of these ratios, liquids with volume ranging from 1× to 100× can be dispensed. In order to avoid bubble formation while the liquid is being loaded into the channel, an 'escape side-channel' is designed to allow the trapped gas to exhaust without liquid loss into the escape side-channel due to the hydrophobic effect. It is experimentally found that the capillary valve can sustain a pressure of 165 mm H 2 O (1.6 kPa). The performance of the microdispenser is investigated and is compared with a commercial pipette. Experimental results show that the accuracy of the developed microdevice is comparable or even superior to the commercial one. The development of this microdevice could be crucial for automating miniature biomedical and chemical analysis systems

  6. Simple Check Valves for Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Harold F.; Smith, J. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A simple design concept for check valves has been adopted for microfluidic devices that consist mostly of (1) deformable fluorocarbon polymer membranes sandwiched between (2) borosilicate float glass wafers into which channels, valve seats, and holes have been etched. The first microfluidic devices in which these check valves are intended to be used are micro-capillary electrophoresis (microCE) devices undergoing development for use on Mars in detecting compounds indicative of life. In this application, it will be necessary to store some liquid samples in reservoirs in the devices for subsequent laboratory analysis, and check valves are needed to prevent cross-contamination of the samples. The simple check-valve design concept is also applicable to other microfluidic devices and to fluidic devices in general. These check valves are simplified microscopic versions of conventional rubber- flap check valves that are parts of numerous industrial and consumer products. These check valves are fabricated, not as separate components, but as integral parts of microfluidic devices. A check valve according to this concept consists of suitably shaped portions of a deformable membrane and the two glass wafers between which the membrane is sandwiched (see figure). The valve flap is formed by making an approximately semicircular cut in the membrane. The flap is centered over a hole in the lower glass wafer, through which hole the liquid in question is intended to flow upward into a wider hole, channel, or reservoir in the upper glass wafer. The radius of the cut exceeds the radius of the hole by an amount large enough to prevent settling of the flap into the hole. As in a conventional rubber-flap check valve, back pressure in the liquid pushes the flap against the valve seat (in this case, the valve seat is the adjacent surface of the lower glass wafer), thereby forming a seal that prevents backflow.

  7. Open-source, community-driven microfluidics with Metafluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, David S; Thorsen, Todd A; Babb, Jonathan; Wick, Scott T; Gam, Jeremy J; Weiss, Ron; Carr, Peter A

    2017-06-07

    Microfluidic devices have the potential to automate and miniaturize biological experiments, but open-source sharing of device designs has lagged behind sharing of other resources such as software. Synthetic biologists have used microfluidics for DNA assembly, cell-free expression, and cell culture, but a combination of expense, device complexity, and reliance on custom set-ups hampers their widespread adoption. We present Metafluidics, an open-source, community-driven repository that hosts digital design files, assembly specifications, and open-source software to enable users to build, configure, and operate a microfluidic device. We use Metafluidics to share designs and fabrication instructions for both a microfluidic ring-mixer device and a 32-channel tabletop microfluidic controller. This device and controller are applied to build genetic circuits using standard DNA assembly methods including ligation, Gateway, Gibson, and Golden Gate. Metafluidics is intended to enable a broad community of engineers, DIY enthusiasts, and other nontraditional participants with limited fabrication skills to contribute to microfluidic research.

  8. Topological microfluidic structures for rapid mixing of emulsions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, KJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel use for topological structures inside microfluidic channels is presented. These structures have been successfully utilised to aid in mixing of two water-in-oil emulsions in order to force coalescence, thereby introducing a cross linker...

  9. A microfluidic chip for electrochemical conversions in drug metabolism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Mathieu; Baumann, A.; Lohmann, W.; van den Brink, Floris Teunis Gerardus; Olthuis, Wouter; Karst, U.; van den Berg, Albert

    2009-01-01

    We have designed a microfluidic microreactor chip for electrochemical conversion of analytes, containing a palladium reference electrode and platinum working and counter electrodes. The counter electrode is placed in a separate side-channel on chip to prevent unwanted side-products appearing in the

  10. Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekas, Nikola [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States); Granger, Michael [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States); Tondra, Mark [NVE Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States); Popple, Anthony [NVE Corporation, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States); Porter, Marc D. [Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Ames Laboratory-USDOE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3111 (United States)]. E-mail: mporter@porter1.ameslab.gov

    2005-05-15

    A fully integrated micromagnetic particle diverter and microfluidic system are described. Particles are diverted via an external uniform magnetic field perturbed at the microscale by underlying current straps. The resulting magnetic force deflects particles across a flow stream into one of the two channels at a Y-shaped junction. The basic theoretical framework, design, and operational demonstration of the device are presented.

  11. Magnetic particle diverter in an integrated microfluidic format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekas, Nikola; Granger, Michael; Tondra, Mark; Popple, Anthony; Porter, Marc D.

    2005-01-01

    A fully integrated micromagnetic particle diverter and microfluidic system are described. Particles are diverted via an external uniform magnetic field perturbed at the microscale by underlying current straps. The resulting magnetic force deflects particles across a flow stream into one of the two channels at a Y-shaped junction. The basic theoretical framework, design, and operational demonstration of the device are presented

  12. Centrifugal microfluidic platforms: advanced unit operations and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, O; Keller, M; Schwemmer, F; Zehnle, S; Mark, D; von Stetten, F; Zengerle, R; Paust, N

    2015-10-07

    Centrifugal microfluidics has evolved into a mature technology. Several major diagnostic companies either have products on the market or are currently evaluating centrifugal microfluidics for product development. The fields of application are widespread and include clinical chemistry, immunodiagnostics and protein analysis, cell handling, molecular diagnostics, as well as food, water, and soil analysis. Nevertheless, new fluidic functions and applications that expand the possibilities of centrifugal microfluidics are being introduced at a high pace. In this review, we first present an up-to-date comprehensive overview of centrifugal microfluidic unit operations. Then, we introduce the term "process chain" to review how these unit operations can be combined for the automation of laboratory workflows. Such aggregation of basic functionalities enables efficient fluidic design at a higher level of integration. Furthermore, we analyze how novel, ground-breaking unit operations may foster the integration of more complex applications. Among these are the storage of pneumatic energy to realize complex switching sequences or to pump liquids radially inward, as well as the complete pre-storage and release of reagents. In this context, centrifugal microfluidics provides major advantages over other microfluidic actuation principles: the pulse-free inertial liquid propulsion provided by centrifugal microfluidics allows for closed fluidic systems that are free of any interfaces to external pumps. Processed volumes are easily scalable from nanoliters to milliliters. Volume forces can be adjusted by rotation and thus, even for very small volumes, surface forces may easily be overcome in the centrifugal gravity field which enables the efficient separation of nanoliter volumes from channels, chambers or sensor matrixes as well as the removal of any disturbing bubbles. In summary, centrifugal microfluidics takes advantage of a comprehensive set of fluidic unit operations such as

  13. Rapid prototyping of 2D glass microfluidic devices based on femtosecond laser assisted selective etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Il; Kim, Jeongtae; Koo, Chiwan; Joung, Yeun-Ho; Choi, Jiyeon

    2018-02-01

    Microfluidics technology which deals with small liquid samples and reagents within micro-scale channels has been widely applied in various aspects of biological, chemical, and life-scientific research. For fabricating microfluidic devices, a silicon-based polymer, PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane), is widely used in soft lithography, but it has several drawbacks for microfluidic applications. Glass has many advantages over PDMS due to its excellent optical, chemical, and mechanical properties. However, difficulties in fabrication of glass microfluidic devices that requires multiple skilled steps such as MEMS technology taking several hours to days, impedes broad application of glass based devices. Here, we demonstrate a rapid and optical prototyping of a glass microfluidic device by using femtosecond laser assisted selective etching (LASE) and femtosecond laser welding. A microfluidic droplet generator was fabricated as a demonstration of a microfluidic device using our proposed prototyping. The fabrication time of a single glass chip containing few centimeter long and complex-shaped microfluidic channels was drastically reduced in an hour with the proposed laser based rapid and simple glass micromachining and hermetic packaging technique.

  14. Microfluidic Flame Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Gregory S. (Inventor); Fisher, David J. (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that is designed for effective and safe ignition and sustained combustion of the propellants. By integrating a micro-fluidic porous media element between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable propellant injector head may be implemented that is capable of withstanding transient combustion and detonation waves that commonly occur during an ignition event. The micro-fluidic porous media element is of specified porosity or porosity gradient selected to be appropriate for a given propellant. Additionally the propellant injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  15. Microfluidic mixing through oscillatory transverse perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J. W.; Xia, H. M.; Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhu, P.

    2018-05-01

    Fluid mixing in miniaturized fluidic devices is a challenging task. In this work, the mixing enhancement through oscillatory transverse perturbations coupling with divergent circular chambers is studied. To simplify the design, an autonomous microfluidic oscillator is used to produce the oscillatory flow. It is then applied to four side-channels that intersect with a central channel of constant flow. The mixing performance is tested at high fluid viscosities of up to 16 cP. Results show that the oscillatory flow can cause strong transverse perturbations which effectively enhance the mixing. The influence of a fluidic capacitor in the central channel is also examined, which at low viscosities can intensify the perturbations and further improve the mixing.

  16. Controllable picoliter pipetting using hydrophobic microfluidic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M.; Huang, J.; Qian, X.; Mi, S.; Wang, X.

    2017-06-01

    A picoliter pipetting technique using the microfluidic method is presented. Utilizing the hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer films patterned in microchannels as pressure-controlled valves, a small volume of liquid can be separated by a designed channel trap and then ejected from the channel end at a higher pressure. The liquid trap section is composed of a T-shaped channel junction and a hydrophobic patch. The liquid volume can be precisely controlled by varying the distance of the hydrophobic patch from the T-junction. By this means, liquid less than 100 pl can be separated and pipetted. The developed device is potentially useful for sample dispensing in biological, medical, and chemical applications.

  17. Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg

    2017-01-01

    Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....

  18. Enzyme detection by microfluidics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic-implemented methods of detecting an enzyme, in particular a DNA-modifying enzyme, are provided, as well as methods for detecting a cell, or a microorganism expressing said enzyme. The enzyme is detected by providing a nucleic acid substrate, which is specifically targeted...... by that enzyme...

  19. Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.; Segerink, L.I.; Segerink, Loes Irene; Unknown, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip devices for point of care diagnostics have been present in clinics for several years now. Alongside their continual development, research is underway to bring the organs and tissue on-a-chip to the patient, amongst other medical applications of microfluidics. This book provides the

  20. Microfluidic isotachophoresis: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smejkal, P.; Bottenus, D.; Breadmore, M. C.; Guijt, R. M.; Ivory, C. F.; Foret, František; Macka, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 11 (2013), s. 1493-1509 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : chip * isotachophoresis * microfluidics * miniaturization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.161, year: 2013

  1. Diffusion dynamics in micro-fluidic dye lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Morten; Balslev, Søren; Mortensen, Niels Asger

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated the bleaching dynamics that occur in opto-fluidic dye lasers, where the liquid laser dye in a channel is locally bleached due to optical pumping. Our studies suggest that for micro-fluidic devices, the dye bleaching may be compensated through diffusion of dye molecules alone....... By relying on diffusion rather than convection to generate the necessary dye replenishment, our observation potentially allows for a significant simplification of opto-fluidic dye laser device layouts, omitting the need for cumbersome and costly external fluidic handling or on-chip micro-fluidic pumping...

  2. Microfluidic pressure sensing using trapped air compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Burns, Mark A

    2007-05-01

    We have developed a microfluidic method for measuring the fluid pressure head experienced at any location inside a microchannel. The principal component is a microfabricated sealed chamber with a single inlet and no exit; the entrance to the single inlet is positioned at the location where pressure is to be measured. The pressure measurement is then based on monitoring the movement of a liquid-air interface as it compresses air trapped inside the microfabricated sealed chamber and calculating the pressure using the ideal gas law. The method has been used to measure the pressure of the air stream and continuous liquid flow inside microfluidic channels (d approximately 50 microm). Further, a pressure drop has also been measured using multiple microfabricated sealed chambers. For air pressure, a resolution of 700 Pa within a full-scale range of 700-100 kPa was obtained. For liquids, pressure drops as low as 70 Pa were obtained in an operating range from 70 Pa to 10 kPa. Since the method primarily uses a microfluidic sealed chamber, it does not require additional fabrication steps and may easily be incorporated in several lab-on-a-chip fluidic applications for laminar as well as turbulent flow conditions.

  3. A Droplet Microfluidic Platform for Automating Genetic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gach, Philip C; Shih, Steve C C; Sustarich, Jess; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J; Adams, Paul D; Singh, Anup K

    2016-05-20

    We present a water-in-oil droplet microfluidic platform for transformation, culture and expression of recombinant proteins in multiple host organisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi. The platform consists of a hybrid digital microfluidic/channel-based droplet chip with integrated temperature control to allow complete automation and integration of plasmid addition, heat-shock transformation, addition of selection medium, culture, and protein expression. The microfluidic format permitted significant reduction in consumption (100-fold) of expensive reagents such as DNA and enzymes compared to the benchtop method. The chip contains a channel to continuously replenish oil to the culture chamber to provide a fresh supply of oxygen to the cells for long-term (∼5 days) cell culture. The flow channel also replenished oil lost to evaporation and increased the number of droplets that could be processed and cultured. The platform was validated by transforming several plasmids into Escherichia coli including plasmids containing genes for fluorescent proteins GFP, BFP and RFP; plasmids with selectable markers for ampicillin or kanamycin resistance; and a Golden Gate DNA assembly reaction. We also demonstrate the applicability of this platform for transformation in widely used eukaryotic organisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger. Duration and temperatures of the microfluidic heat-shock procedures were optimized to yield transformation efficiencies comparable to those obtained by benchtop methods with a throughput up to 6 droplets/min. The proposed platform offers potential for automation of molecular biology experiments significantly reducing cost, time and variability while improving throughput.

  4. A microfluidic sub-critical water extraction instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Noell, Aaron C.; Fisher, Anita; Lee, Mike C.; Takano, Nobuyuki; Bao, Xiaoqi; Kutzer, Thomas C.; Grunthaner, Frank

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses a microfluidic subcritical water extraction (SCWE) chip for autonomous extraction of amino acids from astrobiologically interesting samples. The microfluidic instrument is composed of three major components. These include a mixing chamber where the soil sample is mixed and agitated with the solvent (water), a subcritical water extraction chamber where the sample is sealed with a freeze valve at the chip inlet after a vapor bubble is injected into the inlet channels to ensure the pressure in the chip is in equilibrium with the vapor pressure and the slurry is then heated to ≤200 °C in the SCWE chamber, and a filter or settling chamber where the slurry is pumped to after extraction. The extraction yield of the microfluidic SCWE chip process ranged from 50% compared to acid hydrolysis and 80%-100% compared to a benchtop microwave SCWE for low biomass samples.

  5. A novel 3-D bio-microfluidic system mimicking in vivo heterogeneous tumour microstructures reveals complex tumour–stroma interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Qihui; Liu, Ruchuan; Jiao, Yang; Tian, Chunxiu; Farrell, James D.; Diao, Wenwen; Wang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Fengrong; Yuan, Wei; Han, Haibo; Chen, Jinfeng; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xixiang; Ye, Fangfu; Li, Ming; Ouyang, Zhongcan; Liu, Liyu

    2017-01-01

    between invasive breast cancer cells and stromal cells. The hollow microchambers in collagen provide a very similar 3-D environment to that in vivo that regulates collective cellular dynamics and behaviour, while the microfluidic channels surrounding

  6. The microfluidic probe: operation and use for localized surface processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Cecile M; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A; Juncker, David

    2009-06-04

    Microfluidic devices allow assays to be performed using minute amounts of sample and have recently been used to control the microenvironment of cells. Microfluidics is commonly associated with closed microchannels which limit their use to samples that can be introduced, and cultured in the case of cells, within a confined volume. On the other hand, micropipetting system have been used to locally perfuse cells and surfaces, notably using push-pull setups where one pipette acts as source and the other one as sink, but the confinement of the flow is difficult in three dimensions. Furthermore, pipettes are fragile and difficult to position and hence are used in static configuration only. The microfluidic probe (MFP) circumvents the constraints imposed by the construction of closed microfluidic channels and instead of enclosing the sample into the microfluidic system, the microfluidic flow can be directly delivered onto the sample, and scanned across the sample, using the MFP. . The injection and aspiration openings are located within a few tens of micrometers of one another so that a microjet injected into the gap is confined by the hydrodynamic forces of the surrounding liquid and entirely aspirated back into the other opening. The microjet can be flushed across the substrate surface and provides a precise tool for localized deposition/delivery of reagents which can be used over large areas by scanning the probe across the surface. In this video we present the microfluidic probe (MFP). We explain in detail how to assemble the MFP, mount it atop an inverted microscope, and align it relative to the substrate surface, and finally show how to use it to process a substrate surface immersed in a buffer.

  7. Visual Estimation of Bacterial Growth Level in Microfluidic Culture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyukwang Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices are an emerging platform for a variety of experiments involving bacterial cell culture, and has advantages including cost and convenience. One inevitable step during bacterial cell culture is the measurement of cell concentration in the channel. The optical density measurement technique is generally used for bacterial growth estimation, but it is not applicable to microfluidic devices due to the small sample volumes in microfluidics. Alternately, cell counting or colony-forming unit methods may be applied, but these do not work in situ; nor do these methods show measurement results immediately. To this end, we present a new vision-based method to estimate the growth level of the bacteria in microfluidic channels. We use Fast Fourier transform (FFT to detect the frequency level change of the microscopic image, focusing on the fact that the microscopic image becomes rough as the number of cells in the field of view increases, adding high frequencies to the spectrum of the image. Two types of microfluidic devices are used to culture bacteria in liquid and agar gel medium, and time-lapsed images are captured. The images obtained are analyzed using FFT, resulting in an increase in high-frequency noise proportional to the time passed. Furthermore, we apply the developed method in the microfluidic antibiotics susceptibility test by recognizing the regional concentration change of the bacteria that are cultured in the antibiotics gradient. Finally, a deep learning-based data regression is performed on the data obtained by the proposed vision-based method for robust reporting of data.

  8. Visual Estimation of Bacterial Growth Level in Microfluidic Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyukwang; Kim, Seunggyu; Jeon, Jessie S

    2018-02-03

    Microfluidic devices are an emerging platform for a variety of experiments involving bacterial cell culture, and has advantages including cost and convenience. One inevitable step during bacterial cell culture is the measurement of cell concentration in the channel. The optical density measurement technique is generally used for bacterial growth estimation, but it is not applicable to microfluidic devices due to the small sample volumes in microfluidics. Alternately, cell counting or colony-forming unit methods may be applied, but these do not work in situ; nor do these methods show measurement results immediately. To this end, we present a new vision-based method to estimate the growth level of the bacteria in microfluidic channels. We use Fast Fourier transform (FFT) to detect the frequency level change of the microscopic image, focusing on the fact that the microscopic image becomes rough as the number of cells in the field of view increases, adding high frequencies to the spectrum of the image. Two types of microfluidic devices are used to culture bacteria in liquid and agar gel medium, and time-lapsed images are captured. The images obtained are analyzed using FFT, resulting in an increase in high-frequency noise proportional to the time passed. Furthermore, we apply the developed method in the microfluidic antibiotics susceptibility test by recognizing the regional concentration change of the bacteria that are cultured in the antibiotics gradient. Finally, a deep learning-based data regression is performed on the data obtained by the proposed vision-based method for robust reporting of data.

  9. Microfluidic device for continuous single cells analysis via Raman spectroscopy enhanced by integrated plasmonic nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo

    2015-12-11

    In this work a Raman flow cytometer is presented. It consists of a microfluidic device that takes advantages of the basic principles of Raman spectroscopy and flow cytometry. The microfluidic device integrates calibrated microfluidic channels- where the cells can flow one-by-one -, allowing single cell Raman analysis. The microfluidic channel integrates plasmonic nanodimers in a fluidic trapping region. In this way it is possible to perform Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy on single cell. These allow a label-free analysis, providing information about the biochemical content of membrane and cytoplasm of the each cell. Experiments are performed on red blood cells (RBCs), peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and myelogenous leukemia tumor cells (K562). © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  10. Thin film metal sensors in fusion bonded glass chips for high-pressure microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Martin; Ek, Johan; Hedman, Ludvig; Johansson, Fredrik; Sehlstedt, Viktor; Stocklassa, Jesper; Snögren, Pär; Pettersson, Victor; Larsson, Jonas; Vizuete, Olivier; Hjort, Klas; Klintberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    High-pressure microfluidics offers fast analyses of thermodynamic parameters for compressed process solvents. However, microfluidic platforms handling highly compressible supercritical CO 2 are difficult to control, and on-chip sensing would offer added control of the devices. Therefore, there is a need to integrate sensors into highly pressure tolerant glass chips. In this paper, thin film Pt sensors were embedded in shallow etched trenches in a glass wafer that was bonded with another glass wafer having microfluidic channels. The devices having sensors integrated into the flow channels sustained pressures up to 220 bar, typical for the operation of supercritical CO 2 . No leakage from the devices could be found. Integrated temperature sensors were capable of measuring local decompression cooling effects and integrated calorimetric sensors measured flow velocities over the range 0.5–13.8 mm s −1 . By this, a better control of high-pressure microfluidic platforms has been achieved. (paper)

  11. Fast and sensitive trace analysis of malachite green using a surface-enhanced Raman microfluidic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangyeop; Choi, Junghyun; Chen, Lingxin; Park, Byungchoon; Kyong, Jin Burm; Seong, Gi Hun; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yeonjung; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Eun Kyu; Joo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Kyeong-Hee

    2007-05-08

    A rapid and highly sensitive trace analysis technique for determining malachite green (MG) in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic sensor was investigated using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A zigzag-shaped PDMS microfluidic channel was fabricated for efficient mixing between MG analytes and aggregated silver colloids. Under the optimal condition of flow velocity, MG molecules were effectively adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles while flowing along the upper and lower zigzag-shaped PDMS channel. A quantitative analysis of MG was performed based on the measured peak height at 1615 cm(-1) in its SERS spectrum. The limit of detection, using the SERS microfluidic sensor, was found to be below the 1-2 ppb level and this low detection limit is comparable to the result of the LC-Mass detection method. In the present study, we introduce a new conceptual detection technology, using a SERS microfluidic sensor, for the highly sensitive trace analysis of MG in water.

  12. Pneumatic oscillator circuits for timing and control of integrated microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Philip N; Nguyen, Transon V; Hui, Elliot E

    2013-11-05

    Frequency references are fundamental to most digital systems, providing the basis for process synchronization, timing of outputs, and waveform synthesis. Recently, there has been growing interest in digital logic systems that are constructed out of microfluidics rather than electronics, as a possible means toward fully integrated laboratory-on-a-chip systems that do not require any external control apparatus. However, the full realization of this goal has not been possible due to the lack of on-chip frequency references, thus requiring timing signals to be provided from off-chip. Although microfluidic oscillators have been demonstrated, there have been no reported efforts to characterize, model, or optimize timing accuracy, which is the fundamental metric of a clock. Here, we report pneumatic ring oscillator circuits built from microfluidic valves and channels. Further, we present a compressible-flow analysis that differs fundamentally from conventional circuit theory, and we show the utility of this physically based model for the optimization of oscillator stability. Finally, we leverage microfluidic clocks to demonstrate circuits for the generation of phase-shifted waveforms, self-driving peristaltic pumps, and frequency division. Thus, pneumatic oscillators can serve as on-chip frequency references for microfluidic digital logic circuits. On-chip clocks and pumps both constitute critical building blocks on the path toward achieving autonomous laboratory-on-a-chip devices.

  13. Fabrication of microfluidic architectures for optimal flow rate and concentration measurement for lab on chip application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    Optimum flow in micro channel for sensing purpose is challenging. In this study, The optimizations of the fluid sample flows are made through the design and characterization of the novel microfluidics' architectures to achieve the optimal flow rate in the micro channels. The biocompatibility of the Polydimetylsiloxane (Sylgard 184 silicon elastomer) polymer used to fabricate the device offers avenue for the device to be implemented as the universal fluidic delivery system for bio-molecules sensing in various bio-medical applications. The study uses the following methodological approaches, designing a novel microfluidics' architectures by integrating the devices on a single 4 inches silicon substrate, fabricating the designed microfluidic devices using low-cost solution soft lithography technique, characterizing and validating the flow throughput of urine samples in the micro channels by generating pressure gradients through the devices' inlets. The characterization on the urine samples flow in the micro channels have witnessed the constant flow throughout the devices.

  14. The Microfluidic Jukebox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Say Hwa; Maes, Florine; Semin, Benoît; Vrignon, Jérémy; Baret, Jean-Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Music is a form of art interweaving people of all walks of life. Through subtle changes in frequencies, a succession of musical notes forms a melody which is capable of mesmerizing the minds of people. With the advances in technology, we are now able to generate music electronically without relying solely on physical instruments. Here, we demonstrate a musical interpretation of droplet-based microfluidics as a form of novel electronic musical instruments. Using the interplay of electric field and hydrodynamics in microfluidic devices, well controlled frequency patterns corresponding to musical tracks are generated in real time. This high-speed modulation of droplet frequency (and therefore of droplet sizes) may also provide solutions that reconciles high-throughput droplet production and the control of individual droplet at production which is needed for many biochemical or material synthesis applications.

  15. Microfluidic redox battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Goulet, Marc-Antoni; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-07-07

    A miniaturized microfluidic battery is proposed, which is the first membraneless redox battery demonstrated to date. This unique concept capitalizes on dual-pass flow-through porous electrodes combined with stratified, co-laminar flow to generate electrical power on-chip. The fluidic design is symmetric to allow for both charging and discharging operations in forward, reverse, and recirculation modes. The proof-of-concept device fabricated using low-cost materials integrated in a microfluidic chip is shown to produce competitive power levels when operated on a vanadium redox electrolyte. A complete charge/discharge cycle is performed to demonstrate its operation as a rechargeable battery, which is an important step towards providing sustainable power to lab-on-a-chip and microelectronic applications.

  16. Printing-based fabrication method using sacrificial paper substrates for flexible and wearable microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daehan; Gray, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    We present a simple, fast, and inexpensive new printing-based fabrication process for flexible and wearable microfluidic channels and devices. Microfluidic devices are fabricated on textiles (fabric) for applications in clothing-based wearable microfluidic sensors and systems. The wearable and flexible microfluidic devices are comprised of water-insoluable screen-printable plastisol polymer. Sheets of paper are used as sacrificial substrates for multiple layers of polymer on the fabric’s surface. Microfluidic devices can be made within a short time using simple processes and inexpensive equipment that includes a laser cutter and a thermal laminator. The fabrication process is characterized to demonstrate control of microfluidic channel thickness and width. Film thickness smaller than 100 micrometers and lateral dimensions smaller than 150 micrometers are demonstrated. A flexible microfluidic mixer is also developed on fabric and successfully tested on both flat and curved surfaces at volumetric flow rates ranging from 5.5–46 ml min −1 . (paper)

  17. Electrogates for stop-and-go control of liquid flow in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango, Y.; Temiz, Y.; Gökçe, O.; Delamarche, E.

    2018-04-01

    Diagnostics based on microfluidic devices necessitate specific reagents, flow conditions, and kinetics for optimal performance. Such an optimization is often achieved using assay-specific microfluidic chip designs or systems with external liquid pumps. Here, we present "electrogates" for stop-and-go control of flow of liquids in capillary-driven microfluidic chips by combining liquid pinning and electrowetting. Electrogates are simple to fabricate and efficient: a sample pipetted to a microfluidic chip flows autonomously in 15-μm-deep hydrophilic channels until the liquid meniscus is pinned at the edge of a 1.5-μm-deep trench patterned at the bottom of a rectangular microchannel. The flow can then be resumed by applying a DC voltage between the liquid and the trench via integrated electrodes. Using a trench geometry with a semicircular shape, we show that retention times longer than 30 min are achieved for various aqueous solutions such as biological buffers, artificial urine, and human serum. We studied the activation voltage and activation delay of electrogates using a chip architecture having 6 independent flow paths and experimentally showed that the flow can be resumed in less than 1 s for voltages smaller than 10 V, making this technique compatible with low-power and portable microfluidic systems. Electrogates therefore can make capillary-driven microfluidic chips very versatile by adding flow control in microfluidic channels in a flexible manner.

  18. Meta-atom microfluidic sensor for measurement of dielectric properties of liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Robiatun A.; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Baum, Thomas; Sriram, Sharath; Rowe, Wayne S. T.

    2017-03-01

    High sensitivity microwave frequency microfluidic sensing is gaining popularity in chemical and biosensing applications for evaluating the dielectric properties of liquid samples. Here, we show that a tiny microfluidic channel positioned in the gaps of a dual-gap meta-atom split-ring resonator can exploit the electric field sensitivity to predict the dielectric properties of liquid samples. Employing an empirical relation between resonant characteristics of the fabricated sensor and the complex permittivity of water-ethanol or water-methanol mixtures produces good congruence to standardized values from the literature. This microfluidic sensor offers a potential lab-on-chip solution for liquid dielectric characterization without external electrical connections.

  19. A Microfluidic Cell Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jay; Casavant, Ben; Frisk, Megan; Beebe, David

    2010-01-01

    Cell concentration via centrifugation is a ubiquitous step in many cell culture procedures. At the macroscale, centrifugation suffers from a number of limitations particularly when dealing with small numbers of cells (e.g., less than 50,000). On the other hand, typical microscale methods for cell concentration can affect cell physiology and bias readouts of cell behavior and function. In this paper, we present a microfluidic concentrator device that utilizes the effects of gravity to allow cells to gently settle out of a suspension into a collection region without the use of specific adhesion ligands. Dimensional analysis was performed to compare different device designs and was verified with flow modeling to optimize operational parameters. We are able to concentrate low-density cell suspensions in a microfluidic chamber, achieving a cell loss of only 1.1 ± 0.6% (SD, n=7) with no observed loss during a subsequent cell staining protocol which incorporates ~36 complete device volume replacements. This method provides a much needed interface between rare cell samples and microfluidic culture assays. PMID:20843010

  20. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  1. Nucleic acid and protein extraction from electropermeabilized E. coli cells on a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matos, T.; Senkbeil, Silja; Mendonça, A.

    2013-01-01

    technique has been developed which is based on exposing E. coli cells to low voltages to allow extraction of nucleic acids and proteins. The flow-through electropermeability chip used consists of a microfluidic channel with integrated gold electrodes that promote cell envelope channel formation at low...

  2. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-10-10

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  3. Closed-loop feedback control for microfluidic systems through automated capacitive fluid height sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Trumper, David; Kassis, Timothy; Griffith, Linda; Noh, Minkyun; Soenksen, Luis

    2018-01-01

    Precise fluid height sensing in open-channel microfluidics has long been a desirable feature for a wide range of applications. However, performing accurate measurements of the fluid level in small-scale reservoirs (<1mL) has proven to be an elusive goal, especially if direct fluid-sensor contact needs to be avoided. In particular, gravity-driven systems used in several microfluidic applications to establish pressure gradients and impose flow remain open-loop and largely unmonitored due to ...

  4. Fabrication of polystyrene microfluidic devices using a pulsed CO2 laser system

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.; Kodzius, Rimantas

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we described a simple and rapid method for fabrication of droplet microfluidic devices on polystyrene substrate using a CO2 laser system. The effects of the laser power and the cutting speed on the depth, width and aspect ratio of the microchannels fabricated on polystyrene were investigated. The polystyrene microfluidic channels were encapsulated using a hot press bonding technique. The experimental results showed that both discrete droplets and laminar flows could be obtained in the device.

  5. Microfluidic desalination : capacitive deionization on chip for microfluidic sample preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, Susan Helena

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the work described in this thesis is to implement the desalination technique capacitive deionization (CDI) on a microfluidic chip to improve the reproducibility in the analysis of biological samples for drug development. Secondly, microfluidic CDI allows for the in situ study of ion

  6. Inkjet 3D printing of microfluidic structures—on the selection of the printer towards printing your own microfluidic chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walczak, Rafał; Adamski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    This article reports, for the first time, the results of detailed research on the application of inkjet 3D printing for the fabrication of microfluidic structures. CAD designed test structures were printed with four different printers. Dimensional fidelity, shape conformity, and surface roughness were studied for each printout. It was found that the minimum dimension (width or depth) for a properly printed microfluidic channel was approximately 200 μm. Although the nominal resolution of the printers was one order of magnitude better, smaller structures were significantly deformed or not printed at all. It was also found that a crucial step in one-step fabrication of embedded microchannels is the removal of the support material. We also discuss the source of print error and present a way to evaluate other printers. The printouts obtained from the four different printers were compared, and the optimal printing technique and printer were used to fabricate a microfluidic structure for the spectrophotometric characterisation of beverages. UV/VIS absorbance characteristics were collected using this microfluidic structure, demonstrating that the fabricated spectrophotometric chip operated properly. Thus, a proof-of-concept for using inkjet 3D printing for the fabrication of microfluidic structures was obtained. (paper)

  7. Enzyme Kinetics By Directly Imaging A Porous Silicon Microfluidic Reactor Using Desorption/Ionization on Silicon Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, K.P.F.; Azoz, Seyla; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.

    2008-01-01

    Enzyme kinetics were obtained in a porous silicon microfluidic channel by combining an enzyme and substrate droplet, allowing them to react and deposit a small amount of residue on the channel walls, and then analyzing this residue by directly ionizing the channel walls using a matrix assisted laser

  8. Integrated cantilever-based flow sensors with tunable sensitivity for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Boisen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different...... is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external...

  9. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  10. A microfluidic approach for hemoglobin detection in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Taparia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of anemia relies on the detection of hemoglobin levels in a blood sample. Conventional blood analyzers are not readily available in most low-resource regions where anemia is prevalent, so detection methods that are low-cost and point-of-care are needed. Here, we present a microfluidic approach to measure hemoglobin concentration in a sample of whole blood. Unlike conventional approaches, our microfluidic approach does not require hemolysis. We detect the level of hemoglobin in a blood sample optically by illuminating the blood in a microfluidic channel at a peak wavelength of 540 nm and measuring its absorbance using a CMOS sensor coupled with a lens to magnify the image onto the detector. We compare measurements in microchannels with channel heights of 50 and 115 μm and found the channel with the 50 μm height provided a better range of detection. Since we use whole blood and not lysed blood, we fit our data to an absorption model that includes optical scattering in order to obtain a calibration curve for our system. Based on this calibration curve and data collected, we can measure hemoglobin concentration within 1 g/dL for severe cases of anemia. In addition, we measured optical density for blood flowing at a shear rate of 500 s-1 and observed it did not affect the nonlinear model. With this method, we provide an approach that uses microfluidic detection of hemoglobin levels that can be integrated with other microfluidic approaches for blood analysis.

  11. Prototyping chips in minutes: Direct Laser Plotting (DLP) of functional microfluidic structures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Limu

    2013-10-10

    We report a fast and simple prototyping method to fabricate polymer-based microfluidic chips using Direct Laser Plotting (DLP) technique, by which various functional micro-structures can be realized within minutes, in a mask-free and out-of-cleanroom fashion. A 2D Computer-Aid-Design (CAD) software was employed to layout the required micro-structures and micro-channels, a CO2 laser plotter was then used to construct the microstructures. The desired patterns can be plotted directly on PDMS substrates and bio-compatible polymer films by manipulating the strength and density of laser pulses. With the DLP technique, chip-embedded micro-electrodes, micro-mixers and 3D microfluidic chips with 5 layers, which normally require several days of work in a cleanroom facility, can be fabricated in minutes in common laboratory. This novel method can produce microfluidic channels with average feature size of 100 μm, while feature size of 50 μm or smaller is achievable by making use of the interference effect from laser impulsion. In this report, we present the optimized parameters for successful fabrication of 3D microchannels, micro-mixers and microfluidic chips for protein concentration measurements (Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) test), and a novel procedure to pattern flexible embedding electrodes on PDMS-based microfluidic chips. DLP offers a convenient and low cost alternative to conventional microfluidic channel fabrication technique which relies on complicated and hazardous soft lithography process.

  12. Sperm quality assessment via separation and sedimentation in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Yu; Chiang, Tsun-Chao; Lin, Cheng-Ming; Lin, Shu-Sheng; Jong, De-Shien; Tsai, Vincent F-S; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Wo, Andrew M

    2013-09-07

    A major reason for infertility is due to male factors, including the quality of spermatozoa, which is a primary factor and often difficult to assess, particularly the total sperm concentration and its motile percentage. This work presents a simple microfluidic device to assess sperm quality by quantifying both total and motile sperm counts. The key design feature of the microfluidic device is two channels separated by a permeative phase-guide structure, where one channel is filled with raw semen and the other with pure buffer. The semen sample was allowed to reach equilibrium in both chambers, whereas non-motile sperms remained in the original channel, and roughly half of the motile sperms would swim across the phase-guide barrier into the buffer channel. Sperms in each channel agglomerated into pellets after centrifugation, with the corresponding area representing total and motile sperm concentrations. Total sperm concentration up to 10(8) sperms per ml and motile percentage in the range of 10-70% were tested, encompassing the cutoff value of 40% stated by World Health Organization standards. Results from patient samples show compact and robust pellets after centrifugation. Comparison of total sperm concentration between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber reveal they agree within 5% and show strong correlation, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.97. Motile sperm count between the microfluidic device and the Makler chamber agrees within 5%, with a coefficient of determination of R(2) = 0.84. Comparison of results from the Makler Chamber, sperm quality analyzer, and the microfluidic device revealed that results from the microfluidic device agree well with the Makler chamber. The sperm microfluidic chip analyzes both total and motile sperm concentrations in one spin, is accurate and easy to use, and should enable sperm quality analysis with ease.

  13. MICROFLUIDIC COMPONENT CAPABLE OF SELF-SEALING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A microfluidic component (100) for building a microfluidic system is provided. The microfluidic component (100) can be mounted on a microf luidic breadboard (202) in a manner that allows it to be connected to other microfluidic components (204, 206) without the requirement of additional devices....... The microfluidic component (100) comprises at least one flexible tube piece (102) for transporting a fluid. The microfluidic component (100) also comprises means for applying and maintaining pressure (104) between the flexible tube piece (102) and a tube piece (208, 210) housed in another microfluidic component...

  14. Microfluidic Neurons, a New Way in Neuromorphic Engineering?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée Levi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a new way to explore neuromorphic engineering, the biomimetic artificial neuron using microfluidic techniques. This new device could replace silicon neurons and solve the issues of biocompatibility and power consumption. The biological neuron transmits electrical signals based on ion flow through their plasma membrane. Action potentials are propagated along axons and represent the fundamental electrical signals by which information are transmitted from one place to another in the nervous system. Based on this physiological behavior, we propose a microfluidic structure composed of chambers representing the intra and extracellular environments, connected by channels actuated by Quake valves. These channels are equipped with selective ion permeable membranes to mimic the exchange of chemical species found in the biological neuron. A thick polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS membrane is used to create the Quake valve membrane. Integrated electrodes are used to measure the potential difference between the intracellular and extracellular environments: the membrane potential.

  15. Biocompatibility of Tygon® tubing in microfluidic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao; Jeffries, Rex E; Acosta, Miguel A; Tikunov, Andrey P; Macdonald, Jeffrey M; Walker, Glenn M; Gamcsik, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Growth of the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line in microfluidic channels was inhibited when culture media was delivered to the channels via microbore Tygon® tubing. Culture media incubated within this tubing also inhibited growth of these cells in conventional 96-well plates. These detrimental effects were not due to depletion of critical nutrients due to adsorption of media components onto the tubing surface. A pH change was also ruled out as a cause. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the cell growth media before and after incubation in the tubing confirmed no detectable loss of media components but did detect the presence of additional unidentified signals in the aliphatic region of the spectrum. These results indicate leaching of a chemical species from microbore Tygon® tubing that can affect cell growth in microfluidic devices.

  16. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2012-02-20

    Microfluidic chips have a variety of applications in the biological sciences and medicine. In contrast with traditional experimental approaches, microfluidics entails lower sample and reagent consumption, allows faster reactions and enables efficient separation. Additionally microfluidics offers other advantages accruing from the fluids’ various distinct behaviors, such as energy dissipation, fluidic resistance, laminar flow, and surface tension. Biological molecules suspended in fluid and transported through microfluidics channels interact with the channel-wall material. This interaction is even stronger in high surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAVR) microfluidic channels. Adsorption and inhibition of biomolecules occur when these materials come in contact with biomolecular reaction components. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a thermal cycling procedure for amplifying target DNA. The PCR compatibility of silicon, silicon dioxide (SiO2) and other surfaces have been studied; however the results are inconclusive. Usually for protein-surface interaction measurements, bulky and expensive equipment is used, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning or Transmission Electron Microscopy (SEM, TEM), spectrophotometric protein concentration measurement, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). \\tThe PCR reaction components include the DNA template, primers, DNA polymerase (the main component), dNTPs, a buffer, divalent ions (MgCl2), and KCl. \\tWe designed a simple, relatively quick measurement that only requires a PCR cycler; thus it mimics actual conditions in PCR cycling. In our study, we evaluated the inhibitory affect of different materials on PCR, which is one of the most frequently used enzymatic reactions in microfluidics. PCR reaction optimization through choice of surface materials is of the upmost importance, as it enables and improves enzymatic reaction in microfluidics. Our assessment of the PCR

  17. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  18. Microfluidic Scintillation Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    Microfluidic scintillation detectors are devices of recent introduction for the detection of high energy particles, developed within the EP-DT group at CERN. Most of the interest for such technology comes from the use of liquid scintillators, which entails the possibility of changing the active material in the detector, leading to an increased radiation resistance. This feature, together with the high spatial resolution and low thickness deriving from the microfabrication techniques used to manufacture such devices, is desirable not only in instrumentation for high energy physics experiments but also in medical detectors such as beam monitors for hadron therapy.

  19. Spatial manipulation with microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eLin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical gradients convey information through space, time, and concentration, and are ultimately capable of spatially resolving distinct cellular phenotypes, such as differentiation, proliferation, and migration. How these gradients develop, evolve, and function during development, homeostasis, and various disease states is a subject of intense interest across a variety of disciplines. Microfluidic technologies have become essential tools for investigating gradient sensing in vitro due to their ability to precisely manipulate fluids on demand in well controlled environments at cellular length scales. This minireview will highlight their utility for studying gradient sensing along with relevant applications to biology.

  20. Influence of geometry on hydrodynamic focusing and long-range fluid behavior in PDMS microfluidic chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hoyland, James; Rubahn, Horst-Günter

    2012-01-01

    Details of hydrodynamic focusing in a 2D microfluidic channel-junction are investigated experimentally and theoretically, especially the effect on the focusing width of volumetric flow ratio r between main and side channels, as well as angle θ between channels. A non-linear relationship is observed...... and it is observed that in the middle section of the channel, a smaller θ induces less divergence. This effect is of importance for microfluidic systems utilizing hydrodynamic focusing in long, straight channels....... where the focus width decreases rapidly with increasing r and levels off at higher values. For the dependence on θ, results from both experiments and modeling show that an increased focusing effect is obtained as θ approaches 90°. Long-range focusing is explored along a 1 cm long channel...

  1. Integrated microfluidic capillary in a waveguide resonator for chemical and biomedical sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavuluri, S K; Lopez-Villarroya, R; McKeever, E; Goussetis, G; Desmulliez, M P Y; Kavanagh, D

    2009-01-01

    A novel microfluidic sensing device based on waveguide cavity filters is proposed for the characterisation, detection of cells in solution and chemical substances in micro-litre volumes. The sensor consists of a micromachined microfluidic channel within a waveguide-based resonator localised increased near-fields and could potentially be designed for different frequency regimes to improve the sensitivity. The present sensor has been proposed for fabrication in different manufacturing platforms and an initial prototype with a 100μm micromachined channel that is embedded within an X-band E-plane waveguide has been fabricated and tested. The design methodology for the microfluidic channel and the E-plane filter is also presented.

  2. Optimization of a microfluidic electrophoretic immunoassay using a Peltier cooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhitov, Nikita; Yi, Lian; Schrell, Adrian M; Roper, Michael G

    2014-11-07

    Successful analysis of electrophoretic affinity assays depends strongly on the preservation of the affinity complex during separations. Elevated separation temperatures due to Joule heating promotes complex dissociation leading to a reduction in sensitivity. Affinity assays performed in glass microfluidic devices may be especially prone to this problem due to poor heat dissipation due to the low thermal conductivity of glass and the large amount of bulk material surrounding separation channels. To address this limitation, a method to cool a glass microfluidic chip for performing an affinity assay for insulin was achieved by a Peltier cooler localized over the separation channel. The Peltier cooler allowed for rapid stabilization of temperatures, with 21°C the lowest temperature that was possible to use without producing detrimental thermal gradients throughout the device. The introduction of cooling improved the preservation of the affinity complex, with even passive cooling of the separation channel improving the amount of complex observed by 2-fold. Additionally, the capability to thermostabilize the separation channel allowed for utilization of higher separation voltages than what was possible without temperature control. Kinetic CE analysis was utilized as a diagnostic of the affinity assay and indicated that optimal conditions were at the highest separation voltage, 6 kV, and the lowest separation temperature, 21°C, leading to 3.4% dissociation of the complex peak during the separation. These optimum conditions were used to generate a calibration curve and produced 1 nM limits of detection, representing a 10-fold improvement over non-thermostated conditions. This methodology of cooling glass microfluidic devices for performing robust and high sensitivity affinity assays on microfluidic systems should be amenable in a number of applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation: SIMPLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalj, Tadej; Park, Younggeun; Vencelj, Matjaž; Jenko, Monika; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-21

    Reliable, autonomous, internally self-powered microfluidic pumps are in critical demand for rapid point-of-care (POC) devices, integrated molecular-diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Here we report on a Self-powered Imbibing Microfluidic Pump by Liquid Encapsulation (SIMPLE), which is disposable, autonomous, easy to use and fabricate, robust, and cost efficient, as a solution for self-powered microfluidic POC devices. The imbibition pump introduces the working liquid which is sucked into a porous material (paper) upon activation. The suction of the working liquid creates a reduced pressure in the analytical channel and induces the sequential sample flow into the microfluidic circuits. It requires no external power or control and can be simply activated by a fingertip press. The flow rate can be programmed by defining the shape of utilized porous material: by using three different paper shapes with circular section angles 20°, 40° and 60°, three different volume flow rates of 0.07 μL s(-1), 0.12 μL s(-1) and 0.17 μL s(-1) are demonstrated at 200 μm × 600 μm channel cross-section. We established the SIMPLE pumping of 17 μL of sample; however, the sample volume can be increased to several hundreds of μL. To demonstrate the design, fabrication, and characterization of SIMPLE, we used a simple, robust and cheap foil-laminating fabrication technique. The SIMPLE can be integrated into hydrophilic or hydrophobic materials-based microfluidic POC devices. Since it is also applicable to large-scale manufacturing processes, we anticipate that a new chapter of a cost effective, disposable, autonomous POC diagnostic chip is addressed with this technical innovation.

  4. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechet, Jean M. J. [Oakland, CA; Svec, Frantisek [Alameda, CA; Rohr, Thomas [Leiden, NL

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  5. Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries

    CERN Document Server

    Kjeang, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic fuel cells and batteries represent a special type of electrochemical power generators that can be miniaturized and integrated in a microfluidic chip. Summarizing the initial ten years of research and development in this emerging field, this SpringerBrief is the first book dedicated to microfluidic fuel cell and battery technology for electrochemical energy conversion and storage. Written at a critical juncture, where strategically applied research is urgently required to seize impending technology opportunities for commercial, analytical, and educational utility, the intention is

  6. Integrated electrofluidic circuits: pressure sensing with analog and digital operation functionalities for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chueh-Yu; Lu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Man-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2012-10-21

    Microfluidic technology plays an essential role in various lab on a chip devices due to its desired advantages. An automated microfluidic system integrated with actuators and sensors can further achieve better controllability. A number of microfluidic actuation schemes have been well developed. In contrast, most of the existing sensing methods still heavily rely on optical observations and external transducers, which have drawbacks including: costly instrumentation, professional operation, tedious interfacing, and difficulties of scaling up and further signal processing. This paper reports the concept of electrofluidic circuits - electrical circuits which are constructed using ionic liquid (IL)-filled fluidic channels. The developed electrofluidic circuits can be fabricated using a well-developed multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. Electrofluidic circuits allow seamless integration of pressure sensors with analog and digital operation functions into microfluidic systems and provide electrical readouts for further signal processing. In the experiments, the analog operation device is constructed based on electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuits with electrical outputs of the addition and subtraction results of the applied pressures. The digital operation (AND, OR, and XOR) devices are constructed using the electrofluidic pressure controlled switches, and output electrical signals of digital operations of the applied pressures. The experimental results demonstrate the designed functions for analog and digital operations of applied pressures are successfully achieved using the developed electrofluidic circuits, making them promising to develop integrated microfluidic systems with capabilities of precise pressure monitoring and further feedback control for advanced lab on a chip applications.

  7. Syringe-vacuum microfluidics: A portable technique to create monodisperse emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Adam R; Weitz, David A

    2011-03-16

    We present a simple method for creating monodisperse emulsions with microfluidic devices. Unlike conventional approaches that require bulky pumps, control computers, and expertise with device physics to operate devices, our method requires only the microfluidic device and a hand-operated syringe. The fluids needed for the emulsion are loaded into the device inlets, while the syringe is used to create a vacuum at the device outlet; this sucks the fluids through the channels, generating the drops. By controlling the hydrodynamic resistances of the channels using hydrodynamic resistors and valves, we are able to control the properties of the drops. This provides a simple and highly portable method for creating monodisperse emulsions.

  8. The MainSTREAM Component Platform: A Holistic Approach to Microfluidic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Søe, Martin Jensen

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic component library for building systems driving parallel or serial microfluidic-based assays is presented. The components are a miniaturized eight-channel peristaltic pump, an eight-channel valve, sample-to-waste liquid management, and interconnections. The library of components...... of reaction chips; (2) highly parallel pumping and routing/valving capability; (3) methods to interface pumps and chip-to-liquid management systems; (4) means to construct a portable system; (5) reconfigurability/flexibility in system design; (6) means to interface to microscopes; and (7) compatibility...

  9. Acousto-plasmofluidics: Acoustic modulation of surface plasmon resonance in microfluidic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We acoustically modulated the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs of metal nanostructures integrated within microfluidic systems. An acoustically driven micromixing device based on bubble microstreaming quickly and homogeneously mixes multiple laminar flows of different refractive indices. The altered refractive index of the mixed fluids enables rapid modulation of the LSPRs of gold nanodisk arrays embedded within the microfluidic channel. The device features fast response for dynamic operation, and the refractive index within the channel is tailorable. With these unique features, our “acousto-plasmofluidic” device can be useful in applications such as optical switches, modulators, filters, biosensors, and lab-on-a-chip systems.

  10. Digital Microfluidic System with Vertical Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F. Bender

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital (droplet microfluidics (DµF is a powerful platform for automated lab-on-a-chip procedures, ranging from quantitative bioassays such as RT-qPCR to complete mammalian cell culturing. The simple MEMS processing protocols typically employed to fabricate DµF devices limit their functionality to two dimensions, and hence constrain the applications for which these devices can be used. This paper describes the integration of vertical functionality into a DµF platform by stacking two planar digital microfluidic devices, altering the electrode fabrication process, and incorporating channels for reversibly translating droplets between layers. Vertical droplet movement was modeled to advance the device design, and three applications that were previously unachievable using a conventional format are demonstrated: (1 solutions of calcium dichloride and sodium alginate were vertically mixed to produce a hydrogel with a radially symmetric gradient in crosslink density; (2 a calcium alginate hydrogel was formed within the through-well to create a particle sieve for filtering suspensions passed from one layer to the next; and (3 a cell spheroid formed using an on-chip hanging-drop was retrieved for use in downstream processing. The general capability of vertically delivering droplets between multiple stacked levels represents a processing innovation that increases DµF functionality and has many potential applications.

  11. A microfluidic tubing method and its application for controlled synthesis of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Chen, Wenwen; Sun, Jiashu; Liu, Chao; Yin, Qifang; Zhang, Lu; Xianyu, Yunlei; Shi, Xinghua; Hu, Guoqing; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-05-21

    This report describes a straightforward but robust tubing method for connecting polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to external equipment. The interconnection is irreversible and can sustain a pressure of up to 4.5 MPa that is characterized experimentally and theoretically. To demonstrate applications of this high-pressure tubing technique, we fabricate a semicircular microfluidic channel to implement a high-throughput, size-controlled synthesis of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles ranging from 55 to 135 nm in diameter. This microfluidic device allows for a total flow rate of 410 mL h(-1), resulting in enhanced convective mixing which can be utilized to precipitate small size nanoparticles with a good dispersion. We expect that this tubing technique would be widely used in microfluidic chips for nanoparticle synthesis, cell manipulation, and potentially nanofluidic applications.

  12. Heterogenous integration of a thin-film GaAs photodetector and a microfluidic device on a silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Fuchuan; Xiao, Jing; Udawala, Fidaali; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, heterogeneous integration of a III–V semiconductor thin-film photodetector (PD) with a microfluidic device is demonstrated on a SiO 2 –Si substrate. Thin-film format of optical devices provides an intimate integration of optical functions with microfluidic devices. As a demonstration of a multi-material and functional system, the biphasic flow structure in the polymeric microfluidic channels was co-integrated with a III–V semiconductor thin-film PD. The fluorescent drops formed in the microfluidic device are successfully detected with an integrated thin-film PD on a silicon substrate. The proposed three-dimensional integration structure is an alternative approach to combine optical functions with microfluidic functions on silicon-based electronic functions.

  13. Methods of making microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Mashraei, Yousof; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Salama, Khaled N.

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of designs and structures, however, fabrication methods are either time consuming or expensive to produce, in terms of the facilities and equipment needed. A fast and economically viable method is provided

  14. Microfluidic technology for molecular diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tom; Dittrich, Petra S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics have helped to improve the lives of millions of patients worldwide by allowing clinicians to diagnose patients earlier as well as providing better ongoing therapies. Point-of-care (POC) testing can bring these laboratory-based techniques to the patient in a home setting or to remote settings in the developing world. However, despite substantial progress in the field, there still remain many challenges. Progress in molecular diagnostics has benefitted greatly from microfluidic technology. This chapter aims to summarise the more recent advances in microfluidic-based molecular diagnostics. Sections include an introduction to microfluidic technology, the challenges of molecular diagnostics, how microfluidic advances are working to solve these issues, some alternative design approaches, and detection within these systems.

  15. Microfluidics as a tool for micro-manipulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Potgieter, S

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available , exists (Xia & Whitesides, 1998). PDMS (Dow Corning Sylgard 184) will be poured into the moulds and cured to create the flow channels. Channel dimensions in the order of 100 µm deep and 100 µm wide will be used initially. To visualise particle.... DUFFY, D.C., MCDONALD, J.C., SCHUELLER, O.J.A., WHITESIDES, G.M. “Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane)”, Analytical Chemistry, 70, pp. 4974 – 4984, 1998. LIU, L., CAO, W., WU, J., WEN, W., CHANG, D.C., SHENG, P...

  16. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  17. Microfluidic Mixing Technology for a Universal Health Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene Y.; Bae, Candice

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient means of microfluidic mixing has been created for use with the rHEALTH sensor an elliptical mixer and passive curvilinear mixing patterns. The rHEALTH sensor provides rapid, handheld, complete blood count, cell differential counts, electrolyte measurements, and other lab tests based on a reusable, flow-based microfluidic platform. These geometries allow for cleaning in a reusable manner, and also allow for complete mixing of fluid streams. The microfluidic mixing is performed by flowing two streams of fluid into an elliptical or curvilinear design that allows the combination of the flows into one channel. The mixing is accomplished by either chaotic advection around micro - fluidic loops. All components of the microfluidic chip are flow-through, meaning that cleaning solution can be introduced into the chip to flush out cells, plasma proteins, and dye. Tests were performed on multiple chip geometries to show that cleaning is efficient in any flowthrough design. The conclusion from these experiments is that the chip can indeed be flushed out with microliter volumes of solution and biological samples are cleaned readily from the chip with minimal effort. The technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring at patient s bedside or in a doctor s office, and real-time clinical intervention in acute situations. It also can be used for daily measurement of hematocrit for patients on anticoagulant drugs, or to detect acute myocardial damage outside a hospital.

  18. Development of a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, M. J.; Nguyen, X. D.; Morten, K.; Go, J. S.

    2018-04-01

    Recently, 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures have gained much attention in biomedical sciences because of the closer relevance between in vitro cell cultures and in vivo environments. This paper presents a microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system with consistent control of long-term culture conditions to mimic an in vivo microenvironment. It consists of two sudden expansion reservoirs to trap incoming air bubbles, gradient generators to provide a linear concentration, and microchannel mixers. Specifically, the air bubbles disturb a flow in the microfluidic channel resulting in the instability of the perfusion cell culture conditions. For long-term stable operation, the sudden expansion reservoir is designed to trap air bubbles by using buoyancy before they enter the culture system. The performance of the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system was examined experimentally and compared with analytical results. Finally, it was applied to test the cytotoxicity of cells infected with Ewing’s sarcoma. Cell death was observed for different concentrations of H2O2. For future work, the developed microfluidic perfusion 3D cell culture system can be used to examine the behavior of cells treated with various drugs and concentrations for high-throughput drug screening.

  19. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  20. Reconfigurable microfluidic platform in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Varejka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are popular tools in the biotechnology industry where they provide smaller reagent requirements, high speed of analysis and the possibility for automation. The aim of the project is to make a flexible biocompatible microfluidic platform adapted to different specific applications, mainly analytical and separations which parameters and configuration can be changed multiple times by changing corresponding computer programme. The current project has been sup...

  1. Analysis of the Diffusion Process by pH Indicator in Microfluidic Chips for Liposome Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bottaro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of nano- and micro-particles has attracted considerable interest from researchers and enterprises, because of the potential utility of such particles as drug delivery vehicles. Amongst the different techniques employed for the production of nanoparticles, microfluidic-based methods have proven to be the most effective for controlling particle size and dispersity, and for achieving high encapsulation efficiency of bioactive compounds. In this study, we specifically focus on the production of liposomes, spherical vesicles formed by a lipid bilayer encapsulating an aqueous core. The formation of liposomes in microfluidic devices is often governed by diffusive mass transfer of chemical species at the liquid interface between a solvent (i.e., alcohol and a non-solvent (i.e., water. In this work, we developed a new approach for the analysis of mixing processes within microfluidic devices. The method relies on the use of a pH indicator, and we demonstrate its utility by characterizing the transfer of ethanol and water within two different microfluidic architectures. Our approach represents an effective route to experimentally characterize diffusion and advection processes governing the formation of vesicular/micellar systems in microfluidics, and can also be employed to validate the results of numerical modelling.

  2. Bioanalysis in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandurina, Julia; Guttman, András

    2002-01-18

    Microfabricated bioanalytical devices (also referred to as laboratory-on-a-chip or micro-TAS) offer highly efficient platforms for simultaneous analysis of a large number of biologically important molecules, possessing great potential for genome, proteome and metabolome studies. Development and implementation of microfluidic-based bioanalytical tools involves both established and evolving technologies, including microlithography, micromachining, micro-electromechanical systems technology and nanotechnology. This article provides an overview of the latest developments in the key device subject areas and the basic interdisciplinary technologies. Important aspects of DNA and protein analysis, interfacing issues and system integration are all thoroughly discussed, along with applications for this novel "synergized" technology in high-throughput separations of biologically important molecules. This review also gives a better understanding of how to utilize these technologies as well as to provide appropriate technical solutions to problems perceived as being more fundamental.

  3. Fabrication of circular microfluidic network in enzymatically-crosslinked gelatin hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jiankang, E-mail: jiankanghe@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Chen, Ruomeng; Lu, Yongjie; Zhan, Li; Liu, Yaxiong; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-02-01

    It is a huge challenge to engineer vascular networks in vital organ tissue engineering. Although the incorporation of artificial microfluidic network into thick tissue-engineered constructs has shown great promise, most of the existing microfluidic strategies are limited to generate rectangle cross-sectional channels rather than circular vessels in soft hydrogels. Here we present a facile approach to fabricate branched microfluidic network with circular cross-sections in gelatin hydrogels by combining micromolding and enzymatically-crosslinking mechanism. Partially crosslinked hydrogel slides with predefined semi-circular channels were molded, assembled and in situ fully crosslinked to form a seamless and circular microfluidic network. The bonding strength of the resultant gelatin hydrogels was investigated. The morphology and the dimension of the resultant circular channels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and micro-computerized tomography (μCT). Computational fluid dynamic simulation shows that the fabrication error had little effect on the distribution of flow field but affected the maximum velocity in comparison with designed models. The microfluidic gelatin hydrogel facilitates the attachment and spreading of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form a uniform endothelialized layer around the circular channel surface, which successfully exhibited barrier functions. The presented method might provide a simple way to fabricate circular microfluidic networks in biologically-relevant hydrogels to advance various applications of in vitro tissue models, organ-on-a-chip systems and tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A facile method was proposed to build a circular fluidic network in gelatin hydrogel. • The fluidic network is mechanically robust and supports physiological flow. • HUVECs formed endothelialized layer around the channel to express barrier function.

  4. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  5. Integrated Cantilever-Based Flow Sensors with Tunable Sensitivity for In-Line Monitoring of Flow Fluctuations in Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Noeth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For devices such as bio-/chemical sensors in microfluidic systems, flow fluctuations result in noise in the sensor output. Here, we demonstrate in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations with a cantilever-like sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel. The cantilevers are fabricated in different materials (SU-8 and SiN and with different thicknesses. The integration of arrays of holes with different hole size and number of holes allows the modification of device sensitivity, theoretical detection limit and measurement range. For an average flow in the microliter range, the cantilever deflection is directly proportional to the flow rate fluctuations in the microfluidic channel. The SiN cantilevers show a detection limit below 1 nL/min and the thinnest SU-8 cantilevers a detection limit below 5 nL/min. Finally, the sensor is applied for in-line monitoring of flow fluctuations generated by external pumps connected to the microfluidic system.

  6. Integrated lenses in polystyrene microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a new method for integrating microlenses into microfluidic devices for improved observation. Two demonstration microfluidic devices were provided which were fabricated using this new technique. The integrated microlenses were

  7. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia

    2009-01-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer

  8. Microfluidic standardization: Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, H. van; Atkins, T.; Blom, M.; Bullema, J.E.; Tantra, R.; Verhoeven, D.; Verplanck, N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of standardization in microfluidics. It contains the main points of an industry wide agreement about microfluidic port pitches and port nomenclature. It also addresses device classification and future steps.

  9. Equilibrium gas-oil ratio measurements using a microfluidic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Shah, Mohammad Khalid; Eskin, Dmitry; Schmidt, Kurt; Singh, Anil; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2013-07-07

    A method for measuring the equilibrium GOR (gas-oil ratio) of reservoir fluids using microfluidic technology is developed. Live crude oils (crude oil with dissolved gas) are injected into a long serpentine microchannel at reservoir pressure. The fluid forms a segmented flow as it travels through the channel. Gas and liquid phases are produced from the exit port of the channel that is maintained at atmospheric conditions. The process is analogous to the production of crude oil from a formation. By using compositional analysis and thermodynamic principles of hydrocarbon fluids, we show excellent equilibrium between the produced gas and liquid phases is achieved. The GOR of a reservoir fluid is a key parameter in determining the equation of state of a crude oil. Equations of state that are commonly used in petroleum engineering and reservoir simulations describe the phase behaviour of a fluid at equilibrium state. Therefore, to accurately determine the coefficients of an equation of state, the produced gas and liquid phases have to be as close to the thermodynamic equilibrium as possible. In the examples presented here, the GORs measured with the microfluidic technique agreed with GOR values obtained from conventional methods. Furthermore, when compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic technique was simpler to perform, required less equipment, and yielded better repeatability.

  10. Relaxation of microparticles exposed to hydrodynamic forces in microfluidic conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janča, Josef; Halabalová, Věra; Polášek, Vladimír; Vašina, Martin; Menshikova, Anastasia Yu

    2011-02-01

    The behavior of microparticles exposed to gravitational and lift forces and to the velocity gradient in flow velocity profile formed in microfluidic conduits is studied from the viewpoint of the transient period (the relaxation) between the moment at which a particle starts to be transported by the hydrodynamic flow and the time at which it reaches an equilibrium position, characterized by a balance of all active forces. The theoretical model allowing the calculation of the relaxation time is proposed. The numerical calculus based on the proposed model is compared with the experimental data obtained under different experimental conditions, namely, for different lengths of microfluidic channels, different average linear velocities of the carrier liquid, and different sizes and densities of the particles used in the study. The results are important for the optimization of microfluidic separation units such as microthermal field-flow fractionation channels in which the separation or manipulation of the microparticles of various origin, synthetic, natural, biological, etc., is performed under similar experimental conditions but by applying an additional thermodynamic force.

  11. Plasma treatments of wool fiber surface for microfluidic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, So-Hyoun; Hwang, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Jin Su [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Boo, Jin-Hyo, E-mail: jhboo@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sang H., E-mail: shy@kth.se [Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We used atmospheric plasma for tuning the wettability of wool fibers. • The wicking rates of the wool fibers increased with increasing treatment time. • The increasing of wettability results in removement of fatty acid on the wool surface. - Abstract: Recent progress in health diagnostics has led to the development of simple and inexpensive systems. Thread-based microfluidic devices allow for portable and inexpensive field-based technologies enabling medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety analysis. However, controlling the flow rate of wool thread, which is a very important part of thread-based microfluidic devices, is quite difficult. For this reason, we focused on thread-based microfluidics in the study. We developed a method of changing the wettability of hydrophobic thread, including wool thread. Thus, using natural wool thread as a channel, we demonstrate herein that the manipulation of the liquid flow, such as micro selecting and micro mixing, can be achieved by applying plasma treatment to wool thread. In addition to enabling the flow control of the treated wool channels consisting of all natural substances, this procedure will also be beneficial for biological sensing devices. We found that wools treated with various gases have different flow rates. We used an atmospheric plasma with O{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar gases.

  12. Microfluidics for simultaneous quantification of platelet adhesion and blood viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Eunseop; Park, Jun Hong; Kang, Yang Jun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    Platelet functions, including adhesion, activation, and aggregation have an influence on thrombosis and the progression of atherosclerosis. In the present study, a new microfluidic-based method is proposed to estimate platelet adhesion and blood viscosity simultaneously. Blood sample flows into an H-shaped microfluidic device with a peristaltic pump. Since platelet aggregation may be initiated by the compression of rotors inside the peristaltic pump, platelet aggregates may adhere to the H-shaped channel. Through correlation mapping, which visualizes decorrelation of the streaming blood flow, the area of adhered platelets (APlatelet) can be estimated without labeling platelets. The platelet function is estimated by determining the representative index IA·T based on APlatelet and contact time. Blood viscosity is measured by monitoring the flow conditions in the one side channel of the H-shaped device. Based on the relation between interfacial width (W) and pressure ratio of sample flows to the reference, blood sample viscosity (μ) can be estimated by measuring W. Biophysical parameters (IA·T, μ) are compared for normal and diabetic rats using an ex vivo extracorporeal model. This microfluidic-based method can be used for evaluating variations in the platelet adhesion and blood viscosity of animal models with cardiovascular diseases under ex vivo conditions. PMID:27118101

  13. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. A full-wafer fabrication process for glass microfluidic chips with integrated electroplated electrodes by direct bonding of dry film resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulto, Paul; Urban, G A; Huesgen, Till; Albrecht, Björn

    2009-01-01

    A full-wafer process is presented for fast and simple fabrication of glass microfluidic chips with integrated electroplated electrodes. The process employs the permanent dry film resist (DFR) Ordyl SY300 to create microfluidic channels, followed by electroplating of silver and subsequent chlorination. The dry film resist is bonded directly to a second substrate, without intermediate gluing layers, only by applying pressure and moderate heating. The process of microfluidic channel fabrication, electroplating and wafer bonding can be completed within 1 day, thus making it one of the fastest and simplest full-wafer fabrication processes. (note)

  16. Radio frequency feedback method for parallelized droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper reports on a radio frequency micro-strip T-resonator that is integrated to a parallel droplet microfluidic system. The T-resonator works as a feedback system to monitor uniform droplet production and to detect, in real-time, any malfunctions due to channel fouling or clogging. Emulsions at different W/O flow-rate ratios are generated in a microfluidic device containing 8 parallelized generators. These emulsions are then guided towards the RF sensor, which is then read using a Network Analyzer to obtain the frequency response of the system. The proposed T-resonator shows frequency shifts of 45MHz for only 5% change in the emulsion\\'s water in oil content. These shifts can then be used as a feedback system to trigger alarms and notify production and quality control engineers about problems in the droplet generation process.

  17. Radio frequency feedback method for parallelized droplet microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Carreno, Armando Arpys Arevalo; McKerricher, Garret; Castro, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a radio frequency micro-strip T-resonator that is integrated to a parallel droplet microfluidic system. The T-resonator works as a feedback system to monitor uniform droplet production and to detect, in real-time, any malfunctions due to channel fouling or clogging. Emulsions at different W/O flow-rate ratios are generated in a microfluidic device containing 8 parallelized generators. These emulsions are then guided towards the RF sensor, which is then read using a Network Analyzer to obtain the frequency response of the system. The proposed T-resonator shows frequency shifts of 45MHz for only 5% change in the emulsion's water in oil content. These shifts can then be used as a feedback system to trigger alarms and notify production and quality control engineers about problems in the droplet generation process.

  18. Multimodal Microchannel and Nanowell-Based Microfluidic Platforms for Bioimaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Tao; Smallwood, Chuck R.; Zhu, Ying; Bredeweg, Erin L.; Baker, Scott E.; Evans, James E.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2017-03-30

    Modern live-cell imaging approaches permit real-time visualization of biological processes. However, limitations for unicellular organism trapping, culturing and long-term imaging can preclude complete understanding of how such microorganisms respond to perturbations in their local environment or linking single-cell variability to whole population dynamics. We have developed microfluidic platforms to overcome prior technical bottlenecks to allow both chemostat and compartmentalized cellular growth conditions using the same device. Additionally, a nanowell-based platform enables a high throughput approach to scale up compartmentalized imaging optimized within the microfluidic device. These channel and nanowell platforms are complementary, and both provide fine control over the local environment as well as the ability to add/replace media components at any experimental time point.

  19. Flow characterization and patch clamp dose responses using jet microfluidics in a tubeless microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resto, Pedro J; Bhat, Abhishek; Stava, Eric; Lor, Chong; Merriam, Elliot; Diaz-Rivera, Ruben E; Pearce, Robert; Blick, Robert; Williams, Justin C

    2017-11-01

    Surface tension passive pumping is a way to actuate flow without the need for pumps, tubing or valves by using the pressure inside small drop to move liquid via a microfluidic channel. These types of tubeless devices have typically been used in cell biology. Herein we present the use of tubeless devices as a fluid exchange platform for patch clamp electrophysiology. Inertia from high-speed droplets and jets is used to create flow and perform on-the-fly mixing of solutions. These are then flowed over GABA transfected HEK cells under patch in order to perform a dose response analysis. TIRF imaging and electrical recordings are used to study the fluid exchange properties of the microfluidic device, resulting in 0-90% fluid exchange times of hundreds of milliseconds. COMSOL is used to model flow and fluid exchange within the device. Patch-clamping experiments show the ability to use high-speed passive pumping and its derivatives for studying peak dose responses, but not for studying ion channel kinetics. Our system results in fluid exchange times slower than when using a standard 12-barrel application system and is not as stable as traditional methods, but it offers a new platform with added functionality. Surface tension passive pumping and tubeless devices can be used in a limited fashion for electrophysiology. Users may obtain peak dose responses but the system, in its current form, is not capable of fluid exchange fast enough to study the kinetics of most ion channels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An approach to implement virtual channels for flowing magnetic beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Shih-Hao; Chiang, Hung-Wei; Hsieh, Min-Chien; Chang, Yen-Di; Yeh, Po-Fan; Tsai, Jui-che; Shieh, Wung-Yang

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel microfluidic system with virtual channels formed by ‘walls’ of magnetic fields, including collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels. The channels are defined by the nickel patterns. With its own ferromagnetism, nickel can be magnetized using an external magnetic field; the nickel structures then generate magnetic fields that can either guide or trap magnetic beads. A glass substrate is sandwiched between the liquid containing magnetic beads and the chip with nickel structures, preventing the liquid from directly contacting the nickel. In this work, collecting channels, transporting channels and function channels are displayed sequentially. In the collecting channel portion, channels with different shapes are compared. Next, in the transporting channel portion we demonstrate I-, S- and Y-shaped channels can steer magnetic beads smoothly. Finally, in the function channel portion, a switchable trapping channel implemented with a bistable mechanism performs the passing and blocking of a magnetic bead. (paper)

  1. Microfluidic stretchable RF electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2010-12-07

    Stretchable electronics is a revolutionary technology that will potentially create a world of radically different electronic devices and systems that open up an entirely new spectrum of possibilities. This article proposes a microfluidic based solution for stretchable radio frequency (RF) electronics, using hybrid integration of active circuits assembled on flex foils and liquid alloy passive structures embedded in elastic substrates, e.g. polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This concept was employed to implement a 900 MHz stretchable RF radiation sensor, consisting of a large area elastic antenna and a cluster of conventional rigid components for RF power detection. The integrated radiation sensor except the power supply was fully embedded in a thin elastomeric substrate. Good electrical performance of the standalone stretchable antenna as well as the RF power detection sub-module was verified by experiments. The sensor successfully detected the RF radiation over 5 m distance in the system demonstration. Experiments on two-dimensional (2D) stretching up to 15%, folding and twisting of the demonstrated sensor were also carried out. Despite the integrated device was severely deformed, no failure in RF radiation sensing was observed in the tests. This technique illuminates a promising route of realizing stretchable and foldable large area integrated RF electronics that are of great interest to a variety of applications like wearable computing, health monitoring, medical diagnostics, and curvilinear electronics.

  2. 3D-printed microfluidic chips with patterned, cell-laden hydrogel constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Ersoy, Fulya; Emadi, Sharareh; Khademhosseini, Ali; Tasoglu, Savas

    2016-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers potential to fabricate high-throughput and low-cost fabrication of microfluidic devices as a promising alternative to traditional techniques which enables efficient design iterations in the development stage. In this study, we demonstrate a single-step fabrication of a 3D transparent microfluidic chip using two alternative techniques: a stereolithography-based desktop 3D printer and a two-step fabrication using an industrial 3D printer based on polyjet technology. This method, compared to conventional fabrication using relatively expensive materials and labor-intensive processes, presents a low-cost, rapid prototyping technique to print functional 3D microfluidic chips. We enhance the capabilities of 3D-printed microfluidic devices by coupling 3D cell encapsulation and spatial patterning within photocrosslinkable gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). The platform presented here serves as a 3D culture environment for long-term cell culture and growth. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the ability to print complex 3D microfluidic channels to create predictable and controllable fluid flow regimes. Here, we demonstrate the novel use of 3D-printed microfluidic chips as controllable 3D cell culture environments, advancing the applicability of 3D printing to engineering physiological systems for future applications in bioengineering.

  3. Route to one-step microstructure mold fabrication for PDMS microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoqing; Geng, Zhaoxin; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shicai; Su, Yue; Fang, Weihao; Pei, Weihua; Chen, Hongda

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure mold fabrication for PDMS microfluidic chip remains complex and time-consuming process requiring special equipment and protocols: photolithography and etching. Thus, a rapid and cost-effective method is highly needed. Comparing with the traditional microfluidic chip fabricating process based on the micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), this method is simple and easy to implement, and the whole fabrication process only requires 1-2 h. Different size of microstructure from 100 to 1000 μm was fabricated, and used to culture four kinds of breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability and morphology was assessed when they were cultured in the micro straight channels, micro square holes and the bonding PDMS-glass microfluidic chip. The experimental results indicate that the microfluidic chip is good and meet the experimental requirements. This method can greatly reduce the process time and cost of the microfluidic chip, and provide a simple and effective way for the structure design and in the field of biological microfabrications and microfluidic chips.

  4. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  5. Brain slice on a chip: opportunities and challenges of applying microfluidic technology to intact tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Williams, Justin C; Johnson, Stephen M

    2012-06-21

    Isolated brain tissue, especially brain slices, are valuable experimental tools for studying neuronal function at the network, cellular, synaptic, and single channel levels. Neuroscientists have refined the methods for preserving brain slice viability and function and converged on principles that strongly resemble the approach taken by engineers in developing microfluidic devices. With respect to brain slices, microfluidic technology may 1) overcome the traditional limitations of conventional interface and submerged slice chambers and improve oxygen/nutrient penetration into slices, 2) provide better spatiotemporal control over solution flow/drug delivery to specific slice regions, and 3) permit successful integration with modern optical and electrophysiological techniques. In this review, we highlight the unique advantages of microfluidic devices for in vitro brain slice research, describe recent advances in the integration of microfluidic devices with optical and electrophysiological instrumentation, and discuss clinical applications of microfluidic technology as applied to brain slices and other non-neuronal tissues. We hope that this review will serve as an interdisciplinary guide for both neuroscientists studying brain tissue in vitro and engineers as they further develop microfluidic chamber technology for neuroscience research.

  6. In situ ZnO-PVA nanocomposite coated microfluidic chips for biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habouti, Salah; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Hoyland, James D.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Es-Souni, Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Microfluidic chips with integrated fluid and optical connectors have been generated via a simple PDMS master-mould technique. In situ coating using a Zinc oxide polyvinylalcohol based sol-gel method results in ultrathin nanocomposite layers on the fluid channels, which makes them strongly hydrophilic and minimizes auto contamination of the chips by injected fluorescent biomarkers.

  7. Experimental and numerical studies of emulsion formation in a microfluidic T-junction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbanjwa, MB

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions in T-junction microfluidic channels was studied through experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). W/o emulsions were produced in the microchannels from deionised water and mineral oil...

  8. In situ ZnO-PVA nanocomposite coated microfluidic chips for biosensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Kunstmann-Olsen, C.; Hoyland, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic chips with integrated fluid and optical connectors have been generated via a simple PDMS master-mould technique. In situ coating using a Zinc oxide polyvinylalcohol based sol-gel method results in ultrathin nanocomposite layers on the fluid channels, which makes them strongly...

  9. Electron beam fabrication of a microfluidic device for studying submicron-scale bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolman, M.C.; Huang, Z.; Krishnan, S.T.; Kerssemakers, J.W.J.; Dekker, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Controlled restriction of cellular movement using microfluidics allows one to study individual cells to gain insight into aspects of their physiology and behaviour. For example, the use of micron-sized growth channels that confine individual Escherichia coli has yielded novel insights

  10. Local modification and laser-welding production of functionalized microfluidic chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijo Carvalho, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The ability to locally functionalize the surface of glass and polymers allows for myriad biomedical and chemical applications. When we started this research enclosed surfaces such as microfluidic channels were not easily amenable to localized functionalization. Furthermore, pre-functionalization

  11. Applied bioactive polymeric materials

    CERN Document Server

    Carraher, Charles; Foster, Van

    1988-01-01

    The biological and biomedical applications of polymeric materials have increased greatly in the past few years. This book will detail some, but not all, of these recent developments. There would not be enough space in this book to cover, even lightly, all of the major advances that have occurred. Some earlier books and summaries are available by two of this book's Editors (Gebelein & Carraher) and these should be consul ted for additional information. The books are: "Bioactive Polymeric Systems" (Plenum, 1985); "Polymeric Materials In Medication" (Plenum, 1985); "Biological Acti vi ties of Polymers" (American Chemical Society, 1982). Of these three, "Bioacti ve Polymeric Systems" should be the most useful to a person who is new to this field because it only contains review articles written at an introductory level. The present book primarily consists of recent research results and applications, with only a few review or summary articles. Bioactive polymeric materials have existed from the creation of life...

  12. Bioactive technologies for hemocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2005-07-01

    The contact of any biomaterial with blood gives rise to multiple pathophysiologic defensive mechanisms such as activation of the coagulation cascade, platelet adhesion and activation of the complement system and leukocytes. The reduction of these events is of crucial importance for the successful clinical performance of a cardiovascular device. This can be achieved by improving the hemocompatibility of the device materials or by pharmacologic inhibition of the key enzymes responsible for the activation of the cascade reactions, or a combination of both. Different strategies have been developed during the last 20 years, and this article attempts to review the most significant, by dividing them into three main categories: bioinert or biopassive, biomimetic and bioactive strategies. With regard to bioactive strategies, particular attention is given to heparin immobilization and recent related technologies. References from both scientific literature and commercial sites are provided. Future development and studies are suggested.

  13. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  14. A micro-fluidic study of whole blood behaviour on PMMA topographical nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsud Nataliya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymers are attractive materials for both biomedical engineering and cardiovascular applications. Although nano-topography has been found to influence cell behaviour, no established method exists to understand and evaluate the effects of nano-topography on polymer-blood interaction. Results We optimized a micro-fluidic set-up to study the interaction of whole blood with nano-structured polymer surfaces under flow conditions. Micro-fluidic chips were coated with polymethylmethacrylate films and structured by polymer demixing. Surface feature size varied from 40 nm to 400 nm and feature height from 5 nm to 50 nm. Whole blood flow rate through the micro-fluidic channels, platelet adhesion and von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen adsorption onto the structured polymer films were investigated. Whole blood flow rate through the micro-fluidic channels was found to decrease with increasing average surface feature size. Adhesion and spreading of platelets from whole blood and von Willebrand factor adsorption from platelet poor plasma were enhanced on the structured surfaces with larger feature, while fibrinogen adsorption followed the opposite trend. Conclusion We investigated whole blood behaviour and plasma protein adsorption on nano-structured polymer materials under flow conditions using a micro-fluidic set-up. We speculate that surface nano-topography of polymer films influences primarily plasma protein adsorption, which results in the control of platelet adhesion and thrombus formation.

  15. 3D printed Lego®-like modular microfluidic devices based on capillary driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Gao, Qing; Qiu, Jing-Jiang; Sun, Miao; Liu, An; Shao, Lei; Fu, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Peng; He, Yong

    2018-03-12

    The field of how to rapidly assemble microfluidics with modular components continuously attracts researchers' attention, however, extra efforts must be devoted to solving the problems of leaking and aligning between individual modules. This paper presents a novel type of modular microfluidic device, driven by capillary force. There is no necessity for a strict seal or special alignment, and its open structures make it easy to integrate various stents and reactants. The key rationale for this method is to print different functional modules with a low-cost three-dimensional (3D) printer, then fill the channels with capillary materials and assemble them with plugs like Lego ® bricks. This rapidly reconstructed modular microfluidic device consists of a variety of common functional modules and other personalized modules, each module having a unified standard interface for easy assembly. As it can be printed by a desktop 3D printer, the manufacturing process is simple and efficient, with controllable regulation of the flow channel scale. Through diverse combinations of different modules, a variety of different functions can be achieved, without duplicating the manufacturing process. A single module can also be taken out for testing and analysis. What's more, combined with basic circuit components, it can serve as a low-cost Lego ® -like modular microfluidic circuits. As a proof of concept, the modular microfluidic device has been successfully demonstrated and used for stent degradation and cell cultures, revealing the potential use of this method in both chemical and biological research.

  16. Microfluidic Diatomite Analytical Devices for Illicit Drug Sensing with ppb-Level Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Chong, Xinyuan; Squire, Kenny; Wang, Alan X

    2018-04-15

    The escalating research interests in porous media microfluidics, such as microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, have fostered a new spectrum of biomedical devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis and biosensing. In this paper, we report microfluidic diatomite analytical devices (μDADs), which consist of highly porous photonic crystal biosilica channels, as an innovative lab-on-a-chip platform to detect illicit drugs. The μDADs in this work are fabricated by spin-coating and tape-stripping diatomaceous earth on regular glass slides with cross section of 400×30µm 2 . As the most unique feature, our μDADs can simultaneously perform on-chip chromatography to separate small molecules from complex biofluidic samples and acquire the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of the target chemicals with high specificity. Owing to the ultra-small dimension of the diatomite microfluidic channels and the photonic crystal effect from the fossilized diatom frustules, we demonstrate unprecedented sensitivity down to part-per-billion (ppb) level when detecting pyrene (1ppb) from mixed sample with Raman dye and cocaine (10 ppb) from human plasma. This pioneering work proves the exclusive advantage of μDADs as emerging microfluidic devices for chemical and biomedical sensing, especially for POC drug screening.

  17. Bioactive glass in tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Mohamed N.; Day, Delbert E.; Bal, B. Sonny; Fu, Qiang; Jung, Steven B.; Bonewald, Lynda F.; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on recent advances in the development and use of bioactive glass for tissue engineering applications. Despite its inherent brittleness, bioactive glass has several appealing characteristics as a scaffold material for bone tissue engineering. New bioactive glasses based on borate and borosilicate compositions have shown the ability to enhance new bone formation when compared to silicate bioactive glass. Borate-based bioactive glasses also have controllable degradation rates, so the degradation of the bioactive glass implant can be more closely matched to the rate of new bone formation. Bioactive glasses can be doped with trace quantities of elements such as Cu, Zn and Sr, which are known to be beneficial for healthy bone growth. In addition to the new bioactive glasses, recent advances in biomaterials processing have resulted in the creation of scaffold architectures with a range of mechanical properties suitable for the substitution of loaded as well as non-loaded bone. While bioactive glass has been extensively investigated for bone repair, there has been relatively little research on the application of bioactive glass to the repair of soft tissues. However, recent work has shown the ability of bioactive glass to promote angiogenesis, which is critical to numerous applications in tissue regeneration, such as neovascularization for bone regeneration and the healing of soft tissue wounds. Bioactive glass has also been shown to enhance neocartilage formation during in vitro culture of chondrocyte-seeded hydrogels, and to serve as a subchondral substrate for tissue-engineered osteochondral constructs. Methods used to manipulate the structure and performance of bioactive glass in these tissue engineering applications are analyzed. PMID:21421084

  18. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  19. Microfluidic device for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David J. (Inventor); MacDonald, Michael J. (Inventor); Eddington, David T. (Inventor); Mensing, Glennys A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A microfluidic device is provided for delivering a drug to an individual. The microfluidic device includes a body that defines a reservoir for receiving the drug therein. A valve interconnects the reservoir to an output needle that is insertable into the skin of an individual. A pressure source urges the drug from the reservoir toward the needle. The valve is movable between a closed position preventing the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle and an open position allowing for the flow of the drug from the reservoir to the output needle in response to a predetermined condition in the physiological fluids of the individual.

  20. Bridging Flows: Microfluidic End‐User Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David

    Microfluidic applications hold promise for many different end‐users both within and outside, and across many different research communities. Despite the benefits of microfluidic approaches, adoption and implementation thereof is often hindered by practical issues. Microfluidic components which......‐integrated interconnection and miniaturized peristaltic pump solutions were then combined into modular microfluidic systems. One system provides high interconnection numbers/density and allows many possible configurations. Additionally, and apart from many other accounts of modular microfluidic solutions, methods...... for control and actuation of microfluidic networks built from the modular components is described. Prototypes of the microfluidic system have begun to be distributed to external collaborators and researcher parties. These end‐users will assist in the validation of the approach and ultimately fulfil the key...

  1. Dual-nozzle microfluidic droplet generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Wook; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Tae Hyun; Ha, Jang Ho; Ahrberg, Christian D.; Chung, Bong Geun

    2018-05-01

    The droplet-generating microfluidics has become an important technique for a variety of applications ranging from single cell analysis to nanoparticle synthesis. Although there are a large number of methods for generating and experimenting with droplets on microfluidic devices, the dispensing of droplets from these microfluidic devices is a challenge due to aggregation and merging of droplets at the interface of microfluidic devices. Here, we present a microfluidic dual-nozzle device for the generation and dispensing of uniform-sized droplets. The first nozzle of the microfluidic device is used for the generation of the droplets, while the second nozzle can accelerate the droplets and increase the spacing between them, allowing for facile dispensing of droplets. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were conducted to optimize the design parameters of the microfluidic device.

  2. Detection of Micrococcus luteus biofilm formation in microfluidic environments by pH measurement using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Koji; Asano, Yuka; Yamada, Akira; Naruse, Keiji

    2013-02-18

    Biofilm formation in microfluidic channels is difficult to detect because sampling volumes are too small for conventional turbidity measurements. To detect biofilm formation, we used an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) measurement system to measure pH changes in small volumes of bacterial suspension. Cells of Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus) were cultured in polystyrene (PS) microtubes and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based microfluidic channels laminated with polyvinylidene chloride. In microtubes, concentrations of bacteria and pH in the suspension were analyzed by measuring turbidity and using an ISFET sensor, respectively. In microfluidic channels containing 20 μL of bacterial suspension, we measured pH changes using the ISFET sensor and monitored biofilm formation using a microscope. We detected acidification and alkalinization phases of M. luteus from the ISFET sensor signals in both microtubes and microfluidic channels. In the alkalinization phase, after 2 day culture, dense biofilm formation was observed at the bottom of the microfluidic channels. In this study, we used an ISFET sensor to detect biofilm formation in clinical and industrial microfluidic environments by detecting alkalinization of the culture medium. 

  3. Detection of Micrococcus Luteus Biofilm Formation in Microfluidic Environments by pH Measurement Using an Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Naruse

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm formation in microfluidic channels is difficult to detect because sampling volumes are too small for conventional turbidity measurements. To detect biofilm formation, we used an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET measurement system to measure pH changes in small volumes of bacterial suspension. Cells of Micrococcus luteus (M. luteus were cultured in polystyrene (PS microtubes and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-based microfluidic channels laminated with polyvinylidene chloride. In microtubes, concentrations of bacteria and pH in the suspension were analyzed by measuring turbidity and using an ISFET sensor, respectively. In microfluidic channels containing 20 μL of bacterial suspension, we measured pH changes using the ISFET sensor and monitored biofilm formation using a microscope. We detected acidification and alkalinization phases of M. luteus from the ISFET sensor signals in both microtubes and microfluidic channels. In the alkalinization phase, after 2 day culture, dense biofilm formation was observed at the bottom of the microfluidic channels. In this study, we used an ISFET sensor to detect biofilm formation in clinical and industrial microfluidic environments by detecting alkalinization of the culture medium.

  4. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  5. Bioactive Lipids in Dairy Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars; Nordby, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Milk fat is the most important energy source for the newborn infant beside its important role as energy source, milk fat also contain a range of bioactive lipids, that potentially can modulate the immune response and metabolic regulation in the child. In this chapter we review the literature on b...... on bioactive dairy fatty acids: conjugated linoleic acid, branched chained and odd chained fatty acids, as well as bioactive complex lipids such as sphingomyelin and gangliosides....

  6. Topology optimization of microfluidic mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the topology optimization method as a general and systematic approach for microfluidic mixer design. The mixing process is modeled as convection dominated transport in low Reynolds number incompressible flow. The mixer performance is maximized by altering...

  7. A microfluidic device with pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides a microfluidic device for mixing liquid reagents, the device comprises, a chip forming at least one reaction chamber between a bottom and a top and extending between an inlet and an outlet. To enable manufacturing from less rigid materials, the device comprises pillars...

  8. Microfluidic technology for PET radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, J.M.; Prenant, C.; Chimon, G.N.; Smethurst, G.J.; Dekker, B.A.; Zweit, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of a microfabricated reaction system to positron emission tomography (PET) radiochemistry. We have applied microfluidic technology to synthesise PET radiopharmaceuticals using 18 F and 124 I as labels for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and Annexin-V, respectively. These reactions involved established methods of nucleophilic substitution on a mannose triflate precursor and direct iodination of the protein using iodogen as an oxidant. This has demonstrated a proof of principle of using microfluidic technology to radiochemical reactions involving low and high molecular weight compounds. Using microfluidic reactions, [ 18 F]FDG was synthesised with a 50% incorporation of the available F-18 radioactivity in a very short time of 4 s. The radiolabelling efficiency of 124 I Annexin-V was 40% after 1 min reaction time. Chromatographic analysis showed that such reaction yields are comparable to conventional methods, but in a much shorter time. The yields can be further improved with more optimisation of the microfluidic device itself and its fluid mixing profiles. This demonstrates the potential for this technology to have an impact on rapid and simpler radiopharmaceutical synthesis using short and medium half-life radionuclides

  9. Microfluidic Liquid-Liquid Contactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcculloch, Quinn [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-25

    This report describes progress made on the microfluidic contactor. A model was developed to predict its failure, a surrogate chemical system was selected to demonstrate mass transfer, and an all-optical system has been invented and implemented to monitor carryover and flowrates.

  10. Microfluidic devices for biological applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Potgieter, S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics is a multi-disciplinary field that deals with the behaviour, control and manipulation of fluids constrained to sub-millilitre volumes. It is proving to be a useful tool for biological studies, affording advantages such as reduced cost...

  11. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  12. Design, fabrication and characterization of an arrayable all-polymer microfluidic valve employing highly magnetic rare-earth composite polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahbar, Mona; Gray, Bonnie L; Shannon, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    We present a new magnetically actuated microfluidic valve that employs a highly magnetic composite polymer (M-CP) containing rare-earth hard-magnetic powder for its actuating element and for its valve seat. The M-CP offers much higher magnetization compared to the soft-magnetic, ferrite-based composite polymers typically used in microfluidic applications. Each valve consists of a permanently magnetized M-CP flap and valve seat mounted on a microfluidic channel system fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Each valve is actuated under a relatively small external magnetic field of 80 mT provided by a small permanent magnet mounted on a miniature linear actuator. The performance of the valve with different flap thicknesses is characterized. In addition, the effect of the magnetic valve seat on the valve’s performance is also characterized. It is experimentally shown that a valve with a 2.3 mm flap thickness, actuated under an 80 mT magnetic field, is capable of completely blocking liquid flow at a flow rate of 1 ml min −1 for pressures up to 9.65 kPa in microfluidic channels 200 μ m wide and 200 μ m deep. The valve can also be fabricated into an array for flow switching between multiple microfluidic channels under continuous flow conditions. The performance of arrays of valves for flow routing is demonstrated for flow rates up to 5 ml min −1 with larger microfluidic channels of up to 1 mm wide and 500 μ m deep. The design of the valves is compatible with other commonly used polymeric microfluidic components, as well as other components that use the same novel permanently magnetic composite polymer, such as our previously reported cilia-based mixing devices. (paper)

  13. Ionic current devices-Recent progress in the merging of electronic, microfluidic, and biomimetic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung-Jun; Velev, Orlin D

    2013-05-09

    We review the recent progress in the emerging area of devices and circuits operating on the basis of ionic currents. These devices operate at the intersection of electrochemistry, electronics, and microfluidics, and their potential applications are inspired by essential biological processes such as neural transmission. Ionic current rectification has been demonstrated in diode-like devices containing electrolyte solutions, hydrogel, or hydrated nanofilms. More complex functions have been realized in ionic current based transistors, solar cells, and switching memory devices. Microfluidic channels and networks-an intrinsic component of the ionic devices-could play the role of wires and circuits in conventional electronics.

  14. Capacitive sensor for continuous monitoring of high-volume droplet microfluidic generation

    KAUST Repository

    Conchouso Gonzalez, David

    2016-12-19

    This paper presents a capacitive sensor for monitoring parallel microfluidic droplet generation. The great electric permittivity difference between common droplet microfluidic fluids such as air, oil and water (ϵoil ≈ 2–3 and ϵwater ≈ 80.4), allows for accurate detection of water in oil concentration changes. Capacitance variations as large as 10 pF between a channel filled with water or dodecane, are used to continuously monitor the output of a parallelization system producing 150 µl/min of water in dodecane emulsions. We also discuss a low cost fabrication process to manufacture these capacitive sensors, which can be integrated to different substrates.

  15. An inkjet-printed microfluidic device for liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masashi

    2011-04-07

    A microfluidic device for liquid-liquid extraction was quickly produced using an office inkjet printer. An advantage of this method is that normal end users, who are not familiar with microfabrication, can produce their original microfluidic devices by themselves. In this method, the printer draws a line on a hydrophobic and oil repellent surface using hydrophilic ink. This line directs a fluid, such as water or xylene, to form a microchannel along the printed line. Using such channels, liquid-liquid extraction was successfully performed under concurrent and countercurrent flow conditions. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  16. Effects of surface properties on droplet formation inside a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Ben; Shen, Amy

    2004-11-01

    Micro-fluidic devices offer a unique method of creating and controlling droplets on small length scales. A microfluidic device is used to study the effects of surface properties on droplet formation of a 2-phase flow system. Four phase diagrams are generated to compare the dynamics of the 2 immiscible fluid system (silicone oil and water) inside microchannels with different surface properties. Results show that the channel surface plays an important role in determining the flow patterns and the droplet formation of the 2-phase fluid system.

  17. Broad spectrum bioactive sunscreens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Sarruf, Fernanda Daud; Salgado-Santos, Idalina Maria Nunes; Haroutiounian-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Kaneko, Telma Mary; Baby, André Rolim

    2008-11-03

    The development of sunscreens containing reduced concentration of chemical UV filters, even though, possessing broad spectrum effectiveness with the use of natural raw materials that improve and infer UV absorption is of great interest. Due to the structural similarities between polyphenolic compounds and organic UV filters, they might exert photoprotection activity. The objective of the present research work was to develop bioactive sunscreen delivery systems containing rutin, Passiflora incarnata L. and Plantago lanceolata extracts associated or not with organic and inorganic UV filters. UV transmission of the sunscreen delivery system films was performed by using diffuse transmittance measurements coupling to an integrating sphere. In vitro photoprotection efficacy was evaluated according to the following parameters: estimated sun protection factor (SPF); Boot's Star Rating category; UVA/UVB ratio; and critical wavelength (lambda(c)). Sunscreen delivery systems obtained SPF values ranging from 0.972+/-0.004 to 28.064+/-2.429 and bioactive compounds interacted with the UV filters positive and negatively. This behavior may be attributed to: the composition of the delivery system; the presence of inorganic UV filter and quantitative composition of the organic UV filters; and the phytochemical composition of the P. incarnata L. and P. lanceolata extracts. Among all associations of bioactive compounds and UV filters, we found that the broad spectrum sunscreen was accomplished when 1.68% (w/w) P. incarnata L. dry extract was in the presence of 7.0% (w/w) ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, 2.0% (w/w) benzophenone-3 and 2.0% (w/w) TiO(2). It was demonstrated that this association generated estimated SPF of 20.072+/-0.906 and it has improved the protective defense against UVA radiation accompanying augmentation of the UVA/UVB ratio from 0.49 to 0.52 and lambda(c) from 364 to 368.6nm.

  18. Review on recent and advanced applications of monoliths and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Mercedes; Paull, Brett

    2010-01-01

    This review critically summarises recent novel and advanced achievements in the application of monolithic materials and related porous polymer gels in micro-fluidic devices appearing within the literature over the period of the last 5 years (2005-2010). The range of monolithic materials has developed rapidly over the past decade, with a diverse and highly versatile class of materials now available, with each exhibiting distinct porosities, pore sizes, and a wide variety of surface functionalities. A major advantage of these materials is their ease of preparation in micro-fluidic channels by in situ polymerisation, leading to monolithic materials being increasingly utilised for a larger variety of purposes in micro-fluidic platforms. Applications of porous polymer monoliths, silica-based monoliths and related homogeneous porous polymer gels in the preparation of separation columns, ion-permeable membranes, preconcentrators, extractors, electrospray emitters, micro-valves, electrokinetic pumps, micro-reactors and micro-mixers in micro-fluidic devices are discussed herein. Procedures used in the preparation of monolithic materials in micro-channels, as well as some practical aspects of the micro-fluidic chip fabrication are addressed. Recent analytical/bioanalytical and catalytic applications of the final micro-fluidic devices incorporating monolithic materials are also reviewed.

  19. Microfluidic Devices for Chemical and Biochemical Analysis in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Gregory T.; Culbertson, Christopher T.; Meyer, Amanda; Ramsey, J. Michael; Gonda, Steven R.

    2004-01-01

    One often touted benefit of "Lab-on-a-Chip" devices is their potential for use in remote environments. The ultimate remote environment is outer space, and NASA has multiple needs in the area of analytical sensing capability in such an environment. In particular, we are interested in integrating microfluidic devices with NASA bioreactor systems. In such an integrated system, the microfluidic device will serve as a biosensor and be used for both feedback control and for detecting various bioproducts produced by cells cultured in the NASA bioreactors. As a first step in demonstrating the ability of microfluidic devices to operate under the extreme environmental conditions found in outer space, we constructed a portable, battery operated platform for testing under reduced gravity conditions on a NASA KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft, (AKA "the vomit comet"). The test platform consisted of a microchip, two 0-8kV high voltage power supplies, a high voltage switch, a solid-state diode-pumped green laser, a channel photomultiplier, and an inertial mass measurement unit, all under the control of a laptop computer and powered by 10 D-cell alkaline batteries. Over the course of 4 KC-135 flights, 1817 fast electrophoretic separations of 4 amino acids and/or proteins were performed in a variety of gravitational environments including zero-G, Martian-G, lunar-G, and 2-G. Results from these experiments will be presented and discussed.

  20. Chemical Thermodynamics of Aqueous Atmospheric Aerosols: Modeling and Microfluidic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, L.; Dutcher, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate predictions of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium phase partitioning of atmospheric aerosols by thermodynamic modeling and measurements is critical for determining particle composition and internal structure at conditions relevant to the atmosphere. Organic acids that originate from biomass burning, and direct biogenic emission make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. In addition, inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate and sea salt also exist in atmospheric aerosols, that results in a mixture of single, double or triple charged ions, and non-dissociated and partially dissociated organic acids. Statistical mechanics based on a multilayer adsorption isotherm model can be applied to these complex aqueous environments for predictions of thermodynamic properties. In this work, thermodynamic analytic predictive models are developed for multicomponent aqueous solutions (consisting of partially dissociating organic and inorganic acids, fully dissociating symmetric and asymmetric electrolytes, and neutral organic compounds) over the entire relative humidity range, that represent a significant advancement towards a fully predictive model. The model is also developed at varied temperatures for electrolytes and organic compounds the data for which are available at different temperatures. In addition to the modeling approach, water loss of multicomponent aerosol particles is measured by microfluidic experiments to parameterize and validate the model. In the experimental microfluidic measurements, atmospheric aerosol droplet chemical mimics (organic acids and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples) are generated in microfluidic channels and stored and imaged in passive traps until dehydration to study the influence of relative humidity and water loss on phase behavior.

  1. Binary particle separation in droplet microfluidics using acoustophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornell, Anna; Cushing, Kevin; Nilsson, Johan; Tenje, Maria

    2018-02-01

    We show a method for separation of two particle species with different acoustic contrasts originally encapsulated in the same droplet in a continuous two-phase system. This was realized by using bulk acoustic standing waves in a 380 μm wide silicon-glass microfluidic channel. Polystyrene particles (positive acoustic contrast particles) and in-house synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) particles (negative acoustic contrast particles) were encapsulated inside water-in-oil droplets either individually or in a mixture. At acoustic actuation of the system at the fundamental resonance frequency, the polystyrene particles were moved to the center of the droplet (pressure node), while the PDMS particles were moved to the sides of the droplet (pressure anti-nodes). The acoustic particle manipulation step was combined in series with a trifurcation droplet splitter, and as the original droplet passed through the splitter and was divided into three daughter droplets, the polystyrene particles were directed into the center daughter droplet, while the PDMS particles were directed into the two side daughter droplets. The presented method expands the droplet microfluidics tool-box and offers new possibilities to perform binary particle separation in droplet microfluidic systems.

  2. Silk-microfluidics for advanced biotechnological applications: A progressive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B

    2016-01-01

    Silk based biomaterials have not only carved a unique niche in the domain of regenerative medicine but new avenues are also being explored for lab-on-a-chip applications. It is pertinent to note that biospinning of silk represents nature's signature microfluidic-maneuver. Elucidation of non-Newtonian flow of silk in the glands of spiders and silkworms has inspired researchers to fabricate devices for continuous extrusion and concentration of silk. Microfluidic channel networks within porous silk scaffolds ensure optimal nutrient and oxygen supply apart from serving as precursors for vascularization in tissue engineering applications. On the other hand, unique topographical features and surface wettability of natural silk fibers have inspired development of a number of simple and cost-effective devices for applications like blood typing and chemical sensing. This review mirrors the recent progress and challenges in the domain of silk-microfluidics for prospective avant-garde applications in the realm of biotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flow Rate In Microfluidic Pumps As A Function Of Tension and Pump Motor Head Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Anthony; McBride, Krista

    2015-03-01

    As the use of microfluidic devices has become more common in recent years the need for standardization within the pump systems has grown. The pumps are ball bearing rotor microfluidic pumps and work off the idea of peristalsis. The rapid contraction and relaxation propagating down a tube or a microfluidic channel. The ball bearings compress the tube (occlusion) and move along part of the tube length forcing fluid to move inside of the tube in the same direction of the ball bearings. When the ball bearing rolls off the area occupied by the microfluidic channel, its walls and ceiling undergo restitution and a pocket of low pressure is briefly formed pulling more of the liquid into the pump system. Before looking to standardize the pump systems it must be known how the tension placed by the pumps bearing heads onto the PDMS inserts channels affect the pumps performance (mainly the flow rate produced). The relationship of the speed at which the bearings on the motor head spin and the flow rate must also be established. This research produced calibration curves for flow rate vs. tension and rpm. These calibration curves allow the devices to be set to optimal user settings by simply varying either the motor head tension or the motor head speed. I would like to acknowledge the help and support of Vanderbilt University SyBBURE program, Christina Marasco, Stacy Sherod, Franck Block and Krista McBride.

  4. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  5. Spintronic microfluidic platform for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, F. A.; Martins, V. C.; Fonseca, L. P.; Germano, J.; Sousa, L. A.; Piedade, M. S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2010-09-01

    Faster, more sensitive and easy to operate biosensing devices still are a need at important areas such as biomedical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Recently, spintronic-devices have emerged as a promising alternative to the existent technologies [1-3]. A number of advantages, namely high sensitivity, easy integration, miniaturization, scalability, robustness and low cost make these devices potentially capable of responding to the existent technological need. In parallel, the field of microfluidics has shown great advances [4]. Microfluidic systems allow the analysis of small sample volumes (from micro- down to pico-liters), often by automate sample processing with the ability to integrate several steps into a single device (analyte amplification, concentration, separation and/or labeling), all in a reduced assay time (minutes to hours) and affordable cost. The merging of these two technologies, magnetoresistive biochips and microfluidics, will enable the development of highly competitive devices. This work reports the integration of a magnetoresistive biochip with a microfluidic system inside a portable and autonomous electronic platform aiming for a fully integrated device. A microfluidic structure fabricated in polydimethylsiloxane with dimensions of W: 0.5mm, H: 0.1mm, L: 10mm, associated to a mechanical system to align and seal the channel by pressure is presented (Fig. 1) [5]. The goal is to perform sample loading and transportation over the chip and simultaneously control the stringency and uniformity of the wash-out process. The biochip output is acquired by an electronic microsystem incorporating the circuitry to control, address and read-out the 30 spin-valve sensors sequentially (Fig. 1) [2]. This platform is being applied to the detection of water-borne microbial pathogens (e.g. Salmonella and Escherichia coli) and genetic diseases diagnosis (e.g. cystic fibrosis) through DNA hybridization assays. Open chamber measurements were

  6. Integrating Carbon Nanotubes into Microfluidic Chip for Separating Biochemical Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Miaoxiang Max; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a new type of device to separate biochemical compounds wherein carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are integrated as chromatographic stationary phase. The CNTs were directly grown on the bottom of microfluidic channels on Si/SiO2 substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Acetylene was used...... as carbon source and Ni was employed as catalyst. For electrokinetic separations, higher electrical field strength is usually required; therefore, the CNTs were constructed in pillar-array-form by patterning the catalyst layer. Electrical field strength of 2.0 kV/cm has been realized, which is more than one...

  7. Bead Capture on Magnetic Sensors in a Microfluidic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of magnetic beads by gravitational sedimentation and magnetic capture on a planar Hall-effect sensor integrated in a microfluidic channel is studied systematically as a function of the bead concentration, the fluid flow rate, and the sensor bias current. It is demonstrated...... that the sedimentation flux is proportional to the bead concentration and has a power law relation to the fluid flow rate. The mechanisms for the bead accumulation are investigated and it is found that gravitational sedimentation dominates the bead accumulation, whereas the stability of the sedimented beads against...

  8. Centrifugal sedimentation for selectively packing channels with silica microbeads in three-dimensional micro/nanofluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Maojun; Bohn, Paul W; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2009-03-01

    Incorporation of nanofluidic elements into microfluidic channels is one approach for adding filtration and partition functionality to planar microfluidic devices, as well as providing enhanced biomolecular separations. Here we introduce a strategy to pack microfluidic channels with silica nanoparticles and microbeads, thereby indirectly producing functional nanostructures; the method allows selected channels to be packed, here demonstrated so that a separation channel is packed while keeping an injection channel unpacked. A nanocapillary array membrane is integrated between two patterned microfluidic channels that cross each other in vertically separated layers. The membrane serves both as a frit for bead packing and as a fluid communication conduit between microfluidic channels. Centrifugal force-assisted sedimentation is then used to selectively pack the microfluidic channels using an aqueous silica bead suspension loaded into the appropriate inlet reservoirs. This packing approach may be used to simultaneously pack multiple channels with silica microbeads having different sizes and surface properties. The chip design and packing method introduced here are suitable for packing silica particles in sizes ranging from nanometers to micrometers and allow rapid (approximately 10 min) packing with high quality. The liquid/analyte transport characteristics of these packed micro/nanofluidic devices have potential utility in a wide range of applications, including electroosmotic pumping, liquid chromatographic separations, and electrochromatography.

  9. Paper-based microfluidic approach for surface-enhanced raman spectroscopy and highly reproducible detection of proteins beyond picomolar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Arindam; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-01-14

    Although microfluidic approach is widely used in various point of care diagnostics, its implementation in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based detection is challenging. This is because SERS signal depends on plasmonic nanoparticle aggregation induced generation of stable electromagnetic hot spots and in currently available microfluidic platform this condition is difficult to adapt. Here we show that SERS can be adapted using simple paper based microfluidic system where both the plasmonic nanomaterials and analyte are used in mobile phase. This approach allows analyte induced controlled particle aggregation and electromagnetic hot spot generation inside the microfluidic channel with the resultant SERS signal, which is highly reproducible and sensitive. This approach has been used for reproducible detection of protein in the pico to femtomolar concentration. Presented approach is simple, rapid, and cost-effective, and requires low sample volume. Method can be extended for SERS-based detection of other biomolecules.

  10. Microfluidic Devices for Studying Biomolecular Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wilbur W.; Garcia, Carlos d.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for monitoring biomolecular interactions have been invented. These devices are basically highly miniaturized liquid-chromatography columns. They are intended to be prototypes of miniature analytical devices of the laboratory on a chip type that could be fabricated rapidly and inexpensively and that, because of their small sizes, would yield analytical results from very small amounts of expensive analytes (typically, proteins). Other advantages to be gained by this scaling down of liquid-chromatography columns may include increases in resolution and speed, decreases in the consumption of reagents, and the possibility of performing multiple simultaneous and highly integrated analyses by use of multiple devices of this type, each possibly containing multiple parallel analytical microchannels. The principle of operation is the same as that of a macroscopic liquid-chromatography column: The column is a channel packed with particles, upon which are immobilized molecules of the protein of interest (or one of the proteins of interest if there are more than one). Starting at a known time, a solution or suspension containing molecules of the protein or other substance of interest is pumped into the channel at its inlet. The liquid emerging from the outlet of the channel is monitored to detect the molecules of the dissolved or suspended substance(s). The time that it takes these molecules to flow from the inlet to the outlet is a measure of the degree of interaction between the immobilized and the dissolved or suspended molecules. Depending on the precise natures of the molecules, this measure can be used for diverse purposes: examples include screening for solution conditions that favor crystallization of proteins, screening for interactions between drugs and proteins, and determining the functions of biomolecules.

  11. A Characeae Cells Plasma Membrane as a Model for Selection of Bioactive Compounds and Drugs: Interaction of HAMLET-Like Complexes with Ion Channels of Chara corallina Cells Plasmalemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataev, Anatoly; Zherelova, Olga; Grishchenko, Valery

    2016-12-01

    Interaction of a HAMLET-like La-OA cytotoxic complex (human α-lactalbumin-oleic acid) and its constituents with the excitable plasmalemma of giant Chara corallina cells was investigated. The voltage-clamp technique was used to study Ca 2+ and Cl - transient currents in the plasmalemma of intact cells. The action of the complex and OA on the target cell membrane has a dose-dependent character. It was found that the La-OA complex has an inhibiting effect on Ca 2+ current across the plasmalemma, while α-lactalbumin alone does not affect the electrophysiological characteristics of the cellular membrane. However, oleic acid blocks Ca 2+ current across the plasmalemma. This is accompanied by the induction of a non-selective conductivity in the cellular membrane, a decrease in the resting potential and plasma membrane resistance of algal cells. We propose that the cytotoxicity of La-OA and other HAMLET-like complexes is determined by oleic acid acting as a blocker of potential-dependent Ca 2+ channels in the plasma membrane of target cells. The presented results show that the study model of green algae C. corallina cells plasmalemma is a convenient tool for the investigation of ion channels in many animal cells.

  12. On-chip gradient generation in 256 microfluidic cell cultures: simulation and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somaweera, Himali; Haputhanthri, Shehan O; Ibraguimov, Akif; Pappas, Dimitri

    2015-08-07

    A microfluidic diffusion diluter was used to create a stable concentration gradient for dose response studies. The microfluidic diffusion diluter used in this study consisted of 128 culture chambers on each side of the main fluidic channel. A calibration method was used to find unknown concentrations with 12% error. Flow rate dependent studies showed that changing the flow rates generated different gradient patterns. Mathematical simulations using COMSOL Multi-physics were performed to validate the experimental data. The experimental data obtained for the flow rate studies agreed with the simulation results. Cells could be loaded into culture chambers using vacuum actuation and cultured for long times under low shear stress. Decreasing the size of the culture chambers resulted in faster gradient formation (20 min). Mass transport into the side channels of the microfluidic diffusion diluter used in this study is an important factor in creating the gradient using diffusional mixing as a function of the distance. To demonstrate the device's utility, an H2O2 gradient was generated while culturing Ramos cells. Cell viability was assayed in the 256 culture chambers, each at a discrete H2O2 concentration. As expected, the cell viability for the high concentration side channels increased (by injecting H2O2) whereas the cell viability in the low concentration side channels decreased along the chip due to diffusional mixing as a function of distance. COMSOL simulations were used to identify the effective concentration of H2O2 for cell viability in each side chamber at 45 min. The gradient effects were confirmed using traditional H2O2 culture experiments. Viability of cells in the microfluidic device under gradient conditions showed a linear relationship with the viability of the traditional culture experiment. Development of the microfluidic device used in this study could be used to study hundreds of concentrations of a compound in a single experiment.

  13. Microfluidic device and method for focusing, segmenting, and dispensing of a fluid stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    A microfluidic device and method for forming and dispensing minute volume segments of a material are described. In accordance with the present invention, a microfluidic device and method are provided for spatially confining the material in a focusing element. The device is also adapted for segmenting the confined material into minute volume segments, and dispensing a volume segment to a waste or collection channel. The device further includes means for driving the respective streams of sample and focusing fluids through respective channels into a chamber, such that the focusing fluid streams spatially confine the sample material. The device may also include additional means for driving a minute volume segment of the spatially confined sample material into a collection channel in fluid communication with the waste reservoir.

  14. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Wu, Ping; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ren, Yuxuan; Liao, Meixiang; Feng, Lili; Li, Yuting; He, Liqun

    2015-05-01

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories.

  15. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic chips based on the simplest LED lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yue; Wu, Ping; Liao, Meixiang; Feng, Lili; Li, Yuting; He, Liqun; Luo, Zhaofeng; Ren, Yuxuan

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic chips are generally fabricated by a soft lithography method employing commercial lithography equipment. These heavy machines require a critical room environment and high lamp power, and the cost remains too high for most normal laboratories. Here we present a novel microfluidics fabrication method utilizing a portable ultraviolet (UV) LED as an alternative UV source for photolithography. With this approach, we can repeat several common microchannels as do these conventional commercial exposure machines, and both the verticality of the channel sidewall and lithography resolution are proved to be acceptable. Further microfluidics applications such as mixing, blood typing and microdroplet generation are implemented to validate the practicability of the chips. This simple but innovative method decreases the cost and requirement of chip fabrication dramatically and may be more popular with ordinary laboratories. (paper)

  16. Multichannel Bipotentiostat Integrated With a Microfluidic Platform for Electrochemical Real-Time Monitoring of Cell Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergani, Marco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    An electrochemical detection system specifically designed for multi-parameter real-time monitoring of stem cell culturing/differentiation in a microfluidic system is presented. It is composed of a very compact 24-channel electronic board, compatible with arrays of microelectrodes and coupled...... to a microfluidic cell culture system. A versatile data acquisition software enables performing amperometry, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in each of the 12 independent chambers over a 100 kHz bandwidth with current resolution down to 5 pA for 100 ms measuring time. The design of the platform, its...... realization and experimental characterization are reported, with emphasis on the analysis of impact of input capacitance (i.e., microelectrode size) and microfluidic pump operation on current noise. Programmable sequences of successive injections of analytes (ferricyanide and dopamine) and rinsing buffer...

  17. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin

    2010-09-07

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper to form intricate patterns and differently configured channels for specific purposes. Bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin, the prepared paper sheet is sandwiched between glass slides (hydrophilic) or polymer-based plates (hydrophobic) to obtain a multilayer structure. In order to examine the chip\\'s biocompatibility and applicability, protein concentration was measured while DNA capillary electrophoresis was carried out, and both of them show positive results. With the utilization of direct laser cutting and one-step gas-sacrificing techniques, the whole fabrication processes for complicated 2D and 3D microfluidic devices are shorten into several minutes which make it a good alternative of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips used in biological analysis researches.

  18. Microfluidic devices, systems, and methods for quantifying particles using centrifugal force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Ulrich Y.; Sommer, Gregory J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2015-11-17

    Embodiments of the present invention are directed toward microfluidic systems, apparatus, and methods for measuring a quantity of cells in a fluid. Examples include a differential white blood cell measurement using a centrifugal microfluidic system. A method may include introducing a fluid sample containing a quantity of cells into a microfluidic channel defined in part by a substrate. The quantity of cells may be transported toward a detection region defined in part by the substrate, wherein the detection region contains a density media, and wherein the density media has a density lower than a density of the cells and higher than a density of the fluid sample. The substrate may be spun such that at least a portion of the quantity of cells are transported through the density media. Signals may be detected from label moieties affixed to the cells.

  19. Low-cost rapid prototyping of flexible plastic paper based microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-04-01

    This research presents a novel rapid prototyping method for paper-based flexible microfluidic devices. The microchannels were fabricated using laser ablation on a piece of plastic paper (permanent paper), the dimensions of the microchannels was carefully studied for various laser powers and scanning speeds. After laser ablation of the microchannels on the plastic paper, a transparent poly (methyl methacrylate)(PMMA) film was thermally bonded to the plastic paper to enclose the channels. After connection of tubing, the device was ready to use. An example microfluidic device (droplet generator) was also fabricated using this technique. Due to the flexibility of the fabricated device, this technique can be used to fabricate 3D microfluidic devices. The fabrication process was simple and rapid without any requirement of cleanroom facilities. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Microcontact printing with aminosilanes: creating biomolecule micro- and nanoarrays for multiplexed microfluidic bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathish, Shivani; Ricoult, Sébastien G; Toda-Peters, Kazumi; Shen, Amy Q

    2017-05-21

    Microfluidic systems integrated with protein and DNA micro- and nanoarrays have been the most sought-after technologies to satisfy the growing demand for high-throughput disease diagnostics. As the sensitivity of these systems relies on the bio-functionalities of the patterned recognition biomolecules, the primary concern has been to develop simple technologies that enable biomolecule immobilization within microfluidic devices whilst preserving bio-functionalities. To address this concern, we introduce a two-step patterning approach to create micro- and nanoarrays of biomolecules within microfluidic devices. First, we introduce a simple aqueous based microcontact printing (μCP) method to pattern arrays of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) on glass substrates, with feature sizes ranging from a few hundred microns down to 200 nm (for the first time). Next, these substrates are integrated with microfluidic channels to then covalently couple DNA aptamers and antibodies with the micro- and nanopatterned APTES. As these biomolecules are covalently tethered to the device substrates, the resulting bonds enable them to withstand the high shear stresses originating from the flow in these devices. We further demonstrated the flexibility of this technique, by immobilizing multiple proteins onto these APTES-patterned substrates using liquid-dispensing robots to create multiple microarrays. Next, to validate the functionalities of these microfluidic biomolecule microarrays, we perform (i) aptamer-based sandwich immunoassays to detect human interleukin 6 (IL6); and (ii) antibody-based sandwich immunoassays to detect human c-reactive protein (hCRP) with the limit of detection at 5 nM, a level below the range required for clinical screening. Lastly, the shelf-life potential of these ready-to-use microfluidic microarray devices is validated by effectively functionalizing the patterns with biomolecules up to 3 months post-printing. In summary, with a single printing step, this

  1. Microfluidic high gradient magnetic cell separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David W.; Riehn, Robert; Sturm, James C.; Austin, Robert H.

    2006-04-01

    Separation of blood cells by native susceptibility and by the selective attachment of magnetic beads has recently been demonstrated on microfluidic devices. We discuss the basic principles of how forces are generated via the magnetic susceptibility of an object and how microfluidics can be combined with micron-scale magnetic field gradients to greatly enhance in principle the fractionating power of magnetic fields. We discuss our efforts and those of others to build practical microfluidic devices for the magnetic separation of blood cells. We also discuss our attempts to integrate magnetic separation with other microfluidic features for developing handheld medical diagnostic tools.

  2. Multilayer microfluidic systems with indium-tin-oxide microelectrodes for studying biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Hsiang-Chiu; Chen, Hsin; Lyau, Jia-Bo; Lin, Min-Hsuan; Chuang, Yung-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary semiconductor and micromachining technologies have been exploited to develop lab-on-a-chip microsystems, which enable parallel and efficient experiments in molecular and cellular biology. In these microlab systems, microfluidics play an important role for automatic transportation or immobilization of cells and bio-molecules, as well as for separation or mixing of different chemical reagents. However, seldom microlab systems allow both morphology and electrophysiology of biological cells to be studied in situ . This kind of study is important, for example, for understanding how neuronal networks grow in response to environmental stimuli. To fulfill this application need, this paper investigates the possibility of fabricating multi-layer photoresists as microfluidic systems directly above a glass substrate with indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes. The microfluidic channels are designed to guide and trap biological cells on top of ITO electrodes, through which the electrical activities of cells can be recorded or elicited. As both the microfluidic system and ITO electrodes are transparent, the cellular morphology is observable easily during electrophysiological studies. Two fabrication processes are proposed and compared. One defines the structure and curing depth of each photoresist layer simply by controlling the exposure time in lithography, while the other further utilizes a sacrificial layer to defines the structure of the bottom layer. The fabricated microfluidic system is proved bio-compatible and able to trap blood cells or neurons. Therefore, the proposed microsystem will be useful for studying cultured cells efficiently in applications such as drug-screening. (paper)

  3. Merging microfluidics and sonochemistry: towards greener and more efficient micro-sono-reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Rivas, David; Cintas, Pedro; Gardeniers, Han J G E

    2012-11-18

    Microfluidics enable the manipulation of chemical reactions using very small amounts of fluid, in channels with dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers; so-called microstructured devices, from which the iconic image of chips emerges. The immediate attraction of microfluidics lies in its greenness: use of small quantities of reagents and solvents, and hence less waste, a precise control of reaction conditions, integration of functionality for process intensification, safer and often faster protocols, reliable scale-up, and possibility of performing multiphase reactions. Among the limitations found in microfluidics the facile formation of precipitating products should be highlighted, and in this context, the search for efficient mass and energy transfers is a must. Such limitations have been partially overcome with the aid of ultrasound in conventional flow systems, and can now be successfully used in microreactors, which provide new capabilities. Novel applications and a better understanding of the physical and chemical aspects of sonochemistry can certainly be achieved by combining microfluidics and ultrasound. We will review this nascent area of research, paying attention to the latest developments and showing future directions, which benefit both from the existing microfluidic technology and sonochemistry itself.

  4. Fabricating a multi-level barrier-integrated microfluidic device using grey-scale photolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Yoonkwang; Kim, Minseok; Kim, Taesung

    2013-01-01

    Most polymer-replica-based microfluidic devices are mainly fabricated by using standard soft-lithography technology so that multi-level masters (MLMs) require multiple spin-coatings, mask alignments, exposures, developments, and bakings. In this paper, we describe a simple method for fabricating MLMs for planar microfluidic channels with multi-level barriers (MLBs). A single photomask is necessary for standard photolithography technology to create a polydimethylsiloxane grey-scale photomask (PGSP), which adjusts the total amount of UV absorption in a negative-tone photoresist via a wide range of dye concentrations. Since the PGSP in turn adjusts the degree of cross-linking of the photoresist, this method enables the fabrication of MLMs for an MLB-integrated microfluidic device. Since the PGSP-based soft-lithography technology provides a simple but powerful fabrication method for MLBs in a microfluidic device, we believe that the fabrication method can be widely used for micro total analysis systems that benefit from MLBs. We demonstrate an MLB-integrated microfluidic device that can separate microparticles. (paper)

  5. Automated Microfluidic Platform for Serial Polymerase Chain Reaction and High-Resolution Melting Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Weidong; Bean, Brian; Corey, Scott; Coursey, Johnathan S; Hasson, Kenton C; Inoue, Hiroshi; Isano, Taisuke; Kanderian, Sami; Lane, Ben; Liang, Hongye; Murphy, Brian; Owen, Greg; Shinoda, Nobuhiko; Zeng, Shulin; Knight, Ivor T

    2016-06-01

    We report the development of an automated genetic analyzer for human sample testing based on microfluidic rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA). The integrated DNA microfluidic cartridge was used on a platform designed with a robotic pipettor system that works by sequentially picking up different test solutions from a 384-well plate, mixing them in the tips, and delivering mixed fluids to the DNA cartridge. A novel image feedback flow control system based on a Canon 5D Mark II digital camera was developed for controlling fluid movement through a complex microfluidic branching network without the use of valves. The same camera was used for measuring the high-resolution melt curve of DNA amplicons that were generated in the microfluidic chip. Owing to fast heating and cooling as well as sensitive temperature measurement in the microfluidic channels, the time frame for PCR and HRMA was dramatically reduced from hours to minutes. Preliminary testing results demonstrated that rapid serial PCR and HRMA are possible while still achieving high data quality that is suitable for human sample testing. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. The negative-differential-resistance (NDR) mechanism of a hydroelastic microfluidic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, H M; Wu, J W; Wang, Z P

    2017-01-01

    A microfluidic oscillator is of interest because it converts a stable laminar flow to oscillatory flow, especially in view of the fact that turbulence is typically absent in miniaturized fluidic devices. One important design approach is to utilize hydroelastic effect-induced autonomous oscillations to modify the flow, so to reduce the reliance on external controllers. However, as complex fluid-structure interactions are involved, the prediction of its mechanism is rather challenging. Here, we present a simple equivalent circuit model and investigate the negative-differential-resistance (NDR) mechanism of a hydroelastic microfluidic oscillator. We show that a variety of complex flow behaviors including the onset of oscillation, formation of different oscillation patterns, collapse of the channel, etc can be well explained by this model. It provides a generic approach for construction of microfluidic NDR oscillators, following which a new design is also proposed. Relevant findings give more insights into the hydroelastic instability problems in microfluidics, and enrich the study of microfluidic flow control devices based on the electric circuit theory. (paper)

  7. Direct integration of MEMS, dielectric pumping and cell manipulation with reversibly bonded gecko adhesive microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnat, S; King, H; Hubbard, T; Wasay, A; Sameoto, D

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to form a microfluidic environment on top of MEMS dies using reversibly bonded microfluidics. The reversible polymeric microfluidics moulds bond to the MEMS die using a gecko-inspired gasket architecture. In this study the formed microchannels are demonstrated in conjunction with a MEMS mechanical single cell testing environment for BioMEMS applications. A reversible microfluidics placement technique with an x - y and rotational accuracy of  ±2 µ m and 1° respectively on a MEMS die was developed. No leaks were observed during pneumatic pumping of common cell media (PBS, sorbitol, water, seawater) through the fluidic channels. Thermal chevron actuators were successful operated inside this fluidic environment and a performance deviation of ∼15% was measured compared to an open MEMS configuration. Latex micro-spheres were pumped using traveling wave di-electrophoresis and compared to an open (no-microfluidics) configuration with velocities of 24 µ m s −1 and 20 µ m s −1 . (technical note)

  8. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...... to ease commercialisation of the devices. This work will hopefully result in more commercial products that benefit from integrated optics, because the impact on commercial devices so far has been modest....

  9. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Han Wei; Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Lee, Wong Cheng J.; Huang, Sha; Han, Jongyoon; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2011-01-01

    Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. ...

  10. Bistable diverter valve in microfluidics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav; Bandulasena, H.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 5 (2011), s. 1225-1233 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR IAA200760705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : fluidics * bistable diverter valves * pressure-driven microfluidics Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.735, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/x4907p1908151522/

  11. Note: A portable Raman analyzer for microfluidic chips based on a dichroic beam splitter for integration of imaging and signal collection light paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Yijia; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing, E-mail: xuwq@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chen, Gang [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Bi, Wenbin [State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China); Cui, Haining [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2015-05-15

    An integrated and portable Raman analyzer featuring an inverted probe fixed on a motor-driving adjustable optical module was designed for the combination of a microfluidic system. It possesses a micro-imaging function. The inverted configuration is advantageous to locate and focus microfluidic channels. Different from commercial micro-imaging Raman spectrometers using manual switchable light path, this analyzer adopts a dichroic beam splitter for both imaging and signal collection light paths, which avoids movable parts and improves the integration and stability of optics. Combined with surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique, this portable Raman micro-analyzer is promising as a powerful tool for microfluidic analytics.

  12. Microfluidic Devices for Blood Fractionation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwee Teck Lim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood, a complex biological fluid, comprises 45% cellular components suspended in protein rich plasma. These different hematologic components perform distinct functions in vivo and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components has innumerable applications in both clinical diagnosis and biological research. Yet, processing blood is not trivial. In the past decade, a flurry of new microfluidic based technologies has emerged to address this compelling problem. Microfluidics is an attractive solution for this application leveraging its numerous advantages to process clinical blood samples. This paper reviews the various microfluidic approaches realized to successfully fractionate one or more blood components. Techniques to separate plasma from hematologic cellular components as well as isolating blood cells of interest including certain rare cells are discussed. Comparisons based on common separation metrics including efficiency (sensitivity, purity (selectivity, and throughput will be presented. Finally, we will provide insights into the challenges associated with blood-based separation systems towards realizing true point-of-care (POC devices and provide future perspectives.

  13. Transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes onto a polymeric substrate using a hot embossing technique for microfluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, A; Roy, S S; McLaughlin, J A

    2010-07-06

    We explored the hot embossing method for transferring vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into microfluidic channels, fabricated on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA). Patterned and unpatterned CNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition on silicon to work as a stamp. For hot embossing, 115 degrees C and 1 kN force for 2 min were found to be the most suitable parameters for the complete transfer of aligned CNTs on the PMMA microchannel. Raman and SEM studies were used to analyse the microstructure of CNTs before and after hot embossing. The PMMA microparticles with dimensions (approx. 10 microm in diameter) similar to red blood cells were successfully filtered using laminar flow through these microfluidic channels. Finally, a microfluidic-based point-of-care device for blood filtration and detection of bio-molecules is drawn schematically.

  14. Electrowetting Using a Microfluidic Kelvin Water Dropper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Yazdanshenas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin water dropper is an electrostatic generator that can generate high voltage electricity through water dripping. A conventional Kelvin water dropper converts the gravitational potential energy of water into electricity. Due to its low current output, Kelvin water droppers can only be used in limited cases that demand high voltage. In the present study, microfluidic Kelvin water droppers (MKWDs were built in house to demonstrate a low-cost but accurately controlled miniature device for high voltage generation. The performance of the MKWDs was characterized using different channel diameters and flow rates. The best performed MKWD was then used to conduct experiments of the electrowetting of liquid on dielectric surfaces. Electrowetting is a process that has been widely used in manipulating the wetting properties of a surface using an external electric field. Usually electrowetting requires an expensive DC power supply that outputs high voltage. However, in this research, it was demonstrated that electrowetting can be conducted by simply using an MKWD. Additionally, an analytic model was developed to simulate the electrowetting process. Finally, the model’s ability to well predict the liquid deformation during electrowetting using MKWDs was validated.

  15. Microfluidic approach of Sickled Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkarian, Manouk; Loiseau, Etienne; Massiera, Gladys

    2012-11-01

    Sickle Cell Anemia is a disorder of the microcirculation caused by a genetic point mutation that produces an altered hemoglobin protein called HbS. HbS self-assembles reversibly into long rope like fibers inside the red blood cells. The resulting distorded sickled red blood cells are believed to block the smallest capillaries of the tissues producing anemia. Despite the large amount of work that provided a thorough understanding of HbS polymerization in bulk as well as in intact red blood cells at rest, no consequent cellular scale approaches of the study of polymerization and its link to the capillary obstruction have been proposed in microflow, although the problem of obstruction is in essence a circulatory problem. Here, we use microfluidic channels, designed to mimic physiological conditions (flow velocity, oxygen concentration, hematocrit...) of the microcirculation to carry out a biomimetic study at the cellular scale of sickled cell vaso-occlusion. We show that flow geometry, oxygen concentration, white blood cells and free hemoglobin S are essential in the formation of original cell aggregates which could play a role in the vaso-occlusion events.

  16. Implementation of Synchronous Micromotor in Developing Integrated Microfluidic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala'aldeen Al-Halhouli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the synchronous micromotor concept and presents new investigations on its application as an integrated driving mechanism in microfluidic systems. A spiral channel viscous micropump and a microstirrer are considered and tested as examples to verify the concept. The fabrication technology of such integrated systems is based on UV depth lithography, electroplating and soft lithography. The synchronous micromotor consists of a stator including double layer coils, and a rotor disk containing alternate permanent magnets. The coils are distributed evenly around the stator and arranged in three phases. The phases are excited by sinusoidal currents with a corresponding phase shift resulting in a rotating magnetic field. Regarding the spiral channel viscous micropump, a spiral disk was fixed onto the rotor disk and run at different rotational speeds. Tests showed very promising results, with a flow rate up to 1023 µL·min−1 at a motor rotational speed of 4500 rpm. Furthermore, for the application of a microstirred-tank bioreactor, the rotor disk design was modified to work as a stirrer. The performance of the developed microbioreactor was tested over a time period of approximately 10 h under constant stirring. Tests demonstrated the successful cultivation of S. cerevisiae through the integration of the microstirrer in a microbioreactor system. These systems prove that synchronous micromotors are well suited to serve as integrated driving mechanisms of active microfluidic components.

  17. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  18. Growth and analysis of anaerobic wastewater methanogens using microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Ben

    2005-11-01

    A micro-bioreactor (μBR) with a total system volume of 5 μl was developed using microfluidics and used to study the anaerobic waste-water methanogen methanosaeta concilli. The μBR was contained inside of an anaerobic chamber designed to be placed directly under an inverted light microscope while maintaining the reactor under a N2/CO2 gas mixture. Methanogens were cultured for periods of up to 3 months inside channels of varying width. The varying channel widths created varying fluid velocities and hence varying shear-rates inside the μBR. This allowed for direct study of the behavior and response of the anaerobe to varying shear-rates. After completion of the study, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed directly inside the microchannels to allow for further analysis and identification of the methanogens.

  19. Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing in a microfluidic pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanyan; Zhen, Li; Liu, Jingqing; Wu, Jianmin

    2013-03-05

    For appropriate selection of antibiotics in the treatment of pathogen infection, rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is urgently needed in clinical practice. This study reports the utilization of a microfluidic pH sensor for monitoring bacterial growth rate in culture media spiked with different kinds of antibiotics. The microfluidic pH sensor was fabricated by integration of pH-sensitive chitosan hydrogel with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic channels. For facilitating the reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements, the chitosan hydrogel was coated on an electrochemically etched porous silicon chip, which was used as the substrate of the microfluidic channel. Real-time observation of the pH change in the microchannel can be realized by Fourier transform reflectometric interference spectroscopy (FT-RIFS), in which the effective optical thickness (EOT) was selected as the optical signal for indicating the reversible swelling process of chitosan hydrogel stimulated by pH change. With this microfluidic pH sensor, we demonstrate that confinement of bacterial cells in a nanoliter size channel allows rapid accumulation of metabolic products and eliminates the need for long-time preincubation, thus reducing the whole detection time. On the basis of this technology, the whole bacterial growth curve can be obtained in less than 2 h, and consequently rapid AST can be realized. Compared with conventional methods, the AST data acquired from the bacterial growth curve can provide more detailed information for studying the antimicrobial behavior of antibiotics during different stages. Furthermore, the new technology also provides a convenient method for rapid minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) determination of individual antibiotics or the combinations of antibiotics against human pathogens that will find application in clinical and point-of-care medicine.

  20. Accurately tracking single-cell movement trajectories in microfluidic cell sorting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jenny; Frohberg, Nicholas J; Zhou, Enlu; Sulchek, Todd; Qiu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Microfluidics are routinely used to study cellular properties, including the efficient quantification of single-cell biomechanics and label-free cell sorting based on the biomechanical properties, such as elasticity, viscosity, stiffness, and adhesion. Both quantification and sorting applications require optimal design of the microfluidic devices and mathematical modeling of the interactions between cells, fluid, and the channel of the device. As a first step toward building such a mathematical model, we collected video recordings of cells moving through a ridged microfluidic channel designed to compress and redirect cells according to cell biomechanics. We developed an efficient algorithm that automatically and accurately tracked the cell trajectories in the recordings. We tested the algorithm on recordings of cells with different stiffness, and showed the correlation between cell stiffness and the tracked trajectories. Moreover, the tracking algorithm successfully picked up subtle differences of cell motion when passing through consecutive ridges. The algorithm for accurately tracking cell trajectories paves the way for future efforts of modeling the flow, forces, and dynamics of cell properties in microfluidics applications.

  1. Integrated optical waveguides and inertial focussing microfluidics in silica for microflow cytometry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butement, Jonathan T; Rowe, David J; Sessions, Neil P; Hua, Ping; Murugan, G Senthil; Wilkinson, James S; Clark, Owain; Chad, John E; Hunt, Hamish C

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge in the development of a microflow cytometry platform is the integration of the optical components with the fluidics as this requires compatible micro-optical and microfluidic technologies. In this work a microflow cytometry platform is presented comprising monolithically integrated waveguides and deep microfluidics in a rugged silica chip. Integrated waveguides are used to deliver excitation light to an etched microfluidic channel and also collect transmitted light. The fluidics are designed to employ inertial focussing, a particle positioning technique, to reduce signal variation by bringing the flowing particles onto the same plane as the excitation light beam. A fabrication process is described which exploits microelectronics mass production techniques including: sputtering, ICP etching and PECVD. Example devices were fabricated and the effectiveness of inertial focussing of 5.6 µ m fluorescent beads was studied showing lateral and vertical confinement of flowing beads within the microfluidic channel. The fluorescence signals from flowing calibration beads were quantified demonstrating a CV of 26%. Finally the potential of this type of device for measuring the variation in optical transmission from input to output waveguide as beads flowed through the beam was evaluated. (paper)

  2. Role of Structural Asymmetry in Controlling Drop Spacing in Microfluidic Ladder Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, William; Maddala, Jeevan; Vanapalli, Siva; Rengasamy, Raghunathan

    2012-02-01

    Manipulation of drop spacing is crucial to many processes in microfluidic devices including drop coalescence, detection and storage. Microfluidic ladder networks ---where two droplet-carrying parallel channels are connected by narrow bypass channels through which the motion of drops is forbidden---have been proposed as a means to control relative separation between pairs of drops. Prior studies in microfluidic ladder networks with vertical bypasses, which possess fore-aft structural symmetry, have revealed that pairs of drops can only undergo reduction in drop spacing at the ladder exit. We investigate the dynamics of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with both vertical and slanted bypasses. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative spacing between drops, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all the behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that ladders containing several identical bypasses can only linearly transform the input drop spacing. Finally, we find that ladders with specific combinations of vertical and slanted bypasses can generate non-linear transformation of input drop spacing, despite the absence of drop decision-making events at the bypass junctions.

  3. Accurately tracking single-cell movement trajectories in microfluidic cell sorting devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Jeong

    Full Text Available Microfluidics are routinely used to study cellular properties, including the efficient quantification of single-cell biomechanics and label-free cell sorting based on the biomechanical properties, such as elasticity, viscosity, stiffness, and adhesion. Both quantification and sorting applications require optimal design of the microfluidic devices and mathematical modeling of the interactions between cells, fluid, and the channel of the device. As a first step toward building such a mathematical model, we collected video recordings of cells moving through a ridged microfluidic channel designed to compress and redirect cells according to cell biomechanics. We developed an efficient algorithm that automatically and accurately tracked the cell trajectories in the recordings. We tested the algorithm on recordings of cells with different stiffness, and showed the correlation between cell stiffness and the tracked trajectories. Moreover, the tracking algorithm successfully picked up subtle differences of cell motion when passing through consecutive ridges. The algorithm for accurately tracking cell trajectories paves the way for future efforts of modeling the flow, forces, and dynamics of cell properties in microfluidics applications.

  4. Submillisecond mixing in a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Drew P; Magana, Donny; Reddish, Michael J; Dyer, R Brian

    2014-02-07

    We report a continuous-flow, microfluidic mixer utilizing mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging detection, with an experimentally determined, submillisecond mixing time. The simple and robust mixer design has the microfluidic channels cut through a polymer spacer that is sandwiched between two IR transparent windows. The mixer hydrodynamically focuses the sample stream with two side flow channels, squeezing it into a thin jet and initiating mixing through diffusion and advection. The detection system generates a mid-infrared hyperspectral absorbance image of the microfluidic sample stream. Calibration of the hyperspectral image yields the mid-IR absorbance spectrum of the sample versus time. A mixing time of 269 μs was measured for a pD jump from 3.2 to above 4.5 in a D2O sample solution of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which acts as an infrared pD indicator. The mixer was further characterized by comparing experimental results with a simulation of the mixing of an H2O sample stream with a D2O sheath flow, showing good agreement between the two. The IR microfluidic mixer eliminates the need for fluorescence labeling of proteins with bulky, interfering dyes, because it uses the intrinsic IR absorbance of the molecules of interest, and the structural specificity of IR spectroscopy to follow specific chemical changes such as the protonation state of AMP.

  5. Enhanced performance of microfluidic soft pressure sensors with embedded solid microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee-Sup; Ryu, Jaiyoung; Majidi, Carmel; Park, Yong-Lae

    2016-02-01

    The cross-sectional geometry of an embedded microchannel influences the electromechanical response of a soft microfluidic sensor to applied surface pressure. When a pressure is exerted on the surface of the sensor deforming the soft structure, the cross-sectional area of the embedded channel filled with a conductive fluid decreases, increasing the channel’s electrical resistance. This electromechanical coupling can be tuned by adding solid microspheres into the channel. In order to determine the influence of microspheres, we use both analytic and computational methods to predict the pressure responses of soft microfluidic sensors with two different channel cross-sections: a square and an equilateral triangular. The analytical models were derived from contact mechanics in which microspheres were regarded as spherical indenters, and finite element analysis (FEA) was used for simulation. For experimental validation, sensor samples with the two different channel cross-sections were prepared and tested. For comparison, the sensor samples were tested both with and without microspheres. All three results from the analytical models, the FEA simulations, and the experiments showed reasonable agreement confirming that the multi-material soft structure significantly improved its pressure response in terms of both linearity and sensitivity. The embedded solid particles enhanced the performance of soft sensors while maintaining their flexible and stretchable mechanical characteristic. We also provide analytical and experimental analyses of hysteresis of microfluidic soft sensors considering a resistive force to the shape recovery of the polymer structure by the embedded viscous fluid.

  6. Detection methods for centrifugal microfluidic platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burger, Robert; Amato, Letizia; Boisen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Centrifugal microfluidics has attracted much interest from academia as well as industry, since it potentially offers solutions for affordable, user-friendly and portable biosensing. A wide range of so-called fluidic unit operations, e.g. mixing, metering, liquid routing, and particle separation...... for the centrifugal microfluidics platform and cover optical as well as mechanical and electrical detection principles....

  7. Preface book Microfluidics for medical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Segerink, Loes Irene

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the major microfluidics techniques and platforms used for medicine and medical applications, providing the reader with an overview of the recent developments in this field. It is divided in three parts: (1) tissue and organs on-chip, (2) microfluidics for medicine

  8. Cell Culture Microfluidic Biochips: Experimental Throughput Maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minhass, Wajid Hassan; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidic biochips offer a promising alternative to a conventional biochemical laboratory, integrating all necessary functionalities on-chip in order to perform biochemical applications. Researchers have started to propose computer-aided design tools for the synthesis of such biochips. Our focus...... metaheuristic for experimental design generation for the cell culture microfluidic biochips, and we have evaluated our approach using multiple experimental setups....

  9. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  10. Principles, Techniques, and Applications of Tissue Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil P.; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    The principle of tissue microfluidics and its resultant techniques has been applied to cell analysis. Building microfluidics to suit a particular tissue sample would allow the rapid, reliable, inexpensive, highly parallelized, selective extraction of chosen regions of tissue for purposes of further biochemical analysis. Furthermore, the applicability of the techniques ranges beyond the described pathology application. For example, they would also allow the posing and successful answering of new sets of questions in many areas of fundamental research. The proposed integration of microfluidic techniques and tissue slice samples is called "tissue microfluidics" because it molds the microfluidic architectures in accordance with each particular structure of each specific tissue sample. Thus, microfluidics can be built around the tissues, following the tissue structure, or alternatively, the microfluidics can be adapted to the specific geometry of particular tissues. By contrast, the traditional approach is that microfluidic devices are structured in accordance with engineering considerations, while the biological components in applied devices are forced to comply with these engineering presets.

  11. Opportunities for microfluidic technologies in synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Shelly; Rouilly, Vincent; Niu, Xize; Chappell, James; Kitney, Richard I.; Edel, Joshua B.; Freemont, Paul S.; deMello, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce microfluidics technologies as a key foundational technology for synthetic biology experimentation. Recent advances in the field of microfluidics are reviewed and the potential of such a technological platform to support the rapid development of synthetic biology solutions is discussed.

  12. Development of an Integrated Polymer Microfluidic Stack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Proyag; Hammacher, Jens; Pease, Mark; Gurung, Sitanshu; Goettert, Jost

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic is a field of considerable interest. While significant research has been carried out to develop microfluidic components, very little has been done to integrate the components into a complete working system. We present a flexible modular system platform that addresses the requirements of a complete microfluidic system. A microfluidic stack system is demonstrated with the layers of the stack being modular for specific functions. The stack and accompanying infrastructure provides an attractive platform for users to transition their design concepts into a working microfluidic system quickly with very little effort. The concept is demonstrated by using the system to carry out a chemilumiscence experiment. Details regarding the fabrication, assembly and experimental methods are presented

  13. Practical Packaging Technology for Microfluidic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Yong; Han, Song I; Han, Ki Ho

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the technology for the design, fabrication, and characterization of a microfluidic system interface (MSI): the purpose of this technology is to enable the integration of complex microfluidic systems. The MSI technology can be applied in a simple manner for realizing complex arrangements of microfluidic interconnects, integrated microvalves for fluid control, and optical windows for on-chip optical processes. A microfluidic system for the preparation of genetic samples was used as the test vehicle to prove the effectiveness of the MSI technology for packaging complex microfluidic systems with multiple functionalities. The miniaturized genetic sample preparation system comprised several functional compartments, including compartments for cell purification, cell separation, cell lysis, solid-phase DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and capillary electrophoresis. Additionally, the functional operation of the solid-phase extraction and PCR thermocycling compartments was demonstrated by using the MSI

  14. Manipulation of microfluidic droplets by electrorheological fluid

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Menying

    2009-09-01

    Microfluidics, especially droplet microfluidics, attracts more and more researchers from diverse fields, because it requires fewer materials and less time, produces less waste and has the potential of highly integrated and computer-controlled reaction processes for chemistry and biology. Electrorheological fluid, especially giant electrorheological fluid (GERF), which is considered as a kind of smart material, has been applied to the microfluidic systems to achieve active and precise control of fluid by electrical signal. In this review article, we will introduce recent results of microfluidic droplet manipulation, GERF and some pertinent achievements by introducing GERF into microfluidic system: digital generation, manipulation of "smart droplets" and droplet manipulation by GERF. Once it is combined with real-time detection, integrated chip with multiple functions can be realized. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Microfluidic magnetic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles: Effects of aggregate length and nanoparticle sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiemsakul, Thanakorn [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Manakasettharn, Supone, E-mail: supone@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Kanharattanachai, Sivakorn; Wanna, Yongyuth [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Wangsuya, Sujint [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 272 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2017-01-15

    We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves using magnetic nanoparticles blended within the working fluid as an alternative microfluidic flow control in microchannels. Y-shaped microchannels have been fabricated by using a CO{sub 2} laser cutter to pattern microchannels on transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets covered with thermally bonded transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. To examine the performance of the microfluidic magnetic switching valves, an aqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspension was injected into the microchannels by a syringe pump. Neodymium magnets were then employed to attract magnetic nanoparticles and form an aggregate that blocked the microchannels at a required position. We have found that the maximum volumetric flow rate of the syringe pump that the magnetic nanoparticle aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. The viscosity of the fluid exhibits dependent on the aggregate length and the size of the magnetic nanoparticles. This microfluidic switching valve based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles has strong potentials as an on-demand flow control, which may help simplifying microfluidic channel designs. - Highlights: • We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic particles. • Maximum flow rate that the aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. • Aggregates with smaller magnetic nanoparticle size can withstand higher flow rate. • Aggregate length exhibits a linear dependence with flow resistance of a viscous fluid.

  16. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax or acrylic glue, and characterized the affect of these and other microfluidic materials on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials

  17. Bioactive glasses: Frontiers and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry L. Hench

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses were discovered in 1969 and provided for the first time an alternative to nearly inert implant materials. Bioglass formed a rapid, strong and stable bond with host tissues. This article examines the frontiers of research crossed to achieve clinical use of bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics. In the 1980’s it was discovered that bioactive glasses could be used in particulate form to stimulate osteogenesis, which thereby led to the concept of regeneration of tissues. Later, it was discovered that the dissolution ions from the glasses behaved like growth factors, providing signals to the cells. This article summarizes the frontiers of knowledge crossed during four eras of development of bioactive glasses that have led from concept of bioactivity to widespread clinical and commercial use, with emphasis on the first composition, 45S5 Bioglass®. The four eras are: a discovery; b clinical application; c tissue regeneration; and d innovation. Questions still to be answered for the fourth era are included to stimulate innovation in the field and exploration of new frontiers that can be the basis for a general theory of bioactive stimulation of regeneration of tissues and application to numerous clinical needs.

  18. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rethna Priya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains. Results: Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm. In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm. Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups. Conclusions: It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  19. Bioactive proteins from pipefishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rethna Priya

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen antimicrobial potence of some pipefish species collected from Tuticorin coastal environment. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of pipefishes in methanol extract was investigated against 10 bacterial and 10 fungal human pathogenic strains. Results: Among the tested strains, in Centriscus scutatus, pipefish showed maximum zone of inhibition against Vibrio cholerae (8 mm and minimum in the sample of Hippichthys cyanospilos against Klebseilla pneumoniae (2 mm. In positive control, maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in Vibrio cholerae (9 mm and minimum in Klebseilla pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi (5 mm. Chemical investigation indicated the presence of peptides as evidenced by ninhydrin positive spots on thin layer chromatography and presence of peptide. In SDS PAGE, in Centriscus scutatus, four bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.8-75 kDa. In Hippichthys cyanospilos, five bands were detected in the gel that represented the presence of proteins in the range nearly 20.5-78 kDa. The result of FT-IR spectrum revealed that the pipe fishes extracts compriseed to have peptide derivatives as their predominant chemical groups. Conclusions: It can be conclude that this present investigation suggests the tested pipe fishes will be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds.

  20. Pen-on-paper strategy for point-of-care testing: Rapid prototyping of fully written microfluidic biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zedong; Li, Fei; Xing, Yue; Liu, Zhi; You, Minli; Li, Yingchun; Wen, Ting; Qu, Zhiguo; Ling Li, Xiao; Xu, Feng

    2017-12-15

    Paper-based microfluidic biosensors have recently attracted increasing attentions in point-of-care testing (POCT) territories benefiting from their affordable, accessible and eco-friendly features, where technologies for fabricating such biosensors are preferred to be equipment free, easy-to-operate and capable of rapid prototyping. In this work, we developed a pen-on-paper (PoP) strategy based on two custom-made pens, i.e., a wax pen and a conductive-ink pen, to fully write paper-based microfluidic biosensors through directly writing both microfluidic channels and electrodes. Particularly, the proposed wax pen is competent to realize one-step fabrication of wax channels on paper, as the melted wax penetrates into paper during writing process without any post-treatments. The practical applications of the fabricated paper-based microfluidic biosensors are demonstrated by both colorimetric detection of Salmonella typhimurium DNA with detection limit of 1nM and electrochemical measurement of glucose with detection limit of 1mM. The developed PoP strategy for making microfluidic biosensors on paper characterized by true simplicity, prominent portability and excellent capability for rapid prototyping shows promising prospect in POCT applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatial Confinement of Ultrasonic Force Fields in Microfluidic Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manneberg, O; Hagsäter, Melker; Svennebring, J

    2009-01-01

    -PIV). The confinement of the ultrasonic fields during single-or dual-segment actuation, as well as the cross-talk between two adjacent. fields, is characterized and quantified. Our results show that the field confinement typically scales with the acoustic wavelength, and that the cross-talk is insignificant between...... adjacent. fields. The goal is to define design strategies for implementing several spatially separated ultrasonic manipulation functions in series for use in advanced particle or cell handling and processing applications. One such proof-of-concept application is demonstrated, where. flow...

  2. Nanomechanical identification of liquid reagents in a microfluidic channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Faheem; Kim, Seonghwan; Lee, Dongkyu

    2014-01-01

    Integration of promising technologies that can enhance sensitivity, selectivity, and throughput into micro total analysis systems (μTAS) are important in making them useful in precise screening of reaction byproducts in analytical chemistry, cellular biology and pharmaceutical industries. But unf......, and petrochemical analysis....

  3. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  4. Surface tension driven shaping of adhesive microfluidic channel walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janting, Jakob; Storm, Elisabeth K.; Geschke, Oliver

    2005-01-01

    , line height and distance, and temperature. Focus of the work has been on predicting the equilibrium geometries with FEM simulations using as input measured adhesive wetting angles, different adhesive line distances and height. The studied substrates are glass microscope slides, PEEK and PMMA...

  5. Electroosmosis modulated biomechanical transport through asymmetric microfluidics channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhorar, R.; Tripathi, D.; Bhatti, M. M.; Ellahi, R.

    2018-05-01

    This article addresses the electrokinetically modulated biomechanical transport through a two-dimensional asymmetric microchannel induced by peristaltic waves. Electrokinetic transport with peristaltic phenomena grabbed a significant attention due to its novel applications in engineering. Electrical fields also provide an excellent mode for regulating flows. The electrohydrodynamics problem is modified by means of Debye-Hückel linearization. Firstly, the governing flow problem is described by continuity and momentum equations in the presence of electrokinetic forces in Cartesian coordinates, then long wavelength and low/zero Reynolds ("neglecting the inertial forces") approximations are applied to modify the governing flow problem. The resulting differential equations are solved analytically in order to obtain exact solutions for velocity profile whereas the numerical integration is carried out to analyze the pumping characteristics. The physical behaviour of sundry parameters is discussed for velocity profile, pressure rise and volume flow rate. In particular, the behaviour of electro-osmotic parameter, phase difference, and Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity is examined and discussed. The trapping mechanism is also visualized by drawing streamlines against the governing parameters. The present study offers various interesting results that warrant further study on electrokinetic transport with peristalsis.

  6. Fabrication of polyimide based microfluidic channels for biosensor devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zulfiqar, Azeem; Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing complexity of the fabrication process of Point-of-care (POC) devices, due to high demand of functional versatility, compact size and ease-of-use, emphasizes the need of multifunctional materials that can be used to simplify this process. Polymers, currently in use for the fabr...... in uniformity of PI is also compared to the most commonly used SU8 polymer, which is a near UV sensitive epoxy resin. The potential applications of PI processing are POC and biosensor devices integrated with microelectronics....

  7. Coding/decoding and reversibility of droplet trains in microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerstman, Michael J; Garstecki, Piotr; Whitesides, George M

    2007-02-09

    Droplets of one liquid suspended in a second, immiscible liquid move through a microfluidic device in which a channel splits into two branches that reconnect downstream. The droplets choose a path based on the number of droplets that occupy each branch. The interaction among droplets in the channels results in complex sequences of path selection. The linearity of the flow through the microchannels, however, ensures that the behavior of the system can be reversed. This reversibility makes it possible to encrypt and decrypt signals coded in the intervals between droplets. The encoding/decoding device is a functional microfluidic system that requires droplets to navigate a network in a precise manner without the use of valves, switches, or other means of external control.

  8. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Chih-Chen; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2016-07-06

    The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB) formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  9. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Wen Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  10. Interference-Blind Microfluidic Sensor for Ascorbic Acid Determination by UV/vis Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bi, Hongyan; Oliveira Fernandes, Ana Carolina; Cardoso, Susana

    2016-01-01

    A microfluidic sensor is developed and targeted at specific ingredients determination in drug/food/beverage matrices. The surface of a serpentine polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel is modified by enzyme via physisorption. When solutions containing target ingredients pass through...... the microfluidic channel, enzyme-catalyzed reaction occurs and only converts the target molecules to its products. The whole process is monitored by an end-channel UV/vis spectroscopic detection. Ascorbate oxidase and L-ascorbic acid (AA) are taken as enzyme-substrate model in this study to investigate......, specific, and accurate, and can be potentially used for fast quantification of ingredient in samples with complex matrix background. It is promising to be widely spread in food industry and quality control department...

  11. Laser ablated micropillar energy directors for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Carl Esben; Kistrup, Kasper; Andersen, Nis Korsgaard; Taboryski, Rafael; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Wolff, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We present a new type of energy director (ED) for ultrasonic welding of microfluidic systems. These micropillar EDs are based on the replication of cone like protrusion structures introduced using a pico-second laser and may therefore be added to any mould surface accessible to a pico-second laser beam. The technology is demonstrated on an injection moulded microfluidic device featuring high-aspect ratio ( h   ×   w   =  2000 μ m  ×  550 μ m) and free-standing channel walls, where bonding is achieved with no detectable channel deformation. The bonding strength is similar to conventional EDs and the fabricated system can withstand pressures of over 9.5 bar. (technical note)

  12. Monolithic integration of DUV-induced waveguides into plastic microfluidic chip for optical manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Vannahme, Christoph; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2014-01-01

    A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 dB/mm at a wavelen......A monolithic polymer optofluidic chip for manipulation of microbeads in flow is demonstrated. On this chip, polymer waveguides induced by Deep UV lithography are integrated with microfluidic channels. The optical propagation losses of the waveguides are measured to be 0.66±0.13 d......B/mm at a wavelength of λ = 808 nm. An optimized bead tracking algorithm is implemented, allowing for determination of the optical forces acting on the particles. The algorithm features a spatio-temporal mapping of coordinates for uniting partial trajectories, without increased processing time. With an external laser...

  13. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    to facilitate real-time monitoring of the experiments. The set-up and experimental protocol are described in detail. Results are presented for ’active’ magnetic bead separators, where on-chip microfabricated electromagnets supply the magnetic field and field gradients necessary for magnetic bead separation....... It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside...

  14. Microfluidic Approach to Cell Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Varna; Hunckler, Michael; Ramasubramanian, Melur K; Opara, Emmanuel C; Katuri, Kalyan C

    2017-01-01

    Bioartificial pancreas made of insulin-secreting islets cells holds great promise in the treatment of individuals with Type-1 diabetes. Successful islet cell microencapsulation in biopolymers is a key step for providing immunoisolation of transplanted islet cells. Because of the variability in the size and shape of pancreatic islets, one of the main obstacles in their microencapsulation is the inability to consistently control shape, size, and microstructure of the encapsulating biopolymer capsule. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of a microfluidic approach to islet cell encapsulation in alginate that might address the microencapsulation challenges.

  15. Nonlinear concentration gradients regulated by the width of channels for observation of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuta; Kamiya, Koki; Osaki, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Hirotaka; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-08-21

    This paper describes a simple microfluidic device that can generate nonlinear concentration gradients. We changed the "width" of channels that can drastically shorten the total microfluidic channel length and simplify the microfluidic network design rather than the "length" of channels. The logarithmic concentration gradients generated by the device were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. Using this device, we evaluated a probable IC50 value of the ABC transporter proteins by the competitive transport assays at five different logarithmic concentrations. This probable IC50 value was in good agreement with an IC50 value (0.92 μM) obtained at the diluted concentrations of seven points.

  16. A microfluidic device for studying cell signaling with multiple inputs and adjustable amplitudes and frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ningsih, Zubaidah; Chon, James W. M.; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2013-12-01

    Cell function is largely controlled by an intricate web of macromolecular interactions called signaling networks. It is known that the type and the intensity (concentration) of stimulus affect cell behavior. However, the temporal aspect of the stimulus is not yet fully understood. Moreover, the process of distinguishing between two stimuli by a cell is still not clear. A microfluidic device enables the delivery of a precise and exact stimulus to the cell due to the laminar flow established inside its micro-channel. The slow stream delivers a constant stimulus which is adjustable according to the experiment set up. Moreover, with controllable inputs, microfluidic facilitates the stimuli delivery according to a certain pattern with adjustable amplitude, frequency and phase. Several designs of PDMS microfluidic device has been produced in this project via photolithography and soft lithography processes. To characterize the microfluidic performance, two experiments has been conducted. First, by comparing the fluorescence intensity and the lifetime of fluorescein in the present of KI, mixing extent between two inputs was observed using Frequency Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM). Furthermore, the input-output relationship of fluorescein concentration delivered was also drawn to characterize the amplitude, frequency and phase of the inputs. Second experiment involved the cell culturing inside microfluidic. Using NG108-15 cells, proliferation and differentiation were observed based on the cell number and cell physiological changes. Our results demonstrate that hurdle design gives 86% mixing of fluorescein and buffer. Relationship between inputoutput fluorescein concentrations delivered has also been demonstrated and cells were successfully cultured inside the microfluidic.

  17. A microfluidics-based technique for automated and rapid labeling of cells for flow cytometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patibandla, Phani K; Estrada, Rosendo; Kannan, Manasaa; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique capable of simultaneous multi-parametric analysis of heterogeneous cell populations for research and clinical applications. In recent years, the flow cytometer has been miniaturized and made portable for application in clinical- and resource-limited settings. The sample preparation procedure, i.e. labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to fluorescent labels, is a time consuming (∼45 min) and labor-intensive procedure. Microfluidics provides enabling technologies to accomplish rapid and automated sample preparation. Using an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a labeling and washing module, we demonstrate a new protocol that can eliminate sample handling and accomplish sample and reagent metering, high-efficiency mixing, labeling and washing in rapid automated fashion. The labeling module consists of a long microfluidic channel with an integrated chaotic mixer. Samples and reagents are precisely metered into this device to accomplish rapid and high-efficiency mixing. The mixed sample and reagents are collected in a holding syringe and held for up to 8 min following which the mixture is introduced into an inertial washing module to obtain ‘analysis-ready’ samples. The washing module consists of a high aspect ratio channel capable of focusing cells to equilibrium positions close to the channel walls. By introducing the cells and labeling reagents in a narrow stream at the center of the channel flanked on both sides by a wash buffer, the elution of cells into the wash buffer away from the free unbound antibodies is accomplished. After initial calibration experiments to determine appropriate ‘holding time’ to allow antibody binding, both modules were used in conjunction to label MOLT-3 cells (T lymphoblast cell line) with three different antibodies simultaneously. Results confirm no significant difference in mean fluorescence intensity values for all three antibodies labels (p < 0.01) between the

  18. Trends in Polymer and Particle Characterization by Microfluidic Field-Flow Fractionation Methods: Science or Business?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, Josef; Sobota, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, 16 May (2014), s. 296-308 ISSN 1023-666X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Asymmetrical flow FFF * Electrical FFF * Field-flow fractionation * Flow FFF * Microelectrical FFF * Microfluidic channels * Microthermal FFF * Miniaturization and resolution * Polymers and particles separation * Sedimentation FFF * Technical benefits of microchannels * Thermal FFF Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2014

  19. Hydrophobic coating of microfluidic chips structured by SU-8 polymer for segmented flow operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, J T; Grodrian, A; Metze, J; Kremin, C; Hoffmann, M

    2008-01-01

    We present a hydrophobization procedure for SU-8-based microfluidic chips on borofloat substrates. Different layouts of gold electrodes passivated by the polymer have been investigated. The chips are used for segmented flow in a two-fluid mode that requires a distinct hydrophobicity of the channel walls which is generated by the use of specific silane. In this paper we describe the production and silanization of the chips and demonstrate segmented flow operation

  20. Self-contained microfluidic systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Moss, Mitchell; Baratchi, Sara; Di Venere, Martina; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2016-08-16

    Microfluidic systems enable rapid diagnosis, screening and monitoring of diseases and health conditions using small amounts of biological samples and reagents. Despite these remarkable features, conventional microfluidic systems rely on bulky expensive external equipment, which hinders their utility as powerful analysis tools outside of research laboratories. 'Self-contained' microfluidic systems, which contain all necessary components to facilitate a complete assay, have been developed to address this limitation. In this review, we provide an in-depth overview of self-contained microfluidic systems. We categorise these systems based on their operating mechanisms into three major groups: passive, hand-powered and active. Several examples are provided to discuss the structure, capabilities and shortcomings of each group. In particular, we discuss the self-contained microfluidic systems enabled by active mechanisms, due to their unique capability for running multi-step and highly controllable diagnostic assays. Integration of self-contained microfluidic systems with the image acquisition and processing capabilities of smartphones, especially those equipped with accessory optical components, enables highly sensitive and quantitative assays, which are discussed. Finally, the future trends and possible solutions to expand the versatility of self-contained, stand-alone microfluidic platforms are outlined.

  1. Microfluidic cell culture systems for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min-Hsien; Huang, Song-Bin; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2010-04-21

    In pharmaceutical research, an adequate cell-based assay scheme to efficiently screen and to validate potential drug candidates in the initial stage of drug discovery is crucial. In order to better predict the clinical response to drug compounds, a cell culture model that is faithful to in vivo behavior is required. With the recent advances in microfluidic technology, the utilization of a microfluidic-based cell culture has several advantages, making it a promising alternative to the conventional cell culture methods. This review starts with a comprehensive discussion on the general process for drug discovery and development, the role of cell culture in drug research, and the characteristics of the cell culture formats commonly used in current microfluidic-based, cell-culture practices. Due to the significant differences in several physical phenomena between microscale and macroscale devices, microfluidic technology provides unique functionality, which is not previously possible by using traditional techniques. In a subsequent section, the niches for using microfluidic-based cell culture systems for drug research are discussed. Moreover, some critical issues such as cell immobilization, medium pumping or gradient generation in microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems are also reviewed. Finally, some practical applications of microfluidic-based, cell-culture systems in drug research particularly those pertaining to drug toxicity testing and those with a high-throughput capability are highlighted.

  2. Accessing microfluidics through feature-based design software for 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankles, Peter G.; Millet, Larry J.; Aufrecht, Jayde A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has been a cornerstone of the product development pipeline for decades, playing an essential role in the creation of both functional and cosmetic prototypes. In recent years, the prospects for distributed and open source manufacturing have grown tremendously. This growth has been enabled by an expanding library of printable materials, low-cost printers, and communities dedicated to platform development. The microfluidics community has embraced this opportunity to integrate 3D printing into the suite of manufacturing strategies used to create novel fluidic architectures. The rapid turnaround time and low cost to implement these strategies in the lab makes 3D printing an attractive alternative to conventional micro- and nanofabrication techniques. In this work, the production of multiple microfluidic architectures using a hybrid 3D printing-soft lithography approach is demonstrated and shown to enable rapid device fabrication with channel dimensions that take advantage of laminar flow characteristics. The fabrication process outlined here is underpinned by the implementation of custom design software with an integrated slicer program that replaces less intuitive computer aided design and slicer software tools. Devices are designed in the program by assembling parameterized microfluidic building blocks. The fabrication process and flow control within 3D printed devices were demonstrated with a gradient generator and two droplet generator designs. Precise control over the printing process allowed 3D microfluidics to be printed in a single step by extruding bridge structures to ‘jump-over’ channels in the same plane. This strategy was shown to integrate with conventional nanofabrication strategies to simplify the operation of a platform that incorporates both nanoscale features and 3D printed microfluidics. PMID:29596418

  3. Accessing microfluidics through feature-based design software for 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankles, Peter G; Millet, Larry J; Aufrecht, Jayde A; Retterer, Scott T

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing has been a cornerstone of the product development pipeline for decades, playing an essential role in the creation of both functional and cosmetic prototypes. In recent years, the prospects for distributed and open source manufacturing have grown tremendously. This growth has been enabled by an expanding library of printable materials, low-cost printers, and communities dedicated to platform development. The microfluidics community has embraced this opportunity to integrate 3D printing into the suite of manufacturing strategies used to create novel fluidic architectures. The rapid turnaround time and low cost to implement these strategies in the lab makes 3D printing an attractive alternative to conventional micro- and nanofabrication techniques. In this work, the production of multiple microfluidic architectures using a hybrid 3D printing-soft lithography approach is demonstrated and shown to enable rapid device fabrication with channel dimensions that take advantage of laminar flow characteristics. The fabrication process outlined here is underpinned by the implementation of custom design software with an integrated slicer program that replaces less intuitive computer aided design and slicer software tools. Devices are designed in the program by assembling parameterized microfluidic building blocks. The fabrication process and flow control within 3D printed devices were demonstrated with a gradient generator and two droplet generator designs. Precise control over the printing process allowed 3D microfluidics to be printed in a single step by extruding bridge structures to 'jump-over' channels in the same plane. This strategy was shown to integrate with conventional nanofabrication strategies to simplify the operation of a platform that incorporates both nanoscale features and 3D printed microfluidics.

  4. Acoustically and Electrokinetically Driven Transport in Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Ersin

    Electrokinetically driven flows are widely employed as a primary method for liquid pumping in micro-electromechanical systems. Mixing of analytes and reagents is limited in microfluidic devices due to the low Reynolds number of the flows. Acoustic excitations have recently been suggested to promote mixing in the microscale flow systems. Electrokinetic flows through straight microchannels were investigated using the Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck models. The acoustic wave/fluid flow interactions in a microchannel were investigated via the development of two and three-dimensional dynamic predictive models for flows with field couplings of the electrical, mechanical and fluid flow quantities. The effectiveness and applicability of electrokinetic augmentation in flexural plate wave micropumps for enhanced capabilities were explored. The proposed concept can be exploited to integrate micropumps into complex microfluidic chips improving the portability of micro-total-analysis systems along with the capabilities of actively controlling acoustics and electrokinetics for micro-mixer applications. Acoustically excited flows in microchannels consisting of flexural plate wave devices and thin film resonators were considered. Compressible flow fields were considered to accommodate the acoustic excitations produced by a vibrating wall. The velocity and pressure profiles for different parameters including frequency, channel height, wave amplitude and length were investigated. Coupled electrokinetics and acoustics cases were investigated while the electric field intensity of the electrokinetic body forces and actuation frequency of acoustic excitations were varied. Multifield analysis of a piezoelectrically actuated valveless micropump was also presented. The effect of voltage and frequency on membrane deflection and flow rate were investigated. Detailed fluid/solid deformation coupled simulations of piezoelectric valveless micropump have been conducted to predict the

  5. Fluorescence detection system for microfluidic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binyu; Han, Xiaoming; Su, Zhen; Liu, Quanjun

    2018-05-01

    In microfluidic detection technology, because of the universality of optical methods in laboratory, optical detection is an attractive solution for microfluidic chip laboratory equipment. In addition, the equipment with high stability and low cost can be realized by integrating appropriate optical detection technology on the chip. This paper reports a detection system for microfluidic droplets. Photomultiplier tubes (PMT) is used as a detection device to improve the sensitivity of detection. This system improves the signal to noise ratio by software filtering and spatial filter. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of the fluorescence and intensity of the laser. The fluorescence micro droplets of different concentrations can be distinguished by this system.

  6. Bioactive composite for keratoprosthesis skirt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laattala, Kaisa; Huhtinen, Reeta; Puska, Mervi; Arstila, Hanna; Hupa, Leena; Kellomäki, Minna; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the fabrication and properties of a synthetic keratoprosthesis skirt for use in osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) surgery are discussed. In the search for a new material concept, bioactive glass and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based composites were prepared. Three different bioactive glasses (i.e. 45S5, S53P4 and 1-98) and one slowly resorbing glass, FL107, with two different forms (i.e. particles and porous glass structures) were employed in the fabrication of specimens. In in vitro studies, the dissolution behaviour in simulated aqueous humour, compressive properties, and pore formation of the composites were investigated. According to the results, FL107 dissolved very slowly (2.4% of the initial glass content in three weeks); thus, the pore formation of the FL107 composite was also observed to be restricted. The dissolution rates of the bioactive glass-PMMA composites were greater (12%-17%). These faster dissolving bioactive glass particles caused some porosity on the outermost surfaces of the composite. The slight surface porosity was also confirmed by a decrease in compressive properties. During six weeks' in vitro dissolution, the compressive strength of the test specimens containing particles decreased by 22% compared to values in dry conditions (90-107 MPa). These results indicate that the bioactive composites could be stable synthetic candidates for a keratoprosthesis skirt in the treatment of severely damaged or diseased cornea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamical phase separation using a microfluidic device: experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, Benjamin; Vaes, Urbain; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Pradas, Marc; Gavriilidis, Asterios; Kalliadasis, Serafim; Complex Multiscale Systems Team

    2017-11-01

    We study the dynamical phase separation of a binary fluid by a microfluidic device both from the experimental and from the modeling points of view. The experimental device consists of a main channel (600 μm wide) leading into an array of 276 trapezoidal capillaries of 5 μm width arranged on both sides and separating the lateral channels from the main channel. Due to geometrical effects as well as wetting properties of the substrate, and under well chosen pressure boundary conditions, a multiphase flow introduced into the main channel gets separated at the capillaries. Understanding this dynamics via modeling and numerical simulation is a crucial step in designing future efficient micro-separators. We propose a diffuse-interface model, based on the classical Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes system, with a new nonlinear mobility and new wetting boundary conditions. We also propose a novel numerical method using a finite-element approach, together with an adaptive mesh refinement strategy. The complex geometry is captured using the same computer-aided design files as the ones adopted in the fabrication of the actual device. Numerical simulations reveal a very good qualitative agreement between model and experiments, demonstrating also a clear separation of phases.

  8. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, C.J., E-mail: cjshih@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chen, H.T. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Huang, L.F. [School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F. [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, College of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Chang, I.L., E-mail: 84004@cch.org.tw [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chang-Hua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO{sub 2}-CaO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  9. Synthesis and in vitro bioactivity of mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.J.; Chen, H.T.; Huang, L.F.; Lu, P.S.; Chang, H.F.; Chang, I.L.

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of thermal treatment procedures (calcination temperature, heating rate and duration time) on the synthesis of SiO 2 -CaO-P 2 O 5 mesoporous bioactive glass scaffolds. This is accomplished by thermogravimetric analyses, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and by analysis of nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In vitro bioactivity can also be assessed by the cytotoxic effect of the glasses on the NIH-3T3 cell line, and by characterization of MC-3T3-E1 cell attachment.

  10. Bifurcating channels supplying "numbered-up" microreactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 12A (2011), s. 2507-2020 ISSN 0263-8762 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : microfluidics * branched channels * geometric self-similarity Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.968, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263876211001821

  11. Femtosecond Laser Direct Write Integration of Multi-Protein Patterns and 3D Microstructures into 3D Glass Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Serien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic devices and biochips offer miniaturized laboratories for the separation, reaction, and analysis of biochemical materials with high sensitivity and low reagent consumption. The integration of functional or biomimetic elements further functionalizes microfluidic devices for more complex biological studies. The recently proposed ship-in-a-bottle integration based on laser direct writing allows the construction of microcomponents made of photosensitive polymer inside closed microfluidic structures. Here, we expand this technology to integrate proteinaceous two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D microstructures with the aid of photo-induced cross-linking into glass microchannels. The concept is demonstrated with bovine serum albumin and enhanced green fluorescent protein, each mixed with photoinitiator (Sodium 4-[2-(4-Morpholino benzoyl-2-dimethylamino] butylbenzenesulfonate. Unlike the polymer integration, fabrication over the entire channel cross-section is challenging. Two proteins are integrated into the same channel to demonstrate multi-protein patterning. Using 50% w/w glycerol solvent instead of 100% water achieves almost the same fabrication resolution for in-channel fabrication as on-surface fabrication due to the improved refractive index matching, enabling the fabrication of 3D microstructures. A glycerol-water solvent also reduces the risk of drying samples. We believe this technology can integrate diverse proteins to contribute to the versatility of microfluidics.

  12. Droplet generation in cross-flow for cost-effective 3D-printed “plug-and-play” microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jiaming

    2016-08-04

    Droplet-based microfluidics is a rapidly growing field of research and involves various applications from chemistry to biology. Droplet generation techniques become the pre-requisite focus. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) technology has recently been exploited in microfluidics due to its simplicity and low cost. However, only relatively large droplets can be produced in current 3D-printed droplet generators, due to the channel dimension limitations on how fine a channel can be 3D-printed. Here we report a novel design of a 3D-printed

  13. Microfluidic model experiments on the injectability of monoclonal antibody solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchene, Charles; Filipe, Vasco; Nakach, Mostafa; Huille, Sylvain; Lindner, Anke

    2017-11-01

    Autoinjection devices that allow patients to self-administer medicine are becoming used more frequently; however, this advance comes with an increased need for precision in the injection process. The rare occurrence of protein aggregates in solutions of monoclonal antibodies constitutes a threat to the reliability of such devices. Here we study the flow of protein solutions containing aggregates in microfluidic model systems, mimicking injection devices, to gain fundamental understanding of the catastrophic clogging of constrictions of given size. We form aggregates by mechanically shaking or heating antibody solutions and then inject these solutions into microfluidic channels with varying types of constrictions. Geometrical clogging occurs when aggregates reach the size of the constriction and can in some cases be undone by increasing the applied pressure. We perform systematic experiments varying the relative aggregate size and the flow rate or applied pressure. The mechanical deformation of aggregates during their passage through constrictions is investigated to gain a better understanding of the clogging and unclogging mechanisms.

  14. Development of a Capillary-driven, Microfluidic, Nucleic Acid Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei HE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An ideal point-of-care device would incorporate the simplicity and reliability of a lateral flow assay with a microfluidic device. Our system consists of self-priming microfluidics with sealed conjugate pads of reagent delivery and an absorbent pad for additional fluid draw. Using poly (methyl methacrylate (PMMA as a substrate, we have developed a single-step surface modification method which allows strong capillary flow within a sealed microchannel. Conjugate pads within the device held trapped complex consisting of the magnetic beads and nucleic-acid-probe-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP. Magnetic beads were released when sample entered the chamber and hybridized with the complex. The complex was immobilized over a magnet while a luminol co-reactant stream containing H2O2 was merged with the channel. A plate reader was able to quantify the chemiluminescence signal. This new format of biosensor will allow for a smaller and more sensitive biosensor, as well as commercial-scale manufacturing and low materials cost.

  15. Separation of cancer cells using vortical microfluidic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddadi, Hamed; Naghsh-Nilchi, Hamed; Di Carlo, Dino

    2018-01-01

    Label-free separation of viable cancer cells using vortical microfluidic flows has been introduced as a feasible cell collection method in oncological studies. Besides the clinical importance, the physics of particle interactions with the vortex that forms in a wall-confined geometry of a microchannel is a relatively new area of fluid dynamics. In our previous work [Haddadi and Di Carlo, J. Fluid. Mech. 811 , 436-467 (2017)], we have introduced distinct aspects of inertial flow of dilute suspensions over cavities in a microchannel such as breakdown of the separatrix and formation of stable limit cycle orbits for finite size polystyrene particles. In this work, we extend our experiments to address the engineering-physics of cancer cell entrapment in microfluidic cavities. We begin by studying the effects of the channel width and device height on the morphology of the vortex, which has not been discussed in our previous work. The stable limit cycle orbits of finite size cancer cells are then presented. We demonstrate effects of the separatrix breakdown and the limit cycle formation on the operation of the cancer cell separation platform. By studying the flow of dilute cell suspensions over the cavities, we further develop the notion of the cavity capacity and the relative rate of cell accumulation as optimization criteria which connect the device geometry with the flow. Finally, we discuss the proper placement of multiple cavities inside a microchannel for improved cell entrapment.

  16. Microfluidic biolector-microfluidic bioprocess control in microtiter plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Matthias; Buchenauer, Andreas; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Mokwa, Wilfried; Diederichs, Sylvia; Mertens, Alan; Müller, Carsten; Kensy, Frank; Büchs, Jochen

    2010-10-15

    In industrial-scale biotechnological processes, the active control of the pH-value combined with the controlled feeding of substrate solutions (fed-batch) is the standard strategy to cultivate both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. On the contrary, for small-scale cultivations, much simpler batch experiments with no process control are performed. This lack of process control often hinders researchers to scale-up and scale-down fermentation experiments, because the microbial metabolism and thereby the growth and production kinetics drastically changes depending on the cultivation strategy applied. While small-scale batches are typically performed highly parallel and in high throughput, large-scale cultivations demand sophisticated equipment for process control which is in most cases costly and difficult to handle. Currently, there is no technical system on the market that realizes simple process control in high throughput. The novel concept of a microfermentation system described in this work combines a fiber-optic online-monitoring device for microtiter plates (MTPs)--the BioLector technology--together with microfluidic control of cultivation processes in volumes below 1 mL. In the microfluidic chip, a micropump is integrated to realize distinct substrate flow rates during fed-batch cultivation in microscale. Hence, a cultivation system with several distinct advantages could be established: (1) high information output on a microscale; (2) many experiments can be performed in parallel and be automated using MTPs; (3) this system is user-friendly and can easily be transferred to a disposable single-use system. This article elucidates this new concept and illustrates applications in fermentations of Escherichia coli under pH-controlled and fed-batch conditions in shaken MTPs. Copyright 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    . In particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents...... of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  18. Particle Manipulation Methods in Droplet Microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenje, Maria; Fornell, Anna; Ohlin, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan

    2018-02-06

    This Feature describes the different particle manipulation techniques available in the droplet microfluidics toolbox to handle particles encapsulated inside droplets and to manipulate whole droplets. We address the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques to guide new users.

  19. Microfluidic Analytical Separator for Proteomics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a microfluidic device designed to effect a 2-dimensional resolution of a mixture of proteins based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular...

  20. Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a "Microfluidic Multichannel Flow Cytometer." Several novel concepts are integrated to produce the final design, which is compatible with...

  1. Microfluidic Analytical Separator for Proteomics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SHOT proposes an innovative microfluidic device designed to effect a 2-dimensional resolution of a mixture of proteins based on isoelectric point (pI) and molecular...

  2. [Synthesis of hollow titania microspheres by using microfluidic droplet-template].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyun; Jiang, Lei; Qin, Jianhu

    2011-09-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics is of great interest due to its particular characteristics compared with the conventional methods, such as reduced reagent consumption, rapid mixing, high-throughput, shape controlled, etc. A novel method using microfluidic droplet as soft template for the synthesis of hollow titania microspheres was developed. A typical polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device containing "flow-focusing" geometry was used to generate water/oil (W/O) droplet. The mechanism for the hollow structure formation was based on the interfacial hydrolysis reaction between the continuous phase containing titanium butoxide precursor and the dispersed containing water. The continuous phase mixed with butanol was added in the downstream of the channel after the hydrolysis reaction. This step was used for drawing the water out of the microgels for further hydrolysis. The microgels obtained through a glass pipe integrated were washed, dried under vacuum and calcined after aging for a certain time. The fluorescence and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the microspheres indicated the hollow structure and the thickness of the shell. In addition, these microspheres with thin shell (about 2 microm) were apt to rupture and collapse. Droplet-based microfluidic offered a gentle and size-controllable manner to moderate this problem. Moreover, it has potential applications in photocatalysis combined with some modification realized on the chip simultaneously.

  3. Electrochemical characteristics of vanadium redox reactions on porous carbon electrodes for microfluidic fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Hong, Jun Ki; Kjeang, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cells are membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cells comprising a microfluidic channel network with two porous carbon electrodes. The anolyte and catholyte for fuel cell operation are V(II) and V(V) in sulfuric acid based aqueous solution. In the present work, the electrochemical characteristics of the vanadium redox reactions are investigated on commonly used porous carbon paper electrodes and compared to a standard solid graphite electrode as baseline. Half-cell electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is applied to measure the overall ohmic resistance and resistivity of the electrodes. Kinetic parameters for both V(II) and V(V) discharging reactions are extracted from Tafel plots and compared for the different electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry techniques reveal that the redox reactions are irreversible and that the magnitudes of peak current density vary significantly for each electrode. The obtained kinetic parameters for the carbon paper are implemented into a numerical simulation and the results show a good agreement with measured polarization curves from operation of a microfluidic vanadium redox fuel cell employing the same material as flow-through porous electrodes. Recommendations for microfluidic fuel cell design and operation are provided based on the measured trends.

  4. Closed-loop feedback control for microfluidic systems through automated capacitive fluid height sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenksen, L R; Kassis, T; Noh, M; Griffith, L G; Trumper, D L

    2018-03-13

    Precise fluid height sensing in open-channel microfluidics has long been a desirable feature for a wide range of applications. However, performing accurate measurements of the fluid level in small-scale reservoirs (sensor contact needs to be avoided. In particular, gravity-driven systems used in several microfluidic applications to establish pressure gradients and impose flow remain open-loop and largely unmonitored due to these sensing limitations. Here we present an optimized self-shielded coplanar capacitive sensor design and automated control system to provide submillimeter fluid-height resolution (∼250 μm) and control of small-scale open reservoirs without the need for direct fluid contact. Results from testing and validation of our optimized sensor and system also suggest that accurate fluid height information can be used to robustly characterize, calibrate and dynamically control a range of microfluidic systems with complex pumping mechanisms, even in cell culture conditions. Capacitive sensing technology provides a scalable and cost-effective way to enable continuous monitoring and closed-loop feedback control of fluid volumes in small-scale gravity-dominated wells in a variety of microfluidic applications.

  5. A microfluidic device for separation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells utilizing louver-array structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Hwang, Shiaw-Min; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2009-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into multiple lineages for cell therapy and, therefore, have attracted considerable research interest recently. This study presents a new microfluidic device for bead and cell separation utilizing a combination of T-junction focusing and tilted louver-like structures. For the first time, a microfluidic device is used for continuous separation of amniotic stem cells from amniotic fluids. An experimental separation efficiency as high as 82.8% for amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells is achieved. Furthermore, a two-step separation process is performed to improve the separation efficiency to 97.1%. These results are based on characterization experiments that show that this microfluidic chip is capable of separating beads with diameters of 5, 10, 20, and 40 microm by adjusting the volume-flow-rate ratio between the flows in the main and side channels of the T-junction focusing structure. An optimal volume-flow-rate ratio of 0.5 can lead to high separation efficiencies of 87.8% and 85.7% for 5-microm and 10-microm beads, respectively, in a one-step separation process. The development of this microfluidic chip may be promising for future research into stem cells and for cell therapy.

  6. Low consumption single-use microvalve for microfluidic PCB-based platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, G; Aracil, C; Perdigones, F; Quero, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a single-use and unidirectional microvalve with low consumption of energy for PCB-based microfluidic platforms is reported. Its activation is easy because it works as a fuse. The fabrication process of the device is based on PCB technology and a typical SU-8 process, using the PCB as a substrate and SU-8 for the microfluidic channels and chambers. The microvalve is intended to be used to impulse small volumes of fluids and it has been designed to be highly integrable in PCB-based microfluidic platforms. The proposed device has been fabricated, integrated and tested in a general purpose microfluidic circuit, resulting in a low activation time, of about 100 μs, and a low consumption of energy, with a maximum of 27 mJ. These results show a significant improvement because the energy consumption is about 84% lower and the time response is about four orders of magnitude shorter if compared with similar microvalves for impulsion of fluids on PCB-based platforms. (paper)

  7. Microfluidic rectifier based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) membrane and its application to a micropump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Lin Liou, Lung-Kai

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic rectifier incorporating an obstructed microchannel and a PDMS membrane is proposed. During forward flow, the membrane deflects in the upward direction; thereby allowing the fluid to pass over the obstacle. Conversely, during reverse flow, the membrane seals against the obstacle, thereby closing the channel and preventing flow. It is shown that the proposed device can operate over a wide pressure range by increasing or decreasing the membrane thickness as required. A microfluidic pump is realized by integrating the rectifier with a simple stepper motor mechanism. The experimental results show that the pump can achieve a vertical left height of more than 2 m. Moreover, it is shown that a maximum flow rate of 6.3 ml/min can be obtained given a membrane thickness of 200 μm and a motor velocity of 80 rpm. In other words, the proposed microfluidic rectifier not only provides an effective means of preventing reverse flow but also permits the realization of a highly efficient microfluidic pump.

  8. Detection of avian influenza antigens in proximity fiber, droplet, and optical waveguide microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Heinze, Brian C.; Gamboa, Jessica; You, David J.

    2009-05-01

    Virus antigens of avian influenza subtype H3N2 were detected on two different microfluidic platforms: microchannel and droplet. Latex immunoagglutination assays were performed using 920-nm highly carboxylated polystyrene beads that are conjugated with antibody to avian influenza virus. The bead suspension was merged with the solutions of avian influenza virus antigens in a Y-junction of a microchannel made by polydimethylsiloxane soft lithography. The resulting latex immunoagglutinations were measured with two optical fibers in proximity setup to detect 45° forward light scattering. Alternatively, 10 μL droplets of a bead suspension and an antigen solution were merged on a superhydrophobic surface (water contact angle = 155°), whose movement was guided by a metal wire, and 180° back light scattering is measured with a backscattering optical probe. Detection limits were 0.1 pg mL-1 for both microchannel with proximity fibers and droplet microfluidics, thanks to the use of micro-positioning stages to help generate reproducible optical signals. Additionally, optical waveguide was tested by constructing optical waveguide channels (filled with mineral oil) within a microfluidic device to detect the same light scattering. Detection limit was 0.1 ng mL-1 for an optical waveguide device, with a strong potential of improvement in the near future. The use of optical waveguide enabled smaller device setup, easier operation, smaller standard deviations and broader linear range of assay than proximity fiber microchannel and droplet microfluidics. Total assay time was less than 10 min.

  9. Ultrasensitive microfluidic solid-phase ELISA using an actuatable microwell-patterned PDMS chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tanyu; Zhang, Mohan; Dreher, Dakota D; Zeng, Yong

    2013-11-07

    Quantitative detection of low abundance proteins is of significant interest for biological and clinical applications. Here we report an integrated microfluidic solid-phase ELISA platform for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of proteins with a wide dynamic range. Compared to the existing microfluidic devices that perform affinity capture and enzyme-based optical detection in a constant channel volume, the key novelty of our design is two-fold. First, our system integrates a microwell-patterned assay chamber that can be pneumatically actuated to significantly reduce the volume of chemifluorescent reaction, markedly improving the sensitivity and speed of ELISA. Second, monolithic integration of on-chip pumps and the actuatable assay chamber allow programmable fluid delivery and effective mixing for rapid and sensitive immunoassays. Ultrasensitive microfluidic ELISA was demonstrated for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) across at least five orders of magnitude with an extremely low detection limit of 21.8 aM. The microwell-based solid-phase ELISA strategy provides an expandable platform for developing the next-generation microfluidic immunoassay systems that integrate and automate digital and analog measurements to further improve the sensitivity, dynamic ranges, and reproducibility of proteomic analysis.

  10. Manually operatable on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures for microfluidic manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Arnold; Pan, Tingrui

    2014-09-07

    Bistable microvalves are of particular interest because of their distinct nature of requiring energy consumption only during the transition between the open and closed states. This characteristic can be highly advantageous in reducing the number of external inputs and the complexity of control circuitries since microfluidic devices as contemporary lab-on-a-chip platforms are transferring from research settings to low-resource environments with high integrability and a small form factor. In this paper, we first present manually operatable, on-chip bistable pneumatic microstructures (BPMs) for microfluidic manipulation. The structural design and operation of the BPM devices can be readily integrated into any pneumatically powered microfluidic network consisting of pneumatic and fluidic channels. It is mainly composed of a vacuum activation chamber (VAC) and a pressure release chamber (PRC), of which users have direct control through finger pressing to switch either to the bistable vacuum state (VS) or the atmospheric state (AS). We have integrated multiple BPM devices into a 4-to-1 microfluidic multiplexor to demonstrate on-chip digital flow switching from different sources. Furthermore, we have shown its clinical relevance in a point-of-care diagnostic chip that processes blood samples to identify the distinct blood types (A/B/O) on-chip.

  11. Synthesis and Manipulation of Semiconductor Nanocrystals inMicrofluidic Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Emory Ming-Yue [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Microfluidic reactors are investigated as a mechanism tocontrol the growth of semiconductor nanocrystals and characterize thestructural evolution of colloidal quantum dots. Due to their shortdiffusion lengths, low thermal masses, and predictable fluid dynamics,microfluidic devices can be used to quickly and reproducibly alterreaction conditions such as concentration, temperature, and reactiontime, while allowing for rapid reagent mixing and productcharacterization. These features are particularly useful for colloidalnanocrystal reactions, which scale poorly and are difficult to controland characterize in bulk fluids. To demonstrate the capabilities ofnanoparticle microreactors, a size series of spherical CdSe nanocrystalswas synthesized at high temperature in a continuous-flow, microfabricatedglass reactor. Nanocrystal diameters are reproducibly controlled bysystematically altering reaction parameters such as the temperature,concentration, and reaction time. Microreactors with finer control overtemperature and reagent mixing were designed to synthesize nanoparticlesof different shapes, such as rods, tetrapods, and hollow shells. The twomajor challenges observed with continuous flow reactors are thedeposition of particles on channel walls and the broad distribution ofresidence times that result from laminar flow. To alleviate theseproblems, I designed and fabricated liquid-liquid segmented flowmicroreactors in which the reaction precursors are encapsulated inflowing droplets suspended in an immiscible carrier fluid. The synthesisof CdSe nanocrystals in such microreactors exhibited reduced depositionand residence time distributions while enabling the rapid screening aseries of samples isolated in nL droplets. Microfluidic reactors werealso designed to modify the composition of existing nanocrystals andcharacterize the kinetics of such reactions. The millisecond kinetics ofthe CdSe-to-Ag2Se nanocrystal cation exchange reaction are measured insitu with micro

  12. Bioactive glasses potential biomaterials for future therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Gurbinder

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the history, origin and basic characteristics of bioactive materials. It includes a chapter dedicated to hydroxyapatite mineral, its formation and its bioactive properties. The authors address how cytotoxicity is a determining step for bioactivity. Applications of bioactive materials in the contexts of tissue regeneration, bone regeneration and cancer therapy are also covered. Silicate, metallic and mesoporous glasses are described, as well as the challenges and future prospects of research in this field.

  13. Micro-optics for microfluidic analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A M

    2018-02-19

    This critical review summarizes the developments in the integration of micro-optical elements with microfluidic platforms for facilitating detection and automation of bio-analytical applications. Micro-optical elements, made by a variety of microfabrication techniques, advantageously contribute to the performance of an analytical system, especially when the latter has microfluidic features. Indeed the easy integration of optical control and detection modules with microfluidic technology helps to bridge the gap between the macroscopic world and chip-based analysis, paving the way for automated and high-throughput applications. In our review, we start the discussion with an introduction of microfluidic systems and micro-optical components, as well as aspects of their integration. We continue with a detailed description of different microfluidic and micro-optics technologies and their applications, with an emphasis on the realization of optical waveguides and microlenses. The review continues with specific sections highlighting the advantages of integrated micro-optical components in microfluidic systems for tackling a variety of analytical problems, like cytometry, nucleic acid and protein detection, cell biology, and chemical analysis applications.

  14. Basic principles of electrolyte chemistry for microfluidic electrokinetics. Part II: Coupling between ion mobility, electrolysis, and acid-base equilibria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persat, Alexandre; Suss, Matthew E; Santiago, Juan G

    2009-09-07

    We present elements of electrolyte dynamics and electrochemistry relevant to microfluidic electrokinetics experiments. In Part I of this two-paper series, we presented a review and introduction to the fundamentals of acid-base chemistry. Here, we first summarize the coupling between acid-base equilibrium chemistry and electrophoretic mobilities of electrolytes, at both infinite and finite dilution. We then discuss the effects of electrode reactions on microfluidic electrokinetic experiments and derive a model for pH changes in microchip reservoirs during typical direct-current electrokinetic experiments. We present a model for the potential drop in typical microchip electrophoresis device. The latter includes finite element simulation to estimate the relative effects of channel and reservoir dimensions. Finally, we summarize effects of electrode and electrolyte characteristics on potential drop in microfluidic devices. As a whole, the discussions highlight the importance of the coupling between electromigration and electrophoresis, acid-base equilibria, and electrochemical reactions.

  15. Fabrication of a microfluidic chip by UV bonding at room temperature for integration of temperature-sensitive layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlautmann, S.; Besselink, G. A. J.; Radhakrishna Prabhu, G.; Schasfoort, R. B. M.

    2003-07-01

    A method for the bonding of a microfluidic device at room temperature is presented. The wafer with the fluidic structures was bonded to a sensor wafer with gold pads by means of adhesive bonding, utilizing an UV-curable glue layer. To avoid filling the fluidic channels with the glue, a stamping process was developed which allows the selective application of a thin glue layer. In this way a microfluidic glass chip was fabricated that could be used for performing surface plasmon resonance measurements without signs of leakage. The advantage of this method is the possibility of integration of organic layers as well as other temperature-sensitive layers into a microfluidic glass device.

  16. Microfluidics for single cell analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant

    Isolation and manipulation of single cells have gained an increasing interest from researchers because of the heterogeneity of cells from the same cell culture. Single cell analysis can ensure a better understanding of differences between individual cells and potentially solve a variety of clinical...... problems. In this thesis lab on a chip systems for rare single cell analysis are investigated. The focus was to develop a commercial, disposable device for circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis. Such a device must be able to separate rare cells from blood samples and subsequently capture the specific...... cells, and simultaneously be fabricated and operated at low costs and be user-friendly. These challenges were addressed through development of two microfluidic devices, one for rare cell isolation based on pinched flow fractionation (PFF) and one for single cell capture based on hydrodynamic trapping...

  17. Superhydrophobic Surface Coatings for Microfluidics and MEMs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branson, Eric D.; Singh, Seema [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Houston, Jack E.; van Swol, Frank B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Low solid interfacial energy and fractally rough surface topography confer to Lotus plants superhydrophobic (SH) properties like high contact angles, rolling and bouncing of liquid droplets, and self-cleaning of particle contaminants. This project exploits the porous fractal structure of a novel, synthetic SH surface for aerosol collection, its self-cleaning properties for particle concentration, and its slippery nature 3 to enhance the performance of fluidic and MEMS devices. We propose to understand fundamentally the conditions needed to cause liquid droplets to roll rather than flow/slide on a surface and how this %22rolling transition%22 influences the boundary condition describing fluid flow in a pipe or micro-channel. Rolling of droplets is important for aerosol collection strategies because it allows trapped particles to be concentrated and transported in liquid droplets with no need for a pre-defined/micromachined fluidic architecture. The fluid/solid boundary condition is important because it governs flow resistance and rheology and establishes the fluid velocity profile. Although many research groups are exploring SH surfaces, our team is the first to unambiguously determine their effects on fluid flow and rheology. SH surfaces could impact all future SNL designs of collectors, fluidic devices, MEMS, and NEMS. Interfaced with inertial focusing aerosol collectors, SH surfaces would allow size-specific particle populations to be collected, concentrated, and transported to a fluidic interface without loss. In microfluidic systems, we expect to reduce the energy/power required to pump fluids and actuate MEMS. Plug-like (rather than parabolic) velocity profiles can greatly improve resolution of chip-based separations and enable unprecedented control of concentration profiles and residence times in fluidic-based micro-reactors. Patterned SH/hydrophilic channels could induce mixing in microchannels and enable development of microflow control elements

  18. Femtosecond Laser-Inscripted Direct Ultrafast Fabrication of a DNA Distributor Using Microfluidics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojun Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A femtosecond laser can be used for single or multiple writing processes to create sub 10-μm lines or holes directly without the use of masks. In this study, we characterized the depth and width of micro-channels created by femtosecond laser micro-scribing in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS under various energy doses (1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% and laser beam passes (5, 10 and 15. Based on a microfluidic simulation in a bio-application, a DNA distributor was designed and fabricated based on an energy dose of 5% and a laser beam pass of 5. The simulated depth and width of the micro-channels was 3.58 and 5.27 μm, respectively. The depth and width of the micro-channels were linearly proportional to the energy dose and the number of laser beam passes. In a DNA distribution experiment, a brighter fluorescent intensity for YOYO-1 Iodide with DNA was observed in the middle channels with longer DNA. In addition, the velocity was the lowest as estimated in the computational simulation. The polymer processability of the femtosecond laser and the bio-applicability of the DNA distributor were successfully confirmed. Therefore, a promising technique for the maskless fabrication of sub 10-μm bio-microfluidic channels was demonstrated.

  19. A Pneumatic Actuated Microfluidic Beads-Trapping Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Cai, Ziliang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-08-20

    The development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic microbeads trapping device is reported in this paper. Besides fluid channels, the proposed device includes a pneumatic control chamber and a beads-trapping chamber with a filter array structure. The pneumatic flow control chamber and the beads-trapping chamber are vertically stacked and separated by a thin membrane. By adjusting the pressure in the pneumatic control chamber, the membrane can either be pushed against the filter array to set the device in trapping mode or be released to set the device in releasing mode. In this paper, a computational fluid dynamics simulation was conducted to optimize the geometry design of the filter array structure; the device fabrication was also carried out. The prototype device was tested and the preliminary experimental results showed that it can be used as a beads-trapping unit for various biochemistry and analytical chemistry applications, especially for flow injection analysis systems.

  20. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D microfluidic cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing

    that support the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D...... epoxy component as structural supports interfacing the external world as well as compliant PEGDA component as microfluidic channels have been manufactured and perfused. Although still in the preliminary stage, this dual-material printing approach shows the potential for constructing complex 3D...

  1. Microfluidic assay of the deformability of primitive erythroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sitong; Huang, Yu-Shan; Kingsley, Paul D; Cyr, Kathryn H; Palis, James; Wan, Jiandi

    2017-09-01

    Primitive erythroblasts (precursors of red blood cells) enter vascular circulation during the embryonic period and mature while circulating. As a result, primitive erythroblasts constantly experience significant hemodynamic shear stress. Shear-induced deformation of primitive erythroblasts however, is poorly studied. In this work, we examined the deformability of primitive erythroblasts at physiologically relevant flow conditions in microfluidic channels and identified the regulatory roles of the maturation stage of primitive erythroblasts and cytoskeletal protein 4.1 R in shear-induced cell deformation. The results showed that the maturation stage affected the deformability of primitive erythroblasts significantly and that primitive erythroblasts at later maturational stages exhibited a better deformability due to a matured cytoskeletal structure in the cell membrane.

  2. Additive manufacturing of three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for acoustofluidic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesewski, Ellen; Haring, Alexander P; Tong, Yuxin; Singh, Manjot; Thakur, Rajan; Laheri, Sahil; Read, Kaitlin A; Powell, Michael D; Oestreich, Kenneth J; Johnson, Blake N

    2018-06-13

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing now enables the fabrication of 3D structural electronics and microfluidics. Further, conventional subtractive manufacturing processes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) relatively limit device structure to two dimensions and require post-processing steps for interface with microfluidics. Thus, the objective of this work is to create an additive manufacturing approach for fabrication of 3D microfluidic-based MEMS devices that enables 3D configurations of electromechanical systems and simultaneous integration of microfluidics. Here, we demonstrate the ability to fabricate microfluidic-based acoustofluidic devices that contain orthogonal out-of-plane piezoelectric sensors and actuators using additive manufacturing. The devices were fabricated using a microextrusion 3D printing system that contained integrated pick-and-place functionality. Additively assembled materials and components included 3D printed epoxy, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), silver nanoparticles, and eutectic gallium-indium as well as robotically embedded piezoelectric chips (lead zirconate titanate (PZT)). Electrical impedance spectroscopy and finite element modeling studies showed the embedded PZT chips exhibited multiple resonant modes of varying mode shape over the 0-20 MHz frequency range. Flow visualization studies using neutrally buoyant particles (diameter = 0.8-70 μm) confirmed the 3D printed devices generated bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) capable of size-selective manipulation, trapping, and separation of suspended particles in droplets and microchannels. Flow visualization studies in a continuous flow format showed suspended particles could be moved toward or away from the walls of microfluidic channels based on selective actuation of in-plane or out-of-plane PZT chips. This work suggests additive manufacturing potentially provides new opportunities for the design and fabrication of acoustofluidic and microfluidic devices.

  3. Collapse of triangular channels in a soft elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepáyotl-Ramírez, Daniel; Lu, Tong; Park, Yong-Lae; Majidi, Carmel

    2013-01-01

    We extend classical solutions in contact mechanics to examine the collapse of channels in a soft elastomer. These channels have triangular cross-section and collapse when pressure is applied to the surrounding elastomer. Treating the walls of the channel as indenters that penetrate the channel base, we derive an algebraic mapping between pressure and cross-sectional area. These theoretical predictions are in strong agreement with results that we obtain through finite element analysis and experimental measurements. This is accomplished without data fitting and suggests that the theoretical approach may be generalized to a broad range of cross-sectional geometries in soft microfluidics.

  4. Bio-actives and Drug

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bio-actives. have an effect on or elicit a response from living tissue. Refer to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism. are constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic nutritional needs, that are responsible for changes in health ...

  5. A modular microfluidic architecture for integrated biochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kashan A; Ryu, Kee Suk; Goluch, Edgar D; Nam, Jwa-Min; Liu, Juewen; Thaxton, C Shad; Chiesl, Thomas N; Barron, Annelise E; Lu, Yi; Mirkin, Chad A; Liu, Chang

    2005-07-12

    Microfluidic laboratory-on-a-chip (LOC) systems based on a modular architecture are presented. The architecture is conceptualized on two levels: a single-chip level and a multiple-chip module (MCM) system level. At the individual chip level, a multilayer approach segregates components belonging to two fundamental categories: passive fluidic components (channels and reaction chambers) and active electromechanical control structures (sensors and actuators). This distinction is explicitly made to simplify the development process and minimize cost. Components belonging to these two categories are built separately on different physical layers and can communicate fluidically via cross-layer interconnects. The chip that hosts the electromechanical control structures is called the microfluidic breadboard (FBB). A single LOC module is constructed by attaching a chip comprised of a custom arrangement of fluid routing channels and reactors (passive chip) to the FBB. Many different LOC functions can be achieved by using different passive chips on an FBB with a standard resource configuration. Multiple modules can be interconnected to form a larger LOC system (MCM level). We demonstrated the utility of this architecture by developing systems for two separate biochemical applications: one for detection of protein markers of cancer and another for detection of metal ions. In the first case, free prostate-specific antigen was detected at 500 aM concentration by using a nanoparticle-based bio-bar-code protocol on a parallel MCM system. In the second case, we used a DNAzyme-based biosensor to identify the presence of Pb(2+) (lead) at a sensitivity of 500 nM in <1 nl of solution.

  6. Photopatterned free-standing polyacrylamide gels for microfluidic protein electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Todd A; Herr, Amy E

    2013-06-07

    Designed for compatibility with slab-gel polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) reagents and instruments, we detail development of free-standing polyacrylamide gel (fsPAG) microstructures supporting electrophoretic performance rivalling that of microfluidic platforms. For the protein electrophoresis study described here, fsPAGE lanes are comprised of a sample reservoir and contiguous separation gel. No enclosed microfluidic channels are employed. The fsPAG devices (120 μm tall) are directly photopatterned atop of and covalently attached to planar polymer or glass surfaces. Leveraging the fast prototype-test cycle - significantly faster than mold based fabrication techniques - we optimize the fsPAG architecture to minimize injection dispersion for rapid (prototyping of the fsPAGE provides researchers a powerful tool for developing custom analytical assays. We highlight the utility of assay customization by fabricating a polyacrylamide gel with a spatial pore-size distribution and demonstrate the resulting enhancement in separation performance over a uniform gel. Further, we up-scale from a unit separation to an array of 96 concurrent fsPAGE assays in 10 min run time driven by one electrode pair. The fsPAG array layout matches that of a 96-well plate to facilitate integration of the planar free standing gel array with multi-channel pipettes while remaining compatible with conventional slab-gel PAGE reagents, such as staining for label-free protein detection. Notably, the entire fsPAGE workflow from fabrication, to operation, and readout uses readily available materials and instruments - making this technique highly accessible.

  7. Microparticle tracking velocimetry as a tool for microfluidic flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salipante, Paul; Hudson, Steven D.; Schmidt, James W.; Wright, John D.

    2017-07-01

    The accurate measurement of flows in microfluidic channels is important for commercial and research applications. We compare the accuracy of flow measurement techniques over a wide range flows. Flow measurements made using holographic microparticle tracking velocimetry (µPTV) and a gravimetric flow standard over the range of 0.5-100 nL/s agree within 0.25%, well within the uncertainty of the two flow systems. Two commercial thermal flow sensors were used as the intermediaries (transfer standards) between the two flow measurement systems. The gravimetric flow standard was used to calibrate the thermal flow sensors by measuring the rate of change of the mass of liquid in a beaker on a micro-balance as it fills. The holographic µPTV flow measurements were made in a rectangular channel and the flow was seeded with 1 µm diameter polystyrene spheres. The volumetric flow was calculated using the Hagen-Pouiseille solution for a rectangular channel. The uncertainty of both flow measurement systems is given. For the gravimetric standard, relative uncertainty increased for decreasing flows due to surface tension forces between the pipette carrying the flow and the free surface of the liquid in the beaker. The uncertainty of the holographic µPTV measurements did not vary significantly over the measured flow range, and thus comparatively are especially useful at low flow velocities.

  8. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  9. Inhibitory effect of common microfluidic materials on PCR outcome

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Xiao, Kang; Wu, Jinbo; Yi, Xin; Gong, Xiuqing; Foulds, Ian G.; Wen, Weijia

    2012-01-01

    Microfluidic chips have a variety of applications in the biological sciences and medicine. In contrast with traditional experimental approaches, microfluidics entails lower sample and reagent consumption, allows faster reactions and enables

  10. Plastic-Based Structurally Programmable Microfluidic Biochips for Clinical Diagnostics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahn, Chong H; Nevin, Joseph H; Beaucage, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    ... and reliable measurements of metabolic parameters from a human body with minimum invasion. The fully integrated disposable biochip is capable of precise volume control with smart microfluidic manipulation without costly on-chip microfluidic components...

  11. Rapid microfluidic thermal cycler for nucleic acid amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Vafai, Kambiz

    2015-10-27

    A system for thermal cycling a material to be thermal cycled including a microfluidic heat exchanger; a porous medium in the microfluidic heat exchanger; a microfluidic thermal cycling chamber containing the material to be thermal cycled, the microfluidic thermal cycling chamber operatively connected to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at first temperature; a first system for transmitting the working fluid at first temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a working fluid at a second temperature, a second system for transmitting the working fluid at second temperature to the microfluidic heat exchanger; a pump for flowing the working fluid at the first temperature from the first system to the microfluidic heat exchanger and through the porous medium; and flowing the working fluid at the second temperature from the second system to the heat exchanger and through the porous medium.

  12. A microfluidic dialysis device for complex biological mixture SERS analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Gentile, Francesco T.; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Tallerico, Marco; De Grazia, Antonio; Nicastri, Annalisa; Perri, Angela Mena; Parrotta, Elvira; Pardeo, Francesca; Catalano, Rossella; Cuda, Giovanni; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a microfluidic device fabricated with a simple and inexpensive process allowing rapid filtering of peptides from a complex mixture. The polymer microfluidic device can be used for sample preparation in biological

  13. Integrated Microfluidic Membrane Transistor Utilizing Chemical Information for On-Chip Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Philipp; Schreiter, Joerg; Haefner, Sebastian; Paschew, Georgi; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics is a great enabling technology for biology, biotechnology, chemistry and general life sciences. Despite many promising predictions of its progress, microfluidics has not reached its full potential yet. To unleash this potential, we propose the use of intrinsically active hydrogels, which work as sensors and actuators at the same time, in microfluidic channel networks. These materials transfer a chemical input signal such as a substance concentration into a mechanical output. This way chemical information is processed and analyzed on the spot without the need for an external control unit. Inspired by the development electronics, our approach focuses on the development of single transistor-like components, which have the potential to be used in an integrated circuit technology. Here, we present membrane isolated chemical volume phase transition transistor (MIS-CVPT). The device is characterized in terms of the flow rate from source to drain, depending on the chemical concentration in the control channel, the source-drain pressure drop and the operating temperature. PMID:27571209

  14. Development of a flexible microfluidic system integrating magnetic micro-actuators for trapping biological species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulcrand, R; Jugieu, D; Escriba, C; Bancaud, A; Bourrier, D; Boukabache, A; Gué, A M

    2009-01-01

    A flexible microfluidic system embedding microelectromagnets has been designed, modeled and fabricated by using a photosensitive resin as structural material. The fabrication process involves the integration of micro-coils in a multilayer SU-8 microfluidic system by combining standard electroplating and dry films lamination. This technique offers numerous advantages in terms of integration, biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Various designs of micro-coils, including spiral, square or serpentine wires, have been simulated and experimentally tested. It has been established that thermal dissipation in micro-coils depends strongly on the number of turns and current density but remains compatible with biological applications. Real-time experimentations show that these micro-actuators are efficient in trapping magnetic micro-beads without any external field source or a permanent magnet and highlight that the size of microfluidic channels has been adequately designed for optimal trapping. Moreover, we trap magnetic beads in less than 2 s and release them instantaneously into the micro-channel. The actuation solely relies on electric fields, which are easier to control than standard magneto-fluidic modules

  15. Development of a flexible microfluidic system integrating magnetic micro-actuators for trapping biological species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcrand, R.; Jugieu, D.; Escriba, C.; Bancaud, A.; Bourrier, D.; Boukabache, A.; Gué, A. M.

    2009-10-01

    A flexible microfluidic system embedding microelectromagnets has been designed, modeled and fabricated by using a photosensitive resin as structural material. The fabrication process involves the integration of micro-coils in a multilayer SU-8 microfluidic system by combining standard electroplating and dry films lamination. This technique offers numerous advantages in terms of integration, biocompatibility and chemical resistance. Various designs of micro-coils, including spiral, square or serpentine wires, have been simulated and experimentally tested. It has been established that thermal dissipation in micro-coils depends strongly on the number of turns and current density but remains compatible with biological applications. Real-time experimentations show that these micro-actuators are efficient in trapping magnetic micro-beads without any external field source or a permanent magnet and highlight that the size of microfluidic channels has been adequately designed for optimal trapping. Moreover, we trap magnetic beads in less than 2 s and release them instantaneously into the micro-channel. The actuation solely relies on electric fields, which are easier to control than standard magneto-fluidic modules.

  16. Microfluidic EBG Sensor Based on Phase-Shift Method Realized Using 3D Printing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radonić, Vasa; Birgermajer, Slobodan; Kitić, Goran

    2017-04-18

    In this article, we propose a novel microfluidic microstrip electromagnetic band gap (EBG) sensor realized using cost-effective 3D printing technology. Microstrip sensor allows monitoring of the fluid properties flowing in the microchannel embedded between the microstrip line and ground plane. The sensor's operating principle is based on the phase-shift method, which allows the characterization at a single operating frequency of 6 GHz. The defected electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure is realized as a pattern in the microstrip ground plane to improve sensor sensitivity. The designed microfluidic channel is fabricated using a fused deposition modelling (FDM) 3D printing process without additional supporting layers, while the conductive layers are realized using sticky aluminium tape. The measurement results show that the change of permittivity of the fluid in the microfluidic channel from 1 to 80 results in the phase-shift difference of almost 90°. The potential application is demonstrated through the implementation of a proposed sensor for the detection of toluene concentration in toluene-methanol mixture where various concentrations of toluene were analysed.

  17. Microfluidic EBG Sensor Based on Phase-Shift Method Realized Using 3D Printing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasa Radonić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a novel microfluidic microstrip electromagnetic band gap (EBG sensor realized using cost-effective 3D printing technology. Microstrip sensor allows monitoring of the fluid properties flowing in the microchannel embedded between the microstrip line and ground plane. The sensor’s operating principle is based on the phase-shift method, which allows the characterization at a single operating frequency of 6 GHz. The defected electromagnetic band gap (EBG structure is realized as a pattern in the microstrip ground plane to improve sensor sensitivity. The designed microfluidic channel is fabricated using a fused deposition modelling (FDM 3D printing process without additional supporting layers, while the conductive layers are realized using sticky aluminium tape. The measurement results show that the change of permittivity of the fluid in the microfluidic channel from 1 to 80 results in the phase-shift difference of almost 90°. The potential application is demonstrated through the implementation of a proposed sensor for the detection of toluene concentration in toluene–methanol mixture where various concentrations of toluene were analysed.

  18. Integrated Microfluidic Membrane Transistor Utilizing Chemical Information for On-Chip Flow Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Philipp; Schreiter, Joerg; Haefner, Sebastian; Paschew, Georgi; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics is a great enabling technology for biology, biotechnology, chemistry and general life sciences. Despite many promising predictions of its progress, microfluidics has not reached its full potential yet. To unleash this potential, we propose the use of intrinsically active hydrogels, which work as sensors and actuators at the same time, in microfluidic channel networks. These materials transfer a chemical input signal such as a substance concentration into a mechanical output. This way chemical information is processed and analyzed on the spot without the need for an external control unit. Inspired by the development electronics, our approach focuses on the development of single transistor-like components, which have the potential to be used in an integrated circuit technology. Here, we present membrane isolated chemical volume phase transition transistor (MIS-CVPT). The device is characterized in terms of the flow rate from source to drain, depending on the chemical concentration in the control channel, the source-drain pressure drop and the operating temperature.

  19. Sandwich-format 3D printed microfluidic mixers: a flexible platform for multi-probe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kise, Drew P; Reddish, Michael J; Brian Dyer, R

    2015-01-01

    We report on a microfluidic mixer fabrication platform that increases the versatility and flexibility of mixers for biomolecular applications. A sandwich-format design allows the application of multiple spectroscopic probes to the same mixer. A polymer spacer is ‘sandwiched’ between two transparent windows, creating a closed microfluidic system. The channels of the mixer are defined by regions in the polymer spacer that lack material and therefore the polymer need not be transparent in the spectral region of interest. Suitable window materials such as CaF 2 make the device accessible to a wide range of optical probe wavelengths, from the deep UV to the mid-IR. In this study, we use a commercially available 3D printer to print the polymer spacers to apply three different channel designs into the passive, continuous-flow mixer, and integrated them with three different spectroscopic probes. All three spectroscopic probes are applicable to each mixer without further changes. The sandwich-format mixer coupled with cost-effective 3D printed fabrication techniques could increase the applicability and accessibility of microfluidic mixing to intricate kinetic schemes and monitoring chemical synthesis in cases where only one probe technique proves insufficient. (paper)

  20. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hugo, S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available is also offered as numerous devices can be implemented on one disc. A variety of components from sample preparation through to detection can be implemented simply and effectively into an integrated microfluidic solution for life sciences. The lab... in the field of centrifugal microfluidics. New microfluidic platform for life sciences in South Africa S. HUGO, K. LAND CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidic...

  1. Single cell analysis of yeast replicative aging using a new generation of microfluidic device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available A major limitation to yeast aging study has been the inability to track mother cells and observe molecular markers during the aging process. The traditional lifespan assay relies on manual micro-manipulation to remove daughter cells from the mother, which is laborious, time consuming, and does not allow long term tracking with high resolution microscopy. Recently, we have developed a microfluidic system capable of retaining mother cells in the microfluidic chambers while removing daughter cells automatically, making it possible to observe fluorescent reporters in single cells throughout their lifespan. Here we report the development of a new generation of microfluidic device that overcomes several limitations of the previous system, making it easier to fabricate and operate, and allowing functions not possible with the previous design. The basic unit of the device consists of microfluidic channels with pensile columns that can physically trap the mother cells while allowing the removal of daughter cells automatically by the flow of the fresh media. The whole microfluidic device contains multiple independent units operating in parallel, allowing simultaneous analysis of multiple strains. Using this system, we have reproduced the lifespan curves for the known long and short-lived mutants, demonstrating the power of the device for automated lifespan measurement. Following fluorescent reporters in single mother cells throughout their lifespan, we discovered a surprising change of expression of the translation elongation factor TEF2 during aging, suggesting altered translational control in aged mother cells. Utilizing the capability of the new device to trap mother-daughter pairs, we analyzed mother-daughter inheritance and found age dependent asymmetric partitioning of a general stress response reporter between mother and daughter cells.

  2. Microfluidic acoustophoretic force based low-concentration oil separation and detection from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Liu, Zhongzheng; Kim, Sungman; Koo, Chiwan; Cho, Younghak; Jang, Dong-Young; Kim, Yong-Joe; Han, Arum

    2014-03-07

    Detecting and quantifying extremely low concentrations of oil from the environment have broad applications in oil spill monitoring in ocean and coastal areas as well as in oil leakage monitoring on land. Currently available methods for low-concentration oil detection are bulky or costly with limited sensitivities. Thus they are difficult to be used as portable and field-deployable detectors in the case of oil spills or for monitoring the long-term effects of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Here, we present a low-concentration oil droplet trapping and detection microfluidic system based on the acoustophoresis phenomenon where oil droplets in water having a negative acoustic contrast factor move towards acoustic pressure anti-nodes. By trapping oil droplets from water samples flowing through a microfluidic channel, even very low concentrations of oil droplets can be concentrated to a detectable level for further analyses, which is a significant improvement over currently available oil detection systems. Oil droplets in water were successfully trapped and accumulated in a circular acoustophoretic trapping chamber of the microfluidic device and detected using a custom-built compact fluorescent detector based on the natural fluorescence of the trapped crude oil droplets. After the on-line detection, crude oil droplets released from the trapping chamber were successfully separated into a collection outlet by acoustophoretic force for further off-chip analyses. The developed microfluidic system provides a new way of trapping, detecting, and separating low-concentration crude oil from environmental water samples and holds promise as a low-cost field-deployable oil detector with extremely high sensitivity. The microfluidic system and operation principle are expected to be utilized in a wide range of applications where separating, concentrating, and detecting small particles having a negative acoustic contrast factor are required.

  3. Fabrication of 3D Microfluidic Devices by Thermal Bonding of Thin Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Paul

    2012-07-01

    The use of thin-film techniques for the fabrication of microfluidic devices has gained attention over the last decade, particularly for three-dimensional channel structures. The reasons for this include effective use of chip volume, mechanical flexibility, dead volume reduction, enhanced design capabilities, integration of passive elements, and scalability. Several fabrication techniques have been adapted for use on thin films: laser ablation and hot embossing are popular for channel fabrication, and lamination is widely used for channel enclosure. However, none of the previous studies have been able to achieve a strong bond that is reliable under moderate positive pressures. The present work aims to develop a thin-film process that provides design versatility, speed, channel profile homogeneity, and the reliability that others fail to achieve. The three building blocks of the proposed baseline were fifty-micron poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films as substrates, channel patterning by laser ablation, and device assembly by thermal-fusion bonding. Channel fabrication was characterized and tuned to produce the desired dimensions and surface roughness. Thermal bonding was performed using an adapted mechanical testing device and optimized to produce the maximum bonding strength without significant channel deformation. Bonding multilayered devices, incorporating conduction lines, and integrating various types of membranes as passive elements demonstrated the versatility of the process. Finally, this baseline was used to fabricate a droplet generator and a DNA detection chip based on micro-bead agglomeration. It was found that a combination of low laser power and scanning speed produced channel surfaces with better uniformity than those obtained with higher values. In addition, the implemented bonding technique provided the process with the most reliable bond strength reported, so far, for thin-film microfluidics. Overall, the present work proved to be versatile

  4. Inexpensive, rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using overhead transparencies and a laser print, cut and laminate fabrication method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brandon L; Ouyang, Yiwen; Duarte, Gabriela R M; Carrilho, Emanuel; Krauss, Shannon T; Landers, James P

    2015-06-01

    We describe a technique for fabricating microfluidic devices with complex multilayer architectures using a laser printer, a CO2 laser cutter, an office laminator and common overhead transparencies as a printable substrate via a laser print, cut and laminate (PCL) methodology. The printer toner serves three functions: (i) it defines the microfluidic architecture, which is printed on the overhead transparencies; (ii) it acts as the adhesive agent for the bonding of multiple transparency layers; and (iii) it provides, in its unmodified state, printable, hydrophobic 'valves' for fluidic flow control. By using common graphics software, e.g., CorelDRAW or AutoCAD, the protocol produces microfluidic devices with a design-to-device time of ∼40 min. Devices of any shape can be generated for an array of multistep assays, with colorimetric detection of molecular species ranging from small molecules to proteins. Channels with varying depths can be formed using multiple transparency layers in which a CO2 laser is used to remove the polyester from the channel sections of the internal layers. The simplicity of the protocol, availability of the equipment and substrate and cost-effective nature of the process make microfluidic devices available to those who might benefit most from expedited, microscale chemistry.

  5. Isolation of cancer cells by "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Vitis, Stefania; Matarise, Giuseppina; Pardeo, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is the development of a microfluidic immunosensor for the immobilization of cancer cells and their separation from healthy cells by using "in situ" microfluidic biofunctionalization protocols. These protocols allow to link antibodies on microfluidic device surfaces and can be...

  6. Displacement of particles in microfluidics by laser-generated tandem bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, Jaclyn; Sankin, Georgy; Yuan, Fang; Zhong, Pei

    2010-11-01

    The dynamic interaction between laser-generated tandem bubble and individual polystyrene particles of 2 and 10 μm in diameter is studied in a microfluidic channel (25 μm height) by high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry. The asymmetric collapse of the tandem bubble produces a pair of microjets and associated long-lasting vortices that can propel a single particle to a maximum velocity of 1.4 m/s in 30 μs after the bubble collapse with a resultant directional displacement up to 60 μm in 150 μs. This method may be useful for high-throughput cell sorting in microfluidic devices.

  7. Complete Procedure for Fabrication of a Fused Silica Ultrarapid Microfluidic Mixer Used in Biophysical Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena Izadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method to fabricate a fused silica microfluidic device by employing low viscosity KMPR photoresists. The resulting device is a continuous-flow microfluidic mixer based on hydrodynamic focusing. The advantages of this new fabrication method compared to the traditional approach using a poly-silicon mask are simplification, and time and cost reduction, while still preserving the quality and the performance of the mixers. This process results in devices in which the focusing channel has an aspect ratio of 10:1. The newly-fabricated mixer is successfully used to observe the folding of the Pin1 WW domain at the microsecond time scale.

  8. Computational Study of pH-sensitive Hydrogel-based Microfluidic Flow Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnia, Jundika C.; Birgersson, Erik; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2011-01-01

    This computational study investigates the sensing and actuating behavior of a pH-sensitive hydrogel-based microfluidic flow controller. This hydrogel-based flow controller has inherent advantage in its unique stimuli-sensitive properties, removing the need for an external power supply. The predicted swelling behavior the hydrogel is validated with steady-state and transient experiments. We then demonstrate how the model is implemented to study the sensing and actuating behavior of hydrogels for different microfluidic flow channel/hydrogel configurations: e.g., for flow in a T-junction with single and multiple hydrogels. In short, the results suggest that the response of the hydrogel-based flow controller is slow. Therefore, two strategies to improve the response rate of the hydrogels are proposed and demonstrated. Finally, we highlight that the model can be extended to include other stimuli-responsive hydrogels such as thermo-, electric-, and glucose-sensitive hydrogels. PMID:24956303

  9. Electric Characterization and Modeling of Microfluidic-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Sacco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric response to an external periodic voltage of small amplitude of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs made up with an alternative architecture has been investigated. DSCs have been fabricated with a reversible sealing structure, based on microfluidic concepts, with a precise control on the geometric parameters of the active chamber. Cells with different electrolyte thicknesses have been characterized, without varying the thickness of the TiO2 layer, both under illumination and in dark conditions. Measurements of the electric impedance have been performed in the presence of an external bias ranging from 0 V to 0.8 V. The experimental data have been analyzed in terms of a transmission line model, with two transport channels. The results show that the photovoltaic performances of the microfluidic cell are comparable with those obtained in irreversibly sealed structures, actually demonstrating the reliability of the proposed device.

  10. Hybrid membrane-microfluidic components using a novel ceramic MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brent J.; Polyakov, Oleg; Rinaldo, Chris

    2012-03-01

    A novel hybrid nano/microfabrication technology has been employed to produce unique MEMS and microfluidic components that integrate nanoporous membranes. The components are made by micromachining a self-organized nanostructured ceramic material that is biocompatible and amenable to surface chemistry modification. Microfluidic structures, such as channels and wells, can be made with a precision of membranes can be integrated into the bottom of these structures, featuring a wide range of possible thicknesses, from 100 micron to membranes may be non-porous or porous (with controllable pore sizes from 200 nm to technology is highly scaleable, and thus can yield low-cost, reliable, disposable microcomponents and devices. Specific applications that can benefit from this technology includes cell culturing and assays, imaging by cryo-electron tomography, environmental sample processing, as well as many others.

  11. Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems with Integrated Waveguides in Cyclin Olefin Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    , in a collaboration with IMTEK in Freiburg, Germany, an optical detection principle was developed. Using the principle of total internal reflection of a laser beam incident on a fluidic channel, detection of air bubbles is possible. The principle was used on a rotating platform as well as on non-moving systems....... the substrate, optical layers and the lid in the microfluidic systems. • Thermal bonding of polymer structures, including roll lamination of foil onto substrates. • Laser bonding of two polymer layers, including transparent on black, and transparent on transparent with a particle doped spin coating. • Thermal...... treatment of waveguides to improve the surface roughness and lower the propagation loss. The fabrication methods have been characterised, and have been optimised to minimise parameters like fabrication time, surface roughness and interface bonding strength. Using these fabrication methods, microfluidic...

  12. Tunable-angle wedge transducer for improved acoustophoretic control in a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranmanesh, I.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We present a tunable-angle wedge ultrasound transducer for improved control of microparticle acoustophoresis in a microfluidic chip. The transducer is investigated by analyzing the pattern of aligned particles and induced acoustic energy density while varying the system geometry, transducer...... in geometry and that the coupling angle may be used as an additional tuning parameter for improved acoustophoretic control with single-frequency actuation. Further, we find that frequency-modulation actuation is suitable for diminishing such tuning effects and that it is a robust method to produce uniform...... coupling angle, and transducer actuation method (single-frequency actuation or frequency-modulation actuation). The energy-density analysis is based on measuring the transmitted light intensity through a microfluidic channel filled with a suspension of 5-μm-diameter beads and the results with the tunable-angle...

  13. Tunable-angle wedge transducer for improved acoustophoretic control in a microfluidic chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iranmanesh, I.; Barnkob, Rune; Bruus, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    We present a tunable-angle wedge ultrasound transducer for improved control of microparticle acoustophoresis in a microfluidic chip. The transducer is investigated by analyzing the pattern of aligned particles and induced acoustic energy density while varying the transducer geometry, transducer...... change in geometry and that the coupling angle may be used as an additional tuning parameter for improved acoustophoretic control with single-frequency actuation. Further, we find that frequency-modulation actuation is suitable for diminishing such tuning effects and that it is a robust method to produce...... coupling angle, and transducer actuation method (single-frequency actuation or frequency-modulation actuation). The energy-density analysis is based on measuring the transmitted light intensity through a microfluidic channel filled with a suspension of 5 µm diameter beads and the results with the tunable-angle...

  14. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Chang, Donald Choy; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2010-01-01

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  15. Material Biocompatibility for PCR Microfluidic Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2010-04-23

    As part of the current miniaturization trend, biological reactions and processes are being adapted to microfluidics devices. PCR is the primary method employed in DNA amplification, its miniaturization is central to efforts to develop portable devices for diagnostics and testing purposes. A problem is the PCR-inhibitory effect due to interaction between PCR reagents and the surrounding environment, which effect is increased in high-surface-are-to-volume ration microfluidics. In this study, we evaluated the biocompatibility of various common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips, including silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components from the standpoint of adsorption. Most of the materials did not inhibit the DNA, whereas they did show noticeable interaction with the DNA polymerase. Our test, instead of using microfluidic devices, can be easily conducted in common PCR tubes using a standard bench thermocycler. Our data supports an overview of the means by which the materials most bio-friendly to microfluidics can be selected.

  16. Marine Peptides: Bioactivities and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Chi Fai Cheung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides are important bioactive natural products which are present in many marine species. These marine peptides have high potential nutraceutical and medicinal values because of their broad spectra of bioactivities. Their antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antioxidative, cardioprotective (antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and anticoagulant, immunomodulatory, analgesic, anxiolytic anti-diabetic, appetite suppressing and neuroprotective activities have attracted the attention of the pharmaceutical industry, which attempts to design them for use in the treatment or prevention of various diseases. Some marine peptides or their derivatives have high commercial values and had reached the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical markets. A large number of them are already in different phases of the clinical and preclinical pipeline. This review highlights the recent research in marine peptides and the trends and prospects for the future, with special emphasis on nutraceutical and pharmaceutical development into marketed products.

  17. Maize Bioactive Peptides against Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gómez, Jorge L.; Castorena-Torres, Fabiola; Preciado-Ortiz, Ricardo E.; García-Lara, Silverio

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is one of the main chronic degenerative diseases worldwide. In recent years, consumption of whole-grain cereals and their derived food products has been associated with reduction risks of various types of cancer. Cereals main biomolecules includes proteins, peptides, and amino acids present in different quantities within the grain. The nutraceutical properties associated with peptides exerts biological functions that promote health and prevent this disease. In this review, we report the current status and advances on maize peptides regarding bioactive properties that have been reported such as antioxidant, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumour activities. We also highlighted its biological potential through which maize bioactive peptides exert anti-cancer activity. Finally, we analyse and emphasize the possible areas of application for maize peptides.

  18. Quinazoline derivatives: synthesis and bioactivities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the significant biological activities, quinazoline derivatives have drawn more and more attention in the synthesis and bioactivities research. This review summarizes the recent advances in the synthesis and biological activities investigations of quinazoline derivatives. According to the main method the authors adopted in their research design, those synthetic methods were divided into five main classifications, including Aza-reaction, Microwave-assisted reaction, Metal-mediated reac...

  19. Carbon nanotubes integrated in electrically insulated channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogensen, K B; Boggild, P; Kutter, J P; Gangloff, L; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I

    2009-01-01

    A fabrication process for monolithic integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in electrically insulated microfluidic channels is presented. A 150 nm thick amorphous silicon layer could be used both for anodic bonding of a glass lid to hermetically seal the microfluidic glass channels and for de-charging of the wafer during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the carbon nanotubes. The possibility of operating the device with electroosmotic flow was shown by performing standard electrophoretic separations of 50 μM fluorescein and 50 μM 5-carboxyfluorescein in a 25 mm long column containing vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. This is the first demonstration of electroosmotic pumping and electrokinetic separations in microfluidic channels with a monolithically integrated carbon nanotube forest.

  20. Carbon nanotubes integrated in electrically insulated channels for lab-on-a-chip applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Gangloff, L.; Bøggild, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A fabrication process for monolithic integration of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes in electrically insulated microfluidic channels is presented. A 150 nm thick amorphous silicon layer could be used both for anodic bonding of a glass lid to hermetically seal the microfluidic glass channels...... and for de-charging of the wafer during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of the carbon nanotubes. The possibility of operating the device with electroosmotic flow was shown by performing standard electrophoretic separations of 50 mu M fluorescein and 50 mu M 5-carboxyfluorescein in a 25 mm long...... column containing vertical aligned carbon nanotubes. This is the first demonstration of electroosmotic pumping and electrokinetic separations in microfluidic channels with a monolithically integrated carbon nanotube forest....