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Sample records for bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl

  1. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  2. Effects of sedimentary soot-like materials on bioaccumulation and sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Hoenderboom, A.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals from sediments containing soot or sootlike materials has been hypothesized to be limited by strong sorption of the chemicals to the soot matrixes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified bioaccumulation of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the a

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  4. Effect of highly bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners on estrogen and androgen receptor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C.; Andersen, H. R.; Rasmussen, T.H.;

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental persistent contaminants giving rise to potential health hazard. Some PCBs exert dioxin-like activities mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Although reports on interaction with other nuclear receptors are sparce, some...

  5. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuikka, A.I., E-mail: anitat@student.uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leppänen, M.T., E-mail: Matti.T.Leppanen@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Laboratories/Research and Innovation Laboratory, P.O. Box 35, University of Jyväskylä, FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Akkanen, J., E-mail: jarkko.akkanen@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Sormunen, A.J., E-mail: Arto.Sormunen@mamk.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 111, FI-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Leonards, P.E.G., E-mail: pim.leonards@vu.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hattum, B. van, E-mail: bert.vanhattum@deltares.nl [Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vliet, L.A. van, E-mail: lavanvliet@hotmail.com [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); Brack, W., E-mail: werner.brack@ufz.de [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Smedes, F., E-mail: smedes@recetox.muni.cz [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management/RIKZ, P.O. Box 207, 9750 AE Haren (Netherlands); and others

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  6. Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls by loaches living in rice paddy fields of Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Xianbo; Zhang, Yichi; Ma, Xindong; Wang, Shuqiu; Ni, Yuwen; Chen, Jiping

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in two loach species (Misgurnus mohoity and Paramisgurnus dabryanus) and the soils of their inhabiting rice paddies from three typical rice production bases of Northeast China to explore the main factors influencing the bioaccumulation. The concentrations of ∑18PCBs and ∑21OCPs in loaches were determined to be in the ranges of 0.14-0.76 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) and 1.19-78.53 ng g(-1) ww, respectively. Most of loaches showed the considerably high contamination levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), which accounted for over 97% of the total OCPs. The much lower maximum allowable loach consumption rates (bioaccumulation potential. The comparisons of BSAF values and the results of multivariate analysis indicated that habitat-specific environmental conditions, mainly the paddy soil contamination levels and average temperature, decisively affected the bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants. When the influence of lipid contents was offset, M. mohoity loaches were found to have a higher potential to accumulation PCBs and OCPs than P. dabryanus loaches, while the bioaccumulation potentials did not exhibit significant differences between juvenile and adult loaches and between male and female loaches. The octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) was the main chemical factor influencing bioaccumulation potentials. The BSAF values presented an increasing tendency with increasing log KOW values from 6.0 to approximately 7.0, followed by a decreasing tendency with a continuous increase in log KOW values. Moreover, loaches exhibited an isomeric-selective bioaccumulation for p,p'-chlorinated DDTs, α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH and cis-chlordane.

  7. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene by three Arctic benthic species from Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczybelski, Ariadna S; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Kampen, Tineke; Wang, Chenwen; van den Brink, Nico W; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-11-15

    The predicted expansion of oil and gas (O&G) activities in the Arctic urges for a better understanding of impacts of these activities in this region. Here we investigated the influence of location, feeding strategy and animal size on the bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by three Arctic benthic species in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway). No toxicity was expected based on biota PAH critical body residues. Biota PCB levels were mainly below limit of detection, whereas samples were moderately polluted by HCB. PAH concentrations in biota and Biota Sediment Accumulation Factors (BSAFs) were generally higher in Blomstrandhalvøya than in Ny-Ålesund, which was explained by a higher abundance of black carbon in Ny-Ålesund harbour. BSAFs differed significantly among species and stations. We conclude that contaminant body residues are a less variable and more straightforward monitoring parameter than sediment concentrations or BSAFs in Arctic benthos.

  8. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and metals from contaminated sediment by freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and clams, Corbicula fluminea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatem, H.E.

    1986-02-01

    Freshwater prawns, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and clams, Corbicula Fluminea, were exposed for 48 or 50 days to three concentrations of a river sediment that contained environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals. The PCB sediment bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for prawns ranged from 0.11 to 0.90 for 1242 and 0.20 to 2.40 for 1254, and were highest for animals exposed to 10% sediment. Exposed clams also accumulated PCBs (1242 + 1254) from the sediment. Sediment BAFs for clams were 0.54 to 12.52 and were highest for animals exposed to 10% sediment. Analyses of clams for metals showed lead (Pb) in exposed animals at higher concentrations compared with controls. Bioaccumulation of Pb differed from PCB in that the Pb concentrations did not increase over time and concentrations were higher among animals exposed to 10% sediment compared to animals exposed to 100% sediment. Sediment 11-80 contained 99 mg/kg of Pb while exposed animals, at 48 days, contained approximately 2.2 mg/kg Pb. Analysis of clams for cadmium (Cd) showed exposed animals contained less Cd than controls.

  9. Bioavailability and bioaccumulation of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls to carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Juliette; Banas, Damien; Thomas, Marielle; Fournier, Agnès; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The relative bioavailability of sediment-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs 138, 153, and 180) from a local contaminated site was examined using an in vivo carp model. Surface sediment from the PCB-contaminated site and spiked canola oil containing equivalent masses of PCBs were respectively incorporated in the sediment-dosed diets and oil-dosed diets at 3 dose levels resulting in 6 experimental diets. Juvenile carps (n = 90) were divided in 18 tanks (5 fish × 6 treatments × 3 tanks). Fish were fed the control diet during the adaptation period (15 d). Next, 1 fish was sampled in each tank and muscle tissues were combined in control groups. During the exposure period (15 d), the remaining fish were fed with 1 of the 6 experimental diets. At the end of the experiment, fish were sampled and muscle tissues were combined for each tank. The PCBs were monitored in feed and fish muscle. For both the contaminated sediment and spiked canola oil groups, concentrations of PCBs 138, 153, and 180 in muscle linearly increased with concentrations in food, with similar intercepts and slopes. In the present study, the sediment-bound PCBs were as bioavailable as those spiked into canola oil and fed to carp in a standard diet.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  11. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments--Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel; Claus, Evelyn; Reifferscheid, Georg; Heininger, Peter; Mayer, Philipp

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling can be applied to measure freely dissolved concentrations (cfree) of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) that are considered effective concentrations for diffusive uptake and partitioning. It can also yield concentrations in lipids at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (clip⇌sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven 'indicator' polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along the River Elbe to measure cfree of PCBs and their clip⇌sed. For three sites, we then related clip⇌sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1) In all cases, cbio,lip were below clip⇌sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R(2) values (0.92-1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327; 0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB bioaccumulation and the thermodynamic potential of sediment-associated HOCs for partitioning into lipids. This novel approach gives clearer and more consistent results compared to conventional approaches that are based on total concentrations in sediment and biota-sediment accumulation factors. We propose to apply equilibrium sampling for determining bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of HOCs, since this technique can provide a thermodynamic basis for the risk assessment and management of contaminated sediments.

  12. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon sequestration in sediment on bioaccumulation in aquatic food webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moermond, C.T.A.; Roessink, I.; Jonker, M.T.O.; Meijer, T.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2007-01-01

    It is not clear whether sequestration or aging of organic chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) limits accumulation in higher levels of aquatic food chains. Therefore, the effect of aging on accumulation was studied in 1-m3 model ecosystems that

  13. Trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in a boreal lake ecosystem: testing of bioaccumulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Kiljunen, Mikko; Lyytikäinen, Merja; Kukkonen, Jussi V K; Koponen, Hannu; Biasi, Christina; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the fate of persistent organic chemicals in the environment is fundamental information for the successful protection of ecosystems and humans. A common dilemma in risk assessment is that monitoring data reveals contaminant concentrations in wildlife, while the source concentrations, route of uptake and acceptable source concentrations remain unsolved. To overcome this problem, different models have been developed in order to obtain more precise risk estimates for the food webs. However, there is still an urgent need for studies combining modelled and measured data in order to verify the functionality of the models. Studies utilising field-collected data covering entire food webs are particularly scarce. This study aims to contribute to tackling this problem by determining the validity of two bioaccumulation models, BIOv1.22 and AQUAWEBv1.2, for application to a multispecies aquatic food web. A small boreal lake, Lake Kernaalanjärvi, in Finland was investigated for its food web structure and concentrations of PCBs in all trophic levels. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were used to measure the bioaccumulation potential of PCBs, and the site-specific environmental parameters were used to compare predicted and observed concentrations. Site-specific concentrations in sediment pore water did not affect the modelling endpoints, but accurate site-specific measurements of freely dissolved concentrations in water turned out to be crucial for obtaining realistic model-predicted concentrations in biota. Numerous parameters and snapshot values affected the model performances, bringing uncertainty into the process and results, but overall, the models worked well for a small boreal lake ecosystem. We suggest that these models can be optimised for different ecosystems and can be useful tools for estimating the bioaccumulation and environmental fate of PCBs.

  14. Equilibrium sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls in River Elbe sediments – Linking bioaccumulation in fish to sediment contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Antoni, Catherine; Möhlenkamp, Christel;

    2015-01-01

    with the sediment (Clip⇔sed) by multiplying concentrations in the equilibrium sampling polymer with lipid to polymer partition coefficients. We have applied silicone coated glass jars for equilibrium sampling of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment samples from ten locations along...... the River Elbe to measure Cfree of PCBs and their Clip⇔sed. For three sites, we then related Clip⇔sed to lipid-normalized PCB concentrations (Cbio,lip) that were determined independently by the German Environmental Specimen Bank in common bream, a fish species living in close contact with the sediment: (1......) In all cases, Cbio,lip were below Clip⇔sed, (2) there was proportionality between the two parameters with high R2 values (0.92–1.00) and (3) the slopes of the linear regressions were very similar between the three stations (0.297; 0.327;0.390). These results confirm the close link between PCB...

  15. Bioaccumulation of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls and pentachlorophenol in the serum of northern elephant seal pups (Mirounga angustirostris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.louis@uclouvain.be [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Stas, Marie [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E. [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, 1801 East Cotati Ave, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Malarvannan, Govindan [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toxicological Center, Campus Drie Eiken, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iasi, 700506 Iasi (Romania); Debier, Cathy [Institut des Sciences de la Vie, UCLouvain, Croix du Sud 2/L7.05.08, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2015-01-15

    Northern elephant seals (NES) (Mirounga angustirostris) from the Año Nuevo State Reserve (CA, USA) were sampled at 1-, 4-, 7- and 10-week post-weaning. Concentrations of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) and their parent PCBs were measured in the serum of each individual. The ΣHO-PCB concentrations in the serum increased significantly between early and late fast (from 282±20 to 529±31 pg/mL). This increase might result from a mobilisation of HO-PCBs transferred from the mother during gestation and/or lactation and stored in the pup's liver. Food deprivation has been shown to exacerbate biotransformation capacities in mammals, birds and fish. The HO-penta-CBs was the predominant homologue group, followed by HO-hexa-CBs and HO-hepta-CBs. No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs (HO-direct insertion or NIH-shift of a chlorine atom) could be evidenced. The concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the serum of weaned NES increased from 103±7 pg/mL at early fast to 246±41 pg/mL at late fast, which is within the range of PCP concentrations usually encountered in marine mammals. - Highlights: • Σ HO-PCB concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast. • The HO-penta-CBs were the predominant homologue group measured in serum. • No preferential pathway for the metabolism of HO-PCBs could be evidenced. • PCP concentrations in serum significantly increased between early and late fast.

  16. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fishes from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, Michigan, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yi, E-mail: yi.wan@usask.ca [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B3 (Canada); Jones, Paul D. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B3 (Canada); Holem, Ryan R. [ENTRIX, 4295 Okemos Road, Okemos, MI 48864 (United States); Khim, Jong Seong [Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hong [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B3 (Canada); Kay, Denise P.; Roark, Shaun A.; Newsted, John L. [ENTRIX, 4295 Okemos Road, Okemos, MI 48864 (United States); Patterson, William P. [Saskatchewan Isotope Laboratory, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, 114 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5E2 (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada S7N 5B3 (Canada); Department of Zoology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); College of Environment, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing biological factors associated with species-specific accumulation of contaminants is one of the major focuses in ecotoxicology and environmental chemistry studies. In this study, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed in various fish species from the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers (12 fish species; n = 314 individuals), Michigan, USA. Due to their migratory habits, greater {delta}{sup 13}C stable isotope values were found in walleye and white sucker among 12 fish species. Meanwhile, the {delta}{sup 15}N values indicated that the trophic status was least in carp and greatest in largemouth bass. The greatest total concentrations of dioxins were found in fishes with the lowest trophic status (carp (n = 50) followed by channel catfish (n = 49)), and concentrations of {Sigma}PCDD/Fs (20-440 pg/g ww (wet weight)), {Sigma}PCBs (16-690 ng/g ww), and TEQs (6.8-350 pg/g ww) in carp were also greater than the least mean concentrations in other fishes. Contributions of various biological factors to the species accumulation were assessed. Body weight and lipid content were found to be the most significant factors influencing accumulation of {Sigma}PCDD/Fs. Lipid content and trophic level seemed to be dominant factors determining accumulation of {Sigma}PCB and TEQs, but negative correlations between trophic status and concentrations of {Sigma}PCBs and TEQs were observed possibly due to the great concentrations in benthivorous fishes such as carp occupying lower trophic levels. These factors can be used to predict the contaminant levels of dioxins and health risks of the fishes in the river ecosystem.

  17. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  18. Aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, D.H. [Dept. of Environmental Microbiology, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been extensively studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile elements has become available. Key enzymes, specifically biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases, have been intensively characterized, structure/sequence relationships have been determined and enzymes optimized for PCB transformation. However, due to the complex metabolic network responsible for PCB degradation, optimizing degradation by single bacterial species is necessarily limited. As PCBs are usually not mineralized by biphenyl-degrading organisms, and cometabolism can result in the formation of toxic metabolites, the degradation of chlorobenzoates has received special attention. A broad set of bacterial strategies to degrade chlorobenzoates has recently been elucidated, including new pathways for the degradation of chlorocatechols as central intermediates of various chloroaromatic catabolic pathways. To optimize PCB degradation in the environment beyond these metabolic limitations, enhancing degradation in the rhizosphere has been suggested, in addition to the application of surfactants to overcome bioavailability barriers. However, further research is necessary to understand the complex interactions between soil/sediment, pollutant, surfactant and microorganisms in different environments. (orig.)

  19. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial... practicable time. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's)”...

  20. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Polychlorinated biphenyls... Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-2 Polychlorinated biphenyls. (a) General. (1) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one member of a class of chlorinated aromatic...

  1. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was d

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  3. Relationships of Thyroid Hormones with Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Dioxins, Furans, and DDE in Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Turyk, Mary E.; Anderson, Henry A.; Persky, Victoria W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormone homeostasis can be disrupted by exposure to ubiquitous and bioaccumulative organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Whereas investigations of health effects have generally focused on human populations with relatively high exposures through occupation, accident, or high fish consumption, general population exposures may also carry risk. Methods We studied associations of total thyroxine (T4) and thyroid-s...

  4. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 ] RIN 2050-AG71 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting... CFR Part 761 Environmental protection, Hazardous substances, Manifest, Polychlorinated...

  5. Bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Qiantang River Basin (Hangzhou Section)%钱塘江流域(杭州段)水环境中多氯联苯的生物富集效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鲜臻; 王志超; 陈星迪; 李翡翡; 史天麟; 杨华云

    2015-01-01

    Because of the nondegradation ,trend in bioaccumulation and adverse effects on humans and other animals , polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have received wide attention on the bioaccumulation potentials and ecological risks in recent years .The spatial characteristics and concentration content of PCBs (dry weight) in sediments and organisms are identified and quantified by GC‐MS /MS in Qiantang River basin (Hangzhou section) .The accumulation of PCBs in the area is also analyzed and evaluated using the bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) method .The results show that the contents of PCBs vary from 6 .93~10 .14 ng/g ,14 .83~20 .43 ng/g ,19 .66~25 .93 ng/g and 19 .25~ 21 .34 ng/g in sediment ,screw , crucian and chub ,respectively ,with an average of 8 .85 ng/g ,15 .95ng/g ,21 .62 ng/g and 20 .27 ng/g ,respectively .The value of BAF shows that PCBs has high bioaccumulation in Qiantang River basin (Hangzhou section) which has the potential environmental risk .%因为具有不易降解、易生物蓄积、会对生物及人体产生毒害效应等特征,近年来,多氯联苯(PCBs)在生物体内的富集及其生态风险已引起人们的广泛关注.本文利用GC/M S检测钱塘江流域(杭州段)沉积物、底栖生物及鱼体中PCBs的浓度含量(干重)及分布特征,进一步运用生物富集系数评价了钱塘江流域(杭州段) PCBs的富集状况.结果表明,沉积物中PCBs含量为6.93~10.14 ng/g ,平均含量为8.85 ng/g ;底栖生物(螺丝)中PCBs含量为14.83~20.43 ng/g ,平均含量为15.95ng/g ;鲫鱼体内中PCBs含量为19.66~25.93 ng/g ,平均含量为21.62ng/g ;鲢鱼体内PCBs含量为19.25~21.34 ng/g ,平均含量为20.27ng/g .富集系数进一步表明,钱塘江流域(杭州段)生物对PCBs有较强的生物富集性,有一定潜在的环境风险.

  6. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Hu, Dingfei; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Duffel, Michael W; Bergman, Åke; Robertson, Larry W

    2015-03-01

    Abstract The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity, and thereby on the assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general, and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism, and to identify the metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed.

  7. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls....30 Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's.... (b) A compilation entitled “Analytical Methodology for Polychlorinated Biphenyls, February 1973”...

  8. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2) Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces or assembles electrical capacitors in which PCB or PCB-containing compounds are part of the... are prohibited in any discharge from any PCB manufacturer. (c) Electrical capacitor...

  9. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blue多sh collected in the vicinity of...

  10. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2050-AG71 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY:...

  11. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  12. Bioaccumulation Potentials of Polychlorinated biphenyls in bottom fishes from an e-waste recycling site in South China%广东电子垃圾污染区水体底层鱼类对PCBs的富集效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江平; 管运涛; 张荧; 罗孝俊; 张锡辉; 麦碧娴

    2011-01-01

    The bioaccumulation potentials of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom fishes from an e-waste recycling site in South China were investigated, and the biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) and biomagnification factors (BMFs) were determined based on the concentrations of PCBs in surfacial sediment samples and in three bottom fishes (i.e., mud carp, crucian carp, and northern snakebead). Concentrations of total PCBs in the sediments ranged from 24.5 to 38.6μg/g dry wet (or 279.2-338.5μg/g OC), showing severe contamination of PCBs in the aquatic environment. The calculated BSAFs ranged from 0.05 to 2.52, 0.01 to 1.20, and 0.01 to 5.03 for mud carp, crucian carp, and northern snakehead, respectively. The BMFs ranged from 0.14 to 2.23 and 0.14 to 4.93 for the northern snakehead/mud carp and northern snakehead/crucian carp coupling. For most PCB congeners, the observed BMFs were less than unit, indicating the biomagnification of these congeners in the food-chain. Both BSAFs and log BMF correlated significantly with log Kow and the chlorine numbers of PCBs, which suggested that the physiochemical properties of PCBs played an important role in their bioaecumulation.%采用GC/MS分析方法测试了广东电子垃圾回收地水体沉积物中多氯联苯(PCBs)含量,并利用以前测定的底栖性鱼类(鲮鱼、鲫鱼和乌鳢)PCBs含量数据,计算了生物,沉积物富集因子(BSAF)和生物放大因子(BMF),研究底栖性鱼类对PCBs的富集能力及其影响因素.研究表明,沉积物中总PCBs含量达到24.5~38.6μg/g干重,证实当地环境已受到PCBs重污染.鲮鱼、鲫鱼和乌鳢的BSAF范围分别为0.05~2.52、0.01~1.20和0.01~5.03.根据乌鳢/鲮鱼和乌鳢/鲫鱼食物关系计算的BMF范围分别为0.14~2.23和0.14~4.93,其中大部分PCB同系物的BMF>1,表明乌鳢对PCBs具有生物放大作用.BSAF及BMF均与PCBs的Kow和氯原子取代数具有显著相关性,说明化合物的理化性质是控制其生物富集的主要因素.

  13. 白洋淀鱼类体内多氯联苯积累特征及其毒性评价%Bioaccumulation and Toxicity Assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Freshwater Fish from Baiyangdian Lake, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国成; 李雪梅; 彭晓武; 郭庶; 刘芸; 许木启; 戴家银; 麦碧娴; 许振成

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic species easily accumulate persistent organic pollutants ( POPs ). Bioaccumulation is important to transfer behaviors of POPs in tissues of aquatic species. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical POPs. The concentrations of PCBs in muscle of eight freshwater fish species from Baiyangdian Lake were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer(GC/MS). The compositional patterns of PCB congeners were observed, and the toxic equivalent values(TEQs ) were calculated for these freshwater fishes. The concentrations of PCBs in various fish species were in the range of 55.85-1 485.74 ng-g'1 lipid weight (lw). The order of PCBs concentrations was as follow:yellow catfish(Pelteobagrus.fufotdraco)>ricefield eel(Monopterus ablus )>northern snakehead(Channa argus )>loach(Misgur-nus anguillicaudatus )>common carp( Cypnnus carpio )>bighead carp(A ristichthys nobilis )>crucian carp( Carassius auratus )>oriental sheat-fish (Parasllums asotus ). PCB profiles were dominated by congeners of Tetra-CB and Penta-CB, which relative abundance accounted for 52.0%~84.3% of the total congener concentration. The compositional patterns indicated that regions around Baiyangdian Lake have been contaminated by PCBs commercial products used previously. The TEQs ranged from 0.10 to 1 412.90 pg TEQ·g-1 lipid weight. The highest and the lowest TEQs were observed for bighead carp(Aristichthys nobilis) and loach(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), respectively. The results suggested that part of freshwater fish from Baiyangdian Lake were contaminated by PCBs to some extent. The residents and government should be pay attention to contamination of PCBs in this region.%针对持久性有机污染物在水生生物体内易于积累的特性,利用气相色谱与质谱联用技术(GC-MS),检测了白洋淀8种鱼类体内多氯联苯(PCBs)含量,并分析了同系物组成特征.根据白洋淀鱼类检测到同系物情况,计算毒性当量(TEQ)并进行评价.白洋淀8种鱼

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in aquatic invertebrates and fish and observations about nitrogen and carbon isotope composition in relation to trophic structure and bioaccumulation patterns, Lake Worth and Meandering Road Creek, Fort Worth, Texas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    During 2007-08 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, evaluated the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic invertebrates and fish from one site in the main body of Lake Worth, two sites in a small inlet in Lake Worth (upper and lower Woods Inlet), and one site in Meandering Road Creek in Fort Worth, Texas. The four sites sampled during 2007-08 were located at or near sites where surficial bed-sediment samples had been collected and analyzed for PCBs during previous U.S. Geological Survey studies so that PCB concentrations in aquatic invertebrates and fish and PCB concentrations in surficial bed-sediment samples could be compared. Stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes were used to help assess differences in the amount of these isotopes by species and sampling location. The sum of 15 PCB-congener concentrations was highest for aquatic invertebrates and fish from the upper Woods Inlet site and lowest for the same aquatic invertebrates and fish from Lake Worth site, where PCBs historically had not been detected in lake bed sediment. An increase in the ratio of the heavier nitrogen-15 (15N) isotope to the lighter nitrogen-14 (14N) isotope, referred to as enrichment of 15N, was highest in largemouth bass (representing the highest trophic level sampled) at all sites and lowest for true midge larvae inhabiting surficial bed sediment in the lake (representing the lowest trophic level sampled). Enrichment of 15N was less variable in largemouth bass and other fish from the highest trophic level compared with shorter lived, primary consumer invertebrates from lower trophic levels, such as true midge larvae, mayfly nymphs, and zooplankton. The delta carbon-13 (delta13C) values measured in true midge larvae collected at the Lake Worth and upper and lower Woods Inlet sites were more negative compared with the delta13C values measured for all other taxa, indicating true midge larvae were more depleted of carbon-13 (13C) compared

  15. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association.

  17. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping...

  18. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Inui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126 to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  19. A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S F; Yen, Y Y; Lan, S J; Hsieh, C C; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C

    1996-01-01

    In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ("Yu-Cheng") occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and deiodinase activity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, Shalini D; Berghuis, Sietske A; Visser, Theo J; Sauer, Pieter J J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct i

  2. Danish emission inventory for hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report documents the improved air emission inventories for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The emission inventories now include all sources covered by the EMEP/EEA Guidebook. The completeness and accuracy of the inventories for these pollutants have been...

  3. Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl levels across studies of human neurodevelopment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Longnecker, MP; Gladen, BC; Brock, JW; Grandjean, P; Jacobson, JL; Korrick, SA; Rogan, WJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Hertz-Picciotto, [No Value; Ayotte, P; Stewart, P; Winneke, G; Charles, MJ; Jacobson, SW; Dewailly, E; Boersma, ER; Altshul, LM; Heinzow, B; Pagano, JJ; Jensen, AA

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Int

  4. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of testicular germ cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Graubard, Barry I.; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may alter hormonal balance and thereby, increase risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). To study the relationship of PCBs to TGCT, pre-diagnostic serum samples from 736 cases and 913 controls in the Servicemen’s Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. PCB levels...

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  7. Subculturing of a polychlorinated biphenyl-dechlorinating anaerobic enrichment on solid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, H.D.; Boyle, A.W.; Price, W.A. II.; Blake, C.K. (Celgene Corp., Warren, NJ (United States))

    1992-12-01

    An anaerobic culture capable of dechlorinating polychlorinated biphenyls was subcultured under strict anaerobic conditions on solid media containing sterilized river sediment. The dechlorination activity was transferred as a bacterial colony on a solid medium three times. After two transfers on solid medium, the culture was no longer methanogenic but still dechlorinated a mixture of tri- and tetrachlorobiphenyls. This demonstrates that anaerobic bacteria are responsible for the polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination and can be grown without polychlorinated biphenyl on solid media.

  8. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins and its effect on neonatal neurological development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Fidler, V.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Sauer, P.J.J.; Touwen, B.C.L.; Boersma, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are widespread environmental contaminants which are neurotoxic in animals. Perinatal exposure to PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs occurs prenatally via the placenta and postnatally via breast mi

  9. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS AND DIOXINS AND ITS EFFECT ON NEONATAL NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; FIDLER, [No Value; HADDERSALGRA, M; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; SAUER, PJJ; TOUWEN, BCL; BOERSMA, ER

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are widespread environmental contaminants which are neurotoxic in animals. Perinatal exposure to PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs occurs prenatally via the placenta and postnatally via breast mi

  10. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sidney, L.A.; Diepens, N.J.; Guo, X.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We us

  11. [Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and cancer risk: recent advances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roveda, Anna Maria; Veronesi, Licia; Zoni, Roberta; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds whose commercial production started in the thirties and that have been widely used in the electro-technical industry. Although their production was stopped over 25 years ago, the Stockholm Convention included these compounds among the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). In fact, humans continue to be exposed to the toxic effects of PCBs because of their resistance to chemical and biological decomposition, their capacity of bio-accumulation and their long half-life. Studies performed so far have pointed out a possible association between exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and increased risk of developing some types of cancer (breast, prostate, testicular, ovarian and uterine cancers); it has also been suggested that these compounds may act as disruptive endocrine and cause infertility as well as other hormone-regulated disorders. PCBs accumulate in organisms through the food chain, and food is therefore the main exposure source for humans: it accounts for over 90% of exposure, the highest concentrations being found in fish (such as salmon and shellfish), dairy products (especially milk and butter) and animal fat. Moreover, waste-heaps, illegal disposal of oil waste and combustion of certain waste products in incineration plants represent sources of environmental pollution. The highest levels of PCBs in the environment were found in the early 1970s; since then concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls have gradually decreased in all environmental components (water, air, earth and sediments), in fish, in other food products and lastly also in humans, thus suggesting that the associated risks have also likewise diminished.

  12. Historical Changes in Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet D. Dang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: PCBs contamination continues to pose a health risk to aquatic environments due to their recalcitrance and bioaccumulation. The Sangamo Weston/Twelvemile Creek/Lake Hartwell Superfund Site is an example of such a health risk as a result of PCBs discharged from a former capacitor manufacturing plant. We conducted a study in twelvemile creek (Clemson, SC, USA to examine the temporal trend of PCB contaminated sediments. Approach: Surface sediments were sampled at four sites in fall 2008 to compare with concentrations measured in past studies. Total PCBs and congener-specific analyses were performed on Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD. Results: Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.026-0.18 ìg g-1, which were one order of magnitude lower than levels measured in 1987 (-1. Total PCBs in this study (based on more than 130 congeners were similar to those observed in 2003-2004 (based on only 20 congeners. PCB congener patterns indicated that PCBs near the source were dominated by lower chlorinated congeners while heavy congeners were persistent further downstream. Conclusion: Physical and biochemical processes such as natural attenuation, mixing/dispersion and PCBs degradation are contributing to the decreasing concentrations after the discharge was eliminated in 1975. The congener pattern shift is likely attributed to a loss via volatilization and export of contaminated sediment from the stream. Burial could be a potential means to prevent resuspension into the water column.

  13. Association between dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls and the incidence of hypertension in a Spanish cohort: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donat-Vargas, Carolina; Gea, Alfredo; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; de la Fuente-Arrillaga, Carmen; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2015-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that are consumed because of their bioaccumulation through the food chain. Evidence from different sources suggests a positive association between polychlorinated biphenyls exposure and the incidence of hypertension. However, no previous prospective study has investigated this potential relationship in adults. We prospectively assessed the association between dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls and the incidence of hypertension in a large cohort. The Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra project is a Spanish cohort of university graduates, most of them health professionals. We included 14521 participants, initially free of hypertension, who were followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. Dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls was assessed at baseline through a previously validated 136-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. The published concentration levels of polychlorinated biphenyls measured in samples of food consumed in Spain were used to estimate dietary intake. Multivariable Cox regression models were fitted to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval for incident hypertension. During follow-up, 1497 incident cases of medically diagnosed hypertension were identified. After adjusting for total energy intake and for potential confounders, participants in the fifth quintile of total polychlorinated biphenyls intake were at higher risk of developing hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.88; P for trend 0.017]) compared with those in the first quintile. In this Mediterranean cohort, dietary intake of polychlorinated biphenyls, estimated using a food frequency questionnaire, was associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension during follow-up. Nevertheless, further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results.

  14. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  15. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls in residents of 91 PCB-contaminated and 108 non-contaminated dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Göen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings.......In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings....

  16. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent a class of toxic industrial chemicals manufactured and sold under a variety...

  17. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent a class of toxic industrial chemicals manufactured and sold under a variety...

  18. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the... GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.45 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's)...

  19. Sonochemical Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is a kind of persistent and dangerous environmental pollutants. This paper presented the research result of sonochemical degradation of 2-chloro- biphenyl (2-CBP), 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CBP) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4'-CBP)in water. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics of 2-CBP, 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficients are 3.69×10-2, 3.19×10-2 and 2.06×10-2 at 25±1°C for 2-CBP, 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP respectively. The influence of initial concentrations, reaction temperature on the ultrasonic decomposition of 2-CBP were also investigated.

  20. Prediction of the Aqueous Solubilities of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Shen LIU; Shi Hai CUI; Lian Sheng WANG

    2004-01-01

    Using the molecular electronegativity distance vector descriptors derived directly from the molecular topological structures, the aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)were predicted. A three-variable regression equation with correlation coefficient of 0.9739 and the root mean square errors of 0.26 was developed. The descriptors included in the equation represent three interactions between three pairs of atomic types,I.e.,atom-C=and>C=,-C=and-Cl,and-Cland-Cl.It has been proved that the aqueous solubilities of 137 PCB congeners can be accurately predicted as long as there are more than 65 calibration compounds.

  1. Isolation and characterization of bacteria degrading polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Avelizapa, N G; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R; Martínez-Cruz, J; Esparza-García, F; Montes de Oca-García, A; Ríos-Leal, E; Fernández-Villagómez, G

    1999-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil were degraded in liquid culture under aerobic conditions using a mixed bacterial culture isolated from a transformer oil sample with a high content of polychlorinated biphenyls and other hydrocarbons. Four strains were identified, three of them corresponded to genus Bacillus, the other one to Erwinia. Bacteria in the transformer oil could remove as much as 65% of polychlorinated biphenyls (88% W/V in the transformer oil). Additional data showed that the two isolated strains of B. lentus were able to grow on transformer oil and degrade polychlorinated biphenyls by 80 and 83%. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms occurring in transformer oil have the potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls.

  2. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-bin; ZHENG Ming-hui; XING Ying; WANG Dong-sheng; ZHAO Xing-ru; GAO Li-rong

    2005-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are globally recognized pollutant, an understanding of their resources as by-products in chemical industry is poorly investigated. This paper presents data from a study that was conducted in order to determine the extent of PCBs in 1,4-dichlorobenzene(p-DCB) mothballs. Total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were detected in five mothball samples. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 328 ng/g to 1798 ng/g, while the levels of WHO-TEQ were between 0.16 pg/g and 13 pg/g. Mean concentrations of total PCBs and WHO-TEQ in the samples were 724 ng/g and 3.2 pg/g, respectively. The highest level of PCB congeners was that of trichlorinated biphenyls(537 ng/g), which maybe due to the relatively low chlorination in the process of p-DCB production. A mechanism of the formation of PCBs from polychlorinated benzene in the presence of chlorine is also suggested. The results suggested that re-estimation on the risk of p-DCB products, especially the products for daily use such as mothballs, is expected.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in harbor seal () livers from San Francisco Bay, California and Gulf of Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Park, June-Soo; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Kopec, Dianne; Petreas, Myrto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in marine mammals positioned at the top of the food chain is of toxicological concern. Stranded four pup and ten adult harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) livers were collected from San Francisco Bay and the Gulf of Maine and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). We used GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS to investigate the presence of 28 PCBs and 8 OH-PCB metabolites, respectively. ?28PCB concentrati...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  5. Assessment of field-related influences on polychlorinated biphenyl exposures and sorbent amendment using polychaete bioassays and passive sampler measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.; Oen, A.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Field-related influences on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure were evaluated by employing caged deposit-feeders, Neanthes arenaceodentata, along with polyoxymethylene (POM) samplers using parallel in situ and ex situ bioassays with homogenized untreated or activated carbon (AC) amended sediment. The AC amendment achieved a remedial efficiency in reducing bioaccumulation by 90% in the laboratory and by 44% in the field transplants. In situ measurements showed that PCB uptake by POM samplers was greater for POM placed in the surface sediment compared with the underlying AC amendment, suggesting that tidal exchange of surrounding material with similar PCB availability as untreated sediment was redeposited in the cages. Polychlorinated biphenyls bioaccumulation with caged polychaetes from untreated sediment was half as large under field conditions compared with laboratory conditions. A biodynamic model was used to confirm and quantify the different processes that could have influenced these results. Three factors appeared most influential in the bioassays: AC amendment significantly reduces bioavailability under laboratory and field conditions; sediment deposition within test cages in the field partially masks the remedial benefit of underlying AC-amended sediment; and deposit-feeders exhibit less PCB uptake from untreated sediment when feeding is reduced. Ex situ and in situ experiments inevitably show some differences that are associated with measurement methods and effects of the environment. Parallel ex situ and in situ bioassays, passive sampler measurements, and quantifying important processes with a model can tease apart these field influences. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution.

  7. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, S.; Goda, Y.; Hirobe, M. [Japan EnvironChemicals Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tomita, J.; Nishikiori, M.; Nakajima, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Rubio, F. [Abraxis LLC, Warminster, PA (United States); Takigami, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakai, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Ike, M.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a newly developed cocktail polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed as a pretreatment method for determining levels of PCBs in insulating oils. Standard and pretreated PCBs were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mixed. The diluted mixture was then combined with a horseradish peroxidase conjugate combined with an anti-PCB antibody coupled with magnetic particles. A comparison of the method with standard ELISA processes indicated that the cocktail showed that cross reactivity patterns were improved. Twenty-six insulating oil samples contaminated with PCBs were then analyzed using the method. Values obtained using the cocktail method correlated with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) analyses conducted on the same samples. It was concluded that the cocktail ELISA technique is a reliable and simple analytical method for determining PCBs in insulating oils. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  8. Fluorescence characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in cyclodextrin media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femia, R.A.; Scypinski, S.; Love, L.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The fluorescence characteristics of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-cyclodextrin (CD) are discussed and contrasted. The steric hindrance of PCBs imposed by the positions of the chlorine atoms on the rings determines the overall stability of the resulting inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin which is reflected in the fluorescence intensities. Less substituted homologues include into the CD cavity equally well in both cyclodextrins, but very heavily substituted molecules show drastic differences between their fluorescence intensities in the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-cyclodextrin solutions. This behavior can be employed as a method for spectral fractionation of PCB isomers. Spectral separation is demonstrated here for two variably substituted molecules, and the photophysical limitations of this approach are discussed.

  9. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  10. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally...

  11. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF...

  12. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  13. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...

  14. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); S. Patandin (Svati); G.A. Berbers; T.C.J. Sas (Theo); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to P

  15. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN HOUSE DUST AND YARD SOIL NEAR A SUPERFUND SITE. (R825173)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust and yard soil at 34 homes surrounding New Bedford Harbor during dredging of highly contaminated harbor sediments. PCBs can volatilize from sediments and seawater and subsequently deposit on surrounding soil, resulting i...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal from the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, October 1984 and 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the removal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during October 1984 and 1985. Atlantic Ritchfield...

  17. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  18. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a scr

  19. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Fung-Chi, E-mail: ko@nmmba.gov.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Institute of Marine Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Baker, Joel E. [The Center for Urban Waters, University of Washington, Tacoma, WA 98402 (United States); Tew, Kwee S. [National Dong Hwa University, Institute of Marine Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k{sub u}) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K{sub ow}, and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  20. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E; Tew, Kwee S

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k(u)) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K(ow), and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  2. Accumulation and efflux of polychlorinated biphenyls in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shen; Fang, Jun; Turner, Kendrick B; Daunert, Sylvia; Wei, Yinan

    2012-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that have been associated with numerous adverse health effects in human and animals. Hydroxylated PCBs (HPCBs) are the product of the oxidative metabolism of PCBs. The presence of hydroxyl groups in HPCBs makes these compounds more hydrophilic than the parent PCBs. One of the best approaches to break down and remove these contaminants is bioremediation; an environmentally friendly process that uses microorganisms to degrade hazardous chemicals into non-toxic ones. In this study, we investigated the cellular accumulation and toxicity of selected PCBs and HPCBs in Gram-negative bacteria, using Escherichia coli as a model organism. We found that none of the five PCBs tested were toxic to E. coli, presumably due to their limited bioavailability. Nevertheless, different HPCBs tested showed different levels of toxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the primary multidrug efflux system in E. coli, AcrAB-TolC, facilitated the efflux of HPCBs out of the cell. Since AcrAB-TolC is constitutively expressed in E. coli and is conserved in all sequenced Gram-negative bacterial genomes, our results suggest that the efflux activities of multidrug resistant pumps may affect the accumulation and degradation of PCBs in Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. Toxicity mechanisms and interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, are widespread environmental contaminants as a result of anthropogenic activities and due to their persistency and resistance to degradation. Both groups of chemicals are placed on the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, covered by the Stockholm convention which is aimed to limit or ban the production, use, emission, import and export of POPs in order to protect human health and the environment. Taking into account the structural similarity between PCBs and PBDEs, and the known effects of PCBs, these two groups of chemicals could have similar mechanisms of action. Also, because of real simultaneous exposure to these compounds, an examination of possible interactions is of great importance. Interactions of the compounds from these groups are likely at the system level of hormones, particularly thyroid and reproductive ones. As there are mechanisms of adverse effects of both groups of chemicals on the nervous system, including functional, neurological and behavioral changes, there are influences on neurotransmiters, changes in signal transduction and apoptosis. There are interactions affecting the occurrence of metabolic disorders as well. Data on the toxicity of mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs, as well as interactions of these chemicals would contribute to the processes of risk evaluation and risk characterisation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  5. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantunen, A.P.K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O. [University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped for coal, to which sorption was stronger and more nonlinear. The isotherms were modeled using seven sorption models, including Freundlich, (dual) Langmuir, and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes (PDM). PDM provided the best combination of reliability and mechanistically-interpretable parameters. The PDM normalizing factor Z appeared to correlate negatively with sorbate molecular volume, dependent on the degree of molecular planarity. The modeling results supported the hypothesis that maximum adsorption capacities (Q{sub max}) correlate positively with the sorbent's specific surface area. Q{sub max} did not decrease with increasing sorbate molecular size, and adsorption affinities clearly differed between the sorbents. Sorption was consistently stronger but not less linear for planar than for nonplanar PCBs, suggesting surface rather than pore sorption.

  6. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pemission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  7. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation.

  8. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Tae Seung

    2006-10-11

    Using Korean waste official method, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed from 33 transformer oils collected under National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Republic of Korea (ROK) and their emission rate in Korea was estimated. Practical quantification limits analyzed by this method were in the ranges of 0.02 and 0.05 mg L(-1), and recovery of samples was in the ranges of 77-97%. The analytical results showed that PCBs in the transformer oils were identified as Aroclor 1242, 1254 or 1260. Twenty-nine samples were determined to contain PCBs of >0.05 mg L(-1) and among these samples, nine samples contained to have >2 mg kg(-1) which is limit of Waste Control Act (WCA) with regard to PCBs in transformer oil from Korea. The concentrations of PCBs in transformer oils were between N.D. (not detected) and 48.33 mg kg(-1). PCBs concentrations did not exceed 50 mg kg(-1) which is generally accepted limit for the definition of waste in POPs Guideline of Basel Convention.

  9. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.

  10. Trends in the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Nakano, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    For the precise estimation of the risk to human health caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), it is important to discuss enantiomer fraction value (EF value) because it is reported that behaviors such as stability and toxicity of enantiomers are quite different in human body. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is known as one of the most persistent compounds in human breast milk samples. The main exposure source of PCB for human body is mostly from food especially in seafood. The contamination of fish and shellfish has been a serious problem for the Japanese, who consume a large amount of fish in their diet. PCBs have 19 congeners which are chlorine-substituted in 3- or 4- ortho positions are known to have enantiomers. In this study, we analyzed PCB 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta CB) in human breast milk and fish samples enantioselectively and revealed the time trends of the EF value. Though EF value of PCB 183 in fish samples sustained close to racemate (EF = 0.5) from 1982 to 2012, that in breast milk increased over time. This fact indicates that (+)-PCB-183 has greater bioaccumulation potential than (-)-PCB-183 in human body; therefore, the toxicity of (+)-PCB-183 should be emphasized.

  11. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  12. Plasma Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and Causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons that have extensively polluted the environment and bioaccumulated in the food chain. PCBs have been deemed to be probable carcinogens by the Environmental Protection Agency, and exposure to high levels of PCBs has been consistently linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL. In the present article we present a forensic epidemiologic evaluation of the causal relationship between NHL and elevated PCB levels via application of the Bradford-Hill criteria. Included in the evaluation is a meta-analysis of the results of previously published case-control studies in order to assess the strength of association between NHL and PCBs, resulting in an odds ratio in which the lowest percentile PCB concentration (quartile, quintile, or tertile has been compared with the highest percentile concentration in the study groups. The weight-adjusted odds ratio for all PCB congeners was 1.43 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.31 to 1.55, indicating a statistically significant causal association with NHL. Because of the lack of an unexposed comparison group, a rationale for the use of a less than 2.0 relative risk causal contribution threshold is presented herein, including an ecologic analysis of NHL incidence and PCB accumulation (as measured by sales volume over time. The overall results presented here indicate a strong general causal association between NHL and PCB exposure.

  13. Spatial trends of organochlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Atlantic Anguillid eels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Jonathan D; Lebeuf, Michel; Alaee, Mehran; Stephen, Brown R; Trottier, Steve; Backus, Sean; Keir, Michael; Couillard, Catherine M; Casselman, John; Hodson, Peter V

    2013-02-01

    The bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can result in a reduction in fitness and spawner quality in eels and may be a factor in Anguillid sp. population declines. Contaminant concentrations in eels have been studied extensively in Europe, but data for American eels are severely lacking. Concentrations of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs were determined in American eel from eastern Canada and New York, USA, along with European eel from Belgium. Principal component analysis revealed that eels captured in the St. Lawrence estuary were a mixture of upstream migrants from the St. Lawrence River watershed, and fish captured in local tributaries. Contaminant concentrations were dependent on origin, related to the local environment, and were lower than historic values. In Canada, concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in eel tissues were below the Canadian human consumption guidelines for contaminants in fish, indicating that the current risk to consumers is low. However, concentrations of PCBs, total DDT, and mirex in eels from L. Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence R. were above Great Lakes guidelines for the protection of piscivorous predators. Concentrations of penta-BDE homologs exceeded the Canadian guideline for environmental quality in over half of the eels in this study, but concentrations of the other homolog groups were below the guideline.

  14. Factors influencing combined exposure to three indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in an adult cohort from Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola, J P; Mutch, E; Cuellar, M; Quevedo, M; Claure, E; Mejía, L M; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Freire, C; Olea, N; Mercado, L A

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that have been used for decades in several industrial applications. Although production of polychlorinated biphenyls was restricted from the 1970s in most countries, substantial amounts remain in old equipment and buildings and they have been detected in various environmental and biological matrices. The main objective of this study was to analyze predictors of the combined exposure to three non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners 138, 153 and 180) in serum and adipose tissue from an adult cohort (n=112) living in the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia) and surrounding towns/villages. A second aim was to identify modifiers that might influence the statistical associations found, using crude, partially-adjusted, and global multiple linear regression models. Main predictors of serum concentrations were occupation and fatty food consumption, while those for adipose tissue concentrations included age, smoking habit, fatty food consumption, and residence. The differences between the two matrices might be derived from their biological meaning, given that adipose tissue concentrations are an indicator of chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls while serum levels are a good predictor of ongoing exposure and the mobilization of polychlorinated biphenyls stored in fatty tissues. Body mass index was found to be an important modifier of these associations.

  15. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  16. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  18. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  19. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  20. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-08

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  1. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  2. Seasonal variation of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarh, Jonathan N.; Seike, Nobuyasu; Kobara, Yuso; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the seasonality of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Japan. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed simultaneously at 55 sites in spring 2008, summer 2008 and winter 2008/09. Sampler deployment spanned 8 continuous weeks in each season. The non-outlier ranges of the two pollutants (ng/sample) were as follows; ∑190PCBs: 6.5-38.6 (spring), 43.5-220.5 (summer) and 25.9-136 (winter); and ∑63PCNs: 0.4-3.9 (spring), 0.7-7.1 (summer) and 1.1-9.2 (winter). The corresponding values in air were ∑190PCBs (pg m-3): 33-197 (spring), 222-1125 (summer) and 132-694 (winter); and ∑63PCNs (pg m-3): 2.2-20 (spring), 3.5-36 (summer) and 5.7-47 (winter), when sampling rate of 3.5 m3 day-1 was assumed. Thus, the PCBs peaked in summer, while the PCNs mostly peaked in winter; there was an apparent contrast in their seasonality in Japan. For the PCNs, seasonal variability was significant at rural than urban sites. Normally, POPs would show relatively increased air content in summer due to vaporization effect. The PCNs appeared to deviate from such a trend because of overriding input of tri-CNs presumably transported from long range by northwesterly winds in the winter season. The dioxin-like fractions of either pollutant were reduced in winter by about 30-50%.

  3. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  4. Structural characterization of Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 biphenyl dioxygenase reveals features of potent polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Colbert

    Full Text Available The oxidative degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is initiated in Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 by biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO(B356. BPDO(B356, a heterohexameric (αβ(3 Rieske oxygenase (RO, catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen with stereo- and regioselectivity at the 2,3-carbons of biphenyl, and can transform a broad spectrum of PCB congeners. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of BPDO(B356 with and without its substrate biphenyl 1.6-Å resolution for both structures. In both cases, the Fe(II has five ligands in a square pyramidal configuration: H233 Nε2, H239 Nε2, D386 Oδ1 and Oδ2, and a single water molecule. Analysis of the active sites of BPDO(B356 and related ROs revealed structural features that likely contribute to the superior PCB-degrading ability of certain BPDOs. First, the active site cavity readily accommodates biphenyl with minimal conformational rearrangement. Second, M231 was predicted to sterically interfere with binding of some PCBs, and substitution of this residue yielded variants that transform 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl more effectively. Third, in addition to the volume and shape of the active site, residues at the active site entrance also apparently influence substrate preference. Finally, comparison of the conformation of the active site entrance loop among ROs provides a basis for a structure-based classification consistent with a phylogeny derived from amino acid sequence alignments.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsibl

  6. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  7. Dermal toxicity studies of technical polychlorinated biphenyls and fractions thereof in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Beems, R.B.

    1971-01-01

    A significant difference in toxicity between 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) preparations was found in a prior study: Clophen A 60 and Phenoclor DP6 showing the highest, Aroclor 1260 the lowest, toxicity (Vos and Koeman, 1970). A subsequent study revealed the presence of tetra- and pentachlorodiben

  8. EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AND DIOXINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAUER, PJJ; HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; MORSE, DC; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; VANDEBERG, KJ; TUINSTRA, LGMT; VANDERPAAUW, CG; BOERSMA, ER; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; LAMMERS, JHCM; KULIG, BM; BROUWER, A

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are potentially toxic compounds which occur widely in the environment. Their effects on the growth and development of infants at the levels currently found in highly industrialised western countries is not well known. This Dutch multicenter study, combini

  9. ESTIMATION OF GIBBS FREE-ENERGIES OF FORMATION FOR POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLMES, DA; HARRISON, BK; DOLFING, J

    1993-01-01

    Gibbs free energies of formation for gas, subcooled liquid, and aqueous solution phases were estimated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners at 298.15 K and 100 000 Pa. A literature search was conducted to locate experimental data or predicted data for PCBs. Where other data were not

  10. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Patandin, S; Berbers, GAM; Sas, TCJ; Mulder, PGH; Sauer, PJJ; Hooijkaas, H

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with the pre

  11. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos. 118

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie;

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic...

  14. A method for the chemical modification of polychlorinated biphenyls for improved affinity towards noble metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for the modification and analysis of a field sample suspected of containing contaminant(s) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The invention also relates to a corresponding kit for the modification of samples suspected of containing such contaminant(s)....

  15. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  16. Assessing the Global and Arctic Transport of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Under Present and Future Climate and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, C. L.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We simulate the present and potential future atmospheric transport and fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), using the global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. PCBs are toxic, persistent, and bioaccumulative chemicals whose production and use have been banned internationally. PCBs continue to cycle through the global atmosphere, however, because of their persistence, passive emissions from remaining stocks, and release from natural storage reservoirs such as oceans or soils. In particular, PCBs have been shown to transport long distances in the atmosphere to locations remote from emissions, such as the Arctic, where they can accumulate in wildlife and humans, putting health at risk. Previous studies have suggested that PCBs may be remobilized in a changing climate because higher temperatures will cause greater re-emissions from surface reservoirs. Here, we modify GEOS-Chem to simulate atmospheric PCB transport and investigate the relative effects of predicted climate changes and projected declines in primary emissions, especially on transport to the Arctic. We quantify changes in atmospheric concentrations of two PCBs (CB28 and CB 153) under 2050 climate ("FC"); 2050 emissions ("FE"); and 2050 climate and emissions combined ("FCFE"); relative to a 2000 climate, 2000 emissions control scenario, and determine the major processes affecting these changes. In the version of the model presented here, only soil-atmosphere surface interactions are considered, though future versions will include interaction with other surface media. Our results suggest projected 2050 emissions will play a stronger role than 2050 climate in controlling PCB concentrations of different volatilities. Temperature increases under FC cause increases in emissions of only 4% at most, resulting in negligible concentration changes relative to the FE scenario, in which primary emissions are projected to decline to <0.05% of present-day. Thus, the concentrations in the combined FCFE scenario are

  17. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  18. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  19. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different...

  20. Atmospheric Bulk Deposition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Korhonen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs was studied during the period 2006–2008 in northern Finland (Pallas, 1998–2008 in southern Finland (Evo and 2002–2004 in the Gulf of Finland archipelago (Utö. Retrospective snow samples were taken from the whole snowbank in Evo in 2003 and 2004, and recently fallen snow was collected in Evo in 2006–2008. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the depositions were usually small. The limit of quantification (LOQ was often reached in Pallas and Utö. The analysis results of PCDD/F and PCB congeners from Evo were used to predict numerical results with linear regression for those congeners with results below LOQ. The deposition of PCDD/Fs in Pallas was mostly less than 0.4 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ and less than 1.0 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ and 0.5 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ in Evo and Utö, respectively. The deposition of co-planar PCBs (cPCBs was between 0.01 and 0.1 pg·m−2·day−1 WHO-TEQ. Annual PCDD/F deposition, calculated from the amount of collected rain and chemical analysis results, varied in Pallas between 0.04 and 0.15 ng·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ, in Evo between 0.11 and 0.22 ng·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ and in Utö between 50 and 145 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ. For cPCBs the annual deposition in Pallas was 2–11 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ, in Evo 6–17 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ and in Utö 4–8 pg·m−2·year−1 WHO-TEQ. Wind directions are considered to be the main reason for the variation between seasons. Congener 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD dominated in Pallas, Evo, and Utö, being 35%, 48%, and 47% of the overall WHO-TEQ, followed by 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (about 10%. The calculated pg/L concentrations of 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD were about the same level as 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, but the TEF  correlations being twice as big ensured that all WHO-TEQ contributions were bigger. PCB126 accounted for 30% of WHO-TEQ in Pallas, whereas in Evo

  1. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Bogatzki, Corinna; Hiester, Ernst

    2016-10-14

    During this study a high throughout selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil. To that end, extraction rates of PCBs from soil utilizing different extraction solvents and different extraction temperatures were investigated whereas extraction rates were comparable for toluene, n-hexane and dichloromethane (extraction conditions for all utilized solvents: 33mL PLE extraction cell, extraction temperature: 110°C, static extraction time: 5min, flush volume: 60%, purge 90s). Ratios of native PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs congener concentrations after Soxhlet and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) showed that SPLE is an alternative sample preparation step for the simultaneous determination of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil. Additional clean-up steps for the separation of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs utilizing alumina were performed in order to avoid interferences between the component classes.

  2. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: a novel and robust isolated biphenyl- and polychlorinated biphenyls-degrading bacterium without dead-end intermediates accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Hu

    Full Text Available Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs. Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri- PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L -1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments.

  3. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats.

  4. Food contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Belgium. Effects on the body burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Larebeke, N; Covaci, A; Schepens, P; Hens, L

    2002-11-01

    The core paper of this debate shows that persistent organic pollutant residues of the 12 chemicals targeted for a phase out under the Stockholm Convention are present in almost all categories of food in the US food supply. For dioxins, the study does not use measured data, but is based upon potential dioxin residues in selected food items. Polychlorinated biphenyls are not included in the study. In this paper we discuss selected data of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin concentrations in Belgian food. Some of these exposures are chronic, others are attributable to incidents. Both result in high body burdens in Belgium. The paper also compares the current concentrations in food with the recent standards launched by the EU for dioxins in food, and discusses whether these values adequately protect European citizens.

  5. Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Estrogenic Activity in Human Male Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Plíšková, Martina; Vondráček, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jiřií; Kočan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomáš; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighbo...

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1986-04-01

    Entirely as a result of human activities, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are now distributed worldwide, with measurable concentrations recorded in fishery and wildlife resources from numerous and disparate locations. PCBs elicit a variety of biologic effects including death, birth defects, tumors, and a wasting syndrome. The account summarizes the recent technical literature on the environmental chemistry of PCBs, lists PCB background concentrations in fish, wildlife, and invertebrates; documents their toxic and sublethal properties; and reviews and provides recommendations for the protection of sensitive species.

  7. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  8. Congener specific distribution and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupander Kumar; Sanjay Kumar; Chandra Shekhar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were primarily used in transformers and capacitors, lubricants, flame retardants, plasticizers, paint, carbonless papers, etc. These are capable of long-range atmospheric transport and have been designated as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention. Due to their characteristic properties, PCBs are found worldwide in all environmental matrices (including human) and biota. Soils are usually considered to be the source as well as sink for enviro...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  10. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Shuai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province, northern (Shanxi Province and eastern China (Shanghai municipality. From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China.

  11. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  12. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood collected from 195 pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Hori, Tsuguhide; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2007-10-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in blood collected between 2002 and 2004 from 195 pregnant women living in Sapporo City of Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in the blood of pregnant women. Of the 195 pregnant women, 101 were primipara (mean: 28.8 years) and 94 were multipara (mean: 32.4 years). The arithmetic mean total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs of primiparous and multiparous mothers in Sapporo City were 17.4 (median: 15.7) and 14.0 (median: 13.9)pgTEQ/glipid, respectively, and the concentrations were in the range of 6.6-43.4 and 3.4-28.2pgTEQ/glipid, respectively. In regard to the relationship between the total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in maternal blood and the number of deliveries or age of primiparous and multiparius mothers, the levels of these dioxin-like compounds tended to decrease with increases in the number of deliveries and significantly increased with increasing maternal age in both groups. Furthermore, significant correlations were observed between the total TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds and the age of primiparae and multiparae. The total TEQ concentration of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs measured in 195 pregnant women has decreased compared to past levels in Japan for the last several decades. The results of the present study have indicated that dioxin contamination in the blood of young women in Japan is continuing to decrease.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Jeffrey E; Fellers, Gary M; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-10-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas sigma toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  14. Differential bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls associated with environmental particles: Microplastic in comparison to wood, coal and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckingham, B; Ghosh, U

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic particles are increasingly being discovered in diverse habitats and a host of species are found to ingest them. Since plastics are known to sorb hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) there is a question of what risk of chemical exposure is posed to aquatic biota from microplastic-associated contaminants. We investigate bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from polypropylene microplastic by measuring solid-water distribution coefficients, gut fluid solubilization, and bioaccumulation using sediment invertebrate worms as a test system. Microplastic-associated PCBs are placed in a differential bioavailability framework by comparing the results to several other natural and anthrogenic particles, including wood, coal, and biochar. PCB distribution coefficients for polypropylene were higher than natural organic materials like wood, but in the range of lipids and sediment organic carbon, and smaller than black carbons like coal and biochars. Gut fluid solubilization potential increased in the order: coal bioavailability and transfer of HOCs to sediment-ingesting organisms. Since the vast majority of sediment and suspended particles in the environment are natural organic and inorganic materials, pollutant transfer through particle ingestion will be dominated by these particles and not microplastics. Therefore, these results support the conclusion that in most cases the transfer of organic pollutants to aquatic organisms from microplastic in the diet is likely a small contribution compared to other natural pathways of exposure.

  15. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorocyclohexanes in sediments and fish species from the Napoleon Gulf of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Wang, Pu; Sojinu, Samuel O; Otieno, Peter O; Zhu, Nali; Zhu, Chaofei; Zhang, Haidong; Shang, Hongtao; Ren, Daiwei; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in surface sediments (Napoleon Gulf on the northern shore of Lake Victoria. The analysis was done using a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer for PCBs and a GC equipped with an electron capture detector for HCHs. Total (Σ) PCBs in the muscles of fish varied widely with mean values ranging from 41 to 670 pg g(-1) lipid weight (lw). The PCB levels in L. niloticus were significantly greater than those in O. niloticus. The large variability observed in the data was attributed to differences in feeding habits and trophic levels. While O. niloticus is a filter-eating fish species feeding mainly on phytoplankton and zooplankton, L. niloticus have predatory feeding behaviors and prefer a diet of live fish and, therefore, are more prone to bio-accumulate contaminants. The mean PCB concentrations in the sediments varied from 362 to 848 pg g(-1) dry weight. Variations in PCB levels were observed from one study site to another, this was attributed to the nature and particle size of the sediments. HCH isomers were detected in fish at mean concentrations of up to 45,900 pg g(-1) lw. The PCB and HCH concentrations were lower than those from previous studies elsewhere in literature and were below the maximum residue limits set by the European Commission and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, implying that the fish was fit for human consumption.

  17. Separation and enrichment of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls from real waters using a novel magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabin; Gan, Ning; Pan, Muyun; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen; Long, Nengbing

    2015-03-01

    A novel and effective magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite for the separation and enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls was developed. Fe3 O4 @SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were first synthesized, then the poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) was laid on its surface to prepare the polyanionic magnetic nanoparticles. The above materials were then grafted with polycationic multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which were modified by polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride through the layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. Its performance was tested by magnetic solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. Under optimal conditions, the spiked recoveries of several real samples for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180) were in the range of 73.4-99.5% with relative standard deviations varying from 1.5 to 8.4%. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls were between 0.018 and 0.039 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze polychlorinated biphenyls in real water samples. Satisfactory results were obtained using the effective magnetic absorbent.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  19. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  20. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  1. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from pregnant women in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Onozuka, Daisuke; Sasaki, Seiko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Yoshioka, Eiji; Yuasa, Motoyuki; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-12-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and non-dioxin-like PCBs in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 67 secundiparas in Sapporo City, Japan, and combined this data with those of the 30 secundiparas previously measured. The arithmetic mean total toxic equivalents (TEQ-WHO) concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the 97 secundiparous subjects were 3.0-23 (mean: 13, median: 14) and 2.7-20 (mean: 8.6, median: 8.5) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The sums of the concentrations of 56 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners that were measured in the subjects' blood and breast milk were 16-326 (mean: 107, median: 100) and 12-252 (mean: 73, median: 67) ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The partitioning ratios of individual congeners of PCDDs, PCDFs, dioxin-like PCBs, and non-dioxin-like PCBs from blood to breast milk in secundiparas were almost the same as those of primiparas that have been recently reported, suggesting that the partitioning ratios of these compounds from maternal blood to breast milk in women is little affected by delivery. Furthermore, the partition of PCB congeners with chlorine at the 2-, 3-, 4'-, and 5-positions or the 2-, 4-, 4'-, and 5-positions of the biphenyl ring from the blood to the breast milk tended to occur at a higher level than that of other congeners. In particular, the levels of tetraCB-74 and hexaCB-146 in the breast milk for both primiparous and secundiparous mothers were slightly higher than those in the blood.

  2. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants.

  3. Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaohui; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important because oceans play a significant role in the cycling of POPs. The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia which are centers of e-waste recycling and the ship dismantling industry. In this study, shipboard air samples collected over the SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The levels of ∑12PCBs ranged from 32.3 to 167 pg m-3, with a mean value of 98.4 ± 36.0 pg m-3. Tetra-CBs were the predominant congeners. The concentrations of ∑18PCNs ranged from N.D. to 26.0 pg m-3, with a mean value of 10.5 ± 7.16 pg m-3, and tri-CNs were predominant. The gaseous concentrations of PCBs and PCNs over the SCS were consistent with those over other seas and oceans. Compared with previous studies, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs exhibited an obviously declining trend. The measured PCB and PCN concentrations in the atmosphere over the SCS were influenced by their proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest gaseous PCB and PCN concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to the continental South China. E-waste recycling, ship dismantling and combustion in South China and some Southeast Asian countries might contribute PCBs and PCNs to the atmosphere of the SCS.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively.

  5. Fractionation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and planar polychlorinated biphenyls by high performance liquid chromatography on a pyrenyl-silica column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Cored, M.; Pujadas, E.; Diaz-Ferrero, J. [Instituto Quimico de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Section of Chromatography, Institut Quimic de Sarria (Ramon Llull University), Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain); Coll, M.; Marti, R.; Rodriguez-Larena, M.C. [Instituto Quimico de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain); Broto-Puig, F.; Comellas, L. [Section of Chromatography, Institut Quimic de Sarria (Ramon Llull University), Via Augusta 390, E-08017 Barcelona (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Analytical procedures for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) require a fractionation step to separate PCDD/F from planar PCB and the bulk of PCB. An HPLC method which achieves the separation of the bulk of PCB (0-6 mL of hexane), mono-ortho PCB (6-8 mL of hexane), non-ortho PCB (8-15 mL of hexane) and PCDD/F (15-50 mL of toluene) on a PYE column (2-(1-pyrenyl) ethyldimethylsilylated silica gel) in a single step without the use of backflush as other authors proposed was developed. The method shows a good accuracy and precision and it is linear in the range studied, e.g from 5.8 to 2420 pg injected in HPLC for TCDD/F, from 28.8 to 12100 pg for PeCDD/F, HxCDD/F, HpCDD/F and from 57.6 to 24200 pg for OCDD/F. It has been successfully applied to the analysis of technical mixtures of PCB (Aroclors), a pine wood sample and several water samples of different origins. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs.

  6. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in cow's milk collected in Campania, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M; Cavallo, S; Serpe, F P; D'Ambrosio, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; Pellicanò, R; Baldi, L; Guarino, A; Serpe, L

    2009-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and certain dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are a family of chemically-related lipophilic compounds characterized by similar toxicity. Due to their properties they are universally distributed in the environment and classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). From most of studies carried out to evaluate human dietary intake, milk and dairy products result as a major contributors of PCDD/Fs uptake. Of course the main source of milk contamination is animal feeds. Lactating ruminants, cows included, transfer these compounds to the food chain by ingestion of contaminated vegetables or soil. Their resistance to degradation and a high lipophilicity means that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs may be accumulated into fat tissues from which they are transferred to milk during lactation period. Seventy-nine cows milk samples, collected in the monitoring plan 2008, were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Eleven milk samples were non-compliant corresponding to five breeding livestock located in Caserta province. The distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs congeners in these samples was examined in order to determine the likely sources of dioxins. The results show that the congener profile is characterized by a prevalence of PCDFs in respect of PCDDs, that represents the typical pattern of thermal origin contamination.

  7. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  8. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment.

  9. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway of higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The efficiency of anaerobic composting remediation of PCB-contaminated soil using pig manure was determined. The results show that the dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure is feasible. PCB concentration is the most critical factor. Elevated PCB concentrations can inhibit dechlorination but does not disrupt the anaerobic fermentation process. At 1 mg kg(-1) PCBs, the degradation rate of five or more chlorinated biphenyls is 43.8%. The highest dechlorination performance in this experiment was obtained when the soil-to-organic waste ratio, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, moisture content, and PCB concentration were 2:3, 20, 60%, and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  10. A practical approach to the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenhai; Xu, Jie; Zhao, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Liao, Shijian

    2005-08-01

    A practical and efficient disposal method for hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil is reported. Transformer oil containing PCBs was treated by nanometric sodium hydride (nano-NaH) and transition metal catalysts. High destruction and removal efficiency (89.8%) can be attained by nano-NaH alone under mild conditions. The process exhibits apparent characteristics of a first order reaction. The reductive ability of nano-NaH was enhanced by the addition of transition metal catalysts. In the presence of TiCl4, 99.9% PCBs was hydrodechlorinated. The complex reducing reagents, Ni(OAc)2+i-PrONa, show extra hydrodechlorinating activity for di-chlorinated biphenyls.

  11. Bioaccumulation Patterns Of PCBs In A Temperate, Freshwater Food Web And Their Relationshop To The Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism tropic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1...... analysis showed significant associations between 6beta-OHC/FC ratios and summation PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only....

  13. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ryan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs.

  14. Development and characterization of new polyclonal antibodies specific for three polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yu Chen; Hui Sheng Zhuang; Chun Zhou

    2009-01-01

    Three polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)congeners and their corresponding haptens bearing four carbon length carboxylic groups that can be linked to a protein for raising antibodies were synthesized.The three resultant immunogens were fabricated and used to stimulate immune responses in rabbits to survey the characteristics of the haptens.Three of the resultant polyclonal antibodies(Pabs)were obtained.The antiserum exhibited relatively high antibody titres(1:32-64)in double agar diffusion.◎2008 Hui Sheng Zhuang.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls and health risk assessment in Selangor River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobumitsu; Dayana, Emmy; Abu Bakar, Azizi; Yoneda, Minoru; Nik Sulaiman, Nik Meriam; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.

  16. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  17. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  18. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  19. Occurrence of polychlorinated naphthalenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and short-chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments from Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, P; Parera, J; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2008-02-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in marine sediment samples collected from the coastal area of Barcelona (Spain) and near of a submarine emissary coming from a waste water treatment plant located at the mouth of the Besòs River (Barcelona). An integrated sample treatment based on Soxhlet extraction followed by a simple clean-up with Florisil and graphitized carbon cartridge was employed. Gas chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode, were used for PCN and SCCP determinations, respectively, while for PCB analysis gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was used. The method developed provided low limits of detection (0.001-0.003 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for PCNs, 1.8 ng g(-1) for SCCPs and 0.006-0.014 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs) and good run-to-run precisions (lower than RSD 8%) for the analysis of sediment samples. Concentration levels ranging from 0.17 to 3.27 ng g(-1)dw for PCNs, between 0.21 and 1.17 microg g(-1)dw for SCCPs, and from 2.33 to 44.00 ng g(-1) (dw) for PCBs, were found in the coastal sediments, while for samples collected near to the submarine emissary higher levels (from 2.02 to 6.56 ng g(-1)dw for PCNs, between 1.25 and 2.09 microg g(-1)dw for SCCPs and from 22.34 to 37.74 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs) were obtained. The results obtained provide new data about the occurrence of PCN and SCCP in the coastal area of Barcelona.

  20. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  1. Photochemistry treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in dielectric fluid; Tratamiento fotoquimico de bifenilos policlorados en fluidos dielectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In this work a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) photodegradation in dielectric fluid have been done. The experiments has been carried out in a pilot scale photo rector with an ultraviolet light source. The results obtained showed a 92% elimination of PCB following a first kinetic order. In addition the photo reaction products have been identified. (Author) 6 refs.

  2. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  3. Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities and polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in shrews as biomarkers in environmental risk assessments: sensitivity and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (AROD) biomarkers are useful indicators of the exposure of organisms to dioxin-like compounds. In the current study, an in vivo validation of the use of such biomarkers in shrews was conducted. Furthermore, the use of changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) patterns as

  4. Kinetics and conductivity parameters of uptake and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Caco-2 intestinal cell line model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, W.J.; Govers, H.A.J.; Groten, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) over the food chain can be attributed to contaminant uptake from food. The effect of fatty acid absorption on net uptake and transport fluxes of a selection of 14 PCBs over the organismal gut epithelium has been determined in monolayers of

  5. Diffusion Coefficients of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Polydimethylsiloxane and Low-Density Polylethylene Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusina, T.; Smedes, F.; Klanova, J.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients (D) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by film-stacking technique in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and two types of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) (also known as silicone rubber, SR) with the trade names AlteSil (TM)

  6. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results. Medi

  7. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  8. Reproductive hormone profile and pubertal development in 14-year-old boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Grønlund, Ciea; Kjær, Ina M;

    2012-01-01

    Because polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause endocrine disruption, we examined 438 adolescent boys from a birth cohort in the Faroe Islands, where PCB exposures are elevated. We measured PCBs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cord blood and in serum from clinical...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...

  10. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites is Associated with Neurological Functioning in 3-Month-Old Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Sietske A.; Soechitram, Shalini D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether pre

  11. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  12. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oil samples by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavia, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Abad, E; Rivera, J; Galceran, M T

    2007-05-18

    Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (CG-MS-MS) has been evaluated for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in vegetable oil samples containing different concentration levels (0.2-6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) of the 29 toxic congeners of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCBs. The effect of potential interfering compounds such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs) on the quantification of mono-ortho PCBs has been investigated. In addition, the influence of the clean-up procedure on the final determination by CG-MS-MS was studied, showing that the quality of the results depends to a great extent on this analytical step. Quality parameters have been established and good precisions (CV: 3-19%) and low limits of detection for PCDD/Fs (0.04-0.20 pg g(-1) oil) and dl-PCBs (0.08-0.64 pg g(-1) oil) were obtained. The method was validated by a comparison of the CG-MS-MS results with those obtained by GC-HRMS.

  13. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  14. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. CONCLUSION: The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the

  15. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  17. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  18. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  19. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)); Storr-Hansen, E. (National Environmental Research Inst., Soeborg (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in fresh and canned fish from the Central Adriatic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipcić, D; Vukusić, J

    1991-01-01

    By using the GLC method, levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fresh and canned fish during the 1984-88 period. Forty-six samples of fish caught in the Central Adriatic's littoral, 11 of which in a control, non-industrialized area, and 35 in an urbanized area strongly affected by industry, were collected. Also, 101 samples of canned fish were tested for PCBs. The average PCB values were 0.059 mg kg-1 and 0.287 mg kg-1 in control and polluted areas, respectively; the mean value in canned fish was 0.194 mg kg-1. Although the levels of PCBs in control and industrialized areas were found to differ, the difference was not significant statistically.

  1. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J T F; Ward, J S; Schafer, M W; Stapleton, H M; Velinsky, D J

    2010-08-01

    Fish oil supplements have become a popular means of increasing one's dietary intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, there is growing concern that the levels and potential health effects of lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may diminish some of the health benefits associated with the daily consumption of fish oil supplements. In this study, ten over-the-counter fish oil supplements available in the United States were analysed for PCBs and PBDEs and daily exposures calculated. Based on manufacturers' recommended dosages, daily intakes of PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 5 to 686 ng day(-1) and from 1 to 13 ng day(-1), respectively. Daily consumption of fish oil supplements expose consumers to PCBs and PBDEs. However, in comparison with fish ingestion, fish supplements may decrease daily PCB exposure and provide a safer pathway for individuals seeking to maintain daily recommended levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Exposure to 27 polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor environment of a workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Ebbehøj, N E; Göen, T

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the exposure to a broad-spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) from the indoor environment through bio-monitoring of people working in a building with PCB-containing materials and elevated PCB levels in the indoor air. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing...... the plasma concentration of 27 PCB congeners in 15 people working in a PCB-contaminated building and 30 matched controls. RESULTS: Median concentration of eight low-chlorinated PCB congeners was significantly higher in the exposed than in the control group. The sum of median concentrations of tri + tetra......-chlorinated PCB was almost ten times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed, and sums of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCB were both relatively increased by 60 % in the exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: The occupational indoor environment may significantly add to PCB exposure, especially to the lower...

  3. Contamination of soil, leaves and vegetables by polychlorinated biphenyls in Xiamen region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MASKAOUI Khalid; ZHOU Jun-liang; HAN Ya-li; HU Zhong; ZHENG Tian-ling; HONG Hua-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The paper aimed to identify the primary of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in the diulong River Estuary, investigate the spatial distribution of PCBs contamination in the environment, localize the atmospheric source and evaluate ongoing PCBs emissions by analyzing soil samples collected along the Jiulong River region. In addition, the accumulation of PCBs in the human food chain was quantified by analyzing leaf of orange trees and vegetable samples collected along a gradient of soil/atmospheric contamination moving away from the source. Consequently, the impact on the human health and the ecosystem was quantified, different management options were proposedto reduce this impact and to carry out research on organic contaminants along the Jiulong River and Xiamen region.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  5. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels of Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.

  6. Rhizospere Redox Cycling and Implications for Rhizosphere Biotransformation of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggo, Richard E; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2013-08-01

    Theoretically, sequential cycles of dechlorination followed by aerobic bio-oxidation are desirable to achieve complete degradation of a mixture of higher and lower chlorinated PCBs. In this research, soil was artificially contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mixture and as single congeners, aged, and planted with two different plant species. Alternating redox cycles were created in the root zone of plants by flooding and draining the soil. Over 32 weeks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34) planted systems that were exposed to alternate cycles of flooding performed better in reducing parent PCBs than planted systems that were not cycled (p<0.05). The cycled systems also had a higher mass of PCB transformation products than the uncycled systems. Multiple cycles were necessary to achieve significant differences between the cycled and uncycled treatments.

  7. [Application prospect about bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated soil with immobilized microorganism technique: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jin-Xing; Su, Xiao-Mei; Han, Hui-Bo; Shen, Chao-Feng; Shi, Ji-Yan

    2014-06-01

    As one type of the persistent organic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are tremendously harmful to organisms. These compounds are easily absorbed onto soil particles and able to accumulate in soil after they are released into the environment. Bioremediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils has become a research hotspot in recent years, and immobilized microorganism technique has high developing and applying value because of its unique advantages in environmental remediation. This paper reviewed the chief remediation technology of PCBs-contaminated soils and then analyzed the characteristics of immobilized microorganism technique and its research progress in remediation of organic polluted soil. Finally, the feasibility and problems of this technique in remediation of PCBs-contaminated soil were also discussed.

  8. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  9. Prospects for using combined engineered bacterial enzymes and plant systems to rhizoremediate polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Michel

    2013-03-01

    The fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil is driven by a combination of interacting biological processes. Several investigations have brought evidence that the rhizosphere provides a remarkable ecological niche to enhance the PCB degradation process by rhizobacteria. The bacterial oxidative enzymes involved in PCB degradation have been investigated extensively and novel engineered enzymes exhibiting enhanced catalytic activities toward more persistent PCBs have been described. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that approaches involving processes based on plant-microbe associations are very promising to remediate PCB-contaminated sites. In this review emphasis will be placed on the current state of knowledge regarding the strategies that are proposed to engineer the enzymes of the PCB-degrading bacterial oxidative pathway and to design PCB-degrading plant-microbe systems to remediate PCB-contaminated soil.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and glucose metabolism in Danish children aged 9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Rossing, Laura I;

    2014-01-01

    and participants: A total of 771 healthy Danish third grade school children aged 8-10 years in the municipality of Odense were recruited in 1997 through a two-stage cluster sampling from 25 different schools stratified according to location and socioeconomic character; 509 (9.7±0.8 years, 53% girls) had adequate......Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings......-DDE. Conclusion: A strong inverse association between serum insulin and PCB exposure was found while fasting plasma glucose remained within the expected narrow range. Our findings suggest that PCB may not exert effect through decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, as seen in obese and low fit children...

  11. Chromatographic Retention Times of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: from Structural Information to Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea V. Diudea

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a unitary approach of the use of a Molecular DescriptorsFamily in structure-property/activity relationships, particularly in modelling thechromatographic retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls. Starting from molecularstructure, viewed as a graph, and considering the bonds and bond types, atom types andoften the 3D geometry of the molecule, a huge family of molecular descriptors called MDFwas calculated. A preliminary selection of MDF members was done by simple linearregression (LR against the measured property. The best fitted MDF subset is thensubmitted to multivariate linear regression (MLR analysis in order to find the best pairs ofMDF members that produce a reliable QSPR (Quantitative Structure-PropertyRelationship model. The predictive capability was finally tested by randomly splitting ofdata into training and test sets. The best obtained models are presented and the results arediscussed.

  12. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls in molluscs, hydrological characteristics and human pressures, within Basque estuaries (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; Larreta, J; Valencia, V

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured in the soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters, collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), are investigated. Samples were collected in the autumn, between 2002 and 2011. Sites located within the ports of Bilbao and Pasaia showed the highest PCBs concentrations in molluscs; the lowest were observed in the mouth of the Oka estuary, an area of low population and industrial activity. Congener profiles of PCBs in the tissues of molluscs reveal the predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (CB153 and CB138). In addition, redundancy analysis has shown that residence time, river flow and a 'pressure index' explain 57% of the variability in the PCB congener concentrations (the higher the values of these variables, the higher the concentration). Finally, Σ7PCB median concentrations in molluscs and sediments, collected from nearby sampling sites, were found to be moderately correlated (r(2)=0.513, p<0.01).

  13. Improved extraction procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls in solid samples with aqueous sodium hydroxide under autoclave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Y; Inouye, Y

    2000-03-01

    The efficacy of the extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from varnish-infiltrated insulating papers as a model of solid materials with an aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) by autoclaving at 121 degrees C for 30 min was compared with those for the conventional procedures, i.e., saponification with 1 N ethanolic NaOH in a boiling water bath for 60 min and extraction with benzene in a Soxhlet apparatus. The newly invented autoclaving method was found to be superior to the conventional ones, yielding approximately 5- to 6-fold cumulative PCB congeners without being accompanied by extended decomposition. Therefore, the autoclave-based sample treatment is recommended for more accurate determination of PCBs in the case of PCB-impregnated solid materials such as hardened oils and resin-coated or -infiltrated papers instead of being treated conventionally.

  14. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  15. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six...... temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius–Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = −H/RT + a0, where...... changes in steady-state air concentrations in relation to temperature, was tested. The model was valid for PCB-28, PCB-52 and PCB-101; the four other congeners were sporadic or non-detected. For each congener, the model described a large proportion (R2>94%) of the variation in indoor air PCB levels...

  16. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  17. Prediction of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity using in silico modelling: A case study of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vračko, M; Bobst, S

    2015-01-01

    In silico modelling is an important alternative method for the evaluation of properties of chemical compounds. Basically, two concepts are used in its applications: QSAR modelling for endpoint predictions, and grouping (categorization) of large groups of chemicals. In the presented report we address both of these concepts. As a case study we present the results on a set of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some of their metabolites. Their mutagenicity and carcinogenic potency were evaluated with CAESAR and T.E.S.T. models, which are freely available over the internet. We discuss the value and reliability of the predictions, the applicability domain of models and the ability to create prioritized groupings of PCBs as a category of chemicals.

  18. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Y.; Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K.; Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T.

    2014-10-01

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H+, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls removal from contaminated soils using a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit: implications for emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xue, Nandong; Ding, Qiong; Vogt, Rolf David; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Zhang, Shilei; Zhou, Dandan; Liu, Bo; Yan, Yunzhong

    2014-11-01

    An assessment in China of the application of a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit for the remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) demonstrated that it is well suited to remove PCBs from soils. A remarkable reduction of total PCBs in soils from 163-770 μg g(-1) to 0.08-0.15 μg g(-1) was achieved. This represented removal efficiencies of greater than 99.9% and an approximate 100% removal of the toxic equivalent of the PCBs. Furthermore, the emissions to the atmosphere from the unit were in compliance with current PCBs regulations. In conclusion, remediation of PCBs-contaminated soils based on a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit appears to be a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology that has huge implications for cleaning thousands of regionally dispersed sites of PCBs contamination in China.

  20. QSAR studies of bioconcentration factors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using DFT, PCS and CoMFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Hongxia; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2014-11-01

    The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 58 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were modeled by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) using density functional theory (DFT), the position of Cl substitution (PCS) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methods. All the models were robust and predictive, and especially, the best CoMFA model was significant with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.926, a cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)) of 0.821 and a root mean square error estimated (RMSE) of 0.235. The results indicate that the electrostatic descriptors play a more significant role in BCFs of PCBs. Additionally, a test set was used to compare the predictive ability of our models to others, and results show that our CoMFA model present the lowest RMSE. Thus, the models obtain in this work can be used to predict the BCFs of remaining 152 PCBs without available experimental values.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ≥ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...... PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased...

  2. Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu [National Cheng Kung Univ. Medical College, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Lambert, G.H. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  4. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S. (Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany))

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  5. Dermatological findings in capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to dielectric fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Wolff, M.S.; Bernstein, J.; Selikoff, I.J.; Thornton, J.

    1982-03-01

    Significant occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may occur in the manufacturing of capacitors and transformers, in which PCBs are used as electrical insulators. Reports of adverse health effects resulting from PCB exposure have come primarily from an incident resulting from the accidental ingestion of contaminated rice oil in Japan in 1968 (''Yusho''). Dermatological findings were prominent features and included pigmentation disturbances and chloracne. To evaluate the dermatological effects of long-term occupational exposure to PCBs, a cross-section clinical survey was conducted of 326 capacitor manufacturing workers. A high prevalence (37%) of dermatological abnormalities was found, but typical PCB-associated signs, such as chloracne, were less frequent than among patients with ''Yusho,'' despite high concentrations of plasma PCB. An association between dermatological signs and plasma levels of higher homologues of PCBs was suggested, but contaminants which have been reported to be present in commercial PCB mixtures (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) should be considered an etiologic factor or co-factor in the development of ''PCB-associated'' dermatological findings.

  6. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaka, Takashi; Hirakawa, Hironori; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Hori, Tsuguhide; Tobiishi, Kazuhiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kato, Shizue; Sasaki, Seiko; Nakajima, Sonomi; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sata, Fumihiro; Kishi, Reiko; Iida, Takao; Furue, Masutaka

    2008-07-01

    We measured the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (non-ortho PCBs), and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (mono-ortho PCBs) in paired samples of blood and breast milk collected from 60 mothers in Sapporo City, Hokkaido Prefecture, Japan. The present study is one of the few studies in which PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs have been measured in blood and breast milk collected from 60 same mothers. Of these 60 mothers, 30 were primipara (mean: 30.1 years, median: 28.0 years) and 30 were multipara (mean: 32.2 years, median: 32.5 years). The arithmetic mean TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of the primiparous mothers were 9.0, 3.3, 5.7, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, and 5.2, 2.2, 4.5, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, with the total TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds being 9.3-42.9 (mean: 18.4, median: 17.3) and 7.0-41.1 (mean: 12.3, median: 11.4) pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. In the case of multiparous mothers, the arithmetic mean TEQ concentrations of these dioxin-like compounds in blood and breast milk were 7.1, 2.7, 5.3, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, and 3.9, 1.7, 3.8, and 0.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively, with the total TEQ concentrations being 3.4-28.1 (mean: 15.5, median: 13.9) and 2.7-20.0 (mean: 9.8, median: 9.2)pg TEQ g(-1) lipid, respectively. The total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in blood and breast milk of primiparous mothers in Sapporo City appeared to be generally lower than those recently surveyed throughout the greater area of Japan. Significant correlations were observed between age and the total TEQ concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in the blood of primiparae and multiparae, and significant correlations were also observed between age and the total TEQ

  7. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2014-10-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil.

  8. Occurrence and congeners specific of polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from Southern Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; QIU Li-min; HE Jia; LIAO Yuan; LUO Yong-ming

    2007-01-01

    A total of 198 agricultural soil samples were collected from Zhangjiagang and Changshu in Southern Jiangsu for analysis of 13 polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)in order to assess the levels of pollution,sources,area distribution,and potential risk for the environment.All methods were rigorously tested and an adequate quality control was ensured.Only one site had no PCBs residues,and the highest total PCBs concentration in the surface soils was 32.83 ng/g.The average concentration in all the soil samples was 4.13ng/g.signaling low-level pollution.Tetra-,penta-,and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls were dominant speoes in soil samples,accounnng for more than 75%of ΣPCBs in the soil samples.PCB118 was the most abundant congener in all the samples.The PCB118 Was about 20%of ΣPCBs.The soil organic matter content showed only a weak correlation with the levels of all PCB congeners,in which a better correlation was noted for the more volatile lighter PCB congeners than for the heavier homologues.To a certain extent,the sources and land use seemed to influence the levels of PCBs.

  9. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  10. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in plasma of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the Western Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Magali; Pacepavicius, Grazina; Wells, Randall S; Fair, Patricia A; Letcher, Robert J; Alaee, Mehran; Bossart, Gregory D; Hohn, Aleta A; Sweeney, Jay; Solomon, Keith R; Muir, Derek C G

    2006-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated metabolic products (OH-PCBs) were measured in plasma collected from live-captured and released bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from five different locations in the Western Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico in 2003 and 2004. In 2004, the sum (sigma) of concentration of PCBs in plasma of dolphins sampled off Charleston, SC [geometric mean: 223 ng/g of wet weight (w.w.)] was significantly higher (pRiver Lagoon, FL (sigmaPCBs: 122 ng/g w.w.) and the Sarasota Bay, FL (sigmaPCBs: 111 ng/g w.w.). The PCB homolog profiles were similar among locations. Concentrations of OH-PCBs were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plasma of dolphins from Charleston, SC (sigmaOH-PCBs for 2003: 126 ng/g w.w.; 2004: 138 ng/g w.w.) than animals from Florida (sigmaOH-PCBs ranged from 6 to 47 ng/g w.w.) and Bermuda (8.3 ng/g w.w.); however, concentrations in the Charleston samples did not differ from animals captured in Delaware Bay, NJ (57 ng/g w.w.). The sigmaOH-PCBs constituted 2-68% of the total PCB concentrations in plasma. Dichloro- to nonachloro-OH-PCBs were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography mass spectrometry, but only around 20% of OH-PCBs could be identified by comparison to authentic standards. Results from this study show that OH-PCB are important environmental contaminants in dolphins and suggest that PCBs, decades after their ban, may still constitute a threat to wildlife.

  12. Separation of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with electron-capture detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Danielsson, C.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Haglund, P.; Boer, de J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2004-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) with electron-capture detection (ECD) has been optimized for the separation of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, with emphasis on the selection of th

  13. The Effect of Dietary Glycine on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would...

  14. Activity of alkaline and acidic phosphatase in glandular cells of uterine endometrium of puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Valocky I.; Krajničakova Maria; Legath J.; Lenhardt L.; Ostro A.; Danko J.; Tkačikova L`udmila; Mojžišova Jana; Fialkovičova Maria; Mardzinova Silvia

    2005-01-01

    The study is focused on the observation of alkaline and acidic phosphatase activity in the glandular cells of uterine endometrium in puerperal ewes after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls. Ewes of Slovak merino breed (n=25) divided into 2 groups were included in the experiment. The animals in the experimental group (n=14) and control group (n=11) were euthanised on day 17, 25 and 34 postpartum. The ewes in the experimental group were given per os capsules of the chemical preparation Delor...

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disturb Differentiation of Normal Human Neural Progenitor Cells: Clue for Involvement of Thyroid Hormone Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, Ellen; Cline, Jason E.; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S.; Abel, Josef

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental chemicals that accumulate in adipose tissues over the food chain. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that PCBs influence brain development. Children who are exposed to PCBs during development suffer from neuropsychologic deficits such as a lower full-scale IQ (intelligence quotient), reduced visual recognition memory, and attention and motor deficits. The mechanisms leading to these effects are not fully understood. It has been s...

  16. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  17. Liver function tests in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): comparison with Yusho and Yu-Cheng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.

    1985-05-01

    The results of liver function tests in a population manufacturing capacitors and transformers are presented. Two clinical field examinations were performed, one in 1976 when PCBs were still used in the manufacturing of the electrical equipment and one at the end of 1979, 2.5 years after discontinuation of PCBs use. A low prevalence of abnormal liver function tests was found and mean values for all tests were within normal laboratory ranges. At the initial examination, weak, but statistically significant correlations were found between log LDH and plasma levels of log HPCB (higher chlorinated congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls) and log TPCB (total polychlorinated biphenyls) among the female workers, while log el-GTP correlated significantly only with log HPCB among the male workers. A significant increase to abnormal levels of el-GTP was noted at the follow-up examination in both male and female workers, and preliminary results indicate significant correlations between el-GTP and serum levels of PCBs among the male workers. These findings are in accordance with previously reported data on populations occupationally exposed to PCBs, but differ from hepatic biochemistry findings in accidental poisonings due to ingestion of cooking oil contaminated with PCBs and related compounds, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs). Hence, the importance of considering the related compounds as etiologic factors in PCB poisoning is emphasized.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Leukocyte Telomere Length: An Analysis of NHANES 1999-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scinicariello, Franco; Buser, Melanie C

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc which has a role in cellular growth and proliferation programs. The c-myc up-regulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase which adds the telomeres repeating sequences to the chromosomal ends to compensate for the progressive loss of telomeric sequence. We performed multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in the adult population (n = 2413) of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. LTL was natural log-transformed and the results were re-transformed and presented as percent differences. Individuals in the 3rd and 4th quartiles of the sum of PCBs were associated with 8.33% (95% CI: 4.08-13.88) and 11.63% (95% CI: 6.18-17.35) longer LTLs, respectively, compared with the lowest quartile, with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p-trend < 0.01). The association of the sum PCBs with longer LTL was found in both sexes. Additionally, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were associated with longer LTL. The age independent association between longer LTL and environmental exposures to PCBs, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin may support a role as tumor promoter of these compounds. Further studies to evaluate the effect of these compounds on LTL are needed to more fully understand the implications of our finding.

  19. Field application of activated carbon amendment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ghosh, Upal; Kennedy, Alan J; Grossman, Adam; Ray, Gary; Tomaszewski, Jeanne E; Smithenry, Dennis W; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2009-05-15

    We report results on the first field-scale application of activated carbon (AC) amendment to contaminated sediment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The test was performed on a tidal mud flat at South Basin, adjacent to the former Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA. The major goals of the field study were to (1) assess scale up of the AC mixing technology using two available, large-scale devices, (2) validate the effectiveness of the AC amendment at the field scale, and (3) identify possible adverse effects of the remediation technology. Also, the test allowed comparison among monitoring tools, evaluation of longer-term effectiveness of AC amendment, and identification of field-related factors that confound the performance of in-situ biological assessments. Following background pretreatment measurements, we successfully incorporated AC into sediment to a nominal 30 cm depth during a single mixing event, as confirmed by total organic carbon and black carbon contents in the designated test plots. The measured AC dose averaged 2.0-3.2 wt% and varied depending on sampling locations and mixing equipment. AC amendment did not impact sediment resuspension or PCB release into the water column over the treatment plots, nor adversely impactthe existing macro benthic community composition, richness, or diversity. The PCB bioaccumulation in marine clams was reduced when exposed to sediment treated with 2% AC in comparison to the control plot Field-deployed semi permeable membrane devices and polyethylene devices showed about 50% reduction in PCB uptake in AC-treated sediment and similar reduction in estimated pore-water PCB concentration. This reduction was evident even after 13-month post-treatment with then 7 months of continuous exposure, indicating AC treatment efficacy was retained for an extended period. Aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations and PCB desorption showed an AC-dose response. Field-exposed AC after 18 months

  20. Microwave-assisted steam distillation for simple determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Takatsu, Akiko

    2003-03-15

    A novel sample extraction technique for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) analysis using microwave-heating device is developed. In this study, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and steam distillation techniques were combined. Desorption of the anatytes from solid matrixes was accelerated with water vapor which was generated by microwave irradiation. A sample holder in a commercial microwave extraction cell kept the sample from direct contact with the organic solvent for analytes trapping during the treatment process. Therefore, relatively clean extracts were obtained with small amount of solvents. Without any cleanup steps, the obtained extract could be analyzed with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometers (GC/MS). Six PCB congeners (PCB15, 28, 70, 101, 180, 194, 209) and three OCPs (gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD) in two marine sediment samples (a sediment collected from a bay of Kyusyu Island, Japan, and a certified reference material NIST SRM1944) were analyzed by using this microwave-assisted steam distillation (MASD) technique and another extraction method (exhaustive steam distillation, MAE, and Soxhlet extraction); and comparisons of the results are shown in this report. Although recovery yields of highly chlorinated biphenyls (PCB180, 194, 209) and relatively polar OCPs (gamma-HCH, 4,4'-DDD) were low (30-60%) compared with other analytes (PCB15, 28, 70, 101, 4,4'-DDE; recovery, 80-100%), use of isotope labeled internal standards for the MASD technique gave comparable results with the values obtained by other extraction methods and the certified values in the samples.

  1. Relative importance of polychlorinated naphthalenes compared to dioxins, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum from Korea: Contribution to TEQs and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyokeun; Kang, Jung-Ho; Baek, Song-Yee [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Seok, E-mail: yschang@postech.ac.k [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyojadong, Namgu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human have been studied extensively; however, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) have been studied less widely. The mean concentrations of PCNs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in 61 healthy human volunteers were 2170 pg/g lipid, 452 pg/g lipid, 116 pg/g lipid, and 120 ng/g lipid respectively, and the mean toxic equivalents (TEQs) contributed by PCNs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were 5.88, 5.22, 5.48, and 5.33 pg/g lipid, respectively. PCNs contributed to 26.8% of the total TEQs. 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB126, and hepta-CN-73 accounted for >62% of the total TEQs in the human serum samples. The overall serum PCN homologue profiles of all subjects were dominated by tetra- and penta-CN homologues, and the most predominant individual congener was hepta-CN-73, which contributed 17.5% of the total serum PCN concentration. Enrichment of hepta-CN-73 in the human serum samples might be due to contributors from combustion sources. - Hepta-CN-73 from combustion sources was the predominant and major toxic congener in human serum.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin concentrations in residential dust of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, A L; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Rogic, D; de Araujo, J; Crough, R; Mamahit, G; Piro, N; Yates, A; Stevenson, G; Odland, J Ø

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are well known for their persistence in the environment. PCBs can be found in the residential environment long after the use of these chemicals in domestic products and industrial processes has ceased. Dioxins have been assessed in Australia as being of very low concentrations. Despite concerns about residential dust as a source of human exposure to persistent chemicals, there has been limited testing of PCBs and dioxins in dust in Australia. As part of an assessment of maternal exposure to a variety of persistent toxic substances, we analysed 30 residential dust samples from a variety of geographical settings for their dioxin and PCB concentrations. PCBs were found in most samples, the median and range concentrations (pg g(-1)) of dominant congeners of PCB were as follows: PCB118 (315; PCB105 (130; 14.0-16 000) and PCB156 (440; PCB congener concentrations and dioxin isomers in multivariate regression analyses. No other housing or sociodemographic variables, including proximity to industry, were important predictors in multivariate linear regression models.

  3. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  4. Modeling the depuration rates of polychlorinated biphenyls in two mussel species with theoretical molecular descriptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using theoretical molecular descriptors as well as partial least squares(PLS) regression,two quantitative structure-activity relationship(QSAR) models were developed for depuration rate constants(kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in two species of mussels,Perna viridis and Dreissena polymorpha.The cross-validated Q2cum(an indicator of fitting of goodness) values for the two models are 0.501 and 0.756,and the standard deviation(SD) is 0.084 and 0.076,respectively.The achievement of satisfactory Q2cum and low SD values indicates good predictive ability and precision of the two models.The significant descriptors governing lgkd include polarizability(α),molecular volume(MV),molecular weight(Mw),molecular surface area(S),and total energy(TE).The key descriptors in the models reflect that van der Waals interactions play a dominant role in the depuration of PCBs.The depuration of PCBs in the two mussel species may be mainly attributed to the biota-water phase partitioning processes.

  5. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in foods from Catalonia, Spain: estimated dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llobet, Juan M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Teixidó, Angel; Casas, Conrad; Müller, Lutz

    2003-03-01

    From June to August 2000, food samples were randomly acquired in seven cities in Catalonia, Spain. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats. Levels of 11 PCB congeners (IUPAC 28, 52, 77, 101, 105, 118, 126, 138, 153, 169, and 180) were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. For toxic equivalent (TEQ) calculations, World Health Organization (WHO) toxicity equivalent factors (WHO-TEFs) were used. The highest levels of most congeners were found in fish and shellfish (11,864.18 ng/kg [wet weight]), and the next highest levels, which were substantially lower, were found in milk and dairy products (674.50 ng/kg [wet weight]). For the general population of Catalonia, the total dietary intake of PCBs was found to be 150.13 pg WHO-TEQ/day. The largest contribution to this intake came from fish and shellfish (82.87 pg WHO-TEQ/day) and dairy products (29.38 pg WHO-TEQ per day). A relatively large contribution was also noted for cereals (11.36 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Among the PCB congeners determined in this study, PCB 126 showed the largest contribution to total TEQ intake (50.56%). The data obtained in this study should be useful in risk assessment with regard to human PCB exposure through food in Catalonia.

  6. Remobilization of polychlorinated biphenyls from sediment and its consequences for their transport in river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gdaniec-Pietryka, Monika; Mechlińska, Agata; Wolska, Lidia; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2013-05-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the remobilization of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (iPCBs) from sediments and its results were applied to the real-world data for explaining the transport of PCBs in river. Seven PCB concentrations were determined in three series of model water-sediment systems (3 g of river sediment, three different volumes of distilled water (0.5, 0.25, and 0.15 ml), and 5 mg of biocide) after 11 days of incubation. Solid-phase extraction was used for separation of analytes from the aqueous phase and solvent extraction for isolation of analytes from the sediments, respectively. The extracts were analyzed for individual iPCB congeners using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. For each series of the experiment, the concentrations of PCBs in aqueous phase were similar. The average sediment/water partition coefficient value was 10(4) l/kg. The solubility of individual PCB congeners in water did not influence the desorption of PCBs from the sediment. Although the dominant form of PCBs in a water-sediment system occurs as suspended and colloidal fractions, these compounds are transported mostly in a dissolved form. Suspended and colloidal matter is a major sink for PCBs in low-energy aquatic environments. In contrast, the dissolved PCBs are readily transported in running waters. The mobilization of PCBs from sediments to aqueous phase, with respect to their solubility in water, seems to be limited, thus reducing the risk of secondary pollution.

  7. Levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish species from Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogrul, Ozlem; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul

    2005-07-01

    The levels of organohalogenated contaminants, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in four fish species (Acanthobrama marmid (kalashpa), Cyprinus carpio (carp), Chondrostoma regium (nose-carp), and Silurus glanis (wels)) from the Sir Dam Lake, Kahramanmaras, Turkey. These species were selected for their characteristic feeding behaviour and their importance to local human fish consumption. DDTs were the predominant organohalogenated contaminants in all species, with the p,p'-DDE contributing to more than 90% to the total DDTs. Other OCPs, such as hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordanes and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were found at much lower levels in all five species. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs (on wet weight basis) were lower than in similar species from European or American freshwater systems. PBDE data were measured for the first time in fish species from Turkish environment. Lipid-based concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs were higher in wels than in the other species and this was related to its piscivorous feeding mode and to its higher lipid content. Contrarily, concentrations of pollutants in nose-carp were the lowest, in agreement with its more herbivorous diet. A preferential accumulation in muscle compared to liver was observed for all OCPs, PCBs, and PBDEs in wels and carp, while in nose-carp, a preferential accumulation in liver was observed only for PBDEs, p,p'-DDT and PCBs. Racemic amounts for alpha-HCH were measured in all investigated muscle and liver samples, except for carp muscle.

  8. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  9. Hard cap espresso extraction-stir bar preconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallart-Mateu, Daniel; Pastor, Agustín; de la Guardia, Miguel; Armenta, Sergio; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2017-02-01

    A Nespresso(©) hard cap espresso machine has been employed for the quantitative extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sediments and soils. Sample extraction was performed from five grams of sample in less than 40 s, with 200 mL ethanol 40% (v/v) in water and PCBs were concentrated using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and determined by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS-MS). Eleven PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 80, 81, 101, 118, 138, 153,169, and 180) were determined in soils and sediments with limits of quantification in the 0.03-0.08 ng g(-1) range. Extraction efficiency was established by the analysis of soil samples spiked with the studied PCBs at concentrations from 0.1 to 10.0 ng g(-1), obtaining quantitative recoveries from 81 to 120% and an adequate precision with relative standard deviations lower than 20%. Certified reference materials and natural samples were analyzed by the proposed hard cap espresso extraction and results were compared with those provided by a reference procedure based on pressurized solvent extraction, obtaining statistically comparable results. Therefore, the use of a hard cap espresso machine in tandem with SBSE and TD-GC-MS-MS allowed a simple, sensitive and quantitative determination of PCBs.

  10. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  11. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation.

  12. Comparison of quadrupole and ion trap mass spectrometry for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, E.; DeVita, W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are often analyzed using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector (GC/ECD) because of the sensitivity of this detection technique toward this class of compounds. However, use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) can provide additional selectivity, thus minimizing the likelihood of false positive results from interfering compounds. GC/MS provides a higher degree of confidence in the identification of the chromatographic peaks, but is often limited, in comparison to GC/ECL, by its sensitivity. The two most common mass analyzers used are quadrupole and ion trap detectors. In this study the authors propose to document the capabilities of both quadrupole and ion trap analyzer for analysis of PCBs. They will compare and contrast the sensitivities and linear ranges for these compounds. Sensitivities will be assessed by signal-to-noise ratio comparisons. Linearity of the calibrated range will also be investigated through evaluation of the relative response factors versus concentration of PCB for a fixed concentration of internal standard. Estimations will be made of the appropriate linear ranges on the two instruments and comparisons made in both the full scan and selected ion modes.

  13. Increased deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under an AC high-voltage power line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öberg, Tomas; Peltola, Pasi

    2009-12-01

    There is considerable public concern regarding the potential risks to health of electromagnetic fields in general and high-voltage power lines in particular. As epidemiological findings are not supported by a clearly defined mechanism of direct magnetic field interactions with the human body, potential indirect effects are of interest. It has been suggested that an increased exposure to chemical pollutants could occur near high-voltage power lines due to formation and deposition of charged aerosols. The current study reports empirical evidence that seems to support this hypothesis. The deposition of 18 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied by collecting samples of pine needles under a 400 kV AC power line and at reference sites in the vicinity. Compared to the reference sites, the average deposition of PCB congeners under the power line was almost double. This difference between the two groups of samples was statistically significant. While it is premature to draw any conclusions regarding the human exposure near high-voltage power lines, the issue deserves attention and further investigations.

  14. [Source apportionment of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in soil of the modern Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Cui, Zhao-jie; Fan, Guo-lan; Xu, Hong-yu

    2007-12-01

    The concentrations of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in twenty two soil samples collected from modern Yellow River Delta were determined by dual capillary GC-ECD associated with GC-MS. Principle component analysis (PCA) was applied in analysing the dioxin-like PCBs data to obtain types, sources, percentages of source contribution and the congener composition of PCBs in the Delta on the congener level. The results indicated that four types of PCBs contamination sources affecting the PCBs distribution pattern were apportioned in the Delta. The first source was water runoff (non-point source), which was from the industrial production and use by the enterprises along the Yellow River, and it contributed 49.6% of the total contamination burden in the Delta, its dioxin-like PCBs profile was similar to native PCBs and Aroclorl221; the second and third types of PCBs sources were point sources, whose percentages of contribution were 15.0% and 10.1% respectively, the composition of the second source was similar to that of Aroclor1221 and Aroclor1242, the composition of the third source was similar to that of Aroclor1260; the fourth source is believed to be non-point source which was from the atmospheric dry and wet precipitation, it contributed 8.4%, its profile have similarity composition of the integration of Aroclor1242, Aroclor1248 and Aroclor1260.

  15. A review of the neurotoxicity of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegal, R. [Albany Univ., NY (United States). Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and School of Public Health

    2004-09-15

    It is perhaps both presumptuous and somewhat nostalgic for me to present research findings from both myself and others describing the changes in central nervous system (CNS) function that occur following exposure to non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the 2004 Dioxin meeting. Presumptuous because my presentation occurs during this meeting where the majority of the research is concerned with the consequences of exposure to dioxins (the most toxic substance produced by man) and nostalgic because, in 1992, I presented some of my earliest work demonstrating that non-dioxin-like PCBs were capable of significantly altering neurochemical function. Much has changed in the intervening twelve years. Laboratories in the United States and Europe now routinely study and describe the neurotoxicological effects of developmental and in vitro exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs. My task will be to briefly describe the highlights of that research and suggest additional approaches that will hopefully increase our ability to understand the mechanisms of action of non-dioxin-like PCBs on neuronal and behavioral function in populations of exposed humans.

  16. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in milk from an agroindustrial zone of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J Jesús; León, Salvador Vega Y; Gutiérrez, Rey; López, Yanet; Faure, Roberto; Escobar, Arturo

    2012-10-01

    The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are zones exposed to the exploration and exploitation of petroleum sources, and the products generated in agricultural zones may become contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) in milk from dairy production units near sources of environmental pollutants. It was confirmed that the seven congeners of nondioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) are present in milk where compounds PCB101, PCB118, PCB153 and PCB180 appear in 100% of the samples analyzed, the rank of concentration for the sum of the seven congeners fluctuating between 2.6 and 26 ng g(-1) with a median of 6 ng g(-1). None of the samples surpassed the provisional value established by the EU of 40 ng g(-1) of milk fat for the sum of the seven congeners, indicator that was not affected by the season of the year (p<0.05), whose median of 8.6 ng g(-1) and 6.3 ng g(-1) for rain and drought respectively. The concentrations of NDL-PCBs found in milk do not represent a problem for human health; however, they alert the existence of spontaneously generated, uncontrolled sources that may represent a potential danger for human and animal health.

  18. Modeling water column partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls to natural organic matter and black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Richard W; Di Toro, Dominic M; Farley, Kevin J; Phillips, Kathy L; Tomey, Cynthia

    2013-06-18

    High volume in situ surface water samples were collected from a tidal tributary of the Delaware Estuary using an Infiltrex sampling system equipped with a 1 μm particle filter and a XAD-2 resin column. Particulate and dissolved phase polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain detection levels in the femtograms per liter range. The data were fit to a four-phase equilibrium partitioning model including freely dissolved PCB, PCB bound to particulate organic carbon (POC), PCB bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and PCB bound to black carbon (BC). Isotherms were assumed to be linear for POC and DOC and nonlinear for BC. The partition coefficient between BC and dissolved PCB was assumed to depend on the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings. Following parameter optimization, the correlation coefficient between the log of the modeled and measured apparent distribution coefficient Kp,app was 0.94, and the RMSE was 0.189 log units. Including BC in the model reduces the dissolved PCB phase concentration in the water column for all congeners, especially for the non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted congeners.

  19. The uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases: quantitative structure-activity relationships for hydroxyl polychlorinated biphenyl substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Degao [Dalian University of Technology, Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian (China)

    2005-10-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), which relate the glucuronidation of hydroxyl polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) - catalyzed by the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) - to their physicochemical properties and molecular structural parameters, can be used to predict the rate constants and interpret the mechanism of glucuronidation. In this study, QSARs have been developed that use 23 semi-empirical calculated quantum chemical descriptors to predict the logarithms of the constants 1/K{sub m} and V{sub max}, related to enzyme kinetics. A partial least squares regression method was used to select the optimal set of descriptors to minimize the multicollinearity between the descriptors, as well as to maximize the cross-validated coefficient (Q{sup 2} {sub cum}) values. The key descriptors affecting log(1/K{sub m}) were E{sub lumo}- E{sub homo} (the energy gap between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the highest occupied molecular orbital) and q{sub C}{sup -} (the largest negative net atomic charge on a carbon atom), while the key descriptors affecting log V{sub max} were the polarizability {alpha}, the Connolly solvent-excluded volume (CSEV), and logP (the logarithm of the partition coefficient for octanol/water). From the results obtained it can be concluded that hydrophobic and electronic aspects of OH-PCBs are important in the glucuronidation of OH-PCBs. (orig.)

  20. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls onto biochars derived from corn straw and the effect of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Ren, Xinhao; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ling; Zhu, Hongkai; Xu, Jiayao

    2016-11-01

    The sorption of three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in single-solute and bi-solute systems in the presence of propranolol was studied on biochars at pyrolyzing temperatures of 200°C (BC200) and 700°C (BC700). Hydrophobicity and molecular planarity played a major role in PCB sorption onto BC200 and BC700, respectively. The steric hindrance caused by non-planarity made the strong specific sorption sites on BC700 less accessible to nonplanar PCBs. In bi-solute systems for BC200, propranolol monomers at an initial concentration (Cinit) of 0.8mg/L inhibited the sorption of PCB4 by competing for sorption sites. Propranolol at Cinit larger than 1.2mg/L could form hemimicelle structures on the biochar surface, providing a favorable phase for PCB4 partitioning, thereby increasing Koc up to 1.15 times. For BC700, propranolol prohibited PCB4 sorption mainly by pore-blocking, with the log Koc being reduced from 4.92 to 3.94. This study informs the application of biochar in mixture-contaminated environment.

  1. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Ny-(A)lesund of the Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Xindong; Wang Yanjie; Na Guangshui; Lin Zhongsheng; Zhou Chuanguang; Wang Zhen; Yao Ziwei

    2009-01-01

    Sediment, moss and animal-dropping samples were collected from pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Arctic area. OCPs and PCBs were analyzed using the capillary gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Recoveries of three surrogates were at a range of 69.5~92.2% (mean: 78.8%), 75.1~112.1% (98.5%) and 67.7~95.1% (79.5%), and the relative standard deviations were 6.7%, 8.0% and 11.3%, respectively. The major monomers of OCPs were hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs. Their concentrations were at a range of 0.86~4.50 ng/g (mean: 2.24 ng/g) and 0.22~1.09 ng/g (mean: 0.55 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs were 0.20~3.25 ng/g (mean: 0.84 ng/g) and the major congeners were tetra-, penta-, and hexa-PCBs, which were up to 23.8%、26.7% and 32.3% of total PCBs, respectively. Based on the results of the ratio analysis and the principal component analysis, the atmospheric transport is believed be one

  2. Immunoassay screening of sediment cores for polychlorinated biphenyls, Devil's Swamp Lake near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Devil?s Swamp Lake near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, constructed by dredging in 1973 in Devil?s Swamp along the Mississippi River, is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study investigated the possible historical contribution of PCBs from a hazardous-chemical disposal facility by way of a wastewater drainage ditch that operated from 1971 to 1993. Six sediment cores from the lake and three bottom-material samples from the drainage ditch were collected on October 5, 2004, and analyzed for PCBs using an immunoassay screening method. The results were used to evaluate qualitatively the historical input record of PCBs to the lake. Deposition dates in three of the cores were estimated by assuming that penetration of the push corer was stopped by firmer, pre-lake materials that mark the 1973 subsurface level of dredging. Sixty-one samples from five of the six cores and three bottom-material samples from the drainage ditch were analyzed. PCBs were at higher concentrations in ditch bottom material (about 1.1 to 2.2 milligrams per kilogram) than in cores from sites near where the ditch enters the lake (about 0.1 to 1.0 milligrams per kilogram). The highest concentrations of PCBs (maximum about 15 milligrams per kilogram) were detected in lake-bottom sediment about 350 meters west of where the drainage ditch enters the lake. Detection rates and median PCB concentrations were higher in all of the dated core sediments deposited before about 1990 than after 1990.

  3. Temporal Trends of Hexabromocyclododecane, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Ringed Seals from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Riget, Frank Farsø; Bossi, Rossana

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a signifi......Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed...... a significant log-linear (exponential) increase from 2.0 to 8.7 ng/g lipid weight (median concentrations) with an annual rate of þ6.1%. The concentrations were up to several orders of magnitude lower than those reported for marine mammals from industrialized areas. Previously presented time trends...... on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which...

  4. Assessment of atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using polyparameter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk-Sekulić Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of partial or total destruction of industrial plants, military targets, infrastructure, uncontrolled fires and explosions during the conflict period from 1991 to 1999, at the area of Western Balkans, were large amounts of hazardous organic matter that have been generated and emitted in the environment. In order to assess gas/particle partition of seven EPA polychlorinated biphenyls and sixteen EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, twenty air samples have been collected at six urban, industrial and highly contaminated localities in Vojvodina. Hi-Vol methodology has been used for collecting ambiental air samples, that simultaneously collects gaseous and particulate phase with polyurethane foam filters (PUF and glass fiber filters (GFF. PUF and GFF filters have been analyzed, and concentration levels of gaseous PCBs and PAHs molecules in gaseous and particulate phase were obtained, converted and expressed through fraction of individual compounds sorbed onto particulate phase of the sample, in total detected quantity. Experimentally gained gas/particle partitioning values of PCBs and PAHs molecules have been compared with PP-LFER model estimated values. Significant deviation has been noticed during comparative analysis of estimated polyparameter model values for complete set of seven PCBs congeners. Much better agreement of experimental and estimated values is for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially for molecules with four rings. These results are in a good correlation with literature data where polyparameter model has been used for predicting gas/particle partition of studied group of organic molecules.

  5. Tracking chiral polychlorinated biphenyl sources near a hazardous waste incinerator: fresh emissions or weathered revolatilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Brian J; Ross, Matthew S; Wong, Charles S

    2012-07-01

    The Swan Hills Treatment Centre (SHTC), located in central Alberta, is the primary facility in Canada for incinerating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Past studies have shown significant contamination by PCBs and other pollutants of the immediate surrounding region. However, it is unclear whether the major source of contamination to the region's atmosphere is historical release incidents or long-term emissions. To answer this question, concentrations of PCBs and enantiomer fractions of several PCB congeners were determined in soil and air, via polyurethane foam passive samplers, over several seasons between 2005 and 2008. Concentrations in both media were highest for samples collected closest to the SHTC, demonstrating a concentration profile typical of a point source. Enantiomer analysis revealed racemic profiles in air for all congeners, while soil was significantly nonracemic for PCB 95, indicating significant microbial degradation of this congener. However, the primary source of this congener, and likely others, in the surrounding atmosphere is recent and continual releases from the SHTC, rather than the release of weathered PCBs previously deposited to local soils. In addition, enantiomer compositions for PCBs 95 and 149 yielded minimum biotransformation half-lives of 25 and 97 years, respectively, suggesting an expected gradual decline in the region's PCB load once fresh inputs cease.

  6. Levels and distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li; ZHANG Bing; XIAO Ke; ZHANG Qinghua; ZHENG Minghui

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been measured in sewage sludge samples from 8 urban wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. The PCB congeners were analyzed by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 65.6 to 157 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 101 ng/g dw. The dioxin-like PCB WHO-TEQs (World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalents) of the sludge were lower than 1 pg /g dw. Consequently, all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were below the upper limit for land application according to the Chinese legislation law for agriculture use. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by tri-CBs and tetra-CBs. Similar distributions have been found in one of the Chinese PCB commercial products. The patterns of dioxin-like and indicator congeners observed in this study were quite similar in all samples. The predominant congener for dioxin-like and indicator PCBs were PCB-118 and PCB-28, respectively, while PCB-126 had the highest TEQ value.

  7. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  8. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and neuropsychological status among older adults in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Shrestha, Srishti; Gomez, Marta I; McCaffrey, Robert J; Zimmerman, Earl A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Hwang, Syni-an

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are emerging environmental contaminants, but little is known about their possible human health effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PBDEs and neuropsychological function among older adults and the possibility of effect modification with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Serum samples were analyzed for concentrations of 9 PBDE and 30 PCB congeners and 34 tests of cognitive and motor function, affective state, and olfactory function were assessed among 144 men and women of 55-74 years of age. After adjustment for relevant confounders, no overall associations were observed between the sum of the PBDE congener concentrations in serum (∑ PBDE) and scores on the neuropsychological tests. However, statistically significant interactions were found between PBDEs and PCBs for some measures of verbal learning and memory. Among persons with ∑ PCB concentrations at or above the median of 467ppb (lipid basis), an increase in ∑ PBDE concentrations from the 25th to 75th percentile was associated with decreases between 7% and 12% on scores for certain subscales of the California Verbal Learning Test. In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed for PBDEs among persons with ∑ PCB levels below the median. The results suggest that PBDEs and PCBs may interact to affect verbal memory and learning among persons 55-74 years old. This is the first study to evaluate the neuropsychological effects of PBDEs in adults and the possibility of synergy with PCBs in humans.

  10. Soil-Air Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Total Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Zhang; Erping Bi; Honghan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Soil-air partitioning is an important diffusive process that affects the environmental fate of organic compounds and human health. In this review, factors affecting the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (p,p’-and o,p’-isomers of DDT, DDD, and DDE) are discussed. Hydrophobicity is an important factor that influences soil-air partition coefficients (KSA), and its effect can be explained through enthalpy of phase change for soil-air partitioning transfer (ΔHSA). For more hydrophobic compounds, a sharp increase in the KSA of PCBs and organochlorines can be seen in the early aging period. During the aging period, the temperature has a significant effect on the more hydrophobic organic compounds. The content and properties of soil or-ganic matter influence the KSA of the target compounds. Generally, KSA decreases with increasing rela-tive humidity in soils. The linear trend between KSA and temperature (T) changes at 0 °C. Freezing the air or soil in experiments would change the research results. On the basis of factors influencing soil-air partitioning, a multipleparameter (T, organic carbon fraction (fOC), and octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA)) model is put forward to predict the KSA values for PCBs and total DDTs.

  11. Environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and cytochromes P450 in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip N; Bandiera, Stelvio M; Skipper, Sherry L; Johnson, Kevin A; McMurry, Scott T

    2003-02-01

    An investigation involving raccoons as a sentinel species at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and Ballard Wildlife Management Area in western Kentucky (USA) delineated the extent of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three separate measures of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction were used to evaluate raccoon physiological responses to PCB exposure. Hepatic CYP induction was estimated via determination of total CYP, dealkylase activities, and immunoreactive proteins. There were no differences in raccoon biomarker responses between study sites. Significant relationships between and among PCB residues and biomarkers indicated that hepatic CYP induction had occurred in response to PCB exposure. Pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 were biomarkers most closely associated with PCB exposure. The rank order of responses was CYP1A1 > CYP1A2 > PROD > ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) as related to raccoon liver PCB concentrations, whereas the order was CYP1A1 > PROD > EROD > CYP1A2 when regressed with total PCB concentrations in abdominal fat.

  12. Evaluation of the immunotoxicity of low-level PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) exposure in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smialowicz, R.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Riddle, M.M.; Rogers, R.R.; Luebke, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were exposed daily by gastric intubation for up to 15 weeks to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254 at 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg body weight. At 5, 10 and 15 weeks groups of rats were killed and immune functions were evaluated. The immune parameters examined included the following: body and lymphoid organ weights, mitogen stimulated lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, natural killer (NK) cell activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. After 10 and 15 weeks of dosing body weights were reduced in rats receiving 25 mg/kg PCB while thymus weights were decreased in rats receiving 10 and 25 mg/kg. NK cell activity was reduced in rats dosed for 15 weeks at 10 and 25 mg/kg. The LP response to phytohemagglutinin was enhanced in rats dosed for 15 weeks at 25 mg/kg PCB. Exposure of rats to PCB did not affect the MLR or CTL responses. Other groups of rats were exposed to cyclophosphamide (CY) and served as positive controls for the immune assays employed. CY induced alterations in all of the immune parameters measured, indicating that this is a sensitive battery of immune function tests which is capable of detecting immune alterations in the rat.

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

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    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  14. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

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    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and fish species from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zhu, Chaofei; Ren, Daiwei; Zhu, Nali; Zhang, Haidong; Shang, Hongtao; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments and two fish species collected from the Murchison Bay in Lake Victoria, using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer. Total PCB concentrations (Σ18PCBs) varied widely with mean values ranging from 777 to 4325pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) for sediments and 80 to 779pg g(-1) wet weight (ww) for fish. The PCB levels in the sediments were significantly higher at the station closest to Nakivubo channel, presumably due to effluents discharged by the channel, which may contain domestically produced commercial PCB mixtures. For fish, the concentrations in Nile perch (Lates niloticus) were significantly greater than those in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at all study stations, possibly due to dietary differences among species. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for the dioxin-like PCBs were 0.04-0.64pg g(-1) dw and 0.01-0.39pg g(-1) ww for sediments and fish, respectively. The non-ortho PCBs exhibited the highest contribution to the Σ12TEQs (>75%) compared to the mono-ortho PCBs in both fish species. The TEQs in the present study were lower than many reported worldwide in literature for fish and were within the permissible level recommended by the European Commission, implying that the fish did not pose health hazards related to PCBs to the consumers.

  16. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  17. Electron ionization mass spectral fragmentation study of sulfation derivatives of polychlorinated biphenyls

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    Robertson Larry W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that can be metabolized via hydroxylated PCBs to PCB sulfate metabolites. The sensitive and selective analysis of PCB sulfate monoesters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS requires their derivatization, for example, as PCB 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE sulfate monoesters. To aid in the identification of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from biological samples, the electron impact MS fragmentation pathways of selected PCB TCE sulfate diesters were analyzed and compared to the fragmentation pathways of the corresponding methoxylated PCBs. Results The most abundant and characteristic fragment ions of PCB TCE sulfate diesters were formed by releasing CHCCl3, SO3, HCl2 and/or CCl3 from the TCE sulfate moiety and Cl2, HCl, ethyne and chloroethyne from an intermediate phenylcyclopentadienyl cation. The fragmentation pattern depended on the degree of chlorination and the position of the TCE sulfate moiety (i.e., ortho vs. meta/para to the second phenyl ring, but were independent of the chlorine substitution pattern. These fragmentation pathways are similar to the fragmentation pathways of structurally related methoxylated PCBs. Conclusion Knowledge of the fragmentation patterns of PCB TCE sulfate diesters will greatly aid in determining the position of sulfate moiety (ortho vs. meta/para of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from environmental or laboratory samples.

  18. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil by cocktail PCB ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Y.; Hirobe, M.; Fujimoto, S. [Japan EnviroChemicals Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tomita, J.; Nishikiori, M.; Nakajima, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Rubio, F. [Abraxis LLC, Warminster, PA (United States); Takigami, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakai, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Environment Preservation Centre; Ike, M.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a novel cocktail polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed as a simple pretreatment method for the determination of PCBs in insulating oils. Oil samples were treated with hexane and dimethyl sufloxide (DMSO) and mixed. Hexane layers were then removed, and freshly prepared hexane was added. The DMSO layer was then diluted with an aqueous solution and extracted with hexane. After being dehydrated, the hexane layer was sulfonated with a sulfuric reagent and washed. Standard or pretreated PCBs were then dissolved and diluted in 100 per cent DMSO and added to distilled water prior to the ELISA assay. A horseradish peroxidase conjugate and an anti-PCB antibody coupled with magnetic particles were added for the assay. A magnetic rack was used to separate the reaction mixture. A colouring reagent was then added. A total of 26 insulating oils contaminated with PCBs were determined using the new cocktail method and compared with data obtained from traditional gas chromatograph electron capture detector (GC-ECD) data. Results showed that the values of both the cocktail and general PCB ELISA were well correlated with the CG-ECD data. It was concluded that combining cocktail PCB ELISA with the developed pretreatment method provided accurate results. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  19. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sedimentation in the Lianhua Mountain Reservoir, Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Amuzu-Sefordzi, Basil; Li, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the biggest electronics manufacturing regions in the world. Due to the presence of abandoned industrial sites and the proliferation of large-scale electronics companies in the past four decades, it is therefore imperative to investigate the extent of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in the region. Spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in the Lianhua Mountain reservoir in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City, China were examined based on a sedimentary profile analysis. Higher concentrations of the heavy metals detected were recorded in bottom sediments whereas 70% of the detected PCBs recorded maximum concentrations in top sediments. The geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) indicate that the study area is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Also, the integrated pollution indices (IPI) were above 1, except Pb, which shows that the study area is contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of individual heavy metals and PCBs over a period of 60 years were also analyzed in order to establish a historical trend of pollution in the study area. This study provides baseline information on the level and historical trend of heavy metals and PCBs pollution in the study area.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  1. Effects of quercetin on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced liver injury in rats

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    Cléia Rocha de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, used as pesticides in agriculture, can lead to irreversible injuries in living organisms, particularly in liver. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the liver pathogenesis induced by different molecules, including PCBs. It has been demonstrated that quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid found in the diet, exhibits a potent antioxidant effect in different liver pathologies. Objective: To evaluate oxidative stress caused by PCBs in liver and the antioxidant activity of quercetin. Methodology: We used male Wistar rats (n = 36, divided in 4 groups: control, quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, PCBs (0.4 ml/kg/day, and rats treated with both PCBs and quercetin. On day 25 blood was collected to assess liver integrity (enzymes AST, ALT and ALP, and liver samples to measure oxidative stress (TBARS, activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and DNA damage (micronucleus assay, and histological damage. Results: TBARS concentration and SOD activity were significantly higher in PCBs animals as compared to the PCB group receiving quercetin. CAT and GPx decreased in PCBs and increased when quercetin was added. The histological analysis showed damage to hepatocytes in PCBs, but quercetin was able to afford protection against such damage. The micronucleus test showed there was an increase in the production of microclenucleus compared to control, and quercetin was able to reduce this effect. Conclusion: Contamination with PCBs led to increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and the use of antioxidant quercetin was effective in reducing PCBs-induced liver injury.

  2. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  3. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts.

  4. An alternative clean-up column for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunda, Elizabeth N; Madadi, Vincent O; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The need for continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has necessitated the development of analytical techniques that are sensitive and selective with minimal reagent requirement. In light of this, we developed a column for clean-up of soil and sediment extracts, which is less demanding in terms of the amount of solvent and sorbent. The dual-layer column consists of acidified silica gel and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). MIPs were synthesized via aqueous suspension polymerization using PCB 15 as the dummy template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker and the obtained particles characterized via SEM, BET, and batch rebinding assays. Pre-concentration of the spiked real-world water sample using MISPE gave recoveries between 85.2 and 104.4% (RSD clean-up of extracts from complex matrices provided recoveries of 91.6-102.5% (RSD clean-up using acidified silica (70.4-90.5%; RSD clean-up procedure for continuous monitoring of PCBs. Method detection limits were 0.01-0.08 ng g(-1) and 0.002-0.01 ng mL(-1) for solid matrices and water, respectively.

  5. Estrogenic activity of polychlorinated biphenyls present in human tissue and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCastro, B Rey; Korrick, Susan A; Spengler, John D; Soto, Ana M

    2006-04-15

    This study evaluated the estrogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in environmental media and human tissue and assessed exposure pathways for PCB-derived estrogenic potency in air, soil, and dust from New Bedford, MA, an area with a PCB-contaminated Superfund site. Thirty-four PCB congeners were assayed for estrogenic potency using E-SCREEN, an assay based on the estrogen-dependent proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. Childhood exposure to estradiol-equivalents via PCBs in environmental media was estimated byweighting previously reported New Bedford congener-specific concentrations by their relative estrogenic potency and published inhalation and soil ingestion rates. Thirteen congeners were weakly estrogenic in E-SCREEN: PCBs 17, 18, 30, 44, 49, 66, 74, 82, 99, 103, 110, 128, and 179. These PCBs were typically 6 orders of magnitude less potent than 17beta-estradiol, with proliferative potencies ranging from 0.0007% to 0.0040%. Of the environmental media assessed, air (inhalation) had the highest PCB-derived estradiol-equivalent exposure. PCB estrogenic potency information from this study provides an important resource both for preliminary estimation of routes of human exposure to xenoestrogens and for application to human health studies focused on estrogen-responsive health outcomes, such as reproductive development and related malignancies.

  6. Analytical methods for phenyltin compounds in polychlorinated biphenyl-based transformer oil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Noma, Yukio; Yasuhara, Akio; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2003-10-31

    We present the first study on the analytical methods of phenyltin compounds (PTs) in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer oil samples. Tetraphenyltin (TePhT) has been used as stabilizer for some kinds of PCBs-based transformer oil formulations. Monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TrPhT) could have been formed from TePhT during long-term use. TePhT was directly measured by gas chromatograph (GC) connected with three types of detectors, a mass spectrometer (MS), a flame photometric detector (FPD) and an atomic emission detector (AED) after dilution with hexane. MPhT, DPhT and TrPhT were propylated with Grignard reagent before measurement. The MS was the most sensitive of the detectors, with detection limits of phenyltin compounds of 30 ng/ml (MPhT), 9.8 ng/ml (DPhT), 5.5 ng/ml (TrPhT) and 0.60 ng/ml (TePhT), respectively. From the viewpoint of selectivity, MS was slightly worse than other detectors, but interference from PCBs matrices was not significant under ordinary analytical conditions. Two used transformer oil samples were analyzed using the analytical methods developed in this study. TePhT and TrPhT were found in both samples.

  7. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in industrial transformer oil by radiolytic and photolytic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cynthia G; Silverman, Joseph; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamad; Neta, Pedatsur; Poster, Dianne L

    2003-12-15

    Used electrical transformer oils containing low or high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were treated using electron, gamma, and ultraviolet radiation, and the conditions for complete dechlorination were developed. Dechlorination was determined by analysis of the inorganic chloride formed and the concentrations of remaining PCBs. Transformer oil containing approximately 95 microg g(-1) PCB (approximately 3.5 mmol L(-1) Cl) is completely dechlorinated by irradiation with 600 kGy after the addition of 10% triethylamine (TEA). Transformer oil containing >800,000 microg g(-1) PCB (17.7 mol L(-1) Cl) requires an additional solvent to prevent solidification. When this oil is diluted with 2-propanol (2-PrOH) and TEA (v/v/v, 1/79/20), complete dechlorination is achieved with a dose of 2500 kGy. Ultraviolet photolysis of the same oil/2-PrOH/TEA solutions led to 90% dechlorination after exposure for 120 h in our experimental setup. Such yields were obtained by radiolysis with a dose of 2000 kGy (300 h in our Gammacell). Replacing TEA with KOH in 2-PrOH solutions greatly increases the yield of dechlorination in both the radiolytic and the photolytic experiments, demonstrating that a chain reaction plays a role in both of these treatment methods and suggesting that both methods deserve further consideration for large-scale application.

  8. Organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl environmental pollution in south coast of Rio De Janeiro state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Ferreira; Pavesi, Thelma; Rosa, Ana Cristina Simões; Santos, Tatyane Pereira Dos; de Medeiros Tabalipa, Marianne; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Alves, Sergio Rabello; de Novaes Sarcinelli, Paula

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the burden of environmental pollution by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) in two localities of Rio de Janeiro coast, through the determination of these levels in specimens of mullets and croakers collected from May to August 2008, at Guanabara Bay (GB) and from Araújo Island (AI), at Paraty Bay. Twenty three organochlorine pollutants were detected in croakers at GB and twenty in mullets and all PCBs congeners investigated in the study were present in the two species. Ratio ∑DDT/∑PCB of 1.4 shows an important contribution of agricultural residues in GB and p,p'-DDE/∑DDT of 0.1 demonstrates a reintroduction of DDT. Consumption of mullet may represent a risk to the health of fishermen families from GB, with average and maximum estimated daily intake of ∑DDT of 9.012μg/kg p.c. and 26,174μg/kg p.c., representing 45% and 131% of ADI established by WHO.

  9. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls at toxic waste sites: investigations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Burse, V.W.

    1988-11-01

    Beginning in 1982, environmental and population data were evaluated from waste sites contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pilot exposure assessment studies were conducted at 12 sites where risks of human exposure were thought to be greatest. Serum PCB levels in persons at highest risk of nonoccupationally related exposures (because of their self-reported frequencies and types of activities in contaminated areas) at 10 sites were within background ranges, even though environmental contamination levels as high as 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) in monitoring well water samples and 330,000 ppb in soil samples were measured. At the 2 remaining sites, elevated serum levels were found in these high-risk persons, which require further evaluation by community surveys. These results illustrate that, despite elevated environmental contaminant levels, unless uptake of chemicals above background exposure levels can be demonstrated, adverse health effects cannot be attributed to waste site chemicals. However, health risks due to background exposure levels, as well as in populations with elevated PCB body burdens need further study.

  10. Label-free impedimetric immunoassay for trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in insulating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Yasumoto; Aota, Arata; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Namiki, Yukie; Matsumoto, Norio; Watanabe, Yoshitomo; Ohmura, Naoya; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-03-18

    A rapid, ultrasensitive, and practical label-free impedimetric immunoassay for measuring trace levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil was developed. First, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody (RU6F9) for PCBs by using a designed immunogen and characterized its binding affinity for a commercial mixtures of PCBs and its main congeners. A micro comblike gold electrode was fabricated, and the antibody was covalently immobilized on the electrode through a self-assembled monolayer formed by dithiobis-N-succinimidyl propionate. The antigen-binding event on the surface of the functionalized electrode was determined as the change in charge transfer resistance by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resulting impedimetric immunoassay in aqueous solution achieved a wide determination range (0.01-10 μg/L) and a low detection limit (LOD) of 0.001 μg/L, which was 100-fold more sensitive than a conventional flow-based immunoassay for PCBs. By combining the impedimetric immunoassay with a cleanup procedure for insulating oil utilizing a multilayer cleanup column followed by DMSO partitioning, an LOD of 0.052 mg/kg-oil was achieved, which satisfied the Japanese regulation criterion of 0.5 mg/kg-oil. Finally, the immunoassay was employed to determine total PCB levels in actual used insulating oils (n = 33) sampled from a used transformer containing trace levels of PCBs, and the results agreed well with the Japanese official method (HRGC/HRMS).

  11. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

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    Thi Thanh My Pham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degradation, we determined the concentration of

  12. Structure-activity relationships for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls as inhibitors of the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone catalyzed by human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase SULT2A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuase, Edugie J; Liu, Yungang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2011-10-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent worldwide pollutants that are of concern due to their bioaccumulation and health effects. Metabolic oxidation of PCBs results in the formation of hydroxylated metabolites (OHPCBs). Among their biological effects, OHPCBs have been shown to alter the metabolism of endocrine hormones, including inhibition of mammalian cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) that are responsible for the inactivation of thyroid hormones and phenolic steroids (i.e., hSULT1A1, hSULT1B1, and hSULT1E1). OHPCBs also interact with a human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase that plays a role in the sulfation of endogenous alcohol-containing steroid hormones and bile acids (i.e., hSULT2A1). The objectives of our current study were to examine the effects of a series of OHPCB congeners on the activity of hSULT2A1 and to develop a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model for OHPCBs as inhibitors of the enzyme. A total of 15 OHPCBs were examined, and the sulfation of 1 μM [(3)H] dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was utilized as a model reaction catalyzed by the enzyme. All 15 OHPCBs inhibited the sulfation of DHEA, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.6 μM to 96 μM, and eight of these OHPCBs were also substrates for the enzyme. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) provided a predictive 3D-QSAR model with a q(2) value of 0.697 and an r(2) value of 0.949. The OHPCBs that had the highest potency as inhibitors of DHEA sulfation were those with a 3, 5-dichloro-4-hydroxy substitution pattern on the biphenyl ring system, and these congeners were also substrates for sulfation catalyzed by hSULT2A1.

  13. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

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    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  14. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs' similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946-1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975-1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  15. Corticosterone stress response in tree swallows nesting near polychlorinated biphenyl- and dioxin-contaminated rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, M.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Reed, J.M.; Romero, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assayed baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations from adult female and nestling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, from New England, USA, sites with different levels of contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Corticosterone was compared over 2 years from a highly contaminated PCB site along the Housatonic River (Berkshire County, MA, USA), a midrange contaminated site upstream, and a reference site. Adult females (n = 29), sampled only in 2003, showed an inverted-U association with PCBs, with higher stress-induced corticosterone with midrange contamination than at the high-contamination site. In nestlings, stress-induced corticosterone was highest for the highly contaminated site compared with the other sites in 2003 (n = 53, 29 nests), with no difference among sites in 2004 (n = 93, 27 nests). In 2004, we began testing mechanisms underlying these changes in nestlings at the high- and low-PCB sites. Corticosterone response to dexamethasone injection (used to test negative feedback) was not different between sites, but stress-induced corticosterone was reduced at the contaminated site after adrenocorticotropin hormone injection (used to test adrenal responsiveness), suggesting an inhibited ability to mount a stress response. We also compared nestlings from a stretch of the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA, heavily contaminated with TCDD (n = 80, 43 nests) with nestlings from an upstream site that had lower levels of TCDD and the Berkshire County reference site. Although there were no stress-induced differences, baseline corticosterone was lower at the higher TCDD site than at the reference site. Altogether these findings suggest that tree swallows chronically exposed to high PCB and TCDD levels exhibit altered baseline and stress-induced corticosterone responses, but the patterns of alteration might not be predictable. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  16. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination on estrogenic activity in human male serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plísková, Martina; Vondrácek, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jirí; Kocan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomás; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighboring background region in eastern Slovakia. We found that the lower-chlorinated PCBs were estrogenic, whereas the prevalent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199, and 203, as well as major PCB metabolites, behaved as antiestrogens. Coplanar PCBs had no direct effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activation in this in vitro model. In human male serum samples, high levels of PCBs were associated with a decreased ER-mediated activity and an increased dioxin-like activity, as determined by the DR-CALUX assay. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) was responsible for a major part of estrogenic activity identified in total serum extracts. Significant negative correlations were found between dioxin-like activity, as well as mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes, and total estrogenic activity. For sample fractions containing only persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the increased frequency of antiestrogenic samples was associated with a higher sum of PCBs. This suggests that the prevalent non-dioxin-like PCBs were responsible for the weak antiestrogenic activity of some POPs fractions. Our data also suggest that it might be important to pay attention to direct effects of PCBs on steroid hormone levels in heavily exposed subjects.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

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    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  18. Environmental life-cycle comparisons of two polychlorinated biphenyl remediation technologies: incineration and base catalyzed decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xintao; Zhu, Jianxin; Ding, Qiong

    2011-07-15

    Remediation action is critical for the management of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sites. Dozens of remediation technologies developed internationally could be divided in two general categories incineration and non-incineration. In this paper, life cycle assessment (LCA) was carried out to study the environmental impacts of these two kinds of remediation technologies in selected PCB contaminated sites, where Infrared High Temperature Incineration (IHTI) and Base Catalyzed Decomposition (BCD) were selected as representatives of incineration and non-incineration. A combined midpoint/damage approach was adopted by using SimaPro 7.2 and IMPACTA2002+ to assess the human toxicity, ecotoxicity, climate change impact, and resource consumption from the five subsystems of IHTI and BCD technologies, respectively. It was found that the major environmental impacts through the whole lifecycle arose from energy consumption in both IHTI and BCD processes. For IHTI, primary and secondary combustion subsystem contributes more than 50% of midpoint impacts concerning with carcinogens, respiratory inorganics, respiratory organics, terrestrial ecotoxity, terrestrial acidification/eutrophication and global warming. In BCD process, the rotary kiln reactor subsystem presents the highest contribution to almost all the midpoint impacts including global warming, non-renewable energy, non-carcinogens, terrestrial ecotoxity and respiratory inorganics. In the view of midpoint impacts, the characterization values for global warming from IHTI and BCD were about 432.35 and 38.5 kg CO(2)-eq per ton PCB-containing soils, respectively. LCA results showed that the single score of BCD environmental impact was 1468.97 Pt while IHTI's score is 2785.15 Pt, which indicates BCD potentially has a lower environmental impact than IHTI technology in the PCB contaminated soil remediation process.

  19. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

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    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Irrawaddy dolphins from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, K; Ramu, K; Kajiwara, N; Sinha, R K; Tanabe, S

    2005-10-01

    The Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is at risk of extinction throughout its range as a result of incidental catches, habitat degradation, and pollution. Populations of Irrawaddy dolphins are constrained by the species' narrow habitat requirement-lagoons, estuaries, rivers, and lakes-and are therefore particularly vulnerable to the effects of human activities. In this study, for the first time, concentrations of organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in tissues of Irrawaddy dolphins collected from Chilika Lake, India, to understand the status of contamination. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) were the predominant contaminants found in Irrawaddy dolphins; the highest concentration found was 10,000 ng/g lipid weight in blubber. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were the second most prevalent contaminants in dolphin tissues. Concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane, and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol were in the ranges of few ng/g to few hundreds of ng/g on a lipid-weight basis. In general, concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs in Irrawaddy dolphins were lower than the concentrations reported for coastal and riverine dolphins collected in Asia. PBDEs were detected in the blubber of Irrawaddy dolphins at concentrations ranging from 0.98 to 18 ng/g lipid weight. BDE congener 47 accounted for 60% to 75% of the total PBDE concentrations. Although these results establish the baseline levels of persistent organic pollutants in Irrawaddy dolphins, efforts should be made to decrease the sources of contamination by DDTs and HCHs in Chilika Lake.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides in surficial coastal sediments of the Ligurian Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolotto, R.M.; Cuneo, C.; Albanese, S. [ARPAL, Direzione Scientifica, Genova (Italy); Magherini, A. [ARPAL, Dipartimento di Genova, Genova (Italy); Frignani, M.; Bellucci, L.G.; Alvarado-Aguilar, D. [ISMAR, Sezione di Geologia Marina, Bologna (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and its analogues, are organic contaminants widespread throughout the terrestrial and oceanic environments due to their common use and their resistance to degradation. Since harmful effects have been associated to these chemicals and well documented, they are classified as priority pollutants by both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the European Union. Because of the very low solubility in water and the tendency to adsorb onto sediment particles, the ultimate fate of both PCBs and DDTs in the marine environment is the incorporation into sediments. Hence, the concentrations of these chlorinate chemicals in bottom sediments can provide an insight on the quality of the environment and the potential threat to marine organisms and human beings. The Ligurian Sea belongs to the north part of the western Mediterranean. The coastal morphology of the Liguria Region is rather variable, and frequently cliffs drop sheer to the sea. The limited width of the coastal zone, comprised between the sea and the mountains, determined a gathering of the urban areas with a consequent concentration of both civil and industrial presence in a narrow but highly populated territory. In particular Genova, but also other cities have a long history of industrial and harbour activities, whereas long tracts of the coast are dedicated to tourism. The circulation of the Ligurian Sea is rather well known. In particular, surface and intermediate currents follow a cyclonic circulation. However local circulation is the true responsible of the dispersion of sediment material along the coast, and these alongshore currents often cause an eastward oriented transport. The Ligurian coastal zone is very developed, and hosts all sort of industrial, agricultural and tourist activities that can be sources of persistent organochlorine chemicals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess concentrations, distributions

  2. Miniaturized selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers from feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Abaurrea, M; Ramos, J J; Gonzalez, M J; Ramos, L

    2013-01-18

    A new miniaturized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with in-cell purification method has been developed for the simultaneous extraction of endogenous prioritary and toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and environmentally relevant tri- to deca-brominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners from different feed matrices. Parameters affecting the efficiency of the selective PLE process, such as sorbent:matrix ratio, volume and nature of the extraction solvent, PLE working mode, extraction time and temperature, and amount of co-sorbents, were optimized. n-Hexane and n-hexane:dichloromethane (1:1, v/v) were used as extraction solvents. 8-mL of organic solvents and 3.5 g of sorbents sufficed for complete sample treatment. Only 0.25 g of feed sample were required for accurate determination of the endogenous PCBs studied using gas chromatography with a micro-electron capture detector (GC-μECD) during method development, and for PBDE analysis using either GC-μECD or gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-qMS). Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap detection working in tandem mode, GC-ITD (MS/MS), was used for final PCB confirmation. Additional purification of the sample extracts was not required. The performance of the complete PLE-based method was evaluated at two spiking levels, 0.4 and 4 ng/g wet weight. Recoveries in the range 60-120% were obtained for PCBs, while those of PBDEs ranged from 86% to 114% for most of the target analytes. The relative standard deviations were in general lower than 20%. The optimized procedure was applied to the determination of the investigated PCBs and PBDEs in a variety of feed samples.

  3. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Xing, Ying; Wang, Dongshen; Zhao, Xingru; Gao, Lirong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    The chemical 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), also called paramoth, is one of the chemicals commonly used to make mothballs. For the more than 20 years, p-DCB has been used principally (35-55% of all uses) as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers, and as a fumigant for control of moths, molds, and mildews. The process of production of p-DCB currently used by industry is direct chlorination of benzene or chlorobenzene in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (typically FeCl{sub 3}), and the pure products of p-DCB are obtained by distillation and crystallization from the mixture of polychlorinated benzenes. This process is similar to that of production of PCBs which were manufactured commercially by the progressive chlorination of biphenyl in the presence of a suitable catalyst, e.g., iron chloride. However, few studies on the formation of PCBs from chlorobenzenes have been published. Buser reported significant quantities of PCDFs and a small amount of PCDDs, PCBs, and chlorophenols were formed in the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes at 620 C. Peng-Yan Liu et al. revealed that lower chlorinated benzenes produce more PCBs than higher ones. Nevertheless, prior to this study, no reports on PCBs in p-DCB and the restriction of PCBs in p-DCB products have been found. In this paper, the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs in some commercial p-DCB mothballs are investigated. Except of the toxic of p-DCB, the low concentration of PCBs in p-DCB mothballs should not be negligible.

  4. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Lu, Liping; Xiao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L) were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  5. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl mass transfer after amendment of contaminated sediment with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Werner; Upal Ghosh; Richard G. Luthy [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The sorption kinetics and concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically polluted sediment is modeled to assess a remediation strategy based on in situ PCB sequestration by mixing with activated carbon (AC). The authors extend their evaluation of a model based on intraparticle diffusion by including a biomimetic semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and a first-order degradation rate for the aqueous phase. The model predictions are compared with the previously reported experimental PCB concentrations in the bulk water phase and in SPMDs. The simulated scenarios comprise a marine and a freshwater sediment, four PCB congeners, two AC grain sizes, four doses of AC, and comparison with laboratory experiments. The modeling approach distinguishes between two different sediment particles types: a light-density fraction representing carbonaceous particles such as charcoal, coal, coke, cenospheres, or wood, and a heavy-density fraction representing the mineral phase with coatings of organic matter. A third particle type in the numerical model is AC. The model qualitatively reproduces the observed shifts in the PCB distribution during repartitioning after AC amendment but overestimates the overall effect of the treatment in reducing aqueous and SPMD concentrations of PCBs by a factor of 2-6. For the AC application in sediment, competitive sorption of the various solutes apparently requires a reduction by a factor of 16 of the literature values for the AC-water partitioning coefficient measured in pure aqueous systems. With this correction, model results and measurements agree within a factor of 3. After AC amendment is homogeneously mixed into the sediment and then left undisturbed, aqueous PCB concentrations tend toward the same reduction after 5 years. 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. A cohort study of in utero polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposures in relation to secondary sex ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Jean A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that persist in the environment and in human fatty tissue. PCBs are related to a class of compounds known as dioxins, specifically 2,3,7,8-TCDD (tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin, which has been implicated as a cause of altered sex ratio, especially in relation to paternal exposures. Methods In the 1960's, serum specimens were collected from pregnant women participating in the Child Health and Development Study in the San Francisco Bay Area. The women were interviewed and their serum samples stored at -20°C. For this study, samples were thawed and a total of eleven PCBs were determined in 399 specimens. Secondary sex ratio, or sex ratio at birth, was evaluated as a function of maternal serum concentrations using log-binomial and logistic regression, controlling for hormonally active medications taken during pregnancy. Results The relative risk of a male birth decreased by 33% comparing women at the 90th percentile of total PCBs with women at the 10th percentile (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.94; p = 0.02, or by approximately 7% for each 1 μg/L increase in total PCB concentration. Although some congener-specific associations with sex ratio were only marginally statistically significant, all nine PCB congeners with Conclusion Maternal exposure to PCBs may be detrimental to the success of male sperm or to the survival of male embryos. Findings could be due to contaminants, metabolites or PCBs themselves.

  7. Decontamination solutions for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raw fish oils from environmentally contaminated sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-01-15

    Fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed products. In this study, PCB adsorption from fish oil onto activated carbon (AC), other sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood waste ashes) and organic solvent such as ethanol were compared and optimized. Regarding to adsorbents, PCBs were extracted from fish oil by a 2.0% adsorbent material dose, during 6.0 h at 25 °C. Solvent extraction was carried out using 2 × 5.0 mL ethanol by manually stirring for 3.0 min, and then by Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction (UASE) for 5.0 min. The results showed that removal rates obtained by using adsorbent materials ranged from 0.0 to 10% for marker PCBs, from 0.0 to 37% for mono-ortho-PCBs, from 0.0 to 74% for PCB11 and from 0.0 to 95% for non-ortho-PCBs. Regarding to solvent extraction, ethanol was used by manually stirring and then by Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction (UASE). The samples were then centrifuged (2000 rpm/10 min) and the alcoholic phase was removed. With this method, removal efficiencies were much better (85-116%); nevertheless, high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) removal rates (70-78 and 71-79%, respectively) were detected. We can conclude that adsorption with adsorbents depends on the geometry of PCB congeners, as well as both type of adsorption material and their origin, and that several sorption cycles are needed. Adsorption with ethanol could be the most effective methodology but nutritional quality was impaired, what makes necessary to look for other not so polar removal solvents.

  8. Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in lotus plant (Nelumbonucifera spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shouhui; Wong, Charles S; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Min; Chai, Tingting; Fan, Li; Yang, Shuming

    2014-09-15

    Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 91, 95, 136, 149, 176 and 183 was investigated in lotus plants (Nelumbonucifera spp.) exposed to these chemicals via spiked sediment, to determine uptake and possible biotransformation for aquatic phytoremediation purposes. The concentrations of most PCBs were greatest in roots at 60 d (19.6 ± 1.51-70.6 ± 6.14 μg kg(-1)), but were greatest in stems and leaves at 120 d (25.3 ± 6.14-95.5 ± 19.4 μg kg(-1) and 17.4 ± 4.41-70.4 ± 10.4 μg kg(-1), respectively). Total amounts were greatest at 120 d and significantly higher in roots than those in stems and in leaves (1,457 ± 220-5,852 ± 735 ng, 237 ± 47.1-902 ± 184 ng and 202 ± 60.3-802 ± 90.2 ng, respectively), but represented less than 0.51% of the total mass of PCBs added to sediments, indicating that lotus plants were unlikely to remove appreciable amounts of PCBs from contaminated sediments. Racemic PCB residues in sediment indicate no enantioselective biodegradation by sedimentary microbial consortia over the entire experiment. Preferential accumulation of the (-)-enantiomers of PCBs 91, 95 and 136 were observed in roots, stems and leaves, but non-enantioselective accumulation was observed for PCBs 149, 176 and 183. These results indicate that aquatic plants can accumulate PCBs enantioselectively via root uptake, possibly by biotransformation within plant tissues as observed for terrestrial plants. This is also the first report to identify optical rotation of the atropisomers of PCBs 91 and 95.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  10. Formula for the Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Painted Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline; Loftin, Kathleen; Geiger, Cherie

    2010-01-01

    An activated metal treatment system (AMTS) removes and destroys polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) found in painted structures or within the binding or caulking material on structures. It may be applied using a "paint-on and wipe-off" process that leaves the structure PCB-free and virtually unaltered in physical form. AMTS is used in conjunction with a solvent solution capable of donating hydrogen atoms. AMTS as a treatment technology has two functions: first, to extract PCBs from the material, and second, to degrade the extracted PCBs. The process for removing PCBs from structures is accomplished as an independent step to the degradation process. The goal is to extract the PCBs out of the paint, without destroying the paint, and to partition the PCBs into an environmentally friendly solvent. The research to date indicates this can be accomplished within the first 24 hours of AMTS contact with the paint. PCBs are extremely hydrophobic and prefer to be in the AMTS over the hardened paint or binder material. The solvent selected must be used to open, but not to destroy, the paint s polymeric lattice structure, allowing pathways for PCB movement out of the paint and into the solvent. A number of solvent systems were tested and are available for use within the AMTS. The second process of the AMTS is the degradation or dehalogenation of the PCBs. The solvent selection for this process is limited to solvents that are capable of donating a hydrogen atom to the PCB structure. Additional AMTS formulation properties that must be addressed for each site-specific application include viscosity and stability. The AMTS must be thick enough to remain where it is applied. Several thickening agents have been tested. Adding a stabilizing agent ensures that the AMTS will not evaporate and leave unprotected, activated metal exposed. During AMTS formulation testing, a number of reagents were evaluated to ensure the rate of dehalogenation was not inhibited by its addition to the system.

  11. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release.

  13. Recycling of transformer oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using catalytic hydrodechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Min; Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oil was carried out in a batch mode to detoxify PCBs and to recycle the treated oil. Various metal supported catalysts, including 0.98 wt% Pt, 0.79 wt% Pd and 12.8 wt% Ni on gamma -alumina (gamma -Al(2)O(3)) support, and 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) support were used for the hydrodechlorination. Metal particle size of the Pt catalyst was 2.0 nm and metal particle sizes of the Pd and Ni catalysts were in the range of 6.4-6.9 nm. Various supercritical fluids, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)), supercritical propane (scPropane), supercritical dimethyl ether (scDME) and supercritical isobutane (scIsobutane) were used as reaction media. PCBs conversion, dechlorination degree of PCBs, was measured using gas chromatograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD). The hydrodechorination degree increased in the order Ni > Pd > Pt, possibly due to higher metal loading and larger metal size of the Ni catalysts. At temperatures below 175 degrees C, scCO(2) was effective as the reaction media for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of PCBs in the presence of the transformer oil. However, PCBs conversion decreased significantly when the hydrodechlorination was carried out in a homogeneous phase with using scPropane, scDME or scIsobutane as a reaction medium. This was attributed to dilution effect of the supercritical fluids. Molecular weights of the transformer oils before and after the catalytic hydrodechlorination were analyzed using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular weight of the treated oil with 100 % PCBs conversion did not change after the catalytic hydrodechlorination at 200 degrees C. This process has proven to be effective to detoxify PCBs containing transformer oil and to recycle the treated oil.

  14. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil using UV and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiansong; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H

    2013-01-01

    A study on dechlorination of PCB138 in transformer oil (TO) and 2-propanol (IPA) using 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) light as well as dye sensitized visible light has been conducted. Studies on dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in TO using visible light in the presence of methylene blue (MB) and triethylamine (TEA) (providing a 'photocatalytic' cycle) in both deaerated and aerated conditions have been conducted to determine effects of TO, MB and TEA on reaction rates. The results show that photolytic methods are effective in treating PCBs in TO, and that the oil plays a limited adverse role. Under UV irradiation, PCB 138 can be >99% dechlorinated in the presence 0.06% (w/w) TO in IPA within 1 h with a rate constant of 0.0853 min(-1), while 47% of PCB138 can be dechlorinated in 92.1% (w/w) TO in IPA within 2 h with a rate constant of 0.0051 min(-1). In the 'photocatalytic' system, 94% reduction of PCB 138 was achieved within 30 min with a rate constant of 0.0968 min(-1) when the solvent was 60.70% (w/w) TO in IPA, while 71% dechlorination of PCB138 was achieved within 30 min with a rate constant of 0.0382 min(-1) when 81.62% (w/w) TO was present. In treatment of 30-73 ppm PCBs in TO, the optimal concentration of MB and TEA were found to be 0.5 g/L and 58.08 g/L respectively. Because of quenching by oxygen, deaeration of the solution is necessary for an efficient reaction. The photocatalytic system is especially adapted for treating lower concentration of PCBs in TO.

  15. Gamma radiation process for destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in transformer oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Nayak, Poonam; Niyogi, U K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals commercially used worldwide in many applications. PCBs were used in oils because of their excellent properties such as good thermal stability, flame resistance, dielectric constant, high break down voltage, high boiling point and low volatility. However, because of their adverse affects on environment and human health, the use of PCBs has been banned now. PCBs are today considered among the widespread pollutants in the global system. PCBs sources still exist in various industrial products and in waste streams such as capacitor oils, lubricating oils, transformer oils, hydraulic oils, paints, rubbers, cables, etc. Several such materials containing PCBs emanating from various sources need to be detoxified before their reuse or before going to landfill for final disposal. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to destroy toxic PCBs. The radiolysis has been investigated as an environment-friendly process for waste oil treatment contaminated with PCBs, which may be a better alternative to the globally most widely accepted incineration method. A study was undertaken to detoxify PCBs in transformer oil by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source. Analysis of PCBs in transformer oils before and after radiation was carried out by GC-MS instrument. The effect of radiation dose and destruction of PCBs in transformer oils are discussed in details in the present paper. The method used was found to be highly effective and destruction was as high as 79 %. Further, the transformer oil samples were also evaluated before and after radiation to check their quality. The properties of oils were not significantly altered by gamma radiation treatment as evident from the results given in the paper.

  16. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by in-vessel anaerobic composting with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway for higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil by anaerobic composting with zero-valent iron (ZVI) was studied, and preliminary reasons for the enhanced reductive dechlorination with ZVI were investigated. The results show that the addition of nanoscale ZVI can enhance dechlorination during in-vessel anaerobic composting. After 140 days, the average number of removed Cl per biphenyl with 10 mg g(-1) of added nanoscale ZVI was 0.63, enhancing the dechlorination by 34 % and improving the initial dechlorination speed. The ZVI enhances dechlorination by providing a suitable acid base environment, reducing volatile fatty acid inhibition and stimulating the microorganisms. The C/N ratios for treatments with the highest rate of ZVI addition were smaller than for the control, indicating that ZVI addition can promote compost maturity.

  17. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  18. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  19. 多氯联苯的非生物降解%Research in abiological degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帅建军; 熊飞; 郑建立; 彭日荷; 姚泉洪; 熊爱生

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls( PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants(POPs) widely distributed in environment.Here the abiological degradation is reviewed in terms of types,mechanisms,advantages and disadvantages, and the prospects of remediation of PCBs contamination are also discussed .%综述了多氯联苯非生物降解的类型、机理,分析了多氯联苯非生物降解的优势及不足之处,并对今后多氯联苯污染的修复前景进行了预测和展望.

  20. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood bi...

  1. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  3. Comparison of solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindrakar, A N; Chandra, S; Shinde, L P

    2014-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of nine polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from transformer oil samples was evaluated using octadecyl (CI8)-bonded porous silica. The efficiency of SPE of these PCBs was compared with those obtained by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane. Average recoveries exceeding 95% for these PCBs were obtained via the SPE method using small cartridges containing 100mg of 40 pm CI8-bonded porous silica. The average recovery by solvent extraction with DMSO and hexane exceeded 83%. It was concluded that the recoveries and precision for the solvent extraction of PCBs were poorer than those for the SPE.

  4. Decreased sex ratio following maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated Great Lakes sport-caught fish: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Henry A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish from the Great Lakes are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls, which have been found to have several adverse reproductive effects. Several environmental contaminants have been found to alter the sex ratio of offspring at birth, but the evidence of such an effect of polychlorinated biphenyls has been inconsistent. Methods We examined parental serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentration in relation to the sex ratio of 173 children of mothers and 208 children of fathers from the Great Lakes region of the United States between 1970 and 1995. We calculated odds ratios for a male child using logistic regression and generalized estimating equations with adjustment for the year of birth of the child, maternal and paternal age, the mother's parity at the child's birth, and whether the child had an older brother. Results The adjusted odds ratio for having a male child among mothers in the highest quintile of serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentration was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06–0.59 compared to mothers in the lowest quintile. Treating exposure as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio for having a male child was 0.54 per unit increase in the natural log of maternal serum polychlorinated biphenyl concentration (95% CI: 0.33–0.89. There was little evidence of an association with paternal exposure. We found no association between either maternal or paternal serum dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethene concentration and the sex ratio. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls may decrease the sex ratio of offspring. These data add to the growing body of evidence that exposure to particular chemicals can alter the sex ratio at birth.

  5. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters and sediments of rivers in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Han, Jingchao; Bi, Chunjuan; Huang, Xing; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2016-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and potential risks of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the rivers of Shanghai, China were investigated. Fourteen PCB congeners in surface waters and sediments, which were collected from 53 sampling sites, were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase, in particulates, and in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 34.8 ng•L‒1, from 0.76 to 39.71 ng•L‒1, and from 1.46 to 46.11 ng•g-1 (dry weight, dw), respectively. The corresponding WHO toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) ranged between nd-1135.63 pg TEQ•L-1, 0.02-605.94 pg TEQ•L-1, and 0.05-432.12 pg TEQ•g-1 dw, respectively. The penta-CBs, especially PCB 118 and PCB 105, were the dominant congeners in all samples. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the PCBs were mainly influenced by a historical accumulation of commercial PCB products, the burning of house coal, and emissions from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and secondary metallurgy industries. The center of Shanghai was significantly affected by PCB contamination, followed by the industrial parklands and suburban towns, while the farmland of Chongming Island was the least affected area. Adverse biological and health effects would be likely in the central urban areas, industrial parks, and residential towns of Shanghai.

  6. Fate and Complex Pathogenic Effects of Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Obese Subjects before and after Drastic Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Marchand, Philippe; Henegar, Corneliu; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Alili, Rohia; Poitou, Christine; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Basdevant, Arnaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Barouki, Robert; Clément, Karine

    2011-01-01

    Background In humans, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored primarily in adipose tissue. Their total body burden and their contribution to obesity-associated diseases remain unclear. Objectives We characterized POP total body burden and their redistribution in obese individuals before and after drastic weight loss and compared these values with a variety of molecular, biological, and clinical parameters. Methods Seventy-one obese subjects were enrolled and underwent bariatric surgery. Blood and adipose tissue samples were obtained at different times from these individuals as well as from 18 lean women. Results POP content (17 dioxins/furans and 18 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) in different adipose tissue territories was similar, allowing us to assess total POP body burden from a single biopsy. Total POP body burden was 2 to 3 times higher in obese than in lean individuals. We also found increased expression of some POP target genes in obese adipose tissue. Drastic weight loss led to increased serum POPs and, within 6–12 months, to a significant 15% decrease in total polychlorinated biphenyl body burden. Importantly, serum POP levels were positively correlated with liver toxicity markers and lipid parameters, independently of age and body mass index. Conclusions POP content in adipose tissue and serum correlate with biological markers of obesity-related dysfunctions. Drastic weight loss leads to a redistribution of POPs and to a moderate decrease of their total body burden. PMID:21156398

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  8. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3‧-MeO-CB-65 and 4‧-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory exposure was conducted to determine the possible source of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in the sewage sludge, and their metabolism by the microbes. Both 4‧-OH-CB-101 and 4‧-MeO-CB-101 were detected as metabolites of CB-101 at a limited conversion rate after 5 days. Importantly, microbial interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs was observed in sewage sludge. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs. The abundant and diverse microbes in sludge play a key role in the transformation processes of the PCB analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MeO-PCBs in environmental matrices and on OH-PCBs in sewage sludge. The findings are important to understand the environmental fate of PCBs.

  9. Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulation studies on the interactions of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls with estrogen receptor-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Ye, Li; Wang, Xiaoxiang; Shi, Wei; Qian, XiangPing; Zhu, YongLiang; Yu, HongXia

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals have attracted great concern. As major metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) may disrupt estrogen hormone status because of their structural similarity to estrogen endogenous compounds. However, interactions between HO-PCBs and estrogen receptors (ERs) are not fully understood. In the present work, a molecular modeling study combining molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations, and binding free energy calculations was performed to characterize the interactions of three HO-PCBs (4'-HO-PCB50, 2'-HO-PCB65, and 4'-HO-PCB69) having much different estrogenic activities with ERβ. Docking results showed that binding between ligands and ERβ was stabilized by hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions. The binding free energies of three ligands with ERβ were calculated, and further binding free energy decomposition analysis indicated that the dominating driving force of the binding between the ligands and ERβ was the van der Waals interaction. Some key residues, such as Leu298, Phe356, Gly472, His475, and Leu476, played important roles in ligand-receptor interactions by forming hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with ligands. The results may be beneficial to increase understanding of the interactions between HO-PCBs and ERβ.

  10. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  11. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  12. Retention modelling of polychlorinated biphenyls in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Incani, Angela; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) method to predict the retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). We analyse the GC×GC retention data taken from the literature by comparing predictive capability of different regression methods. The various models are generated using 70 out of 209 PCB congeners in the calibration stage, while their predictive performance is evaluated on the remaining 139 compounds. The two-dimensional chromatogram is initially estimated by separately modelling retention times of PCBs in the first and in the second column ((1) t (R) and (2) t (R), respectively). In particular, multilinear regression (MLR) combined with genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection is performed to extract two small subsets of predictors for (1) t (R) and (2) t (R) from a large set of theoretical molecular descriptors provided by the popular software Dragon, which after removal of highly correlated or almost constant variables consists of 237 structure-related quantities. Based on GA-MLR analysis, a four-dimensional and a five-dimensional relationship modelling (1) t (R) and (2) t (R), respectively, are identified. Single-response partial least square (PLS-1) regression is alternatively applied to independently model (1) t (R) and (2) t (R) without the need for preliminary GA variable selection. Further, we explore the possibility of predicting the two-dimensional chromatogram of PCBs in a single calibration procedure by using a two-response PLS (PLS-2) model or a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with two output neurons. In the first case, regression is carried out on the full set of 237 descriptors, while the variables previously selected by GA-MLR are initially considered as ANN inputs and subjected to a sensitivity analysis to remove the redundant ones. Results show PLS-1 regression exhibits a noticeably better descriptive and predictive

  13. Deep water masses and sediments are main compartments for polychlorinated biphenyls in the Arctic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Anna; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2014-06-17

    There is a wealth of studies of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in surface water and biota of the Arctic Ocean. Still, there are no observation-based assessments of PCB distribution and inventories in and between the major Arctic Ocean compartments. Here, the first water column distribution of PCBs in the central Arctic Ocean basins (Nansen, Amundsen, and Makarov) is presented, demonstrating nutrient-like vertical profiles with 5-10 times higher concentrations in the intermediate and deep water masses than in surface waters. The consistent vertical profiles in all three Arctic Ocean basins likely reflect buildup of PCBs transported from the shelf seas and from dissolution and/or mineralization of settling particles. Combined with measurement data on PCBs in other Arctic Ocean compartments collected over the past decade, the total Arctic Ocean inventory of ∑7PCB was estimated to 182 ± 40 t (±1 standard error of the mean), with sediments (144 ± 40 t), intermediate (5 ± 1 t) and deep water masses (30 ± 2 t) storing 98% of the PCBs in the Arctic Ocean. Further, we used hydrographic and carbon cycle parametrizations to assess the main pathways of PCBs into and out of the Arctic Ocean during the 20th century. River discharge appeared to be the major pathway for PCBs into the Arctic Ocean with 115 ± 11 t, followed by ocean currents (52 ± 17 t) and net atmospheric deposition (30 ± 28 t). Ocean currents provided the only important pathway out of the Arctic Ocean, with an estimated cumulative flux of 22 ± 10 t. The observation-based inventory of ∑7PCB of 182 ± 40 t is consistent with the contemporary inventory based on cumulative fluxes for ∑7PCB of 173 ± 36 t. Information on the concentration and distribution of PCBs in the deeper compartments of the Arctic Ocean improves our understanding of the large-scale fate of POPs in the Arctic and may also provide a means to test and improve models used to assess the fate of organic pollutants in the Arctic.

  14. Modeling the global levels and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in air under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Lara; Von Waldow, Harald; Macleod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Marcomini, Antonio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-08-01

    We used the multimedia chemical fate model BETR Global to evaluate changes in the global distribution of two polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB 28 and PCB 153, under the influence of climate change. This was achieved by defining two climate scenarios based on results from a general circulation model, one scenario representing the last twenty years of the 20th century (20CE scenario) and another representing the global climate under the assumption of strong future greenhouse gas emissions (A2 scenario). The two climate scenarios are defined by four groups of environmental parameters: (1) temperature in the planetary boundary layer and the free atmosphere, (2) wind speeds and directions in the atmosphere, (3) current velocities and directions in the surface mixed layer of the oceans, and (4) rate and geographical pattern of precipitation. As a fifth parameter in our scenarios, we considerthe effect of temperature on primary volatilization emissions of PCBs. Comparison of dynamic model results using environmental parameters from the 20CE scenario against historical long-term monitoring data of concentrations of PCB 28 and PCB 153 in air from 16 different sites shows satisfactory agreement between modeled and measured PCBs concentrations. The 20CE scenario and A2 scenario were compared using steady-state calculations and assuming the same source characteristics of PCBs. Temperature differences between the two scenarios is the dominant factor that determines the difference in PCB concentrations in air. The higher temperatures in the A2 scenario drive increased primary and secondary volatilization emissions of PCBs, and enhance transport from temperate regions to the Arctic. The largest relative increase in concentrations of both PCB congeners in air under the A2 scenario occurs in the high Arctic and the remote Pacific Ocean. Generally, higher wind speeds under the A2 scenario result in more efficient intercontinental transport of PCB 28 and PCB 153 compared to the 20CE

  15. Sexual difference in gonadal development of embryonic chickens after treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent and lipophilic environmental endocrine disrupters that can be biomagnified in human and animals including birds and thus to affect reproductive functions.Poultry meat and eggs contain a great deal of fat and possibly concentrate higher PCBs and other environmental contaminants such as dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT).In order to identify the adverse effects of PCBs and possible sexual difference on chicken gonadal development, Aroclor 1254 was injected into fertilized Hyline chicken eggs before incubation. Four groups of eggs received yolk injection of either peanut oil as control, 1, 10 or 100 μg/egg of Aroclor 1254 as treatment group, respectively. After hatching the gonads were removed for histological examination. Testicular structure was apparently changed and exhibited dramatic decrease in area of the transverse sections (1 μg/egg, P< 0.01; 10 and 100 μg/egg, P<0.001), diameter (10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.05) and relative area of the testicular tubules (10 μg/egg, P<0.05; 100 μg/egg, P<0.01). Most testicular tubules of the highest dose group degenerated and even disappeared. The differentiation of germ cells was retarded in all groups treated with Aroclor 1254. Some germ cells were irregular in shape, with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatism nucleus (pyknosis) in 1 and 10 μg/egg groups and almost all germ cells in 100 μg/egg group. In contrast,the area of the left ovarian transverse sections increased dramatically (10 and 100 lμg/egg, P <0.001), the ovarian cortex manifested a significant increment in thickness (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) and a higher number of oocytes was observed (1, 10 and 100 μg/egg, P <0.001) in the female chickens treated with Aroclor 1254 compared with the control group. A few oocytes with vacuolated cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nucleus were also observed in ovarian cortex after PCBs exposure. These results showed that PCBs interfered

  16. Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Berglund, Marika; Löfman, Owe; Wingren, Gun

    2012-09-01

    Environmental measurements carried out by local authorities during the 1970s, 80s and 90s in an area contaminated by hundreds of years of industrial activities have revealed high levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in soil, vegetables, root crops, berries and mushrooms. In 1972, a large quantity of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was accidentally spilled into the river running through the village. To investigate the possible health effects of exposure from local sources, all cancer diagnoses, registered in 1960-2003 for individuals living in the study area, were collected from the regional cancer register of southeast Sweden. The total cancer incidence was non-significantly decreased both among males and females as compared to national rates (SIR=0.91) for each gender. Among males, increased risks, of border-line significance, were seen for testicular cancer and lymphomas as well as significantly decreased risks for cancer in the rectum, respiratory system and brain. Information on lifetime residence, occupation, smoking habits, diseases, childbirth and food consumption, was collected via questionnaires from cancer cases and randomly selected controls. In both genders combined, significant associations were found for total cancer and high consumption of local perch, and for lymphomas and high consumption of both perch and pikeperch. Female breast cancer was significantly associated with high consumption of local perch and pike as well as with work in metal production. Mothers residing in the parish before the age of five reported significantly more preterm child deliveries. In spite of study limitations, the results indicate that residing in a rural contaminated area may contribute to the development of certain cancers and reproductive effects. In females, high consumption of local fish was shown to be the strongest determinant for total cancer, while in males, the strongest determinant was residing in the study area

  17. [Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in 130 exposed elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisel, F; von Manikowsky, S; Schümann, M; Feindt, W; Hoppe, H W; Melchiors, U

    1999-03-01

    In the classroom air on a primary school polychlorinated biphenyls were present in a wide range extending to 10.220 ng/cbm; in a side room even 19.550 ng/cbm were measured. The school was closed down, a flame retardant paint was detected to be the main source of this contamination. 130 differently exposed persons gave blood specimens for measurement of PCB concentrations. Compared with a comparative reference collective of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory, the PCB blood concentrations of 92 actual pupils were even lower. A comparison with five near-representative child collectives of South Germany did not show any obvious difference. The reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were exceeded by 4 of 92 pupils for PCB 138, by 6 pupils for PCB 153 and by 6 pupils for PCB 180. In a group of 9 teachers and 1 cleaning person the median values of reference collectives of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory were exceeded by 8 persons for PCB 138, 7 persons for PCB 153 and 8 persons for PCB 180. The 95. Percentiles of these reference collectives and the reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were not exceeded. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses the data of 92 actual pupils showed positive associations between blood levels of PCB and age as well as nursing period, a negative association between PCB blood concentrations and body-mass index and a weak influence by gender (boys had lower blood concentrations). In addition, the results of multiple regression analyses showed (with the exception of the analyses of PCB 180 without controlling for gender) a significant influence of PCB concentrations in indoor air on PCB blood concentrations. This association could not be detected in bivariate analyses, and in comparison to the mentioned main influence variables it was obviously weaker. But basing on the results of the multiple regression analyses one can calculate an increase of PCB blood concentration

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2009-05-01

    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  19. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Miguel A.

    1996-01-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species' diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  20. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, M.A. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species` diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Caspian terns than in the other species. Overall, PCBs in eggs of birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  1. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants....mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated...

  2. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood : A comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and longterm exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Dagnelie, PC; Mulder, PGH; de Coul, EO; van der Veen, JE; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ

    1999-01-01

    Food is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next generation. The objective of this study was to asse

  3. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood: A comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and long-term exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); E.L.M. Op de Coul (Eline); J.E. van der Veen; N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFood is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next generatio

  4. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  5. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  6. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported ship-based micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  7. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  8. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. Case study: Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds play a significant role as bioindicators: they are conspicuous, relatively easy to observe, well-established studied group of organisms, and in the focus of public interest due to pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Systematically, a significant number of man-made chemicals have been introduced in the marine environment and represent the major problem arising in the development worldwide. Many of these chemical contaminants are persistent, known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify through the aquatic food web, affecting species associated with aquatic systems. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD, dibenzofurans (PCDF] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB concentrations were measured in Kelp gull Larus dominicanus collected from 2006 to 2011 on Marambaia Island, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Detectable liver concentrations of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. These represent some of the first measurements of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs in seabirds from this area. Although levels of these contaminants in the tested species currently appear to fall below critical values, a continuous and systematic monitoring on these compounds becomes essential and desirable to not express toxic values in the future.   

  9. Congener specific distribution and health risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were primarily used in transformers and capacitors, lubricants, flame retardants, plasticizers, paint, carbonless papers, etc. These are capable of long-range atmospheric transport and have been designated as persistent organic pollutants by the Stockholm Convention. Due to their characteristic properties, PCBs are found worldwide in all environmental matrices (including human and biota. Soils are usually considered to be the source as well as sink for environmental pollutants, with cumulative effects of long-range atmospheric transport and local sources. Around the world, comparatively higher concentrations of PCBs have been reported in urban soils than suburban or rural soils. Higher amount of PCBs in urban soils may cause toxicological health risks to urban residents through ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. This paper presents the PCB distribution in soils from Delhi, India, and exposure risk estimates for human health through soil ingestion. The concentration of ΣPCBs ranged between 1.08-100.67 ng g–1 (mean 21.16 ng g–1±5.24 ng g–1, which was much lower than the Canadian soil quality guideline value of 1.3 mg/kg or 1300 ng g–1. Human health risk estimates through the soil ingestion pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD, incremental lifetime cancer risks and non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ. The LADD for Delhi adults and children was 3.02x10–8 mg kg–1 d–1 and 1.57x10–7 mg kg–1 d–1, respectively, which corresponds to toxic equivalent quotients (TEQ intake of 0.105 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (0.735 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1 and 0.543 pg TEQ kg–1 d–1 (3.801 pg TEQ kg–1 week–1, respectively. The estimated LADD for Delhi residents was lower than the acceptable

  10. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N

    2007-11-20

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D&D) activities. PCBs can pose other

  11. Investigation of saponification for determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Masahiko; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yamazaki, Misako; Takatsu, Akiko

    2005-02-01

    The effects of saponification conditions (temperature and water content of saponifying solution) on the determination of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) in marine sediments were investigated. Although highly chlorinated biphenyls (nona- to deca-CBs) decomposed during high-temperature saponification, the degree of degradation was reduced by adding water to the ethanolic potassium hydroxide saponifying solution. Room-temperature saponification yielded quantitative recovery of highly chlorinated biphenyl surrogates but low extraction efficiencies of lightly chlorinated biphenyls (mono- to di-CBs). The same samples were analyzed by other extraction techniques, for example, pressurized liquid extraction, and analytical results were compared. The mono- and di-CB concentrations were correlated with the extraction temperatures of various extraction techniques. In particular, the concentrations of some CB congeners (CB11, CB14) were higher with saponification. The low degree of degradation of highly chlorinated biphenyls and the high recovery of lightly chlorinated biphenyls were compatible when room-temperature and high-temperature saponification were combined. Except for the anomalies of CB11 and CB14, the combined method gave satisfactory results for analysis of PCBs.

  12. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and

  13. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils.

  14. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments.

  15. Comparison of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls residues in vegetables, grain and soil from organic and conventional farming in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Organic and conventional crops were studied by identifying the relationship between persistent organic pollutants in cereals, vegetables and soil. The residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in grains (rye and wheat), vegetables (carrots and beets) and soil collected from the fields. PCB residues recorded in the beets from organic farming were as high as 3.71 ppb dry weight (dry wt.), while in the soil from conventional farming of beets 0.53 ppb dry wt. Among vegetables, higher concentrations of pesticides were detected in organically grown beets (190.63 ppb dry wt.). Soil samples from the organic farming contained lower levels of organochlorine pesticide residues compared to the conventional farming. Taking into account toxicity equivalent (TEQ), the conventionally grown carrots accumulated the most toxic PCBs. Non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs were also noted in the grain of conventionally grown rye and amounted to 3.05 pg-TEQ/g wet wt.

  16. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the freshwater fish, crucian, from the Han river and the Kum river, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, G.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Moon, J.Y.; Lee, S.I.; Kim, H.; Song, H. [Pusan National Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Even though polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were prohibited from producing and using for a long time, it is still identified in the every environmental media including biota. Since PCBs are lipophilic and persistent, they concentrate readily in the tissue and accumulate exponentially as they move through the food chain. Crucian (Carassius auratus) is most widely living freshwater fish in Korea. So crucian was selected as a representative freshwater fish in this study to determine the accumulation level and distribution characteristics of PCBs. In this study, we attempted to investigate the accumulation profile of individual PCB congeners in the muscle of freshwater fish crucian from the two major rivers, the Han River and Kum River, in Korea.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C.E.; Azeredo, A.; Meire, R.; Torres, J.P. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito Jr., J.L.; Malm, O. [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  18. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil by miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass-selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Tor, Ali; Ozcan, Senar

    2006-09-08

    Miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction procedure was developed for the determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples by gas chromatography-mass-selective detection by using 2(3) factorial experimental design. Recoveries of PCBs from fortified soil samples are over 90% for three different fortification levels between 40 and 120 microg kg(-1), and relative standard deviations of the recoveries are below 7%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.006 microg kg(-1). The performance of the proposed method was compared to traditional shake flask extraction method on the spiked real soil sample and extraction methods showed comparable efficiencies. Proposed miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction offers several advantages, i.e., reducing sample requirement for measurement of target compound, less solvent consumption and reducing the costs associated with solvent purchase and waste disposal.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods from China: levels, dietary intake, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Wen, Sheng; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2013-07-03

    A national survey of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in various foodstuffs from the Chinese total diet study (TDS) performed in 2007 was conducted for the first time. Meats and aquatic foods had the highest average sum PBDEs (192.5 and 190.6 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight, respectively). For indicator PCBs, the highest average concentration was found in aquatic foods (628.7 pg g⁻¹ fresh weight). On the basis of measured PBDE and indicator PCB levels, the dietary intake estimate was subsequently calculated for the nonoccupationally exposed population in China. For adults, average estimated dietary intakes of PBDEs and indicator PCBs were 0.76 and 2.34 ng kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹, respectively. Health risk assessment of PBDEs using a MOE approach recommended by EFSA suggested unlikely health concern with respect to current dietary intake of PBDEs in China.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls levels in human milk from Chelem, Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Ortíz, Juan Pablo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; González-Navarrete, R L; Alvarado-Mejía, Jorge; Rodríguez-Hernández, Marissa E; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo

    2008-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Chelem, Yucatan, Mexico were analyzed. Relatively high levels of p,p'-DDE, gamma-chlordane, beta-hexacyclohexane (beta-HCH) and PCB congeners 170, 28, and 44 were found. Concentration profiles by OCP groups followed the next order: SigmaDDTs > SigmaChlordanes > SigmaHCHs > SigmaChlorobenzenes > SigmaDrins. Total OCPs showed a decreasing tendency with number of births (primipara and multipara and age ranks) but these differences were not significant. SigmaDDT levels were lower than in other studies in Mexico, but 36% of the samples exceeded the JMPR-FAO/WHO acceptable daily intake (ADI). About 60.53% of samples exceeded the ADI value for heptachlors.

  1. Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Tong, Hebing

    2014-12-15

    The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs).

  2. Using GC to determinate polychlorinated biphenyls in soil after pretreated with microwave-assisted alkaline degradation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xiao-qing; LI Gong-ke; LUO Mei-zhong; ZHANG Zhan-xia

    2006-01-01

    A new and simple microwave-assisted alkaline degradation (MAAD) method for the elimination of organochlorine-pesticide interference on the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil by GC is presented. Under the optimal conditions, the interference of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, o. p'-DDT, p. p'-DDD and p. p'-DDT could be eliminated completely, and p. p'-DDE, Aldrin and Dieldrin could be partially eliminated; however, Dieldrin could be completely eliminated by using concentrated sulphuric acid. The method was evaluated by analyzing the spiked-soil sample. The mean recovery obtained was 84. 1%and the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) was 2.7%. Experimental results also indicate that the degradation of the interference and the extraction of the target analytes, PCBs, could be carried out simultaneously. Compared with the traditional methods, the MAAD method is a rapid, efficient and solvent-saving method.

  3. Prediction of gas chromatographic retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls by mono-dimensional molecular descriptors and multivariate techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, M.; Amici, M. [Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientifica e Technological Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Acquistucci, R. [Istituto Nazionale per la Nutrizione e gli Alimenti, Rome (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    We report a procedure for describing the gas chromatographic retention time of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as a function of simple mono-dimensional molecular descriptors such as the number and position of chlorine atoms on the aromatic rings. The mathematical relationships between relative retention time (RRT) of all 209 possible congeners of PCBs and the mono-dimensional molecular descriptors (MDDs) were obtained by the multivariate techniques principal component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS) used as modelling tools. The good agreement found between experimental and predicted retention times of PCBs shows that a well established mathematical model relating retention time to specific mono-dimensional molecular descriptors can be a useful tool to enhance identification of these pollutants in real samples. (orig.)

  4. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contamination, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 of the NTS, CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Corrective Action Unit 528 was created to address the presence of PCBs around the Test Cell C concrete pad. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 24, 2003, through January 8, 2004. The PCBs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics were identified as contaminants of concern in the surface and shallow subsurface soils in 12 areas (Areas 1 through 12) at CAS 25-27-03. Based on the review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The three corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. Alternative 3 is the preferred corrective action for CAS 25-27-03. The selected alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated for closure of the sites and additionally to minimize potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 528.

  6. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  7. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  8. Dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl body burden, diabetes and endometriosis: findings in a population-based study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Sébastien; Mairesse, Hélène; Heilier, Jean-François; De Burbure, Claire; Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Bernard, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely distributed in the food chain, which is the main source of human exposure. Their effects on human health at background exposure levels are still poorly understood. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between these pollutants and diabetes. We report here the results of a population-based study in Belgium on 257 (142 women and 115 men) environmentally exposed subjects, including 10 cases of endometriosis and nine cases of diabetes. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs or dioxins), four coplanar PCBs (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] nos 77, 81, 126 and 169) and 12 PCB markers (IUPAC nos 3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, 206 and 209) were quantified in serum fat from fasting blood samples in order to estimate the body burden of these pollutants. Whilst no difference was found between women with endometriosis and their controls, diabetic patients had significantly increased serum levels of dioxins, coplanar PCBs and the 12 PCB markers. After adjustment for age and other covariates, serum total toxic equivalent activity (sum of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) and 12 PCB marker concentrations in diabetics were 62% (p = 0.0005) and 39% (p = 0.0067) higher, respectively, than in controls. The risk of diabetes was significantly increased in subjects in the top decile for adjusted concentrations of dioxins (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-21.7), coplanar PCBs (odds ratio 13.3, 95% CI 3.31-53.2) or 12 PCB markers (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.58-36.3). These findings warrant further studies to assess the significance of the associations between diabetes and environmental exposure to polychlorinated pollutants.

  9. Exposure to High Doses of the di-ortho-Substituted Polychlorinated Biphenyls 153 and 180, But Not 52, Leads to Behavioural Changes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Knoff, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of toxins that are hydrophobic and lipophilic. Acute and chronical exposure through mother’s milk and food consumption can produce hyperactivity and disturbances in cognitive development in humans. Animal studies have shown inconsistent changes in behaviour and attention. More consistent findings of reductions in dopamine levels have also been found. This makes PCB exposure relevant for certain dopamine based diseases, such as Parkinso...

  10. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s), Chlorinated Pesticides, and Heavy Metals and Other Elements in Tissues of Belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, from Cook Inlet

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Paul R.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Mackey, Elizabeth A.; Demiralp, Rabia; Schantz, Michele M.; Epstein, Michael S.; Donais, Mary Kate; Porter, Barbara J.; Derek C G Muir; Wise, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Tissues from Cook Inlet beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, that were collected as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals and other elements. Concentrations of total PCB’s (ΣPCB’s), total DDT (ΣDDT), chlordane compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, mirex, toxaphene, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) measured in Cook Inlet beluga blubber were compared with those reported for b...

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  12. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  13. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls, selected persistent organochlorine pesticides, and polybrominated flame retardants in fillets of fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    was associated with changes in early childhood growth and serum IGF1. In 418 maternal breast milk samples of Danish children (born 1997-2001) from a longitudinal cohort, we measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (pg or ng/g lipid) and calculated...... total toxic equivalent (total TEQ). SDS and SDS changes over time (ΔSDS) were calculated for height, weight, BMI, and skinfold fat percentage at 0, 3, 18, and 36 months of age. Serum IGF1 was measured at 3 months. We adjusted for confounders using multivariate regression analysis. Estimates (in...... parentheses) correspond to a fivefold increase in total TEQ. TEQ levels in breast milk increased significantly with maternal age and fish consumption and decreased with maternal birth year, parity, and smoking. Total TEQ was associated with lower fat percentage (-0.45 s.d., CI: -0.89; -0.04), non...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenescu, Violeta [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Arsenescu, Razvan [Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Zhang, Xuan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Baker, Nicki [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Cassis, Lisa A., E-mail: lcassis@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  16. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in an urban riparian zone affected by wastewater treatment plant effluent and the transfer to terrestrial compartment by invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Junchao [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Thanh, E-mail: bswang@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China); Han, Shanlong [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Wang, Pu; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riparian zone affected by the effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). River water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates and samples from the surrounding terrestrial compartment such as soil, reed plants and several land based invertebrates were collected. A relatively narrow range of δ{sup 13}C values was found among most invertebrates (except butterflies, grasshoppers), indicating a similar energy source. The highest concentration of total PCBs was observed in zooplankton (151.1 ng/g lipid weight), and soil dwelling invertebrates showed higher concentrations than phytophagous insects at the riparian zone. The endobenthic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (54.28 ng/g lw) might be a useful bioindicator of WWTP derived PCBs contamination. High bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were observed in collected aquatic invertebrates, although the biota-sediment/soil accumulation factors (BSAF) remained relatively low. Emerging aquatic insects such as chironomids could carry waterborne PCBs to the terrestrial compartment via their lifecycles. The estimated annual flux of PCBs for chironomids ranged from 0.66 to 265 ng⋅m{sup −2}⋅y{sup −1}. Although a high prevalence of PCB-11 and PCB-28 was found for most aquatic based samples in this riparian zone, the mid-chlorinated congeners (e.g. PCB-153 and PCB-138) became predominant among chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates, which might suggest a selective biodriven transfer of different PCB congeners. Highlights: • The distribution of PCBs in an urban riparian zone around a wastewater effluent affected river was investigated. • Relatively high abundances of PCB-11 and PCB-28 were found for most samples. • Mid-chlorinated congeners (PCB-153 and PCB-138) were more accumulated in chironomids and dragonflies as well as soil dwelling invertebrates. • Emerging invertebrates can carry waterborne PCBs to the

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Hudson River, New York, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean S; Skinner, Lawrence C

    2016-09-01

    The Hudson River, NY, USA is contaminated for over 300 km with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from two General Electric (GE) capacitor plants. We collected adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from four different areas of the river; an area upstream of the GE plants (n = 38), two areas directly downstream of the GE plants (n = 41, n = 38), and an area more than 100 km downstream in the freshwater tidal river (n = 20). Collections occurred during July and August (2008) when ducks were flightless to ensure ducks were "resident" and exposures were local. Fat and muscle tissue were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were detected in all samples, and mallards below the GE plant sites on the Hudson River had orders of magnitude higher concentrations of PCBs than those above the plants. Juvenile mallards from areas directly downstream of the GE plant sites tended to have higher PCB concentrations in fat than adults. The patterns of PCB congeners and homolog groups varied across the study areas, with areas directly downstream of the GE plants dominated by tetra-chloro biphenyls whereas samples from upstream and the freshwater tidal river tended towards higher chlorinated congeners. Congener patterns between male and female and juvenile and adult mallards were generally similar within study areas, with the exception of one area downstream of the GE plants where adult birds exhibited different patterns than juveniles. Evidence of PCBs from the GE plant sites was detected in the tidal Hudson River, more than 100 km downstream of the plant sites. More than 90% of the ducks collected in areas downstream of the GE plants but above the tidally influenced river exceed the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs in poultry, which should be a concern for consumers of waterfowl taken in proximity to the upper Hudson River.

  18. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  19. Identification of a novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl bioaccumulating in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, G.; Athanasiadou, M.; Bergman, Aa.; Athanassiadis, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Endo, Tetsuya [Health Sciences Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan). Fac. of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The screening of persistent halogenated organic pollutants has in recent years ended up with findings of numerous compounds being natural products. These compounds have preferably been reported from the marine environment and comprise, several hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) including monochlorinated ditto, a dimethoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether i.e. 2',6-dimethoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, four halogenated dimethylated bipyrroles (HDBPs) with a 2,2'-bipyrrole backbone, a heptachlorinated 1,2'-bipyrrole i.e. heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1)6 and a halogenated monoterpene holding two bromine and three chlorine atoms. We have taken interest in an organobrominated compound with an unknown structure but with a molecule ion of m/z = 526 and a four bromine isotope pattern according to mass spectrometry (MS), detected in marine mammal samples of which the majority were collected from Japanese coastal waters. This compound has recently been reported from several marine mammals collected on the Southern hemisphere, but neither the chemical structure nor the type of substance group were established. We here report the structure of this organobrominated compound, a dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which likely is of natural origin. The identification was done by the comparison of relative retention time (RRT) on two GC columns with different polarities and by comparing mass spectra from three different ionization techniques i.e. PICI, ECNI and EI, of the unknown compound from the samples with an authentic reference compound. Levels of the novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl are reported as well as the levels (for comparison) of some other known polybrominated compounds, both brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and natural products i.e. BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2

  20. Effects-based marine ecological risk assessment at a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated site in Saglek, Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Stow, Jason P; Burgess, Neil M; Solomon, Steve M; Sheldon, Tom A; Reimer, Ken J

    2013-02-01

    Although the presence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Arctic marine environments has been well documented, the implications for the health of biota are poorly understood. In the present study, multiple lines of evidence, including site-specific effects data, were used to assess PCB-related risks to marine biota at a contaminated military site in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, from 1997 to 1999. Risks were evaluated for three components of the ecosystem: benthic invertebrates, a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), and a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle). Average sediment PCB concentrations exceeded the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline level by 41-fold. However, sediment toxicity testing and a benthic community survey showed no evidence of adverse effects. In contrast, shorthorn sculpin and black guillemot PCB exposures (measured as sum of 55 congeners) were elevated enough to pose risks to survival or reproduction. Based on the collective evidence, the authors estimated that risks were posed by sediment PCB concentrations greater than 77 ng/g dry weight for black guillemots and 750 ng/g dry weight for shorthorn sculpins. The present study, along with two parallel studies, provided information to support the management decisions concerning potential remedial action on the contaminated sediments. This ecological risk assessment describes the steps and rationale taken to evaluate the risk posed by an area of PCB-contaminated marine sediments in an otherwise relatively pristine northern coastal environment.

  1. Association of polychlorinated biphenyls with hypertension in the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Mainous, Arch G; Frithsen, Ivar L; Player, Marty S; Matheson, Eric M

    2008-09-01

    The association of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with hypertension was investigated using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2002. The unweighted number of participants assessed for hypertension ranged from 2074 to 2556 depending on the chemical(s) being analyzed. In unadjusted logistic regressions all 11 PCBs were associated with hypertension. After adjustment for age, gender, race, smoking status, body mass index, exercise, total cholesterol, and family history of coronary heart disease, seven of the 11 PCBs (PCBs 126, 74, 118, 99, 138/158, 170, and 187) were significantly associated with hypertension. The strongest adjusted associations with hypertension were found for dioxin-like PCBs 126 and 118. PCB 126>59.1 pg/g lipid adjusted had an odds ratio of 2.45 (95% CI 1.48-4.04) compared to PCB 126PCB 118>27.5 ng/g lipid adjusted had an odds ratio of 2.30 (95% CI 1.29-4.08) compared to PCB 118or=20 years old in the non-institutionalized US population. We hypothesize that association of seven PCBs with hypertension indicates elevated PCBs are a risk factor for hypertension. What clinicians can do, given the results of this study, is limited unless the appropriate laboratory methods can be made more widely available for testing patients.

  2. Plant consumption by grizzly bears reduces biomagnification of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Yunker, Mark B; MacDuffee, Misty; Ross, Peter S

    2013-04-01

    The present study characterizes the uptake and loss of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) by sampling and analyzing their terrestrial and marine foods and fecal material from a remote coastal watershed in British Columbia, Canada. The authors estimate that grizzly bears consume 341 to 1,120 µg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 3.9 to 33 µg of polybrominated diphenyl ethers daily in the fall when they have access to an abundant supply of returning salmon. The authors also estimate that POP elimination by grizzly bears through defecation is very low following salmon consumption (typically 100% for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides). Excretion of individual POPs is largely driven by a combination of fugacity (differences between bear and food concentrations) and the digestibility of the food. The results of the present study are substantiated by a principal components analysis, which also demonstrates a strong role for log KOW in governing the excretion of different POPs in grizzly bears. Collectively, the present study's results reveal that grizzly bears experience a vegetation-associated drawdown of POPs previously acquired through the consumption of salmon, to such an extent that net biomagnification is reduced.

  3. Plasma enzyme activities in coturnix quail fed graded doses of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl, malathion, and mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.

    1974-01-01

    Male Coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were fed diets for 12 weeks containing graded levels of DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254), malathion, and mercuric chloride. Birds were bled prior to exposure and at 2, 4 and 12 weeks, and the plasma used to measure the activities of creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholinesterase, fructose-diphosphate aldolase, and lactate dehydrogenase. Abnormal activity of certain plasma enzymes was noted in birds after 2 and 4 weeks, but these changes were not proportional to dose or exposure time. At 12 weeks increases in each of the activities of plasma enzymes of birds fed organochlorines, and decreases in cholinesterase activity of birds fed malathion or mercuric chloride, were proportional to the log dose of the respective agents. In addition, the pattern of enzyme responses in the 4 experimental groups had changed, and was illustrative of the specific type of substance that had been fed. The data suggest that qualitative and quantitative identification of environmental contaminants in birds, and perhaps a variety of wild animals, may be possible by utilization of multiple plasma enzyme assays. Residue analyses after 12 weeks of feeding showed that DDE accumulated in carcasses and livers at concentrations up to 4-fold higher than those in the diets. In contrast residues of Aroclor 1254 attained in carcasses were identical to, and in livers one-half of, the concentration in the feed. Mercury did not accumulate as much in the tissues; residues attained were one-twentieth or less of those in the feed.

  4. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk of women from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, L.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Spain); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Inst. (Finland); Vartiainen, T. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely distributed environmental contaminants derived from their extensive use as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardant in plastics, textiles and are also persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These compounds are lipophilic and difficult to metabolize. Therefore, environmental exposure of living organism results their accumulation in fat tissues via food. Although incineration has demonstrated to be a commercially available technology for hazardous waste (HW) disposal, the stack emission from HW incinerators (HWI) of a number of inorganic and organic substances has raised an important concern about the environmental and health consequences of this process of treating HW. In 1996, the construction of the first and to date only HWI in Spain was initiated in Constanti(Catalonia, Spain). Regular operations started in 1999. In order to establish the potential health risks of exposure on the general population living near the new HWI, a biological monitoring program was designed. To establish baseline levels of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and PCBs in human milk, samples were collected from women living in the neighborhood of the facility before starting regular operations. The purpose of the present study was to determine the concentrations of PCBs in breast milk of women living in the vicinity of the HWI after four years of regular operations in the facility. The levels of PBDEs were also measured.

  5. Live algae as a vector candidate for hydrophobic polychlorinated biphenyls translocation to bivalve filter feeders for laboratory toxicity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Qtae; Kim, Su-Kyoung; Lee, Chae Sung; Lee, Pil Yong

    2011-11-01

    Live algae carrying hydrophobic xenobiotics can be an effective vector candidate for the chemical translocation to filter feeders in the laboratory toxicity test, but information on their application is lacking. Time-course uptake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 50, 100, and 500 ng g(-1) by two key algal foods, Isochrysis galbana and Tetraselmis suecica, were measured. Both of the algae achieved maximum concentration in an hourafter PCBs exposure regardless the chemical concentrations in our time-course measurements (0, 1, 5, 10, 24, 48 and 72 hrs). Once achieved the maximum concentration, the algae shortly exhibited elimination or eliminating tendency depending on the chemical concentrations. Algae exposed to the chemical for 1 and 24 hrs (hereafter 1 and 24 hr vectors, respectively) were then evaluated as a chemical translocation vector by feeding test to larval and spat Crassostrea gigas. In the feeding test the 24 hr vector, which contained lower chemicals than the 1-hr vector, appeared to be more damaging the early lives of the oyster. This was particularly significant for vectors of higher PCBs (p<0.05), probably due to algal reduction in food value by the prolonged chemical stress. These findings imply that 1 hr exposure is long enough for a generation of algal vector for laboratory toxicity test, minimizing data error resulted from reduction in food value by longer chemical stress.

  6. Comparison of five integrative samplers in laboratory for the monitoring of indicator and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Romain; Miège, Cécile; Smedes, Foppe; Tixier, Céline; Tronczynski, Jacek; Togola, Anne; Berho, Catherine; Valor, Ignacio; Llorca, Julio; Barillon, Bruno; Marchand, P; Coquery, Marina

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed at evaluating and comparing five integrative samplers for the monitoring of indicator and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water: semi-permeable membrane device (SPMD), silicone rubber, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) strip, Chemcatcher and a continuous-flow integrative sampler (CFIS). These samplers were spiked with performance reference compounds (PRCs) and then simultaneously exposed under constant agitation and temperature in a 200 L stainless steel tank for periods ranging from one day to three months. A constant PCB concentration of about 1 ng·L(-1) was achieved by immersing a large amount of silicone rubber sheets ("dosing sheets") spiked with the target PCBs. The uptake of PCBs in the five samplers showed overall good repeatability and their accumulation was linear with time. The samplers SPMD, silicone rubber and LDPE strip were the most promising in terms of achieving low limits of quantification. Time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of PCBs in water were estimated from uptake of PCBs using the sampling rates calculated from the release of PRCs. Except for Chemcatcher, a good agreement was found between the different samplers and TWA concentrations ranged between 0.4 and 2.8 times the nominal water concentration. Finally, the influence of calculation methods (sampler-water partition coefficients, selected PRCs, models) on final TWA concentrations was studied.

  7. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAYMOND E. MARCH

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI and chemical ionization (Cl technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The disadvantage of using EI in the analysis of PCBs congeners is the extensive fragmentation of the molecular ion. The main fragmentation pattern recorded in the EI mass spectra of PCBs was the loss of a chlorine atom from the molecular ion. Therefore the fragment-ion signal overlapped with the molecular-ion cluster of lower mass congener. The fragmentation reactions of PCBs are suppressed if methane is used as a reagent gas for chemical ionization, but fragment ions are also present in the spectrum as an obstruction for quantitative analysis. The most selective method for PCBs quantitative analysis appears to be Cl with mass-selected C2H5+ ions from methane, which results in a mass spectrum with a negligible amount of fragment ions.

  8. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  9. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  10. Effects on thyroid hormone and retinoid metabolism in transthyretin-null mice by polychlorinated biphenyl isomers 118 and 114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, N.; Yonemoto, J.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yokoi, C.; Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Some congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are known to disturb thyroid and retinoid metabolism in laboratory animals and humans. Among 209 isomers of PCBs, 12 PCB isomers termed as the coplanar PCBs are grouped into dioxin-like chemicals based on their resemblance of toxic effects and mechanism(s) to dioxins. Mechanism(s) of toxicity by the dioxin-like chemicals have been established to be mediated through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The toxic potency of each congener/isomer of dioxin-like chemicals has been evaluated by relative potency to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as the toxic equivalent factor (TEF). Because dioxins in environments are generally distributed as mixtures, the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept has been adopted to evaluate the health risk of exposure to complex environmental mixtures. TEQ values are calculated by multiplication of the sum of the chemical concentrations by the corresponding TEF values. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two coplanar PCBs, PCB118, highly detected in human tissues and milk (TEF value: 0.0001), and PCB114 (TEF value: 0.0005) on thyroid hormone and retinoid metabolism. Possible involvement of transthyretin (TTR), the principal carrier of thyroid hormone and retinol-binding protein in the rodent, in PCBs-induced disruption of thyroid and retinoid homeostasis was investigated.

  11. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  12. Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by soil washing and subsequent TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Fang, Guodong; Fan, Jianxin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yujun; Cang, Long [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation

    2012-10-15

    An efficient method was developed for treating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil by soil washing and subsequent TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation, and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of PCBs was explored. Hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{Beta}CD) and polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij35) were used to extract PCBs from contaminated soil at first, and then the degradation of PCBs in the soil extracts was performed by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis under UV irradiation. Washing conditions including washing time, the concentration of HP{Beta}CD/Brij35, and the ratio of soil mass to solution volume for extracting 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) from a PCB28-spiked soil were investigated at first. The results indicated that both HP{Beta}CD and Brij35 exhibited good performance. The intermediates of photocatalytic degradation of PCB28 were from its dechlorination and hydroxylation in the HPCD and aqueous solutions, respectively. A field PCB-contaminated soil from e-waste recycling sites was treated by this method. The results showed that the extracting percentage was significantly affected by the chlorination degree of PCBs, and HP{Beta}CD slowed down the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of overall PCBs. Soil washing and subsequent TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation was successfully applied for treating PCB-contaminated soil, and HP{Beta}CD strongly altered the pathways of the photocatalytic degradation of PCBs.

  13. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in muck soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Fiona [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Bidleman, Terry F., E-mail: terry.bidleman@ec.gc.c [Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, Ontario, L0L 1N0 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was used as a non-exhaustive extractant for organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in muck soil. An optimized extraction method was developed which involved using a HPCD to soil mass ratio of 5.8 with a single extraction period of 20 h. An aging experiment was performed by spiking a muck soil with {sup 13}C-labeled OCs and non-labeled PCBs. The soil was extracted with the optimized HPCD method and Soxhlet apparatus with dichloromethane over 550 d periodically. The HPCD extractability of the spiked OCs was greater than of the native OCs. A decreased in HPCD extractability was observed for the spiked OCs after 550 d of aging and their extractability approached those of the natives. The partition coefficient between HPCD and soil (log K{sub CD-Soil}) was negatively correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log K{sub OW}) with r{sup 2} = 0.67 and p < 0.05. - The effect of aging on the extractability of organochlorine chemicals in muck soil was investigated using hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin as a mild extractant.

  14. Bioassessment of mercury, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides in the upper Mississippi River with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Bartsch, Michelle; Rada, Ronald G.; Balogh, Steven J.; Rupprecht, John E.; Young, R. David; Johnson, D. Kent

    1999-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were sampled from artificial substrates deployed from May 30 to October 19, 1995, at 19 locks and dams from Minneapolis, MN, to Muscatine, IA. Analyses of composite tissue samples of zebra mussels (10-20-mm length) revealed accumulation of mercury(Hg), cadmium (Cd), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during a 143-d exposure period. Concentrations of total Hg ranged from 2.6 to 6.1 ng/g wet weight and methylmercury (CH3Hg) from 1.0 to 3.3 ng/g wet weight. About 50% (range 30-70%) of the mean total Hg in zebra mussels was CH3Hg. Cadmium ranged from 76 to 213 ng/g wet weight. Concentrations of total PCBs (Aroclor 1254) in zebra mussels varied longitudinally (range 1000-7330 ng/g lipid weight), but the composition of PCB congeners (total of 21 measured) was similar throughout the river. Chlordane and dieldrin were the only two pesticides detected of the 15 analyzed. Zebra mussels are sentinels of contaminant bioavailability in the Upper Mississippi River and may be an important link in the trophic transfer of contaminants in the river because of their increasing importance in the diets of certain fish and waterfowl.

  15. Determination of organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human hair: estimation of external and internal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dasheng; Feng, Chao; Lin, Yuanjie; Wang, Dongli; Ip, Ho Sai Simon; Qiu, Xinlei; Wang, Guoquan; She, Jianwen

    2014-11-01

    A novel method was developed for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in human hair samples. External contaminants of hair were extracted with acetone under sonication, while washed hair was further hydrolyzed in formic acid and acetone (1:4, v/v) with microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for internal contaminant measurements. Both internal and external extracts were cleaned up with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and then solid phase extraction (SPE), before analyzed by a large volume injection-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS/MS) using triple quadruple mass analyzer. Good linearity (R(2)⩾ 0.996) was established within a concentration range between 0.1 and 100 ng mL(-)(1) among all target analytes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and sensitivity. The developed method is intended to be cost effective and robust for the routine human hair analysis of PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs including acid-labile OCPs. The described method has been applied in pilot biomonitoring study and the preliminary data suggested that the contaminant profiles with the use of partial least-squares analysis discriminant analysis (PLA-DA) could be useful in differentiating external and internal exposure.

  16. Influence of hydrological parameters on organohalogenated micropollutant (polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls) behaviour in the Seine (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Khawla; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Bourges, Catherine; Desportes, Annie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The temporal dynamics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in a heavily urbanized river (Seine River, Paris, France) from November 2009 to May 2010. Pollutant concentrations were in the range of 0.2 to 3.8 ng l(-1) (median 1.1) and 0.4 to 3.6 ng l(-1) (median 1.1) for ∑ tri-deca BDEs and ∑ 7PCBs, respectively. In addition, for both PBDEs and PCBs, the partitioning between the particulate and dissolved phases was investigated. Due to their low water solubility, PBDEs were mainly (>70%) bound to particles. In contrast, only 54% of ∑ 7PCBs occurred in the particulate phase, and their partitioning was influenced by the degree of chlorination. During the sampling period, PBDE/PCB fluxes were quite similar and ranged from 3 to 128 and from 6 to 125 g day(-1), respectively. The annual mass flow of PBDEs and PCBs was estimated to 10 kg for both. Contrary to PCBs and BDE-209, the temporal evolution of ∑ tri-hepta BDEs was related to particulate organic matter content, which is controlled by river flow variations. This suggests that they exhibit different sources or behavior in the Seine River.

  17. Adverse effects in risk assessment: Modeling polychlorinated biphenyls and thyroid hormone disruption outcomes in animals and humans☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Fred; Wise, Amber; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Portier, Christopher; Zeise, Lauren; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need for quantitative approaches to extrapolate relationships between chemical exposures and early biological perturbations from animals to humans given increasing use of biological assays to evaluate toxicity pathways. We have developed such an approach using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid hormone (TH) disruption as a case study. We reviewed and identified experimental animal literature from which we developed a low-dose, linear model of PCB body burdens and decrements in free thyroxine (FT4) and total thyroxine (TT4), accounting for 33 PCB congeners; extrapolated the dose–response from animals to humans; and compared the animal dose–response to the dose–response of PCB body burdens and TH changes from eleven human epidemiological studies. We estimated a range of potencies for PCB congeners (over 4 orders of magnitude), with the strongest for PCB 126. Our approach to developing toxic equivalency models produced relative potencies similar to the toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We generally found that the dose–response extrapolated from the animal studies tends to under-predict the dose–response estimated from human epidemiological studies. A quantitative approach to evaluating the relationship between chemical exposures and TH perturbations, based on animal data can be used to assess human health consequences of thyroid toxicity and inform decision-making. PMID:22575326

  18. Uptake and Translocation of Lesser-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Whole Hybrid Poplar Plants after Hydroponic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are congeners with greater volatility which remain in air, soils and sediments requiring treatment. In this study, the fate of these PCBs was investigated within whole poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) with application for a treatment system such as a confined disposal facility for dredged material. Whole hybrid poplars were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of five congeners, common in the environment, having one to four chlorine atoms per molecule. Results indicated that PCB 3, 15, 28, 52, and 77 were initially sorbed to the root systems. The Root Concentration Factor (RCF) of PCBs during the exposure was calculated and correlated with Kow. PCB congeners were taken up by the roots of hybrid poplar, and the translocation of PCBs to stems was inversely related to congener hydrophobicity (Log Kow). PCB 3 and 15 were translocated to the upper stem at small but significant rates. PCB 28 was translocated to the wood of the main stem but no farther; translocation from the roots was not detected for PCB 52 and 77. The distribution of PCBs within poplars was determined, and mass balances were completed to within 15% for each chemical except for PCB 3, the most volatile congener. This is the first report on the transport of PCBs through whole plants designed for use in treatment at disposal facilities. PMID:18793792

  19. High-throughput capillary gas chromatography for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and fatty acid methyl esters in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2002-01-01

    High-throughput capillary gas chromatography (CGC) methods, developed during the Belgian 1999 "dioxin" food crisis, for the determination of the contaminating polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the fatty acid composition of the lipids are described. For PCB analysis, the fat obtained by ultrasonic extraction is fractionated by matrix solid-phase dispersion, and the PCBs are analyzed by CGC-electron capture detection on a 10-mL x 100-microm-i.d. HP-5MS column. Analytical conditions for the high-speed column are deduced from analyses on conventional CGC columns using the method translation software. The concept of retention time locking is implemented to facilitate the elucidation of the PCB markers. The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) are prepared by the sodium methylate procedure on part of the ultrasonic extract followed by analysis on 10-mL x 100-microm-i.d. HP-WAX or BPX-70 capillary columns. By optimizing both the sample preparation and CGC analysis, the throughput is more than fifty PCB and FAME samples per day with the same robustness as conventional methods.

  20. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl source attribution in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, using multivariate similarity among congener profiles in sediment samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacela, Dave; Beltman, Douglas J; Lipton, Joshua

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations measured in 1,189 sediment samples from Green Bay (MI/WI, USA), Lake Michigan (MI/WI, USA), and the Fox River (WI, USA) were analyzed statistically to evaluate whether PCB congener profiles in outer Green Bay are more similar to those observed in inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan. Similarities among PCB profiles were assessed with complementary multivariate analysis techniques: Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and classification trees. The PCA indicated that profiles in outer Green Bay are distinct from those of inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan but are more similar to those of inner Green Bay. The outer bay profiles are dissimilar to profiles that would result from a simple process of mixing contaminated sediments from the inner bay with Lake Michigan sediments and, therefore, support the conclusion that contaminants in outer Green Bay come from discharges of the Fox River. Several classification trees based on small sets of congener proportions defined simple rules that consistently distinguished the regional profiles. Application of these rules to classify the outer bay samples suggests that the profiles of less than 7% of outer bay samples are similar to Lake Michigan profiles. These results are interpreted with respect to physical transport and chemical weathering processes that may account for the observed differences.

  2. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung, S.-C. Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China); Guo, Y.-L.L. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China); Chang, H.-Y.[Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 138 Sheng-Li Rd., Tainan, Taiwan 70428 (China)]. E-mail: h7154@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2005-07-15

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan.

  3. Spatial and seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Hyokeun; Kang, Jung-Ho; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2010-04-15

    Four consecutive passive air samplings (September 2006-July 2007) were conducted at 15 sites around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, Korea to investigate the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ultimately the source-receptor relationships. Annual mean values of Sigma(8)PCBs (IUPAC number 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were in the range of 15.1-166 pg/m(3) with an average of 53.0 pg/m(3). The spatial distribution of PCBs for each sampling period clearly suggests that the steel complex is a major source of PCBs in this area, and the prevailing winds facilitated the atmospheric transport and dispersion of PCBs from the steel complex to the surrounding areas. Seasonal patterns of PCBs were observed clearly, which were influenced by meteorological conditions; the highest levels of PCBs were observed with the highest average air temperature, and the influence of rainfall (i.e., wet scavenging) was also observed. In addition, PCB 11, a non-Aroclor congener, was detected in high concentrations at all sites, implying that the sources of PCB 11 are both unique and ubiquitous. This study confirms that passive air sampling is a useful tool to obtain seasonal and spatial distributions of time-averaged POPs data at a local scale.

  4. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: Effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Jiajun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method.The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology.Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal.Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal.Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent.The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing.Compared with solution flushing,the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent.Similar to solution flushing,solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing.In addition,the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size.Therefore,foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity.An integrated flushing with water,surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam,and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the cerebral cortex of wild river otters (Lontra canadensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Niladri [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada)]. E-mail: nbasu@uottawa.ca; Scheuhammer, Anton M. [National Wildlife Research Center, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0H3 (Canada); O' Brien, Mike [Furbearers and Upland Game, Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources, Kentville, Nova Scotia, B4N 4E5 (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    We measured the levels of ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorinated pesticides (OCP), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) in the cerebral cortex of river otters (Lontra canadensis) trapped from Ontario and Nova Scotia between 2002 and 2004. The mean concentration of total PCBs was 70.9 {+-} 12.1 ng/g l.w., and congeners 153, 180 and 138 accounted for nearly 60% of the sum. The mean concentration of total OCPs was 21.2 {+-} 3.7 ng/g l.w., and hexachlorobenzene (32.6% of total) and DDE (28.1%) accounted for the majority. The mean concentration of total PBDEs was 3.2 {+-} 0.6 ng/g l.w., and congeners 99 (44.9%), 153 (30.5%), and 100 (24.7%) were measured at the indicated percentages. There was no relationship between these residue data and concentrations of brain mercury or neurochemical receptors and enzymes as determined in earlier studies on these same animals. - River otters accumulated PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs, but at levels below thresholds for neurotoxic effects.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-03-01

    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from < LOD in smoked halibut up to 18 ng/g lw in narwhal mattak and 21 ng/g lw in whale beef. ∑PCB were lowest in smoked halibut (37 ng/g lw) and highest in narwhal mattak with 1,146 ng/g lw. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most common of the PFASs. However, ΣPFASs were below detection limits in most fish fillet samples, and varied from 2.9 ng/g ww in whale beef to 13.5 ng/g ww in seal beef. The present study shows that the exclusion from the diet of local food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably.

  7. Uptake, translocation and metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen; Huang, Honglin; Zhao, Moming; Lv, Jitao

    2011-10-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted in the present study to investigate and compare plant uptake, translocation and metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) of BDE-15, BDE-28 and BDE-47 and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of PCB-15, PCB-28 and PCB-47 in maize. Root concentrations of BDE-15, BDE-28 and BDE-47 were consistently higher than PCB-15, PCB-28 and PCB-47, respectively. A significantly positive correlation was found between logRCF (root concentration factor) and logKow of these PBDEs and PCBs, suggesting a control role of their partitioning in plant uptake. The translocation factors (TFs, Cstem/Croot) of PBDEs were generally lower than those of PCBs of the same halogen-substitutions, demonstrating easier transport of PCBs than PBDEs. Metabolites mono-, di- and tri-BDEs and PCBs were detected, suggesting the existence of in vivo metabolism of PBDEs and PCBs in maize. Dehalogenation and rearrangement of halogen atoms were identified, and some similarities but also significant differences existed between the PBDEs and PCBs. PBDEs in maize were, in general, more susceptible to metabolism compared with PCBs of the same halogen-substitutions. This is the first comparative report on the uptake, translocation and metabolism of PBDEs and PCBs in plants.

  8. Involvement of extracellular and intracellular enzymes of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 for biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Chang-Young; Kim, Ho-Yong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Soo-Min; Choi, In-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the interrelation between the biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 and its fungal enzyme systems. The degradation rates of Aroclor 1254 and 1260 were 29.01% on day 5 and 36.80% on day 10, respectively. MnP (Manganese dependent peroxidase) and laccase activities showed the greatest increases in the samples containing Aroclors, indicating that extracellular enzymes of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 were affected by the addition of Aroclors. However, the relationship between the biodegradation rate and extracellular enzymes might be obscured by the complexity of the biodegradation process. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase was inhibited and the biodegradation rate of the Aroclor decreased by adding the inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that intracellular enzymes play a significant role in the biodegradation of Aroclor. Complex extracellular and intracellular enzyme systems in Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 play an important role in degrading PCBs. Physiological changes of Ceriporia sp. ZLY-2010 caused by PCBs appeared to affect biodegradation of PCBs. However, it is necessary to further study the unidentified enzymes related to the biodegradation of Aroclor.

  9. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method. The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology. Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal. Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal. Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent. The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing. Compared with solution flushing, the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent. Similar to solution flushing, solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing. In addition, the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size. Therefore, foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity. An integrated flushing with water, surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam, and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  10. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study.

  11. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls among raccoons (Procyon lotor) at the paducah gaseous diffusion plant, Western Kentucky, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip N; Johnson, Kevin A; Anderson, Todd A; McMurry, Scott T

    2003-02-01

    An investigation involving raccoons (Procyon lotor) as a sentinel species at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Western Kentucky (USA) delineated the extent of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB spatial distribution. Raccoon exposure to PCBs was demonstrated through analysis of subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, liver, and brain tissues from raccoons collected at the PGDP but also was clearly evident in raccoons from a reference area situated along the Ohio River (USA). Raccoons with the highest tissue PCB concentrations appeared to be those inhabiting areas nearest the plant itself and most likely those that ventured into the plants interior. Male raccoons at the PGDP had similar concentrations of total PCBs in subcutaneous fat (1.86 +/- 0.64 microg/g) as males from the reference site (1.41 +/- 0.35 microg/g), but females had higher PCB body burdens than those at the reference site (9.90 +/- 6.13 microg/g vs 0.75 +/- 0.40 microg/g). Gross measurements of exposure to radiation-producing materials revealed that counts per minute exceeded background in 61% of PGDP raccoons compared with 27% at the reference site and five raccoons at the PGDP had beta counts that were more than twice the background. Differences among trapping success, growth rates, and serum chemistry parameters were noted but may have been related to habitat and other environmental and population density factors.

  12. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  13. Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) from Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routti, Heli; Andersen, Martin S; Fuglei, Eva; Polder, Anuschka; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations and patterns of hydroxylated (OH) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in liver from arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) sampled from Svalbard 1997-2011 (n = 100). The most important OH-PBDE in the arctic foxes was 6-OH-BDE47 detected in 24% of the samples. Relationships between 6-OH-BDE47, δ(13)C and BDE47 suggest that 6-OH-BDE47 residues in arctic foxes are related to marine dietary input, while the relative importance of the metabolic/natural origin of this compound remains unclear. 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 were the main OH-PCBs among the analyzed compounds. The OH-PCB pattern in the present arctic foxes indicates that arctic foxes have a capacity to biotransform a wide range of PCBs of different structures. Formation and retention of OH-PCBs was tightly related to PCB exposure. Furthermore, ΣOH-PCB concentrations were four times higher in the leanest compared to the fattest foxes. Concentrations of 4-OH-CB187 and 4-OH-CB146 among the highest contaminated arctic foxes were similar to the previously reported concentrations for polar bears. Given the high endocrine disruptive potential of OH-PCBs, we suggest that endocrine system may be affected by the relatively high OH-PCB residues in the Svalbard arctic fox population.

  14. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  15. A relevant exposure to a food matrix contaminated environmentally by polychlorinated biphenyls induces liver and brain disruption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Lamarche, Fréderic; Salen, Patricia; Favier-Hininger, Isabelle; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Venisseau, Anais; Batandier, Cécile; Fontaine, Eric; de Lorgeril, Michel; Demeilliers, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in dietary fats. Most studies evaluating PCB effects have been conducted with a single compound or a mixture of PCBs given as a single acute dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo PCB toxicity in a realistic model of exposure: a low daily dose of PCBs (twice the tolerable daily intake (TDI)), chronically administered (8 weeks) to rats in contaminated goat milk. Liver and brain PCB toxicities were investigated by evaluating oxidative stress status and mitochondrial function. PCB toxicity in the liver was also estimated by transaminase enzymatic activity. This study shows that even at low doses, chronic PCB exposure resulted in a statistically significant reduction of mitochondrial function in liver and brain. In the liver, oxygen consumption in the condition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production (state 3) decreased by 22-29% (p < 0.01), according to the respiratory substrates. In the brain, respiratory chain complexes II and III were reduced by 24% and 39%, respectively (p < 0.005). The exposed rats presented higher lipid peroxidation status (+20%, p < 0.05) and transaminase activity (+30%, p < 0.05) in the blood. Thus, our study showed that exposure of rats to a daily realistic dose of PCBs (twice the TDI in a food complex mixture of environmental origin) resulted in multiple disruptions in the liver and brain.

  16. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  17. QSPR models for predicting generator-column-derived octanol/water and octanol/air partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jintao; Yu, Shuling; Zhang, Ting; Yuan, Xuejie; Cao, Yunyuan; Yu, Xingchen; Yang, Xuan; Yao, Wu

    2016-06-01

    Octanol/water (K(OW)) and octanol/air (K(OA)) partition coefficients are two important physicochemical properties of organic substances. In current practice, K(OW) and K(OA) values of some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are measured using generator column method. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models can serve as a valuable alternative method of replacing or reducing experimental steps in the determination of K(OW) and K(OA). In this paper, two different methods, i.e., multiple linear regression based on dragon descriptors and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationship, were used to predict generator-column-derived log K(OW) and log K(OA) values of PCBs. The predictive ability of the developed models was validated using a test set, and the performances of all generated models were compared with those of three previously reported models. All results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory and can thus be used as alternative models for the rapid assessment of the K(OW) and K(OA) of PCBs.

  18. QSAR models for predicting octanol/water and organic carbon/water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S; Gao, S; Gan, Y; Zhang, Y; Ruan, X; Wang, Y; Yang, L; Shi, J

    2016-04-01

    Quantitative structure-property relationship modelling can be a valuable alternative method to replace or reduce experimental testing. In particular, some endpoints such as octanol-water (KOW) and organic carbon-water (KOC) partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are easier to predict and various models have been already developed. In this paper, two different methods, which are multiple linear regression based on the descriptors generated using Dragon software and hologram quantitative structure-activity relationships, were employed to predict suspended particulate matter (SPM) derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of 209 PCBs. The predictive ability of the derived models was validated using a test set. The performances of all these models were compared with EPI Suite™ software. The results indicated that the proposed models were robust and satisfactory, and could provide feasible and promising tools for the rapid assessment of the SPM derived log KOC and generator column, shake flask and slow stirring method derived log KOW values of PCBs.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  1. A simplified pretreatment method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranami, K.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Okuyama, A. [EnBio Tec Laboratories Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a simplified pretreatment method for determining polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The method used a combination of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and hexane partition and solid phase extraction. Kanechlors (KC) was used along with a transformer oil comprised of paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Waste oil samples contaminated with PCBs were prepared by adding KC to the oil. Capillary column gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was used to analyze the samples. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of KC and the oil were conducted. An ELISA kit was then used to analyze PCB samples in DMSO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) PCB competitors in TBS. A sulfuric acid/silica gel cartridge was used to purify the samples with n-hexane solutions. The ratio of the DMSO/hexane partition was examined. Results showed that the ELISA system is subject to negative interference in the presence of hydrocarbon co-contaminations. It was suggested that the oil matrix must be eliminated in order to detect PCB using the system. A simplified pretreatment was then developed which included direct addition of waste oil samples to the silica cartridge followed by elution with hexane. ELISA values of the pretreatment samples were corrected by multiplying dilution factors. It was concluded that the method successfully pretreated samples in approximately 10 minutes. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls disturb differentiation of normal human neural progenitor cells: clue for involvement of thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Ellen; Cline, Jason E; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S; Abel, Josef

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental chemicals that accumulate in adipose tissues over the food chain. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that PCBs influence brain development. Children who are exposed to PCBs during development suffer from neuropsychologic deficits such as a lower full-scale IQ (intelligence quotient), reduced visual recognition memory, and attention and motor deficits. The mechanisms leading to these effects are not fully understood. It has been speculated that PCBs may affect brain development by interfering with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. Because most of the data are from animal studies, we established a model using primary normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells to determine if PCBs interfere with TH-dependent neural differentiation. NHNP cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in culture, and they express a variety of drug metabolism enzymes and nuclear receptors. Like triiodothyronine (T3), treatment with the mono-ortho-substituted PCB-118 (2,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.01-1 microM) leads to a dose-dependent increase of oligodendrocyte formation. This effect was congener specific, because the coplanar PCB-126 (3,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) had no effect. Similar to the T3 response, the PCB-mediated effect on oligodendrocyte formation was blocked by retinoic acid and the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist NH-3. These results suggest that PCB-118 mimics T3 action via the TH pathway.

  3. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surficial sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material in Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sander D; Landrum, Peter F; Van Hoof, Patricia L; Eadie, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    A unique time series of surface sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) samples were collected at a 45-m deep site off Grand Haven (MI, USA) over a 14-month period. Both concentrations and congener distributions remained constant for the sediments, although there were seasonal and interannual variability in the other matrices. Trapped settling material and suspended particulate material PCB concentrations were substantially lower (~50%) in 1997 than in the samples from December 1997 through July 1998. The cause could not be determined from the data collected, but there were some very large storms during the winter-spring period of 1998, resulting in major sediment resuspension throughout the southern basin. Observed seasonal variation in PCB concentration and congener distribution on particles likely was due to the changes in particle composition. These include particle size and the source of particles (such as the amount of resuspended sediment in trapped settling material), and the role of diagenesis of the organic matter on particles.

  4. Hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets as adsorbents for solid-phase extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shiliang; Wang, Zhenhua; Ding, Ning; Elaine Wong, Y-L; Chen, Xiangfeng; Qiu, Guangyu; Dominic Chan, T-W

    2016-09-14

    The adsorptive potential of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (h-BNNSs) for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of pollutants was investigated for the first time. Seven indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as target analytes. The adsorption of PCBs on the surface of the h-BNNSs in water was simulated by the density functional theory and molecular dynamics. The simulation results indicated that the PCBs are adsorbed on the surface by π-π, hydrophobic, and electrostatic interactions. The PCBs were extracted with an h-BNNS-packed SPE cartridge, and eluted by dichloromethane. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry working in the multiple reaction monitor mode was used for the sample quantification. The effect of extraction parameters, including the flow rate, pH value, breakthrough volume, and the ionic strength, were investigated. Under the optimal working conditions, the developed method showed low limits of detection (0.24-0.50 ng L(-1); signal-to-noise ratio = 3:1), low limits of quantification (0.79-1.56 ng L(-1); signal-to-noise ratio = 10:1), satisfactory linearity (r > 0.99) within the concentration range of 2-1000 ng L(-1), and good precision (relative standard deviation results demonstrate that h-BNNSs have high analytical potential in the enrichment of pollutants.

  5. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process.

  6. Toxicity and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase-inducing potency of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in chick embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstroem, B.; Andersson, L.

    1988-10-01

    The toxicities of the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) were compared in a 72-h study on chick embryos. The substances were injectied into the air sacs of hens's eggs preincubated for 7 days. Mortality was measured 72 h later and corresponding LD/sub 50/ values were calculated. The rank order of toxicity was PeCB>TCB>HCB. Using the same injection procedure, the potencies of these chlorobiphenyls with regard to their induction of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity were compared. The ranking order of the substances as inducers was the same as their order when ranked according to toxicity. The three coplanar chlorobiphenyls were considerably more toxic and potent as inducers than the non-planar 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. In a 2-week toxicity study, PeCB and HCB were injected into the yolks of hens' eggs preincubated for 4 days. PeCB was about 50-fold more potent than HCB in causing embryonic death. Both substances caused abnormalities, including edema, liver lesions, microphthalmia and beak deformities.

  7. Combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, I. [Environmental Science Bureau, Ottawa (Canada); Valli, V.E. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There has been considerable interest in conducting toxicity studies on mixtures since this approach represents realistic human exposure and would provide a better model to predict the health impacts of environmental chemicals. However, risk assessment of the chemicals is largely based on the toxicity data of individual compounds by assuming simple additive effects of these compounds. This practice has been accepted by regulatory agencies provided that the concentrations of chemicals are extremely low, and there are no interactions. The existence of interactions among the chemicals co-administered to test animals may under or over estimate the effects of a mixture if the simple additive rule is applied. Previously, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect in rats when tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was co-administered with polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). The hepatic microsomal EROD, MROD and UDPGT activities of TCDD were decreased when co-administered with PCB congeners. To further explore the combined effects of these pollutants, we examined and report results on tissue residue levels of TCDD and histopathological changes in target organs of rats exposed to TCDD, PCBs and mixtures of both.

  8. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil by using liquid-liquid partitioning in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aota, Arata; Date, Yasumoto; Terakado, Shingo; Sugiyama, Hideo; Ohmura, Naoya

    2011-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) that are present in transformer oil are a common global problem because of their toxicity and environmental persistence. The development of a rapid, low-cost method for measurement of PCBs in oil has been a matter of priority because of the large number of PCB-contaminated transformers still in service. Although one of the rapid, low-cost methods involves an immunoassay, which uses multilayer column separation, hexane evaporation, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) partitioning, antigen-antibody reaction, and a measurement system, there is a demand for more cost-effective and simpler procedures. In this paper, we report a DMSO partitioning method that utilizes a microfluidic device with microrecesses along the microchannel. In this method, PCBs are extracted and enriched into the DMSO confined in the microrecesses under the oil flow condition. The enrichment factor was estimated to be 2.69, which agreed well with the anticipated value. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of PCBs in oil was found to be 0.38 mg/kg, which satisfies the much stricter criterion of 0.5 mg/kg in Japan. The developed method can realize the pretreatment of oil without the use of centrifugation for phase separation. Furthermore, the amount of expensive reagents required can be reduced considerably. Therefore, our method can serve as a powerful tool for achieving a simpler, low-cost procedure and an on-site analysis system.

  9. Pretreatment method for immunoassay of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil using multilayer capillary column and microfluidic liquid-liquid partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aota, Arata; Date, Yasumoto; Terakado, Shingo; Ohmura, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that are present in the insulating oil inside a large number of transformers. To aid in eliminating PCB-contaminated transformers, PCBs in oil need to be measured using a rapid and cost-effective analytical method. We previously reported a pretreatment method for the immunoassay of PCBs in oil using a large-scale multilayer column and a microchip with multiple microrecesses, which permitted concentrated solvent extraction. In this paper, we report on a more rapid and facile pretreatment method, without an evaporation process, by improving the column and the microchip. In a miniaturized column, the decomposition and separation of oil were completed in 2 min. PCBs can be eluted from the capillary column at concentrations seven-times higher than those from the previous column. The total volume of the microrecesses was increased by improving the microrecess structure, the enabling extraction of four-times the amount of PCBs achieved with the previous system. By interfacing the capillary column with the improved microchip, PCBs in the eluate from the column were extracted into dimethyl sulfoxide in microrecesses with high enrichment and without the need for evaporation. Pretreatment was completed within 20 min. The pretreated oil was analyzed using a flow-based kinetic exclusion immunoassay. The limit of detection of PCBs in oil was 0.15 mg kg(-1), which satisfies the criterion set in Japan of 0.5 mg kg(-1).

  10. Transcriptional Response of Rhodococcus aetherivorans I24 to Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Contaminated Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Puglisi, Edoardo

    2010-04-06

    We used a microarray targeting 3,524 genes to assess the transcriptional response of the actinomycete Rhodococcus aetherivorans I24 in minimal medium supplemented with various substrates (e. g., PCBs) and in both PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated sediment slurries. Relative to the reference condition (minimal medium supplemented with glucose), 408 genes were upregulated in the various treatments. In medium and in sediment, PCBs elicited the upregulation of a common set of 100 genes, including gene-encoding chaperones (groEL), a superoxide dismutase (sodA), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase protein C (ahpC), and a catalase/peroxidase (katG). Analysis of the R. aetherivorans I24 genome sequence identified orthologs of many of the genes in the canonical biphenyl pathway, but very few of these genes were upregulated in response to PCBs or biphenyl. This study is one of the first to use microarrays to assess the transcriptional response of a soil bacterium to a pollutant under conditions that more closely resemble the natural environment. Our results indicate that the transcriptional response of R. aetherivorans I24 to PCBs, in both medium and sediment, is primarily directed towards reducing oxidative stress, rather than catabolism. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  11. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorádová-Murínová, Slavomíra; Dudášová, Hana; Lukáčová, Lucia; Certík, Milan; Silharová, Katarína; Vrana, Branislav; Dercová, Katarína

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes.

  12. Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion in adult cocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才乔; 乔惠理

    2004-01-01

    The effects ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction of adult cocks were studied by gavaging peanut oil or PCBs (Aroclor 1254, 50 mg/kg) once a week for six consecutive weeks. Physiological parameters were recorded and gonads were removed at the end of experiment for histological examination. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the control and treatment group in body weight, respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature, and the numbers of red and white blood cells. However, there was a marked decrease in the testicular weight and serum testosterone level after PCB treatment. Morphological studies manifested severe damage of the seminiferous tubules by PCB. The number of the germ cells at the different developmental stages was decreased and condensed nuclei were observed in most of these cells. This study revealed that the reproductive function of the adult cocks is sensitive to PCBs, which inhibited mainly spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  14. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici Ermanno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO, as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3% and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3% were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB-contaminated soils. The addition of SO to matrices contaminated by technical PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242 and Delor 103 and characterized by a large preponderance of low chlorinated congeners, might not be advisable.

  15. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  17. A Chloroflexi bacterium dechlorinates polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments under in situ-like biogeochemical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Balloi, Annalisa; Negroni, Andrea; Borruso, Luigimaria; Daffonchio, Daniele; Fava, Fabio

    2012-03-30

    We investigated the reductive dechlorination of Aroclor 1254 PCBs by a coplanar PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched from an actual site contaminated marine sediment of the Venice lagoon in sterile slurry microcosms of the same sediment suspended in its site water, i.e., under biogeochemical conditions that closely mime those occurring in situ. The culture dechlorinated more than 75% of the penta- through hepta-chlorinated biphenyls to tri- and tetra-chlorinated congeners in 30 weeks. The dechlorination rate was reduced by the addition of H(2) and short chain fatty acids, which stimulated sulfate-reduction and methane production, and markedly increased by the presence of vancomycin or ampicillin. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA genes on PCB-spiked and PCB-free cultures ruled out sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria and revealed the presence of a single Chloroflexi phylotype closely related to the uncultured bacteria m-1 and SF1 associated to PCB dechlorination. These findings suggest that a single dechlorinator is responsible for the observed extensive dechlorination of Aroclor 1254 and that a Chloroflexi species similar to those already detected in freshwater and estuarine contaminated sediments mediates PCB dechlorination in the marine sediment adopted in this study under biogeochemical conditions resembling those occurring in situ in the Brentella Canal of Venice Lagoon.

  18. Binding interactions of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OHPCBs) with human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase hSULT2A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuase, Edugie J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2014-04-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants, and exposure to PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OHPCBs) has been associated with various adverse health effects. The mammalian cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze the sulfation of OHPCBs, and the interaction of OHPCBs with both the SULT1 and SULT2 families of these enzymes has received attention both with respect to metabolic disposition of these molecules and the potential mechanisms for their roles in endocrine disruption. We have previously shown that OHPCBs interact with human hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase hSULT2A1, an enzyme that catalyzes the sulfation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), other alcohol-containing steroids, bile acids, and many xenobiotics. The objective of our current studies is to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of hSULT2A1 by OHPCBs by combining inhibition kinetics with determination of equilibrium binding constants and molecular modeling of potential interactions. Examination of the effects of fifteen OHPCBs on the sulfation of DHEA catalyzed by hSULT2A1 showed predominantly noncompetitive inhibition patterns. This was observed for OHPCBs that were substrates for sulfation reactions catalyzed by the enzyme as well as those that solely inhibited the sulfation of DHEA. Equilibrium binding experiments and molecular modeling studies indicated that the OHPCBs bind at the binding site for DHEA on the enzyme, and that the observed noncompetitive patterns of inhibition are consistent with binding in more than one orientation to more than one enzyme complex. These results have implications for the roles of SULTs in the toxicology of OHPCBs, while also providing molecular probes of the complexity of substrate/inhibitor interactions with hSULT2A1.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in preferred prey fish of coastal southeastern U.S. bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulster, Erin L; Smalling, Kelly L; Maruya, Keith A

    2005-12-01

    Legacy organochlorine (OC) contaminants continue to pose a potential risk to ecological and human health in coastal aquatic ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene (TOX) were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in 77 composites of four inshore fish species commonly preyed upon by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from estuaries near Savannah, Georgia (SAV), Brunswick, Georgia (BRN), and Jacksonville, Florida (JAX), USA. Whereas seasonal and species-specific differences were minimal, differences among mean total PCB concentrations (sigmaPCBs) by estuary (42.0 +/- 48.3, 1.59 +/- 1.24, and 0.281 +/- 0.075 microg/g lipid for BRN, JAX, and SAV, respectively) were highly significant. This estuary-specific trend also held true for mean total toxaphene concentrations (sigmaTOX): 49 +/- 100 (BRN), 1.2 +/- 0.52 (JAX), and 0.40 +/- 0.19 microg/g lipid (SAV). Congener profiles of PCBs also were found to be significantly different among estuaries, with BRN and (to a lesser extent) JAX samples enriched with highly chlorinated homologs associated with Aroclor 1268, a legacy OC linked to a historical point source in Brunswick. The observed spatial heterogeneity in OC concentrations and PCB congener profiles suggests that contaminated fish from Brunswick pose the greatest risk to ecological and human health via biomagnification and seafood consumption; highly chlorinated PCBs (and possibly toxaphene) are transported in a southerly, alongshore direction; and the uniqueness of Aroclor 1268 underscores its utility as a signature proxy in future regional ecotoxicological studies.

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  1. Hexabromocyclododecanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in radiometrically dated sediment cores from English lakes, ~ 1950–present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Congqiao, E-mail: congqiao.yang@utoronto.ca [School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Rose, Neil L.; Turner, Simon D.; Yang, Handong; Goldsmith, Ben [Environmental Change Research Centre, Department of Geography, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Losada, Sara; Barber, Jonathan L. [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Cefas Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Harrad, Stuart [School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    This paper reports input fluxes between ~ 1950 and present, of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in radiometrically-dated sediment cores from 7 English lakes. Fluxes of PCBs at all but one location prone to significant sediment resuspension peaked in the late-1960s/early-1990s, before declining thereafter. Input fluxes of HBCDs at all sites increased from first emergence in the mid-1960s. Thereafter, fluxes peaked in the late-1980s/early-2000s, before declining through to the present, except at the most urban site where HBCD fluxes are still increasing. Trends of PBDEs predominant in the Penta-BDE and Octa-BDE formulations vary between sites. While at some locations, fluxes peaked in the late-1990s/early-2000s; at others, fluxes are still increasing. This suggests the full impact of EU restrictions on these formulations has yet to be felt. Fluxes of BDE-209 have yet to peak at all except one location, suggesting little discernible environmental response to recent EU restrictions on the Deca-BDE product. Strikingly, fluxes of BDE-209 in the most recent core slices either exceed or approach peak fluxes of ΣPCBs, implying substantial UK use of Deca-BDE. Excepting HBCDs, inventories of our target contaminants correlated significantly with local population density, implying substantial urban sources. - Highlights: • Temporal trends in PCB inputs consistent with those in UK manufacture & use. • HBCD inputs declining from peak levels at all but the most urban site. • Deca-BDE inputs yet to peak at all but one site. • Varying Penta & Octa-BDE trends imply full impact of restrictions not yet evident. • Excepting HBCDs, contaminant inventories correlate with local population density.

  2. Generation of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Using Hybrid Au–Ag Nanoparticle Arrays as a Sensor of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate periodic nanoparticle arrays (PNAs were designed to investigate their extinction spectra of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs. First, their simulating extinction spectra were calculated by discrete dipole approximation (DDA numerical method by changing the media refractive index. Simulation results showed that as the media refractive index was changed from 1.0 to 1.2, the maximum peak intensity of LSPRs spectra had no apparent change and the wavelength to reveal the maximum peak intensity of LSPRs spectra was shifted lower value. Polystyrene (PS nanospheres with two differently arranged structures were used as the templates to deposit the hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate periodic PNAs by evaporation method. The hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular and square lattice of quadrate PNAs were grown on single crystal silicon (c-Si substrates, and their measured extinction spectra were compared with the calculated results. Finally, the fabricated hexagonal lattices of triangular PNAs were investigated as a sensor of polychlorinated biphenyl solution (PCB-77 by observing the wavelength to reveal the maximum extinction efficiency (λmax. We show that the adhesion of β-cyclodextrins (SH-β-CD on the hybrid Au–Ag hexagonal lattice of triangular PNAs could be used to increase the variation of λmax. We also demonstrate that the adhesion of SH-β-CD increases the sensitivity and detection effect of PCB-77 in hexagonal lattice of triangular PNAs.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Great Slave Lake are very low but vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Total polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations (ΣPCBs) in whole fish were determined for 18 ripe female burbot Lota lota and 14 ripe male burbot from Great Slave Lake, a lake with no known point sources of PCBs. In addition, ΣPCBs were determined both in the somatic tissue and in the gonads for a randomly selected subset of five females and five males. Mean ΣPCBs for females and males were 2.89 and 3.76 ng/g, respectively. Thus, males were 30 % greater in ΣPCB than females. Based on ΣPCB determinations for somatic tissue and gonads, ΣPCBs of females and males would be expected to decrease by 18 % and increase by 6 %, respectively, immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Results from a previous study in eastern Lake Erie indicated that males were 28 and 71 % greater in ΣPCB than females from populations of younger (ages 6-13) and older (ages 14-17) burbot, respectively. Thus, although younger burbot from Lake Erie were about 50 times greater in ΣPCB than Great Slave Lake burbot, the relative difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes was remarkably similar across both populations. Our results supported the contention that the widening of the difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes in older burbot from Lake Erie was attributable to a “hot spot” effect operating on older burbot, as Lake Erie has received PCB point source loadings. Our results also supported the contention that male fish expend energy at a rate between 15 and 30 % greater than that of females. Eventually, these results will be useful in developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish.

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptor Interactions Regulate Energy Metabolism, Behavior, and Inflammation in Non-alcoholic-Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Prough, Russell A; Falkner, K Cameron; Hardesty, Josiah E; Song, Ming; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; States, J Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis.

  5. Development of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Bidari, Araz; Birjandi, Afsoon Pajand; Milani Hosseini, Mohammad Reza [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Assadi, Yaghoub [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Electroanalytical Chemistry Research Center, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: y_assadi@iust.ac.ir

    2008-10-30

    A very simple and powerful microextraction procedure, the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), was used for the determination of the content of 10 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples, using gas chromatography coupled with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). The appropriate amount of acetone (disperser solvent) and chlorobenzene (extraction solvent) at the microlevel volume was used for this procedure. The conditions for the microextraction performance were investigated and optimized. The optimized method exhibited a good linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.996) over the studied range (0.005-2 {mu}g L{sup -1}), illustrating a satisfactory precision level with R.S.D. values between 4.1% and 11.0%. The values of the detection limit (S/N = 3) were found to be lower than 0.002 {mu}g L{sup -1}. Furthermore, a large enrichment factor for the analytes (up to a 540-fold) was achieved in a very short time for only a 5.00-mL water sample. The effectiveness of the method towards real samples was tested by analyzing well, river and seawater samples. The relative recoveries of the well, river and seawater samples, which had been spiked with different levels of PCBs were equal to 92.0-114.0%, 97.0-102.0% and 96.0-103.0%, respectively. The attained results demonstrated that DLLME combined with GC-ECD was a fast and inexpensive technique for the PCBs determination in water samples.

  6. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Umbilical Cord Blood Serum of Newborns in Kingston, Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Rahbar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine (OC pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100% concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD. Mean (standard deviation (SD lipid-adjusted concentrations in cord blood serum for congeners PCB-153, PCB-180, PCB-206 and total PCB were 14.25 (3.21, 7.16 (1.71, 7.30 (1.74 and 28.15 (6.03 ng/g-lipid, respectively. The means (SD for the 4,4′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE-hexane fraction and total-DDE were 61.61 (70.78 and 61.60 (70.76 ng/g-lipid, respectively. Compared to the U.S. and Canada, the concentrations of these toxins were lower in cord-blood serum of Jamaican newborns. We discuss that these differences could be partly due to differences in dietary patterns in these countries. Despite limitations in our dataset, our results provide information on the investigated toxins in cord blood serum that could serve as a reference for Jamaican newborns.

  7. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  8. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites on prostaglandins secretion from epithelial cells of bovine oviduct, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michal H; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-04-11

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) markedly stimulate bovine uterine contractions and prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secreted from both, myometrial and endometrial cells is essentially involved in this process. Since contractions of the oviduct are crucial for gametes and embryo transport, therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the influence of PCBs on PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion from oviductal epithelium. Epithelial cells of the oviduct, from cows and heifers on days 1-5 of estrous cycle, were treated with PCBs: technical mixture (Aroclor 1248; Ar 1248), individual congeners (PCB 30 and PCB 153) and hydroxylated metabolites (PCB 30-OH and PCB 50-OH). Viability of the cells after treatment with PCBs (10 and 100 ng/ml) was determined after 24, 48 and 72 h. The concentration of PGFM (metabolite of PGF2alpha) and PGE2 in culture medium was determined after 2 and 48 h of incubation with PCBs (0.1, 1 and 10 ng/ml). None of the PCBs affected (P>0.05) cell viability, whereas all of them, except PCB 30 after 48 h of treatment, increased (P<0.05-0.01) PGF2alpha secretion from epithelial cells. All PCBs also stimulated (P<0.05) the PGE2 secretion after 2h of incubation, but this effect was less evident or there was no effect after 48 h of treatment. We conclude that oviductal secretion of PGF2alpha and PGE2 is affected by PCBs and this can be a part of the mechanism by means of which PCBs may affect the contractions of bovine oviduct.

  9. Persistent organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air of the North Sea region and air-sea exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Carolin; Theobald, Norbert; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lammel, Gerhard

    2016-12-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH. The results suggest that declining trends of HCH in seawater have been continuing for γ-HCH but have somewhat levelled off for α-HCH. Dieldrin displayed a close to phase equilibrium in nearly all the sampling sites, except in the central southwestern part of the North Sea. Here atmospheric deposition dominates the air-sea exchange. This region, close to the English coast, showed remarkably increased surface seawater concentrations. This observation depended neither on riverine input nor on the elevated abundances of dieldrin in the air masses of central England. A net depositional flux of p,p'-DDE into the North Sea was indicated by both its abundance in the marine atmosphere and the changes in metabolite pattern observed in the surface water from the coast towards the open sea. The long-term trends show that the atmospheric concentrations of DDT and its metabolites are not declining. Riverine input is a major source of PCBs in the German Bight and the wider North Sea. Atmospheric deposition of the lower molecular weight PCBs (PCB28 and PCB52) was indicated as a major source for surface seawater pollution.

  10. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  11. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and omega-3 fatty acid exposure from fish consumption, and thyroid cancer among New York anglers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Robb, Sara Wagner; Bonner, Matthew R; Lindblad, William; Allegra, Joey; Shen, Ye; Vena, John E

    2016-03-01

    Fish from the Great Lakes contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which have been shown to disrupt endocrine function and mimic thyroid hormones, but they also contain beneficial omega-3 fatty acids that may offer protection against endocrine cancers. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Lake Ontario fish consumption and the estimated consumption of PCBs and omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of thyroid cancer in a group of sport fishermen. Anglers from the New York State Angler Cohort Study were followed for cancer incidence from 1991-2008. Twenty-seven cases of incident thyroid cancer and 108 controls were included in the analyses. Total estimated fish consumption, estimated omega-3 fatty acid consumption, and estimated PCB consumption from Lake Ontario fish were examined for an association with the incidence of thyroid cancer, while matching on sex, and controlling for age and smoking status. Results from logistic regression indicate no significant associations between fish consumption, short-term estimated omega-3 fatty acids, or estimated PCB consumption from Great Lakes fish and the development of thyroid cancer, but it was suggested that long-term omega-3 fatty acid from Great Lakes fish may be protective of the development of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, fish consumption, with the possible concomitant PCBs, from the Great Lakes does not appear to increase the risk of thyroid cancer in New York anglers. Further research is needed in order to separate the individual health effects of PCBs from omega-3 fatty acids contained within the fish.

  13. Historical intake and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides by the Australian population reconstructed from biomonitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Qingwei; MacLeod, Matthew; Wong, Fiona; Toms, Leisa-Maree L; Mueller, Jochen F; Yu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the competing rates of intake and elimination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the human body is necessary to understand the levels and trends of POPs at a population level. In this paper we reconstruct the historical intake and elimination of ten polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and five organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from Australian biomonitoring data by fitting a population-level pharmacokinetic (PK) model. Our analysis exploits two sets of cross-sectional biomonitoring data for PCBs and OCPs in pooled blood serum samples from the Australian population that were collected in 2003 and 2009. The modeled adult reference intakes in 1975 for PCB congeners ranged from 0.89 to 24.5ng/kgbw/day, lower than the daily intakes of OCPs ranging from 73 to 970ng/kgbw/day. Modeled intake rates are declining with half-times from 1.1 to 1.3years for PCB congeners and 0.83 to 0.97years for OCPs. The shortest modeled intrinsic human elimination half-life among the compounds studied here is 6.4years for hexachlorobenzene, and the longest is 30years for PCB-74. Our results indicate that it is feasible to reconstruct intakes and to estimate intrinsic human elimination half-lives using the population-level PK model and biomonitoring data only. Our modeled intrinsic human elimination half-lives are in good agreement with values from a similar study carried out for the population of the United Kingdom, and are generally longer than reported values from other industrialized countries in the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and organochlorine pesticides in spotted sandpiper eggs from the upper Hudson River basin, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Gray, B.R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, spotted sandpipers (Actitis macularia) were studied on the Hudson River near Fort Edward south to New Baltimore, NY and on two river drainages that flow into the Hudson River. Concentrations of 28 organochlorine pesticides, 160 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 17 dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) congeners were quantified in eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. The pattern of organochlorine pesticides and PCDD-F congeners did not differ significantly between eggs collected on and off the Hudson River. In contrast, the pattern of PCB congeners differed significantly between the Hudson River and other rivers. Total PCBs were significantly greater in eggs from the Hudson River (geometric mean = 9.1 ??g PCBs/g wet weight) than from the other two rivers (0.6 and 0.6 ??g PCBs/g wet weight). Seven of 35 (20%) eggs exceeded 20 ??g PCBs/g wet weight, the estimated threshold for reduced hatching in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and some raptor species; the maximum concentration was 72.3 ??g PCBs/g wet weight. Models that predicted nest survival and egg success (the proportion of eggs hatching in a clutch if at least one egg hatched) as functions of contaminant levels were poorly distinguished from models that presumed no such associations. While small sample size could have contributed to the inability to distinguish among contaminant and no toxicant models, we cannot rule out the possibility that contaminant concentrations on the Hudson River were not sufficiently high to demonstrate a relationship between contaminant concentrations and reproductive success. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  15. Associations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in visceral vs. subcutaneous adipose tissue with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Su; Lee, Yu-Mi; Kim, Sang Geol; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jeongkook; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Jacobs, David R; Lee, Duk-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Background exposure to organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been linked to type 2 diabetes. As OC pesticides and PCBs mainly accumulate in adipose tissue and there are physiological and clinical differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), we explored if there were associations of OC pesticides and PCBs in VAT or SAT with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Participants were 50 patients with or without type 2 diabetes who underwent surgery for either cancer or benign liver or gallbladder lesions. We analyzed 14 OC pesticides and 22 PCB congeners in both VAT and SAT. Insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Although concentrations of OC pesticides and PCBs were strongly correlated between VAT and SAT, absolute concentrations differed substantially between them. In particular, concentrations of all PCBs were consistently about 5-10 times higher in VAT than SAT, but these patterns were independent of diabetes status. Some OC pesticides or PCBs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), chlordanes, and PCBs with 5 or less chlorides showed significant associations with diabetes or insulin resistance. For example, when tertiles of concentration-based summary measures were used, adjusted ORs were 1.0, 2.3, and 9.0 (P trend=0.02) for DDTs in VAT and 1.0, 2.1, and 5.7 (P trend=0.08) for PCBs with 5 or less chlorides. This study generally confirmed previous findings using serum concentrations. It would be useful to study pharmacodynamics of POPs in VAT and SAT further.

  16. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Sietske A; Soechitram, Shalini D; Sauer, Pieter J J; Bos, Arend F

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether prenatal background exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old boys and girls. In a Dutch observational cohort study, we measured 10 PCBs and 6 OH-PCBs in maternal blood samples of 98 pregnant women. We assessed their infants neurologically with Touwen examination at 3 months and calculated an Optimality Score (OS, range 0-53, low-high optimality). We calculated correlation coefficients between compound levels and OS. Subsequently, we tested whether levels were associated with specific clusters and whether levels differed between infants with "normal" (dysfunction on ≤1 cluster) and "non-optimal" development (dysfunction on ≥2 clusters). The mean OS was 48 (range 44-52). Higher exposure to PCB-146 correlated significantly with higher OS (r = 0.209; p = 0.039). In boys, higher exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 correlated with lower OS (r = -0.305; p = 0.030). Higher exposure to 9 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs was associated with better visuomotor and/or better sensorimotor function. Infants classified as "non-optimal" (n = 36) had significantly lower prenatal exposure to 6 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs (p < 0.05) compared with infants classified as "normal" (n = 62). In conclusion, higher prenatal exposure to Dutch background PCB levels is associated with better neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants. Prenatal exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 is associated with less optimal neurological functioning in boys.

  17. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils of Novi Sad and bank sediment of the Danube River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrbic, Biljana; Cvejanov, Jelena; Durisic-Mladenovic, Natasa

    2007-01-01

    The contents of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and six so-called indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the surface zone (0-5 cm) of soil and sediment samples, taken from different locations in the city of Novi Sad, capitol of Vojvodina Province (North of the Serbia) covering residential and commercial area, recreational and arable zone. The total organochlorine pesticides concentration in soil varied from 2.63 to 31.78 ng g(-1) dry weight, while the level in sediment was 10.35 ng g(-1) dry weight. Maximum content of identified individual organochlorine pesticide in soil samples was 10.40 ng g(-1) dry weight for p, p-DDE in the market garden and 6.31 ng g(-1) dry weight for p, p'-DDT in sediment of the Danube River, although their application is restricted in Serbia. Some of investigated PCBs were identified only in the soil samples from a park-school backyard in the city downtown (0.32 ng g(-1) dry weight) and market garden (0.22 ng g(-1) dry weight), and also in sediment sample from left bank of the Danube River (0.41 ng g(-1) dry weight). Data of the OCPs and PCBs present in this study were compared with the ones found for soils and river sediments throughout the world, and with limit values set by soil and sediment quality guidelines. Also, correlation between the levels of certain pesticides and soil characteristics (organic matter, pH and clay content) was investigated.

  18. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) and vitamin C on antioxidant system of rat ventral prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Sridhar; P.Venkataraman; S.Dhanammal; A.Arunkumar; M.M.Aruldhas; N.Srinivasan; J.Arunakaran

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and vitamin C on ventral prostatic antioxidant system in adult male rats.Methods:A group of 20 adult male rats were administered ip Aroclor 1254 in corn oil at a dose of 2 mg.kg-1·day-1 for 30 days.Ten control rats were administered only the vehicle.After 30 days the treated rats were divided at random into 2 sub-groups of 10 animals each.One sub-group received vitamin C at a dose of 500 mg.kg-1·day-1 for 10 days.The other group was maintained as Aroclor 1254 control.Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed by decapitation.Ventral prostatic homogenate was prepared and used for the estimation of enzymatic antioxidants,including superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),lipid peroxidation (LPO) and prostatic acid phosphatase.The serum levels of total T3,total T4,TSH,testosterone and estradiol were also assayed.Results:The body weight and ventral prostatic weight were reduced in PCB treated rats.The activities of SOD,CAT,GST and acid phosphatase were decreased while the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were increased in the ventral prostate of PCB treated rats.Administration of vitamin C restored these parameters.Serum levels of thyroid hormones,estradiol and testosteron ewere decreased in PCB treated animals.Administration of vitamin C restored the thyroid hormone levels.Conclusion:PCB induces oxidative stress and decreases the antioxidant enzymes in the ventral prostate of adult male rats;the effects could be reversed by the administration of vitamin C.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:19-22)

  19. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface water and sediments from Baiyangdian Lake in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua Dai; Xinhui Liu; Gang Liang; Xu Han; Liu Shi; Dengmiao Cheng; Wenwen Gong

    2011-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds,including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in surface water and sediments from Baiyangdian Lake,North China.Total concentrations of HCHs,DDTs and PCBs in surface water were in the range of 3.13-10.60,4.05-20.59 and 19.46-131.62 ng/L,respectively,and total concentrations of HCHs,DDTs and PCBs in sediments were 1.75-5.70,0.91-6.48 and 5.96-29.61 ng/g dry weight,respectively.Among the groups of HCHs (sum of α-HCH,β-HCH,γ-HCH and δ-HCH) and DDTs (sum of DDT,DDD and DDE),the predominance of β-HCH,DDE and DDD in water and sediment samples was clearly observed.This observation suggested that β-HCH was resistant to biodegradation and the DDTs had been transformed to its metabolites,DDE and DDD.For PCBs,penta-,hexa- and hepta-chlorinated congeners were the most abundant compounds in the both phases.Furthermore,the partitioning of chlorinated compounds between sediment and water was investigated to understand their transport and fates in aquatic ecosystems.The results indicated that average logs of organic carbon-normalized sediment-water partition coefficients (logK'∞) for OCPs varied between 3.20 and 5.53,and for PCBs,logK'∞ values ranged from 3.19 to 5.57.The observed logK'∞ was lower than their equilibrium logKoc predicted from linear model,which may be attributed to the solubility enhancement effect of colloidal matter in water phase and the disequilibrium between sediment and water.

  20. Sulfate radical-based degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls: Effects of chloride ion and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guo-Dong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Wang, Yu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Zhou, Dong-Mei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A kinetic model was used to predict the radical species and their distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The generated radical species were identified by EPR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined. - Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -}) have been recently used for soil and groundwater remediation. The presence of chloride ion in natural or wastewater decreases the reactivity of sulfate radical system, but explanations for this behavior were inconsistent, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the effect of chloride ion on the degradation of 2,4,4 Prime -CB (PCB28) and biphenyl (BP) by persulfate, based on the produced SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -}. The results showed that the presence of chloride ion greatly inhibited the transformation of PCB28 and BP. Transformation intermediates of BP were monitored, suggesting that the chloride ion can react with SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -} to produce chlorine radical, which reacts with BP to generate chlorinated compounds. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these processes, a kinetic model was developed for predicting the effect of chloride ion on the types of radical species and their distributions. The results showed that chloride ion could influence the selectivity of radical species and their distribution, and increase the concentration of the sum of radical species. In addition, the second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined, and quantum-chemical descriptors were introduced to predict the rate constants of other PCBs based on our experimental data.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings.

  2. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentration and sediment supplementation on rates of methanogenesis and 2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl dechlorination in an anaerobic enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, A.W.; May, H.D. (Celgene Corp., Warren, NJ (United States)); Blake, C.K. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)); Price, W.A. (Princeton Research Center, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the environment has caused public concern. PCBs are know known to be susceptible to biodegradation; PCBs in the Hudson river have been shown to be extensively dechlorinated, but the rate of dechlorination in anaerobic environments have been slow, over months or years. This study tested the effects of PCB concentration and sediment supplementation with 2,3,6-trichlorobiphenol, on the rate of PCB dechlorination and methanogenesis. The rates of meta dechlorination in sediment supplemented cultures were measured in the laboratory, including both the rate per bacterial cell and the rate of methanogenesis when dechlorination increases. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Disorders in barrier protein mRNA expression and placenta secretory activity under the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2017-02-01

    Pregnancy disorders are often correlated with the presence of organic pollutants in the tissues of living bodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects (over 24 and 48 hours) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 153, 126, and 77 at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL on barrier function and secretory activity in cow placentome sections collected during the second trimester of pregnancy. None of the PCBs affected the viability of the sections (P > 0.05). Polychlorinated biphenyl 153 decreased (P  0.05) under the influence of PCBs 126 and 77. Moreover, PCBs 153 and 126 increased keratin 8 (KRT8) mRNA expression, whereas all PCBs decreased (P  0.05) hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) mRNA expression. Concomitantly, PCBs 153 and 126 stimulated (P  0.05). Moreover, the PCBs increased (P  0.05). These changes could affect trophoblast invasion and uterine contractility and thus impact the course of gestation and/or fetal development in the cow.

  4. Profile of polychlorinated biphenyls in the brown alga Padina sanctae-crucis along the Orote dump coastline, Orote Peninsula, Western Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Brian Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the brown seaweed Padina sanctae-crucis might be used as a biomonitor organism to determine the location, distribution, and type of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) present along a contaminated tropical coastline. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in P. sanctae-crucis collected from near-shore waters along a 4-km stretch of coastline. The profile of PCB levels from samples obtained at 13 sites along the coastline demonstrated a positive concentration gradient as sample locations progressed toward the dump site. Sample locations nearest the dump site revealed PCB levels twofold higher than background levels for P. sanctae-crucis. Chromatograms of samples obtained nearest the dump site indicated a similarity to the Aroclor 1260 fingerprint. The P. sanctae-crucis frond trimmings used for laboratory analysis were approximately 3-5 wk old. This study was conducted 8 mo following the completion of the removal actions at the dump site. Data suggest a release of Aroclor 1260 into the marine environment approximately 7 mo following the completion of removal actions at the dump site.

  5. Occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in surface sediments from a large eutrophic Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Wei; Bai, Ze-Lin; Liu, Wen-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake Cha......, and Hg were at levels of environmental concern. The sediment in the drinking water source area (DWSA) was threatened by heavy metals from other areas, and some fundamental solutions were proposed to protect the DWSA.......Surface sediment from large and eutrophic Lake Chaohu was investigated to determine the occurrence, spatial distribution, sources, and risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and heavy metals in one of the five biggest freshwater lakes in China. Total concentration of PCBs (Σ34PCBs) in Lake...... Chaohu was 672 pg g−1 dry weight (dw), with a range of 7 to 3999 pg g−1 dw, which was lower than other water bodies worldwide. The majority of heavy metals were detected at all sampling locations, except for Sr, B, and In. Concentrations of Al, Fe, Ca, Mn, Sr, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Hg were similar...

  6. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Sjödin, A.; Wolff, P.; Turner, W.E.; Shelton, C.; Dutton, N.D.; Bartell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005–2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  7. Temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs (1984-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxian, Sun; Hui, Peng; Jianying, Hu

    2015-02-03

    Because investigation on the temporal trends of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs) is necessary to predict their future impacts on the environment and human health and evaluate the effectiveness of regulations on their production and usage, it is of concern to investigate annual temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples. This study examined the temporal trends of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) eggs over a period of 25 years (1984-2008), and 62 PCBs (19.2-1030 ng/g dw for total PCBs), 16 PBDEs (4.7-572 ng/g dw for total PBDEs), and 14 PFCs (26-46 ng/g dw for total PFCs) were detected. Although a decreasing temporal trend was observed for total PCBs with annual reduction rate of 3.4% (ρ = 0.005), a clear break point was observed around 1991, indicating their continuing emission in the 1980s in China. All major PBDEs showed increasing temporal trends, with annual change rates at 3.5-10.2% over the 25 years, but a sharp decreasing trend was observed after 2006, indicating a rapid response to the banning of PBDE usage in China in 2004. The greatest annual rate of increase was observed for BDE-28 (10.2%) followed by BDE-100 (7.7%), which would be due to metabolism input from higher brominated PBDEs. Significantly increasing temporal trends were observed for all PFCs, and the annual rates of increase were 7.9% and 5.9% for total perfluorinated carboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), respectively. A peak concentration for PFOS was observed in 1989, which may be related to the import history of PFCs in China. The present study is the first report of systematic temporal trends of PHCs in biota samples from China and shows that regulatory policy is needed to reduce their potential health and ecological risk in China considering the increasing temporal trends of PBDEs and PFCs.

  8. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  9. Mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in Asian market fish: a response to results from mercury biomonitoring in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Wendy; Chang, Moses; Arnason, John; Jeffery, Nancy; Kricheff, Judith; Kass, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    In 2004, the New York City (NYC) Health and Nutrition Examination Survey measured the highest blood mercury levels in Asian and foreign-born Chinese demographic groups. Fish consumption was the strongest predictor of exposure. The survey did not inquire about consumption of individual species, and subsequent visits to fish markets serving the Asian community suggested that many popular species lack contaminant data. Our objective was to supplement existing information on contaminants in commercial fish by collecting data on species present in markets serving the Asian community. We measured total mercury and the sum of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 282 individual specimens of 19 species or products from retail fish markets in Chinese neighborhoods in NYC. Species were selected based on their volume in the market, and an absence or insufficiency of national data on mercury levels. PCBs were measured because they are also contaminants of concern. All measurements were made on a wet weight basis on whole fillets (with skin) or products (drained of liquid). Mean mercury levels ranged from below the limit of detection (0.004microg/g) in tilapia to 0.229microg/g in tilefish. The highest mercury level (1.150microg/g) was measured in a tilefish specimen, and mercury levels in tilefish increased with the specimen size. Mean PCB levels ranged from 1ng/g in red snapper to 98ng/g in buffalo carp. The highest PCB levels were measured in a buffalo carp (469ng/g) and a yellow croaker (495ng/g). Species-specific differences in PCB levels accounted for only 6.3% of total variability, in contrast with 39.2% for mercury. Although we did not measure high mean mercury levels in the species we sampled, frequent consumption of fish with low to moderate levels can also elevate blood mercury. The data we collected can be used to guide fish consumption in Asian communities. However, risk-benefit trade-offs also need to be considered.

  10. Use of feathers to assess polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide exposure in top predatory bird species of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Eulaers, Igor; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Frantz, Adrien; Ambus, Per Lennart; Covaci, Adrian; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the levels of organochlorines (OCs) in predatory bird species from Asia or the factors governing their concentrations. This study is the first report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in predatory birds of Pakistan. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were investigated using tail feathers of ten different species of predatory birds. In addition, concentration differences among body, tail, primary and secondary feathers were investigated for six individuals of black kite (Milvus migrans). Ranges of concentrations were highest for dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE: 0.11-2163ngg(-1) dry wt.) followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT: 0.36-345ngg(-1) dry wt.), hexachlorobenzene (HCB: 0.02-34ngg(-1) dry wt.), ∑PCBs (0.03-16ngg(-1) dry wt.) and trans-nonachlor (TN; 0.01-0.13ngg(-1) dry wt.). CB 118, 153, 138, and 180 along with p,p'-DDE were found as the most prevalent compounds. ∑PCBs and ∑DDTs were significantly different among species (both p<0.01) and omnivorous, scavengers, carnivorous and piscivorous trophic guilds (all p<0.03). Only ∑PCBs were significantly differentamong different families of birds (p<0.01). Values of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) differed significantly (all p<0.01) among species, families, trophic guilds as well as terrestrial and aquatic habitat but not between nocturnal and diurnal predators (p=0.22 for δ(13)C; p=0.50 for δ(15)N). Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs and trans-nonachlor, but not HCB (p=0.86), were significantly different among different feather types (all p<0.01). Trophic and taxonomic affiliation as well as dietary carbon sources (δ(13)C) for species were identified as the variables best explaining the observed variation in exposure to the studied compounds. The significance of contributing factors responsible for OC contamination differences in predatory birds should be further elucidated in future studies.

  11. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  12. Enantiomeric separation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls on B-cyclodextrin capillary columns by means of heart-cut multidimensional gas chromatography and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. Application to food samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordajandi, L.R.; Korytar, P.; Boer, de J.; Gonzalez, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    Three commercially available chiral capillary columns, Chirasil-Dex, BGB-176SE. and BGB-172, have been evaluated for the separation into enantiomers of the 19 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners stable at room temperature. The enantiomers of 15 chiral PCBs were, at least to some extent,

  13. Modulation of cell viability, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, and voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels as common mechanisms of action of (mixtures of) non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are environmental pollutants that exert neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral effects in vivo in humans and animals. Acute in vitro neurotoxic effects include changes in cell viability, oxidative stress,

  14. POLYCHLORINATED AND POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agudo, Antonio; Aronson, Kristan J.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie;

    This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 12–19 February 2013......This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 12–19 February 2013...

  15. Estimation of Aqueous Solubility (-lgSw) of All Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners by Density Functional Theory and Position of Cl Substitution (NPCS) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiao-Yan; GE Zhi-Gang; WANG Zun-Yao; XU Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Optimization calculations of 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. It was found that there is significant correlation between the Cl substitution position and some structural parameters. Consequently, Cl substitution positions were taken as theoretical descriptors to establish a novel QSPR model for predicting -lgSw of all PCB congeners. The model achieved in this work contains four variables, of which r2 = 0.9527, q2 = 0.9490 and SD = 0.25 with large t values. In addition, the variation inflation factors (VIFs) of variables in this model are all less than 5.0, suggesting high accuracy of the -lgSw predicting model. And the results of cross-validation test and method validation also show that the model exhibits optimum stability and better predictive capability than that from the AM1 method.

  16. Time course of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in breast-feeding mothers throughout the first 10 months of lactation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, Soukaina; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2013-02-01

    Organochorine (OCs) residues were measured in human breast milk samples from four Tunisian women. Month-mix samples composed of weekly collected breast milk samples were analyzed over the lactation period between 3 days after delivery and 10 months post-partum. The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The variation of OC residue levels in human milk was investigated for each woman individually. The average p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT concentrations declined from 661- and 438-ng g(-1) fat basis at day 3 to 77- and 106-ng g(-1) fat basis after 8 months, respectively. No essential changes in HCB, HCHs, dieldrin, and total PCBs concentrations in human breast milk occurred over the lactation periods investigated; the concentrations remained either relatively constant or show no significant weak decrease.

  17. Measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid waste such as transformer insulation paper by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikushi, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yuka; Toda, Kei

    2012-09-21

    In this work, a method for measuring polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated solid waste was investigated. This waste includes paper that is used in electric transformers to insulate electric components. The PCBs in paper sample were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. The recoveries with this method (84-101%) were much higher than those with conventional water extraction (0.08-14%), and were comparable to those with conventional organic solvent extraction. Limit of detection was 0.0074 mg kg(-1) and measurable up to 2.5 mg kg(-1) for 0.5 g of paper sample. Data for real insulation paper by the proposed method agreed well with those by the conventional organic solvent extraction. Extraction from wood and concrete was also investigated and good performance was obtained as well as for paper samples. The supercritical fluid extraction is simpler, faster, and greener than conventional organic solvent extraction.

  18. Feasibility of hydrofluoric acid etched sand particles for enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility of etched sand particles being used as solid-phase extraction adsorbents to enrich polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are typical persistent organic pollutants in the environment, at trace levels. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was selected to detect the compounds. Etched sand particles exhibited excellent merits on the enrichment of PCBs. Related important factors affecting extraction efficiencies were investigated and optimized in detail. Under optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.42 to 3.69 ng L(-1)), wide linear range (10 to 1,000 ng L(-1)), and high repeatability (1.9 to 8.2%) were achieved. The developed method was validated with several real water samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. All of these findings indicate that etched sand particles would be useful for the enrichment and determination of organic pollutants at trace levels in water samples.

  19. An assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor dust of e-waste recycling facilities in South Africa: implications for occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-09-01

    Workplace exposure to persistent organic pollutants is a concern for human health. This study examined the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the indoor dust from two major e-waste recycling sites and a university electronic equipment repair workshop in Durban, South Africa, in order to evaluate the implication of dust for occupational exposure. The mean ∑(n = 8)PBDEs and ∑(n = 3)PCBs were 20,094 and 235 ng g(-1), respectively. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs obtained in one of the recycling sites (123-27,530 and 161-593 ng g(-1)) were significantly higher than the levels obtained (91-7686 and e-waste facilities are cleaned thoroughly regularly.

  20. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: Combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T.; Figueiredo, Kaisa;

    2015-01-01

    of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota...... in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred...... from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels...

  1. Characterization and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils and rice tissues in a suburban paddy field of the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the concentration and composition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in paddy soils and rice tissues and the associated potential health risks in the urban agricultural areas of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. The results indicated that highly chlorinated PCBs were more prominent in soil when the concentrations of low-molecular-weight PCBs were relatively high in rice plants. There was a trend of decreasing PCB concentrations with soil depth and a significant correlation between PCBs and the total organic carbon or total nitrogen concentration in section soils. The PCB concentrations followed the order of root > leaf > stem > grain. Although the dioxin toxicity equivalency values and estimated daily intake levels (based direct and indirect consumption) were lower than in other seriously contaminated regions, there is still a need to monitor PCB pollution in urban agriculture because of the PCB emissions from capacitor storage following the rapid urbanization experienced in the PRD.

  2. A disposable immunomagnetic electrochemical sensor based on functionalised magnetic beads and carbon-based screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs) for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Centi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Chimica, Polo Scientifico, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: marco.mascini@unifi.it; Laschi, S. [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Chimica, Polo Scientifico, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Franek, M. [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 62132 Brno (Czech Republic); Mascini, M. [Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Chimica, Polo Scientifico, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy)

    2005-05-04

    A disposable immunomagnetic electrochemical sensor involving magnetic particles and carbon-based screen-printed electrodes (SPCEs) was developed and applied for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The sensor was based on a direct competitive immunoassay scheme in which antibody-coated magnetic beads were used as solid phase; then SPCEs were employed as transducers for the evaluation of the extent of the immunochemical reaction using an alkaline phosphatase (AP) labelled tracer. The {alpha}-naphthyl phosphate was used as enzymatic substrate and the {alpha}-naphthol produced during the enzymatic reaction was detected using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 0.4 ng/mL for Aroclor 1248 PCB mixture was obtained. The performance of the sensor was successfully evaluated on marine sediment extracts and soil samples spiked with different Aroclor mixtures indicating that this new and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

  3. Detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oils in Vietnam by multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry using a far-ultraviolet femtosecond laser as an ionization source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Thi Thuy Duong; Vu, Duong; Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Imasaka, Tomoko; Tang, Yuanyuan; Shibuta, Shinpei; Hamachi, Akifumi; Do, Quang Hoa; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer and food oils were measured using gas chromatography combined with multiphoton ionization mass spectroscopy. An ultrashort laser pulse emitting in the far-ultraviolet region was utilized for efficient ionization of the analytes. Numerous signal peaks were clearly observed for a standard sample mixture of PCBs when the third and fourth harmonic emissions (267 and 200nm) of a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (800nm) were employed. The signal intensities were found to be greater when measured at 200nm compared with those measured at 267nm, providing lower detection limits especially for highly chlorinated PCBs at shorter wavelengths. After simple pretreatment using disposable columns, PCB congeners were measured and found to be present in the transformer oils used in Vietnam.

  4. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J

    2015-01-01

    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  5. High performance solid-phase extraction cleanup method coupled with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry for analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Jin, Jing; Tan, Dongqin; Xu, Jiazhi; Dhanjai; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping

    2016-05-27

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method was developed to purify the sample extracts for the analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Monodisperse magnesium oxide (MgO) microspheres and basic alumina were used as SPE adsorbents. Important parameters of the SPE procedure were optimized, including the amount of basic alumina and the type and volume of the washing and elution solvents. The optimized SPE cleanup method exhibited excellent purification performance for the removal of organochlorinated compounds, lipid compounds, sulfur, and pigments. Additionally, it was found that the retention activities of congeners differed with the number and position of the chlorine substituents in PCNs. In this study, an analytical method based on a combination of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with SPE cleanup and gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) is proposed for the analysis of PCNs and dl-PCBs in complex samples (sediment, pine needle, and scallop samples). The analytical method demonstrates good linearity, acceptable recovery (63-148%) and precision (relative standard deviations less than 26%). The limits of detection (LODs) of PCN and dl-PCB congeners were in the range of 0.6-19.1pgg(-1) and 0.4-8.6pgg(-1), respectively. The PCNs and dl-PCBs levels in these samples ranged from 0.16 to 3.07ngg(-1) dry weight (dw) and from undetectable to 0.07ngg(-1) dw, respectively.

  6. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, DIBENZOFURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN FREGATA MAGNIFICENS FROM ILHA GRANDE BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to perform analyses in a fish-eating seabird species which is recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to its high position in the trophic web and to its low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Fregata magnificens were collected at Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°8'26"S, 44°14'50"W between February, 2009 and April, 2013. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, were analyzed in tissue composites, being subsequently identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentrations were below the range of concern established by World Health Organization. The sum of PCB-congeners analyzed had the concentration of 968 pg/g lipid weight, and 13.9 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. The PCDD/F-congeners analyzed had the concentration of 331.04 pg/g lipid weight, and 13.4 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. This type of study aims to integrate information from analyses of seabirds with halogenated hydrocarbons and could also make contribution to the scientific support for political decisions on coastal zone management.

  7. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  8. Association of caffeine consumption and smoking status with the serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and furans in the general U.S. population: NHANES 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B; Wang, Richard Y

    2011-01-01

    Smoking appears to enhance the body's clearance of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) by inducing CYP1A2 activity based on studies with a limited number of participants. This hypothesis was evaluated by using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Specifically, adult participants were identified and the sums of their serum lipid-adjusted concentrations of 12 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) congeners, 33 PCB (total), 26 non-dioxin-like PCB, and 6 mono-ortho (dioxin-like) PCB were determined. In addition to evaluating the association of smoking, the association of caffeine consumption and the interaction between them was evaluated. Data analysis included regression models that were fitted with age, gender, race/ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). R(2) varied from 34.8 to 66%. Smokers had significantly lower concentrations of total PCDD/PCDF than nonsmokers. New to this study, a siginificant interaction between caffeine consumption and smoking for total PCB was found. When caffeine was consumed less than once a day, smokers had higher concentrations of total PCB than nonsmokers. However, when caffeine was consumed at least once a day, smokers had lower concentrations than nonsmokers. A significant interaction between age and caffeine consumption frequency for each of the PCB groups was also observed. The differences in concentration between younger and older age groups were greater when caffeine was consumed at least once a day than when caffeine was consumed less frequently. Smoking and caffeine consumption need to be considered in the interpretation of human biomonitoring data because they appear to affect the serum concentrations of these chemicals.

  9. No changes in lymphocyte muscarinic receptors and platelet monoamine oxidase-B examined as surrogate central nervous system biomarkers in a Faroese children cohort prenatally exposed to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coccini, Teresa; Manzo, Luigi; Debes, Frodi;

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) and muscarinic cholinergic receptors (mAChRs) are involved in the pathogenesis of neurotoxicity caused by methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Blood samples from 7-year-old exposed children were analyzed for platelet M....../or PCB exposure, whereas these markers are significantly altered in sustained exposure scenarios, as shown by clinical studies in drug addicts or patients treated with psychopharmacological agents....

  10. Distribution characteristics and source identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from River Kanzaki, running through Osaka urban area, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Kishida

    2013-01-01

    This is the first to elucidate the distribution and sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs),and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in the waters from Kanzaki River,which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in Japan.The World Health Organization (WHO)-toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs) in waters from the mainstream exceeded the Japanese environmental standard (1.0 pg-TEQ/L).The PCDD/PCDFs were dominated by highly chlorinated DFs,which predominantly contributed to the WHO-TEQs,suggesting that the main causes would be the incineration-related wastes.To find the sources,the dioxin congener concentrations in water and sediment samples from its tributary small waterways were determined.Abnormally high WHO-TEQs were detected in a water (50 pg-TEQ/L) and a sediment sample (41,000 ng-TEQ/kg dry weight) near the industrial solid waste incinerators (ISWIs).The PCDD/PCDF characteristics agreed well with those of the incinerator-related wastes as seen in the mainstream.These facts indicate that the dioxin pollution in the mainstream could be largely related to the industrial wastes from the ISWIs.Here,a TEQ apportionment method was used to understand the contribution of the pyrogenic sources to the WHO-TEQs.The average contribution ratios of the pyrogenic sources to WHO-TEQs were more than 80% for river waters from the mainstream,indicating that the elevated WHO-TEQs in the mainstream had been largely caused by the ISWIs.

  11. Feasibility of metal-organic nanotubes [Cu3(μ3-O)(μ-OH)(triazolate)2]+-coated fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiu-Lin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Yan-Long; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2014-12-29

    Metal-organic nanotubes (MONTs), a novel class of hybrid materials, have attracted considerable attention because of their uniform and fixed internal diameters, impressive topological structures, and versatile applications. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies on MONTs coating fabrication for solid-phase microextraction are yet available. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using [Cu3(μ3-O)(μ-OH)(triazolate)2]+ as a solid-phase microextraction coating material to enrich trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. The novel [Cu3(μ3-O)(μ-OH)(triazolate)2]+-coated fibers achieved large enhancement factors (396–1343), low limits of detection (3.9–21.7 pg L−1), and wide linearity (0.1–500 ng L−1) for detecting polychlorinated biphenyls. Relative standard deviations obtained ranged from 2.12 to 7.22%, and spiked PCBs recoveries (spiking concentrations of 1 and 5 ng L−1) in four environmental water samples ranged from 71.3 to 104%. These findings indicate that [Cu3(μ3-O)(μ-OH)(triazolate)2]+ as a solid-phase microextraction coating material is an excellent alternative for the rapid and sensitive analysis of trace levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples by membrane-assisted solvent extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xizhi; Tang, Zigang; Sun, Aili; Zhou, Lei; Zhao, Jian; Li, Dexiang; Chen, Jiong; Pan, Daodong

    2014-12-01

    A highly efficient and environment-friendly membrane-assisted solvent extraction system combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector was applied in the simultaneous determination of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples. Variables affecting extraction efficiency, including extraction solvent used, stirring rate, extraction time, and temperature, were optimized extensively. Under optimal extraction conditions, recoveries between 76.9% and 104.6% in seawater samples were achieved, and relative standard deviation values below 10% were obtained. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio=3) and limit of quantification (signal-to-noise ratio=10) of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater ranged from 0.14ngL(-1) to 0.36ngL(-1) and 0.46ngL(-1) to 1.19ngL(-1), respectively. Matrix effects on extraction efficiency were evaluated by comparing with the results obtained using tap water. The extraction effect of developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction method was further demonstrated by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry which can provide structural information of the analytes for more accurate identification, and results identical to those produced by gas chromatography-electron capture detector were obtained. These findings demonstrate the applicability of the developed membrane-assisted solvent extraction determination method for coupling to gas chromatography-electron capture detector or tandem mass spectrometry for determining polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in seawater samples.

  13. Sensitive determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction with bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black fibers prior to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Long; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jia-Bin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the feasibility of bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black for the headspace solid-phase microextraction of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples. Bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black was prepared and used as a solid-phase microextraction coating material, and gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was used for detection. Several important factors affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the experimental data exhibited wide linear range over the range 0.2-1000 ng/L and low limits of detection in the range of 4.7-22.2 pg/L. The novel coating was successfully used for the enrichment and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in real environmental water samples. All these results indicated that bamboo charcoal@iron oxide black-based headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was an excellent alternative for the sensitive analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls at ultratrace levels in the environment.

  14. Research advances in microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls%多氯联苯微生物脱氯研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 崔静岚; 秦智慧; 俞春娜; 陈曦; 沈超峰; 陈英旭

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) are the typical persistent organic pollutants ( POPs) in the environment. As a ubiquitous attenuation course of chlorinated organic compounds in anoxic environment, the microorganism-mediated reductive dechlorination process plays an important role in PCBs transformation, especially the transformation of higher chlorinated PCBs. The higher chlorinated PCBs can be dechlorinated in anaerobic condition, and thus, their persistence and toxicity can be decreased. The resultant lower chlorinated PCBs from the dechlorination can be further degraded and completely mineralized in aerobic condition. This paper summarized the research advances of PCBs microbial reductive dechlorination, introduced the mechanisms and characteristics of the dechlorination and the related specific microorganisms, and approached the affecting factors of PCBs bio-dechlorination, as well as the significances of anaerobic dechlorination coupling with aerobic degradation. The future research directions, including the complex metabolic networks of dechlorinating microbial populations, the screening of novel specific dechlorinators and their practical applications in the remediation of PCBs contaminated sites were also prospected.%多氯联苯(polychlorinated biphenyls,PCBs)是环境中典型的氯代持久性有机污染物.微生物脱氯是一种氯代有机物自然降解模式,对全球PCBs特别是高氯代同系物消减起到至关重要的作用.厌氧条件下高氯代PCBs能够发生脱氯反应,使其毒性大大降低,脱氯后形成的低氯代化合物可以进一步好氧降解,直至完全矿化.本文综述了PCBs生物脱氯的研究进展,介绍了微生物脱氯反应的机理和特征、参与微生物脱氯过程的专性脱氯菌等,探讨了该微生物过程的影响因素及厌氧脱氯与好氧降解耦合的意义,并对脱氯微生物群落的复杂代谢网络研究、专性脱氯新菌种筛选及其污染地实际修复应用等未来研究方向进行了展望.

  15. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick, E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  16. Association of clinical findings in Yusho patients with serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated quarterphenyls and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran more than 30 years after the poisoning event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uchi Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Yusho poisoning incident, which was caused by rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated quarterphenyls (PCQs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs generated by heat denaturation of PCB, occurred in 1968 in western Japan. Annual physical, dermatological, dental, ophthalmological and laboratory examinations were conducted for Yusho patients after the incident. From 2001, blood levels of individual PCDF congeners were also measured. The blood levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients were found to be significantly higher than those of the general population. We investigated the relationships between blood concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in Yusho patients and the items measured in the annual medical examination. Methods Medical and laboratory examination data from 501 Yusho patients enrolled in the study from 2001 to 2004 were analyzed. The relationships between blood 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCB and PCQ concentrations and medical/laboratory examination data were investigated using principal components and logistic regression analyses. Results Serum Concentrations of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, PCBs and PCQs in blood tended to correlate with either acneform eruptions, black comedones, cutaneous and mucosal pigmentation, and hypersecretion of meibomian glands as well as general fatigue, headaches, cough/sputum, abdominal pain, arthralgia, increased blood sugar, increased serum γ-GTP and decreased total bilirubin. The majority of these signs and symptoms are included in the diagnostic criteria for Yusho. Conclusion After Yusho patients had suffered chronic exposure to these chlorinated compounds for more than 35 years, the serum concentration of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF in blood was significantly related to arthralgia and decreased albumin/globulin (A/G ratio; the serum concentration of PCBs was significantly related to ophthalmologic symptoms

  17. Trait-based modelling of bioaccumulation by freshwater benthic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Livia Alvarenga; Diepens, Noël J; Guo, Xiaoying; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the role of species traits in chemical exposure is crucial for bioaccumulation and toxicity assessment of chemicals. We measured and modelled bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chironomus riparius, Hyalella azteca, Lumbriculus variegatus and Sphaerium corneum. We used a battery test procedure with multiple enclosures in one aquarium, which maximized uniformity of exposure for the different species, such that the remaining variability was due mostly to species traits. The relative importance of uptake from either pore water or sediment ingestion was manipulated by using 28 d aged standard OECD sediment with low (1%) and medium (5%) OM content and 13 months aged sediment with medium OM (5%) content. Survival was ≥76% and wet weight increased for all species. Reproduction of H. azteca and weight gain of H. azteca and S. corneum were significantly higher in the medium OM aged sediments than in other sediments, perhaps due to a more developed microbial community (i.e., increase in food resources). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) ranged from 3 to 114, depending on species and PCB congener, with C. riparius (3-10)bioaccumulation model with species-specific bioaccumulation parameters fitted well to the experimental data and showed that bioaccumulation parameters were depended on species traits. Enclosure-based battery tests and mechanistic BSAF models are expected to improve the quality of the exposure assessment in whole sediment toxicity tests.

  18. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  19. Identification of isopropylbiphenyl, alkyl diphenylmethanes, diisopropylnaphthalene, linear alkyl benzenes and other polychlorinated biphenyl replacement compounds in effluents, sediments and fish in the Fox River System, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Paul H.; Delfino, Joseph J.

    1990-01-01

    Five polychlorinated biphenyl replacement dye solvents and a diluent present in carbonless copy paper were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the following matrices: effluents from a de-inking–recycling paper mill and a municipal wastewater treatment plant receiving wastewaters from a carbonless copy paper manufacturing plant; sediments; and fish collected near both discharges in the Fox River System, Wisconsin. An isopropylbiphenyl dye solvent mixture included mono-, di- and triisopropylbiphenyls. Also identified were two dye solvent mixtures marketed under the trade name Santosol. Santosol 100 comprised ethyl-diphenylmethanes (DPMs), benzyl-ethyl-DPMs, and dibenzyl-ethyl-DPMs. Similarly, Santosol 150 comprised dimethyl-DPMs, benzyl-dimethyl-DPMs, and dibenzyl-dimethyl-DPMs. Diisopropylnaphthalenes, widely used as a dye solvent in Japan, were identified for the first time in the US environment. sec-Butylbiphenyls and di-sec-butylbiphenyls, likely constituents of a sec-butylbiphenyl dye solvent mixture, were tentatively identified. Linear alkyl benzenes (C10 to C13-LABs) constituted the Alkylate 215 diluent mixture. Although known to occur as minor constituents in linear alkyl sulfonate detergents, LAB residues have not been previously attributed to commercial use of LABs.

  20. The effect of co-occurring polychlorinated biphenyls on quantitation of toxaphene in fish tissue samples by gas chromatography negative ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David; Maruya, Keith A

    2012-12-28

    Determinative methods based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) provide improved sensitivity and specificity for toxaphene in environmental samples, but are subject to misidentification due to oxygen reaction in the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of co-occurring PCBs in fish tissue samples when utilizing single quadrupole instruments to implement this method. Mixtures of PCB congeners and technical toxaphene, and extracts of fish tissue with varying concentrations of PCBs were analyzed for individual congener and total toxaphene concentrations by GC-NCI/MS. The contribution of co-injected PCB 204 ranged from 23% to 88% of the total peak area for the Cl-9 toxaphene homolog quantitation ion, a contribution that increased as the ratio of technical toxaphene to PCB 204 decreased. PCB interferences in fish tissue extracts, including a standard reference material, were subtracted using a three-step procedure featuring spectral analysis of isotopic patterns for target peaks. Total toxaphene concentrations without PCB subtraction in three fish tissue samples with low, intermediate and high co-occurring PCBs were overestimated by 33, 55 and 745%, respectively, underscoring the need for practical strategies to account for PCB interferences in GC-NCI/MS based protocols. In contrast, no appreciable interference or resulting positive bias in concentrations was observed for quantitation of eight common toxaphene residue congeners.

  1. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  2. The use of muscle burden in rabbitfish Siganus oramin for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and potential human health risk.