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Sample records for bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting

  1. Analysis of bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting metals in river water and sediment, sewage influent/effluent, sludge, leachate, and concentrated leachate, in the irish midlands shannon catchment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reid, Antoinette M

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  2. Analysis of bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting metals in river water and sediment, sewage influent/effluent, sludge, leachate, and concentrated leachate, in the irish midlands shannon catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Antoinette M; Brougham, Concepta A; Fogarty, Andrew M; Roche, James J

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  3. Analysis of Bio-Obtainable Endocrine Disrupting Metals in River Water and Sediment, Sewage Influent/Effluent, Sludge, Leachate, and Concentrated Leachate, in the Irish Midlands Shannon Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette M. Reid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, chromium (Cr, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, and manganese (Mn, after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Mercury (Hg in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS. For sewage sludge maximum values (mg/kgdw of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg/kgdw of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Karen

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may contribute to reproductive changes in boys in the Western world, however, less is known about influence of EDCs in women. The incidence of precocious breast development is increasing in USA and Europe and mammary gland development has been...... suggested as particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Mammary gland examination in toxicological studies may be useful for improving knowledge on possible influences of EDCs on human mammary glands and also be useful for detection of endocrine disrupting effects of chemicals as part of safety testing...... and genistein, a mixture of phytoestrogens, and a mixture of environmentally relevant estrogenic EDCs of various origins. Moreover, mixtures of antiandrogenic chemicals were investigated. These include a mixture of pesticides and a mixture of environmentally relevant anti-androgenic EDCs of various origins...

  5. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-05-25

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity.

  6. Endocrine disrupting compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, I B; Christensen, P; Dantzer, V

    2001-01-01

    With the growing concern that environmental chemicals might impair human and animal fertility, it is important to investigate the possible influence of these substances on sexual differentiation and genital development of mammals. Many of these substances are suspected to interfere with endocrine...... generations. Sows were treated daily from D 23 to 85 of pregnancy with either 0, 10 or 1000 micrograms OP/kg body weight. Treatment with OP extended pregnancy length and induced basal cell proliferation in the cervical epithelium of the parental generation. In F1 offspring of sows treated with the low dosage...

  7. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption...... not intimately familiar with the topic of endocrine disruption and therefore susceptible to false generalizations of bias and subjectivity....

  8. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  9. Report on Criteria for Endocrine Disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather...... new knowledge on endocrine disrupters with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board....... The overall aim of this project is to provide a science based proposal for criteria for endocrine disrupters. The terms of reference for the project specify elements to be included and/or addressed when developing the criteria (Annex 1). Also, several international reports and papers dealing with assessment...

  10. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Disease Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are tho...

  11. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pallabi Goswami; J.C Kalita

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs). This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the a...

  12. Subtle sabotage: endocrine disruption in wild populations

    OpenAIRE

    Cheek, Ann Oliver

    2016-01-01

    How important is endocrine disruption as a threat to wildlife populations? This review applies causal criteria to existing studies of wild populations of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals to answer three questions: (1) Have endocrine-mediated effects of contaminant exposure been documented? (2) Have individual adverse effects that could lead to population effects been documented? (3) Have population level effects been documented? In fish, the possibility of population level effec...

  13. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  14. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Janesick, Amanda; Blumberg, Bruce; Heindel, Jerrold J

    2011-11-01

    Environmental chemicals have significant impacts on biological systems. Chemical exposures during early stages of development can disrupt normal patterns of development and thus dramatically alter disease susceptibility later in life. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, cardiovascular, metabolic and immune effects in humans. A wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, are thought to cause endocrine disruption, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and components of plastics such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phthalates. EDCs are found in many everyday products--including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food additives, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. EDCs interfere with the synthesis, secretion, transport, activity, or elimination of natural hormones. This interference can block or mimic hormone action, causing a wide range of effects. This review focuses on the mechanisms and modes of action by which EDCs alter hormone signaling. It also includes brief overviews of select disease endpoints associated with endocrine disruption.

  16. Heavy Metals Acting as Endocrine Disrupters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Georgescu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Last years researches focused on several natural and synthetic compounds that may interfere with the major functionsof the endocrine system and were termed endocrine disrupters. Endocrine disrupters are defined as chemicalsubstances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and animals. These effects may be achievedby interferences with the biosynthesis or activity of several endogenous hormones. Recently, it was demonstratedthat heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd, arsen (As, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn may exhibitendocrine-disrupting activity in animal experiments. Emerging evidence of the intimate mechanisms of action ofthese heavy metals is accumulating. It was revealed, for example, that the Zn atom from the Zn fingers of theestrogen receptor can be replaced by several heavy metal molecules such as copper, cobalt, Ni and Cd. By replacingthe Zn atom with Ni or copper, binding of the estrogen receptor to the DNA hormone responsive elements in the cellnucleus is prevented. In both males and females, low-level exposure to Cd interferes with the biological effects ofsteroid hormones in reproductive organs. Arsen has the property to bind to the glucocorticoid receptor thusdisturbing glucocorticoids biological effects. With regard to Hg, this may induce alterations in male and femalefertility, may affect the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis,and disrupt biosynthesis of steroid hormones.

  17. Study of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Juvancz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC cause more and more seriousenvironmental pollutions. The EDCs show only ng-μg/l concentration level in theenvironment, therefore their determinations require multistep sample preparationprocesses and highly sophisticated instrumentation. This paper discuss the EDC effects,and show examples for determination of such compounds.

  18. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Moosa Faniband; Lindh, Christian H; Bo AG Jönsson

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and o...

  19. Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal mimics, including both natural and human-produced compounds to which there are exposure risks. The present work reviews the conceptual premises of endocrine disruption and the development of the use of this term.

  20. Criteria for endocrine disrupters: report from the Danish centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bjerregaard, Poul; Hass, Ulla;

    The aim of this session is to give a presentation of the report (both ENV and HH) on criteria carried out by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CEHOS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. CEHOS is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls...... and the main purpose of the Centre is to build and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with focus on information needed for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The aim of the report was to propose scientific criteria for the identification of ED substances of concern for human...

  1. Risk Evaluation of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioiosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here our studies on early exposure to low doses of the estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemical bisphenol A (BPA on behavior and metabolism in CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed in utero from gestation day (GD 11 to delivery (prenatal exposure or via maternal milk from birth to postnatal day 7 (postnatal exposure to 10 µg/kg body weight/d of BPA or no BPA (controls. Bisphenol A exposure resulted in long-term disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Females exposed to BPA pre- and postnatally showed increased anxiety and behavioral profiles similar to control males. We also evaluated metabolic effects in prenatally exposed adult male offspring of dams fed (from GD 9 to 18 with BPA at doses ranging from 5 to 50 000 µg/kg/d. The males showed an age-related significant change in a number of metabolic indexes ranging from food intake to glucose regulation at BPA doses below the no observed adverse effect level (5000 µg/kg/d. Consistent with prior findings, low but not high BPA doses produced significant effects for many outcomes. These findings provide further evidence of the potential risks that developmental exposure to low doses of the endocrine disrupter BPA may pose to human health, with fetuses and infants being highly vulnerable.

  2. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  3. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  4. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome: possible role of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Asklund, Camilla; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2006-01-01

    and molecular studies, all suggestive of an interrelation between the different symptoms. The aetiology of TDS is suspected to be related to genetic and/or environmental factors, including endocrine disrupters. Few human studies have found associations/correlations between endocrine disrupters, including...

  5. Endocrine disrupter - estradiol - in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorabawila, Nelum [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Gupta, Gian [University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States)]. E-mail: gcgupta@umes.edu

    2005-04-11

    Exogenous chemicals that interfere with natural hormonal functions are considered endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Estradiol (17{beta}-estradiol or E2) is the most potent of all xenoestrogens. Induction of vitellogenin (VTG) production in male fish occurs at E2 concentrations as low as 1 ng l{sup -1}. E2 reaches aquatic systems mainly through sewage and animal waste disposal. Surface water samples from ponds, rivers (Wicomico, Manokin and Pocomoke), sewage treatment plants (STPs), and coastal bays (Assawoman, Monie, Chincoteague, and Tangier Sound - Chesapeake Bay) on the Eastern Shore of Maryland were analyzed for E2 using enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). E2 concentrations in river waters varied between 1.9 and 6.0 ng l{sup -1}. Highest E2 concentrations in river waters were observed immediately downstream of STPs. E2 concentrations in all the coastal bays tested were 2.3-3.2 ng l{sup -1}.

  6. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... entitled ``Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation.'' Endocrine disruptors are... its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine...

  7. Endocrine disrupting pesticides: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, R; Plant, J A; Bell, J N B; Voulvoulis, N

    2008-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system, potentially causing disease or deformity in organisms and their offspring. Pesticides are used widely to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens and medicinally to kill parasites. Many are proven or suspected to be EDs. Ancient physiological similarities between different vertebrate groups suggest that disorders observed in wildlife may indicate risks to humans. This makes accurate risk assessment and effective legislation difficult. In this paper, the hazardous properties of pesticides which are known to have ED properties are reviewed in order to assess the implications for risk assessment. As well as data on sources of exposure in the United Kingdom (UK) an assessment of the evidence on the health effects of ED pesticides is also included. In total, 127 have been identified from the literature and their effects and modes of action are listed in this paper. Using the UK as a case study, the types and quantities of pesticides used, and their methods of application are assessed, along with their potential pathways to humans. In the UK reliable data are available only for agricultural use, so non-agricultural routes of pesticide exposure have been poorly quantified. The exposure of people resident in or visiting rural areas could also have been grossly under-estimated. Material links between ED pesticide use and specific illnesses or deformities are complicated by the multifactorial nature of disease, which can be affected by factors such as diet. Despite these difficulties, a large body of evidence has accumulated linking specific conditions to ED pesticides in wildlife and humans. A more precautionary approach to the use of ED pesticides, especially for non-essential purposes is proposed.

  8. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING EFFECTS OF BUTYLPARABEN: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallabi Goswami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing concern in the field of endocrine disruption over the presence of various endocrine disrupting chemicals in Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs. This concern has also been as PPCPs are most widely used and had led to introduction of thousands of new and complex chemicals that enter the environment in large quantities. The effect of the chemicals has not only been restricted to human who are exposed directly to the chemicals or the animals which gets exposed to the chemicals through wide variety of veterinary drugs, but also the aquatic organisms and other form of Wildlife which are non target and indirectly gets exposed to the chemicals through individual human activity. Parabens includes a group of compound of which methylparaben, butylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben are most widely used as preservatives in various PPCPs. Recent concern over the use of parabens has been drawn by the scientific community as these chemicals are reported to exert a weak estrogenic activity, with butylparaben showing the most potent activity among methyl-, ethyl- and propyl esters in in vitro recombinant yeast assay and in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Human exposure to butylparaben which occur mainly through inhalation, ingestion, or eye or skin contact, from intake of foods or drugs or use of cosmetics and personal care products where butylparaben is mainly used as a preservative. Effects of butylparaben are studied in various animal model systems like rodents to determine the possible effects in human which showed various effects which include defects in male reproductive system like increase in weight of epididymis, also change in serum testosterone level and a significant increase in uterine weight in ovariectomized and immature rats. Other effects include irritation to the respiratory tract, allergic skin reactions, atrophy of lymphoid tissue in the spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes and multifocal

  9. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  10. Fungal Laccases Degradation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Macellaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, water pollution by trace organic compounds (ng/L has become one of the key environmental issues in developed countries. This is the case of the emerging contaminants called endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs. EDCs are a new class of environmental pollutants able to mimic or antagonize the effects of endogenous hormones, and are recently drawing scientific and public attention. Their widespread presence in the environment solicits the need of their removal from the contaminated sites. One promising approach to face this challenge consists in the use of enzymatic systems able to react with these molecules. Among the possible enzymes, oxidative enzymes are attracting increasing attention because of their versatility, the possibility to produce them on large scale, and to modify their properties. In this study five different EDCs were treated with four different fungal laccases, also in the presence of both synthetic and natural mediators. Mediators significantly increased the efficiency of the enzymatic treatment, promoting the degradation of substrates recalcitrant to laccase oxidation. The laccase showing the best performances was chosen to further investigate its oxidative capabilities against micropollutant mixtures. Improvement of enzyme performances in nonylphenol degradation rate was achieved through immobilization on glass beads.

  11. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS AND ALLIGATOR EMBRYOS: A LESSON FROM WILDLIFE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many xenobiotic compounds introduced into the environment by human activity adversely affect wildlife. A number of these contaminants have been hypothesized to induce non lethal, multigenerational effects by acting as endocrine disrupting agents. One case is that of the alligator...

  12. Endocrine disrupting properties in vivo of widely used azole fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Vinggaard, Anne; Hass, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day eac...... as endocrine disruptors in vivo, although the profile of action in vivo varies. As ketoconazole is known to implicate numerous endocrine-disrupting effects in humans, the concern for the effects of the other tested azole fungicides in humans is growing.......The endocrine-disrupting potential of four commonly used azole fungicides, propiconazole, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole and ketoconazole, were tested in two short-term in vivo studies. Initially, the antiandrogenic effects of propiconazole and tebuconazole (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight/day each...

  13. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Associated Disorders and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam De Coster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and/or prevalence of health problems associated with endocrine-disruption have increased. Many chemicals have endocrine-disrupting properties, including bisphenol A, some organochlorines, polybrominated flame retardants, perfluorinated substances, alkylphenols, phthalates, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, solvents, and some household products including some cleaning products, air fresheners, hair dyes, cosmetics, and sunscreens. Even some metals were shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties. Many observations suggesting that endocrine disruptors do contribute to cancer, diabetes, obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and infertility are listed in this paper. An overview is presented of mechanisms contributing to endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruptors can act through classical nuclear receptors, but also through estrogen-related receptors, membrane-bound estrogen-receptors, and interaction with targets in the cytosol resulting in activation of the Src/Ras/Erk pathway or modulation of nitric oxide. In addition, changes in metabolism of endogenous hormones, cross-talk between genomic and nongenomic pathways, cross talk with estrogen receptors after binding on other receptors, interference with feedback regulation and neuroendocrine cells, changes in DNA methylation or histone modifications, and genomic instability by interference with the spindle figure can play a role. Also it was found that effects of receptor activation can differ in function of the ligand.

  14. Neuro-endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Bech Sanderhoff, Lene; Waller, Stine P.

    The Mollusca phylum is the second largest animal phylum with around 85,000 registered mollusc species and increasing attention to effects of chemicals on the molluscan endocrine system have been given during the last years. This includes initiation of the development of OECD test guidelines (TG) ...

  15. CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN REPTILES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented suggest that contaminants can alter the endocrine and reproductive system of reptiles by mimicking hormones and by various mechanisms other than direct hormonal mimicry. However, these data indicate, as do many other studies using various vertebrates, that a fo...

  16. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, S L; Widholm, J J

    2001-12-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role in central nervous system development and function, a number of researchers have speculated that the changes in cognitive function are mediated by the endocrine-like actions of these chemicals. In this paper we review the evidence that cognitive effects of chemicals classified as environmental endocrine disruptors are mediated by changes in hormonal function. We begin by briefly reviewing the role of gonadal steroids, thyroid hormones, and glucocorticoids in brain development and brain function. We then review the endocrine changes and cognitive effects that have been reported for selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals, discuss the evidence for causal relationships between endocrine disruption and cognitive effects, and suggest directions for future research.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  18. Thyroid effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Main, Katharina M

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, many studies of thyroid-disrupting effects of environmental chemicals have been published. Of special concern is the exposure of pregnant women and infants, as thyroid disruption of the developing organism may have deleterious effects on neurological outcome. Chemicals may exert ...

  19. Endocrine Disruption and Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    described in Task 1, was to expose pregnant female rats to vinclozolin and test if the inductive and instructive properties of the prostate stroma is...ethane dimethane sulphonate ) during sexual differentiation produces diverse profiles of reproductive malformations in the male rat. Toxicol Ind Health...BPH Benign prostate hyperplasia cDNA Complementary deoxyribonucleic acid DP Dorsal prostate EDC Endocrine disruptor E Estrogen FgF10

  20. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals use distinct mechanisms of action to modulate endocrine system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Korach, Kenneth S

    2006-06-01

    The term endocrine-disrupting chemicals is used to define a structurally diverse class of synthetic and natural compounds that possess the ability to alter various components of the endocrine system and potentially induce adverse health effects in exposed individuals and populations. Research on these compounds has revealed that they use a variety of both nuclear receptor-mediated and non-receptor-mediated mechanisms to modulate different components of the endocrine system. This review will describe in vitro and in vivo studies that highlight the spectrum of unique mechanisms of action and biological effects of four endocrine-disrupting chemicals--diethylstilbestrol, genistein, di(n-butyl)phthalate, and methoxyacetic acid--to illustrate the diverse and complex nature of this class of compounds.

  1. Prediction of the endocrine disruption profile of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillers, J; Bro, E; Millot, F

    2015-01-01

    Numerous manmade chemicals released into the environment can interfere with normal, hormonally regulated biological processes to adversely affect the development and reproductive functions of living species. Various in vivo and in vitro tests have been designed for detecting endocrine disruptors, but the number of chemicals to test is so high that to save time and money, (quantitative) structure-activity relationship ((Q)SAR) models are increasingly used as a surrogate for these laboratory assays. However, most of them focus only on a specific target (e.g. estrogenic or androgenic receptor) while, to be more efficient, endocrine disruption modelling should preferentially consider profiles of activities to better gauge this complex phenomenon. In this context, an attempt was made to evaluate the endocrine disruption profile of 220 structurally diverse pesticides using the Endocrine Disruptome simulation (EDS) tool, which simultaneously predicts the probability of binding of chemicals on 12 nuclear receptors. In a first step, the EDS web-based system was successfully applied to 16 pharmaceutical compounds known to target at least one of the studied receptors. About 13% of the studied pesticides were estimated to be potential disruptors of the endocrine system due to their high predicted affinity for at least one receptor. In contrast, about 55% of them were unlikely to be endocrine disruptors. The simulation results are discussed and some comments on the use of the EDS tool are made.

  2. Recent Advances on Endocrine Disrupting Effects of UV Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV filters are used widely in cosmetics, plastics, adhesives and other industrial products to protect human skin or products against direct exposure to deleterious UV radiation. With growing usage and mis-disposition of UV filters, they currently represent a new class of contaminants of emerging concern with increasingly reported adverse effects to humans and other organisms. Exposure to UV filters induce various endocrine disrupting effects, as revealed by increasing number of toxicological studies performed in recent years. It is necessary to compile a systematic review on the current research status on endocrine disrupting effects of UV filters toward different organisms. We therefore summarized the recent advances on the evaluation of the potential endocrine disruptors and the mechanism of toxicity for many kinds of UV filters such as benzophenones, camphor derivatives and cinnamate derivatives.

  3. Endocrine disrupters. The case of oestrogenic xenobiotics II: synthetic oestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been demonstrated that endocrine systems of living beings can be altered by many chemical substances of anthropogenic origin, designated as endocrine disrupters. There are growing concerns about the number of these endocrine disrupters. It has not been possible to define a single chemical structure that allows the classification of a chemical compound as a mimic of female sex hormones, so that chemical structures similar to natural estrogens, based on cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene, share their hormonal effect with stilbenes, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dioxins, furans and parabenes. The recognition of estrogenic activity in different biological models has been used to update the list of xenoestrogens and reveal sources of human exposure that were previously unknown. New previously unsuspected chemical compounds have been added to the list, as well as their precursors, metabolites and degradation products, whose effects are only now beginning to be recognised.

  4. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and public health protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Brown, T R; Doan, L L

    2012-01-01

    exposures to have potent and irreversible effects. Finally, with regard to the current program designed to detect putative EDC, namely, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program, we offer recommendations for strengthening this program through the incorporation of basic endocrine principles to promote......An endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action. The potential for deleterious effects of EDC must be considered relative to the regulation of hormone synthesis, secretion, and actions and the variability...... in regulation of these events across the life cycle. The developmental age at which EDC exposures occur is a critical consideration in understanding their effects. Because endocrine systems exhibit tissue-, cell-, and receptor-specific actions during the life cycle, EDC can produce complex, mosaic effects...

  5. Endocrine disruption: fact or urban legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Borgert, Christopher J; Dietrich, Daniel; Rozman, Karl K

    2013-12-16

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are substances that cause adverse health effects via endocrine-mediated mechanisms in an intact organism or its progeny or (sub) populations. Purported EDCs in personal care products include 4-MBC (UV filter) or parabens that showed oestrogenic activity in screening tests, although regulatory toxicity studies showed no adverse effects on reproductive endpoints. Hormonal potency is the key issue of the safety of EDCs. Oestrogen-based drugs, e.g. the contraceptive pill or the synthetic oestrogen DES, possess potencies up to 7 orders of magnitude higher than those of PCP ingredients; yet, in utero exposure to these drugs did not adversely affect fertility or sexual organ development of offspring unless exposed to extreme doses. Additive effects of EDs are unlikely due to the multitude of mechanisms how substances may produce a hormone-like activity; even after uptake of different substances with a similar mode of action, the possibility of additive effects is reduced by different absorption, metabolism and kinetics. This is supported by a number of studies on mixtures of chemical EDCs. Overall, despite of 20 years of research a human health risk from exposure to low concentrations of exogenous chemical substances with weak hormone-like activities remains an unproven and unlikely hypothesis.

  6. Contribution of the Endocrine Perspective in the Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Juul, Anders; Franssen, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    to low doses of tenths or hundreds of chemicals since prenatal life, causation is most difficult to demonstrate and justifies a translational approach using animal models. Studies in rodents indicate an exquisite sensitivity of neuroendocrine endpoints to EDCs. Altogether, the data from both human......Debate makes science progress. In the field of endocrine disruption, endocrinology has brought up findings that substantiate a specific perspective on the definition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the role of the endocrine system and the endpoints of hormone and EDC actions among other...... that the increasing burden of EDCs could be an explanation. In fact, pubertal timing currently shows complex changes since advancement of some manifestations of puberty (e.g. breast development) and no change or delay of others (e.g. menarche, pubic hair development) can be observed. In a human setting with exposure...

  7. Possible endocrine disrupting effects of parabens and their metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie

    2010-01-01

    Parabens are preservatives used in a wide range of cosmetic products, including products for children, and some are permitted in foods. However, there is concern for endocrine disrupting effects. This paper critically discusses the conclusions of recent reviews and original research papers...... and provides an overview of studies on toxicokinetics. After dermal uptake, parabens are hydrolyzed and conjugated and excreted in urine. Despite high total dermal uptake of paraben and metabolites,little intact paraben can be recovered in blood and urine. Paraben metabolites may play a role in the endocrine...... disruption seen in experimental animals and studies are needed to determine human levels of parabens and metabolites. Overall, the estrogenic burden of parabens and their metabolites in blood may exceed the action of endogenous estradiol in childhood and the safety margin for propylparaben is very low when...

  8. Bird populations as sentinels of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Carere

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs is a widespread phenomenon in nature. Although the mechanisms of action of EDCs are actively studied, the consequences of endocrine disruption (ED at the population level and the adaptations evolved to cope with chronic EDC exposure have been overlooked. Birds probably represent the animal taxon most successfully adapted to synanthropic life. Hence, birds share with humans a similar pattern of exposure to xenobiotics. In this article, we review case studies on patterns of behaviour that deviate from the expectation in bird species exposed to EDCs. We provide behavioural and ecological parameters to be used as endpoints of ED; methodological requirements and caveats based on species-specific life-history traits, behavioural repertoires, developmental styles, and possibility of captive breeding; a list of species that could be used as sentinels to assess the quality of man-made environment.

  9. Cognitive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in animals.

    OpenAIRE

    Schantz, S L; Widholm, J J

    2001-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role in central nervous system development and function, ...

  10. Introduction of environmental endocrine disrupters; Kankyo horumon ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, S. [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Hosomi, M. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1998-11-05

    This paper describes environmental hormones. Hormones are directly secreted from endocrine gland into blood flow, and play an important role of the differentiation of textures of organisms, reproductive function, metabolism, and adjustment of nervous/immunity system. There are some substances with hormone and anti-hormone reactions within the body of organisms, which are discharged as chemical substances in the natural environment by the artificial production activities. These are extrinsic endocrine disrupters, i.e., environmental hormones. There are 67 kinds of doubtful substances. When the environmental hormones work on the certain reaction stage of hormones, the normal action of hormones is disturbed. Various anomalies of wild animals have been reported in the world, which are suggested to be caused by the environmental hormones. Effects are known on the health of Homo sapiens, such as malignant tumor. In the current stage, test methods are under development, by which the presence of endocrine disruption can be screened. The effects depend on the growing stages of organisms, and it is necessary to consider the effects on various generations. 20 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Interference of pollutants with PPARs: endocrine disruption meets metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals-Casas, C; Feige, J N; Desvergne, B

    2008-12-01

    The concept of endocrine disruption emerged over a decade ago with the observation that several natural or industrial compounds can interfere with estrogen and androgen signaling, and thereby affect both male and female reproductive functions. Since then, many endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been identified and the concept has been broadened to receptors regulating other aspects of endocrine pathways. In that context, interference of EDCs with receptors regulating metabolism has been proposed as a factor that could contribute to metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. We review recent studies showing that several pollutants, including phthalates and organotins, interfere with PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) nuclear receptors and may thereby affect metabolic homeostasis. Particular emphasis is given on the mechanisms of action of these compounds. However, unlike what has been suspected, we provide evidence from mouse models suggesting that in utero exposure to the phthalate ester di-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate most likely does not predispose to obesity. Collectively, these studies define a subclass of EDCs that perturb metabolic signaling and that we propose to define as metabolic disruptors.

  12. Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds and men's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D

    2010-07-01

    Human exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have received increased attention in recent years due to the documentation of widespread exposure to a number of EDCs among the general population, experimental data demonstrating endocrine-related effects on reproduction, development, metabolism, and cancer, and observations for increasing trends (as well as geographic trends) in endocrine-related disorders among populations. However, human studies of exposure to most environmental EDCs in relation to adverse health outcomes remain limited. This review focuses on the human data generated to date on the relationship between exposures to environmental EDCs and men's health. The agents discussed here, which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were chosen based on their exposure prevalence and the presence of existing human data in studies of male reproductive health, altered reproductive and thyroid hormone levels, diabetes and/or metabolic syndrome, and endocrine-related cancers. Taken together, the epidemiologic data on the environmental EDCs suggest that there may be associations between exposure and adverse health outcomes in men. However, the limited human data, and in many instances inconsistent data across studies, highlight the need for further research on these chemicals. Future longitudinal molecular epidemiology studies with appropriately designed exposure assessments are needed to determine potential causal relationships, to identify the most important time windows/life stages of exposure, and to define individual susceptibility factors for adverse effects on men's health in response to exposure.

  13. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with St. Cloud State University, Minnesota Department of Health, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Metropolitan Council Environmental Services, and the University of Minnesota, has conducted field monitoring studies and laboratory research to determine the presence of endocrine active chemicals and the incidence of endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes during 1994–2008. Endocrine active chemicals are chemicals that interfere with the natural regulation of endocrine systems, and may mimic or block the function of natural hormones in fish or other organisms. This interference commonly is referred to as endocrine disruption. Indicators of endocrine disruption in fish include vitellogenin (female egg yolk protein normally expressed in female fish) in male fish, oocytes present in male fish testes, reduced reproductive success, and changes in reproductive behavior.

  14. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palioura, Eleni; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder of unclear etiopathogenesis that is likely to involve genetic and environmental components synergistically contributing to its phenotypic expression. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and in particular Bisphenol A (BPA) represent a group of widespread pollutants intensively investigated as possible environmental contributors to PCOS pathogenesis. Substantial evidence from in vitro and animal studies incriminates endocrine disruptors in the induction of reproductive and metabolic aberrations resembling PCOS characteristics. In humans, elevated BPA concentrations are observed in adolescents and adult PCOS women compared to reproductively healthy ones and are positively correlated with hyperandrogenemia, implying a potential role of the chemical in PCOS pathophysiology, although a causal interference cannot yet be established. It is plausible that developmental exposure to specific EDCs could permanently alter neuroendocrine, reproductive and metabolic regulation favoring PCOS development in genetically predisposed individuals or it could accelerate and/or exacerbate the natural course of the syndrome throughout life cycle exposure.

  15. Immunochemical determination of xenobiotics with endocrine disrupting effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez-Alberola, M.C.; Marco, M.P. [Department of Biological Organic Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    This paper is a review with more than 100 references discussing the immunochemical methods reported in the literature for the most important man-made chemicals with suspected endocrine disrupting activity. Details regarding immunizing hapten design, antibody production, and the features (limit of detection, dynamic range, specificity) of the most important immunochemical methods developed (ELISA, FIIA, immunosorbents, immunosensors, etc.) are presented for important environmental pollutants such as bisphenol A, phthalates, alkylphenol polyethoxylates, alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds, and dioxins. Availability of commercial reagents and methods is reported. (orig.)

  16. Molecular markers of endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotchell, Jeanette M; Ostrander, Gary K

    2003-01-01

    A wide range of organic contaminant compounds prevalent in the aquatic environment has been shown to exhibit hormone-disrupting activity. The actual potency of such compounds are low compared with endogenous hormones, such as 17beta-estradiol, but may still produce detrimental biological effects. Induced hormone levels are routinely measured using commercial testing kits, though these fail to relate to actual effects. Field and laboratory studies on the biological effects of environmental estrogens have, in the past, largely relied on assays of vitellogenin (vtg) induction in male fish, reduced growth in testes formation, and intersex incidence. Here, we critically review the current and potential application of molecular techniques in assessing the adverse biological reproductive effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic organisms. The role of fish (estrogen, androgen, and progestogen) hormone receptors and invertebrate (ecdysone) hormone receptor, egg production (vtg and chorion) proteins, steroid biosynthesis enzymes (aromatase, sulfotransferase, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase), DNA damage, apoptosis, and their potential development as biomarkers are discussed in turn. In each case, the sequences characterized are presented and homologies across species are highlighted. Molecular methods of gauging vtg and zona radiata (ZR) expression and protein concentrations have included immunoassay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Suggestions for the isolation for key gene expression products (aromatase, ZR, and vtg, for instance), from a wider range of fish species using degenerate primers, are given. Endocrine disruption in invertebrates has received less attention compared with fish, partly because the knowledge regarding invertebrate endocrinology is limited. Here we review and suggest alternate isolation strategies for key players in the imposex induction process: vitellin (Vn), aromatase, and Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp (APGW) amide

  17. Endocrine disruption of courtship behaviour and reproduction in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broch-Lips, Mia Gina Gruwier

    2011-01-01

    Many different compounds have the abilities to interfere with the endocrine system. The endocrine system in vertebrates is complex and consists of different cross talking systems. Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) can disturb these systems in various ways, for example by mimicking or countera......Many different compounds have the abilities to interfere with the endocrine system. The endocrine system in vertebrates is complex and consists of different cross talking systems. Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) can disturb these systems in various ways, for example by mimicking...

  18. Methods for the Determination of Endocrine-Disrupting Phthalate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Munawar Saeed; Yusoff, Abdull Rahim bin Mohd; Wirzal, Mohd Dzul Hakim; Sirajuddin; Barek, Jiri; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Üstündag, Zafer

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.

  19. Endocrine disruption in crustaceans due to pollutants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Enrique M; Medesani, Daniel A; Fingerman, Milton

    2007-04-01

    The main endocrine-regulated processes of crustaceans have been reviewed in relation to the effects of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Molting has been shown to be inhibited by several organic pollutants, such as xenoestrogens and related compounds, as well as by some pesticides. Most of these disrupters are thought to interfere with ecdysone at target tissues, although only for a few has this action been demonstrated in vitro. The heavy metal cadmium appears to inhibit some ecdysone secretion. Juvenoid compounds have also been shown to inhibit molting, likely by interfering with the stimulatory effect of methyl farnesoate. A molt-promoting effect of emamectin benzoate, a pesticide, has also been reported. As for reproduction, a variety of organic compounds, including xenoestrogens, juvenoids and ecdysteroids, has produced abnormal development of male and female secondary sexual characters, as well as alteration of the sex ratio. Cadmium and copper have been shown to interfere with hormones that stimulate reproduction, such as methyl farnesoate, as well as with secretion of the gonad inhibiting hormone, therefore affecting, for example, ovarian growth. Several heavy metals were able to produce hyperglycemia in crustaceans during short times of exposure; while a hypoglycemic response was noted after longer exposures, due to inhibition of secretion of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone. The ecological relevance of EDCs on crustaceans is discussed, mainly in relation to the identification of useful biomarkers and sentinel species. New experimental approaches are also proposed.

  20. Evaluation of Water Treatment Methods for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Murray, K. E.

    2006-05-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have caught recent attention as one of the major concerns in the environment. They are known to interfere with the activity of growth-related hormones and usually, as a result, cause disruption in normal functioning of the body. The compounds currently classified as EDCs range from a variety of both natural and synthetic organic compounds and also some heavy metals. Most of these compounds are used in household, pharmaceutical, industrial, agricultural activities, the consumption or usage of which increases with population. There is a lack of detailed chemical and biological analysis as to what concentrations each of these EDCs pose harmless to the environment because of the large number of the suspected compounds. However, several published reports have established that endocrine disruption is observed in aquatic species due to chronic exposure to concentrations of some EDCs as low as a few ng/l. Conventional water treatment facilities do not usually suffice to remove EDCs in concentrations below 1 ng/l. Available technologies for removal of EDCs include adsorption, degradation and membrane treatment. The removal rates, however, are dependant on the properties of the compound, such as molecular weight, water- octanol partition coefficient and vapor pressure; physiochemical conditions of the matrix such as, redox and temperature conditions; type and dose of degrading agent and the concentration of the EDCs. Since, EDCs comprise a vast variety of compounds, their response to each of these treatment methods will be different and hence it is plausible that a single treatment technique will not be sufficient to remove the EDCs to very low concentrations. Based on our review of existing water treatment methods, we believe that a sequential treatment technique that consists of an adsorption, a degradation and finally a fine membrane treatment, each optimized for favorable, efficient and inexpensive removal may be required to remove

  1. Evaluation of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morthorst, Jane Ebsen; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    During recent years invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in the field of endocrine disruption and development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in molluscs is under development. The development of standardized...

  2. Scientific principles for the identification of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: a consensus statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solecki, Roland; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Bergman, Åke

    2017-01-01

    Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been...

  3. Endocrine disruption in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) exposed to leachate from a public refuse dump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noaksson, E.; Linderoth, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Norrgren, L.; Zebühr, Y.; Balk, L.

    2003-01-01

    Lake Molnbyggen was previously found to harbour a large number of sexually immature female perch (Perca fluviatilis) suffering from endocrine disruption. In an attempt to pin-point the source of the endocrine-disrupting substance(s) (EDSs), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbacken, a strea

  4. QSAR Models for Reproductive Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vračko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive toxicity is an important regulatory endpoint, which is required in registration procedures of chemicals used for different purposes (for example pesticides. The in vivo tests are expensive, time consuming and require large numbers of animals, which must be sacrificed. Therefore an effort is ongoing to develop alternative In vitro and in silico methods to evaluate reproductive toxicity. In this review we describe some modeling approaches. In the first example we describe the CAESAR model for prediction of reproductive toxicity; the second example shows a classification model for endocrine disruption potential based on counter propagation artificial neural networks; the third example shows a modeling of relative binding affinity to rat estrogen receptor, and the fourth one shows a receptor dependent modeling experiment.

  5. Organizational and activational effects of estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silbergeld Ellen K.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruption is a hypothesis of common mode of action that may define a set of structurally varied chemicals, both natural and synthetic. Their common mode of action may suggest that they produce or contribute to similar toxic effects, although this has been difficult to demonstrate. Insights from developmental biology suggest that development of hormone sensitive systems, such as the brain and the genitourinary tract, may be particularly sensitive to EDCs. Because these systems are both organized and later activated by hormones, the brain and vagina may be valuable model systems to study the toxicity of EDCs in females and to elucidate mechanisms whereby early exposures appear to affect long term function.

  6. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueiwang Anna Jeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for 1 well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; 2 chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs.

  7. Endocrine disruption of oestrogen action and female reproductive tract cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Douglas A; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2014-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are ubiquitous and persistent compounds that have the capacity to interfere with normal endocrine homoeostasis. The female reproductive tract is exquisitely sensitive to the action of sex steroids, and oestrogens play a key role in normal reproductive function. Malignancies of the female reproductive tract are the fourth most common cancer in women, with endometrial cancer accounting for most cases. Established risk factors for development of endometrial cancer include high BMI and exposure to oestrogens or synthetic compounds such as tamoxifen. Studies on cell and animal models have provided evidence that many EDC can bind oestrogen receptors and highlighted early life exposure as a window of risk for adverse lifelong effects on the reproductive system. The most robust evidence for a link between early life exposure to EDC and adverse reproductive health has come from studies on women who were exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol. Demonstration that EDC can alter expression of members of the HOX gene cluster highlights one pathway that might be vulnerable to their actions. In summary, evidence for a direct link between EDC exposure and cancers of the reproductive system is currently incomplete. It will be challenging to attribute causality to any single EDC when exposure and development of malignancy may be separated by many years and influenced by lifestyle factors such as diet (a source of phytoestrogens) and adiposity. This review considers some of the evidence collected to date.

  8. Impedance Measurements as a Tool for the Detection of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    endocrine disruptors on human health has created a need for screening systems to detect xenoestrogens, a diverse group of chemicals that mimic...Impedance Measurements as a Tool for the Detection of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals V. Sacks, J. Rishpon* Department of Molecular...sensitive and amenable to use on-site, providing an efficient and economic tool for measuring minuscule amounts of endocrine disrupting chemicals

  9. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in indoor and outdoor air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudel, Ruthann A.; Perovich, Laura J.

    The past 50 years have seen rapid development of new building materials, furnishings, and consumer products and a corresponding explosion in new chemicals in the built environment. While exposure levels are largely undocumented, they are likely to have increased as a wider variety of chemicals came into use, people began spending more time indoors, and air exchange rates decreased to improve energy efficiency. As a result of weak regulatory requirements for chemical safety testing, only limited toxicity data are available for these chemicals. Over the past 15 years, some chemical classes commonly used in building materials, furnishings, and consumer products have been shown to be endocrine disrupting chemicals - that is they interfere with the action of endogenous hormones. These include PCBs, used in electrical equipment, caulking, paints and surface coatings; chlorinated and brominated flame retardants, used in electronics, furniture, and textiles; pesticides, used to control insects, weeds, and other pests in agriculture, lawn maintenance, and the built environment; phthalates, used in vinyl, plastics, fragrances, and other products; alkylphenols, used in detergents, pesticide formulations, and polystyrene plastics; and parabens, used to preserve products like lotions and sunscreens. This paper summarizes reported indoor and outdoor air concentrations, chemical use and sources, and toxicity data for each of these chemical classes. While industrial and transportation-related pollutants have been shown to migrate indoors from outdoor sources, it is expected that indoor sources predominate for these consumer product chemicals; and some studies have identified indoor sources as the predominant factor influencing outdoor ambient air concentrations in densely populated areas. Mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and dose-response relationships for many of these chemicals are poorly understood and no systematic screening of common chemicals for endocrine disrupting

  10. Effects of endocrine disruption during pregnancy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Llopis-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors are ubiquitous natural and synthetic environmental pollutants that can mimic, block or disturb normal hormonal function. Environmental exposure to these pollutants is almost impossible to prevent due to their presence in the air, water, soil, food and in many other materials with which we come in contact daily, such as plastics. Foetuses are vulnerable during pregnancy because their organism is in a developmental stage, and any disruption may affect their health in the short and/or long term. There is some evidence that these substances disrupt tissue differentiation and growth processes, cause birth defects and affect the length of pregnancy. In this review we will focus on environmental epidemiology and related literature in order to update current knowledge based on the actual evidence of the effects of these substances on the aetiology of preterm delivery, miscarriages, low birth weight, malformations, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and micropenis. The difficulty in studying this topic is due to the high number of involved factors, which makes the available results inconclusive or even contradictory. Consequently, further research is necessary.

  11. Neuroendocrine and behavioral implications of endocrine disrupting chemicals in quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Henry, P.; McGary, S.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies in our laboratory have focused on endocrine, neuroendocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction in the Japanese quail. These studies considered various stages in the life cycle, including embryonic development, sexual maturation, adult reproductive function, and aging. A major focus of our research has been the role of neuroendocrine systems that appear to synchronize both endocrine and behavioral responses. These studies provide the basis for our more recent research on the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on reproductive function in the Japanese quail. These endocrine active chemicals include pesticides, herbicides, industrial products, and plant phytoestrogens. Many of these chemicals appear to mimic vertebrate steroids, often by interacting with steroid receptors. However, most EDCs have relatively weak biological activity compared to native steroid hormones. Therefore, it becomes important to understand the mode and mechanism of action of classes of these chemicals and sensitive stages in the life history of various species. Precocial birds, such as the Japanese quail, are likely to be sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, because sexual differentiation occurs during this period. Accordingly, adult quail may be less impacted by EDC exposure. Because there are a great many data available on normal development and reproductive function in this species, the Japanese quail provides an excellent model for examining the effects of EDCs. Thus, we have begun studies using a Japanese quail model system to study the effects of EDCs on reproductive endocrine and behavioral responses. In this review, we have two goals: first, to provide a summary of reproductive development and sexual differentiation in intact Japanese quail embryos, including ontogenetic patterns in steroid hormones in the embryonic and maturing quail. Second, we discuss some recent data from experiments in our laboratory in which EDCs have been tested in

  12. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and obesity development in humans: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang-Péronard, J L; Andersen, Helle Raun; Jensen, T K

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans. The resu...... predisposing to later weight gain. The study findings suggest that some endocrine disruptors may play a role for the development of the obesity epidemic, in addition to the more commonly perceived putative contributors.......This study reviewed the literature on the relations between exposure to chemicals with endocrine-disrupting abilities and obesity in humans. The studies generally indicated that exposure to some of the endocrine-disrupting chemicals was associated with an increase in body size in humans...

  13. In vitro profiling of endocrine disrupting effects of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian

    2010-02-01

    Some phenols have been suspected to modulate the endocrine systems of wildlife and humans, but less is known about their interactions with different types of nuclear receptors. In this study, the ability of 2-tert-butylphenol, 2-isopropylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 3,4-dichlorophenol (3,4-DCP), pentachlorophenol (PCP), bisphenols A (BPA), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and 4-phenylphenol to activate estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), progesterone receptor (PR) and estrogen-related receptor (ERR) were determined using a set of recombined yeast strains. It was found that 4-t-OP, 3,4-DCP, PCP, BPA, TBBPA, TCBPA and 4-phenylphenol were ERalpha agonists, while 4-t-OP, PCP and 4-phenylphenol showed ERalpha antagonistic activities. 2-tert-Butylphenol, 4-t-OP, 2-isopropylphenol, 2,4-DCP, 3,4-DCP, BPA, TCBPA and 4-phenylphenol were antagonists for AR, whereas none of the compounds studied were found to be an AR agonist. TCBPA, TBBPA and PCP were PR antagonists, and 2-tert-butylphenol, 3,4-DCP, 4-t-OP, 4-phenylphenol and 2-isopropylphenol were weak inhibitors on expression under control of the PR. None of the phenols were PR agonists. 2-tert-Butylphenol, 4-t-OP and PCP were ERRgamma inverse agonists, while 2,4-DCP, 3,4-DCP, PCP, BPA, TBBPA and TCBPA exhibited the ability to reverse the ERR inhibition induced by 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Based on the functional agonistic or antagonistic receptor-mediated effects, we further discussed the possible action mechanisms of these phenols as endocrine disrupting chemicals.

  14. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R. Falconer

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where he effluent is directly or indirectly in

  15. Thyroid endocrine disruption and external body morphology of Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prakash; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects thyroid-active compounds during early development on body morphology of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Three-day postfertilization (dpf) larvae were exposed to goitrogen [methimazole (MZ, 0.15 mM)], combination of MZ (0.15 mM) and thyroxine (T4, 2 nM), T4 (2 nM), or control (reconstituted water) treatments until 33 dpf and subsequently maintained in reconstituted water until 45 dpf. Samples were taken at 33 and 45 dpf for multivariate analysis of geometric distances between selected homologous landmarks placed on digital images of fish, and for histological assessment of thyrocytes. Body mass, standard length, and pectoral fin length were separately measured on remaining fish at 45 dpf. Histological analysis confirmed the hypothyroid effect (increased thyrocyte height) of MZ and rescue effect of T4 co-administration. Geometric distance analysis showed that pectoral and pelvic fins shifted backward along the rostrocaudal axis under hypothyroid conditions at 45 dpf and that T4 co-treatment prevented this shift. Pectoral fin length at 45 dpf was reduced by exposure to MZ and rescued by co-administration of T4, but it was not associated with standard length. Methimazole caused a reduction in body mass and length at 45 dpf that could not be rescued by T4 co-administration, and non-thyroidal effects of MZ on body shape were also recognized at 33 and 45 dpf. Alterations in the length and position of paired fins caused by exposure to thyroid-disrupting chemicals during early development, as shown here for Zebrafish, could affect physical aspects of locomotion and consequently other important organismal functions such as foraging, predator avoidance, and ultimately survival and recruitment into the adult population. Results of this study also suggest the need to include rescue treatments in endocrine disruption studies that rely on goitrogens as reference for thyroid-mediated effects.

  16. Endocrine Disrupters: the new players able to affect the epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia eCasati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetics represents the way by which the environment is able to program the genome; there are three main levels of epigenetic control on genome: DNA methylation, post-translational histone modification and microRNA expression. The term Epigenetics has been widened by NIH to include both heritable changes in gene activity and expression but also stable, long-term alterations in the transcriptional potential of a cell that are not necessarily heritable. These changes might be produced mostly by the early life environment and might affect health influencing the susceptibility to develop diseases, from cancer to mental disorder, during the entire life span. The most studied environmental influences acting on epigenome are diet, infections, wasting, child care, smoking and environmental pollutants, in particular endocrine disrupters (EDs. These are environmental xenobiotics able to interfere with the normal development of the male and female reproductive systems of wildlife, of experimental animals and possibly of humans, disrupting the normal reproductive functions. Data from literature indicate that EDs can act at different levels of epigenetic control, in some cases transgenerationally, in particular when the exposure to these compounds occurs during the prenatal and earliest period of life. Some of the best characterized EDs will be considered in this review. Among the EDs, vinclozolin (VZ and methoxychlor (MXC promote epigenetic transgenerational effects. Polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs, the most widespread environmental EDs, affect histone post-translational modifications in a dimorphic way, possibly as the result of an alteration of gene expression of the enzymes involved in histone modification, as the demethylase Jarid1b, an enzyme also involved in regulating the interaction of androgens with their receptor.

  17. Information/testing strategy for identification of substances with endocrine disrupting properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Bjerregaard, Poul

    . The overall scope of this project is to provide a science based input to the ongoing work in EU with regard to endocrine disruptors, i.e. the development of criteria for identification, REACH review on EDs and the revised strategy for the future work on endocrine disruptors, focusing on adequate detection......This report has been prepared by the Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters (CeHoS) as a project contracted by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Danish Centre on Endocrine Disrupters is an interdisciplinary scientific network without walls. The main purpose of the Centre is to build...... and gather new knowledge on endocrine disrupters (EDs) with the focus on providing information requested for the preventive work of the regulatory authorities. The Centre is financed by the Ministry of the Environment and the scientific work programme is followed by an international scientific advisory board...

  18. Development of a Biosensor for Identifying Novel Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    L., Sinks, T., and Walton, B. T. (1998) The U.S. Federal Framework for Research on Endocrine Disruptors and an Analysis of Research Programs...Supported During Fiscal Year 1996. Environ. Health Persp. 106, 105-113. 19 2. Crews D., Willingham E., and Skipper J. K. (2000) Endocrine Disruptors ...Identifying Novel Endocrine -Disrupting Chemicals PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laurel J. Standley, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION

  19. Research Development of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) in Water in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    More and more importance has been attached to the problem of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) since 1960s. This article elaborates the recent research progress of EDCs in water and the trends in the near future in China.

  20. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P.; Brouwer, A.

    2004-01-01

    DEVELOPMENTAL AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY vitro screening the endocrine disrupting potency brominated flame retardants and their metabolites Timo Hamers Jorke Kamstra Edwin Sonneveld Albertinka Murk Bart Zegers Jan Boon Abraham Brouwer Institute for Environmental Studies IVM Amsterdam BioDetection Sys

  1. Webinar Presentation: Metals, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Metals, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  2. A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoeller, Robert T; Bergmann, Åke; Becher, Georg;

    2014-01-01

    Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine...

  3. Direct and indirect endocrine disruption : aromatase and estrogen receptor-mediated processes in breast cancer development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heneweer, Marjoke

    2005-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been defined by the World Health Organization as: “exogenous substances or mixtures that alters function(s) of the endocrine system and causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub)populations”. Synthetic, as well as, natura

  4. An approach to the identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewence, Annette; Brescia, Susy; Johnson, Ian; Rumsby, Paul C

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing interest in chemicals that interact with the endocrine system and have the potential to alter the normal function of this system in humans and wildlife. Chemicals that produce adverse effects caused by interaction with endocrine systems are termed Endocrine Disrupters (EDs). This interest has led regulatory authorities around the world (including the European Union) to consider whether potential endocrine disrupters should be identified and assessed for effects on human health and wildlife and what harmonised criteria could be used for such an assessment. This paper reviews the results of a study whereby toxicity data relating to human health effects of 98 pesticides were assessed for endocrine disruption potential using a number of criteria including the Specific Target Organ Toxicity for repeat exposure (STOT-RE) guidance values used in the European Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. Of the pesticides assessed, 27% required further information in order to make a more definitive assessment, 14% were considered to be endocrine disrupters, more or less likely to pose a risk, and 59% were considered not to be endocrine disrupters.

  5. Degrading Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals from Wastewater by T i O Photocatalysis: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Chung Sin; Sze-Mun Lam; Abdul Rahman Mohamed; Keat-Teong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the impacts of exposure to chemical compounds with endocrine disrupting activities. To date, the percolation of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) effluent into the aquatic system remains an intricate challenge abroad the nations. With the innovation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), there has been a consistent growing interest in this research field. Hence, the aim of this paper is to focus one such method within the AOPs, namely, hetero...

  6. Endocrine potency of wastewater: Contents of endocrine disrupting chemicals and effects measured by in vivo and in vitro assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Krüger, Tanja; Long, Manhai

    2011-01-01

    properties: phthalate metabolites, parabens, industrial phenols, ultraviolet screens, and natural and synthetic steroid estrogens. The endocrine disrupting bioactivity and toxicity of the extracts were analyzed in cell culture assay for the potency to affect the function of the estrogen, androgen, aryl...

  7. Reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects of triclosan: Population exposure, present evidence and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai-Feng; Tian, Ying

    2015-11-01

    Triclosan has been used as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for over 40 years worldwide. Increasing reports indicate frequent detection and broad exposure to triclosan in the natural environment and the human body. Current laboratory studies in various species provide strong evidence for its disrupting effects on the endocrine system, especially reproductive hormones. Multiple modes of action have been suggested, including disrupting hormone metabolism, displacing hormones from hormone receptors and disrupting steroidogenic enzyme activity. Although epidemiological studies on its effects in humans are mostly negative but conflicting, which is typical of much of the early evidence on the toxicity of EDCs, overall, the evidence suggests that triclosan is an EDC. This article reviews human exposure to triclosan, describes the current evidence regarding its reproductive endocrine-disrupting effects, and discusses potential mechanisms to provide insights for further study on its endocrine-disrupting effects in humans.

  8. Endocrine-disrupting effect of the ultraviolet filter benzophenone-3 in zebrafish, Danio rerio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Petersen, Gitte I.; Albrektsen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    The chemical ultraviolet (UV) filter benzophenone-3 (BP-3) is suspected to be an endocrine disruptor based on results from in vitro and in vivo testing. However, studies including endpoints of endocrine adversity are lacking. The present study investigated the potential endocrine-disrupting effects...... not affect the vitellogenin concentration in TG 234. After 12 d exposure of adult male zebrafish, a slight but yet significant increase in the vitellogenin concentration was observed at 268 µg/L but not at 63 µg/L and 437 µg/l BP-3. Skewing of the sex ratio is a marker of an endocrine mediated mechanism...... as well as a marker of adversity and therefore the conclusion of the investigation is that BP-3 is an endocrine-disrupting chemical in accordance with the World Health Organization's definition....

  9. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    of effective concentrations (ECx). After having demonstrated that larval development of A. tonsa was a very sensitive endpoint for evaluating effects of chemicals that might interfere with the endocrine system of crustaceans, the larval development test has been applied to two groups of emerging environmental...... of in vitro assays and (sub)chronic copepod tests, as applied in this study, is a valuable tool when screening chemicals suspected to be specifically toxic, in particular, to interfere with the endocrine system. The results of the experimental work as well as the literature survey demonstrated clearly......New and updated test methods to detect and characterise endocrine disrupting chemicals are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment. Although endocrine disruption in invertebrates has not been studied as extensive as in vertebrates, in particular in fish, numerous reports...

  10. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    'The overall objective of the basic research grant is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. The three major lines of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects. and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at a variety of DOE sites that need to be examined for endocrine disrupting effects. By relating results obtained from this research project to contamination problems at various DOE sites. CBR will provide data and information on endocrine disrupting contaminants to DOE for consideration in risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities needed at the sites.'

  11. Endocrine Function in Aquatic Invertebrates and Evidence for Disruption by Environmental Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Pinder, L.C.V.; Pottinger, T.G.; Billinghurst, Z.; Depledge, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Objectives 1. This report addresses five primary objectives:- (i) to summarize the key elements of invertebrate endocrine systems; (ii) to assess whether existing test systems are adequate for the detection of endocrine disruption in invertebrates, what new tests might be required, which species of invertebrates are most appropriate for such tests, what end-points should be measured and whether the same organisms can be used for both laboratory and environme...

  12. Endocrine disrupting pesticides and their impact on wildlife and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Fleșeriu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals are substances that can cause adverse effects by interfering insome way with the body's hormones or chemical messengers. Exposure to endocrine disruptors canoccur through direct contact with pesticides and other chemicals or through ingestion of contaminatedwater, food, or air. Exposure to high doses can result in malformed reproductive organs, consistent withsex hormone imbalance at a critical stage of fetal development. This problem should be studied in moredetail and the authorities should think twice before approvals such products.

  13. Polish Society of Endocrinology Position statement on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra; Rachoń, Dominik; Milewicz, Andrzej; Ruchała, Marek; Bolanowski, Marek; Jędrzejuk, Diana; Bednarczuk, Tomasz; Górska, Maria; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja; Kos-Kudła, Beata; Lewiński, Andrzej; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    With the reference to the position statements of the Endocrine Society, the Paediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology, the Polish Society of Endocrinology points out the adverse health effects caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) commonly used in daily life as components of plastics, food containers, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. The statement is based on the alarming data about the increase of the prevalence of many endocrine disorders such as: cryptorchidism, precocious puberty in girls and boys, and hormone-dependent cancers (endometrium, breast, prostate). In our opinion, it is of human benefit to conduct epidemiological studies that will enable the estimation of the risk factors of exposure to EDCs and the probability of endocrine disorders. Increasing consumerism and the industrial boom has led to severe pollution of the environment with a corresponding negative impact on human health; thus, there is great necessity for the biomonitoring of EDCs in Poland.

  14. Guidance Document on Standardised Test Guidelines for Evaluating Chemicals for Endocrine Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satya, Sneha; Wade, Mike; Hass, Ulla

    This guidance document was developed as a follow-up to the workshop on OECD countries’ activities regarding testing, assessment and management of endocrine disrupters, which was held in Copenhagen (Denmark) on 22-24 September 2010 (see document No. 118 published in the Series on Testing and Asses......This guidance document was developed as a follow-up to the workshop on OECD countries’ activities regarding testing, assessment and management of endocrine disrupters, which was held in Copenhagen (Denmark) on 22-24 September 2010 (see document No. 118 published in the Series on Testing...... on testing and assessment of endocrine disrupters (EDTA AG). In November 2010, comments were requested from the WNT, the EDTA AG, the Task Force on Hazard Assessment and experts involved in the assessment of chemicals. The EDTA AG addressed the comments from the WNT at a meeting held in April 2011...

  15. Multiple endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to butylparaben

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Svingen, Terje

    2016-01-01

    Parabens comprise a group of preservatives commonly added to cosmetics, lotions and other consumer products. Butylparaben has estrogenic and anti-androgenic properties and is known to reduce sperm counts in rats following perinatal exposure. Whether butylparaben exposure can affect other endocrine...

  16. Fluoride caused thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianjie, Chen; Wenjuan, Xue; Jinling, Cao; Jie, Song; Ruhui, Jia; Meiyan, Li

    2016-02-01

    Excessive fluoride in natural water ecosystem has the potential to detrimentally affect thyroid endocrine system, but little is known of such effects or underlying mechanisms in fish. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of fluoride on growth performance, thyroid histopathology, thyroid hormone levels, and gene expressions in the HPT axis in male zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to different determined concentrations of 0.1, 0.9, 2.0 and 4.1 M of fluoride to investigate the effects of fluoride on thyroid endocrine system and the potential toxic mechanisms caused by fluoride. The results indicated that the growth of the male zebrafish used in the experiments was significantly inhibited, the thyroid microtrastructure was changed, and the levels of T3 and T4 were disturbed in fluoride-exposed male fish. In addition, the expressional profiles of genes in HPT axis displayed alteration. The expressions of all studied genes were significantly increased in all fluoride-exposed male fish after exposure for 45 days. The transcriptional levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), sodium iodide symporter (NIS), iodothyronine I (DIO1), and thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRα) were also elevated in all fluoride-exposed male fish after 90 days of exposure, while the inconsistent expressions were found in the mRNA of iodothyronineⅡ (DIO2), UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (UGT1ab), transthyretin (TTR), and thyroid hormone receptor beta (TRβ). These results demonstrated that fluoride could notably inhibit the growth of zebrafish, and significantly affect thyroid endocrine system by changing the microtrastructure of thyroid, altering thyroid hormone levels and endocrine-related gene expressions in male zebrafish. All above indicated that fluoride could pose a great threat to thyroid endocrine system, thus detrimentally affected the normal function of thyroid of male zebrafish.

  17. Science based guidance for the assessment of endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Remi; Broeckaert, Fabrice; Fegert, Ivana; Gross, Melanie; Hallmark, Nina; Kedwards, Tim; Lewis, Dick; O'Hagan, Sue; Panter, Grace H; Weltje, Lennart; Weyers, Arnd; Wheeler, James R; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2011-02-01

    The European legislation on plant protection products (Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009) and biocides (Directive 98/8/EC), as well as the regulation concerning chemicals (Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 'REACH') only support the marketing and use of chemical products on the basis that they do not induce endocrine disruption in humans or non-target species. However, there is currently no agreed guidance on how to identify and evaluate endocrine activity and disruption. Consequently, an ECETOC task force was formed to provide scientific criteria that may be used within the context of these three legislative documents. Specific scientific criteria for the determination of endocrine disrupting properties that integrate information from both regulatory (eco)toxicity studies and mechanistic/screening studies are proposed. These criteria combine the nature of the adverse effects detected in studies which give concern for endocrine toxicity with an understanding of the mode of action of toxicity so that adverse effects can be explained scientifically. The criteria developed are presented in the form of flow charts for assessing relevant effects for both humans and wildlife species. In addition, since not all chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties are of equal hazard, assessment of potency is also proposed to discriminate chemicals of high concern from those of lower concern. The guidance presented in this paper includes refinements made to an initial proposal following discussion of the criteria at a workshop of invited regulatory, academic and industry scientists.

  18. Putative effects of endocrine disrupters on pubertal development in the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Grete; Juul, Anders; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2002-01-01

    Pubertal development is regulated by gonadotrophins and sex hormones. There has been a clear secular trend in the timing of puberty during the last century, puberty becoming earlier. Although improved nutrition is assumed to be the cause, this could partly be associated with exposure to so......-called endocrine disrupters. Precocious puberty has been described in several case reports of accidental exposure to oestrogenic compounds in cosmetic products, food and pharmaceuticals. Local epidemics of premature thelarche have also been suggested to be linked to endocrine disrupters. Children adopted from...

  19. Toxicological profiling of sediments using in vitro bioassays, with emphasis on endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houtman, Corine J; Cenijn, Peter H; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H; Legler, Juliette; Murk, Albertinka J; Brouwer, Abraham

    2004-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are valuable tools for screening environmental samples for the presence of bioactive (e.g., endocrine-disrupting) compounds. They can be used to direct chemical analysis of active compounds in toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approaches. In the present study, five in vitro bioassays were used to profile toxic potencies in sediments, with emphasis on endocrine disruption. Nonpolar total and acid-treated stable extracts of sediments from 15 locations in the Rhine Meuse estuary area in The Netherlands were assessed. Dioxin-like and estrogenic activities (using dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression [DR-CALUX] and estrogen-responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression [ER-CALUX] assays) as well as genotoxicity (UMU test) and nonspecific toxic potency (Vibrio fischeri assay) were observed in sediment extracts. For the first time, to our knowledge, in vitro displacement of thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) from the thyroid hormone transport protein thransthyretin by sediment extracts was observed, indicating the presence of compounds potentially able to disrupt T4 plasma transport processes. Antiestrogenic activity was also observed in sediment. The present study showed the occurrence of endocrine-disrupting potencies in sediments from the Dutch delta and the suitability of the ER- and DR-CALUX bioassays to direct endocrine-disruption TIE studies.

  20. [Progress on detection and analysis method of endocrine disrupting compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-Fang; Yan, Hui-Fang

    2005-07-01

    EDCs are new generation of environmental pollutions which are globally concerned. They may cause adverse effect mainly to the endocrine system and nervous system, etc. To assess the EDCs' hazard to the health exactly, we should know about the distribution and level of EDCs in the environment. In this paper, the technique of pretreatment in different matrices, the method of detection and analysis about EDCs were reviewed, and the future's prospect on the study of detection and analysis method were talked about also.

  1. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixiao Hong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, diethylstilbestrol (DES and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold2 software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69% and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%. Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  2. A Rat α-Fetoprotein Binding Activity Prediction Model to Facilitate Assessment of the Endocrine Disruption Potential of Environmental Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Huixiao; Shen, Jie; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Ye, Hao; Ge, Weigong; Gong, Ping; Xiao, Wenming; Tong, Weida

    2016-03-25

    Endocrine disruptors such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are agents that interfere with the endocrine system and cause adverse health effects. Huge public health concern about endocrine disruptors has arisen. One of the mechanisms of endocrine disruption is through binding of endocrine disruptors with the hormone receptors in the target cells. Entrance of endocrine disruptors into target cells is the precondition of endocrine disruption. The binding capability of a chemical with proteins in the blood affects its entrance into the target cells and, thus, is very informative for the assessment of potential endocrine disruption of chemicals. α-fetoprotein is one of the major serum proteins that binds to a variety of chemicals such as estrogens. To better facilitate assessment of endocrine disruption of environmental chemicals, we developed a model for α-fetoprotein binding activity prediction using the novel pattern recognition method (Decision Forest) and the molecular descriptors calculated from two-dimensional structures by Mold² software. The predictive capability of the model has been evaluated through internal validation using 125 training chemicals (average balanced accuracy of 69%) and external validations using 22 chemicals (balanced accuracy of 71%). Prediction confidence analysis revealed the model performed much better at high prediction confidence. Our results indicate that the model is useful (when predictions are in high confidence) in endocrine disruption risk assessment of environmental chemicals though improvement by increasing number of training chemicals is needed.

  3. Occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth; Cree, Ian;

    2012-01-01

    ultraviolet (UV) exposure. RESULTS: The overall exposure prevalence to EDC was low reaching a maximum of 11% for heavy metals with endocrine-disrupting properties. Although working in some industries was associated with increased melanoma risk [such as dry cleaning: odds ratio (OR) 6.15, 95% confidence......OBJECTIVES: We investigated the association between occupational exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) and the risk of uveal melanoma using international data of a case-control study from nine European countries. METHODS: After exclusion of proxy interviews, 280 cases and 3084 control...... subjects were included in the final analysis. Information on possible exposure to EDC was derived from 27 job-specific questionnaires (JSQ), which solicited detailed questions on occupational tasks. Relative risk estimates were based on the JSQ and potential exposure to a group of endocrine...

  4. The Japanese Quail as an avian model for testing endocrine disrupting chemicals: endocrine and behavioral end points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Abdelnabi, M.A.; Thompson, N.; Wu, J.; Henry, K.; Humphries, E.; Henry, P.F.P.

    2000-01-01

    Birds have extremely varied reproductive strategies. As such, the impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can greatly differ across avian species. Precocial species, such as Japanese quail appear to be most sensitive to EDC effects during embryonic development, particularly sexual differentiation. A great deal is known about the ontogeny of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) relative to endocrine, neuro-endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction. Therefore, this species provides an excellent model for understanding effects of EDCs on reproductive biology with exposure at specific stages of the life cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to conduct a 1- or 2- generation experiment with positive or negative control chemicals and to determine changes in selected end points. Japanese quail embryos were exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB; positive control) in a 2-generation design or to fadrozole (FAD; negative control) in a 1-generation design. Embryonic EB treatment resulted in significant reductions (p< 0.5) in hen day production (90.2 vs 54.1; control vs EB, resp.) and fertility (85.3 vs 33.4%, control vs EB, resp.). Males showed sharply reduced courtship and mating behaviors as well as increased lag time (26 vs 148 sec; control vs EB) in behavioral tests. Fadrozole exposure resulted in reduced hatchability of fertile eggs, particularly at higher doses. There were no significant effects on courtship and mating behavior of males although males showed an increased lag time in their responses, nally, a behavioral test for studying motor and fear responses in young chicks was used; chicks exposed to an estrogenic pesticide (methoxychlor) showed some deficits. In summary, the use of appropriate and reliable end points that are responsive to endocrine disruption are critical for assessment of EDCs. Supported in part by EPA grant R826134.

  5. The use of yolk protein as biomarkers for endocrine disruption in molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund; Bjerregaard, Poul

    Invertebrates and especially molluscs have received increasing attention in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs) during the last few years and the development of OECD test guidelines to assess the effect of EDs with molluscs are in progress. One of the main problems with the development...

  6. Toxicological profiling of sediments with in vitro mechanisms-based bioassays for endocrine disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, C.J.; Cenijn, P.H.; Hamers, T.; Lamoree, M.H.; Legler, J.; Murk, A.J.; Brouwer, A.

    2004-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are valuable tools for screening environmental samples for the presence of bioactive (e.g., endocrine-disrupting) compounds. They can be used to direct chemical analysis of active compounds in toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approaches. In the present study, five in v

  7. In vitro profiling of the endocrine-disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Kester, M.H.A.; Andersson, P.L.; Legler, J.; Brouwer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last years, increasing evidence has become available that some brominated flame retardants (BFRs) may have endocrine disrupting (ED) potencies. The goal of the current study was to perform a systematic in vitro screening of the ED potencies of BFRs (1) to elucidate possible modes of action

  8. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noaksson, E.; Linderoth, M.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Balk, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen a

  9. Product-to-Parent Reversion of Trenbolone: Unrecognized Risks for Endocrine Disruption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Shen; Kolodziej, E.P.; Long, S.A.; Gloer, J.B.; Patterson, E.V.; Baltrusaitis, J.; Jones, G.D.; Benchetler, P.V.; Cole, E.A.; Kimbrough, K.C.; Tarnoff, M.D.; Cwiertny, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a high-value steroidal growth promoter often administered to beef cattle, whose metabolites are potent endocrine-disrupting compounds. We performed laboratory and field phototransformation experiments to assess the fate of TBA metabolites and their photoproducts. Unexpect

  10. Analysis of synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in food: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezcua, M; Martínez-Uroz, M A; Gómez-Ramos, M M; Gómez, M J; Navas, J M; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2012-10-15

    This work focuses on a revision of analytical methodologies for the determination of industrial chemicals that have an endocrine-disrupting effect on food commodities. These food commodities have been divided into two major categories: crops and food of animal origin. The reviewed methods have been commented on in terms of sample preparation, analytical methods, and the occurrence of the studied compounds.

  11. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold

    2014-01-01

    This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalate...... of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.......This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates...... group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence...

  12. Development of a Computational Model for Female Fathead Minnows exposed to Two Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (e.g., estrogens and androgens) are known to affect reproductive functions in fish. A synthetic estrogen used in birth control pills, 17á-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is discharged from wastewater treatment plants into water bodies throughout the United ...

  13. Mixtures of endocrine disrupting contaminants modelled on human high end exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie; Kortenkamp, A.; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2012-01-01

    in vivo endocrine disrupting effects and information about human exposures was available, including phthalates, pesticides, UV‐filters, bisphenol A, parabens and the drug paracetamol. The mixture ratio was chosen to reflect high end human intakes. To make decisions about the dose levels for studies...

  14. A proposed framework for the systematic review and integrated assessment (SYRINA) of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Agerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The issue of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is receiving wide attention from both the scientific and regulatory communities. Recent analyses of the EDC literature have been criticized for failing to use transparent and objective approaches to draw conclusions about the strength...

  15. Examining the biodegradation of endocrine disrupting bisphenol A and nonylphenol in WWTPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Press-Kristensen, Kåre; Lindblom, Erik Ulfson; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine biodegradation of the endocrine disrupting chemicals bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) in activated sludge. Experiments were performed in a pilot wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Copenhagen, Denmark. During standard operation the BPA concentration...

  16. Alternatives to in vivo tests to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in fish and amphibians – interactions with estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endocrine disruption is considered a highly relevant endpoint for environmental risk assessment of chemicals, plant protection products, biocides and pharmaceuticals. Therefore, screening for endocrine disruption – with focus on vertebrates (fish and amphibians) and estrogen, and...

  17. Endocrine disrupters in the Llobregat river basin; Disruptores endocrinos en la cuenca del rio Llobregat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.; Ventura, F.; Marti, I.; Cancho, B. [AGBAR Societat General d' Aigues de Barcelona S. A. (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Endocrine disrupters are chemicals capable of modulating the endocrine system. These chemicals may have a natural or an anthropogenic origin. The latter are the most important to international organisms due to their potential hazardous effects on human health and wildlife. An important group of substances such as pesticides, surfactants, alkylphenols, phthalates and bisphenol A are considered as endocrine disrupters: adverse effects like cancer, infertility and alterations of sexual organs are related with their presence. Phthalates and alkylphenols (ethoxylated nonylphenols and their acidic metabolites) are the main endocrine disrupters identified in the Llobregat river water using different analytical techniques. No pesticides have been identified in significative concentrations due to the low agricultural activity in this area. The contamination levels, at the {mu} g/l values, are in agreement with those cited by other authors in the literature. Llobregat raw water is treated in the Sant Joan Despi plant with a complex treatment able to reduce and/or eliminate these compounds. Only phthalates and ethoxylated nonylphenols are identified in treated water (at sub-{mu}g/l levels). Brominated ethoxylated nonylphenols are formed in the water treatment plant due to the high bromide level in Llobregat raw water. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. Endocrine disrupting effects on Chinese rare minnow(Gobiocypris rarus) fed with field collected Limnodrilus sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Tao-wu; WANG Zi-jian; LIU Jian-kang

    2004-01-01

    The potential endocrine disrupting effects and other toxicity effects on aquatic biota resulted from food uptake was simulated by feeding the laboratory cultured rare minnow(Gobiocypris rarus) with field collected Limnodrilus sp. The results indicated that the food chain processes affected significantly the growth, slightly reduced gonadosomatic indices, and elevated hepatosomatic indices. There was an obvious vitellogenin(VTG) induction, which generally only occurred in mature female, in the serum of juvenile rare minnow and mature male when fed with Limnodrilus sp. In addition, the rare minnow feeding on Limnodrilus sp. had significantly high renal indices, it meant obvious renal hyperplasia. The present work suggested that Limnodrilus sp. from field water may contain toxic pollutants and could lead to endocrine disruption effects to the predators. It was concluded that endocrine disruptors may not only be assimilated through water, but also be bioconcentrated through food web. The results also suggested the importance of food selection in conducting the study of endocrine disruption effects using sensitive species.

  19. Molasses as a possible cause of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome'' in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Masgoret

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During the mid 1990s a potentially serious, chronic syndrome was reported in well-managed beef and dairy herds from unrelated parts of South Africa. Farmers reported that it manifested as various combinations of decreased production, decreased weaning masses, apparent immune breakdown in previously immunocompetent animals, increased reproductive disorders, various mineral imbalances in non-deficient areas and goitre, noticeable as enlarged thyroid glands. The farmers associated this syndrome with certain batches of sugar cane molasses and molasses-based products. The syndrome was reminiscent of an ''endocrine disruptive syndrome''. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suspected endocrine disruptive effect of molasses included in cattle feed. Using existing in vitro assays, four batches of molasses syrup were screened for possible inclusion in a calf feeding trial. Two batches were selected for the trial. Thirty-two, 4- to 6-week-old, weaned Holstein bull calves were included in the single phase, three treatment, parallel design experiment. In two of the groups of calves, two different batches of molasses were included in their rations respectively. The control group was fed a ration to which no molasses was added, but which was balanced for energy and mineral content. The mass gain of the calves was recorded over the 6-month study period. The calves were clinically examined every week and clinical pathology parameters, immune responses and endocrine effects were regularly evaluated. Even though endocrine disrupting effects were detected with the in vitro screening assays, these could not be reproduced in the calves in the experiment. The two batches of molasses utilized in the calf feeding trial did not induce major differences in any of the parameters measured, with the exception of a lower mass gain in one of the molasses-fed groups (Group 1, which tended towards significance. The results of the study indicate that the two batches

  20. Estrogenic and anti-androgenic endocrine disrupting chemicals and their impact on the male reproductive system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria eDe Falco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are identified for their ability to perturb the homeostasis of endocrine system and hormonal balance. The male reproductive system is under close control of hormones and each change in their concentration and time of exposition and action can induce a deregulation of its physiology. In this review we summarize the most recent studies on two main categories of EDCs with different action: the estrogenic bisphenol A and alkylphenols and the anti-androgenic phthalates. This review describes the main effects of these substances on male reproductive system.

  1. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie

    2016-01-01

    that this increased risk was driven by any specific disorder. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with a small increased risk of male reproductive disorders following prenatal and postnatal exposure to some persistent environmental chemicals classified as endocrine disruptors...... but the evidence is limited. Future epidemiological studies may change the weight of the evidence in either direction. No evidence of distortion due to publication bias was found, but exposure-response relationships are not evident. There are insufficient data on rapidly metabolized endocrine disruptors...... was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented...

  2. Assessment of three approaches for regulatory decision making on pesticides with endocrine disrupting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx-Stoelting, P; Niemann, L; Ritz, V; Ulbrich, B; Gall, A; Hirsch-Ernst, K I; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2014-12-01

    Recent EU legislation has introduced endocrine disrupting properties as a hazard-based "cut-off" criterion for the approval of active substances as pesticides and biocides. Currently, no specific science-based approach for the assessment of substances with endocrine disrupting properties has been agreed upon, although this new legislation provides interim criteria based on classification and labelling. Different proposals for decision making on potential endocrine disrupting properties in human health risk assessment have been developed by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) and other regulatory bodies. All these frameworks, although differing with regard to hazard characterisation, include a toxicological assessment of adversity of the effects, the evaluation of underlying modes/mechanisms of action in animals and considerations concerning the relevance of effects to humans. Three options for regulatory decision making were tested upon 39 pesticides for their applicability and to analyze their potential impact on the regulatory status of active substances that are currently approved for use in Europe: Option 1, based purely on hazard identification (adversity, mode of action, and the plausibility that both are related); Option 2, based on hazard identification and additional elements of hazard characterisation (severity and potency); Option 3, based on the interim criteria laid down in the recent EU pesticides legislation. Additionally, the data analysed in this study were used to address the questions, which parts of the endocrine system were affected, which studies were the most sensitive and whether no observed adverse effect levels were observed for substance with ED properties. The results of this exercise represent preliminary categorisations and must not be used as a basis for definitive regulatory decisions. They demonstrate that a combination of criteria for hazard identification with additional criteria of hazard characterisation

  3. Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Majumdar, Chandrajeetbalo; Roy, Partha

    2008-09-01

    The leather tanning industry is characterized by the production of different kinds of effluents, generated in each step of leather processing. These effluents have various chemical compounds which may cause toxicity and endocrine disruption and are thus known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This study was aimed to examine the androgenic potential of leather industry effluents collected from northern region of India. Hershberger assay data showed a significant increase (pGC-MS, it was found to contain various aromatic compounds (nonylphenol, hexaclrobenzene and several azo dyes) some of which independently demonstrated similar effects as shown by water samples. Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities.

  4. Female reproductive disorders: the roles of endocrine-disrupting compounds and developmental timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D.A.; Janssen, S.J.; Edwards, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health. DESIGN: Publications related to the contribution of EDCs to disorders of the ovary (aneuploidy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and altered cyclicity), uterus (endometriosis, uterine fibroids, fetal growth restriction......, and pregnancy loss), breast (breast cancer, reduced duration of lactation), and pubertal timing were identified, reviewed, and summarized at a workshop. CONCLUSION(S): The data reviewed illustrate that EDCs contribute to numerous human female reproductive disorders and emphasize the sensitivity of early life...

  5. Sex differences in microglial colonization and vulnerabilities to endocrine disruption in the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuli, Meghan E; Gibson, Paul; Rhodes, Cassie L; Cushing, Bruce S; Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-11-01

    During development, microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, play an important role in synaptic organization. Microglial colonization of the developing brain is sexually dimorphic in some regions, including nuclei critical for the coordination of social behavior, suggesting steroid hormones have an influencing role, particularly estrogen. By extension, microglial colonization may be vulnerable to endocrine disruption. Concerns have been raised regarding the potential for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) to alter brain development and behavior. Developmental exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous EDC, has been associated with altered sociosexual and mood-related behaviors in various animal models and children. Through a comparison of the promiscuous Wistar rat (Rattus norvegicus) and the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), we are the first to observe that developmental exposure to the synthetic estrogen ethinyl estradiol (EE) or BPA alters the sex-specific colonization of the hippocampus and amygdala by microglia.

  6. Endocrine disruption of sexual selection by an estrogenic herbicide in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Malcolm L; Matlock, Makensey; Treas, Justin; Safi, Barroq; Sanson, Wendy; McCallum, Jamie L

    2013-12-01

    The role that endocrine disruption could play in sexual selection remains relatively untested, and although estrogens occur in insects, little information exists about their biological role in insect reproduction. Atrazine is a commonly applied herbicide that mimics estrogen in vertebrates. Tenebrio molitor were raised from egg to adult under a gradation of environmentally relevant atrazine exposures and a non-treated control. Atrazine was delivered in the drinking water ad libitum. Female T. molitor were provided with a choice between unrelated males raised under three levels of atrazine exposures. Female preference for males demonstrated a non-monotonic inverted U-shaped response to atrazine exposure. There was no significant difference between the control and the high exposure to atrazine. Excluding the control, female preference increased as exposure concentration increased. These results have important repercussions for nonlethal effects of endocrine disruption on populations, their capacity to interfere with sexual selection, and the role of estrogen in pheromone communication among insects.

  7. Environmental epigenomics: Current approaches to assess epigenetic effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC's) on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Orozco, Natalia; Santiago-Toledo, Gerardo; Barrón, Valeria; Espinosa-García, Ana María; García-García, José Antonio; García-Arrazola, Roeb

    2017-02-10

    Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders. Conventional detection of EDCs is based on chemical structure and concentration sample analysis. However, substantial evidence has emerged, suggesting that cell exposure to EDCs leads to epigenetic changes, independently of its chemical structure with non-monotonic low-dose responses. Consequently, a paradigm shift in toxicology assessment of EDCs is proposed based on a comprehensive review of analytical techniques used to evaluate the epigenetic effects. Fundamental insights reported elsewhere are compared in order to establish DNA methylation analysis as a viable method for assessing endocrine disruptors beyond the conventional study approach of chemical structure and concentration analysis.

  8. Embryonic exposure to butachlor in zebrafish (Danio rerio): endocrine disruption, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenqing; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping; Xu, Chao

    2013-03-01

    Butachlor is a chloroacetanilide herbicide widely employed in weeding important crops. Recently, the study of the possible toxic effects of butachlor in non-target organisms has increased substantially. However, the endocrine disruption, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity effects of butachlor in fish have not been fully investigated in previous studies. In the present study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to a range of butachlor concentrations from 4 to 20 μM to evaluate the embryonic toxicity of butachlor until 84 hours postfertilization (hpf). The results demonstrated that butachlor was highly toxic to zebrafish embryos, hindering the hatching process, resulting in a series of malformations and followed by mortality. The malformations observed included pericardial edema (PE) and yolk sac edema (YSE), which showed concentration-dependent responses. The analysis of endocrine gene transcription indicated that butachlor significantly induced the expression of the estrogen-responsive gene Vtg1 but had no effect on the expression of the ERα gene. The innate immune system appeared to be another possible target of butachlor. At 72 hpf, butachlor significantly up-regulated the innate immune system-related genes, including IL-1β, CC-chem, CXCL-C1c and IL-8. These data suggest that butachlor causes developmental toxicity, endocrine disruption and immune toxicity in the zebrafish embryo. Bidirectional interactions between the endocrine system and the immune system might be present, and further studies are needed to determine these possible pathways.

  9. Progress in study on endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) in aquatic environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Nandong; WANG Hongbo; XU Xiaobai

    2005-01-01

    Background on the generation of the problems of endocrine disrupting pesticides (EDPs) in aquatic environment, characteristics of EDPs, adverse effects and their effect mechanism of EDPs on human and wildlife, the transportation and degradation pathways of EDPs in water and analysis methods of EDPs in water were reviewed. The importance of EDPs in water should be attached to adverse effects on wildlife and human health. It was advised to establish research programs on EDPs in aquatic environment especially in water supply source.

  10. QSAR models for reproductive toxicity and endocrine disruption in regulatory use - a preliminary investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Gunde Egeskov; Niemela, J.R.; Wedebye, Eva Bay

    2008-01-01

    the new legislation. This article focuses on a screening exercise by use of our own and commercial QSAR models for identification of possible reproductive toxicants. Three QSAR models were used for reproductive toxicity for the endpoints teratogenic risk to humans (based on animal tests, clinical data...... for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects: Xn (Harmful) and R63 (Possible risk of harm to the unborn child). The chemicals were also screened in three models for endocrine disruption....

  11. Review of Bioassays for Monitoring Fate and Transport of Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Chris G.; Borglin, Sharon E.; Stringfellow, William T.; Green, F. Bailey; Grayson, Allen

    2004-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognized contaminants threatening water quality. Despite efforts in source identification, few strategies exist for characterization or treatment of this environmental pollution. Given that there are numerous EDCs that can negatively affect humans and wildlife, general screening techniques like bioassays and biosensors provide an essential rapid and intensive analysis capacity. Commonly applied bioassays include the ELISA and YES assays, but pr...

  12. Biological and enzymatic treatment of bisphenol A and other endocrine disrupting compounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Qayyum; Qayyum, Shariq

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A is predominantly used as an intermediate in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Traces of bisphenol A released into the environment can reach into the wastewater and soil via application of sewage sludge from wastewater treatment systems that receive water containing bisphenol A, or from leachate from uncontrolled landfills. In this study we have made an effort to review the work on the presence of bisphenol A and other related endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment and their impact on the life of living organisms including human beings. Bisphenol A has several implications on the health of human beings as well it can also affect the growth of plants and animals. Number of physicochemical methods such as adsorption, membrane based filtration, ozonation, fenton, electrochemical and photochemical degradation has been used for the removal of bisphenol A. However, these methods have some inherent limitations and therefore cannot be used for large scale treatment of such pollutants. The alternative procedures have attracted the attention of environmental scientists. Biological methods are looking quite promising and these procedures are helpful in the complete degradation of bisphenol A and related compounds. Several bacterial, fungal, and algal strains and mixed cultures have successfully been employed for the degradation of bisphenol A. Recently, enzymatic methods have attracted the attention of the environmentalists for the treatment of bisphenol A and other endocrine disrupting compounds. Numerous types of oxidoreductases; laccases, tyrosinases, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidases, horseradish peroxidase and bitter gourd peroxidase have exhibited their potential for the remediation of such types of compounds. The cytochrome P 450 monooxygenases and hemoglobin have also participated in the degradation of bisphenol A and other related endocrine disrupting compounds. Various redox mediators

  13. Exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds via the food chain: Is packaging a relevant source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2009-08-01

    Contamination of foodstuffs by environmental pollutants (e.g. dioxins, metals) receives much attention. Until recently, food packaging as a source of xenobiotics, especially those with endocrine disrupting properties, has received little awareness despite its ubiquitous use. This article reviews the regulations and use of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in food packaging and discusses their presence within the context of new toxicology paradigms. I focused on substances known to be legally used in food packaging that have been shown to exhibit endocrine disruptive effects in biological systems. I compiled a list of 50 known or potential EDCs used in food contact materials and examined data of EDCs leaching from packaging into food, with a focus on nonylphenol. I included recent advances in toxicology: mixture effects, the developmental origins of adult disease hypothesis, low-dose effects, and epigenetics. I especially considered the case of bisphenol A. The core hypothesis of this review is that chemicals leaching from packaging into food contribute to human EDCs exposure and might lead to chronic disease in light of the current knowledge. Food contact materials are a major source of food contaminants. Many migrating compounds, possibly with endocrine disruptive properties, remain unidentified. There is a need for information on identity/quantity of chemicals leaching into food, human exposure, and long-term impact on health. Especially EDCs in food packaging are of concern. Even at low concentrations, chronic exposure to EDCs is toxicologically relevant. Concerns increase when humans are exposed to mixtures of similar acting EDCs and/or during sensitive windows of development. In particular, non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) migrating from food contact materials need toxicological characterization; the overall migrate of the finished packaging could be evaluated for biological effects using bioassays. The widespread legal use of EDCs in food

  14. Metabolic targets of endocrine disrupting chemicals assessed by cord blood transcriptome profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remy, Sylvie; Govarts, Eva; Wens, Britt

    2016-01-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been frequently associated with impaired perinatal growth, an important risk factor for later onset of metabolic disorders. We analyzed whether the cord blood transcriptome showed early indications of alterations in metabolic......’ pathways were significantly enriched in relation to p,p′-DDE. Transcriptional changes at birth suggest a role for specific metabolic targets as a link between prenatal EDC exposure and metabolic disorders later in life. © 2016 Elsevier Inc....

  15. Altered steroid metabolism in several teleost species exposed to endocrine disrupting substances in refuse dump leachate

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Endocrine disruption associated with reproductive failure has been reported previously in female perch (Perca fluviatilis) and roach (Rutilus rutilus) from Lake Molnbyggen in Sweden and in female brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Vadbäcken, a stream emptying into Molnbyggen. Both Molnbyggen and Vadbäcken have been contaminated by toxic leachate from a municipal refuse dump. In this study, female perch were caught in Molnbyggen and the reference lake, Lake Djursjön, to further investiga...

  16. Refinement of the ECETOC approach to identify endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Wheeler, James R; Weyers, Arnd; Galay-Burgos, Malyka

    2013-12-16

    To use and implement an assessment scheme for the evaluation of endocrine disrupting properties of chemicals in ecotoxicology, the types of effect need to be agreed. Effects that merit further consideration in this context should fulfil the following three criteria: caused by an endocrine mode of action, be adverse, and be relevant at the population level to reflect the protection goal of ecotoxicological assessments. Thereafter, a comparison of effect values, regardless of the causative mechanisms, should be made, firstly to determine if endocrine toxicity generates the lowest endpoint within a taxon, and secondly if it is the lowest endpoint compared to that of other taxa living in the same compartment. These comparisons inform on two levels of specificity and determine if endocrine-mediated side-effects determine the ecotoxicological profile of a chemical. Various quantitative measures for the assessment of potency are also presented, which could assist in determining how to handle substances in the risk assessment when a regulatory concern is identified. Finally, derogation criteria should be defined for compounds that were designed as endocrine disruptors for non-vertebrates and those for which there is 'negligible exposure'. This paper discusses and provides proposals on how to apply these concepts for assessment of substances.

  17. Endocrine disrupting chemicals in Minnesota lakes - Water-quality and hydrological data from 2008 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Keefe, Steffanie K.; Brown, Greg K.; Ferrey, Mark L.; Jahns, Nathan D.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Lundy, James R.; Poganski, Beth H.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Taylor, Howard E.; Woodruff, Olivia P.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sources, fate, and effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is important for water-resource management. This study was conducted during 2008 and 2010 to establish a framework for assessing endocrine disrupting chemicals, and involved a statewide survey of their occurrence in 14 Minnesota lakes and a targeted study of different microhabitats on a single lake. The lakes ranged in size from about 0.1 to 100 square kilometers, varied in trophic status from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and spanned a range of land-uses from wetlands and forest to agricultural and urban use. Water and sediment samples were collected from the near-shore littoral environment and analyzed for endocrine disrupting chemicals, including trace elements, acidic organic compounds, neutral organic compounds, and steroidal hormones. In addition, polar organic compound integrative samplers were deployed for 21 days and analyzed for the same organic compounds. One lake was selected for a detailed microhabitat study of multiple near-shore environments. This report compiles the results from the field measurements and laboratory chemical analysis of water, sediment, and polar organic compound integrative sampler samples collected during 2008 and 2010. Most of the organic compounds measured were not detected in any of the water samples, although a few compounds were detected in several of the lakes.

  18. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...

  19. Male Reproductive Disorders, Diseases, and Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Russ; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increasing evidence suggests that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to male reproductive diseases and disorders. Purpose: To estimate the incidence/prevalence of selected male reproductive disorders/diseases and associated economic costs that can be reasonably...

  20. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R. T.; Hass, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical...... Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine...... disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting...

  1. Effects of endocrine disrupters on the expression of growth hormone and prolactin mRNA in the rainbow trout pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is now widely accepted that chemical pollutants in the environment can interfere with the endocrine system of animals, thus affecting development and reproduction. Some of these endocrine disrupters (EDs) can have estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects. Most studies to date have focused on the ef...

  2. European Union's strategy on endocrine disrupting chemicals and the current position of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perharič, Lucija; Fatur, Tanja; Drofenik, Jernej

    2016-06-01

    In view of the European Union regulations 1107/2009 and 528/2012, which say that basic substances in plant protection and biocidal products marketed in the European Union (EU) should not have an inherent capacity to cause endocrine disruption, an initiative was started to define scientific criteria for the identification of endocrine disruptors (EDs). The objectives of the EU strategy on EDs are to protect human health and the environment, to assure the functioning of the market, and to provide clear and coherent criteria for the identification of EDs that could have broad application in the EU legislation. Policy issues were to be addressed by the Ad-hoc group of Commission Services, EU Agencies and Member States established in 2010, whereas the scientific issues were to be addressed by the Endocrine Disruptors Expert Advisory Group (ED EAG), established in 2011. The ED EAG adopted the 2002 World Health Organization (WHO) definition of endocrine disruptor and agreed that for its identification it is necessary to produce convincing evidence of a biologically plausible causal link between an adverse effect and endocrine disrupting mode of action. In 2014, the European Commission proposed four ED identification criteria options and three regulatory options, which are now being assessed for socio-economic, environmental, and health impact. Slovenia supports the establishing of identification criteria and favours option 4, according to which ED identification should be based on the WHO definition with the addition of potency as an element of hazard characterisation. As for regulatory options, Slovenia favours the risk-based rather than hazard-based regulation.

  3. Reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in invertebrates: in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2002-05-10

    In order to gain basic understanding in the ecotoxicity of endocrine disrupting chemicals or EDCs (including natural chemicals and some pharmaceuticals), many international research groups are currently testing these chemicals using aquatic invertebrates. This paper discusses relevant examples to address key questions: which aquatic invertebrates are likely to be vulnerable to mammalian and non-mammalian EDCs; and which types of invertebrate chronic tests might be most sensitive and cost-effective to address potential environmental exposures? For a full review of invertebrate endocrine disrupter research see Endocrine Disruption in Invertebrates: Endocrinology, Testing and Assessment (1999). As an example, crustaceans are a particular focus of EDC research, reflecting their abundance in nature, commercial importance and their inclusion in the regulatory assessment schemes for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). There is a diverse literature on the developmental and reproductive effects of mammalian EDCs in Crustacea, although there is growing evidence that such effects are probably not mediated via arthropod hormone systems. For example, recent studies in Europe using a marine copepod (Tisbe battagliai) life-cycle test have evaluated ecdysteroid agonists (e.g. 20-hydroxyecdysone), oestrogen agonists (e.g. diethylstilbestrol (DES), 17beta-oestradiol, oestrone and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol) and the pharmaceutical anti-oestrogen (ZM189, 154). While 20-hydroxyecdysone and DES were highly toxic, the other compounds tested show no significant toxicity to copepods. Furthermore, in vitro studies indicate that these environmental EDCs and several related APIs are not active against the ecdysteroid receptor. Therefore, other undefined modes of action appear to be responsible for crustacean toxicity in vivo and caution should be exercised before ascribing any apical effects to endogenous endocrine mechanisms, or before crustacean "EDC" data are extrapolated to other

  4. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhai

    Full Text Available Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8 and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG. However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity.

  5. Environmental analysis of endocrine disrupting effects from hydrocarbon contaminants in the ecosystem. 1998 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, J.

    1998-06-01

    'The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones (i.e., environmental hormones) in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. Species of particular focus are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. This reports the progress of 1.5 years of a three-year grant awarded to the Tulane/Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR). A growing body of evidence suggests that chemicals in the environment can disrupt the endocrine system of animals (i.e., wildlife and humans) and adversely impact the development of these species. Because of the multitude of known endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the numerous industrial and government sectors producing these chemicals, almost every federal agency has initiated research on the endocrine effects of chemicals relevant to their operations. This study represents the Department of Energy (DOE) Basic Energy Sciences'' only research on the impacts of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The activities employed by this project to determine these impacts include development of biotechnology screens (in vitro), animal screens (in vivo), and other analyses of aquatic ecosystem biomarkers of exposure. The results from this study can elucidate how chemicals in the environment, including those from DOE activities, can signal (and alter) the development of a number of species in aquatic ecosystems. These signals can have detrimental impacts not only on an organismal level, but also on community, population, and entire ecosystem levels, including humans.'

  6. Analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticides by capillary GC with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matisová, Eva; Hrouzková, Svetlana

    2012-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC) and fast CGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS) has acquired a real importance in the analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticide (EDP) residues. This paper provides an overview of GC methods, including sample preparation steps, for analysis of EDPs in a variety of matrices at ultra-trace concentration levels. Emphasis is put on separation method, mode of MS detection and ionization and obtained limits of detection and quantification. Analysis time is one of the most important aspects that should be considered in the choice of analytical methods for routine analysis. Therefore, the benefits of developed fast GC methods are important.

  7. Endocrine disrupting chemicals as potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Z; Szybiak, Aleksandra; Serkies, Krystyna; Rachoń, Dominik

    2016-08-09

    Civilization, industrialization, and urbanization create an environment where humans are continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Some of breast cancers and endometrial cancer, which are the most common female malignant neoplasms, are estrogen-dependent tumors. Prolonged exposure to estrogens or substances with estrogenic properties may be a risk factor for their development. This paper aimed to discuss the potential adverse effect of EDCs on human health, including the role of EDCs in hormone-dependent carcinogenesis. A review of literature regarding the sources of environmental exposure to EDCs and molecular mechanisms of their action was performed. We analyzed the possible mechanisms of how these substances alter the function of the endocrine system, resulting in adverse health effects. Hundreds of substances with endocrine disrupting potential have been identified in our environment. There is accumulating evidence linking exposure to EDCs with the development of mammary and endometrial cancer. By interacting with steroid receptors, EDCs can impact the cellular processes potentially leading to carcinogenesis. There are also data showing the effect of EDCs on immune dysfunction. During lifespan, people are usually exposed to a mixture of various EDCs, which complicates the assessment of individual substances or compounds implicated in cancer development. As the prevalence of hormone-dependent tumors among women continues to increase, their successful prevention is of human benefit. Institutions representing medicine, science, industry, and governments should develop joint strategies to decrease exposure to EDC, and thus to reduce the risk of hormonedependent tumors in women.

  8. Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawatski, William; Lee, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that interfere with endogenous endocrine action. The frequent use of chemicals with endocrine active properties in household products and contamination of soil, water, and food sources by persistent chemical pollutants result in ubiquitous exposures. Wildlife observations and animal toxicological studies reveal adverse effects of EDCs on reproductive health. In humans, a growing number of epidemiological studies report an association with altered pubertal timing and progression. While these data are primarily reported in females, this review will focus on the small number of studies performed in males that report an association of polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier sexual maturity rating and confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and endosulfan on delaying pubertal onset and progression in boys. Recent studies have also demonstrated that EDC exposure may affect pubertal testosterone production without having a noticeable effect on sexual maturity rating. A limitation to understand the effects of EDCs in humans is the potential for confounding due to the long temporal lag from early-life exposures to adult outcomes. The complex interplay of multiple environmental exposures over time also complicates the interpretation of human studies. These studies have identified critical windows of vulnerability during development when exposures to EDCs alter critical pathways and affect postnatal reproductive health. Contemporaneous exposures can also disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This paper will review the normal process of puberty in males and summarize human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs.

  9. Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides by Capillary GC with Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Hrouzková

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals, among them many pesticides, alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans at very low concentration levels. Therefore, the importance of method development for their analysis in food and the environment is increasing. This also covers contributions in the field of ultra-trace analysis of multicomponent mixtures of organic pollutants in complex matrices. With this fact conventional capillary gas chromatography (CGC and fast CGC with mass spectrometric detection (MS has acquired a real importance in the analysis of endocrine disrupting pesticide (EDP residues. This paper provides an overview of GC methods, including sample preparation steps, for analysis of EDPs in a variety of matrices at ultra-trace concentration levels. Emphasis is put on separation method, mode of MS detection and ionization and obtained limits of detection and quantification. Analysis time is one of the most important aspects that should be considered in the choice of analytical methods for routine analysis. Therefore, the benefits of developed fast GC methods are important.

  10. A path forward in the debate over health impacts of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, R Thomas; Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Bjerregaard, Poul; Bornman, Riana; Brandt, Ingvar; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kidd, Karen A; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2014-12-22

    Several recent publications reflect debate on the issue of "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs), indicating that two seemingly mutually exclusive perspectives are being articulated separately and independently. Considering this, a group of scientists with expertise in basic science, medicine and risk assessment reviewed the various aspects of the debate to identify the most significant areas of dispute and to propose a path forward. We identified four areas of debate. The first is about the definitions for terms such as "endocrine disrupting chemical", "adverse effects", and "endocrine system". The second is focused on elements of hormone action including "potency", "endpoints", "timing", "dose" and "thresholds". The third addresses the information needed to establish sufficient evidence of harm. Finally, the fourth focuses on the need to develop and the characteristics of transparent, systematic methods to review the EDC literature. Herein we identify areas of general consensus and propose resolutions for these four areas that would allow the field to move beyond the current and, in our opinion, ineffective debate.

  11. Towards an internationally harmonized test method for reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in marine copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Wollenberger, Leah

    2007-01-01

    New and updated methods to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment since these substances are often not detected using existing chronic toxicity tests. Numerous reports on the effects of EDCs on crustacean...... development and reproduction have been published and the development of life-cycle tests with crustaceans has been prioritized within the OECD work program for endocrine disrupter testing and assessment. As a result, Sweden, and Denmark initiated a proposal for development of a full life-cycle test...... with marine copepods (Acartia tonsa, Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe battagliai, and Amphiascus tenuiremis). The present paper gives an overview on the endocrine system of crustaceans with special emphasis on development and reproduction, which are targets for endocrine disruption, and reviews available methods...

  12. Endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to a dietary relevant mixture of phytoestrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boberg, Julie; Mandrup, Karen; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold;

    2013-01-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens may prevent certain human diseases, but endocrine activity has been reported in animal studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed perinatally to a 1-, 10- or 100-fold “high human dietary intake” mixture of 12 phytoestrogens consisting of mainly the lignan secoisolarici resinol...... genes in testis and prostate were unaffected. Decreased serum estradiol was seen in genistein-exposed dams. This study indicated adverse effects at high intake levels in rats, but does not provide evidence for risk of phytoestrogen-mediated endocrine disruption at normal human dietary consumption levels....... Further studies are warranted to increase the knowledge upon which risk assessment on dietary phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and infancy is based....

  13. Endocrine disrupting effects in rats perinatally exposed to a dietary relevant mixture of phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boberg, Julie; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Isling, Louise Krag; Hadrup, Niels; Berthelsen, Line; Elleby, Anders; Kiersgaard, Maria; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla; Nellemann, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Dietary phytoestrogens may prevent certain human diseases, but endocrine activity has been reported in animal studies. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed perinatally to a 1-, 10- or 100-fold "high human dietary intake" mixture of 12 phytoestrogens consisting of mainly the lignan secoisolarici resinol and the isoflavones genistein and daidzein. This mixture induced persistent adverse effects, as adult male mammary glands showed hypertrophic growth. A reduced anogenital distance in newborn males indicated an anti-androgenic mode of action. Testosterone levels, testis and prostate weights, and expression of selected genes in testis and prostate were unaffected. Decreased serum estradiol was seen in genistein-exposed dams. This study indicated adverse effects at high intake levels in rats, but does not provide evidence for risk of phytoestrogen-mediated endocrine disruption at normal human dietary consumption levels. Further studies are warranted to increase the knowledge upon which risk assessment on dietary phytoestrogen exposure during pregnancy and infancy is based.

  14. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in polycystic ovary syndrome: an evidence-based minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen E. Georgescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a plurifactorial endocrine disorder, affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age to result inhyperandrogenia, anovulation and infertility, metabolic syndrome and enhanced cardiovascular risk. Animal experiments unraveled that preandearly postnatal exposure of female offspring to testosterone or bisphenol A (BPA, one synthetic, organic plasticizers component may inducea PCOS-like developmental pattern in adulthood. In contrast to other endocrine-disruption chemicals, information on BPA exposure inbiological indicators and wildlife is scarce. On the other hand, the ability of BPA to alter ovarian steroidogenesis has been demonstrated in severalcell culture models. In line with that, preliminary clinical studies demonstrated elevated serum and urinary BPA levels in PCOS patients.Nonetheless, a causative role of BPA in PCOS is still under debate and further studies on the topic are warranted.

  15. Estimating Burden and Disease Costs of Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Hass, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Rapidly increasing evidence has documented that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute substantially to disease and disability. Objective: The objective was to quantify a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to EDC exposures in the European Union (EU......). Design: A Steering Committee of scientists adapted the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change weight-of-evidence characterization for probability of causation based upon levels of available epidemiological and toxicological evidence for one or more chemicals contributing to disease by an endocrine...... disruptor mechanism. To evaluate the epidemiological evidence, the Steering Committee adapted the World Health Organization Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria, whereas the Steering Committee adapted definitions recently promulgated by the Danish...

  16. Negative impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds on human reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanič, Damjan; Rupnik, Marjan; Klemenčič, Aleksandra Krivograd

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing concern about chemical pollutants that are able to mimic hormones, the so-called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), because of their structural similarity to endogenous hormones, their ability to interact with hormone transport proteins or because of their potential to disrupt hormone metabolic pathways. Thus, the effects of endogenous hormones can be mimicked or, in some cases, completely blocked. A substantial number of environmental pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, bisphenol A, pesticides, alkylphenols and heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury), have been shown to disrupt endocrine function. These compounds can cause reproductive problems by decreasing sperm count and quality, increasing the number of testicular germ cells and causing male breast cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, miscarriages, endometriosis, impaired fertility, irregularities of the menstrual cycle, and infertility. Although EDCs may be released into the environment in different ways, the main sources is industrial waste water. The present paper critically reviews the current knowledge of the impact of EDCs on reproductive disorders in humans.

  17. An in vitro investigation of endocrine disrupting effects of the mycotoxin alternariol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frizzell, Caroline [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ndossi, Doreen [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro (Tanzania, United Republic of); Kalayou, Shewit [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Mekelle University College of Veterinary Medicine, Mekelle (Ethiopia); Eriksen, Gunnar S. [Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo (Norway); Verhaegen, Steven [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Sørlie, Morten [Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Elliott, Christopher T. [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Ropstad, Erik [Section of Experimental Biomedicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo (Norway); Connolly, Lisa, E-mail: l.connolly@qub.ac.uk [Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Alternariol (AOH) is a mycotoxin commonly produced by Alternaria alternata on a wide range of foods. Few studies to date have been performed to evaluate the effects of AOH on endocrine activity. The present study makes use of in vitro mammalian cellular based assays and gene expression to investigate the ability of AOH to act as an endocrine disruptor by various modes of action. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), incorporating natural steroid hormone receptors for oestrogens, androgens, progestagens and glucocorticoids were used to identify endocrine disruption at the level of nuclear receptor transcriptional activity, and the H295R steroidogenesis assay was used to assess endocrine disruption at the level of gene expression and steroid hormone production. AOH exhibited a weak oestrogenic response when tested in the oestrogen responsive RGA and binding of progesterone to the progestagen receptor was shown to be synergistically increased in the presence of AOH. H295R cells when exposed to 0.1–1000 ng/ml AOH, did not cause a significant change in testosterone and cortisol hormones but exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH resulted in a significant increase in estradiol and progesterone production. In the gene expression study following exposure to 1000 ng/ml (3.87 μM) AOH, only one gene NR0B1 was down-regulated, whereas expression of mRNA for CYP1A1, MC2R, HSD3B2, CYP17, CYP21, CYP11B2 and CYP19 was up-regulated. Expression of the other genes investigated did not change significantly. In conclusion AOH is a weak oestrogenic mycotoxin that also has the ability to interfere with the steroidogenesis pathway. - Highlights: • Alternariol was investigated for endocrine disrupting activity. • Reporter gene assays and the H295R steroidogenesis assay have been used. • An oestrogenic effect of alternariol was observed. • This can lead to an increase in expression of the progesterone receptor. • Alternariol is capable of modulating hormone production and gene expression.

  18. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  19. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS IN WATER RESOURCES AND SEWAGE IN HAMADAN CITY OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Jafari ، R. Pourkabireh Abasabad ، A. Salehzadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Many chemicals which are released into the environment have the potential to disrupt the function of endocrine systems. They pose a growing threat to human and wildlife health. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Some phenolic chemicals, such as bisphenol A, have been measured in surface water, sediments and sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate endocrine-disrupting agents in drinking, surface and groundwaters sources and also sewage in the city of Hamadan, in the west of Iran. Samples from all sources were collected during April-September and October-March, extracted by solid phase method and analyzed by HPLC-UV in the wave length of 270nm for estrol, 210 nm for ethinyl estradiol and 280 nm for other compounds. The results showed that presence of bisphenol A with concentrations ranging 0.002 to 1μg/L, 0-0.002 μg/L in drinking and groundwaterfor nonylphenol and 0.001 - 10ng/L for 17-beta estradiol. Estron was not detected in drinking water during October-March. The concentration levels of pollutants in wastewater were tens times higher than the water. Analysis of different types of water showed that concentration levels of pollutants were higher during April-September comparing with October-March (Pvalue <0.005, which may be due to the changes of environmental conditions. The widespread use of birth control pills formulated with these potent estrogenic chemicals appear to be the major route for the release of estrogenic substances into the aquatic environment.

  20. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, evidence has accumulated that both wildlife species and humans are exposed to ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Some are persistent in our bodies; others are nonpersistent but are produced in large quantities. Hitherto, the bulk of research in this area has been carr...

  1. The exposure of fetuses and children to endocrine disrupting chemicals: a European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE) and Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) call to action statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakkebæk, Niels E; Toppari, Jorma; Söder, Olle

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, evidence has accumulated that both wildlife species and humans are exposed to ubiquitous endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Some are persistent in our bodies; others are nonpersistent but are produced in large quantities. Hitherto, the bulk of research in this area has been...

  2. Review of Bioassays for Monitoring Fate and Transport ofEstrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CGCampbell@lbl.gov

    2004-01-30

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are recognizedcontaminants threatening water quality. Despite efforts in sourceidentification, few strategies exist for characterization or treatment ofthis environmental pollution. Given that there are numerous EDCs that cannegatively affect humans and wildlife, general screening techniques likebioassays and biosensors provide an essential rapid and intensiveanalysis capacity. Commonly applied bioassays include the ELISA and YESassays, but promising technologies include ER-CALUXa, ELRA, Endotecta,RIANA, and IR-bioamplification. Two biosensors, Endotecta and RIANA, arefield portable using non-cellular biological detection strategies.Environmental management of EDCs in water requires integration ofbiosensors and bioassays for monitoring and assessment.

  3. Reproductive biomarkers to identify endocrine disruption in Clarias gariepinus exposed to 4-nonylphenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Alaa El-Din H; Mahmoud, Usama M; Mekkawy, Imam A

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated the hormones concentrations and gonads alterations of Clarias gariepinus caused by sublethel concentrations of 4-nonylphenol (0, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.1 mg/l). The changes in the activities of the hormones after exposure to these sublethel doses of 4-nonylpenol referred to endocrine disruption in Clarias gariepinus in association with histopathological changes in reproductive tissues. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), total thyroxine (T4), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone concentrations significantly decreased (PClarias gariepinus reflecting their sensitivity to NP-estrogenic like effects.

  4. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine Lydia

    2011-01-01

    different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after...... tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts...

  5. Endocrine disruptive compounds and cardio-metabolic risk factors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Naila; Chen, Aimin; Lee, Miryoung

    2014-12-01

    The endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are exogenous chemicals that can disrupt hormonal signaling system. EDCs are ubiquitous in our environment and many EDC are detectable in humans. With the increasing obesity prevalence in children it is imperative to explore the role of EDC as obesogens. This review summarizes recent epidemiological evidence regarding impact of these EDC on weight gain and metabolic outcomes in children. The EDCs include pharmaceuticals, pesticides, industrial by-products, and cigarette smoke. Current evidence suggests a link between early life exposure to some industrial by-products, synthetic hormones and cigarette smoke with weight gain. However, there is inconclusive evidence of an association between exposure to fungicides, dioxin, phytoestrogens, flame retardants, heavy metals and childhood obesity.

  6. An overview of estrogen-associated endocrine disruption in fishes: evidence of effects on reproductive and immune physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Simply and perhaps intuitively defined, endocrine disruption is the abnormal modulation of normal hormonal physiology by exogenous chemicals. In fish, endocrine disruption of the reproductive system has been observed worldwide in numerous species and is known to affect both males and females. Observations of biologically relevant endocrine disruption most commonly occurs near waste water treatment plant outfalls, pulp and paper mills, and areas of high organic loading sometimes associated with agricultural practices. Estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) have received an overwhelmingly disproportionate amount of scientific attention compared to other EDCs in recent years. In male fishes, exposure to EEDCs can lead to the induction of testicular oocytes (intersex), measurable plasma vitellogenin protein, altered sex steroid profiles, abnormal spawning behavior, skewed population sex ratios, and lessened reproductive success. Interestingly, contemporary research purports that EDCs modulate aspects of non-reproductive physiology including immune function. Here we present an overview of endocrine disruption in fishes associated with estrogenic compounds, implications of this phenomenon, and examples of EDC related research findings by our group in the Potomac River Watershed, USA.

  7. Bisphenol A and Phthalate Endocrine Disruption of Parental and Social Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Susan Rosenfeld

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs can induce promiscuous neurobehavioral disturbances. Bisphenol A and phthalates are two widely prevalent and persistent EDCs reported to lead to such effects. Parental and social behaviors are especially vulnerable to endocrine disruption, as these traits are programmed by the organizational-activational effects of testosterone and estrogen. BPA and other EDC exposure disrupts normal maternal care provided by rodents and non-human primates, such as nursing, time she spends hunched over and in the nest, and grooming her pups. Paternal care may also be affected by BPA. No long term study has linked perinatal exposure to BPA or other EDC and later parental behavioral deficits in humans. The fact that the same brain regions and neural hormone substrates govern parental behaviors in animal models and humans suggests that this suite of behaviors may also be vulnerable in the latter. Social behaviors, such as communication, mate choice, pair bonding, social inquisitiveness and recognition, play behavior, social grooming, copulation, and aggression, are compromised in animal models exposed to BPA, phthalates, and other EDCs. Early contact to these chemicals is also correlated with maladaptive social behaviors in children. These behavioral disturbances may originate by altering the fetal or adult gonadal production of testosterone or estrogen, expression of ESR1, ESR2, and AR in the brain regions governing these behaviors, neuropeptide/ protein hormone (oxytocin, vasopressin, and prolactin and their cognate neural receptors, and/or through epimutations. Robust evidence exists for all of these EDC-induced changes. Concern also exists for transgenerational persistence of such neurobehavioral disruptions. In sum, evidence for social and parental deficits induced by BPA, phthalates, and related chemicals is strongly mounting, and such effects may ultimately compromise the overall social fitness of

  8. Reprint of "In silico methods in the discovery of endocrine disrupting chemicals".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorinen, Anna; Odermatt, Alex; Schuster, Daniela

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of sex hormone-dependent cancers, reproductive problems, obesity, and cardiovascular complications has risen especially in the Western world. It has been suggested, that the exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contributes to the development and progression of these diseases. EDCs can interfere with various proteins: nuclear steroid hormone receptors, such as estrogen-, androgen-, glucocorticoid- and mineralocorticoid receptors (ER, AR, GR, MR), and enzymes that are involved in steroid hormone synthesis and metabolism, for example hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs). Numerous chemicals are known as endocrine disruptors. However, the mechanism of action for most of these EDCs is still unknown. It is exhaustive and time consuming to test in vitro all chemicals - potential EDCs - used in industry, agriculture or as food preservatives against their effects on the endocrine system. Computational methods, such as virtual screening, quantitative structure activity relationships and docking, are already well recognized and used in drug development. The same methods could also aid the research on EDCs. So far, the computational methods in the search of EDCs have been retrospective. There are, however, some prospective studies reporting the use of in silico methods: five studies reporting the identification of previously unknown 17β-HSD3 inhibitors, MR agonists, and ER antagonists/agonists. This review provides an overview of case studies and in silico methods that are used in the search of EDCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'.

  9. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Fang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Cui; Zhang Quan [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Gan Jianying [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zjut.edu.c [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  10. EDCs DataBank: 3D-Structure database of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Grajales, Diana; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a group of compounds that affect the endocrine system, frequently found in everyday products and epidemiologically associated with several diseases. The purpose of this work was to develop EDCs DataBank, the only database of EDCs with three-dimensional structures. This database was built on MySQL using the EU list of potential endocrine disruptors and TEDX list. It contains the three-dimensional structures available on PubChem, as well as a wide variety of information from different databases and text mining tools, useful for almost any kind of research regarding EDCs. The web platform was developed employing HTML, CSS and PHP languages, with dynamic contents in a graphic environment, facilitating information analysis. Currently EDCs DataBank has 615 molecules, including pesticides, natural and industrial products, cosmetics, drugs and food additives, among other low molecular weight xenobiotics. Therefore, this database can be used to study the toxicological effects of these molecules, or to develop pharmaceuticals targeting hormone receptors, through docking studies, high-throughput virtual screening and ligand-protein interaction analysis. EDCs DataBank is totally user-friendly and the 3D-structures of the molecules can be downloaded in several formats. This database is freely available at http://edcs.unicartagena.edu.co.

  11. Atrazine acts as an endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucka, Marek [Section on Cellular Signaling, Program in Developmental Neuroscience, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Pogrmic-Majkic, Kristina; Fa, Svetlana [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Stojilkovic, Stanko S. [Section on Cellular Signaling, Program in Developmental Neuroscience, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kovacevic, Radmila, E-mail: radmila.kovacevic@dbe.uns.ac.rs [Laboratory for Ecotoxicology, Department of Biology and Ecology, University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-11-15

    Atrazine, one of the most commonly used herbicides worldwide, acts as an endocrine disruptor, but the mechanism of its action has not been characterized. In this study, we show that atrazine rapidly increases cAMP levels in cultured rat pituitary and testicular Leydig cells in a concentration-dependent manner, but less effectively than 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, a competitive non-specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterases (PDEs). In forskolin (an activator of adenylyl cyclase)- and probenecid (an inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide transporters)-treated cells, but not in 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine-treated cells, atrazine further increased cAMP levels, indicating that inhibition of PDEs accounts for accumulation of cAMP. In contrast to cAMP, atrazine did not alter cGMP levels, further indicating that it inhibits cAMP-specific PDEs. Atrazine-induced changes in cAMP levels were sufficient to stimulate prolactin release in pituitary cells and androgen production in Leydig cells, indicating that it acts as an endocrine disrupter both in cells that secrete by exocytosis of prestored hormones and in cells that secrete by de novo hormone synthesis. Rolipram abolished the stimulatory effect of atrazine on cAMP release in both cell types, suggesting that it acts as an inhibitor of PDE4s, isoforms whose mRNA transcripts dominate in pituitary and Leydig cells together with mRNA for PDE8A. In contrast, immortalized lacto-somatotrophs showed low expression of these mRNA transcripts and several fold higher cAMP levels compared to normal pituitary cells, and atrazine was unable to further increase cAMP levels. These results indicate that atrazine acts as a general endocrine disrupter by inhibiting cAMP-specific PDE4s. -- Highlights: ► Atrazine stimulates cAMP accumulation in pituitary and Leydig cells. ► Atrazine also stimulates PRL and androgens secretion. ► Stimulatory effects of atrazine were abolished in cells with IBMX-inhibited PDEs. ► Atrazine specificity toward c

  12. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo.

  13. QSAR classification models for the screening of the endocrine-disrupting activity of perfluorinated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarich, S; Papa, E; Li, J; Gramatica, P

    2012-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a class of emerging pollutants still widely used in different materials as non-adhesives, waterproof fabrics, fire-fighting foams, etc. Their toxic effects include potential for endocrine-disrupting activity, but the amount of experimental data available for these pollutants is limited. The use of predictive strategies such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) is recommended under the REACH regulation, to fill data gaps and to screen and prioritize chemicals for further experimentation, with a consequent reduction of costs and number of tested animals. In this study, local classification models for PFCs were developed to predict their T4-TTR (thyroxin-transthyretin) competing potency. The best models were selected by maximizing the sensitivity and external predictive ability. These models, characterized by robustness, good predictive power and a defined applicability domain, were applied to predict the activity of 33 other PFCs of environmental concern. Finally, classification models recently published by our research group for T4-TTR binding of brominated flame retardants and for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were applied to the studied perfluorinated chemicals to compare results and to further evaluate the potential for these PFCs to cause endocrine disruption.

  14. Toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of phthalates and their mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueping; Xu, Shisan; Tan, Tianfeng; Lee, Sin Ting; Cheng, Shuk Han; Lee, Fred Wang Fat; Xu, Steven Jing Liang; Ho, Kin Chung

    2014-03-14

    Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma) eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  15. Degrading Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals from Wastewater by TiO Photocatalysis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chung Sin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread concerns continue to be raised about the impacts of exposure to chemical compounds with endocrine disrupting activities. To date, the percolation of endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC effluent into the aquatic system remains an intricate challenge abroad the nations. With the innovation of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs, there has been a consistent growing interest in this research field. Hence, the aim of this paper is to focus one such method within the AOPs, namely, heterogeneous photocatalysis and how it is used on the abatement of EDCs, phthalates, bisphenol A and chlorophenols in particular, using TiO2-based catalysts. Degradation mechanisms, pathways, and intermediate products of various EDCs for TiO2 photocatalysis are described in detail. The effect of key operational parameters on TiO2 photocatalytic degradation of various EDCs is then specifically covered. Finally, the future prospects together with the challenges for the TiO2 photocatalysis on EDCs degradation are summarized and discussed.

  16. Toxicity and Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Activity of Phthalates and Their Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates, widely used in flexible plastics and consumer products, have become ubiquitous contaminants worldwide. This study evaluated the acute toxicity and estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DBP, bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP, diisononyl phthalate (DINP, di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP and their mixtures. Using a 72 h zebrafish embryo toxicity test, the LC50 values of BBP, DBP and a mixture of the six phthalates were found to be 0.72, 0.63 and 0.50 ppm, respectively. The other four phthalates did not cause more than 50% exposed embryo mortality even at their highest soluble concentrations. The typical toxicity symptoms caused by phthalates were death, tail curvature, necrosis, cardio edema and no touch response. Using an estrogen-responsive ChgH-EGFP transgenic medaka (Oryzias melastigma eleutheroembryos based 24 h test, BBP demonstrated estrogenic activity, DBP, DEHP, DINP and the mixture of the six phthalates exhibited enhanced-estrogenic activity and DIDP and DNOP showed no enhanced- or anti-estrogenic activity. These findings highlighted the developmental toxicity of BBP and DBP, and the estrogenic endocrine disrupting activity of BBP, DBP, DEHP and DINP on intact organisms, indicating that the widespread use of these phthalates may cause potential health risks to human beings.

  17. Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Triclosan on the Placenta in Pregnant Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixing Feng

    Full Text Available Triclosan (TCS is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is frequently used in pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Reports have shown that TCS is a potential endocrine disruptor; however, the potential effects of TCS on placental endocrine function are unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of TCS on the placenta in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats from gestational day (GD 6 to GD 20 were treated with 0, 30, 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d TCS followed by analysis of various biochemical parameters. Of the seven tissues examined, the greatest bioaccumulation of TCS was observed in the placenta. Reduction of gravid uterine weight and the occurrence of abortion were observed in the 600 mg/kg/d TCS-exposed group. Moreover, hormone detection demonstrated that the serum levels of progesterone (P, estradiol (E2, testosterone (T, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and prolactin (PRL were decreased in groups exposed to higher doses of TCS. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR analysis revealed a significant increase in mRNA levels for placental steroid metabolism enzymes, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1, estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1, steroid 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and steroid 5α-reductase 2 (SRD5A2. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression levels of progesterone receptor (PR, estrogen receptor (ERα and androgen receptor (AR were up-regulated. Taken together, these data demonstrated that the placenta was a target tissue of TCS and that TCS induced inhibition of circulating steroid hormone production might be related to the altered expression of hormone metabolism enzyme genes in the placenta. This hormone disruption might subsequently affect fetal development and growth.

  18. Endocrine disruption in soil invertebrates: assessing multigeneration effects of insect growth regulators on "Folsomia Candida" and developing a toxicoproteomic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Campiche, Sophie; Tarradellas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In the past years, it has been observed that some compounds present in our environment can disturb the reproduction and development of animals like fishes, birds, or reptiles by interfering with their endocrine system. Indeed, these endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) can mimic or antagonize the effects of hormones, alter the pattern of synthesis and metabolism of hormones or modify hormone receptor levels. These substances represent a risk for wildlife, and possibly for humans. Up to now, e...

  19. Burden of disease and costs of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in the European Union: an updated analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, L.; Zoeller, R. T.; Hass, U.; Kortenkamp, A.; Grandjean, P.; Myers, J. P.; DiGangi, J.; Hunt, P. M.; Rudel, R.; Sathyanarayana, S.; Bellanger, M.; Hauser, R.; Legler, J.; Skakkebaek, N. E.; Heindel, J. J.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY A previous report documented that endocrine disrupting chemicals contribute substantially to certain forms of disease and disability. In the present analysis, our main objective was to update a range of health and economic costs that can be reasonably attributed to endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the European Union, leveraging new burden and disease cost estimates of female reproductive conditions from accompanying report. Expert panels evaluated the epidemiologic evidence, using adapted criteria from the WHO Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group, and evaluated laboratory and animal evidence of endocrine disruption using definitions recently promulgated by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. The Delphi method was used to make decisions on the strength of the data. Expert panels consensus was achieved for probable (>20%) endocrine disrupting chemical causation for IQ loss and associated intellectual disability; autism; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; endometriosis; fibroids; childhood obesity; adult obesity; adult diabetes; cryptorchidism; male infertility, and mortality associated with reduced testosterone. Accounting for probability of causation, and using the midpoint of each range for probability of causation, Monte Carlo simulations produced a median annual cost of €163 billion (1.28% of EU Gross Domestic Product) across 1000 simulations. We conclude that endocrine disrupting chemical exposures in the EU are likely to contribute substantially to disease and dysfunction across the life course with costs in the hundreds of billions of Euros per year. These estimates represent only those endocrine disrupting chemicals with the highest probability of causation; a broader analysis would have produced greater estimates of burden of disease and costs. PMID:27003928

  20. Exposure to butachlor causes thyroid endocrine disruption and promotion of metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiangwei; Gui, Wenjun; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-06-01

    Butachlor is extensively applied in rice paddy ecosystem in china, and has been widespread contaminant in the aquatic environment. Here, Xenopus laevis was used for the evaluation of teratogenesis developmental toxicity, and disruption of thyroid system when exposure to different concentrations of butachlor by window phase exposure. Acute toxicity investigation shown that 96 h-LC50 value of butachlor was 1.424 mg L(-1) and 0.962 mg L(-1) for tadpoles (starting from stages 46/47) and embryos (starting from stages 8/9), respectively. Exposure to butachlor caused malformation, including abnormal eye, pericardial edema, enlarged proctodaeum and bent tail. Window phase exposure test indicated that butachlor significantly promote the contents of whole-body thyroid hormones (THs, T3 and T4) at higher levels, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. At 7 days, exposure to butachlor up-regulated the mRNA expression of genes involved in THs synthesis and metabolism (tshα, tg, tpo and dio1) and THs receptors (trα and trβ). At 14 days, up-regulation of the mRNA expression of genes related to THs synthesis and metabolism (tshα, tshβ, tg, tpo, dio1, dio2 and ttr) and THs receptors (trβ) were also observed after the exposure to butachlor. At 21 days, butachlor up-regulated the mRNA expression of tshα, tg, tpo genes and down-regulated the mRNA expression of tshβ, tg, dio1, ttr and trα genes. These results showed that butachlor could change the mRNA expression of genes involved in the HPT axis and increase whole-body thyroid hormones levels of X. laevis tadpoles in a dose- and time-dependent manner, causing thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental toxicity.

  1. Endocrine Disrupters in Human Blood and Breast Milk: Extraction Methodologies, Cellular Uptake and Effect on Key Nuclear Receptor Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    -products from incineration plants, plastic additives, technical industry products, pesticides from the farming industry and detergent degradation products. Many of these substances can interfere with the hormonal system in organisms. The common name for these compounds is endocrine disrupters (EDCs). Some EDCs...... the level of endocrine disrupting activity in the sample. Paper IV. Breast milk was extracted using SPE and these extracts were further processed using polyethylene membranes in a dialytic setup (MDE extraction). The purpose of the dialysis was to reduce the content of lipids in the raw SPE extracts because...

  2. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impair Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various endpoints studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29 but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 6 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental signaling: from environmental estrogens to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, J A

    2016-07-01

    The landmark report (Herbst et al. 1971) linking prenatal treatment with a synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol (DES), to cancer at puberty in women whose mothers took the drug while pregnant ushered in an era of research on delayed effects of such exposures on functional outcomes in offspring. An animal model developed in our laboratory at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences confirmed that DES was the carcinogen and exposure to DES caused, as well, functional alterations in the reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems of male and female mice treated in utero. DES was also being used in agriculture and we discovered, at the first meeting on Estrogens in the Environment in 1979 (Estrogens in the Environment, 1980), that many environmental contaminants were also estrogenic. Many laboratories sought to discern the basis for estrogenicity in environmental chemicals and to discover other hormonally active xenobiotics. Our laboratory elucidated how DES and other estrogenic compounds worked by altering differentiation through epigenetic gene imprinting, helping explain the transgenerational effects found in mice and humans. At the Wingspread Conference on the Human-Wildlife Connection in 1991 (Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology, 1992), we learned that environmental disruption of the endocrine system occurred in many species and phyla, and the term endocrine disruption was introduced. Further findings of transgenerational effects of environmental agents that mimicked or blocked various reproductive hormones and the ubiquity of environmental signals, such as bisphenol A increased concern for human and ecological health. Scientists began to look at other endocrine system aspects, such as cardiovascular and immune function, and other nuclear receptors, with important observations regarding obesity and metabolism. Laboratories, such as ours, are now using stem cells to try to understand the mechanisms by which various environmental signals

  4. AB159. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: toxicological risk assessment in vivo and in vitro models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Vo Thi Bich; Nguyen Binh, Le Thi; Phuong Oanh, Kim Thi; Van Hai, Nong

    2015-01-01

    In several studies, scientists asserted that many of endocrine disruptors (EDs), which have been involved in developmental, reproductive, neural, immunological, and other problems in wildlife and laboratory animals. Some environmental EDs, such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), flutamide (Flu), parabens, are used in many products in life and environment. However, the adverse effects caused by EDs can be temporary or permanent and the mechanism(s) through which these chemicals elicit their effects on biological systems of human and animal health is not clearly understood. The specific aim of this study is to evaluate endocrine disrupting chemicals-induced impact on the male or female reproductive system. An attempt is also made to elucidate the impact of these EDs in an in vitro model, i.e., GH3 rat pituitary cell line. A great deal of work has been carried out on the toxicity of phthalate, Flu, parabens in vivo and in vitro models. In brief, studies have been indicated that long-term and short-term exposure to various endocrine disrupting compounds (i.e., DEHP, Flu, parabens) during development stage (i.e., gestation, neonatal, immature, peripubertal) were done to find alternative dysfunctions later in animal life. The development and function of male or female reproductive tract showed many abnormalities, e.g., menstrual cycle irregularities; impaired fertility, endometriosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome in female or morphological and functional gonadal dysfunction, e.g., infertility and decreased libido, congenital malformations (altered embryonic and fetal intrauterine development) and testicular dysgenesis syndrome in male. In addition, the differential gene expression patterns by microarray analysis following EDs exposure were found, particularly in steroid hormone synthesis, androgen and/or estrogen synthesis, and sex determination-related gene. On the other hand, studies revealed that parabens, a weak estrogenic chemical, exerted their actions on

  5. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-06-01

    This annual report summarizes the progress of three years of a three-year grant awarded to the Center for Bioenvironmental Research (CBR) at Tulane and Xavier Universities. The objective of this project is to determine how environmental contaminants, namely hydrocarbons, can act as hormones or anti-hormones in different species present in aquatic ecosystems. The three major areas of research include (1) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists; (2) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects; and (3) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular focus in this study are those which can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and, thus, provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The focus of the literature research was to provide an analysis of the contaminants located on or around various Department of Energy (DOE) sites that are or have the potential to function as endocrine disruptors and to correlate the need for studying endocrine disruptors to DOE's programmatic needs. Previous research within the Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities has focused on understanding the effects of environmental agents on the human and wildlife health and disease. In particular this research has focused on how exogenous agents can function to mimic or disrupt normal endocrine signaling, i.e. estrogen, thyroid within various systems from whole animal studies with fish, amphibians and insects to human cancer cell lines. Significant work has focused on the estrogenic and anti-estrogenic action of both synthetic organochlorine chemicals and naturally produced phytochemicals. Recent projects have extended these research objectives to examination of these environmental agents on the symbiotic relationship between

  6. Endocrine disrupters in the aquatic environment: the Austrian approach--ARCEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursch, W; Fuerhacker, M; Gemeiner, M; Grillitsch, B; Jungbauer, A; Kreuzinger, N; Moestl, E; Scharf, S; Schmid, E; Skutan, S; Walter, I

    2004-01-01

    A consortium of Austrian scientists (ARCEM) carried out a multidisciplinary environmental study on Austrian surface and ground waters including chemical monitoring, bioindication, risk assessment and risk management for selected endocrine disrupters: 17beta-estradiol, estriol, estrone, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 4-nonylphenol, 4-nonylphenol ethoxylates (4-NP1EO, 4-NP2EO) and their degradation products, ocytlphenol, ocytlphenol ethoxylates (OP1EO, OP2EO) as well as bisphenol A. To obtain data representative for Austria, a material flow analysis served to select relevant compounds and water samples were collected monthly over one year at those sites routinely used in Austrian water quality control. The following results were obtained and conclusions drawn: 1. Chemical monitoring: As compared to other countries, relatively low levels of pollution with endocrine disrupters were detected. 2. Bioindication: In the surface waters under study, male fish showed significant signs of feminization and demasculinization (increased production of the egg-yolk protein and histological changes of the gonads. 3. Risk assessment: For humans, exposure via either drinking water abstraction (ground water) or fish consumption was considered. The exposure levels of the compounds under study were below those considered to result in human health risks. Likewise, for bisphenol A and octylphenols, there was no indication for risk posed upon the aquatic environment (fish). However, nonylphenol or 17alpha-ethinylestradiol exposure along with results of bioindication (2) suggest a borderline estrogenic activity in a considerable number of surface waters. Consequently the emissions of these substances into the surface waters affected have to be reduced. 4. Risk management: Waste water treatment experiments revealed a positive correlation between the removal rate of endocrine disrupters from the waste water and the sludge retention time in the treatment plants. These substances are removed to a

  7. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed: a reply to a “common sense” intervention by toxicology journal editors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg;

    2013-01-01

    The “common sense” intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about a r...

  8. Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Nitrate after In Utero Exposure in Rats and of Nitrate and Nitrite in the H295R and T-Screen Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie;

    2009-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studi...

  9. Reversibility of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) - comparison of different effect levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Lisa; Holbech, Henrik; Schiller, V.S.;

    -term effects on populations, it is essential to know whether such EDC-related effects are reversible. Three different substances selected for different modes of action were tested for their long-term impact on sex ratio, gonadal development, vitellogenin (VTG) induction and aromatase activity in zebrafish...... to estrogens. All compounds have previously been shown to cause striking effects in zebrafish, but recovery has never been studied in detail. In order to test whether EDC-related effects are reversible, an exposure scenario limited to 60 d was followed by (a) a recovery period of 40 d or (b) continued exposure...... of effects at all levels, but clear-cut differences between the two different exposure groups. We conclude that endocrine disruption in zebrafish following discontinuous exposure is only partially reversible and may thus have serious implications for fish....

  10. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christiansen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    The four pesticides epoxiconazole, prochloraz, procymidone and tebuconazole, are commonly used pesticides, all suspected of acting as endocrine disrupters. In the present study, we assessed the acute cumulative dietary exposure to the women of child bearing age and the general population of Denmark...... to these pesticides from the intake of fruit and vegetables. The assessment was carried out using the probabilistic approach combined with the relative potency factor (RPF) approach. Residue data for prochloraz, procymidone, and tebuconazole were obtained from the Danish monitoring programme 2006–2009, while residue....... Prochloraz was used as the index compound. All four pesticides increased nipple retention in male offspring, and epoxiconazole, prochloraz, and tebuconazole also increased the gestation period in pregnant rat dams. For women of childbearing age, the high-end cumulative exposure (99.9th percentile...

  11. Bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Hanberg, Annika; Zilliacus, Johanna; Rudén, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory risk assessment is traditionally based primarily on toxicity studies conducted according to standardized and internationally validated test guidelines. However, health risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is argued to rely on the efficient integration of findings from academic research. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of current developments to facilitate the use of academic research in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals and how certain aspects of study design and reporting are particularly important for the risk assessment process. By bridging the gap between academic research and regulatory health risk assessment of EDCs, scientific uncertainty in risk assessment conclusions can be reduced, allowing for better targeted policy decisions for chemical risk reduction.

  12. Solar photocatalytic degradation of resorcinol a model endocrine disrupter in water using zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardeshi, S.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)], E-mail: skpar@chem.unipune.ernet.in; Patil, A.B. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2009-04-15

    Photocatalytic degradation (PCD) of resorcinol a potent endocrine disrupting chemical in aqueous medium was investigated by ZnO under sunlight irradiation in a batch photoreactor. The influence of various parameters such as photocatalyst amount, initial concentration of resorcinol and pH was examined for maximum PCD of resorcinol. A considerable influence of pH upon the chemical oxygen demand (COD) disappearance was observed. In general, neutral or basic pH is favorable for COD removal of resorcinol. PCD intermediates were identified using FTIR and GC/MS. Two of the initial oxidation intermediates detected were 1,2,4-trihydroxy-benzene and 1,2,3-trihydroxy-benzene. FTIR studies revealed 1,2,4-trihydroxy-benzene as the major PCD intermediate. A working photodegradation mechanism is also suggested for PCD of resorcinol. This work envisages the great potential that sunlight mediated photocatalysis has in the removal of resorcinol from waste water.

  13. Endocrine disruptive estrogens role in electron transfer: bio-electrochemical remediation with microbial mediated electrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A Kiran; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Chandrasekhar, K; Srikanth, S; Mohan, S Venkata

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs)/estrogens viz. estriol (E3) and ethynylestradiol (EE2) was evaluated in bio-electrochemical treatment (BET) system with simultaneous power generation. Estrogens supplementation along with wastewater documented enhanced electrogenic activity indicating their function in electron transfer between biocatalyst and anode as electron shuttler. EE2 addition showed more positive impact on the electrogenic activity compared to E3 supplementation. Higher estrogen concentration showed inhibitory effect on the BET performance. Poising potential during start up phase showed a marginal influence on the power output. The electrons generated during substrate degradation might have been utilized for the EDCs break down. Fuel cell behavior and anodic oxidation potential supported the observed electrogenic activity with the function of estrogens removal. Voltammetric profiles, dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzyme activities were also found to be in agreement with the power generation, electron discharge and estrogens removal.

  14. Degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals by genetic transformants with two lignin degrading enzymes in Phlebia tremellosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hyunwoo; Lee, Sungsuk; Ryu, Sunhwa; Choi, Hyoung T

    2011-10-01

    A white rot fungus Phlebia tremellosa produced lignin degrading enzymes, which showed degrading activity against various recalcitrant compounds. However, manganese peroxidase (MnP) activity, one of lignin degrading enzymes, was very low in this fungus under various culture conditions. An expression vector that carried both the laccase and MnP genes was constructed using laccase genomic DNA of P. tremellosa and MnP cDNA from Polyporus brumalis. P. tremellosa was genetically transformed using the expression vector to obtain fungal transformants showing increased laccase and MnP activity. Many transformants showed highly increased laccase and MnP activity at the same time in liquid medium, and three of them were used to degrade endocrine disrupting chemicals. The transformant not only degraded bisphenol A and nonylphenol more rapidly but also removed the estrogenic activities of the chemicals faster than the wild type strain.

  15. Selecting the right bird model in experimental studies on endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle L.B. Jaspers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Birds have been used as model species in ecotoxicological research for decades but have only recently been included in toxicity testing schemes. However, the avian fauna is very diverse. Given this diversity the ecology, behavior and reproduction should be considered when selecting the appropriate bird model in ecotoxicological studies. This article focusses on choosing the right bird model species for experimental studies with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. EDCs have been associated with adverse effects on the reproduction and development in birds and other wildlife. In addition, new EDCs continue to emerge and the concern for potential effects in humans and wildlife is calling for increased toxicity testing and hence appropriate model species. Common bird model species used in ecotoxicological studies investigating EDCs will be reviewed. In addition, considerations for selecting the right bird model, along with potential drawbacks and restrictions on the use of certain species will be discussed.

  16. Mixtures of environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals affect mammary gland development in female and male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Johansson, Hanna Katarina Lilith; Boberg, Julie; Pedersen, Anne Stilling; Mortensen, Mette Sidsel; Jørgensen, Jennifer Solgaard; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Hass, Ulla

    2015-07-01

    Estrogenic chemicals are able to alter mammary gland development in female rodents, but little is known on the effects of anti-androgens and mixtures of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with dissimilar modes of action. Pregnant rat dams were exposed during gestation and lactation to mixtures of environmentally relevant EDCs with estrogenic, anti-androgenic or dissimilar modes of action (TotalMix) of 100-, 200- or 450-fold high end human intake estimates. Mammary glands of prepubertal and adult female and male offspring were examined. Oestrogens increased mammary outgrowth in prepubertal females and the mRNA level of matrix metalloproteinase-3, which may be a potential biomarker for increased outgrowth. Mixtures of EDCs gave rise to ductal hyperplasia in adult males. Adult female mammary glands of the TotalMix group showed morphological changes possibly reflecting increased prolactin levels. In conclusion both estrogenic and anti-androgenic chemicals given during foetal life and lactation affected mammary glands in the offspring.

  17. Mugilid Fish Are Sentinels of Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Coastal and Estuarine Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Ortiz-Zarragoitia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects on fish reproduction can result from a variety of toxicity mechanisms first operating at the molecular level. Notably, the presence in the environment of some compounds termed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs can cause adverse effects on reproduction by interfering with the endocrine system. In some cases, exposure to EDCs leads to the animal feminization and male fish may develop oocytes in testis (intersex condition. Mugilid fish are well suited sentinel organisms to study the effects of reproductive EDCs in the monitoring of estuarine/marine environments. Up-regulation of aromatases and vitellogenins in males and juveniles and the presence of intersex individuals have been described in a wide array of mullet species worldwide. There is a need to develop new molecular markers to identify early feminization responses and intersex condition in fish populations, studying mechanisms that regulate gonad differentiation under exposure to xenoestrogens. Interestingly, an electrophoresis of gonad RNA, shows a strong expression of 5S rRNA in oocytes, indicating the potential of 5S rRNA and its regulating proteins to become useful molecular makers of oocyte presence in testis. Therefore, the use of these oocyte markers to sex and identify intersex mullets could constitute powerful molecular biomarkers to assess xenoestrogenicity in field conditions.

  18. In vitro screening of the endocrine disrupting potency of brominated flame retardants and their metabolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H. [Inst. for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sonneveld, E. [BioDetection Systems (BDS), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Murk, A.J. [Wageningen Univ., Toxicology Group, Wageningen (Netherlands); Zegers, B.N.; Boon, J.P. [Royal Netherlands Inst. for Sea Research (NIOZ), Den Burg (Netherlands); Brouwer, A. [Umea Univ., Umea (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Substantial evidence is recently becoming available that brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are potential endocrine disruptors. The toxicological profile of BFRs, however, is too incomplete and insufficient to perform human and ecological risk assessment. To fill these gaps, the EU funded research program FIRE was started in December 2002. This program aims at the identification and toxicological characterization of the most potent and environmentally relevant BFRs and their possible risk for human and wildlife health. As part of a hazard identification approach, twenty seven BFRs have been selected within the framework of FIRE for pre-screening their endocrinedisrupting potencies. Selection of test compounds was based on a maximal variation in physicochemical characteristics of BFRs within the test set, allowing the establishment of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). In addition, environmental relevance (e.g. high production volumes and persistence) and availability for testing were used as selection criteria. BFRs were tested in seven different in vitro bioassays for their potency to interfere via estrogenic, thyroidal, androgenic, progestagenic, and Ah-receptor mediated pathways. Metabolisation rates of BFRs were determined using phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Finally, the endocrine disrupting potency of the metabolites was determined in the same in vitro bio-assays and compared to the potency of the parent compounds.

  19. The methods of identification, analysis, and removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyun-Shik; Choo, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Byungwhan; Choi, Sang-June

    2009-12-15

    The information regarding endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) was reviewed, including the definition and characteristics, the recent research trends concerning identification and analytical methods, and the applicable removal processes. EDCs include various types of natural and synthetic chemical compounds presenting the mimicking or inhibition of the reproductive action of the endocrine system in animals and humans. The ubiquitous presence with trace level concentrations and the wide diversity are the reported characteristics of EDCs. Biologically based assays seem to be a promising method for the identification of EDCs. On the other hand, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. Several extraction techniques for the instrumental analysis have been developed since they are crucial in determining overall analytical performances. Conventional treatment techniques, including coagulation, precipitation, and activated sludge processes, may not be highly effective in removing EDCs, while the advanced treatment options, such as granular activated carbon (GAC), membrane, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), have shown satisfactory results. The oxidative degradation of some EDCs was associated with aromatic moieties in their structure. Further studies on EDCs need to be conducted, such as source reduction, limiting exposure to vulnerable populations, treatment or remediation of contaminated sites, and the detailed understanding of transport mechanisms in the environment.

  20. QSAR modeling and prediction of the endocrine-disrupting potencies of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Kovarich, Simona; Gramatica, Paola

    2010-05-17

    In the European Union REACH regulation, the chemicals with particularly harmful behaviors, such as endocrine disruptors (EDs), are subject to authorization, and the identification of safer alternatives to these chemicals is required. In this context, the use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) becomes particularly useful to fill the data gap due to the very small number of experimental data available to characterize the environmental and toxicological profiles of new and emerging pollutants with ED behavior such as brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In this study, different QSAR models were developed on different responses of endocrine disruption measured for several BFRs. The multiple linear regression approach was applied to a variety of theoretical molecular descriptors, and the best models, which were identified from all of the possible combinations of the structural variables, were internally validated for their performance using the leave-one-out (Q(LOO)(2) = 73-91%) procedure and scrambling of the responses. External validation was provided, when possible, by splitting the data sets in training and test sets (range of Q(EXT)(2) = 76-90%), which confirmed the predictive ability of the proposed equations. These models, which were developed according to the principles defined by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development to improve the regulatory acceptance of QSARs, represent a simple tool for the screening and characterization of BFRs.

  1. Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals: molecular mechanisms of actions on putative human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Kyungsil; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), phytoestrogens such as genistein and daidzein, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), are associated with a variety of adverse health effects in organisms or progeny by altering the endocrine system. Environmental estrogens, including BPA, phthalates, and phytoestrogens, are the most extensively studied and are considered to mimic the actions of endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2). Diverse modes of action of estrogen and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) have been described, but the mode of action of estrogenic EDC is postulated to be more complex and needs to be more clearly elucidated. This review examines the adverse effects of estrogenic EDC on male or female reproductive systems and molecular mechanisms underlying EDC effects that modulate ER-mediated signaling. Mechanisms of action for estrogenic EDC may involve both ER-dependent and ER-independent pathways. Recent findings from systems toxicology of examining estrogenic EDC are also discussed.

  2. Towards an integrated biosensor array for simultaneous and rapid multi-analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana, E-mail: viviana.scognamiglio@mlib.ic.cnr.it [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Pezzotti, Italo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Cano, Juan; Manfredonia, Ivano [Biosensor S.r.l. - Via degli Olmetti 44 00060 Formello, Rome (Italy); Buonasera, Katia [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy); Arduini, Fabiana; Moscone, Danila; Palleschi, Giuseppe [Universita di Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche - Via della Ricerca Scientifica 00133, Rome (Italy); Giardi, Maria Teresa [IC-CNR Istituto di Cristallografia, AdR1 Dipartimento Agroalimentare - Via Salaria Km 29.3 00015, Rome (Italy)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A multitask biosensor for the detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sensing system employ an array of biological recognition elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amperometric and optical transduction methods are provided in an integrated biosensor together with flow control systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biosensing device results in an integrated, automatic and portable system for environmental and agrifood application. - Abstract: In this paper we propose the construction and application of a portable multi-purpose biosensor array for the simultaneous detection of a wide range of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs), based on the recognition operated by various enzymes and microorganisms. The developed biosensor combines both electrochemical and optical transduction systems, in order to increase the number of chemical species which can be monitored. Considering to the maximum residue level (MRL) of contaminants established by the European Commission, the biosensor system was able to detect most of the chemicals analysed with very high sensitivity. In particular, atrazine and diuron were detected with a limit of detection of 0.5 nM, with an RSD% less than 5%; paraoxon and chlorpyrifos were revealed with a detection of 5 {mu}M and 4.5 {mu}M, respectively, with an RSD% less than 6%; catechol and bisphenol A were identified with a limit of detection of 1 {mu}M and 35 {mu}M respectively, with an RSD% less than 5%.

  3. Commercial processed food may have endocrine-disrupting potential: soy-based ingredients making the difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Kabiersch, Grit; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2013-01-01

    Processed and packaged food items as well as ready-to-eat snacks are neglected and poorly characterised sources of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study we investigated the presence of xenoestrogens in commercially processed and packaged Finnish foods, arising from substances deliberately added or inadvertently contaminating the food, substances formed as a result of food processing, or substances leaching from food packaging materials. Samples were obtained in three separate batches of equivalent products from both a supermarket and a local representative of a global chain of hamburger restaurants and extracted by a solid-phase extraction method. Their endocrine-disrupting potential was determined by yeast bioluminescent assay, using two recombinant yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae BMAEREluc/ERα and S. cerevisiae BMA64/luc. In this test system, the majority of samples (both foodstuffs and wrappers) analysed proved negative. However, all batches of industrially prepared hamburgers (but not those obtained from a hamburger restaurant) as well as pepper salami significantly induced luciferase activity in the BMAEREluc/ERα yeast strain indicating the presence of xenoestrogens, with estradiol equivalents of these products ranging from 0.2 to 443 pg g(-1). All three products contained soy-based ingredients, which apparently accounted for, or at least contributed to, their high estrogenic activity, since no signal in the assay was observed with extracts of the packaging material, while two different soy sauces tested yielded an intense signal (28 and 54 pg ml(-1) estradiol-equivalent). These findings imply that by and large chemicals arising in the processing or packaging of foodstuffs in Finland constitute an insignificant source of xenoestrogens to consumers. However, soy-derived ingredients in certain food items might render the entire products highly estrogenic. The estrogenic activity of soy is attributed to isoflavones whose

  4. Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in distinct ontogenetic windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemann, Ronald, E-mail: ronald.biemann@medizin.uni-halle.de [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Anne [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Navarrete Santos, Alexander [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Riemann, Dagmar [Department of Immunology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Knelangen, Julia [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Koch, Holger [Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Fischer, Bernd [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Martin Luther University, Faculty of Medicine, Halle (Germany)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Endocrine disrupting chemicals affect adipogenesis in mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adipogenic impact depends strongly on the window of exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bisphenol A reduces the potential of MSC to differentiate into adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP and TBT trigger the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BPA, DEHP and TBT did not affect adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) like bisphenol A (BPA), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tributyltin (TBT) are ubiquitously present in the environment and in human tissues. They bind to nuclear hormone receptors and affect cellular and developmental processes. In this study, we show that BPA, DEHP and TBT affect the adipogenic differentiation of murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, C3H/10T1/2) in a concentration-, stage- and compound-specific manner. C3H/10T1/2 cells and embryonic stem cells (CGR8) were exposed to BPA, DEHP or TBT at different stages of cell determination and differentiation (undifferentiated growth, adipogenic induction and terminal adipogenic differentiation). The final amount of differentiated adipocytes, cellular triglyceride content and mRNA expression of adipogenic marker genes (adiponectin, FABP4, PPAR{gamma}2, LPL) were quantified and compared with corresponding unexposed cells. BPA (10 {mu}M) decreased subsequent adipogenic differentiation of MSC, when cells were exposed during undifferentiated growth. In contrast, DEHP (100 {mu}M) during the hormonal induction period, and TBT (100 nM) in all investigated stages, enhanced adipogenesis. Importantly, exposure of undifferentiated murine embryonic stem cells did not show any effect of the investigated EDC on subsequent adipogenic differentiation.

  5. Pentachlorophenol-Induced Cytotoxic, Mitogenic, and Endocrine-Disrupting Activities in Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Pentachlorophenol (PCP is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a biocide in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. Although it has been shown to induce systemic toxicity and carcinogenesis in several experimental studies, the literature is scarce regarding its toxic mechanisms of action at the cellular and molecular levels. Recent investigations in our laboratory have shown that PCP induces cytotoxicity and transcriptionally activates stress genes in human liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells [1]. In this research, we hypothesize that environmental exposure to PCP may trigger cytotoxic, mitogenic, and endocrine-disrupting activities in aquatic organisms including fish. To test this hypothesis, we carried out in vitro cultures of male channel catfish hepatocytes, and performed the fluorescein diacetate assay (FDA to assess for cell viability, and the Western Blot analysis to assess for vitellogenin expression following exposure to PCP. Data obtained from FDA experiments indicated a strong dose-response relationship with respect to PCP cytotoxicity. Upon 48 hrs of exposure, the chemical dose required to cause 50% reduction in cell viability (LD50 was computed to be 1,987.0 + 9.6 μg PCP/mL. The NOAEL and LOAEL were 62.5 + 10.3 μg PCP/mL and 125.0+15.2 μg PCP/mL, respectively. At lower levels of exposure, PCP was found to be mitogenic, showing a strong dose- and time-dependent response with regard to cell proliferation. Western Blot analysis demonstrated the potential of PCP to cause endocrine-disrupting activity, as evidenced by the up regulation of the 125-kDa vitellogenin protein the hepatocytes of male channel catfish.

  6. Endocrine-Disrupting Effects of Pesticides through Interference with Human Glucocorticoid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyun; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Rui; Gan, Jay; Liu, Jing; Liu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Many pesticides have been identified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to their ability to bind sex-steroid hormone receptors. However, little attention has been paid to the ability of pesticides to interfere with other steroid hormone receptors such as glucocorticoid receptor (GR) that plays a critical role in metabolic, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. In this study, the glucocorticoidic and antiglucocorticoidic effects of 34 pesticides on human GR were investigated using luciferase reporter gene assay. Surprisingly, none of the test chemicals showed GR agonistic activity, but 12 chemicals exhibited apparent antagonistic effects. Bifenthrin, λ-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, resmethrin, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, methoxychlor, ethiofencarb, and tolylfluanid showed remarkable GR antagonistic properties with RIC20 values lower than 10(-6) M. The disruption of glucocorticoid-responsive genes in H4IIE and J774A.1 cells was further evaluated on these 12 GR antagonists. In H4IIEcells, four organochlorine insecticides, bifenthrin, and 3-PBA decreased cortisol-induced PEPCK gene expression, while o,p'-DDT and methoxychlor inhibited cortisol-stimulated Arg and TAT gene expression. Cypermethrin and tolyfluanid attenuated cortisol-induced TAT expression. In J774A.1 cells, λ-cyhalothrin, resmethrin, 3-PBA, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, methoxychlor- and tolylfluanid-reduced cortisol-stimulated GILZ expression. Furthermore, molecular docking simulation indicated that different interactions may stabilize the binding between molecules and GR. Our findings suggest that comprehensive screening and evaluation of GR antagonists and agonists should be considered to better understand the health and ecological risks of man-made chemicals such as pesticides.

  7. Rapid analysis for 567 pesticides and endocrine disrupters by GC/MS using deconvolution reporting software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, P.; Szelewski, M.; Meng, Chin-Kai [Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    2004-09-15

    More than 700 pesticides are approved for use around the world, many of which are suspected endocrine disrupters. Other pesticides, though no longer used, persist in the environment where they bioaccumulate in the flora and fauna. Analytical methods target only a subset of the possible compounds. The analysis of food and environmental samples for pesticides is usually complicated by the presence of co-extracted natural products. Food or tissue extracts can be exceedingly complex matrices that require several stages of sample cleanup prior to analysis. Even then, it can be difficult to detect trace levels of contaminants in the presence of the remaining matrix. For efficiency, multi-residue methods (MRMs) must be used to analyze for most pesticides. Traditionally, these methods have relied upon gas chromatography (GC) with a constellation of element-selective detectors to locate pesticides in the midst of a variable matrix. GC with mass spectral detection (GC/MS) has been widely used for confirmation of hits. Liquid chromatography (LC) has been used for those compounds that are not amenable to GC. Today, more and more pesticide laboratories are relying upon LC with mass spectral detection (LC/MS) and GC/MS as their primary analytical tools. Still, most MRMs are target compound methods that look for a small subset of the possible pesticides. Any compound not on the target list is likely to be missed by these methods. Using the techniques of retention time locking (RTL) and RTL database searching together with spectral deconvolution, a method has been developed to screen for 567 pesticides and suspected endocrine disrupters in a single GC/MS analysis. Spectral deconvolution helps to identify pesticides even when they co-elute with matrix compounds while RTL helps to eliminate false positives and gives greater confidence in the results.

  8. Scientific principles for the identification of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solecki, Roland; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Bergman, Åke; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Degen, Gisela H; Dietrich, Daniel; Greim, Helmut; Håkansson, Helen; Hass, Ulla; Husoy, Trine; Jacobs, Miriam; Jobling, Susan; Mantovani, Alberto; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Piersma, Aldert; Ritz, Vera; Slama, Remy; Stahlmann, Ralf; van den Berg, Martin; Zoeller, R Thomas; Boobis, Alan R

    2017-02-01

    Endocrine disruption is a specific form of toxicity, where natural and/or anthropogenic chemicals, known as "endocrine disruptors" (EDs), trigger adverse health effects by disrupting the endogenous hormone system. There is need to harmonize guidance on the regulation of EDs, but this has been hampered by what appeared as a lack of consensus among scientists. This publication provides summary information about a consensus reached by a group of world-leading scientists that can serve as the basis for the development of ED criteria in relevant EU legislation. Twenty-three international scientists from different disciplines discussed principles and open questions on ED identification as outlined in a draft consensus paper at an expert meeting hosted by the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin, Germany on 11-12 April 2016. Participants reached a consensus regarding scientific principles for the identification of EDs. The paper discusses the consensus reached on background, definition of an ED and related concepts, sources of uncertainty, scientific principles important for ED identification, and research needs. It highlights the difficulty in retrospectively reconstructing ED exposure, insufficient range of validated test systems for EDs, and some issues impacting on the evaluation of the risk from EDs, such as non-monotonic dose-response and thresholds, modes of action, and exposure assessment. This report provides the consensus statement on EDs agreed among all participating scientists. The meeting facilitated a productive debate and reduced a number of differences in views. It is expected that the consensus reached will serve as an important basis for the development of regulatory ED criteria.

  9. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in macroalgaes, bivalves, and fish from coastal areas in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Álvarez-Muñoz, D.; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S.; Maulvault, A.L.; Tediosi, A.; Fernández-Tejedor, M.; Heuvel, Van den F.; Kotterman, M.; Marques, A.; Barceló, D.

    2015-01-01

    The ocurrence and levels of PhACs, Endocrine Disrupting and related Compounds (EDCs) in seafood from potential contaminated areas in Europe has been studied. Macroalgae (S. accharina latissima and Laminaria digitata), bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Mytilus spp., Chamalea gallina and Crassos

  10. A computational approach predicting CYP450 metabolism and estrogenic activity of an endocrine disrupting compound (PCB-30).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jason B; Eldridge, Melanie L; Sayler, Gary; Menn, Fu-Min; Layton, Alice C; Baudry, Jerome

    2014-07-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals influence growth and development through interactions with the hormone system, often through binding to hormone receptors such as the estrogen receptor. Computational methods can predict endocrine disrupting chemical activity of unmodified compounds, but approaches predicting activity following metabolism are lacking. The present study uses a well-known environmental contaminant, PCB-30 (2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl), as a prototype endocrine disrupting chemical and integrates predictive (computational) and experimental methods to determine its metabolic transformation by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) into estrogenic byproducts. Computational predictions suggest that hydroxylation of PCB-30 occurs at the 3- or 4-phenol positions and leads to metabolites that bind more strongly than the parent molecule to the human estrogen receptor alpha (hER-α). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments confirmed that the primary metabolite for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 is 4-hydroxy-PCB-30, and the secondary metabolite is 3-hydroxy-PCB-30. Cell-based bioassays (bioluminescent yeast expressing hER-α) confirmed that hydroxylated metabolites are more estrogenic than PCB-30. These experimental results support the applied model's ability to predict the metabolic and estrogenic fate of PCB-30, which could be used to identify other endocrine disrupting chemicals involved in similar pathways.

  11. The US federal framework for research on endocrine disrupters and an analysis of research programs supported during fiscal year 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, L.W.; DeRosa, C.; Kavlock, R.J.; Lucier, G.; Mac, M.J.; Melillo, J.; Melnick, R.L.; Sinks, T.; Walton, B.T.

    1998-01-01

    The potential health and ecological effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals has become a high visibility environmental issue. The 1990s have witnessed a growing concern, both on the part of the scientific community and the public, that environmental chemicals may be causing widespread effects in humans and in a variety of fish and wildlife species. This growing concern led the Committee on the Environment and Natural Resources (CENR) of the National Science and Technology Council to identify the endocrine disrupter issue as a major research initiative in early 1995 and subsequently establish an ad hoc Working Group on Endocrine Disrupters. The objectives of the working group are to 1) develop a planning framework for federal research related to human and ecological health effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals; 2) conduct an inventory of ongoing federal research programs; and 3) identify research gaps and develop a coordinated interagency plan to address priority research needs. This communication summarizes the activities of the federal government in defining a common framework for planning an endocrine disrupter research program and in assessing the status of the current effort. After developing the research framework and compiling an inventory of active research projects supported by the federal government in fiscal year 1996, the CENR working group evaluated the current federal effort by comparing the ongoing activities with the research needs identified in the framework. The analysis showed that the federal government supports considerable research on human health effects, ecological effects, and exposure assessment, with a predominance of activity occurring under human health effects. The analysis also indicates that studies on reproductive development and carcinogenesis are more prevalent than studies on neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, that mammals (mostly laboratory animals) are the main species under study, and that chlorinated dibenzodioxins and

  12. Effects of copper on growth, metamorphosis and endocrine disruption of Bufo gargarizans larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Liang, Gang; Chai, Lihong; Wang, Hongyuan

    2016-01-01

    Chinese toad (Bufo gargarizans) tadpoles were exposed to copper (1, 6.4, 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper) from the beginning of larval period through completion of metamorphosis. We examined the effects of chronic copper exposure on mortality, growth, time to metamorphosis, tail resorption time, body size at the metamorphic climax (Gs 42) and completion of metamorphosis (Gs 46) and thyroid gland histology. In addition, type 2 and 3 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2 and Dio3), thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels were also measured to assess disruption of TH synthesis. Our result showed that 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper concentration increased the mortality and inhibited the growth of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In addition, significant reduction in size at Gs 42 and a time delay to Gs 42 were observed at 6.4-64μgL(-1) copper treatments. Moreover, histological examinations have clearly revealed that 64μgL(-1) copper caused follicular cell hyperplasia in thyroid gland. According to real-time PCR results, exposure to 32 and 64μgL(-1) copper significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of Dio3, but down-regulated mRNA expression of TRα and TRβ mRNA level. We concluded that copper delayed amphibian metamorphosis through changing mRNA expression of Dio3, TRα and TRβ, which suggests that copper might have the endocrine-disrupting effect.

  13. Generation and characterization of gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish for evaluating endocrine-disrupting effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Xiaoxia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Xiaowen; Jin, Xia; He, Jiangyan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Yin, Zhan, E-mail: zyin@ihb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Ningbo Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology (China)

    2014-07-01

    The glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene encodes the shared α subunit of the three pituitary heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone β (Fshβ), luteinizing hormone β (Lhβ) and thyroid stimulating hormone β (Tshβ). In our current study, we identified and characterized the promoter region of zebrafish gsuα and generated a stable gsuα:EGFP transgenic line, which recapitulated the endogenous gsuα expression in the early developing pituitary gland. A relatively conserved regulatory element set is presented in the promoter regions of zebrafish and three other known mammalian gsuα promoters. Our results also demonstrated that the expression patterns of the gsuα:EGFP transgene were all identical to those expression patterns of the endogenous gsuα expression in the pituitary tissue when our transgenic fish were treated with various endocrine chemicals, including forskolin (FSK), SP600125, trichostatin A (TSA), KClO{sub 4}, dexamethasone (Dex), β-estradiol and progesterone. Thus, this gsuα:EGFP transgenic fish reporter line provides another valuable tool for investigating the lineage development of gsuα-expressing gonadotrophins and the coordinated regulation of various glycoprotein hormone subunit genes. These reporter fish can serve as a novel platform to perform screenings of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in vivo as well. - Highlights: • Identification of the promoter of zebrafish glycoprotein subunit α (gsuα) gene • Generation of stable transmission gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish reporter • Demonstration of the recapitulation of the gsuα:EGFP and endogenous gsuα expression • Suggestion of the gsuα:EGFP transgenic zebrafish as a novel platform for EDC study.

  14. Molecular imaging, an innovative methodology for whole-body profiling of endocrine disrupter action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Diego; Rando, Gianpaolo; Ciana, Paolo; Maggi, Adriana

    2008-12-01

    Endocrine disrupters (EDs) are environment and food contaminants known to alter metabolic functions of mammals by interfering with specific endocrine pathways. Many EDs act on steroid hormone target cells by interacting with intracellular receptors (IRs) like estrogen receptors, androgen receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors; other receptors may be engaged. IRs are ligand-operated transcription factors acting in concert with general or cell-specific coregulators. The newly acquired awareness on the panoply of IR functions has increased the concern on potential, unsought, harmful effects of EDs on human health and has questioned the capability of currently available methodologies to identify and study EDs in the environment and in the food chain. Indeed, current in vivo and in vitro methodologies restrict the analysis to very specific organs or cell systems, with obvious limitations in predicting the systemic metabolic consequences of ED exposure. The emphasis recently laid by Regulatory Authorities, including European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods, on the generation of in vitro model systems for toxicological analyses discouraged the development of models suitable to envision the whole spectrum of ED body actions required when studying compounds acting through IRs. Molecular imaging now provides the opportunity to quantify ED effects in living organisms enabling, for the first time, to acquire a full comprehension of the systemic effects of acute and prolonged exposure to EDs, solving the issue of the potential harm due to repeated low-dose exposure. The systems here reviewed are of unquestionable toxicological relevance and need to be taken into consideration to improve the methodology currently available and in use.

  15. Regenerative response and endocrine disrupters in crinoid echinoderms: an old experimental model, a new ecotoxicological test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia Carnevali, M D

    2005-01-01

    The regenerative phenomena that reproduce developmental processes in adult organisms and are regulated by endocrine and neurohumoral mechanisms can provide new sensitive tests for monitoring the effects of exposure to anthropogenic chemicals such as endocrine disrupter (ED) contaminants. These pollutants in fact can be bioaccumulated by the organisms, causing dysfunctions in steroid hormone production/metabolism and activities and inducing dramatic effects on reproductive competence, development and growth in many animals, man included. Current research is exploring the effects of exposure to different classes of compounds well known for their ED activity, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), nonylphenols and organotins, on regenerative potential of echinoderms, a relatively unexplored and promising applied approach which offers the unique chance to study physiological developmental processes in adult animals. The selected test species is the crinoid Antedon mediterranea, which represents a valuable experimental model for investigation into the regenerative process from the macroscopic to the molecular level. The present study employs an integrated approach which combines exposure experiments, chemical analysis and biological analysis utilizing classical methods of light (LM) and electron (TEM and SEM) microscopy and immunocytochemistry. The experiments were carried out on experimentally induced arm regenerations in controlled conditions with exposure concentrations comparable to those of moderately polluted coastal zones in order to reproduce common conditions of exposure to environmental contaminants. The results of the exposure tests were analysed in terms of effects at the whole organism, at the tissue and cellular level, and possible sites of action of EDs. Our results show that prolonged exposure to these compounds significantly affects the regenerative mechanisms by inducing appreciable anomalies in terms of regeneration times, overall growth, general

  16. Environmental toxicology and risk assessment: Standardization of biomarkers for endocrine disruption and environmental assessment: Eighth volume. Special technical publication 1364

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henshel, D.S.; Black, M.C.; Harrass, M.C. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    This conference was held April 20--22, 1998 in Atlanta, Georgia. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on biological markers in toxicology and risk assessment, including endocrine disrupter screening assays. Attention is focused on the following: aquatic toxicology; behavioral toxicology; biochemical indicators; developmental indicators; endocrine indicators; biodegradation and fate of chemicals; quality assurance and quality control within laboratory and field studies; risk assessment and communication, and harmonization of standards development. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  17. Perspectivas en disrupción endocrina Perspectives in endocrine disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available La descripción de alteraciones en la función reproductora de algunas especies de animales salvajes, junto a la demostración de la exposición humana y animal a sustancias químicas con actividad hormonal ­agonista y antagonista­ generó, hace dos décadas, lo que se conoce hoy día como hipótesis de disrupción endocrina. Se trata de un problema emergente de salud medioambiental que ha cuestionado algunos de los paradigmas en que se fundamenta el control y la regulación de uso de los compuestos químicos. La necesidad de incluir en los tests toxicológicos habituales nuevos objetivos de investigación, que se refieren específicamente al desarrollo y crecimiento de las especies y a la homeostasis y funcionalidad de los sistemas hormonales, ha venido a complicar tanto la evaluación de los nuevos compuestos químicos como la revaluación de los existentes. Sus repercusiones sobre la reglamentación y el comercio internacional no se han hecho esperar y a ambos lados del Atlántico se han diseñado y establecido sistemas de cribado de disruptores endocrinos y se han desarrollado programas de investigación con objeto de cualificar y cuantificar los efectos adversos sobre la salud humana y animal y poder actuar con medidas de prevención.Two decades ago, reports of alterations in the reproductive function of some wild animal species and clear evidence of human and animal exposure to chemical substances with hormonal activity ­agonist and antagonist­ generated what is known now as the hypothesis of endocrine disruption. This is an emerging environmental health problem that has challenged some of the paradigms on which the control and regulation of the use of chemical compounds is based. The need to include in routine toxicology tests new research objectives that specifically refer to the development and growth of species and to the homeostasis and functionality of hormonal systems, has served to complicate both the evaluation of new

  18. In Vitro Endocrine Disruption Screening of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    bioassays that measure endocrine mediated endpoints were performed. Determining if NTO acts as an endocrine disruptor is important because...restrictions on the use of these compounds by the U.S. Army. 1.3 Conclusions NTO was tested in nine endocrine disruptor bioassays. Five of... endocrine disruptors : development of a stably transfected human ovarian cell line for the detection of estrogenic and anti- estrogenic chemicals. In

  19. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J; Aday, D Derek; Cope, W Gregory; Kullman, Seth; Rice, James A; Kwak, Thomas J; Law, Mac

    2015-02-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  20. Extent of endocrine disruption in fish of western and Alaskan National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 2009, 998 fish were collected from 43 water bodies across 11 western Alaskan national parks and analyzed for reproductive abnormalities. Exposure to estrogenic substances such as pesticides can induce abnormalities like intersex. Results suggest there is a greater propensity for male intersex fish collected from parks located in the Rocky Mountains, and specifically in Rocky Mountain NP. Individual male intersex fish were also identified at Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, and WrangellSt. Elias NPs. The preliminary finding of female intersex was determined to be a false positive. The overall goal of this project was to assess the general health of fish from eleven western national parks to infer whether health impacts may be linked to contaminant health thresholds for animal andor human health. This was accomplished by evaluating the presence of intersex fish with eggs developing in male gonads or sperm developing in female gonads using histology. In addition, endocrine disrupting compounds and other contaminants were quantified in select specimens. General histologic appearance of the gonadal tissue and spleen were observed to assess health.

  1. Adipogenic Effects of a Combination of the Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Bisphenol A, Diethylhexylphthalate, and Tributyltin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Biemann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The food contaminants bisphenol A (BPA, diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP, and tributyltin (TBT are potent endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDC known to interfere with adipogenesis. EDC usually act in mixtures and not as single compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a simultaneous exposure of BPA, DEHP, and TBT on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation into adipocytes. Methods: Multipotent murine mesenchymal stem cells (C3H10T1/2 were exposed to EDC mixtures in high concentrations, i.e. MIX-high (10 µmol/l BPA, 100 µmol/l DEHP, 100 nmol/l TBT, and in environmentally relevant concentrations, i.e. MIX-low (10 nmol/l BPA, 100 nmol/l DEHP, 1 nmol/l TBT. The exposure was performed either for the entire culture time (0-12 days or at distinct stages of adipogenic differentiation. At day 12 of cell culture, the amount of adipocytes, triglyceride content (TG, and adipogenic marker gene expression were analyzed. Results: MIX-high increased the development of adipocytes and the expression of adipogenic marker genes independently of the exposure window. The total TG amount was not increased. The low-concentrated EDC mixture had no obvious impact on adipogenesis. Conclusion: In EDC mixtures, the adipogenic effect of TBT and DEHP predominates single effects of BPA. Mixture effects of EDC are not deducible from single compound experiments.

  2. Concentration levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals in environmental media of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Junheon; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Sangdon; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Eunkyoung; Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Na, Jin-Gyun [National Institute of Environmental Research, Incheon (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction As the public is more concerned about endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the Ministry of Environment in Korea has designed and established a mid- and long-term research plan on EDCs. Since 1999, the National Institute of Environmental Research has investigated the impact of EDCs on the natural ecosystem and carried out the field test for environmental monitoring. The goal of this study was to measure the contamination level of EDCs in a variety of environmental media, such as water, sediment, soil and air and to provide a basis for the sound management of EDCs and policy-making for the control of EDCs in Korea. Environmental monitoring sites were selected at representative sites through the nation. In 2002, 310 samples were collected from 122 sites of water, sediment, soil and air. The target EDCs examined were 93 chemicals in 45 chemical groups including Dioxin, coplanar PCBs, PCBs. Results show that 46 chemicals (31 chemical groups) including dioxins were detected in at least one environmental medium, while 47 chemicals including aldrin were not detected in any environmental media. In this study, the results of the fourth year of environmental monitoring are reported.

  3. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  4. Environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides: assessment of endocrine disruption and hepatotoxicity in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchi, A; Rovedatti, M G; Sabino, G; Magnarelli, G G

    2012-06-01

    In utero exposure is the first point of contact with environmental xenobiotics that may affect the maternal-placental-fetal balance. Considering that maternal pathophysiological changes affect intrauterine development, this pilot study was conducted to address how environmental exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) during pregnancy may contribute to maternal endocrine disruption and disturbed hepatic function. A prospective study was carried out with pregnant women (n=97) living in a rural area of the Rio Negro province where OPs are intensively applied throughout 6 months of the year. Blood samples were obtained and biomarkers of OPs exposure (cholinesterases and β-glucuronidase), cortisol (CT) and progesterone (PG) levels, as well as glycemia, were determined. Parameters of liver injury were assayed by measuring aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT); liver function was assayed by measuring albumin. Biomonitoring carried out during the pre-spraying period (PreS) and spraying period (SP) showed that the population studied was exposed to OPs, proven by the fact that plasma (PCh) and erythrocyte cholinesterase (AChE) decreased very significantly (pnormal values for the general population, the increase in CT in the maternal compartment may lead to impaired newborn health later in life.

  5. Understanding the endocrine disruption of chiral pesticides:The enantioselectivity in estrogenic activity of synthetic pyrethroids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids(SPs) ,a family of chiral insecticides consisting of multiple stereoismers,have been regarded as estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals(EDCs) .In this study,we applied the yeast two-hybrid and molecular docking(MD) assay to assess the enantioselective estrogenic activities of three commonly used SPs,bifenthrin(cis-BF) ,permethrin(PM) and fenvalerate(Fen) .The β-galactosidase analyses indicated that all of the testing pyrethroids displayed significant(p<0.05) enantioselectivity.The results showed that the estrogenic potential of cis-BF was mainly attributed to 1S-cis-BF.Neither PM nor Fen showed estrogenic effects.However,two stereoisomers of PM possessed estrogenic potential activities.αR-2R-Fen and αS-2S-Fen also induced the β-galactosidase activity.The inability to initiate the reporter gene expression by the racemic chemicals may be due to the low ratios of these isomers or the antagonism among them.The strong hydrophobic interaction and the hydrogen bond between positive estrogenic isomers and ERα support our biological testing results.This research demonstrated that the enantioselective estrogenic activity of chiral SPs was due to selective binding between their isomers and the ERαreceptor.The data suggests that enantioselectivity of these chiral pesticides is significant to their estrogenic activities.

  6. Enzymatic degradation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in aquatic plants and relations to biological Fenton reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A R; Sakakibara, Y

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the removal performance of trace phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants, batch and continuous experiments were conducted using floating and submerged plants. The EDCs used in this study were bisphenol A, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, pentachlorophenol, and nonylphenol. The feed concentration of each EDC was set at 100 μg/L. Continuous experiments showed that every EDC except pentachlorophenol was efficiently removed by different aquatic plants through the following reaction, catalyzed by peroxidases: EDCs+H(2)O(2)→Products+H(2)O(2). Peroxidases were able to remove phenolic EDCs in the presence of H(2)O(2) over a wide pH range (from 3 to 9). Histochemical localization of peroxidases showed that they were located in every part of the root cells, while highly concentrated zones were observed in the epidermis and in the vascular tissues. Although pentachlorophenol was not removed in the continuous treatment, it was rapidly removed by different aquatic plants when Fe(2+) was added, and this removal occurred simultaneously with the consumption of endogenous H(2)O(2). These results demonstrated the occurrence of a biological Fenton reaction and the importance of H(2)O(2) as a key endogenous substance in the treatment of EDCs and refractory toxic pollutants.

  7. Oxidation mechanism and overall removal rates of endocrine disrupting chemicals by aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, A R; Tabei, K; Sakakibara, Y

    2014-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate experimentally and theoretically the oxidation mechanisms and overall removal rates of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants. EDCs used in this study were bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Referring to reported detection levels in aquatic environments and contaminated sites, the feed concentration of each EDC was set from 1 to 100μg/L. Experimental results showed that, except for PCP, phenolic EDCs were stably and concurrently removed by different types of aquatic plants over 70 days in long-term continuous treatments. Primal enzymes responsible for oxidation of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP were peroxidases (POs). Moreover, enzymatic removal rates of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP by POs were more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than those by aquatic plants. Assuming that overall removal rates of EDCs are controlled by mass transfer rates onto liquid films on the surface of aquatic plants, an electrochemical method based on the limiting current theory was developed to measure the mass transfer rates of EDCs. Because of extremely large removal rates of EDCs by POs, observed removal rates by aquatic plants were in reasonably good agreement with calculated results by a mathematical model developed based on an assumption that mass transfer limitation is a rate-limiting step.

  8. Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Vandenberg, Laura N.

    2016-01-01

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs. PMID:26847432

  9. Parental effects of endocrine disrupting compounds in aquatic wildlife: Is there evidence of transgenerational inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwindt, Adam R

    2015-08-01

    The effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on aquatic wildlife are increasingly being recognized for their complexity. Investigators have detected alterations at multiple levels of biological organization in offspring exposed to EDCs through the blood or germ line of the parents, suggesting that generational consequences of EDCs are evident. Exposure to EDCs through the parents is concerning because if the resulting phenotype of the offspring is heritable and affects fitness, then evolutionary consequences may be evident. This review summarizes the evidence for transgenerational effects of EDCs in aquatic wildlife and illustrates cases where alterations appear to be transmitted maternally, paternally, or parentally. The literature indicates that EDC exposure to the parents induces developmental, physiological, endocrinological, and behavioral changes as well as increased mortality of offspring raised in clean environments. What is lacking, however, is a clear demonstration of heritable transgenerational effects in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, it is not known if the parental effects are the result of developmental or phenotypic plasticity or if the altered phenotypes are durably passed to subsequent generations. Epigenetic changes to gene regulation are discussed as a possible mechanism responsible for EDC induced parental effects. Additional research is needed to evaluate if heritable effects of EDCs are evident in aquatic wildlife, as has been demonstrated for terrestrial mammals.

  10. The non-genomic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on mammalian sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, R S; Escada-Rebelo, S; Correia, M; Mota, P C; Ramalho-Santos, J

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to toxicants present in the environment, especially the so-called endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), has been associated with decreased sperm quality and increased anomalies in male reproductive organs over the past decades. Both human and animal populations are continuously exposed to ubiquitous synthetic and natural-occurring EDCs through diet, dermal contact and/or inhalation, therefore potentially compromising male reproductive health. Although the effects of EDC are likely induced via multiple genomic-based pathways, their non-genomic effects may also be relevant. Furthermore, spermatozoa are transcriptionally inactive cells that can come in direct contact with EDCs in reproductive fluids and secretions and are therefore a good model to address non-genomic effects. This review thus focuses on the non-genomic effects of several important EDCs relevant to mammalian exposure. Notably, EDCs were found to interfere with pre-existing pathways inducing a panoply of deleterious effects to sperm function that included altered intracellular Ca(2) (+) oscillations, induction of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased DNA damage and decreased sperm motility and viability, among others, potentially jeopardizing male fertility. Although many studies have used non-environmentally relevant concentrations of only one compound for mechanistic studies, it is important to remember that mammals are not exposed to one, but rather to a multitude of environmental EDCs, and synergistic effects may occur. Furthermore, some effects have been detected with single compounds at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  11. Using systematic reviews for hazard and risk assessment of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beronius, Anna; Vandenberg, Laura N

    2015-12-01

    The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence. In the fields of medicine and health care, systematic review methodologies have been developed and used to enable objectivity and transparency in the evaluation of scientific evidence for decision making. Lately, such approaches have also been promoted for use in the environmental health sciences and risk assessment of chemicals. Systematic review approaches could provide a tool for improving the evaluation of evidence for decision making regarding EDCs, e.g. by enabling systematic and transparent use of academic research data in this process. In this review we discuss the advantages and challenges of applying systematic review methodology in the identification and assessment of EDCs.

  12. Impact of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Paul A; Bellingham, Michelle; Sinclair, Kevin D; Evans, Neil P; Pocar, Paola; Fischer, Bernd; Schaedlich, Kristina; Schmidt, Juliane-Susanne; Amezaga, Maria R; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Rhind, Stewart M; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J

    2012-05-22

    Evidence is accumulating that environmental chemicals (ECs) including endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can alter female reproductive development, fertility and onset of menopause. While not as clearly defined as in the male, this set of abnormalities may constitute an Ovarian Dysgenesis Syndrome with at least some origins of the syndrome arising during foetal development. ECs/EDCs have been shown to affect trophoblast and placental function, the female hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, onset of puberty and adult ovarian function. The effects of ECs/EDCs are complex, not least because it is emerging that low-level, 'real-life' mixtures of ECs/EDCs may carry significant biological potency. In addition, there is evidence that ECs/EDCs can alter the epigenome in a sexually dimorphic manner, which may lead to changes in the germ line and perhaps even to transgenerational effects. This review summarises the evidence for EC, including EDC, involvement in female reproductive dysfunction, it highlights potential mechanisms of EC action in the female and emphasises the need for further research into EC effects on female development and reproductive function.

  13. QSAR classification models for the prediction of endocrine disrupting activity of brominated flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarich, Simona; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2011-06-15

    The identification of potential endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals is an important task for the scientific community due to their diffusion in the environment; the production and use of such compounds will be strictly regulated through the authorization process of the REACH regulation. To overcome the problem of insufficient experimental data, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) approach is applied to predict the ED activity of new chemicals. In the present study QSAR classification models are developed, according to the OECD principles, to predict the ED potency for a class of emerging ubiquitary pollutants, viz. brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Different endpoints related to ED activity (i.e. aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonism and antagonism, estrogen receptor agonism and antagonism, androgen and progesterone receptor antagonism, T4-TTR competition, E2SULT inhibition) are modeled using the k-NN classification method. The best models are selected by maximizing the sensitivity and external predictive ability. We propose simple QSARs (based on few descriptors) characterized by internal stability, good predictive power and with a verified applicability domain. These models are simple tools that are applicable to screen BFRs in relation to their ED activity, and also to design safer alternatives, in agreement with the requirements of REACH regulation at the authorization step.

  14. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Liu, Hao [Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Cancer Research Institute, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Wang, Hongsheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Xu, Meiying, E-mail: xumy@gdim.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  15. Multigenerational and transgenerational effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals: A role for altered epigenetic regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Frances; Susiarjo, Martha; Bartolomei, Marisa S

    2015-07-01

    Increasing evidence has highlighted the critical role of early life environment in shaping the future health outcomes of an individual. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that early life perturbations can affect the health of subsequent generations. Hypothesized mechanisms of multi- and transgenerational inheritance of abnormal developmental phenotypes include epigenetic misregulation in germ cells. In this review, we will focus on the available data demonstrating the ability of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, and parabens, to alter epigenetic marks in rodents and humans. These epigenetic marks include DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications, and non-coding RNAs. We also review the current evidence for multi- and transgenerational inheritance of abnormal developmental changes in the offspring following EDC exposure. Based on published results, we conclude that EDC exposure can alter the mouse and human epigenome, with variable tissue susceptibilities. Although increasing data suggest that exposure to EDCs is linked to transgenerational inheritance of reproductive, metabolic, or neurological phenotypes, more studies are needed to validate these observations and to elucidate further whether these developmental changes are directly associated with the relevant epigenetic alterations.

  16. Sustainable biodegradation of phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals by Phragmites australis-rhizosphere bacteria association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, T; Ojima, T; Tanaka, Y; Mori, K; Morikawa, M

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of two rhizobacteria (Sphingobium fuliginis TIK1 and Sphingobium sp. IT4) of Phragmites australis for the sustainable treatment of water polluted with phenolic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was investigated. Strains TIK1 and IT4 have recently been isolated from Phragmites rhizosphere and shown to degrade various 4-alkylphenols-TIK1 via phenolic ring hydroxylation and meta-cleavage and IT4 via ipso-hydroxylation. The two strains also degraded bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B, bisphenol E, bisphenol F, bisphenol P and bisphenol S (BPS). Thus, strains TIK1 and IT4 have wide degradation spectra for phenolic EDCs. The two strains utilized Phragmites root extracts as a sole carbon source and sustainably colonized Phragmites roots, where they degraded phenolic EDCs. In sequencing batch reactor experiments using Phragmites in association with TIK1 or IT4, both associations repeatedly removed phenolic EDCs from polluted secondary effluent water (BPA, BPS, 4-tert-butylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol) from polluted secondary effluent water. The results suggest that hydroponic systems using Phragmites-TIK and Phragmites-IT4 associations would be useful for sustainable treatment of polluted waters containing various phenolic EDCs.

  17. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the Pearl River Delta and coastal environment: sources, transfer, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weihai; Yan, Wen; Huang, Weixia; Miao, Li; Zhong, Lifeng

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and behavior of six endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sewage, river water, and seawater from the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The six EDCs under study were 4-nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), estrone (E2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). These EDCs, predominated by BPA, were found in high levels in the influents and the effluents of sewage treatment plants in the area. The relatively high concentrations (0.23-625 ng/L) of the EDCs detected in the receiving river water suggested that the untreated sewage discharge was a major contributor. The EDCs detected in eight outlets of the Pear River and the Pear River Estuary were in the ranges of 1.2-234 and 0.2-178 ng/L, respectively. The estrogen equivalents in the aquatic environments under study ranged from 0.08 to 4.5 ng/L, with E1 and EE2 being the two predominant contributors. As the fluxes of the EDCs from the PRD region to the nearby ocean are over 500 tons each year, the results of this study point to the potential that Pearl River is a significant source of the EDCs to the local environment there.

  18. Endocrine disrupting compounds and echinoderms: new ecotoxicological sentinels for the marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugni, Michela; Mozzi, Daniela; Barbaglio, Alice; Bonasoro, Francesco; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela

    2007-02-01

    Echinoderms are valuable test species in marine ecotoxicology and offer a wide range of biological processes appropriate for this approach. In spite of this potential, available data in literature are still rather limited, particularly with regard to the possible effects of endocrine disrupter compounds (EDCs). This review presents echinoderms as useful models for ecotoxicological tests and gives a brief overview of the most significant results obtained in recent years, particularly in the context of the COMPRENDO EU project. In this research project two different aspects of echinoderm physiology, plausibly regulated by humoral mechanisms, were investigated: reproductive biology and regenerative development. Selected EDCs suspected for their androgenic or antiandrogenic action were tested at low concentrations. The results obtained so far showed that different parameters such as regenerative growth, histological pattern, egg diameter and gonad maturation were affected by the exposure to the selected compounds. These results substantiate that reproductive and regenerative phenomena of echinoderms can be considered valuable alternative models for studies on EDCs and confirm that these compounds interfere with fundamental physiological processes, including growth, development and reproductive competence.

  19. Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of embryonic exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Lavoie, Emma; Thompson, Nichola; Barton, Ashley; Whitehouse, Kasen; Barton, Meredith; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud; Quinn, Michael; Panzica, GianCarlo; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla

    2008-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exert hormone-like activity in vertebrates and exposure to these compounds may induce both short- and long-term deleterious effects including functional alterations that contribute to decreased reproduction and fitness. An overview of the effects of a number of EDCs, including androgenic and estrogenic compounds, will be considered. Many studies have been conducted in the precocial Japanese quail, which provides an excellent avian model for testing these compounds. Long-term impacts have also been studied by raising a subset of animals through maturation. The EDCs examined included estradiol, androgen active compounds, soy phytoestrogens, and atrazine. Effects on behavior and hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems were examined. All EDCs impaired reproduction, regardless of potential mechanism of action. Male sexual behavior proved to be a sensitive index of EDC exposure and embryonic exposure to a variety of EDCs consistently resulted in impaired male sexual behavior. Several hypothalamic neural systems proved to be EDC responsive, including arginine vasotocin (VT), catecholamines, and gonadotropin releasing hormone system (GnRH-I). Finally, EDCs are known to impact both the immune and thyroid systems; these effects are significant for assessing the overall impact of EDCs on the fitness of avian populations. Therefore, exposure to EDCs during embryonic development has consequences beyond impaired function of the reproductive axis. In conclusion, behavioral alterations have the advantage of revealing both direct and indirect effects of exposure to an EDC and in some cases can provide a valuable clue into functional deficits at different physiological levels.

  20. Bioinspired production of magnetic laccase-biotitania particles for the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardao, Inés; Magnin, Delphine; Agathos, Spiros N

    2015-10-01

    Microbial laccases are powerful enzymes capable of degrading lignin and other recalcitrant compounds including endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Efficient EDC removal on an industrial scale requires robust, stable, easy to handle and cost-effective immobilized biocatalysts. In this direction, magnetic biocatalysts are attractive due to their easy separation through an external magnetic field. Recently, a bioinspired immobilization technique that mimics the natural biomineralization reactions in diatoms has emerged as a fast and versatile tool for generating robust, cheap, and highly stable (nano) biocatalysts. In this work, bioinspired formation of a biotitania matrix is triggered on the surface of magnetic particles in the presence of laccase in order to produce laccase-biotitania (lac-bioTiO2 ) biocatalysts suitable for environmental applications using a novel, fast and versatile enzyme entrapment technique. Highly active lac-bioTiO2 particles have been produced and the effect of different parameters (enzyme loading, titania precursor concentration, pH, duration of the biotitania formation, and laccase adsorption steps) on the apparent activity yield of these biocatalysts were evaluated, the concentration of the titania precursor being the most influential. The lac-bioTiO2 particles were able to catalyze the removal of bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol and diclofenac in a mixture of six model EDCs and retained 90% of activity after five reaction cycles and 60% after 10 cycles.

  1. Dimorphic placental stress: A repercussion of interaction between endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and fetal sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Surbhi; Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Santosh, Winkins

    2017-02-01

    Placental homeostasis is critical for fetal development as it determines the health of mother and fetus during pregnancy and in later life. Interestingly even the fetus, in a sexually dimorphic manner, influences the pedantic growth and development of placenta. Although placenta is thought to act as a protective barrier against chemical exposures, certain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are circulating in mother's blood tend to cross placenta. These EDCs have been reported to cause changes in expression levels of certain genes, immunogenic factors and non-coding RNAs such as micro RNA (miRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) leading to placental stress. We hypothesize that these changes in placenta occur in a sexually dimorphic manner as a result of interaction between EDC exposure and fetal sex. Therefore, we propose that the ability of placenta to respond and buffer EDC exposure depends on fetal sex and, hence the EDC associated disease susceptibility of one sex differs from the other.

  2. Removal of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals by membrane bioreactor: in comparison with sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yingjun; Huang, Xia; Zhou, Haidong; Chen, Jianhua; Xue, Wenchao

    2011-01-01

    The removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by a laboratory-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with synthetic sewage was evaluated and moreover, compared with that by a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) operated under same conditions in parallel. Eight kinds of typical EDCs, including 17β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), 17α-ethynilestradiol (EE2), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO), were spiked into the feed. Their concentrations in influent, effluent and supernatant were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method. The overall estrogenecity was evaluated as 17β-estradiol equivalent quantity (EEQ), determined via yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. E2, E3, BPA and 4-OP were well removed by both MBR and SBR, with removal rates more than 95% and no significant differences between the two reactors. However, with regard to the other four EDCs, of which the removal rates were lower, MBR performed better. Comparison between supernatant and effluent of the two reactors indicated that membrane separation of sludge and effluent, compared with sedimentation, can relatively improve elimination of target EDCs and total estrogenecity. By applying different solids retention times (SRTs) (5, 10, 20 and 40 d) to the MBR, 10 and 5 d were found to be the lower critical SRTs for efficient target EDCs and EEQ removal, respectively.

  3. Comparison of the removal efficiency of endocrine disrupting compounds in pilot scale sewage treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiho; Lee, Byoung C; Ra, Jin S; Cho, Jaeweon; Kim, In S; Chang, Nam I; Kim, Hyun K; Kim, Sang D

    2008-04-01

    The removal efficiency of endocrine disrupting compounds from effluents using pilot scale sewage treatment processes, including various treatment technologies, such as membrane bioreactors (MBR), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) for the purpose of water reuse, were estimated and compared. The calculated estrogenic activity, expressed in ng-EEQ/l, based on the concentration detected by GC/MS, and relative potencies for each target compound were compared to those measured using the E-screen assay. The removal efficiencies for nonylphenol, was within the range of 55-83% in effluents. High removal efficiencies of approximately >70% based on the detection limits were obtained for bisphenol A, E1, EE2 and genistein with each treatment processes, with the exception of E1 ( approximately 64%) using the MBR process. The measured EEQ values for the effluents from the MBR, NF and RO processes also indicated low estrogenic activities of 0.65, 0.23 and 0.05 ng-EEQ/l, respectively. These were markedly reduced values compared with the value of 1.2 ng-EEQ/l in influent. Consequently, the removals of EDCs in terms of the EEQ value from the biological and chemical determinations were sufficiently achieved by the treatment process applied in this study, especially in the cases of the NF and RO treatments.

  4. Corticosteroid production in H295R cells during exposure to 3 endocrine disrupters analyzed with LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christina S; Nielsen, Frederik K; Hansen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The adrenocortical human cell line H295R is a valuable tool for screening endocrine disrupting compounds. In general, previous research focus has been on the production of the 2 sex steroids, 17β-estradiol and testosterone, and less attention has been paid to other important steroid end points......295R cell line. The method was applied by studying the effects of 2 model endocrine disrupters, ketoconazole and prochloraz, the pharmaceutical budesonide, and the inducer forskolin on the steroid production in this cell line. Dose-response curves were obtained for the correlation between hormone...... concentrations and the concentration of the individual disruptors. Exposing cells to ketoconazole resulted in a decrease in cortisol and corticosterone concentrations in a dose-dependent manner with EC₅₀ values of 0.24 and 0.40 μmol/L, respectively. The same applied for cells exposed to prochloraz with EC₅₀...

  5. Laccase-mediated transformations of endocrine disrupting chemicals abolish binding affinities to estrogen receptors and their estrogenic activity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Duarte, Cristina; Viana, María Teresa; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are known to mainly affect aquatic organisms, producing negative effects in aquaculture. Transformation of the estrogenic compounds 17β-estradiol (E2), bisphenol-A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and triclosan (TCS) by laccase of Coriolopsis gallica was studied. Laccase is able to efficiently transform them into polymers. The estrogenic activity of the EDCs and their laccase transformation products was evaluated in vitro as their affinity for the human estrogen receptor alpha (hERα) and for the ligand binding domain of zebrafish (Danio rerio) estrogen receptor alpha (zfERαLBD). E2, BPA, NP, and TCS showed higher affinity for the zfERαLBD than for hERα. After laccase treatment, no affinity was found, except a marginal affinity of E2 products for the zfERαLBD. Endocrine disruption studies in vivo on zebrafish were performed using the induction of vitellogenin 1 as a biomarker (VTG1 mRNA levels). The use of enzymatic bioreactors, containing immobilized laccase, efficiently eliminates the endocrine activity of BPA and TCS, and significantly reduces the effects of E2. The potential use of enzymatic reactors to eliminate the endocrine activity of EDCs in supply water for aquaculture is discussed.

  6. MOBILIZATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN SIMULATED RAINFALL RUNOFF FROM LAND-APPLIED BIOSOLIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Giudice, Ben D.; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from...

  7. Epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells by Bisphenol-A, a model endocrine disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    OpenAIRE

    Deena eKhan; S. Ansar eAhmed

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA) have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth, and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels ...

  8. Removal mechanisms for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment - physical means, biodegradation, and chemical advanced oxidation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activity at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. Within the past few decades, more and more target chemicals were monitored as the source of estrogenic or androgenic activity in wastewater, and great endeavors have been done on the removal of EDCs in wastewater. This article reviewed removal of EDCs from three aspects, that is, physical means, biodegradation, and chemical advanced oxidation (CAO).

  9. Endocrine disrupting compounds and other emerging contaminants in the environment: A survey on new monitoring strategies and occurrence data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, M.; Eljarrat, E.; Lopez de Alda, M.J.; Barcelo, D. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, c/ Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-02-01

    An overview of Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) procedures, used for the effect-based analysis of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in environmental samples, is presented. Future trends in advanced chemical analysis of EDCs and some emerging contaminants are outlined. The review also gives an overview of concentration levels found in environmental samples and discusses the correlation of calculated estrogenicity (based on chemical analysis of target EDCs) with that measured by various bioassays. (orig.)

  10. Relative Contribution of Endocrine-disrupting Chemicals to the Estrogenic Potency of Marine Sediments of Osaka Bay, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KOYAMA, Jiro; KITOH, Asami; NAKAI, Makoto; KOHNO, Kumiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Uno, Seiichi; コヤマ, ジロウ; キトウ, アサミ; ナカイ, マコト; コウノ, クミコ; タナカ, ヒロユキ; ウノ, セイイチ; 小山, 次朗; 中井, 誠; 河野, 久美子

    2013-01-01

    Although concentrations of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in seawaters of Japan are relatively low, vitellogenin and ovotestis inductions are still being observed in some males of mullet and flounder collected in coastal areas. These fish species are benthic and could be affected by EDCs in marine sediments. Therefore, the concentrations of EDCs in marine sediments of Osaka Bay were determined by LC-MS/MS. In addition, the estrogen receptor binding potencies as estrogenic potencies of ...

  11. Fate and Transport of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds during Wastewater Treatment: The Role of Colloidal and Particulate Material

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Jr., Richard David

    2003-01-01

    The presence of biologically-active estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in treated effluents from biological wastewater treatment facilities has prompted wide-spread interest in the behavior of these contaminants during the activated sludge process. The yeast-estrogen screen (YES) was used to quantify the estrogenic activity of samples taken from different areas of three wastewater treatment facilities. An estrogenic mass-balance around these facilities revealed that the majori...

  12. The presence of morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome in United Kingdom populations of sand goby (Pomatoschistus spp): endocrine disruption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Mark F; Bignell, John; Brown, Elaine; Craft, John A; Davies, Ian; Dyer, Robert A; Feist, Steven W; Jones, Gary; Matthiessen, Peter; Megginson, Colin; Robertson, Fiona E; Robinson, Craig

    2003-02-01

    The sand goby (Pomatoschistus spp.) is a small estuarine fish. Its abundance, life history, and sedentary nature lead to its adoption as a key species in the U.K. Endocrine Disruption in the Marine Environment (EDMAR) Program. This study investigated the presence of classic markers of estrogenic exposure by determining vitellogenin (VTG) and zona radiata protein (ZRP) mRNA levels and ovotestis in estuarine-caught male gobies and investigated morphological changes in the urogenital papilla (UGP). Laboratory exposures to estrogens were also conducted to ascertain the responses of these markers. Wild-caught male fish showed no evidence of ovotestis, VTG, or ZRP mRNA induction. Laboratory exposures suggested that sensitivity of the goby to VTG/ ZRP mRNA induction was similar to flounder. The UGP inspection of wild-caught specimens revealed evidence of feminization of male papillae, a condition denoted as morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome (MIPS). Morphologically intermediate papilla syndrome was more prevalent at estrogenically contaminated sites. Juvenile goby experimentally exposed to 17beta-estradiol for 11 to 32 weeks exhibited signs of the MIPS condition, showing that it was inducible by estrogenic exposure and could therefore be a form of estrogenic endocrine disruption. The estuaries where the MIPS condition was most prevalent (>50% at certain sites) were the Tees, Mersey, and Clyde. The potential of the MIPS condition to significantly interfere with reproductive performance is discussed as well as its use as a monitoring tool for endocrine disruption in the estuarine environment.

  13. A Comparison of RIA and LC-MS/MS Methods to Quantify Steroids in Rat Serum and Urine Following Exposure to an Endocrine Disrupting Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercially available radio immunoassays (RIM) are frequently used in toxicological studies to evaluate effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on steroidogenesis in rats. Currently there are limited data comparing steroid concentrations in rats as measured by RIM to th...

  14. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for phthalates (dibutylphthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthlate), with emphasis on endocrine disruptive properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Posthumus R; Vlaardingen P van; Crommentuijn T; Plassche EJ van de; CSR

    1999-01-01

    This report presents maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) and negligible concentrations (NCs) are derived for di-n-butylphthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). Phthalates are often mentioned as suspected endocrine disrupters. Data with endpoints related to the endocrine or reprodu

  15. Enantioselective disruption of the endocrine system by Cis-Bifenthrin in the male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests in China. At present, the commercial BF is a mixed compound containing cis isomers (cis-BF) including two enantiomers of 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. In the present study, the two individual cis-BF enantiomers were separated by a preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Then, four week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF separately daily for 3 weeks at doses of 0, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively. Results showed that the transcription status of some genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and transport as well as testosterone (T) synthesis in the testes were influenced by cis-BF enantiomers. Especially, we observed that the transcription status of key genes on the pathway of T synthesis including cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P45017α)) were selectively altered in the testis of mice when treated with 1S-cis-BF, suggesting that it is the possible reason to explain why the lower serum T concentration in 1S-cis-BF treated group. Taken together, it concluded that both of the cis-BF enantiomers have the endocrine disruption activities, while 1S-cis-BF was higher than 1R-cis-BF in mice when exposed during the puberty. The data was helpful to understand the toxicity of cis-BF in mammals under enantiomeric level.

  16. Vitellogenin gene characterization and expression of Asian paddle crabs ( Charybdis japonica) following endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kiyun; Kwak, Tae-Soo; Kwak, Ihn-Sil

    2014-06-01

    Vitellogenin (VTG), the yolk-precursor lipoprotein, has been widely recognized as a biomarker for the detection of estrogenic activity in water-borne chemical pollutants. The Asian paddle crab, Charybdis japonica, is a potential bio-indicator for monitoring marine environments. The aim of this study was to identify the possibility of using C. japonica VTG as biomarkers of stress caused by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We characterized a partial sequence of the VTG cDNA in the C. japonica crab and evaluated the crab's mRNA expression profiles following exposure to different concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) for 24 or 96 h. The sequence homology of C. japonica VTG is over 93% in nucleotide and over 98% in amino acid with the corresponding gene of other crabs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C. japonica VTG is an ortholog of other species of lobster and shrimp. Tissue distribution analysis of the C. japonica VTG mRNA revealed that the expression of VTG mRNA was highest in the ovary of females and hepatopancreas. The expression of the C. japonica VTG gene in various BPA or NP concentrations during shorter and longer times was assessed. The expression of VTG transcripts was significantly increased in the C. japonica crab exposed to BPA and NP at different concentrations for 24 h. The mRNA expression of the VTG gene was significantly induced in concentration- and time-dependent manners after BPA or NP exposures for 96 h. These results indicate that crab C. japonica VTG could be used as a potential biomarker of EDCs in marine environment monitoring.

  17. Adsorption properties and degradation dynamics of endocrine-disrupting chemical levonorgestrel in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tao; Shi, Tianyu; Li, Deguang; Xia, Jinming; Hu, Qiongbo; Cao, Yongsong

    2012-04-25

    Levonorgestrel, a synthetic progesterone used as an oral contraceptive or emergency contraceptive pill, has been shown to be an endocrine-disrupting chemical. To assess the environmental risk of levonorgestrel, batch experiments and laboratory microcosm studies were conducted to investigate the adsorption and degradation of levonorgestrel in five contrasting soils of China. Freundlich and Langmuir models were applied to sorption data to examine the affinity of levonorgestrel for soils with varying physical and chemical properties. The K(f) of levonorgestrel in the tested soils ranged from 10.79 to 60.92 mg(1-n) L(n) kg(-1) with N between 0.69 and 1.23, and the Q(m) ranged from 18.18 to 196.08 mg/kg. The multiple regression analysis was conducted between K(f) and soil properties. Results indicate that total organic carbon plays a dominant role in the adsorption process. Gibbs free energy values less than 40 kJ/mol demonstrate that levonorgestrel sorption on soils could be considered as a physical adsorption. The degradation of levonorgestrel in five soils was fitted by the first-order reaction kinetics model. The half-lives of levonorgestrel were between 4.32 and 11.55 days. The initial concentration and sterilization experiments illustrated that the degradation rate of levonorgestrel in soil was concentration-dependent and microbially mediated. The low mobility potential of levonorgestrel in soils was predicted by the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) and retardation factor (R(f)).

  18. Comparative study of the endocrine-disrupting activity of bisphenol A and 19 related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Tomoharu; Sanoh, Seigo; Kohta, Ryuki; Jinno, Norimasa; Sugihara, Kazumi; Yoshihara, Shin'ichi; Fujimoto, Nariaki; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Ohta, Shigeru

    2005-04-01

    The endocrine-disrupting activities of bisphenol A (BPA) and 19 related compounds were comparatively examined by means of different in vitro and in vivo reporter assays. BPA and some related compounds exhibited estrogenic activity in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, but there were remarkable differences in activity. Tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) showed the highest activity, followed by bisphenol B, BPA, and tetramethylbisphenol A (TMBPA); 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-propanol, 1,1-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid and 2,2-diphenylpropane showed little or no activity. Anti-estrogenic activity against 17beta-estradiol was observed with TMBPA and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). TCBPA, TBBPA, and BPA gave positive responses in the in vivo uterotrophic assay using ovariectomized mice. In contrast, BPA and some related compounds showed significant inhibitory effects on the androgenic activity of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH3T3. TMBPA showed the highest antagonistic activity, followed by bisphenol AF, bisphenol AD, bisphenol B, and BPA. However, TBBPA, TCBPA, and 2,2-diphenylpropane were inactive. TBBPA, TCBPA, TMBPA, and 3,3'-dimethylbisphenol A exhibited significant thyroid hormonal activity towards rat pituitary cell line GH3, which releases growth hormone in a thyroid hormone-dependent manner. However, BPA and other derivatives did not show such activity. The results suggest that the 4-hydroxyl group of the A-phenyl ring and the B-phenyl ring of BPA derivatives are required for these hormonal activities, and substituents at the 3,5-positions of the phenyl rings and the bridging alkyl moiety markedly influence the activities.

  19. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) in municipal wastewater treatment: a need for mass balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y M; Oleszkiewicz, J A; Cicek, N; Londry, K

    2004-06-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) as pollutants in municipal wastewater. Recent studies have shown that these compounds can have a negative impact on the environment, and that in many cases they are not efficiently removed in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Studies have also revealed that their destruction and transport out into the environment depend on the design and operational characteristics of these treatment systems and on the properties of the chemicals themselves. This paper reviews the current knowledge on EDCs, natural and synthetic hormones including estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in WWTP. Several key data gaps are addressed when assessing the removal of EDCs in WWTPs. First, analytical methods used by most researchers do not account for the inactive or conjugated form of the compounds, yet they can become deconjugated to active forms during treatment, leading to an additional source of contaminant load. Next, insufficient measurements are made at various stages within the WWTP preventing adequate analyses on how each u nit process contributes to degradation. Currently, there is no standardized procedure for assessing degradation of EDCs in WWTPs, and it is often difficult to compare published data generated by individual test protocols. This paper identifies streams that should be sampled in WWTPs and suggests a mass balance approach that takes into account all forms of the compound in both liquid and solid phases. Issues of potential concern in performing mass balances are discussed leading to a proposal of variables that should be analyzed and included in published articles. The adoption of similar methods by researchers in future work will produce a better picture of the presence and fate of these compounds in the environment.

  20. Effect of wastewater treatment facility closure on endocrine disrupting chemicals in a Coastal Plain stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Clark, Jimmy M.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) closures are rare environmental remediation events; offering unique insight into contaminant persistence, long-term wastewater impacts, and ecosystem recovery processes. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed the fate of select endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and streambed sediment one year before and one year after closure of a long-term WWTF located within the Spirit Creek watershed at Fort Gordon, Georgia. Sample sites included a WWTF-effluent control located upstream from the outfall, three downstream effluent-impacted sites located between the outfall and Spirit Lake, and one downstream from the lake's outfall. Prior to closure, the 2.2-km stream segment downstream from the WWTF outfall was characterized by EDC concentrations significantly higher (α = 0.05) than at the control site; indicating substantial downstream transport and limited in-stream attenuation of EDC, including pharmaceuticals, estrogens, alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) metabolites, and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFR). Wastewater-derived pharmaceutical, APE metabolites, and OPFR compounds were also detected in the outflow of Spirit Lake, indicating the potential for EDC transport to aquatic ecosystems downstream of Fort Gordon under effluent discharge conditions. After the WWTF closure, no significant differences in concentrations or numbers of detected EDC compounds were observed between control and downstream locations. The results indicated EDC pseudo-persistence under preclosure, continuous supply conditions, with rapid attenuation following WWTF closure. Low concentrations of EDC at the control site throughout the study and comparable concentrations in downstream locations after WWTF closure indicated additional, continuing, upstream contaminant sources within the Spirit Creek watershed. 

  1. Evaluation of the fish short term reproduction assay for detecting endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, ZhiChao; Traas, Theo; Vermeire, Theo

    2011-11-01

    In a fish testing strategy, positive results of the fish short term reproduction assay (FSTR), often trigger a definitive test like the fish sexual development test (FSDT) or the fish full life cycle test (FFLC), entailing ethical and economic problems. This study analysed 137 studies encompassing 35 chemicals with different modes of actions (MOAs). Variability is quantified for MOA endpoints vitellogenin (VTG) and secondary sex characteristics (SSCs) as well as for apical endpoints. Two MOA endpoints could indicate estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, androgenic, anti-androgenic and steroidogenesis activities. Great variability, however, has been observed for chemicals with anti-androgenic and steroidogenesis activities, suggesting that TG229/230 may not be sensitive enough to detect these types of chemicals and may produce false negatives. Changes in apical endpoints like fecundity are not limited to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Non-EDCs could induce the similar effects on these apical endpoints. If elucidating MOA is needed, targeted in vitro MOA tests are suggested. Positive in vitro MOA results trigger a definitive test, which could be used for confirmation of the MOA in vivo and for deriving a no observed effect concentration (NOEC). Based on positive MOA results of TG229, a definitive test such as the FSDT or the FFLC is still needed, because the current TG229 has limitation on the derivation of a NOEC. An extended TG229 with more power to detect reproduction effects, as recently proposed in the OECD test guideline program, would improve the possibility to derive a NOEC and increase its usefulness in risk assessment.

  2. A transcriptomics-based biological framework for studying mechanisms of endocrine disruption in small fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong-Lin; Bencic, David; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Ankley, Gerald T; Lazorchak, Jim; Edwards, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    This study sought to construct a transcriptomics-based framework of signal transduction pathways, transcriptional regulatory networks, and the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) to facilitate formulation of specific, testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of endocrine disruption in fish. For the analyses involved, we used data from a total of more than 300 microarrays representing 58 conditions, which encompassed 4 tissue types from zebrafish of both genders exposed for 1 of 3 durations to 10 different test chemicals (17alpha-ethynyl estradiol, fadrozole, 17beta-trenbolone, fipronil, prochloraz, flutamide, muscimol, ketoconazole, trilostane, and vinclozolin). Differentially expressed genes were identified by one class t-tests for each condition, and those with false discovery rates of less than 40% and treatment/control ratios > or =1.3-fold were mapped to orthologous human, mouse, and rat pathways by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to look for overrepresentation of known biological pathways. To complement the analysis of known biological pathways, the genes regulated by approximately 1800 transcription factors were inferred using the ARACNE mutual information-based algorithm. The resulting gene sets for all transcriptional factors, along with a group of compiled HPG-axis genes and approximately 130 publicly available biological pathways, were analyzed for their responses to the 58 treatment conditions by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and its variant, Extended-GSEA. The biological pathways and transcription factors associated with multiple distinct treatments showed substantial interactions among the HPG-axis, TGF-beta, p53, and several of their cross-talking partners. These candidate networks/pathways have a variety of profound impacts on such cellular functions as stress response, cell cycle, and apoptosis.

  3. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  4. Identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals activating SXR-mediated transactivation of CYP3A and CYP7A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tingting; Cong, Shuyan; Sun, Shiying; Sun, Hongmiao; Zou, Renlong; Wang, Shengli; Wang, Chunyu; Jiao, Jiao; Goto, Kiminobu; Nawata, Hajime; Yanase, Toshihiko; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-05

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have emerged as a major public health issue because of their potentially disruptive effects on physiological hormonal actions. SXR (steroid xenobiotic receptor), also known as NR1I2, regulates CYP3A expression in response to exogenous chemicals, such as EDCs, after binding to SXRE (SXR response element). In our study, luciferase assay showed that 14 out of 55 EDCs could enhance SXR-mediated rat or human CYP3A gene transcription nearly evenly, and could also activate rat CYP7A1 gene transcription by cross-interaction of SXR and LXRE (LXRα response element). SXR diffused in the nucleus without ligand, whereas intranuclear foci of liganded SXR were produced. Furthermore, endogenous mRNA expression of CYP3A4 gene was enhanced by the 14 positive EDCs. Our results suggested a probable mechanism of EDCs disrupting the steroid or xenobiotic metabolism homeostasis via SXR.

  5. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the danish national birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaerlev Linda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce. Objectives We analyse occurrence of hypospadias and cryptorchidism according to maternal and paternal occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals. Methods We conducted a follow-up study of 45,341 male singleton deliveries in the Danish National Birth Cohort during 1997-2009. Information on work during pregnancy was obtained by telephone interviews around gestational week 16. Parents' job titles were classified according to DISCO-88. A job exposure matrix for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs was implemented to assess occupational exposures. The Medical Birth and National Hospital Register provided data on congenital anomalies diagnosed at birth or during follow-up, which ended in 2009. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR were obtained from Cox regression models. Results Among all pregnancies, 6.3% were classified as possibly or probably exposed to EDCs. The most prevalent occupations conferring possible exposure were cleaners, laboratory technicians, hairdressers and agricultural workers (58% of all potentially exposed. The final cumulative incidence of cryptorchidism in boys was 2.2% (1002 cases, and of hypospadias 0.6% (262 cases. The occurrence of hypospadias increased when mothers were probably [HRa = 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-2.6] or possibly exposed to one or more EDCs [HRa = 2.6 (95% CI 1.8-3.4. Possible paternal exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of hypospadias [HRa 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-3.4] and cryptorchidism [HRa 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-2.7]. None of the exposure groups reached statistical significance. Conclusion The study provides some but limited evidence that occupational exposure to possible endocrine disrupting chemicals during pregnancy increases the risk of

  6. 内分泌干扰剂的研究进展%Advances of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任晋; 蒋可

    2001-01-01

    内分泌干扰剂(EDC)正在成为生态环境研究的前沿课题,并受到各国政府的密切关注。本文综述了内分泌干扰剂的危害、作用机理、化合物类型及研究进展,特别强调了化合物低剂量长期暴露潜在危害的新概念,详述了传统的环境毒理学和环境分析化学所遇到的挑战及生物分析、化学仪器分析和生物传感器技术在内分泌干扰剂筛选过程中的重要战略地位。%It has been suggested that endocrine disrupting chemicals capable of modulating the endocrine system may contribute to adverse health, reproduction, and developmental effects in human and wildlife. This article reviews the evidence, mechanism, testing strategies and several major analysis methods. The screening and testing methods of endocrine disrupting chemicals and the challenge to analysis technology are discussed.

  7. Assessment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals attenuation in a coastal plain stream prior to wastewater treatment plant closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a combined pre/post-closure assessment at a long-term wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) site at Fort Gordon near Augusta, Georgia. Here, we assess select endocrine-active chemicals and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure prior to closure of the WWTP. Substantial downstream transport and limited instream attenuation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) was observed in Spirit Creek over a 2.2-km stream segment downstream of the WWTP outfall. A modest decline (less than 20% in all cases) in surface water detections was observed with increasing distance downstream of the WWTP and attributed to partitioning to the sediment. Estrogens detected in surface water in this study included estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3). The 5 ng/l and higher mean estrogen concentrations observed in downstream locations indicated that the potential for endocrine disruption was substantial. Concentrations of alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) metabolite EDCs also remained statistically elevated above levels observed at the upstream control site. Wastewater-derived pharmaceutical and APE metabolites were detected in the outflow of Spirit Lake, indicating the potential for EDC transport to aquatic ecosystems downstream of Fort Gordon. The results indicate substantial EDC occurrence, downstream transport, and persistence under continuous supply conditions and provide a baseline for a rare evaluation of ecosystem response to WWTP closure.

  8. Estrogenic environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical effects on reproductive neuroendocrine function and dysfunction across the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Sarah M; Gore, Andrea C

    2007-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that interfere with the normal function of an organism's endocrine system. Many EDCs are resistant to biodegradation, due to their structural stability, and persist in the environment. The focus of this review is on natural and artificial EDCs that act through estrogenic mechanisms to affect reproductive neuroendocrine systems. This endocrine axis comprises the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary gonadotropins, and gonadal steroid hormones, including estrogens. Although it is not surprising that EDCs that mimic or antagonize estrogen receptors may exert actions upon reproductive targets, the mechanisms for these effects are complex and involve all three levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) system. Nevertheless, considerable evidence links exposure to estrogenic environmental EDCs with neuroendocrine reproductive deficits in wildlife and in humans. The effects of an EDC are variable across the life cycle of an animal, and are particularly potent when exposure occurs during fetal and early postnatal development. As a consequence, abnormal sexual differentiation, disrupted reproductive function, or inappropriate sexual behavior may be detected later in life. This review will cover the effects of two representative classes of estrogenic EDCs, phytoestrogens and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on neuroendocrine reproductive function, from molecules to behavior, across the vertebrate life cycle. Finally, we identify the gaps of knowledge in this field and suggest future directions for study.

  9. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and oil and natural gas operations: Potential environmental contamination and recommendations to assess complex environmental mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.

  10. Regulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals: critical overview and deficiencies in toxicology and risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Philip W; Everett, David J

    2006-03-01

    Regulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is reviewed in terms of hazard assessment (regulatory toxicology) and risk assessment. The current range of regulatory general toxicology protocols can detect endocrine toxicity, but specific endocrine toxicology tests are required to confirm mechanisms (e.g. oestrogenic, anti-androgenic). Strategies for validating new endocrine toxicology protocols and approaches to data assessment are discussed, and deficiencies in regulatory toxicology testing (e.g. lack of adrenocortical function assessment) identified. Recent evidence of a role of prolactin in human breast cancer also highlights deficiencies in regulatory evaluation. Actual human exposure to chemicals and the high-exposure example of chemicals in body-care cosmetics is reviewed with reference to evidence that common ingredients (e.g. parabens, cyclosiloxanes) are oestrogenic. The hypothesis and epidemiology concerning chemical exposure from body-care cosmetics (moisturizers, lotions, sun screens, deodorants) and breast cancer in women is reviewed, applying Bradford-Hill criteria for association and causality, and research requirements are identified.

  11. Pesticide mixtures, endocrine disruption, and amphibian declines: are we underestimating the impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyrone B; Case, Paola; Chui, Sarah; Chung, Duc; Haeffele, Cathryn; Haston, Kelly; Lee, Melissa; Mai, Vien Phoung; Marjuoa, Youssra; Parker, John; Tsui, Mable

    2006-04-01

    Amphibian populations are declining globally at an alarming rate. Pesticides are among a number of proposed causes for these declines. Although a sizable database examining effects of pesticides on amphibians exists, the vast majority of these studies focus on toxicological effects (lethality, external malformations, etc.) at relatively high doses (parts per million). Very few studies focus on effects such as endocrine disruption at low concentrations. Further, most studies examine exposures to single chemicals only. The present study examined nine pesticides (four herbicides, two fungicides, and three insecticides) used on cornfields in the midwestern United States. Effects of each pesticide alone (0.1 ppb) or in combination were examined. In addition, we also examined atrazine and S-metolachlor combined (0.1 or 10 ppb each) and the commercial formulation Bicep II Magnum, which contains both of these herbicides. These two pesticides were examined in combination because they are persistent throughout the year in the wild. We examined larval growth and development, sex differentiation, and immune function in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). In a follow-up study, we also examined the effects of the nine-compound mixture on plasma corticosterone levels in male African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Although some of the pesticides individually inhibited larval growth and development, the pesticide mixtures had much greater effects. Larval growth and development were retarded, but most significantly, pesticide mixtures negated or reversed the typically positive correlation between time to metamorphosis and size at metamorphosis observed in controls: exposed larvae that took longer to metamorphose were smaller than their counterparts that metamorphosed earlier. The nine-pesticide mixture also induced damage to the thymus, resulting in immunosuppression and contraction of flavobacterial meningitis. The study in X. laevis revealed that these adverse effects may be due to an

  12. Adsorption of selected endocrine disrupting compounds and pharmaceuticals on activated biochars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chanil [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Park, Junyeong [Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Lim, Kwang Hun [Department of Chemistry, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858 (United States); Park, Sunkyu [Department of Forest Biomaterials, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Heo, Jiyong [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, PO Box 135-1, Changhari, Gogyeongmeon, Young-cheon 770-849, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Her, Namguk [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, PO Box 135-1, Changhari, Gogyeongmeon, Young-cheon 770-849, Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeill; Yun, Soyoung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chung-Ang University, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yeomin, E-mail: yoony@cec.sc.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Biochars were prepared at different gas environments. • The competitive adsorption among EDCs/PhACs were investigated. • Aromaticity of adsorbent plays a significant role for EDCs/PhACs adsorption. -- Abstract: Chemically activated biochar produced under oxygenated (O-biochar) and oxygen-free (N-biochar) conditions were characterized and the adsorption of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs): bisphenol A (BPA), atrazine (ATR), 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs); sulfamethoxazole (SMX), carbamazepine (CBM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBP) on both biochars and commercialized powdered activated carbon (PAC) were investigated. Characteristic analysis of adsorbents by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was conducted to determine better understanding about the EDCs/PhACs adsorption. N-biochar consisted of higher polarity moieties with more alkyl (0–45 ppm), methoxyl (45–63 ppm), O-alkyl (63–108 ppm), and carboxyl carbon (165–187 ppm) content than other adsorbents, while aromaticity of O-biochar was higher than that of N-biochar. O-biochar was composed mostly of aromatic moieties, with low H/C and O/C ratios compared to the highly polarized N-biochar that contained diverse polar functional groups. The higher surface area and pore volume of N-biochar resulted in higher adsorption capacity toward EDCs/PhACs along with atomic-level molecular structural property than O-biochar and PAC. N-biochar had a highest adsorption capacity of all chemicals, suggesting that N-biochar derived from loblolly pine chip is a promising sorbent for agricultural and environmental applications. The adsorption of pH-sensitive dissociable SMX, DCF, IBP, and BPA varied and the order of adsorption capacity was correlated with the hydrophobicity (K{sub ow}) of adsorbates throughout the all adsorbents, whereas adsorption of non-ionizable CBM, ATR, and EE2 in varied pH allowed adsorbents to interact with hydrophobic property

  13. Study on Testicular Toxicity of 2-Bromopropane, an Environmental Endocrine Disrupter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫华; 范奇元; 张蕴辉; 申立军; 吴晓云; 丁训诚

    2000-01-01

    Objective 2-Bromopropane (2-BP ) is considered as a kind of environmental endocrine disrupters (EDs). Its reproductive and hematopoietic toxicity has aroused the attention of international toxicologists during the past five years. In the present study, we aimed to determine experimentally the testicular toxicity of 2-BP in male rats.Materials & Methods Forty SD male rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each. The rats were intra-abdominally administered 2-BP once per day for 5 days continuously at the doses of 1 800 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and normal saline,respectively. The rats were dissected one week after the first administration.Results The body weight, absolute testes weight and relative testes weight of the rats in 1 800 mg/kg dose group decreased significantly with comparison to those of the control group, while the weight of accessory gonads showed no significant change. With the increase of dosage, the seminiferous tubules damage rate aggravated while the ratio of spermatogonia in total germ cells fell with P<0. 05. The seminiferous tubule area of rats in 1 800 mg/kg group also reduced significantly. Under light microscopic examination, the spermatogonia of administered rats showed degeneration and chromatin condensation. The nucleus of spermatocytes appeared hyperchromatic and pyknotic. Obvious testicular damage could be found in rats of high dose group, including large amount of spermatogonia necrosis or loss and reduced spermatocyte number. The electron microscopic findings were similar to those of the light microscopy, except that typical morphological change was found in the middle dose group: the structure of spermatogonia was destroyed, mitochondrion and endoplasmic reticulum scattered outside, nucleus disintegrated; some of the spermatocytes' membrane became unclear,chromatin condensed and cogulation necrosis appeared; the nuclear membrane of round spermatids also showed slight damage.Conclusion The results indicated that testis was

  14. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Troy A; Snyder, Mark J; Cherr, Gary N

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), progesterone (P4) and 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2)). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC50 values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT(L. anamesus)>OCT>TBT(S. purpuratus)>E2>EE2>DDD>BisA>P4>E1>E3. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E2, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor-mediated actions. Tamoxifen, a partial ER agonist, alone inhibited development at concentrations as low as 0.02 ng

  15. Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on onset and development of female reproductive disorders and hormone-related cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scsukova, Sona; Rollerova, Eva; Bujnakova Mlynarcikova, Alzbeta

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemical substances designated as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to their ability to disturb endocrine (hormonal) activity in humans and animals, may contribute to problems with fertility, pregnancy, and other aspects of reproduction. The presence of EDCs has already been associated with reproductive malfunction in wildlife species, but it remains difficult to prove causal relationships between the presence of EDCs and specific reproductive problems in vivo, especially in females. On the other hand, the increasing number of experiments with laboratory animals and in vitro research indicate the ability of different EDCs to influence the normal function of female reproductive system, and even their association with cancer development or progression. Research shows that EDCs may pose the greatest risk during prenatal and early postnatal development when organ and neural systems are forming. In this review article, we aim to point out a possible contribution of EDCs to the onset and development of female reproductive disorders and endocrine-related cancers with regard to the period of exposure to EDCs and affected endpoints (organs or processes).

  16. Mobilization of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and estrogenic activity in simulated rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Ben D; Young, Thomas M

    2011-10-01

    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds, heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of 16 metals; and estrogenic activity via the estrogen receptor-mediated chemical activated luciferase gene expression (ER-CALUX) bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3-17.3 ng/L), triclosan (ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, although unknown contributors or matrix effects were also found.

  17. Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Adverse Health Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Klemp, Kara C; Vu, Danh C; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Williams, Michelle A; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas operations have been shown to contaminate surface and ground water with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we fill several gaps in our understanding of the potential environmental impacts related to this process. We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells. We also quantified the concentration of 16 of these chemicals in oil and gas wastewater samples. Finally, we assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes in male C57BL/6J mice after the prenatal exposure to a mixture of these chemicals. We found that 23 commonly used oil and natural gas operation chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors, and mixtures of these chemicals can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically in vitro. Prenatal exposure to a mixture of 23 oil and gas operation chemicals at 3, 30, and 300 μg/kg · d caused decreased sperm counts and increased testes, body, heart, and thymus weights and increased serum testosterone in male mice, suggesting multiple organ system impacts. Our results suggest possible adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to potential environmentally relevant levels of oil and gas operation chemicals.

  18. Development of predictive models for predicting binding affinity of endocrine disrupting chemicals to fish sex hormone-binding globulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huihui; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; Wei, Mengbi; He, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Disturbing the transport process is a crucial pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerting disrupting endocrine function. However, this mechanism has not received enough attention compared with that of hormones receptors and synthetase. Recently, we have explored the interaction between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of human (hSHBG). In this study, interactions between EDCs and sex hormone-binding globulin of eight fish species (fSHBG) were investigated by employing classification methods and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). In the modeling, the relative binding affinity (RBA) of a chemical with 17β-estradiol binding to fSHBG was selected as the endpoint. Classification models were developed for two fish species, while QSAR models were established for the other six fish species. Statistical results indicated that the models had satisfactory goodness of fit, robustness and predictive ability, and that application domain covered a large number of endogenous and exogenous steroidal and non-steroidal chemicals. Additionally, by comparing the log RBA values, it was found that the same chemical may have different affinities for fSHBG from different fish species, thus species diversity should be taken into account. However, the affinity of fSHBG showed a high correlation for fishes within the same Order (i.e., Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes and Siluriformes), thus the fSHBG binding data for one fish species could be used to extrapolate other fish species in the same Order.

  19. Early-life Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Later-life Health Outcomes: An Epigenetic Bridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiserman, Alexander

    2014-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates that adverse events early in development, and particularly during intrauterine life, may program risks for diseases in adult life. Increasing evidence has been accumulated indicating the important role of epigenetic regulation including DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs in developmental programming. Among the environmental factors which play an important role in programming of chronic pathologies, the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have estrogenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity are of specific concern because the developing organism is extremely sensitive to perturbation by substances with hormone-like activity. Among EDCs, there are many substances that are constantly present in the modern human environment or are in widespread use, including dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, phthalates, agricultural pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial solvents, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. Apart from their common endocrine active properties, several EDCs have been shown to disrupt developmental epigenomic programming. The purpose of this review is to provide a summary of recent research findings which indicate that exposure to EDCs during in-utero and/or neonatal development can cause long-term health outcomes via mechanisms of epigenetic memory.

  20. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun

    2014-10-01

    Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  1. Screening of endocrine disrupting chemicals with MELN cells, an ER-transactivation assay combined with cytotoxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, P; Leppens, H; Vangenechten, C; Witters, H

    2007-10-01

    There is growing concern that some chemicals can cause endocrine disrupting effects to wild animals and humans. Therefore a rapid and reliable screening assay to assess the activity of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is required. These EDCs can act at multiple sites. Most studied mechanism is direct interaction with the hormone receptors, e.g. estrogen receptor. In this study the luciferase reporter gene assay using transgenic human MELN cells was used. Since cytotoxicity of the chemicals can decrease the luminescent signal in the transactivation assays, a cytotoxicity assay must be implemented. Mostly the neutral red (NR) assay is performed in parallel with the estrogenicity assay. To increase the reliability and cost-efficiency of the test, a method to measure estrogenicity and cytotoxicity in the same cell culture plate instead of in parallel plates was developed and evaluated. Therefore the NR-assay was compared with the CytoTox-ONE homogeneous membrane integrity assay. The latter measures LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) leakage based on a fluorometric method. For all compounds tested, the CytoTox-ONE test showed comparable curves and EC50-values to those obtained by the NR-assay. So the CytoTox-ONE kit, which seemed more sensitive than measurements of LDH-leakage based on a colorimetric method, is recommended to test cytotoxicity to MELN cells, with the advantage to use the same cells for ER-transactivation measurements. The chemicals tested in the optimised MELN assay showed estrogenic potencies comparable to those reported for several other transactivation assays.

  2. Impedance Biosensing to detect food allergens, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and food pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran

    Electrochemical impedance biosensors can be viewed as an AC electroanalytical method for the analyte detection in the fields of biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and food and agriculture, amongst others. The most common format for AC impedance biosensing involves surface immobilization of an antibody, receptor protein, DNA strand, or other species capable of bio-recognition, and AC impedance detection of the binding event. Technological application of AC impedance biosensors has been hindered by several obstacles, including the more complex circuitry required for AC relative to DC electrochemistry, chemical and physical interference arising from non-specific adsorption, and the stability and reproducibility of protein immobilization. One focus of these PhD studies is on methods to reduce or compensate for non-specific adsorption, including sample dilution, site blocking with BSA, and the use of control electrodes onto which reference antibodies are immobilized. Examples that will be presented include impedance detection of food pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes, using a mouse monoclonal antibody immobilized onto an Au electrode. This yields detection limits of 5 CFU/ml and 4 CFU/ml for ideal solutions and filtered tomato extract, respectively. Control experiments with an Au electrode onto which a mouse monoclonal antibody to GAPDH is immobilized demonstrate that non-specific adsorption is insignificant for the system and methodology studied here. Control experiments with Salmonella enterica demonstrate no cross-reactivity to this food pathogen. In addition, Detection of two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC), norfluoxetine and BDE-47, is reported here by impedance biosensing, with a detection limit of 8.5 and 1.3 ng/ml for norfluoxetine and BDE-47, respectively. Additional research has focused on alternative substrates and linker chemistries for protein immobilization, including the use of degenerate (highly doped) Si and bidendate thiol monolayer

  3. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  4. Proteomic Analysis of the Reproductive Organs of the Hermaphroditic Gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Different Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Arnaud; Leprince, Pierre; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD). In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin) could constitute relevant

  5. Proteomic analysis of the reproductive organs of the hermaphroditic gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to different endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Giusti

    Full Text Available Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD. In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin could

  6. Contaminant mixtures and repoductive health: Developmental toxicity effects in rats after mixed exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals, with focus on effects in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Christiansen, Sofie; Hass, Ulla

    disorders or later onset adult diseases. However, experimental evidence on the effects of developmental exposure to environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting chemicals in females has been missing attention. Since chemical exposure can affect female reproductive development it is important to investigate......Background: In toxicological testing, effects of endocrine disrupters are in most cases more thoroughly investigated in males than in females. In males the hypothesis of testicu lar dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) proposes that there is a common origin in fetal life of the increase in frequency observed...... in later years of for example incidence of boys born with hypospadias and young men with low semen quality in the human male population. Furthermore, it has been observed in animal studies that exposure during fetal life to endocrine disrupters may lead to similar adverse reproductive effects. It has been...

  7. Identification of Endocrine Disruptive Effects in the Aquatic Environment - a Partial Life Cycle Study in Zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester PW; Brandhof EJ van den; Vos JH; Ven LTM van der; TOX; LER

    2003-01-01

    In this project, an assay was developed and applied to identify hormone active substances in the aquatic environment. Laboratory fish were exposed during the reproductive and development phase to a range of established endocrine active compounds; these were estrogen (17 beta-estradiol), anti-estroge

  8. In vitro bioassay investigations of the endocrine disrupting potential of steviol glycosides and their metabolite steviol, components of the natural sweetener Stevia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shannon, Maeve; Rehfeld, Anders; Frizzell, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    a steroidal structure and therefore may have the potential to act as an endocrine disruptor in the body. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), H295R steroidogenesis assay and Ca(2+) fluorimetry based assays using human sperm cells have been used to assess the endocrine disrupting potential of two steviol glycosides...... of sperm, causing a rapid influx of Ca(2+). The response was fully inhibited using a specific CatSper inhibitor. These findings highlight the potential for steviol to act as a potential endocrine disruptor....

  9. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.kassotis@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: nagels@health.missouri.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  10. The endocrine disruption properties of an adipose contaminant mixture extracted from East Greenland polar bears studied in the H295R cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, R.; Letcher, R. J.; Blair, D.;

    compounds, where some can be in the parts-perbillion (ppb) concentration range. However, most reported studies on endocrine disruption effects have been on single compounds at concentrations higher than environmentally relevant. The presence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in arctic wildlife has...... been well described and especially the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is recognized as being one of the most contaminated species in the Arctic. The present study investigated the in vitro endocrine disruptive effects of the POP mixture found in adipose tissue from 10 East Greenland polar bears collected...

  11. Analytical Methodologies for the Determination of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Biological and Environmental Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs) can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented. PMID:23738329

  12. Analytical methodologies for the determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Mahugo-Santana, Cristina; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs) can mimic natural hormones and produce adverse effects in the endocrine functions by interacting with estrogen receptors. EDCs include both natural and synthetic chemicals, such as hormones, personal care products, surfactants, and flame retardants, among others. EDCs are characterised by their ubiquitous presence at trace-level concentrations and their wide diversity. Since the discovery of the adverse effects of these pollutants on wildlife and human health, analytical methods have been developed for their qualitative and quantitative determination. In particular, mass-based analytical methods show excellent sensitivity and precision for their quantification. This paper reviews recently published analytical methodologies for the sample preparation and for the determination of these compounds in different environmental and biological matrices by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The various sample preparation techniques are compared and discussed. In addition, recent developments and advances in this field are presented.

  13. Multigenerational and transgenerational effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals: A role for altered epigenetic regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Frances; Susiarjo, Martha; Bartolomei, Marisa S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has highlighted the critical role of early life environment in shaping the future health outcomes of an individual. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that early life perturbations can affect the health of subsequent generations. Hypothesized mechanisms of multi- and transgenerational inheritance of abnormal developmental phenotypes include epigenetic misregulation in germ cells. In this review, we will focus on the available data demonstrating the ability of endocrine...

  14. AB159. Endocrine disrupting chemicals: toxicological risk assessment in vivo and in vitro models

    OpenAIRE

    Thuy, Vo Thi Bich; Nguyen Binh, Le Thi; Phuong Oanh, Kim Thi; Van Hai, Nong

    2015-01-01

    In several studies, scientists asserted that many of endocrine disruptors (EDs), which have been involved in developmental, reproductive, neural, immunological, and other problems in wildlife and laboratory animals. Some environmental EDs, such as di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), flutamide (Flu), parabens, are used in many products in life and environment. However, the adverse effects caused by EDs can be temporary or permanent and the mechanism(s) through which these chemicals elicit thei...

  15. A novel ICK mutation causes ciliary disruption and lethal endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kayserili Karabey, Hülya; Oud, M.M.; Bonnard, C.; Mans, D.A.; Altunoğlu, U.; Tohari, S.; Ng, A.Y.J.; Eskin, A.; Lee, H.; Rupar, C.A.; Wagenaar, N.P.; Wu, K.M.; Lahiry, P.; Pazour, G.J.; Nelson, S.F.; Hegele, R.A.; Roepman, R; Venkatesh, B.; Siu, V.M.; Reversade, B.; Arts, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO) syndrome [MIM:612651] caused by a recessive mutation (p.R272Q) in Intestinal cell kinase (ICK) shows significant clinical overlap with ciliary disorders. Similarities are strongest between ECO syndrome, the Majewski and Mohr-Majewski short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with polydactyly syndromes, and hydrolethalus syndrome. In this study, we present a novel homozygous ICK mutation in a fetus with ECO syndrome and compare the effect of this mu...

  16. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Endometrial Cancer: An Overview of Recent Laboratory Evidence and Epidemiological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, Maddalena; Leone, Chiara; Manurita, Francesca; Bellati, Filippo; Caserta, Donatella

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) has been suggested as a contributing factor to a range of women’s health disorders including infertility, polycystic ovaries and the early onset of puberty, considerable challenges remain in attributing cause and effect on gynaecological cancer. Until recently, there were relatively few epidemiological studies examining the relationship between EDCs and endometrial cancer, however, in the last years the number of these studies has increased. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) search was performed and relevant articles published in the last 23 years (from 1992 to 2016) were selected. Results: Human studies and animal experiments are confirming a carcinogenic effect due to the EDC exposure and its carcinogenesis process result to be complex, multifactorial and long standing, thus, it is extremely difficult to obtain the epidemiological proof of a carcinogenic effect of EDCs for the high number of confusing factors. Conclusions: The carcinogenic effects of endocrine disruptors are plausible, although additional studies are needed to clarify their mechanisms and responsible entities. Neverthless, to reduce endocrine disruptors (ED) exposure is mandatory to implement necessary measures to limit exposure, particularly during those periods of life most vulnerable to the impact of oncogenic environmental causes, such as embryonic period and puberty. PMID:28327540

  17. Screening of endocrine disruption activity in sediments from the Uruguay River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Rivera, Noelia; Eguren, Gabriela; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Munkittrick, Kelly R

    2014-08-01

    Sediment constitutes an important sink of endocrine disruptor compounds; however, the potential of sediments to act as a source of endocrine disruptors should be more extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to determine whether exposure of immature common carp to Uruguay River sediments undergo physiological and endocrine alterations. The lower Uruguay River watershed supports intensive agricultural and forest production, receives municipal sewage discharge and industrial effluent, and a new large pulp mill was constructed in 2006. A 30-day semi-static assay was performed using sediments from four sites along the Uruguay River and compared with an unexposed group in dechlorinated water as a negative control. We focused on two upstream and two downstream sites of a new elemental chlorine free pulp mill. The results showed that plasma vitellogenin levels increased in fish along the river and significant differences were found between the exposed and unexposed groups. Condition factor and gonadosomatic index were not different; however, a significant difference in hepatosomatic index was observed in fish exposed to sediment from an industrial site. A significant reduction in primary spermatocyte accumulation was observed in the exposed group compared with that in the control group, and some individuals exposed to sediments from industrial sites presented with testis-ova. Our results suggest that Uruguay River sediments act as an important source of estrogenic compounds that could be responsible for the alterations observed. Future studies are needed to identify the causal agents and determine exposure routes.

  18. Assessment of the endocrine-disrupting effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in in vitro models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Wang, Jinghua; Zhu, Jianqiang; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jianyun; Zhao, Meirong

    2016-09-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), which are candidate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) according to the Stockholm Convention, are of great concern because of their persistent bioaccumulation, long-range transport and potential adverse health effects. However, data on the endocrine-disrupting effects of SCCPs remain scarce. In this study, we first adopted two in vitro models (reporter gene assays and H295R cell line) to investigate the endocrine-disrupting effects of three SCCPs (C10-40.40%, C10-66.10% and C11-43.20%) via receptor mediated and non-receptor mediated pathway. The dual-luciferase reporter gene assay revealed that all test chemicals significantly induced estrogenic effects, which were mediated by estrogen receptor α (ERα), in the following order: C11-43.20%>C10-66.10%>C10-40.40%. Notably, C10-40.40% and C10-66.10% also demonstrated remarkable anti-estrogenic activities. Only C11-43.20% showed glucocorticoid receptor-mediated (GR) antagonistic activity, with a RIC20 value of 2.6×10(-8)mol/L. None of the SCCPs showed any agonistic or antagonistic activities against thyroid receptor β (TRβ). Meanwhile, all test SCCPs stimulated the secretion of 17β-estradiol (E2). Both C10-66.10% and C11-43.20% increased the production of cortisol at a high level in H295R cell lines. In order to explore the possible mechanism underlying the endocrine-disrupting effects of SCCPs through the non-receptor pathway, the mRNA levels of 9 steroidogenic genes were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). StAR, 17βHSD, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP19 and CYP21 were upregulated in a concentration-dependent manner by all chemicals. The data provided here emphasized that comprehensive assessments of the health and ecological risks of emerging contaminants, such as SCCPs, are of great concern and should be investigated further.

  19. Interference of endocrine disrupting chemicals with aromatase CYP19 expression or activity, and consequences for reproduction of teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshenko, Ksenia; Pakdel, Farzad; Segner, Helmut; Kah, Olivier; Eggen, Rik I L

    2008-01-01

    Many natural and synthetic compounds present in the environment exert a number of adverse effects on the exposed organisms, leading to endocrine disruption, for which they were termed endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). A decrease in reproduction success is one of the most well-documented signs of endocrine disruption in fish. Estrogens are steroid hormones involved in the control of important reproduction-related processes, including sexual differentiation, maturation and a variety of others. Careful spatial and temporal balance of estrogens in the body is crucial for proper functioning. At the final step of estrogen biosynthesis, cytochrome P450 aromatase, encoded by the cyp19 gene, converts androgens into estrogens. Modulation of aromatase CYP19 expression and function can dramatically alter the rate of estrogen production, disturbing the local and systemic levels of estrogens. In the present review, the current progress in CYP19 characterization in teleost fish is summarized and the potential of several classes of EDCs to interfere with CYP19 expression and activity is discussed. Two cyp19 genes are present in most teleosts, cyp19a and cyp19b, primarily expressed in the ovary and brain, respectively. Both aromatase CYP19 isoforms are involved in the sexual differentiation and regulation of the reproductive cycle and male reproductive behavior in diverse teleost species. Alteration of aromatase CYP19 expression and/or activity, be it upregulation or downregulation, may lead to diverse disturbances of the above mentioned processes. Prediction of multiple transcriptional regulatory elements in the promoters of teleost cyp19 genes suggests the possibility for several EDC classes to affect cyp19 expression on the transcriptional level. These sites include cAMP responsive elements, a steroidogenic factor 1/adrenal 4 binding protein site, an estrogen-responsive element (ERE), half-EREs, dioxin-responsive elements, and elements related to diverse other nuclear

  20. Environmental Analysis of Endocrine Disrupting Effects from Hydrocarbon Contaminants in the Ecosystem - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 09/14/2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, John A.

    2000-09-14

    The three major components of the research included: (a) a biotechnology based screening system to identify potential hormone mimics and antagonists (b) an animal screening system to identify biomarkers of endocrine effects and (c) a literature review to identify compounds at various DOE sites that are potential endocrine disruptors. Species of particular interest in this study were those that can serve as sentinel species (e.g., amphibians) and thus provide early warning signals for more widespread impacts on an ecosystem and its wildlife and human inhabitants. The objective of this basic research is to characterize the potential of common hydrocarbon contaminants in ecosystems to act as endocrine disruptors. Although the endocrine disrupting effects of contaminants such as dioxin and PCBs have been well characterized in both animals and humans, little is known about the capacities of other hydrocarbon contaminants to act as endocrine disruptors. Results obtained from this research project have provided information on endocrine disrupting contaminants for consideration in DOE's risk analyses for determining clean-up levels and priorities at contaminated DOE sites.

  1. Development of SPR Immunosensing System Using Microchannel Cell for Simultaneous Detection of Several Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Norio; K. Vengatajalabathy, Gobi; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Maeda, Hideaki; Kawazumi, Hirofumi; Iwasaka, Hiroyuki

    The endocrine-disrupting chemicals affect the functioning of hormones of animals and are called “environmental hormones". They exist in various environments at very low concentrations in the range of ppt to ppb levels. Thus, highly sensitive determination of environmental hormones with high selectivity is indispensable in regulating the ecosystem, and the instrumentation that allows the on-site analysis of environmental hormones is paid much attention. In this research project, we are aiming at development of new optical immunosensing system for highly sensitive, selective, on-site and simultaneous detection of several environmental hormones at low cost. We report here the results of our research investigations on application of immunosensing technique to highly sensitive detection of environmental hormones, preparation of monoclonal antibodies, fabrication of the microchannel, miniaturization of the surface-plasmon-resonance detector, design of the compact total-sensing-system.

  2. Neurobehavioral deficits, diseases, and associated costs of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the European union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellanger, Martine; Demeneix, Barbara; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Epidemiological studies and animal models demonstrate that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) contribute to cognitive deficits and neurodevelopmental disabilities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to estimate neurodevelopmental disability and associated costs that can be reasonably...... peer-reviewed studies to represent European exposure and approximate burden of disease. Cost estimation as of 2010 utilized lifetime economic productivity estimates, lifetime cost estimates for autism spectrum disorder, and annual costs for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Setting, Patients.......8 billion to €194 billion). Autism spectrum disorder causation by multiple EDCs was assigned a 20-39% probability, with 316 (sensitivity analysis, 126-631) attributable cases at a cost of €199 million (sensitivity analysis, €79.7 million to €399 million). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder causation...

  3. Seasonal variation and partitioning of endocrine disrupting chemicals in waters and sediments of the Pearl River system, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Duan, Dandan; Yang, Yu; Ran, Yong; Chen, Diyun

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were seasonally investigated in surface water, suspended particulate matter, and sediments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. EDC concentrations in the surface water were generally higher in the summer than in winter. The surface water in the investigated rivers was heavily contaminated by the phenolic xenoestrogens. Moreover, the in-situ log Ksoc and log Kpoc values and their regression with log Kow in the field experiments suggest that binding mechanisms other than hydrophobic interaction are present for the sedimentary organic carbon and particulate organic carbon (SOC/POC). The logKsoc-logKow and logKpoc-logKow regression analyses imply that higher complexity of nonhydrophobic interactions with EDCs is present on the SOC samples comparing with the POC samples, which is related to their different sources.

  4. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong-Bo; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46-0.72 mg kg(-1), induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4-2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish.

  5. Endocrine-disrupting compounds: a review of their challenge to sustainable and safe water supply and water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ian R; Chapman, Heather F; Moore, Michael R; Ranmuthugala, Geetha

    2006-04-01

    The relevance of endocrine-disrupting compounds as potential contaminants of drinking water is reviewed, particularly in the reuse of wastewater. Growing populations and increasing intensification of land and water use for industry and agriculture have increased the need to reclaim wastewater for reuse, including to supplement the drinking water supply. The variety of anthropogenic chemicals that have been identified as potential endocrine disruptors in the environment and the problems arising from their use as human and livestock pharmaceuticals, as agricultural chemicals and in industry are discussed. The potentially adverse impact of these chemicals on human health and the ecology of the natural environment are reviewed. Data for the removal of estrogenic compounds from wastewater treatment are presented, together with the comparative potencies of estrogenic compounds. The relative exposure to estrogens of women on oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy, and through food consumption is estimated. A brief overview of some methods available or under development for the assessment of estrogenic activity in environmental samples is provided. The review concludes with a discussion of the directions for further investigation, which include human epidemiology, methodology development, and wastewater monitoring.

  6. Enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole studied in the H295R cell assay and by molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Amalie Møller; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Bonomo, Silvia; Olsen, Lars; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Kretschmann, Andreas Christopher; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-08-01

    Enantiomers possess different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and this may not only influence the therapeutic effect of a drug but also its toxicological effects. In the present work we investigated the potential enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole (OME) and its two enantiomers on the human steroidogenesis using the H295R cell line. Differences in production of 16 steroid hormones were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Additionally, to evaluate the differences in binding modes of these enantiomers, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of S-omeprazole (S-OME) and R-omeprazole (R-OME) in CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2 were carried out. Exposing H295R cells to OME and its enantiomers resulted in an increase of progesterone (PRO) and 17α-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-PRO) levels. At the same time, a decrease in the corticosteroid and androgen synthesis was observed, indicating inhibition of CYP21A2 and CYP17A1. In both cases, the effect of R-OME was smaller compared to that of the S-OME and a certain degree of enantioselectivity of CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 was suggested. Docking indicated that the N-containing rings of OME possibly could interact with the iron atom of the heme for S-OME in CYP17A1 and S- and R-OME in CYP21A2. However, density functional theory calculations suggest that the direct N-Fe interaction is weak. The study demonstrates enantioselective differences in the endocrine disrupting potential of chiral drugs such as omeprazole. These findings may have potential implications for drug safety and drug design.

  7. Exposure of male mice to two kinds of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) induced oxidative stress and endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanliang; Jin, Yuanxiang; Wu, Yan; Liu, Ling; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) are two of the most common organophosphate flame retardants in the ecosystem. Effects of TPP and TCEP on the induction of oxidative stress and endocrine disruption were evaluated in five weeks old male mice. After receiving 100, 300 mg/kg/bodyweight oral exposure to TPP and TCEP for 35 days, the body and testis weights decreased in 300 mg/kg TPP and TCEP treated groups. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) contents increased significantly in both TPP treated groups, while the contents of glutathione (GSH) decreased significantly in 300 mg/kg TPP and both TCEP treated groups. In addition, the hepatic activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) as well as their related gene expression were affected by TPP or TECP exposure. On the other hand, 300 mg/kg of TPP or TECP treatment resulted in histopathological damage and the decrease of testicular testosterone levels. Moreover, the expression of main genes related to testosterone synthesis including steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P450-17α) in the testes also decreased after the exposure to 300 mg/kg TPP or TCEP for 35 days. Combined with the effects on physiology, histopathology and the expression of genes, TPP and TCEP can induce oxidative stress and endocrine disruption in mice.

  8. Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Xiuying; Cai, Chenchen; Wang, Jia; Gao, Nana; Zhang, Hangjun, E-mail: zhanghangjun@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Low-dose MCLR (1 μg/L) elicits a potential ecological effect on amphibian populations. • MCLR can induce abnormal sperm morphologies and activities on male frogs. • MCLR can induce a decrease in serum testosterone and an increase in serum estradiol of male frogs. • MCLR can increase SF-1 protein levels and decrease P450 aromatase levels in the gonads of frogs. - Abstract: Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are potential global threats to aquatic ecosystems and human health. The World Health Organization has set a provisional guideline limit of 1 μg/L microcystin-LR (MCLR) in freshwater. However, MCLR concentrations in several water bodies have exceeded this level. Despite this recommended human safety standard, MCLR-induced endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity on male frog (Rana nigromaculata) were demonstrated in this study. Results showed that sperm motility and sperm count were significantly and negatively correlated with exposure time and concentration. By contrast, abnormal sperm rate was positively correlated with both parameters. Ultrastructural observation results revealed abnormal sperm morphologies, vacuoles in spermatogenic cells, cell dispersion, incomplete cell structures, and deformed nucleoli. These results indicated that MCLR could induce toxic effects on the reproductive system of frogs, significantly decrease testosterone content, and rapidly increase estradiol content. Prolonged exposure and increased concentration enhanced the relative expression levels of P450 aromatase and steroidogenic factor 1; thus, endocrine function in frogs was disrupted. This study is the first to demonstrate in vivo MCLR toxicity in the reproductive system of male R. nigromaculata. This study provided a scientific basis of the global decline in amphibian populations.

  9. Biotransformation of brominated flame retardants into potentially endocrine-disrupting metabolites, with special attention to 2,2 ',4,4 '-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; Sonneveld, E.; Murk, A.J.; Visser, T.J.; Velzen, van M.J.M.; Brouwer, A.; Bergman, A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the endocrine-disrupting (ED) potency of metabolites from brominated flame retardants (BFRs) was determined. Metabolites were obtained by incubating single-parent compound BFRs with phenobarbital-induced rat liver microsomes. Incubation extracts were tested in seven in vitro bioassays

  10. Endocrine disruption by Bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ether, in zebra fish (Danio rerio) model: an in silico approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vutukuru, S S; Ganugapati, Jayasree; Ganesh, Vardhini; Atheeksha, P; Potti, Ravindra Babu

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals may induce adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Recent studies demonstrate that endocrine disrupting chemicals like Bisphenol A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) affect the reproductive characters shared by wide range of creatures including fish. An attempt was made to evaluate the toxicity of these chemicals on the vitellogenin protein of zebra fish (Danio rerio) using in silico approach. The protein structure of zebra fish vitellogenin was predicted using homology modelling, and the stereochemical quality of the model was validated by Ramachandran plot. The 3-D structure of vitellogenin was docked with the aforementioned chemicals that have demonstrated endocrine-disrupting activity. The pair-wise alignments between vitellogenin with phosvitin, lipovitellin-2 and YGP40 obtained by CLUSTALW alignment suggest that the vitellogenin contained lipovitellin-2- phosvitin- and YGP40-related amino acid sequences. Based on the prediction of CASTp and CLUSTALW, BPA and PCB predominantly interacted with lipovitellin-2 site of the protein, while PBDE interacts predominantly with the YGP40 site of the vitellogenin protein. The results indicate that the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (BPA, PCB and PBDE) dock with the vitellogenin cleavage sites lipovitellin-2 and YGP40 that play a crucial role in lipid-protein complex formation in the egg yolk. We hypothesize that these chemicals could potentially impair the egg yolk formation and eventually impact the zebra fish population which occupies an important niche among testing models used in drug discovery and related toxicity studies.

  11. CDNA CLONING OF FATHEAD MINNOW (PIMEPHALES PROMELAS) ESTROGEN AND ANDROGEN RECEPTORS FOR USE IN STEROID RECEPTOR EXTRAPOLATION STUDIES FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    cDNA Cloning of Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) Estrogen and Androgen Receptors for Use in Steroid Receptor Extrapolation Studies for Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals. Wilson, V.S.1,, Korte, J.2, Hartig P. 1, Ankley, G.T.2, Gray, L.E., Jr 1, , and Welch, J.E.1. 1U.S...

  12. Mechanisms Mediating Environmental Chemical-Induced Endocrine Disruption in the Adrenal Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arguelles, Daniel B.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

    2015-01-01

    Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs), mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early-life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl) phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks. PMID:25788893

  13. Mechanisms mediating environmental chemical-induced endocrine disruption in the adrenal gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Martinez-Arguelles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humans are continuously exposed to hundreds of man-made chemicals that pollute the environment in addition to multiple therapeutic drug treatments administered throughout life. Some of these chemicals, known as endocrine disruptors (EDs, mimic endogenous signals, thereby altering gene expression, influencing development, and promoting disease. Although EDs are eventually removed from the market or replaced with safer alternatives, new evidence suggests that early life exposure leaves a fingerprint on the epigenome, which may increase the risk of disease later in life. Epigenetic changes occurring in early life in response to environmental toxicants have been shown to affect behavior, increase cancer risk, and modify the physiology of the cardiovascular system. Thus, exposure to an ED or combination of EDs may represent a first hit to the epigenome. Only limited information is available regarding the effect of ED exposure on adrenal function. The adrenal gland controls the stress response, blood pressure, and electrolyte homeostasis. This endocrine organ therefore has an important role in physiology and is a sensitive target of EDs. We review herein the effect of ED exposure on the adrenal gland with particular focus on in utero exposure to the plasticizer di(2-ethylehyl phthalate. We discuss the challenges associated with identifying the mechanism mediating the epigenetic origins of disease and availability of biomarkers that may identify individual or population risks.

  14. Scientific Issues Relevant to Setting Regulatory Criteria to Identify Endocrine-Disrupting Substances in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Rémy; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Demeneix, Barbara; Ivell, Richard; Panzica, Giancarlo; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    , Kortenkamp A, Zoeller RT. 2016. Scientific issues relevant to setting regulatory criteria to identify endocrine disrupting substances in the European Union. Environ Health Perspect 124:1497–1503; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP217 PMID:27108591

  15. The food contaminant semicarbazide acts as an endocrine disrupter: Evidence from an integrated in vivo/in vitro approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Marcoccia, Daniele; Altieri, Ilaria; Catone, Tiziana; De Angelis, Giovanna; Testai, Emanuela; Mastrangelo, Sabina; Evandri, Maria Grazia; Bolle, Paola; Lorenzetti, Stefano

    2010-01-05

    Semicarbazide (SEM) is a by-product of the blowing agent azodicarbonamide, present in glass jar-sealed foodstuffs mainly baby foods. The pleiotropic in vivo SEM toxicological effects suggested to explore its possible role as endocrine modulator. Endocrine effects of SEM were assessed in vivo in male and female rats after oral administration for 28 days at 0, 40, 75, 140mg/kg bw pro die during the juvenile period. Vaginal opening and preputial separation were recorded. Concentration of sex steroid in blood, the ex vivo hepatic aromatase activity and testosterone catabolism were detected. The in vitro approach to test SEM role as (anti)estrogen or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs)-(anti)agonist included different assays: yeast estrogenicity, MCF-7 proliferation, stimulation of the alkaline phosphatase activity in Ishikawa cells and LNCaP-based NMDAR interference assay. In vivo SEM-treated female rats showed delayed vaginal opening at all tested doses, whereas in males preputial separation was anticipated at SEM 40 and 75mg/kg and delayed at 140mg/kg, the latter effect probably due to the significantly decreased body weight gain seen at the higher dose in both sexes. Serum estrogen levels were dose-dependently reduced in treated females, whereas dehydrotestosterone serum levels were also decreased but a clear dose-response was not evidenced. Testosterone catabolism was altered in a gender-related way, aromatase activity was increased in treated males at 75 and 140mg/kg and in females in all dose groups. In the three estradiol-competitive assays, SEM showed a weak anti-estrogenic activity, whereas in the LNCaP-based NMDAR interference assay SEM activity resembled MK-801 antagonist effect. SEM appeared to act as an endocrine disrupter showing multiple and gender specific mechanisms of action(s). A possible cascade-mechanism of SEM on reproductive signalling pathways may be hypothesized. Such in vivo-in vitro approach appeared to be an useful tool to highlight SEM

  16. Fifteen years after "Wingspread"--environmental endocrine disrupters and human and wildlife health: where we are today and where we need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, Andrew K; Rider, Cynthia V; Blystone, Chad R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hartig, Phillip C; Ankley, Gerald T; Foster, Paul M; Gray, Clark L; Gray, L Earl

    2008-10-01

    In 1991, a group of expert scientists at a Wingspread work session on endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) concluded that "Many compounds introduced into the environment by human activity are capable of disrupting the endocrine system of animals, including fish, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine disruption can be profound because of the crucial role hormones play in controlling development." Since that time, there have been numerous documented examples of adverse effects of EDCs in invertebrates, fish, wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. Hormonal systems can be disrupted by numerous different anthropogenic chemicals including antiandrogens, androgens, estrogens, AhR agonists, inhibitors of steroid hormone synthesis, antithyroid substances, and retinoid agonists. In addition, pathways and targets for endocrine disruption extend beyond the traditional estrogen/androgen/thyroid receptor-mediated reproductive and developmental systems. For example, scientists have expressed concern about the potential role of EDCs in increasing trends in early puberty in girls, obesity and type II diabetes in the United States and other populations. New concerns include complex endocrine alterations induced by mixtures of chemicals, an issue broadened due to the growing awareness that EDCs present in the environment include a variety of potent human and veterinary pharmaceutical products, personal care products, nutraceuticals and phytosterols. In this review we (1) address what have we learned about the effects of EDCs on fish, wildlife, and human health, (2) discuss representative animal studies on (anti)androgens, estrogens and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like chemicals, and (3) evaluate regulatory proposals being considered for screening and testing these chemicals.

  17. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  18. Alteration of cellular lipids and lipid metabolism markers in RTL-W1 cells exposed to model endocrine disrupters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimastrogiovanni, Giorgio; Córdoba, Marlon; Navarro, Isabel; Jáuregui, Olga; Porte, Cinta

    2015-08-01

    This work investigates the suitability of the rainbow trout liver cell line (RTL-W1) as an in-vitro model to study the ability of model endocrine disrupters, namely TBT, TPT, 4-NP, BPA and DEHP, to act as metabolic disrupters by altering cellular lipids and markers of lipid metabolism. Among the tested compounds, BPA and DEHP significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs), while all the compounds -apart from TPT-, altered membrane lipids - phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and plasmalogen PCs - indicating a strong interaction of the toxicants with cell membranes and cell signaling. RTL-W1 expressed a number of genes involved in lipid metabolism that were modulated by exposure to BPA, TBT and TPT (up-regulation of FATP1 and FAS) and 4-NP and DEHP (down-regulation of FAS and LPL). Multiple and complex modes of action of these chemicals were observed in RTL-W1 cells, both in terms of expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and alteration of cellular lipids. Although further characterization is needed, this might be a useful model for the detection of chemicals leading to steatosis or other diseases associated with lipid metabolism in fish.

  19. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  20. Toxicity tests with crustaceans for detecting sublethal effects of potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollenberger, Leah

    /antagonistic activity with the ecdysteroid-responsive Drosophila melanogaster BII cell line 6) to draft an OECD guideline proposal for testing of chemicals based on the experimental work performed within this study In preliminary investigations with A. tonsa were studied various parameters related to processes...... regulated by hormones such as growth, molting, sexual maturation and reproduction. The primary endpoints were larval development ratio, egg production and sex ratio. Exposure experiments were conducted with naturally occurring and synthetic vertebrate and invertebrate hormones as well as compounds known...... contribution of the present work with BFRs was to establish data on their (sub)chronic toxicity towards marine copepods. To discriminate between general toxicological and endocrine-mediated toxic effects, the model compounds were assessed in vitro for ecdysteroid agonistic/antagonistic activity using...

  1. Bisphenol A accumulation in eggs disrupts the endocrine regulation of growth in rainbow trout larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birceanu, Oana; Servos, Mark R.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M., E-mail: matt.vijayan@ucalgary.ca

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • BPA in eggs reduces growth and increases food conversion ratio in trout larvae. • BPA in eggs disrupts larval transcript abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis. • BPA in eggs disrupts thyroid hormone receptor mRNA levels. • BPA in eggs consistently suppressed IGF-1rb mRNA levels during early development. - Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer used in the production of plastics and epoxy resins, is ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. BPA is considered a weak estrogen in fish, but the effects of this chemical on early developmental events are far from clear. We tested the hypothesis that BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, disrupts growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (GH/IGF) axis function, leading to defects in larval growth in rainbow trout. Trout oocytes were exposed to 0 (control), 0.3, 3, and 30 μg ml{sup −1} BPA for 3 h, which led to an accumulation of around 0, 1, 4 and 40 ng BPA per egg, respectively. All treatment groups were fertilized with clean milt and reared in clean water for the rest of the experiment. The embryo BPA content declined over time in all groups and was completely eliminated by 42 days post-fertilization (dpf). Hatchlings from BPA accumulated eggs had higher water content and reduced total energy levels prior to first feed. There was an overall reduction in the specific growth rate and food conversion ratio in larvae reared from BPA-laden eggs. BPA accumulation disrupted the mRNA abundance of genes involved in GH/IGF axis function, including GH isoforms and their receptors, IGF-1 and -2 and IGF receptors, in a life stage-dependent manner. Also, there was a temporal disruption in the mRNA levels of thyroid hormone receptors in the larvae raised from BPA-laden eggs. Altogether, BPA accumulation in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, affects larval growth and the mode of action involves disruption of genes involved in the GH/IGF and thyroid axes function in trout.

  2. Can Endocrine disrupters interfere with Ca2+ homeostasis in invertebrate cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Canesi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of environmental chemicals have been shown to alter the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. There is increasing evidence that many of these endocrine disruptors (EDs, in particular estrogenic chemicals, can rapidly affect cellular homeostasis and signaling in mammalian Ca2+ systems. In this work, in vitro and in vivo data are summarised on the effects of different compounds known or suspected as EDs on homeostasis in Ca2+ marine invertebrate, the blue mussel Mytilus spp. Both synthetic estrogens and different EDs (DES, BPA, NP, PCB congeners, etc. rapidly increased sytosolic [Ca2+] in mussel hemosytes, as evaluated by FURA2 single cell fluorescence microscopy. The observed [Ca2+] increase was unaffected by the antiestrogen Tamoxifen and was due to either increased influx or release from Ca2+ intracellular stores, depending on the compound. Moreover, different ED,s including the brominated flame retardant TBBPA (tetrabromo bisphenol A induced a dose-dependent inhibition of the plasma membrane Ca2+ -ATPase (PMCA activity from mussel gills in vitro, this supporting a direct effect on membrane pumps. The in vitro effects of EDs were observed at concentrations generally higher than those of E2. However, in vivo, mussel exposure to environmetal concentrations of Bisphenol A (BPA and of the polybrominated diphenyl ether TBDE-47 resulted in large inhibition of PMCA activity in the digestive gland. The results indicate that, in invertebrate like in mammalian systems, interference with Ca2+ homeostasis may represent a significant mode of action of a variety of EDs.

  3. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed.

  4. Determination of endocrine-disrupting compounds in drinking waters by fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Scapolla, Carlo; Di Carro, Marina; Liscio, Camilla

    2010-09-01

    Growing attention has been recently paid to safety of food and drinking water, making necessary the adoption of policies for water sources protection and the development of sensitive and rapid analytical methods to identify micropollutants. Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) have emerged as a major issue as they alter the functioning of the endocrine system. Since ingestion of EDCs via food is considered the major exposure route, there is a growing interest in understanding EDC fate during drinking water treatment and in monitoring potential contamination of surface waters and groundwaters. In this work, a fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in drinking waters. In the literature analytical articles seldom provide details regarding fragmentation pathways. In this paper spectra of the five EDCs in negative ESI were interpreted with the support of accurate mass spectra acquired by a quadrupole time-of-flight instrument; fragmentation pathways were also proposed. The chromatographic separation of EDCs was optimized on a Pinnacle DB Biphenylic column with a water-acetonitrile gradient. Quantitative analysis was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using bisphenol A-d(16) (BPA-d(16)) as internal standard; calibration curves showed good correlation coefficients (0.9989-0.9997). All figures of merit of the method were satisfactory; limits of detection were in the range 0.2-0.4 ng/ml. The method was applied to the determination of the analytes in waters sampled by polar organic chemical integrative samplers in a drinking water treatment plant. Rather low concentration of BPA, NP and E1 were measured in the inlet, while none of the considered EDCs was detected in the outlet.

  5. The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Holst, Klaus; Mandrup, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and plays a key role...... exposure to a pesticide mixture in this experimental setting. However, we find that the pesticide mancozeb tends to increase Kiss1 expression in the ARC, presumably through neurotoxic mechanisms rather than via classical endocrine disruption, calling for increased awareness that Kiss1 expression can...

  6. Biomarkers of endocrine disruption in juveniles and females of the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lídia C A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Ferreira, Abel L G; Santos, Cátia S; Monteiro, Marta S

    2014-07-15

    The presence of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic compartments, including estuaries, has been object of major concern. However, the effects of EDCs on autochthonous estuarine fish species are far less known than in freshwater fish. Therefore, the response of biomarkers in the estuarine fish Pomatoschistus microps was evaluated after 21-days of exposure to different EDCs: 17β-estradiol (E2); PCB-77 and p,p'DDE. In juveniles, Vtg (vitellogenin)-like proteins were significantly induced by E2. PCB-77 led to a decrease of Vtg-like proteins in juveniles, while in female liver they increased at the highest concentrations tested, suggesting a mode of action of PCB-77 that depends on the fish life stage. p,p'-DDE did not induce significant changes in Vtg-like proteins. Overall, P. microps juveniles seemed to respond to environmental relevant concentrations of EDCs. Thus, the evaluation of Vtg-like proteins in this life stage seems to be a promising tool to track EDC contamination in biomonitoring studies.

  7. Elucidation of endocrine disrupting mechanism of dioxin and related compounds for health risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The important point on health risk assessment for dioxins as well as environmental endocrine disruptors is that we should scientifically evaluate whether the actual exposure level from food and environment may pose a threat to human health not only for the present but also for the future generations. We formulated a research project, called CREST project with support from the Japan Science and Technology Agency, in order to obtain experimental evidence for risk assessment as well as for the mechanism of toxicity. We thus investigated the dose-response relationships of certain 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD)-like compounds for eliciting various endpoints. First, we administered TCDD or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) to rats and mice during the sensitive period from fertilization to birth. Second, we studied what kinds of adverse effects could be observed in terms of reproductive/developmental effects, cognitive/learning abilities and immune functions. Third, we focused on the actual toxicity phenotypes found at the whole body and organ/tissue levels by a forward toxicology approach, and tried to narrow down appropriate phenomena, to study the mechanism on the molecular basis by the reverse toxicology approach. In this presentation, I will summarize the outcome of the CREST project.

  8. Identification of putative estrogen receptor-mediated endocrine disrupting chemicals using QSAR- and structure-based virtual screening approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Liying; Sedykh, Alexander; Tripathi, Ashutosh [Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Zhu, Hao [The Rutgers Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ (United States); Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Camden, NJ (United States); Afantitis, Antreas; Mouchlis, Varnavas D.; Melagraki, Georgia [NovaMechanics Ltd., Nicosia (Cyprus); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Tropsha, Alexander, E-mail: alex_tropsha@unc.edu [Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Identification of endocrine disrupting chemicals is one of the important goals of environmental chemical hazard screening. We report on the development of validated in silico predictors of chemicals likely to cause estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated endocrine disruption to facilitate their prioritization for future screening. A database of relative binding affinity of a large number of ERα and/or ERβ ligands was assembled (546 for ERα and 137 for ERβ). Both single-task learning (STL) and multi-task learning (MTL) continuous quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed for predicting ligand binding affinity to ERα or ERβ. High predictive accuracy was achieved for ERα binding affinity (MTL R{sup 2} = 0.71, STL R{sup 2} = 0.73). For ERβ binding affinity, MTL models were significantly more predictive (R{sup 2} = 0.53, p < 0.05) than STL models. In addition, docking studies were performed on a set of ER agonists/antagonists (67 agonists and 39 antagonists for ERα, 48 agonists and 32 antagonists for ERβ, supplemented by putative decoys/non-binders) using the following ER structures (in complexes with respective ligands) retrieved from the Protein Data Bank: ERα agonist (PDB ID: 1L2I), ERα antagonist (PDB ID: 3DT3), ERβ agonist (PDB ID: 2NV7), and ERβ antagonist (PDB ID: 1L2J). We found that all four ER conformations discriminated their corresponding ligands from presumed non-binders. Finally, both QSAR models and ER structures were employed in parallel to virtually screen several large libraries of environmental chemicals to derive a ligand- and structure-based prioritized list of putative estrogenic compounds to be used for in vitro and in vivo experimental validation. - Highlights: • This is the largest curated dataset inclusive of ERα and β (the latter is unique). • New methodology that for the first time affords acceptable ERβ models. • A combination of QSAR and docking enables prediction of affinity and function.

  9. Estrogen content and relative performance of Japanese and British sewage treatment plants and their potential impact on endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Okayasu, Yuji; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2007-01-01

    Both the UK and Japan are densely populated islands with relatively short rivers. Therefore, both countries are likely to be highly exposed to contaminants emanating from their human populations. This review considered how effective the different sewage treatment facilities of the two countries are at removing steroid estrogens from the effluent. The methods of estrogen analysis in sewage effluent, the number and importance of different sewage treatment types, and their apparent effectiveness at removing estrogens were all considered. In both countries, the activated sludge treatment was dominant in terms of people served and water discharged. The analytical techniques used by those studying estrogen concentrations in effluents in both countries were broadly similar. Activated sludge plant (ASP) effluent in the UK typically contained around 2 ng/L estradiol (E2) and 8 ng/L estrone (E1), while Japanese ASPs typically reported E2 as below detection, and 10 ng/L E1 in their effluents. When estrogenic bioassays were used in Japan, they typically record an estrogenic potency of 10 ng/L E2 equivalents. Even taking into account ethinylestradiol (EE2) (not found in Japanese effluents), the overall estrogenicity of British sewage effluents would appear to be the same as that of Japanese sewage effluents (around 10 ng/L E2 equivalents). This suggests that the ASPs serving the large urban communities in Japan and the UK would have effluent of similar estrogenic potencies. Less information is available about the more numerous biological (trickling) filter plants (BFP) in the UK and oxygen ditches (OD) in Japan which tend to serve smaller, more rural communities. The available data would suggest that the BFPs are significantly less efficient than the ODs at removing E1. This would suggest that in similar circumstances, British headwaters (where this sewage treatment plant (STP) type is often found) might be more at risk from endocrine disruption than their Japanese counterparts

  10. Ecological risk assessments of endocrine disrupting organotin compounds using marine neogastropods in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kenneth M Y; Kwong, Rita P Y; Ng, W C; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Qiu, J W; Yang, Ruiqiang; Song, Maoyong; Jiang, Guibin; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S

    2006-11-01

    As active ingredients of anti-fouling paints that are widely used on ship hulls, organotin compounds, in particular tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors causing sex changes in marine organisms and widespread in coastal waters and sediments worldwide. In this study, a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organotins was conducted in Hong Kong waters through determining the imposex status, sex ratio and tissue burdens of these compounds in the neogastropods, Thais clavigera and Thais luteostoma collected from 29 coastal sites. We also investigated the historical trend of organotin effects on these gastropods, and performed a probabilistic ERA based on tissue burden of TBT in the animals. Our results demonstrated that imposex indices were positively correlated with the body burden of organotins in the gastropods. Across all sites, the sex ratio (female:male) decreased significantly with increasing imposex levels or tissue burden of organotins, implying that such pollutants can result in a male-biased population, potentially leading to local extinction in extreme cases. Based on the ERA, 5.4% of all populations of T. clavigera are at risk due to exposure to TBT; the risks include growth inhibition, impairment of immune functions and reduced fitness. Seriously impacted areas included Aberdeen, Repulse Bay, Butterfly Beach, Mui Wo and Ha Mei Wan. A comparison with historical data revealed that there had been some improvement in the areas with low marine traffic, and distant from the major harbour/port. This could partly be due to the restriction on the use of TBT on small vessels (<25m in length) since 1992. Nevertheless, the organotin contamination still remains severe in areas with high marine traffic or adjacent to large harbours/ports. In particular, the situation in the northeastern waters of Hong Kong has been getting worst since 1996 that is probably associated with the rapid development of the cargo container port at Yantian in China.

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi disrupts thymic homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress-related endocrine circuitries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Lepletier

    2013-11-01

    systemic stress-related endocrine circuitries with major consequences upon the normal process of intrathymic T cell development.

  12. Organophosphate Flame Retardants Act as Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in MA-10 Mouse Tumor Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schang, Gauthier; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2016-04-01

    The organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have emerged as alternatives to banned brominated flame retardants but little is known about their possible activity as endocrine disruptors. Our goal was to compare the effects of 7 commonly used OPFRsin vitroon MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells to those of a major brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). The effects of OPFRs and BDE-47 on mitochondrial activity, cell counts, oxidative stress, steroid secretion and gene expression were investigated. BDE-47 and all 7 OPFRs tested significantly reduced MA-10 cell mitochondrial activity (concentrations ≥50 μM) and cell number (concentrations ≥10 μM). All of the OPFRs significantly increased (10 μM, 1.7-4.4-fold) superoxide production whereas BDE-47 had no significant effect. Basal progesterone production was significantly increased (10 μM, 1.5 to 3-fold) by 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate, isodecyl diphenyl phosphate, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate, tert-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate, and tricresyl phosphate, while BDE-47, triphenyl phosphate and tri-o-cresyl phosphate had no effect. Interestingly, isopropylated triphenyl phosphate enhanced dbcAMP-stimulated steroid production (∼2-fold), while tri-o-cresyl phosphate decreased (∼2/3) LH-stimulated steroid production. Several OPFRs affected the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of progesterone. In conclusion, all the OPFRs tested affected mitochondrial activity, cell survival, and superoxide production. Basal or stimulated steroid secretion was affected by all of the OPFRs except triphenyl phosphate; BDE-47 had no effect. Hence, the OPFRs currently used as alternatives affect Leydig cells to a greater extent than the brominated flame retardants that they have replaced.

  13. Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater treatment plants in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Pniela; Godinger, Tal; Odeh, Wad; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Rabbo, Alfred Abed; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-01

    Israel and its Palestinian neighbors constitute a unique venue for evaluating the treatment efficiency and potential environmental risks of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because of their physical proximity yet contrasting societal dynamics. Israel primarily relies on advanced tertiary sewage treatment and recycles over 85% of its treated wastewater, while in the Palestinian Authority (PA), there is only secondary treatment levels at WWTPs and reuse is minimal (wastewater (WW), treated WW and sludge in six WWTPs in Israel, as well as in two Palestinian plants. Low concentrations of bisphenol A, octylphenol and triclosan measured in the raw WW in the Palestinian WWTPs reflected the relatively modest industrial activity and consumption habits as compared to the westernized consumer patterns in Israel. On the other hand, hormone concentrations in raw WW were higher in the Palestinian WWTPs than those in the Israeli WWTPs, presumably because of a dilution effect associated with a higher water per capita consumption among Israelis. Despite these differences in raw WW concentrations, the removal efficiency in all advanced WWTPs was relatively high when compared to averages reported internationally.

  14. Enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole studied in the H295R cell assay and by molecular modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Amalie Møller; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Bonomo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    ) and its two enantiomers on the human steroidogenesis using the H295R cell line. Differences in production of 16 steroid hormones were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Additionally, to evaluate the differences in binding modes of these enantiomers, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of S-omeprazole (S......-OME) and R-omeprazole (R-OME) in CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2 were carried out. Exposing H295R cells to OME and its enantiomers resulted in an increase of progesterone (PRO) and 17α-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-PRO) levels. At the same time, a decrease in the corticosteroid and androgen synthesis was observed...... of the heme for S-OME in CYP17A1 and S- and R-OME in CYP21A2. However, density functional theory calculations suggest that the direct N-Fe interaction is weak. The study demonstrates enantioselective differences in the endocrine disrupting potential of chiral drugs such as omeprazole. These findings may have...

  15. MOBILIZATION OF ENDOCRINE DISRUPTING CHEMICALS AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN SIMULATED RAINFALL RUNOFF FROM LAND-APPLIED BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Ben D.; Young, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Municipal biosolids are commonly applied to land as soil amendment or fertilizer as a form of beneficial reuse of what could otherwise be viewed as waste. Balanced against this benefit are potential risks to groundwater and surface water quality from constituents that may be mobilized during storm events. The objective of the present study was to characterize the mobilization of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), heavy metals, and total estrogenic activity in rainfall runoff from land-applied biosolids. Rainfall simulations were conducted on soil plots amended with biosolids. Surface runoff and leachate was collected and analyzed for the EDCs bisphenol A, 17α-ethynylestradiol, triclocarban, triclosan, octylphenol, and nonylphenol; a suite of sixteen metals; and estrogenic activity via the ER-CALUX bioassay. Triclocarban (2.3–17.3 ng/L), triclosan (ER-CALUX results were mostly explained by background bisphenol A contamination and octylphenol in runoff, though unknown contributors and/or matrix effects were also found. PMID:21786314

  16. Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Influencing NRF1 Regulated Gene Networks in the Development of Complex Human Brain Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Preciados

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese. Also we discuss the brain health effects associated from exposure to EEDs including the promotion of neurodegeneration, protection against neurodegeneration, and involvement in various neurological deficits; changes in rearing behavior, locomotion, anxiety, learning difficulties, memory issues, and neuronal abnormalities. The effects of EEDs on the brain are varied during the entire life span and far-reaching with many different mechanisms. To understand endocrine disrupting chemicals mechanisms, we use bioinformatics, molecular, and epidemiologic approaches. Through those approaches, we learn how the effects of EEDs on the brain go beyond known mechanism to disrupt the circulatory and neural estrogen function and estrogen-mediated signaling. Effects on EEDs-modified estrogen and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1 signaling genes with exposure to natural estrogen, pharmacological estrogen-ethinyl estradiol, PCBs, phthalates, BPA, and metalloestrogens are presented here. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EEDs interactions and brain disease associations identified hundreds of genes that were altered by exposure to estrogen, phthalate, PCBs, BPA or metalloestrogens. Many genes modified by EEDs are common targets of both 17 β-estradiol (E2 and

  17. Development of an analytical method to determine phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage and sludge by GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Gang; YU Gang; CAI Zhenxiao; ZHANG Zulin

    2005-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to determine bisphenol A and five degradation products of alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage and sludge. The parameters of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were optimized. C18 cartridge was used to clean up the sewage and the extract of sludge. The sensitivity of the mass detector was improved by adjusting the voltage of the lens manually. The instrumental detection limit was 3.2―17.8 pg. The method detection limits were 2.5―11.4 ng/L and 0.3―2.1 ng/g for sewage and sludge analysis respectively. The recovery and relative standard deviation for sewage analysis were 79.2%―111.4% and 6.9%―12.6%; for sludge analysis were 68.5%―114.0% and 8.9%―16.0%. Finally this method was applied to determining the phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in sewage and sludge from a sewage treatment plant in Beijing.

  18. Degradation of the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) carbamazepine, clofibric acid, and iopromide by corona discharge over water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Holger; Schweiger, Bianca; Schuhmacher, Jörg; Scholl, Saskia; Steinfeld, Ute

    2009-04-01

    Common wastewater treatment plants often do not eliminate endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Aqueous solutions of three EDCs were treated with an enhanced corona discharge technology. The three EDCs were clofibric acid, a blood lipid regulator, carbamazepine, an antiepileptic drug, and iopromide, a contrast media. To simulate real conditions, EDC solutions containing landfill leachate were also used. In our setup, two barrier electrodes provided an atmospheric pressure corona discharge over a thin water film, in which the counter-electrode was submerged. Clofibric acid, carbamazepine, and iopromide were effectively removed from a single solution. After a treatment of 15min, there were no traces of iopromide estrogen activity either as a single substance or as degradation products when using an E-Screen Assay. Continuous treatment was compared with pulsed treatment using carbamazepine solutions mixed with pretreated landfill leachate. Best degradation results were achieved with a 500 W continuous duty cycle treatment. Counter-electrodes from materials such as boron doped diamond (BDD), titanium iridium oxide, and iron were investigated for their influences on the process effectivity. Significant improvements were achieved by using an enclosed reactor, BDD electrodes, and circulating only a fresh air or argon/air mixture as cooling gas through the barrier electrodes.

  19. Epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells by Bisphenol-A, a model endocrine disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deena eKhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system.

  20. Distribution and accumulation of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals in wastewater irrigated soils in Hebei, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Feng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Kong Lingxiao [Institute of Plant Protection, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Science, Baoding 07100 (China); Wang Li; Zhao Jianliang; Zhou Lijun; Zhang Lijuan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-06-15

    This study investigated the occurrence of 43 emerging contaminants including 9 endocrine-disrupting chemicals and 34 pharmaceuticals in three sites in Hebei Province, north China. Each site has a wastewater irrigated plot and a separate groundwater irrigated plot for comparison purpose. The results showed that the concentrations of the target compounds in the wastewater irrigated soils were in most cases higher than those in the groundwater irrigated soils. Among the 43 target compounds, nine compounds bisphenol-A, triclocarban, triclosan, 4-nonylphenol, salicylic acid, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim and primidone were detected at least once in the soils. Preliminary environmental risk assessment showed that triclocarban might pose high risks to terrestrial organisms while the other detected compounds posed minimal risks. Irrigation with wastewater could lead to presence or accumulation of some emerging contaminants to some extent in irrigated soils. - Highlights: > Some EDCs and PPCPs were detected in the wastewater irrigated soils. > Application of reclaimed water could lead to accumulation of some compounds. > Groundwater has been contaminated by some compounds. > Triclocarban posed high risks to soil organisms. - Application of reclaimed wastewater on agricultural land could lead to the presence or accumulation of wastewater-related contaminants in soils.

  1. Estrogenic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Influencing NRF1 Regulated Gene Networks in the Development of Complex Human Brain Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciados, Mark; Yoo, Changwon; Roy, Deodutta

    2016-01-01

    During the development of an individual from a single cell to prenatal stages to adolescence to adulthood and through the complete life span, humans are exposed to countless environmental and stochastic factors, including estrogenic endocrine disrupting chemicals. Brain cells and neural circuits are likely to be influenced by estrogenic endocrine disruptors (EEDs) because they strongly dependent on estrogens. In this review, we discuss both environmental, epidemiological, and experimental evidence on brain health with exposure to oral contraceptives, hormonal therapy, and EEDs such as bisphenol-A (BPA), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), phthalates, and metalloestrogens, such as, arsenic, cadmium, and manganese. Also we discuss the brain health effects associated from exposure to EEDs including the promotion of neurodegeneration, protection against neurodegeneration, and involvement in various neurological deficits; changes in rearing behavior, locomotion, anxiety, learning difficulties, memory issues, and neuronal abnormalities. The effects of EEDs on the brain are varied during the entire life span and far-reaching with many different mechanisms. To understand endocrine disrupting chemicals mechanisms, we use bioinformatics, molecular, and epidemiologic approaches. Through those approaches, we learn how the effects of EEDs on the brain go beyond known mechanism to disrupt the circulatory and neural estrogen function and estrogen-mediated signaling. Effects on EEDs-modified estrogen and nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1) signaling genes with exposure to natural estrogen, pharmacological estrogen-ethinyl estradiol, PCBs, phthalates, BPA, and metalloestrogens are presented here. Bioinformatics analysis of gene-EEDs interactions and brain disease associations identified hundreds of genes that were altered by exposure to estrogen, phthalate, PCBs, BPA or metalloestrogens. Many genes modified by EEDs are common targets of both 17 β-estradiol (E2) and NRF1. Some of

  2. Epigenetic Regulation of Non-Lymphoid Cells by Bisphenol A, a Model Endocrine Disrupter: Potential Implications for Immunoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Deena; Ahmed, S Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) abound in the environment since many compounds are released from chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical, and consumer product industries. Many of the EDCs such as Bisphenol A (BPA) have estrogenic activity or interfere with endogenous sex hormones. Experimental studies have reported a positive correlation of BPA with reproductive toxicity, altered growth, and immune dysregulation. Although the precise relevance of these studies to the environmental levels is unclear, nevertheless, their potential health implications remain a concern. One possible mechanism by which BPA can alter genes is by regulating epigenetics, including microRNA, alteration of methylation, and histone acetylation. There is now wealth of information on BPA effects on non-lymphoid cells and by comparison, paucity of data on effects of BPA on the immune system. In this mini review, we will highlight the BPA regulation of estrogen receptor-mediated immune cell functions and in different inflammatory conditions. In addition, BPA-mediated epigenetic regulation of non-lymphoid cells is emphasized. We recognize that most of these studies are on non-lymphoid cells, and given that BPA also affects the immune system, it is plausible that BPA could have similar epigenetic regulation in immune cells. It is hoped that this review will stimulate studies in this area to ascertain whether or not BPA epigenetically regulates the cells of the immune system.

  3. Back-propagation network improved by conjugate gradient based on genetic algorithm in QSAR study on endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Since the complexity and structural diversity of man-made compounds are considered,quantitative structure-activity relationships(QSARs)-based fast screening approaches are urgently needed for the assessment of the potential risk of endocrine disrupting chemicals(EDCs).The artificial neural networks(ANN)are capable of recognizing highly nonlinear relationships,so it will have a bright application prospect in building high-quality QSAR models.As a popular supervised training algorithm in ANN,back-propagation(BP)converges slowly and immerses in vibration frequently.In this paper,a research strategy that BP neural network was improved by conjugate gradient(CG)algorithm with a variable selection method based on genetic algorithm was applied to investigate the QSAR of EDCs.This resulted in a robust and highly predictive ANN model with R2 of 0.845 for the training set,q2 pred of 0.81 and root-mean-square error(RMSE) of 0.688 for the test set.The result shows that our method can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  4. Ecological risk assessment associated to the removal of endocrine-disrupting parabens and benzophenone-4 in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2016-06-05

    The occurrence of four widely used and endocrine disrupting parabens (PBs) (methylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and benzylparaben) and a polar UV filter (benzophenone-4) were determined in influent and effluent wastewater from the 19 major wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) of Catalonia, Spain. For their analysis an on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated. Laboratory analysis revealed high levels for both PBs and BP4, with maximum concentrations of 5700ngL(-1) and 1806ngL(-1), respectively, in influent samples, and 137ngL(-1) and 1080ngL(-1), respectively in effluent wastewaters. Removal rates (RE%) for the target compounds in each WWTPs were calculated. RE% for parabens were almost 100%, whereas for BP4 values where in the range 5-91%. The half-life time (t1/2), hydraulic retention time (HRT), and annual mass load (ML) for each facility was estimated. Results indicated that there was no clear influence of HRT on the RE% of BP4. MLs for BP4 were in the range 0.9-110.1kgy(-1), with the highest values in the most populated areas. Finally, a risk assessment, estimated in terms of hazard quotients (HQs), was carried out for aquatic biota. HQs for the target compounds in effluent wastewaters indicated a negligible effect, whereas for some influent wastewaters' HQs pointed out that some species are at risk.

  5. Aerobic biodegradation potential of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface-water sediment at Rocky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Battaglin, William A.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Clark, Jimmy M.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2016-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) in surface water and bed sediment threaten the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In natural, remote, and protected surface-water environments where contaminant releases are sporadic, contaminant biodegradation is a fundamental driver of exposure concentration, timing, duration, and, thus, EDC ecological risk. Anthropogenic contaminants, including known and suspected EDC, were detected in surface water and sediment collected from 2 streams and 2 lakes in Rocky Mountains National Park (ROMO). The potential for aerobic EDC biodegradation was assessed in collected sediments using 6 14C-radiolabeled model compounds. Aerobic microbial mineralization of natural (estrone and 17β-estradiol) and synthetic (17α-ethinylestradiol) estrogen was significant at all sites. ROMO bed sediment microbial communities also effectively degraded the xenoestrogens, bisphenol-A and 4-nonylphenol. The same sediment samples exhibited little potential for aerobic biodegradation of triclocarban, however, illustrating the need to assess a wider range of contaminant compounds. The current results support recent concerns over the widespread environmental occurrence of carbanalide antibacterials, like triclocarban and triclosan, and suggest that backcountry use of products containing these compounds should be discouraged.

  6. Rejection of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by low pressure reverse osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, H; Ikejima, N; Shimizu, Y; Fukami, K; Taniguchi, S; Takanami, R; Giri, R R; Matsui, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate retention characteristics of some pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), by two polyamide low pressure reverse osmosis (LPRO) membranes. Feed solution pH did not have an influence on rejections of undissociated solutes, which was most likely governed by adsorption, size exclusion and diffusion simultaneously. Size exclusion was presumably dominant, especially with tight membranes (UTC-70U). Rejections of the solutes with low dipole moment (diffusion coefficient (D(p)). The rejections decreased with increasing D(p) values irrespective of their dipole moments. Rejections of solutes with comparatively larger dipole moments might be dominated by diffusion and/or convection rather than their hydrophobicity. However, rejections of solutes with hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups by UTC-60 increased with solution pH. More than 80% rejections were obtained for degree of dissociation (alpha)>0.5. Electrostatic repulsion played a key role for rejection of dissociated solutes, especially by loose LPRO membranes. Therefore, assessing the dissociation degree at desired pH values can be a key step to obtain an insight of rejection mechanisms by polyamide membranes.

  7. Biotransformation of endocrine disrupting compounds by selected phase I and phase II enzymes--formation of estrogenic and chemically reactive metabolites by cytochromes P450 and sulfotransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinen, J; Vermeulen, N P E

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system is a major communication system in the body and is involved in maintenance of the reproductive system, fetal development, growth, maturation, energy production, and metabolism,. The endocrine system responds to the needs of an organism by secreting a wide variety of hormones that enable the body to maintain homeostasis, to respond to external stimuli, and to follow various developmental programs. This occurs through complex signalling cascades,with multiple sites at which the signals can be regulated. Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) affect the endocrine system by simulating the action of the naturally produced hormones, by inhibiting the action of natural hormones, by changing the function and synthesis of hormone receptors, or by altering the synthesis, transport, metabolism, and elimination of hormones. It has been established that exposure to environmental EDCs is a risk factor for disruption of reproductive development and oncogenesis in both humans and wildlife. For accurate risk assessment of EDCs, the possibility of bioactivation through biotransformation processes needs to be included since neglecting these mechanisms may lead to undervaluation of adverse effects on human health caused by EDCs and/or their metabolites. This accurate risk assessment should include: (1) possibility of EDCs to be bioactivated into metabolites with enhanced endocrine disruption (ED) effects, and (2) possibility of EDCs to be biotransformed into reactive metabolites that may cause DNA damage. Here, we present an overview of different metabolic enzymes that are involved in the biotransformation of EDCs. In addition, we describe how biotransformation by Cytochromes P450 (CYPs), human estrogen sulfotransferase 1E1 (SULT1E1) and selected other phase II enzymes, can lead to the formation of bioactive metabolites. This review mainly focuses on CYP- and SULT-mediated bioactivation of estrogenic EDCs and summarizes our views on this topic while also showing

  8. Investigating potential for effects of environmental endocrine disrupters on wild populations of amphibians in UK and Japan: status of historical databases and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Daniel B; Larroze, Severine; Takase, Minoru; Mitsui, Naoko; Tooi, Osamu; Santo, Noriaki

    2007-01-01

    Concern over global declines among amphibians has resulted in increased interest in the effects of environmental contaminants on amphibian populations, and more recently, this has stimulated research on the potential adverse effects of environmental endocrine disrupters in amphibians. Laboratory studies of the effects of single chemicals on endocrine-relevant endpoints in amphibian, mainly anuran, models are valuable in characterizing sensitivity at the individual level and may yield useful bioassays for screening chemicals for endocrine toxicity (for example, thyroid disrupting activity). Nevertheless, in the UK and Japan as in many other countries, it has yet to be demonstrated unequivocally that the exposure of native amphibians to endocrine disrupting environmental contaminants results in adverse effects at the population level. Assessing the potential of such effects is likely to require an ecoepidemiological approach to investigate associations between predicted or actual exposure of amphibians to (endocrine disrupting) environmental contaminants and biologically meaningful responses at the population level. In turn, this demands recent but relatively long-term population trend data. We review two potential sources of such data for widespread UK anurans that could be used in such investigations: records for common frogs and common toads in several databases maintained by the Biological Records Centre (UK Government Centre for Ecology and Hydrology), and adult toad count data from 'Toads on Roads' schemes registered with the UK wildlife charity 'Froglife'. There were little abundance data in the BRC databases that could be used for this purpose, while count data from the Toads on Roads schemes is potentially confounded by the effects of local topology on the detection probabilities and operation of nonchemical anthropogenic stressors. For Japan, local and regional surveys of amphibians and national ecological censuses gathering amphibian data were reviewed to

  9. The Increasing Prevalence in Intersex Variation from Toxicological Dysregulation in Fetal Reproductive Tissue Differentiation and Development by Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Alisa L.; Phipps, Laura M.; Tiwari, Sweta; Rudraraju, Hemanth; Dokpesi, Philip O.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of children are born with intersex variation (IV; ambiguous genitalia/hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphroditism, etc.). Evidence shows that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in the environment can cause reproductive variation through dysregulation of normal reproductive tissue differentiation, growth, and maturation if the fetus is exposed to EDCs during critical developmental times in utero. Animal studies support fish and reptile embryos exhibited IV and sex reversal when exposed to EDCs. Occupational studies verified higher prevalence of offspring with IV in chemically exposed workers (male and female). Chemicals associated with endocrine-disrupting ability in humans include organochlorine pesticides, poly-chlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, phthalates, dioxins, and furans. Intersex individuals may have concurrent physical disorders requiring lifelong medical intervention and experience gender dysphoria. An urgent need exists to determine which chemicals possess the greatest risk for IV and the mechanisms by which these chemicals are capable of interfering with normal physiological development in children. PMID:27660460

  10. Impact of climate change and population growth on a risk assessment for endocrine disruption in fish due to steroid estrogens in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, V D J; Lloyd, P; Terry, J A; Williams, R J

    2015-02-01

    In England and Wales, steroid estrogens: estrone, estradiol and ethinylestradiol have previously been identified as the main chemicals causing endocrine disruption in male fish. A national risk assessment is already available for intersex in fish arising from estrogens under current flow conditions. This study presents, to our knowledge, the first set of national catchment-based risk assessments for steroid estrogen under future scenarios. The river flows and temperatures were perturbed using three climate change scenarios (ranging from relatively dry to wet). The effects of demographic changes on estrogen consumption and human population served by sewage treatment works were also included. Compared to the current situation, the results indicated increased future risk:the percentage of high risk category sites, where endocrine disruption is more likely to occur, increased. These increases were mainly caused by changes in human population. This study provides regulators with valuable information to prepare for this potential increased risk.

  11. Thyroid hormone signaling during early neurogenesis and its significance as a vulnerable window for endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préau, Laetitia; Fini, Jean Baptiste; Morvan-Dubois, Ghislaine; Demeneix, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    The essential roles of thyroid hormone (TH) in perinatal brain development have been known for decades. More recently, many of the molecular mechanisms underlying the multiple effects of TH on proliferation, differentiation, migration, synaptogenesis and myelination in the developing nervous system have been elucidated. At the same time data from both epidemiological studies and animal models have revealed that the influence of thyroid signaling on development of the nervous system, extends to all periods of life, from early embryogenesis to neurogenesis in the adult brain. This review focuses on recent insights into the actions of TH during early neurogenesis. A key concept is that, in contrast to the previous ideas that only the unliganded receptor was implicated in these early phases, a critical role of the ligand, T3, is increasingly recognized. These findings are considered in the light of increasing knowledge of cell specific control of T3 availability as a function of deiodinase activity and transporter expression. These requirements for TH in the early stages of neurogenesis take on new relevance given the increasing epidemiological data on adverse effects of TH lack in early pregnancy on children's neurodevelopmental outcome. These ideas lead logically into a discussion on how the actions of TH during the first phases of neurogenesis can be potentially disrupted by gestational iodine lack and/or chemical pollution. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.

  12. Comparative study of 17 β-estradiol on endocrine disruption and biotransformation in fingerlings and juveniles of Japanese sea bass Lateolabrax japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagam, Harikrishnan; Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Bo, Jun; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2014-08-30

    Estrogenic contaminants in the aquatic environment are associated with endocrine disruption and feminization in fish. The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on fish have been well documented. However, very few studies have focused on 17 β-estradiol (E2) and its effects on endocrine system and biotransformation in a single prolonged exposure. This study investigated changes in the levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) and acetyl choline esterase (AchE) in brain, cortisol in plasma and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gill of two different size groups (fingerlings and juveniles) of Japanese sea bass (Lateolabrax japonicus) upon exposure to two sub-lethal concentrations (200 and 2000 ng L(-1)) of E2 for 30 d. The results indicate that cortisol level and EROD activity significantly increased in both groups, whereas serotonin level increased in juveniles and decreased in fingerlings due to E2 exposure. The correlation analysis revealed that E2 significantly affected the endocrine and biotransformation systems in both age groups.

  13. Comparison of UV photolysis, nanofiltration, and their combination to remove hormones from a drinking water source and reduce endocrine disrupting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Sandra; Rodrigues, Alexandre; Cardoso, Vitor V; Benoliel, Maria J; Crespo, João G; Pereira, Vanessa J

    2016-06-01

    A sequential water treatment combining low pressure ultraviolet direct photolysis with nanofiltration was evaluated to remove hormones from water, reduce endocrine disrupting activity, and overcome the drawbacks associated with the individual processes (production of a nanofiltration-concentrated retentate and formation of toxic by-products). 17β-Estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone, estriol, and progesterone were spiked into a real water sample collected after the sedimentation process of a drinking water treatment plant. Even though the nanofiltration process alone showed similar results to the combined treatment in terms of the water quality produced, the combined treatment offered advantage in terms of the load of the retentate and decrease in the endocrine-disrupting activity of the samples. Moreover, the photolysis by-products produced, with higher endocrine disrupting activity than the parent compounds, were effectively retained by the membrane. The combination of direct LP/UV photolysis with nanofiltration is promising for a drinking water utility that needs to cope with sudden punctual discharges or deterioration of the water quality and wants to decrease the levels of chemicals in the nanofiltration retentate.

  14. Peer-reviewed and unbiased research, rather than ‘sound science’, should be used to evaluate endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasande, Leonardo; Vandenberg, Laura N; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Myers, John Peterson; Slama, Remy; Saal, Frederick vom; Zoeller, Robert Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Evidence increasingly confirms that synthetic chemicals disrupt the endocrine system and contribute to disease and disability across the lifespan. Despite a United Nations Environment Programme/WHO report affirmed by over 100 countries at the Fourth International Conference on Chemicals Management, ‘manufactured doubt’ continues to be cast as a cloud over rigorous, peer-reviewed and independently funded scientific data. This study describes the sources of doubt and their social costs, and suggested courses of action by policymakers to prevent disease and disability. The problem is largely based on the available data, which are all too limited. Rigorous testing programmes should not simply focus on oestrogen, androgen and thyroid. Tests should have proper statistical power. ‘Good laboratory practice’ (GLP) hardly represents a proper or even gold standard for laboratory studies of endocrine disruption. Studies should be evaluated with regard to the contamination of negative controls, responsiveness to positive controls and dissection techniques. Flaws in many GLP studies have been identified, yet regulatory agencies rely on these flawed studies. Peer-reviewed and unbiased research, rather than ‘sound science’, should be used to evaluate endocrine-disrupting chemicals. PMID:27417427

  15. Simultaneously photocatalytic treatment of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) using rotating reactor under solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngji [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Laboratory, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Hyunku [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Laboratory, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Her, Namguk [Korea Army Academy at Young-Cheon, Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, 135-1 Changhari, Kokyungmeon, Young-cheon, Gyeongbuk 770-849 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yeomin [University of South Carolina, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Sohn, Jinsik [Kookmin University, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 77 Jeongneung-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungpyo [Korea University, Department of Environmental Engineering, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jaekyung, E-mail: jyoon@kier.re.kr [Korea Institute of Energy Research, New and Renewable Energy Research Division, Hydrogen Laboratory, 152 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Self-rotating reactor including TiO{sub 2} NTs is applied under solar irradiation. • Simultaneously photocatalysis of Cr(VI) and EDCs is observed to be up to 95%. • Photocatalytic reactions of Cr(VI) and EDCs are favorable under acidic pH. • Charge interaction and hole scavenge between TiO{sub 2} and pollutants are synergy factors. - Abstract: In this study, simultaneous treatments, reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and oxidation of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), such as bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and 17β-estradiol (E2), were investigated with a rotating photocatalytic reactor including TiO{sub 2} nanotubes formed on titanium mesh substrates under solar UV irradiation. In the laboratory tests with a rotating type I reactor, synergy effects of the simultaneous photocatalytic reduction and oxidation of inorganic (Cr(VI)) and organic (BPA) pollutants were achieved. Particularly, the concurrent photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) and oxidation of BPA was higher under acidic conditions. The enhanced reaction efficiency of both pollutants was attributed to a stronger charge interaction between TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (positive charge) and the anionic form of Cr(VI) (negative charge), which are prevented recombination (electron–hole pair) by the hole scavenging effect of BPA. In the extended outdoor tests with a rotating type II reactor under solar irradiation, the experiment was extended to examine the simultaneous reduction of Cr(VI) in the presence of additional EDCs, such as EE2 and E2 as well as BPA. The findings showed that synergic effect of both photocatalytic reduction and oxidation was confirmed with single-component (Cr(VI) only), two-components (Cr(VI)/BPA, Cr(VI)/EE2, and Cr(VI)/E2), and four-components (Cr(VI)/BPA/EE2/E2) under various solar irradiation conditions.

  16. Determination of atrazine and degradation products in Luxembourgish drinking water: origin and fate of potential endocrine-disrupting pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, T; Cocco, E; Gourdol, L; Guignard, C; Hoffmann, L

    2011-08-01

    Several pesticides have been hypothesized to act as endocrine-disrupting compounds, exhibiting hormonal activity and perturbing normal physiological functions. Among these, especially s-triazine herbicides have received increased attention. Despite being banned in many countries, including the European Union, atrazine is still the world's most widely used herbicide. Despite its discontinued use, considerable concentrations of atrazine and its degradation products, mainly desethylatrazine (DEA) and deisopropylatrazine (DIA), are still found in the environment, including drinking water sources. The aim of this investigation was to study concentrations of especially s-triazine herbicides and major degradation products in drinking water, including spring water, tap water and bottled water in Luxembourg. Spring water (2007/2008/2009, n = 69/69/69), tap water (2008/2009, n = 19/26), and bottled water (2007/2008/2009, n = 5/13/7) were sampled at locations in Luxembourg and investigated for pesticides by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Atrazine was the predominant triazine, detectable in many spring water locations, tap and bottled water, ranging (mean) from 0-57 (9), 0-44 (4), and 0-4 (1) ng l(-1), respectively. DEA and DIA in spring water ranged (mean) from 0-120 (19) and 0-27 (3) ng l(-1), with higher concentrations from agricultural areas and low molar ratios of DEA:atrazine high ratios of atrazine:nitrate suggesting point-source contamination. Levels (mean) of DEA and DIA in tap water were 0-62 (14) and 0-6 (water 0-11 (2) and 0-7 (2) ng l(-1). Simazine and other triazines were detected in traces (water, presumably partly due to non-agricultural contamination, with concentrations being below thresholds advocated by the European Union Directive 98/83/EC.

  17. Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of the endocrine-disrupting chemical Benzophenone-3: Parameters optimization and by-products identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Benítez, Henry; Aristizábal-Ciro, Carolina; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2016-02-01

    Benzophenone-3 (BP3) is one of the most used UV filters. Its disruptive effect on the endocrine system of different living beings has been demonstrated by several research groups. Present work addresses on a photocatalytic degradation of BP3 using particles of titanium dioxide in aqueous solutions considering the effect of operating parameters such as pH, catalyst and pollutant initial concentrations, and the presence of hydrogen peroxide, acetonitrile and isopropanol in the solution. In this way, a face centered, central composite design was carried out for the identification of significant factors or interactions that allow the determination of the conditions under which the pollutant suffers the highest rates of degradation. A solution initial pH of 9.0, a TiO2 concentration of 1.184 g L(-1) and an H2O2 concentration of 128.069 mg L(-1) were established as the optimal conditions for the substrate removal. In aqueous solutions and low concentrations of the pollutant (photocatalytic degradation followed a pseudo-first order kinetics. After 300 min of treatment, ∼67% of the dissolved organic carbon was removed, which together with a reduction in toxicity and an increase in biodegradability confirmed that photocatalysis with TiO2 is a potential method to remove BP3 from water. Additionally, tests using acetonitrile as solvent and isopropanol as hydroxyl radical (OH(.)) scavenger suggested that, OH(.) was the main agent responsible of substrate degradation. Finally, ten process by-products were identified and a degradation route was proposed.

  18. Adsorption characteristics of selected pharmaceuticals and an endocrine disrupting compound-Naproxen, carbamazepine and nonylphenol-on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zirui; Peldszus, Sigrid; Huck, Peter M

    2008-06-01

    The adsorption of two representative pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (naproxen and carbamazepine) and one endocrine disrupting compound (nonylphenol) were evaluated on two types of activated carbon. When determining their isotherms at environmentally relevant concentration levels, it was found that at this low concentration range (10-800 ng/L), removals of the target compounds were contrary to expectations based on their hydrophobicity. Nonylphenol (log K(ow) 5.8) was most poorly adsorbed, whereas carbamazepine (log K(ow) 2.45) was most adsorbable. Nonylphenol Freundlich isotherms at this very low concentration range had a much higher 1/n compared to isotherms at much higher concentrations. This indicates that extrapolation from an isotherm obtained at a high concentration range to predict the adsorption of nonylphenol at a concentration well below the range of the original isotherm, leads to a substantial overestimation of its removals. Comparison of isotherms for the target compounds to those for other conventional micropollutants suggested that naproxen and carbamazepine could be effectively removed by applying the same dosage utilized to remove odorous compounds (geosmin and MIB) at very low concentrations. The impact of competitive adsorption by background natural organic matter (NOM) on the adsorption of the target compounds was quantified by using the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) in combination with the equivalent background compound (EBC) approach. The fulfilment of the requirements for applying the simplified IAST-EBC model, which leads to the conclusion that the percentage removal of the target compounds at a given carbon dosage is independent of the initial contaminant concentration, was confirmed for the situation examined in the paper. On this basis it is suggested that the estimated minimum carbon usage rates (CURs) to achieve 90% removal of these emerging contaminants would be valid at concentrations of less than 500 ng/L in

  19. Effects of Exposure to Four Endocrine Disrupting-Chemicals on Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Barbel Chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Cuijuan; WANG Wei; GAO Ying; LI Li

    2013-01-01

    The toxicities of 4 common endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs),17β-estradiol (E2),p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloro-ethylene (DDE),4-nonylphenol (NP) and tributyltin (TBT),to sperm motility,fertilization rate,hatching rate and embryonic development of Barbel chub (Squaliobarbus curriculus) were investigated in this study.The duration of sperm motility was significantly shortened by exposure to the EDCs at the threshold concentrations of 10ngL-1 for E2 and TBT,1 μgL-1 for NP and 100μgL-1 for DDE,respectively.The fertilization rate was substantially reduced by the EDCs at the lowest observable effect concentrations (LOECs) of 10ng L-1 for E2 and TBT and 10 lg L-1 for DDE and NP,respectively.Of the tested properties of S.curriculus,larval deformity rate was most sensitive to EDC exposure and was significantly increased by DDE at the lowest experimental level of 0.1 μgL-1.Other EDCs increased the larval deformity rate at the LOECs of 1 ngL-1 for E2,10ngL-1 for TBT and 1 μgL-1 for NP,respectively.Despite their decreases with the increasing EDC concentrations,the hatching rate and larval survival rate ofS.curriculus were not significantly affected by the exposure to EDCs.The results indicated that all the 4 EDCs affected significantly and negatively the early life stages of the freshwater fish S.curriculus.Overall,E2 and TBT were more toxic than NP and DDE,while DDE might be more toxic to larval deformity rate than to other measured parameters.Thus,the 4 EDCs showed potential negative influences on natural population dynamics of S.curriculus.Our findings provided valuable basic data for the ecological risk assessment of E2,DDE,NP and TBT.

  20. Luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) as a marker gene for characterizing estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in zebrafish ovarian follicle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ka-Cheuk; Wu, Rudolf S S; Ge, Wei

    2013-10-01

    The adverse effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been well documented; however, the action mechanisms of many EDCs remain elusive and controversial. Furthermore, the highly diversified chemical structures and low environmental concentrations of EDCs present a major challenge to their chemical detection. Clearly, there is an urgent need for simple and reliable bioassays to detect EDCs in the environment and unravel their action mechanisms. We have recently identified luteinizing hormone receptor (lhcgr) as a robust estradiol (E2)-responsive gene in cultured zebrafish ovarian follicle cells. The expression of lhcgr exhibited a distinct biphasic response to E2 over a 24-h time-course treatment, making this a unique system for characterizing estrogenic EDCs. This study was undertaken to validate this platform by testing a wide range of EDCs, including 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), bisphenol A (BPA), genistein (GEN), 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT), vinclozolin (VIN), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47). Diethylstilbestrol (DES), EE2 and o,p'-DDT mimicked E2 and induced a biphasic expression of lhcgr while BPA and GEN stimulated a monophasic expression in the 24-h time-course. In contrast, BDE-47, DEHP and VIN had no effect, whereas TCDD decreased lhcgr expression. Dose-response experiment showed that E2, EE2 and DES had the highest potency, which was followed by GEN, BPA and o,p'-DDT. The effects of estrogenic EDCs were further confirmed by their potentiation of hCG-induced activin βA2 subunit (inhbab) expression. In conclusion, the present study showed that the expression of lhcgr in cultured zebrafish follicle cells and its biphasic response to estrogens provide a unique in vitro platform for screening and categorizing estrogenic substances and deciphering their action mechanisms.

  1. Profile and removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals by using an ER/AR competitive ligand binding assay and chemical analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-hua Liu; Mamoru Ito; Yoshinori Kanjo; Atsushi Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    An estrogen receptor (ER)/androgen receptor (AR) ligand competitive binding assay (ER/AR-binding assay) and chemical analyses were used to evaluate the endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) behavior of two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (K and S). In the influents, estrone (El), androsterone (A), androstenedione (AD), BPA (bisphenol A), NP (nonylphenol) and daidzein (DZ) were detected in high amounts with subsequent 24 h-average concentrations of 350, 1000, 29, 1300, 3900, and 5700 ng/L in K-WWTP and of 310, 620, 59, 1600, 2600, and 8400 ng/L in S-WWTP. The estrogenic (androgenic) activity as 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalents (EEQ) or testosterone (Te) equivalents (TEQ) was consequently 620 ng E2/L (570 ng Te/L) and 580 ng E2/L (800 ng Te/L) for the two WWTPs. The removal efficiencies of the above mentioned sole target chemicals were 51%-100% for K-WWTP and 55.6%,100% for S-WWTP. The removal efficiencies of EEQ were about 73% for both WWTPs, while the removal efficiencies of TEQ were 62.1% for K-WWTP and 98.4% for S-WWTP. In addition, chemical-derived EEQ were about 1.2%-52.4% of those by ER-binding assay for K-WWTP and the corresponding ratios were 1.3%-83.3% for S-WWTP, while chemical derived TEQ were less than 3% of values measured by the AR-binding assay for both WWTPs.

  2. Bio-based degradation of emerging endocrine-disrupting and dye-based pollutants using cross-linked enzyme aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Asgher, Muhammad; Iqbal, Hafiz M N; Hu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-01-14

    In this study, manganese peroxidase (MnP) from an indigenous white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum IBL-05 was insolubilized in the form of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) using various aggregating agents, i.e., acetone, ammonium sulfate, ethanol, 2-propanol, and tert-butanol, followed by glutaraldehyde (GA) cross-linking. The precipitant type, MnP, and GA concentrations affected the CLEAs activity recovery and aggregation yield. Among precipitants used, acetone appeared to be the most efficient aggregation agent, providing the highest activity recovery and aggregation yield of 31.26 and 73.46%, respectively. Optimal cross-linking was noticed using 2.0% (v/v) GA and 8:1 (v/v) MnP to GA ratio at 3.0 h cross-linking time under continuous agitation at 4 °C. The highest recovered activity and aggregation yield were determined to be 47.57 and 81.26%, respectively. The MnP-CLEAs, thus synthesized, were tested to investigate their bio-catalytic capacity for removing two known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), e.g., nonylphenol and triclosan in a packed bed reactor system. The insolubilized MnP efficiently catalyzed the biodegradation of both EDCs, transforming over 80% in the presence of MnP-based system. A maximal of 100% decolorization was recorded for Sitara textile (SIT-based) effluent, followed by 95.5% for Crescent textile (CRT-based) effluent, 88.0% for K&N textile (KIT-based) effluent, and 84.2% for Nishat textile (NIT-based) effluent.

  3. Distribution and bioconcentration of endocrine disrupting chemicals in surface water and fish bile of the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Li, Haiyan; Ran, Yong; Chan, Kingming

    2014-07-01

    The distribution and bioconcentration of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in water, algae, and wild carp bile of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China were investigated. 4-tert octylphenol (OP), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) (unit, ng L(-1)) in water were in the ranges of 1-14, 117-865, and 4-377, those (ng g(-1) dry weight) in algae were in the ranges of 2-13, 53-282, and 16-94, and those (ng g(-1)) in carp bile were in the ranges of 14-39, 950-4648, 70-1020, respectively. Estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in water ranged from

  4. Androgen Receptor Involvement in Rat Amelogenesis: An Additional Way for Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals to Affect Enamel Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedeon, Katia; Loiodice, Sophia; Salhi, Khaled; Le Normand, Manon; Houari, Sophia; Chaloyard, Jessica; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with the steroid axis can affect amelogenesis, leading to enamel hypomineralization similar to that of molar incisor hypomineralization, a recently described enamel disease. We investigated the sex steroid receptors that may mediate the effects of EDCs during rat amelogenesis. The expression of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER)-α, and progesterone receptor was dependent on the stage of ameloblast differentiation, whereas ERβ remained undetectable. AR was the only receptor selectively expressed in ameloblasts involved in final enamel mineralization. AR nuclear translocation and induction of androgen-responsive element-containing promoter activity upon T treatment, demonstrated ameloblast responsiveness to androgens. T regulated the expression of genes involved in enamel mineralization such as KLK4, amelotin, SLC26A4, and SLC5A8 but not the expression of genes encoding matrix proteins, which determine enamel thickness. Vinclozolin and to a lesser extent bisphenol A, two antiandrogenic EDCs that cause enamel defects, counteracted the actions of T. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, the following: 1) ameloblasts express AR; 2) the androgen signaling pathway is involved in the enamel mineralization process; and 3) EDCs with antiandrogenic effects inhibit AR activity and preferentially affect amelogenesis in male rats. Their action, through the AR pathway, may specifically and irreversibly affect enamel, potentially leading to the use of dental defects as a biomarker of exposure to environmental pollutants. These results are consistent with the steroid hormones affecting ameloblasts, raising the issue of the hormonal influence on amelogenesis and possible sexual dimorphism in enamel quality.

  5. Actions of estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals on human prostate stem/progenitor cells and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Yang; Shi, Guang-Bin; Hu, Dan-Ping; Nelles, Jason L; Prins, Gail S

    2012-05-06

    Estrogen reprogramming of the prostate gland as a function of developmental exposures (aka developmental estrogenization) results in permanent alterations in structure and gene expression that lead to an increased incidence of prostatic lesions with aging. Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic activity have been similarly linked to an increased prostate cancer risk. Since it has been suggested that stem cells and cancer stem cells are potential targets of cancer initiation and disease management, it is highly possible that estrogens and EDCs influence the development and progression of prostate cancer through reprogramming and transforming the prostate stem and early stage progenitor cells. In this article, we review recent literature highlighting the effects of estrogens and EDCs on prostate cancer risk and discuss recent advances in prostate stem/progenitor cell research. Our laboratory has recently developed a novel prostasphere model using normal human prostate stem/progenitor cells and established that these cells express estrogen receptors (ERs) and are direct targets of estrogen action. Further, using a chimeric in vivo prostate model derived from these normal human prostate progenitor cells, we demonstrated for the first time that estrogens initiate and promote prostatic carcinogenesis in an androgen-supported environment. We herein discuss these findings and highlight new evidence using our in vitro human prostasphere assay for perturbations in human prostate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by natural steroids as well as EDCs. These findings support the hypothesis that tissue stem cells may be direct EDC targets which may underlie life-long reprogramming as a consequence of developmental and/or transient adult exposures.

  6. Polymer-immobilized ready-to-use recombinant yeast assays for the detection of endocrine disruptive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Michal; Jarque, Sergio; Hilscherová, Klára

    2015-08-01

    Recombinant yeast assays (RYAs) constitute a suitable tool for the environmental monitoring of compounds with endocrine disrupting activities, notably estrogenicity and androgenicity. Conventional procedures require yeast reconstitution from frozen stock, which usually takes several days and demands additional equipment. With the aim of applying such assays to field studies and making them more accessible to less well-equipped laboratories, we have optimized RYA by the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells in three different polymer matrices - gelatin, Bacto agar, and Yeast Extract Peptone Dextrose agar - to obtain a ready-to-use version for the fast assessment of estrogenic and androgenic potencies of compounds and environmental samples. Among the three matrices, gelatin showed the best results for both testosterone (androgen receptor yeast strain; AR-RYA) and 17β-estradiol (estrogen receptor yeast strain; ER-RYA). AR-RYA was characterized by a lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC), EC50 and induction factor (IF) of 1nM, 2.2nM and 51, respectively. The values characterizing ER-RYA were 0.4nM, 1.8nM, and 63, respectively. Gelatin immobilization retained yeast viability and sensitivity for more than 90d of storage at 4°C. The use of the immobilized yeast reduced the assay duration to only 3h without necessity of sterile conditions. Because immobilized RYA can be performed either in multiwell microplates or glass tubes, it allows multiple samples to be tested at once, and easy adaptation to existing portable devices for direct in-field applications.

  7. On the rumors about the silent spring: review of the scientific evidence linking occupational and environmental pesticide exposure to endocrine disruption health effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cocco Pierluigi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to some pesticides, and particularly DBCP and chlordecone, may adversely affect male fertility. However, apart from the therapeutic use of diethylstilbestrol, the threat to human reproduction posed by "endocrine disrupting" environmental contaminants has not been supported by epidemiological evidence thus far. As it concerns other endocrine effects described in experimental animals, only thyroid inhibition following occupational exposure to amitrole and mancozeb has been confirmed in humans. Cancer of the breast, endometrium, ovary, prostate, testis, and thyroid are hormone-dependent, which fostered research on the potential risk associated with occupational and environmental exposure to the so-called endocrine-disrupting pesticides. The most recent studies have ruled out the hypothesis of DDT derivatives as responsible for excess risks of cancer of the reproductive organs. Still, we cannot exclude a role for high level exposure to o,p'-DDE, particularly in post-menopausal ER+ breast cancer. On the other hand, other organochlorine pesticides and triazine herbicides require further investigation for a possible etiologic role in some hormone-dependent cancers.

  8. Endocrine Disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediz Yeşilkaya

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors are of special interest because they mimic, block, or in some way alter the activity of endogenous chemicals that are synthesized by the endocrine system. Besides many other organs, they especially affect the urinary system and the thyroid glands. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are typically identified as compounds that can interact with oestrogen or androgen receptors and thus act as agonists or antagonists of endogenous hormones. During the last decade, numerous studies have been published, reporting an increase in reproductive organ anomalies, as well as in testicular cancer, and a decline in the relative number of male births, and in semen quality. In this review, the effects of endocrine distruptors on the reproductive health are discussed in the light of the recent literature. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 76-82

  9. Developmental alterations and endocrine-disruptive responses in farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) exposed to contaminants from the Crocodile River, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Myburgh, Jan; Langberg, Håkon A; Adeogun, Aina O; Braa, Idunn Godal; Moeder, Monika; Schlenk, Daniel; Crago, Jordan Paul; Regoli, Francesco; Botha, Christo

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, the developmental (including fertility) and endocrine-disruptive effects in relation to chemical burden in male and female Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), from a commercial crocodile farm in the Brits district, South Africa, exposed to various anthropogenic aquatic contaminants from the natural environment was investigated. Hepatic transcript levels for vitellogenin (Vtg), zona pellucida (ZP) and ERα (also in gonads) were analyzed using real-time PCR. Plasma estradiol-17β (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were analyzed using enzyme immunoassay. Gonadal aromatase and hepatic testosterone metabolism (6β-hydroxylase (6β-OHase)) were analyzed using biochemical methods. Overall, there is high and abnormal number (%) of infertile and banded eggs during the studied reproductive seasons, showing up to 57 and 34% of infertile eggs in the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons, respectively. In addition, the percentage of banded eggs ranged between 10 and 19% during the period of 2009-2014 seasons. While hepatic ERα, Vtg, ZP mRNA and testosterone 6β-OHase, were equally expressed in female and male crocodiles, gonadal ERα mRNA and aromatase activity were significantly higher in females compared to male crocodiles. On the other hand, plasma T and 11-KT levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female crocodiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) produced significant grouping that revealed correlative relationships between reproductive/endocrine-disruptive variables and liver contaminant burden, that further relates to measured contaminants in the natural environment. The overall results suggest that these captive pre-slaughter farm crocodiles exhibited responses to anthropogenic aquatic contaminants with potentially relevant consequences on key reproductive and endocrine pathways and these responses may be established as relevant species endocrine disruptor biomarkers of exposure and effects in this threatened

  10. Early warning signs of endocrine disruption in adult fish from the ingestion of polyethylene with and without sorbed chemical pollutants from the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochman, Chelsea M., E-mail: cmrochman@ucdavis.edu; Kurobe, Tomofumi; Flores, Ida; Teh, Swee J.

    2014-09-15

    Plastic debris is associated with several chemical pollutants known to disrupt the functioning of the endocrine system. To determine if the exposure to plastic debris and associated chemicals promotes endocrine-disrupting effects in fish, we conducted a chronic two-month dietary exposure using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and environmentally relevant concentrations of microplastic (< 1 mm) and associated chemicals. We exposed fish to three treatments: a no-plastic (i.e. negative control), virgin-plastic (i.e. virgin polyethylene pre-production pellets) and marine-plastic treatment (i.e. polyethylene pellets deployed in San Diego Bay, CA for 3 months). Altered gene expression was observed in male fish exposed to the marine-plastic treatment, whereas altered gene expression was observed in female fish exposed to both the marine- and virgin-plastic treatment. Significant down-regulation of choriogenin (Chg H) gene expression was observed in males and significant down-regulation of vitellogenin (Vtg I), Chg H and the estrogen receptor (ERα) gene expression was observed in females. In addition, histological observation revealed abnormal proliferation of germ cells in one male fish from the marine-plastic treatment. Overall, our study suggests that the ingestion of plastic debris at environmentally relevant concentrations may alter endocrine system function in adult fish and warrants further research. - Highlights: • We saw down-regulation of Chg H in males exposed to marine plastic. • We saw down-regulation of Vtg I, Chg H and ERα in females exposed to plastic. • We saw abnormal proliferation of germ cells in a male exposed to marine plastic. • Our results suggest that the ingestion of plastic may alter endocrine system function.

  11. Disruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray......This is a short video on the theme disruption and entrepreneurship. It takes the form of an interview with John Murray...

  12. Chemical analysis of fish bile extracts for monitoring endocrine disrupting chemical exposure in water: Bisphenol A, alkylphenols, and norethindrone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minghong; Pan, Chenyuan; Yang, Ming; Xu, Bentuo; Lei, Xiangjie; Ma, Jing; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jingsi

    2016-01-01

    The present study determined concentrations of estrogenic bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol, octylphenol (4-tert-octylphenol), butylphenol (4-tert-butylphenol), and progestogenic norethindrone by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in bile extracts from field fish from the Xin'an River and market fish in Shanghai, China. Compared with the field fish, endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) concentrations in market fish bile were at relatively high levels with high detectable rates. The average concentrations of BPA, nonylphenol, 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-tert-butylphenol, and norethindrone in field fish bile were 30.1 µg/L, 203 µg/L, 4.69 µg/L, 7.84 µg/L, and 0.514 µg/L, respectively; in market fish bile they were 240 µg/L, 528 µg/L, 76.5 µg/L, 12.8 µg/L, and 5.26 µg/L, respectively; and in the surface water of Xin'an River they were 38.8 ng/L, 7.91 ng/L, 1.98 ng/L, 2.66 ng/L, and 0.116 ng/L, respectively. The average of total estrogenic activity of river water was 3.32 ng/L estradiol equivalents. High bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were discovered for all 5 EDCs (≧998-fold) in field fish bile. Furthermore, the authors analyzed the BCF value of BPA in fish bile after 30-d exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA in the laboratory, and the analysis revealed that BCF in fish bile (BCF(Fish bile)) changed in an inverse concentration-dependent manner based on the log10-transformed BPA concentration in water. Strikingly, the data from the field study were well fitted within this trend. The data together suggested that analysis of fish bile extracts could be an efficient method for assessing waterborne EDCs exposure for aquatic biota.

  13. Occurrence, fate and environmental risk assessment of endocrine disrupting compounds at the wastewater treatment works in Pietermaritzburg (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickum, T; John, W

    2014-01-15

    Steroid hormone Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (EDCs) (natural estrogens (17-β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), estriol (E3), synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)), natural androgen (testosterone) (tes) and natural progestogen (progesterone) (pro)) at an activated sludge wastewater works (WWW), were quantitated using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The steroid hormone profile in the adjacent surface water was also determined. Pro was the most abundant (41%, 408 ng/L) in the influent, followed by tes (35%, 343 ng/L) and E2 (12%, 119 ng/L). E1 was the most abundant (35%, 23 ng/L) in effluent, followed by E2 (30%, 20 ng/L) and tes (17%, 11 ng/L). Chemical removal efficiencies of the steroid hormones by the WWW averaged 92%. High removal efficiency was observed for pro (98% ± 2) and tes (96% ± 1), compared to natural (72-100%) and synthetic estrogen (90% ± 3), with biodegradation being the major removal route for pro and tes. The lowest removal for E2 is in spring (65%), and maximum removal is in winter (95%). Natural (E2, E1) and synthetic estrogen (EE2) were major contributors to influent (E2 = 69%) and effluent (E2 = 73%) estrogenic potency. The estrogenic potency removal averaged 85% (range: 73-100). Risk assessment of the steroid hormones present in wastewater effluent, and surface water, indicated that EE2 and E2 pose the highest risk to human health and fish. EE2 was found to be much more resistant to biodegradation, compared to E2, in surface water. Estrone, as the breakdown product of E2 and EE2 in wastewater, appears to be suitable as an indicator of EDCs. The study suggests that a battery of tests: quantitative chemical assay, bioassay for estrogenic activity and risk assessment methods, collectively, are preferred in order to make meaningful, accurate conclusions regarding potential adverse effects of EDCs present in treated wastewater effluent or surface water, to the aquatic environment, human health, and wildlife systems.

  14. Determination of acidic pharmaceuticals and potential endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters and spring waters by selective elution and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Richard; Becerril-Bravo, Elías; Silva-Castro, Vanessa; Jiménez, Blanca

    2007-10-26

    Although the trend in development of analytical methods for emerging contaminants is towards reduced sample preparation and increased detector selectivity, there are still benefits from removal of matrix material during sample preparation. This paper describes a simple method for acidic pharmaceuticals and a range of potential endocrine disrupting compounds in untreated wastewaters and spring waters. It is based on separation of the two classes during elution from the extraction cartridge with final analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 3,4-D was used as the recovery standard for the acids while 4-n-nonylphenol and [2H4]estrone were used for the endocrine disrupters; mean recoveries varied between 89% and 111%. The method was also extensively validated by fortification with the target compounds. Recoveries of acids were from 68% to 97% with relative standard deviations generally less than 10% and recoveries of endocrine disrupters were 68-109% with relative standard deviations less than 20%. Detection limits varied from 0.005 to 1 ng/L in spring water, and from 0.5 to 100 ng/L in untreated wastewater. Concentrations of the analytes in the wastewater ranged from 0.018 to 22.4 microg/L. Values were comparable to reported data, although concentrations were generally relatively high, probably because of a lack of treatment. Triclosan, phthalates, estrone, 17beta-estradiol, ibuprofen, and naproxen were present in the spring water from aquifers recharged indirectly with this wastewater after its use for irrigation; concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 25.0 ng/L. The much lower concentrations compared to wastewater indicate effective removal processes on passage through the soil and subsoil.

  15. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  16. Molecular mechanism(s) of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and their potent oestrogenicity in diverse cells and tissues that express oestrogen receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Tae-Hee; Leung, Peter C K; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds present in the environment which can interfere with hormone synthesis and normal physiological functions of male and female reproductive organs. Most EDCs tend to bind to steroid hormone receptors including the oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and androgen receptor (AR). As EDCs disrupt the actions of endogenous hormones, they may induce abnormal reproduction, stimulation of cancer growth, dysfunction of neuronal and immune system. Although EDCs represent a significant public health concern, there are no standard methods to determine effect of EDCs on human beings. The mechanisms underlying adverse actions of EDC exposure are not clearly understood. In this review, we highlighted the toxicology of EDCs and its effect on human health, including reproductive development in males and females as shown in in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, this review brings attention to the toxicity of EDCs via interaction of genomic and non-genomic signalling pathways through hormone receptors.

  17. In vitro bioassay investigations of the endocrine disrupting potential of steviol glycosides and their metabolite steviol, components of the natural sweetener Stevia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Maeve; Rehfeld, Anders; Frizzell, Caroline; Livingstone, Christina; McGonagle, Caoimhe; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Wielogórska, Ewa; Connolly, Lisa

    2016-05-15

    The food industry is moving towards the use of natural sweeteners such as those produced by Stevia rebaudiana due to the number of health and safety concerns surrounding artificial sweeteners. Despite the fact that these sweeteners are natural; they cannot be assumed safe. Steviol glycosides have a steroidal structure and therefore may have the potential to act as an endocrine disruptor in the body. Reporter gene assays (RGAs), H295R steroidogenesis assay and Ca(2+) fluorimetry based assays using human sperm cells have been used to assess the endocrine disrupting potential of two steviol glycosides: stevioside and rebaudioside A, and their metabolite steviol. A decrease in transcriptional activity of the progestagen receptor was seen following treatment with 25,000 ng/ml steviol in the presence of progesterone (157 ng/ml) resulting in a 31% decrease in progestagen response (p=<0.01). At the level of steroidogenesis, the metabolite steviol (500-25,000 ng/ml) increased progesterone production significantly by 2.3 fold when exposed to 10,000 ng/ml (p=<0.05) and 5 fold when exposed to 25,000 ng/ml (p=<0.001). Additionally, steviol was found to induce an agonistic response on CatSper, a progesterone receptor of sperm, causing a rapid influx of Ca(2+). The response was fully inhibited using a specific CatSper inhibitor. These findings highlight the potential for steviol to act as a potential endocrine disruptor.

  18. The brominated flame retardants TBP-AE and TBP-DBPE antagonize the chicken androgen receptor and act as potential endocrine disrupters in chicken LMH cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnake, Solomon; Pradhan, Ajay; Kharlyngdoh, Joubert Banjop; Modig, Carina; Olsson, Per-Erik

    2015-12-01

    Increased exposure of birds to endocrine disrupting compounds has resulted in developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. We have recently identified the flame retardants, allyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-AE), 2-3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and the TBP-DBPE metabolite 2-bromoallyl-2,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-BAE) as antagonists to both the human androgen receptor (AR) and the zebrafish AR. In the present study, we aimed at determining whether these compounds also interact with the chicken AR. In silico modeling studies showed that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE were able to dock into to the chicken AR ligand-binding pocket. In vitro transfection assays revealed that all three brominated compounds acted as chicken AR antagonists, inhibiting testosterone induced AR activation. In addition, qRT-PCR studies confirmed that they act as AR antagonists and demonstrated that they also alter gene expression patterns of apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, drug metabolizing and amino acid transporter genes. These studies, using chicken LMH cells, suggest that TBP-AE, TBP-BAE and TBP-DBPE are potential endocrine disrupters in chicken.

  19. 环境内分泌干扰物复合效应研究进展%Research Advance in Joint Effects of Environmental Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春花; 蒋萍; 胡伟; 王玉秋

    2011-01-01

    As the constant progress has been made in environmental toxicology, scientists begin to pay more attention to lowdose and multi-chemicals pollutions. Environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EEDCs) are such pollutants which are characteristic of variety, complexity and low exposing dose. The present paper reviewed the recent researches on joint effects of EEDCs during the past two decades, predicted the further studies in this field, and also discussed the importance of establishment of detection and evaluation system which is proper in China.%随着环境毒理学的不断发展,低剂量复合污染问题逐渐成为研究热点.近年来,越来越多的环境内分泌干扰物(environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals,EEDCs)进入人们视线,这类物质以其种类繁多、暴露剂量低、作用复杂等特性引起广泛关注.该文综述了EEDCs复合效应的研究进展,预测了今后可能的研究方向.并提出建立我国特有的EEDCs检测评估体系的重要性.

  20. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates.

  1. Alteration of steroidogenesis in H{sub 2}95R cells by organic sediment contaminants and relationships to other endocrine disrupting effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaha, L.; Hilscherova, K.; Mazurova, E.; Hecker, M.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Bradley, P.W.; Gracia, T.; Duris, Z.; Horka, I.; Holoubek, I.; Giesy, J.P. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-08-15

    A novel bioassay with the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H{sub 2}95R can be used to screen for endocrine disrupting chemicals that affect the expression of genes important in steroidogenesis. This assay was employed to study the effects of organic contaminants associated with the freshwater pond sediments collected in the Ostrava-Karvina region, Czech Republic. The modulation of ten major genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, 17 beta HSD1, 17 beta HSD4, CYP21, 3 beta HSD2, HMGR, StAR) after exposure of H{sub 2}95R cells to sediment extracts was investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Crude sediment extracts, containing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and moderate amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) significantly stimulated expression of the CYP11B2 gene (up to 10-fold induction), and suppressed expression of 3 beta HSD2 and CYP21 genes. Comparison of the results with other mechanistically based bioassays (arylhydrocarbon receptor, AhR, mediated responses in H{sub 4}IIE-luc cells, and estrogen receptor mediated effects in MVLN cells) revealed significant endocrine disrupting potencies of organic contaminants present in the sediments (most likely antiestrogenicity).

  2. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and metabolic disorders%环境内分泌干扰物与机体代谢紊乱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭方

    2011-01-01

    肥胖和2型糖尿病等代谢性疾病是影响人类健康的重大问题。环境内分泌干扰物与其发病关系密切。塑料、杀虫剂、二噁英等物质均可引起代谢紊乱,这些物质通过激素受体、外源性化合物受体和代谢受体等多种受体干扰正常机体代谢。%Metabolic disorders such as obesity and type-2 diabetes have been one of the major health problems all over the world. It is proved that endocrine disrupting chemicals may interfere with the normal metabolism. Plastics, pesticides and doxins can inappropriately activate some of the hormone receptors, the xenosensors, and the metabolic receptors, which then mediate the endocrine disruption.

  3. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. national wildlife refuge waters: A reconnaissance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, L R; Blazer, V S; Pinkney, A E; Guy, C P; Major, A M; Munney, K; Mierzykowski, S; Lingenfelser, S; Secord, A; Patnode, K; Kubiak, T J; Stern, C; Hahn, C M; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A

    2016-02-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008-2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0-100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  4. Combining passive samplers and biomonitors to evaluate endocrine disrupting compounds in a wastewater treatment plant by LC/MS/MS and bioassay analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liscio, C. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Magi, E., E-mail: magie@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Di Carro, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita di Genova, via Dodecaneso, 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Suter, M.J.-F.; Vermeirssen, E.L.M. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    Two types of integrative sampling approaches (passive samplers and biomonitors) were tested for their sampling characteristics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Chemical analyses (LC/MS/MS) were used to determine the amounts of five EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and freshwater mussels (Unio pictorum); both had been deployed in the influent and effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Genoa, Italy. Estrogenicity of the POCIS samples was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estradiol equivalent values derived from the bioassay showed a positive correlation with estradiol equivalents calculated from chemical analyses data. As expected, the amount of estrogens and EEQ values in the effluent were lower than those in the influent. Passive sampling proved to be the preferred method for assessing the presence of these compounds since employing mussels had several disadvantages both in sampling efficiency and sample analyses. - Passive sampling and biomonitoring were used to determine the amounts of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewaters.

  5. Development of a fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of endocrine-disrupting compounds in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carro, Marina; Scapolla, Carlo; Liscio, Camilla; Magi, Emanuele

    2010-09-01

    A fast liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed to study five endocrine-disrupting compounds (4-n-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol) in water. Different columns were tested; the chromatographic separation of the analytes was optimized on a Pinnacle DB biphenylic column with a water-acetonitrile gradient elution, which allowed the separation of the selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in less than 6 min. Quantitative analysis was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode; two transitions were chosen for each compound, using the most abundant for quantitation. Calibration curves using bisphenol A-d (16) as internal standard were drawn, showing good correlation coefficients (0.9993-0.9998). All figures of merit of the method were satisfactory; limits of detection were in the low pg range for all analytes. The method was then applied to the determination of the analytes in real water samples: to this aim, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the influent and in the effluent of a drinking water treatment plant in Liguria (Italy). The EDC level was rather low in the influent and negligible in the outlet, reflecting the expected function of the treatment plant.

  6. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-03-14

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

  7. Persistence of endocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after discontinued exposure to the androgen 17β-trenbolone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Lisa; Knörr, Susanne; Keiter, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the androgenic endocrine disruptor 17β-trenbolone on the sexual development of zebrafish (Danio rerio) with special emphasis on the question whether adverse outcomes of developmental exposure are reversible or persistent. An exposure...

  8. Development of biomarkers of stress related to endocrine disruption in gastropods: alkali-labile phosphates, protein-bound lipids and vitellogenin-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Gagné, François; André, Chantale; Blaise, Christian; Abbaci, Khedidja; Budzinski, Hélène; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; Garric, Jeanne

    2009-05-05

    The occurrence in aquatic environments of compounds capable of acting as endocrine disruptors (ED) is of concern for wildlife. Elevated levels of the egg-yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg) are widely accepted as a biomarker for xenoestrogen exposure in aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for tracking changes in levels of Vg-like proteins in gastropods. Vg-like and egg-yolk proteins were analyzed in three freshwater gastropods having different modes of reproduction: Potamopyrgus antipodarum (asexual reproduction), Valvata piscinalis (hermaphroditism) and Lithoglyphus naticoides (sexual reproduction). Vitellogenin-like protein levels were examined by the alkali-labile phosphate (ALP) technique, a novel protein-bound lipid (PBL) assay, and by gradient gel electrophoresis with silver staining. The first phase of the study was dedicated to the development and optimization of an analytical method for detecting Vg-like proteins in these three gastropod species. In the second phase, the snails P. antipodarum and V. piscinalis were exposed to bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP) and tributyltin (TBT) for 14 and 28 days. Vg-like proteins were resolved in one major band at 250-300 kDa for L. naticoides and V. piscinalis and in two bands at 100 and 30 kDa for P. antipodarum. After 14 days of exposure, all techniques showed an increase in Vg-like protein levels at 100 microg/L BPA and at 1 microg/L OP in P. antipodarum. A decrease in these proteins was observed with high concentrations of OP (100 microg/L) and TBT (>or=5 ng/L). In V. piscinalis, a decrease in Vg-like proteins was shown after 14 days of exposure for OP >or=10 microg/L and TBT >or=5 ng/L; however, at 28 days, gel electrophoresis revealed an increase in these proteins. Histological observations showed significant necrosis in ovotestes of V. piscinalis with the three endocrine-disrupting compounds, while tissue modifications were not detected for P. antipodarum. A method for

  9. Parental occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and male genital malformations: A study in the Danish National Birth Cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria M; Toft, Gunnar V; Jensen, Morten S

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones closely regulate development of the male genital organs during fetal life. The hypothesis that xenobiotics may disrupt endogenous hormonal signalling has received considerable scientific attention, but human evidence is scarce....

  10. Occurrence and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals in reclaimed water and receiving groundwater in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Xiang, Xi; Li, Miao; Ma, Yeping; Wang, Jihua; Liu, Xiang

    2015-09-01

    Groundwater recharge using reclaimed water is considered a promising method to alleviate groundwater depletion. However, pollutants in reclaimed water could be recharged into groundwater during this process, thereby posing a risk to groundwater and human health. In this study, 12 cities in northern China were selected for reclaimed water and groundwater sampling. Analysis of the samples revealed the presence of nine pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and five endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). In reclaimed water, all the PPCPs and EDCs were found, with sulpiride (SP) and estriol (E3) being most frequently detected. In groundwater samples, only ketoprofen (KP), mefenamic acid (MA), nalidixic acid (NA) and SP were detected among PPCPs, while bisphenol-A (BPA) was dominant among the target EDCs. The risk quotients (RQs) of all target PPCPs and EDCs except 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2) and E3 were below 1 in groundwater samples, indicating that EE2 and E3 deserve priority preferential treatment before recharging.

  11. Female sexual maturation and reproduction after prepubertal exposure to estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals: a review of rodent and human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, G; Toppari, J; Parent, A-S; Bourguignon, J-P

    2006-07-25

    Natural hormones and some synthetic chemicals spread into our surrounding environment share the capacity to interact with hormone action and metabolism. Exposure to such compounds can cause a variety of developmental and reproductive detrimental abnormalities in wildlife species and, potentially, in human. Many experimental and epidemiological data have reported that exposure of the developing fetus or neonate to environmentally relevant concentrations of some among these endocrine disrupters induces morphological, biochemical and/or physiological disorders in brain and reproductive organs, by interfering with the hormone actions. The impact of such exposures on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and subsequent sexual maturation is the subject of the present review. We will highlight epidemiological human studies and the effects of early exposure during gestational, perinatal or postnatal life in female rodents.

  12. Ligula intestinalis infection as a potential source of bias in the bioindication of endocrine disruption in the European chub Leuciscus cephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabuss, M; Gemeiner, M; Gleiss, A; Lewis, J W; Miller, I; Möstl, E; Schober, U; Tschulenk, W; Walter, I; Grillitsch, B

    2005-03-01

    European chub Leuciscus cephalus collected from five localities in the lowland and subalpine regions of Austria were analysed for oestrogenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and the presence of the plerocercoid of the tapeworm Ligula intestinalis. Of 1494 chub analysed, only seven (six males, one female) were found to be infected with single, but large plerocercoids up to 15 cm in length. Ligula-infected fish showed comparatively immature gonads, as demonstrated by the gonadosomatic index and gamete developmental stages. Plasma levels of the egg precursor protein vitellogenin also showed concentrations ranging below the detection limit. The present results indicate that chub infected with L. intestinalis and exposed to exogenous oestrogenic compounds can result in reduced gonadal maturation and produce false oestrogen-positive diagnoses in male fish. For plasma vitellogenin levels, L. intestinalis infections can result in false oestrogen-negative diagnoses in male and female fish.

  13. Combining passive samplers and biomonitors to evaluate endocrine disrupting compounds in a wastewater treatment plant by LC/MS/MS and bioassay analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liscio, C; Magi, E; Di Carro, M; Suter, M J-F; Vermeirssen, E L M

    2009-10-01

    Two types of integrative sampling approaches (passive samplers and biomonitors) were tested for their sampling characteristics of selected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). Chemical analyses (LC/MS/MS) were used to determine the amounts of five EDCs (nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and freshwater mussels (Unio pictorum); both had been deployed in the influent and effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Genoa, Italy. Estrogenicity of the POCIS samples was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). Estradiol equivalent values derived from the bioassay showed a positive correlation with estradiol equivalents calculated from chemical analyses data. As expected, the amount of estrogens and EEQ values in the effluent were lower than those in the influent. Passive sampling proved to be the preferred method for assessing the presence of these compounds since employing mussels had several disadvantages both in sampling efficiency and sample analyses.

  14. Co-assembly of CdTe and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} with molecularly imprinted polymer for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Limin, E-mail: aaaa2139@163.com [School of Chemistry, Jilin Normal University, Siping 136000 (China); Chen, Shaona [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Chu, Jia [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710054 (China); Li, Xin, E-mail: lixin@hit.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol to fabricate imprinting matrix co-loaded with CdTe quantum dots and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for the recognition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The resultant composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The materials have been demonstrated to be characterized with spherical shape with a saturation magnetization value of 1.7 emu g{sup −1}. Furthermore, the rebinding experiments show that the resultant materials have greater affinity and selectivity towards p-nitrophenol (model EDCs) over structurally related compounds. We believe that the effective method proposed in this work might provide a platform to prepare magnetic and fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of EDCs.

  15. Co-assembly of CdTe and Fe3O4 with molecularly imprinted polymer for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Limin; Chen, Shaona; Chu, Jia; Li, Xin

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol to fabricate imprinting matrix co-loaded with CdTe quantum dots and Fe3O4 nanoparticles for the recognition of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The resultant composites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The materials have been demonstrated to be characterized with spherical shape with a saturation magnetization value of 1.7 emu g-1. Furthermore, the rebinding experiments show that the resultant materials have greater affinity and selectivity towards p-nitrophenol (model EDCs) over structurally related compounds. We believe that the effective method proposed in this work might provide a platform to prepare magnetic and fluorescent molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of EDCs.

  16. Identification and mRNA expression of two 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Qing; Ji, Yinglu; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Huifeng; Xie, Jia; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are multifunctional enzymes involved in the metabolism of steroids, fatty acids, retinoids and bile acid. In this study, two novel types of 17β-HSDs (named as MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. Sequence analysis showed that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 encoded a polypeptide of 259 and 325 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 were evolutionarily clustered with other invertebrate 17β-HSD type 10 and 17β-HSD type 12 homologues. The MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 transcripts could be detected in all examined tissues with higher expression levels in digestive glands and gonad. After exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (Bisphenol A or 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), the expression of MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 transcripts was both down-regulated in digestive glands. These findings suggest that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 perhaps play an important role in the endocrine regulation of M. galloprovincialis.

  17. Paternal Occupational Exposure to Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals as a Risk Factor for Leukaemia in Children: A Case-Control Study from the North of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Pearce

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupations with exposures to a variety of chemicals, including those thought to be potential endocrine disruptors, have been associated with an increased risk of leukaemia in offspring. We investigated whether an association exists between paternal occupations at birth involving such exposures and risk of leukaemia in offspring. Cases (n=958 were matched, on sex and year of birth, to controls from two independent sources, one other cancers, one cancer-free live births. Paternal occupations at birth were classified, using an occupational exposure matrix, as having “very unlikely,” “possible,” or “likely” exposure to six groups of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals. There was a significantly increased risk of acute nonlymphocytic leukaemia (ANLL for polychlorinated organic compounds (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.08–3.54 only in comparison with cancer-free controls, and for phthalates (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.00–2.61 only with registry controls. A number of other, including inverse, associations were seen, but limited to one control group only. No associations were seen with likely paternal exposure to heavy metals. The associations identified in this study require further investigation, with better exposure and potential confounding (for example maternal variables information, to evaluate the likelihood of true associations to assess whether they are real or due to chance.

  18. Evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption in smallmouth and largemouth bass inhabiting Northeast U.S. National Wildlife Refuge waters: A reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Blazer, Vicki; Pinkney, A.E.; Guy, C.P.; Major, A.M.; Munney, K.; Mierzykowski, S.; Lingenfelser, S.; Secord, A.; Patnode, K.; Kubiak, T.J.; Stern, C.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Intersex as the manifestation of testicular oocytes (TO) in male gonochoristic fishes has been used as an indicator of estrogenic exposure. Here we evaluated largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) or smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) form 19 National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) in the Northeast U.S. inhabiting waters on or near NWR lands for evidence of estrogenic endocrine disruption. Waterbodies sampled included rivers, lakes, impoundments, ponds, and reservoirs. Here we focus on evidence of endocrine disruption in male bass evidenced by gonad histopathology including intersex or abnormal plasma vitellogenin (Vtg) concentrations. During the fall seasons of 2008–2010, we collected male smallmouth bass (n=118) from 12 sites and largemouth bass (n=173) from 27 sites. Intersex in male smallmouth bass was observed at all sites and ranged from 60% to 100%; in male largemouth bass the range was 0–100%. Estrogenicity, as measured using a bioluminescent yeast reporter, was detected above the probable no effects concentration (0.73 ng/L) in ambient water samples from 79% of the NWR sites. Additionally, the presence of androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptor ligands were noted as measured via novel nuclear receptor translocation assays. Mean plasma Vtg was elevated (>0.2 mg/ml) in male smallmouth bass at four sites and in male largemouth bass at one site. This is the first reconnaissance survey of this scope conducted on US National Wildlife Refuges. The baseline data collected here provide a necessary benchmark for future monitoring and justify more comprehensive NWR-specific studies.

  19. Effects of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on several eukaryotic cell lines: elucidating cytotoxicity, endocrine disruption, and reactive oxygen species generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Anne; Maletz, Sibylle X; Hollert, Henner; Schäffer, Andreas; Maes, Hanna M

    2014-01-01

    To date, only a few reports about studies on toxic effects of carbon nanotubes (CNT) are available, and their results are often controversial. Three different cell lines (rainbow trout liver cells (RTL-W1), human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (T47Dluc), and human adrenocarcinoma cells (H295R)) were exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes, the antimicrobial agent triclocarban (TCC) as well as the mixture of both substances in a concentration range of 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L, 31.25 to 500 μg TCC/L, and 3.13 to 50 mg CNT/L + 1% TCC (percentage relative to carbon nanotubes concentration), respectively. Triclocarban is a high-production volume chemical that is widely used as an antimicrobial compound and is known for its toxicity, hydrophobicity, endocrine disruption, bioaccumulation potential, and environmental persistence. Carbon nanotubes are known to interact with hydrophobic organic compounds. Therefore, triclocarban was selected as a model substance to examine mixture toxicity in this study. The influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and triclocarban on various toxicological endpoints was specified: neither cytotoxicity nor endocrine disruption could be observed after exposure of the three cell lines to carbon nanotubes, but the nanomaterial caused intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in all cell types. For TCC on the other hand, cell vitality of 80% could be observed at a concentration of 2.1 mg/L for treated RTL-W1 cells. A decrease of luciferase activity in the ER Calux assay at a triclocarban concentration of 125 μg/L and higher was observed. This effect was less pronounced when multiwalled carbon nanotubes were present in the medium. Taken together, these results demonstrate that multiwalled carbon nanotubes induce the production of reactive oxygen species in RTL-W1, T47Dluc, and H295R cells, reveal no cytotoxicity, and reduce the bioavailability and toxicity of the biocide triclocarban.

  20. Endocrine disrupting compounds reduction and water quality improvement in reclaimed municipal wastewater: A field-scale study along Jialu River in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Ji, Xiaowen; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Yu; Liang, Ying; Du, Jinhui; Xie, Xianchuan; Li, Aimin

    2016-08-01

    Several ecological restoration projects have been constructed along urban rivers in North China to purify reclaimed municipal wastewater and improve the water quality of urban rivers. These projects attempt to address several environmental issues, including treating water contamination that is not fully remediated through standard wastewater treatment. This study investigated the efficiency of reducing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and estrogenic activity in reclaimed municipal wastewater along an 18.5 km field-scale ecological restoration project in Jialu River. The river only receives reclaimed municipal wastewater without natural effluent in North China. Data show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) of reclaimed municipal effluent improved when compared to the Chinese surface water standard, and natural estrogens, such as estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2), were effectively removed during ecological restoration purification processes. The estradiol activity based on measured EDCs concentrations (ΣEEQEDC) was less than 0.01 ng/L after the ecological purification of restoration river; however, synthetic endocrine disrupting compounds in reclaimed municipal wastewater, such as octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), and dibutyl phthalate (DBP), were difficult to eliminate. The bioassays of MDA-kb2 cells and recombinant yeast in vitro showed no direct androgen response and estrogen effect in reclaimed municipal effluent after the purification processes. However, a chorionic long-term (21d) exposure in vivo test showed that exposure to the reclaimed municipal effluents, even after river purification, still significantly induced yolk protein vitellogenin (Vtg) in male zebrafish, leading to abnormal expression of testosterone (T) and E2. This indicates continued potent estrogenic activity to aquatic organisms, even after treatment and purification.

  1. Endocrine disrupting chemicals and other substances of concern in food contact materials: an updated review of exposure, effect and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncke, Jane

    2011-10-01

    Food contact materials (FCM) are an underestimated source of chemical food contaminants and a potentially relevant route of human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Quantifying the exposure of the general population to substances from FCM relies on estimates of food consumption and leaching into food. Recent studies using polycarbonate plastics show that food simulants do not always predict worst-case leaching of bisphenol A, a common FCM substance. Also, exposure of children to FCM substances is not always realistically predicted using the common conventions and thus possibly misjudged. Further, the exposure of the whole population to substances leaching into dry foods is underestimated. Consumers are exposed to low levels of substances from FCM across their entire lives. Effects of these compounds currently are assessed with a focus on mutagenicity and genotoxicity. This approach however neglects integrating recent new toxicological findings, like endocrine disruption, mixture toxicity, and developmental toxicity. According to these new toxicology paradigms women of childbearing age and during pregnancy are a new sensitive population group requiring more attention. Furthermore, in overweight and obese persons a change in the metabolism of xenobiotics is observed, possibly implying that this group of consumers is insufficiently protected by current risk assessment practice. Innovations in FCM risk assessment should therefore include routine testing for EDCs and an assessment of the whole migrate toxicity of a food packaging, taking into account all sensitive population groups. In this article I focus on recent issues of interest concerning either exposure to or effects of FCM-related substances. Further, I review the use of benzophenones and organotins, two groups of known or suspected EDCs, in FCM authorized in the US and EU.

  2. Endocrine disrupting activities in sewage effluent and river water determined by chemical analysis and in vitro assay in the context of granular activated carbon upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, D P; Balaam, J; Pacitto, S; Readman, J W; White, S; Zhou, J L

    2011-09-01

    As part of endocrine disruption in catchments (EDCAT) programme, this work aims to assess the temporal and spatial variations of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in River Ray, before and after the commissioning of a full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant at a sewage treatment works (STW). Through spot and passive sampling from effluent and river sites, estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities were determined by chemical analysis and in vitro bio-assay. A correlation was found between chemical analyses of the most potent estrogens (estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and yeast estrogen screen (YES) measurement, both showing clearly a reduction in estrogenic activity after the commissioning of the GAC plant at the STW. During the study period, the annual average concentrations of E1, E2 and EE2 had decreased from 3.5 ng L(-1), 3.1 ng L(-1) and 0.5 ng L(-1) to below their limit of detection (LOD), respectively, with a concentration reduction of at least 91%, 81% and 60%. Annual mean estrogenic activity measured by YES of spot samples varied from 1.9 ng L(-1) to 0.4 ng L(-1) E2 equivalent between 2006 and 2008 representing a 79% reduction. Similarly, anti-androgenic activity measured by yeast anti-androgen screen (anti-YAS) of spot samples was reduced from 148.8 to 22.4 μg flutamide L(-1), or by 85%. YES and anti-YAS values were related to each other, suggesting co-existence of both types of activities from chemical mixtures in environmental samples. The findings confirm the effectiveness of a full-scale GAC in removing both estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities from sewage effluent.

  3. Research on Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA researchers are developing innovative approaches, tools, models and data to improve the understanding of potential risks to human health and wildlife from chemicals that could disrupt the endocrine system.

  4. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis in teleosts and amphibians: Endocrine disruption and its consequences to natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J.A.; Patino, R.

    2011-01-01

    Teleosts and pond-breeding amphibians may be exposed to a wide variety of anthropogenic, waterborne contaminants that affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Because thyroid hormone is required for their normal development and reproduction, the potential impact of HPT-disrupting contaminants on natural teleost and amphibian populations raises special concern. There is laboratory evidence indicating that persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, pharmaceutical and personal care products, agricultural chemicals, and aerospace products may alter HPT activity, development, and reproduction in teleosts and amphibians. However, at present there is no evidence to clearly link contaminant-induced HPT alterations to impairments in teleost or amphibian population health in the field. Also, with the exception of perchlorate for which laboratory studies have shown a direct link between HPT disruption and adverse impacts on development and reproductive physiology, little is known about if or how other HPT-disrupting contaminants affect organismal performance. Future field studies should focus on establishing temporal associations between the presence of HPT-disrupting chemicals, the occurrence of HPT alterations, and adverse effects on development and reproduction in natural populations; as well as determining how complex mixtures of HPT contaminants affect organismal and population health. ?? 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  5. The hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis in teleosts and amphibians: Endocrine disruption and its consequences to natural populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Teleosts and pond-breeding amphibians may be exposed to a wide variety of anthropogenic, waterborne contaminants that affect the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Because thyroid hormone is required for their normal development and reproduction, the potential impact of HPT-disrupting contaminants on natural teleost and amphibian populations raises special concern. There is laboratory evidence indicating that persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, pharmaceutical and personal care products, agricultural chemicals, and aerospace products may alter HPT activity, development, and reproduction in teleosts and amphibians. However, at present there is no evidence to clearly link contaminant-induced HPT alterations to impairments in teleost or amphibian population health in the field. Also, with the exception of perchlorate for which laboratory studies have shown a direct link between HPT disruption and adverse impacts on development and reproductive physiology, little is known about if or how other HPT-disrupting contaminants affect organismal performance. Future field studies should focus on establishing temporal associations between the presence of HPT-disrupting chemicals, the occurrence of HPT alterations, and adverse effects on development and reproduction in natural populations; as well as determining how complex mixtures of HPT contaminants affect organismal and population health.

  6. The epidemiologic evidence linking prenatal and postnatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals with male reproductive disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rimborg, Susie; Glazer, Clara Helene; Giwercman, Aleksander; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Høyer, Birgit Bjerre; Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Petersen, Sesilje Bondo; Rylander, Lars; Specht, Ina Olmer; Toft, Gunnar; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 20 years ago, it was hypothesized that exposure to prenatal and early postnatal environmental xenobiotics with the potential to disrupt endogenous hormone signaling might be on the causal path to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm count and testicular cancer. Several consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE The aim of this study was to systematically synthesize published data on the risk of cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm counts and testicular cancer following in utero or infant exposure to chemicals that have been included on the European Commission's list of Category 1 endocrine disrupting chemicals defined as having documented adverse effects due to endocrine disruption in at least one intact organism. SEARCH METHODS A systematic literature search for original peer reviewed papers was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase to identify epidemiological studies reporting associations between the outcomes of interest and exposures documented by biochemical analyses of biospecimens including maternal blood or urine, placenta or fat tissue as well as amnion fluid, cord blood or breast milk; this was followed by meta-analysis of quantitative data. OUTCOMES The literature search resulted in 1314 references among which we identified 33 papers(28 study populations) fulfilling the eligibility criteria. These provided 85 risk estimates of links between persistent organic pollutants and rapidly metabolized compounds (phthalates and Bisphenol A) and male reproductive disorders. The overall odds ratio (OR) across all exposures and outcomes was 1.11 (95% CI 0.91–1.35). When assessing four specific chemical subgroups with sufficient data for meta-analysis for all outcomes, we found that exposure to one of the four

  7. In vitro evaluation of the toxic effects and endocrine disrupting potential of oil sands processed water and naphthenic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Wiseman, S.; Higley, E.; Jones, P.D.; Hecker, M.; Giesy, J.P. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Gamel El Din, M.; Martin, J.W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are the primary toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW). This presentation reported on a series of in vitro studies that were initiated to evaluate potential endocrine modulating effects of OSPW and their constituent NAs. The H295R steroidogenesis bioassay was used to examine the impact of OSPW and NA on 52 steroidogenesis. In particular, dose-response and time course studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of OSPW and NAs on testosterone and estradiol production. Aromatase activity and transcript abundance of the key 11 steroidogenic enzymes were also quantified to complement analysis of hormone levels. The MVLN trans-activation assay was used to test the estrogenicity/anti-estrogenicity of OSPW and NAs. In vitro cell viability and apoptosis (live-dead) caused by OSPW and NAs was quantified by the MTS reduction and caspase-3/7 activity in H295R and MVLN cells.

  8. Biomarkers of effect in endocrine disruption: how to link a functional assay to an adverse outcome pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of in vitro testing strategies may achieve a cost-effective generation of comprehensive datasets on a large number of chemicals, according to the requirements of the European Regulation REACH. Much emphasis is placed on in vitro methods based on subcellular mechanisms (e.g., nuclear receptor interaction, but it is necessary to define the predictive value of molecular or biochemical changes within an adverse outcome pathway (AOP. AOP pivots on the description of the flow from a molecular initiating event through a cascade of intermediate events needed to produce a specific adverse effect at organism level: downstream responses at cell level are, therefore, essential to define an AOP. Several in vitro assays are based on human cell lines representative of endocrine-targeted tissues (e.g., prostate and on functional biomarkers of clinical relevance (e.g., PSA secretion in human prostate epithelial cells. We discuss the implementation of such functional biomarkers in the AOP context.

  9. Neuroendocrine targets of endocrine disruptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Andrea C

    2010-01-01

    The central neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, as well as stress responsiveness. These processes are initiated by signals in the central nervous system, specifically the hypothalamus, and are conveyed first by neural and then by endocrine effectors. The neuroendocrine systems, as the links between the brain and peripheral endocrine organs, play critical roles in the ability of an organism to respond to its environment under normal circumstances. When neuroendocrine homeostasis is disrupted by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, a variety of perturbations can ensue, particularly when endocrine disruption occurs during critical developmental time periods. This article will discuss the evidence for environmental endocrine disruption of neuroendocrine systems and the effects on endocrine and reproductive functions.

  10. Developmental programming: impact of fetal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals on gonadotropin-releasing hormone and estrogen receptor mRNA in sheep hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-09-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) and methoxychlor (MXC), two endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects, disrupt the reproductive system. BPA has profound effects on luteinizing hormone (LH) surge amplitude, and MXC has profound effects on on LH surge timing in sheep. The neural mechanisms involved in the differential disruption of the LH surge by these two EDCs remain to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that the differential effects of BPA and MXC on LH surge system involved changes in hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and estrogen receptors (ESR), ESR1 and ESR2, mRNA expression. Pregnant sheep were given daily injections of cottonseed oil (controls), MXC, or BPA (5mg/kg/day) from day 30 to 90 of gestation (term 147d). Offspring from these animals were euthanized as adults, during the late follicular phase following synchronization of estrus with prostaglandin F(2alpha), just before the expected onset of preovulatory LH surge and changes in mRNA expression of hypothalamic GnRH, ESR1, and ESR2 quantified following in situ hybridization. GnRH mRNA expression was significantly lower in both groups of EDC-treated females compared to controls. ESR1 expression was increased in prenatal BPA- but not MXC-treated females in medial preoptic area relative to controls. In contrast, ESR2 expression was reduced in the medial preoptic area of both EDC-treated groups. Differences in expression of ESR1/ESR2 receptors may contribute to the differential effects of BPA and MXC on the LH surge system. These findings provide support that prenatal exposure to EDCs alters the neural developmental trajectory leading to long-term reproductive consequences in the adult female.

  11. The effect of perinatal exposure to ethinyl oestradiol or a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides on kisspeptin neurons in the rat hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Agnete; Holst, Klaus; Mandrup, Karen R; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie; Jacobsen, Pernille R; Hass, Ulla; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-07-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disruptors is considered to disturb normal development of hormone sensitive parameters and contribute to advanced puberty and reduced fecundity in humans. Kisspeptin is a positive regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and plays a key role in the initiation of puberty. In the adult, Kiss1 gene expression occurs in two hypothalamic nuclei, namely the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC), which are differentially regulated by peripheral sex steroid hormones. In this study we determined the effects on puberty onset and Kiss1 mRNA levels in each of the two nuclei after long-term perinatal exposure of rats to ethinyl oestradiol (EE2) or to five different pesticides, individually and in a mixture. Rat dams were per orally administered with three doses of EE2 (5, 15 or 50 μg/kg/day) or with the pesticides epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole, and procymidone, alone or in a mixture of the five pesticides at three different doses. Kiss1 mRNA expression was determined in the AVPV and in the ARC of the adult male and female pups in the EE2 experiment, and in the adult female pups in the pesticide experiment. We find that perinatal EE2 exposure did not affect Kiss1 mRNA expression in this study designed to model human exposure to estrogenic compounds, and we find only minor effects on puberty onset. Further, the Kiss1 system does not exhibit persistent changes and puberty onset is not affected after perinatal exposure to a pesticide mixture in this experimental setting. However, we find that the pesticide mancozeb tends to increase Kiss1 expression in the ARC, presumably through neurotoxic mechanisms rather than via classical endocrine disruption, calling for increased awareness that Kiss1 expression can be affected by environmental pollutants through multiple mechanisms.

  12. Incidence of Breast, Prostate, Testicular, and Thyroid Cancer in Italian Contaminated Sites with Presence of Substances with Endocrine Disrupting Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Benedetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females, prostate, testicular, and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs, served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs, reported to be linked to these tumours, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCSs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions and committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs were computed for each NPCS and cancer site between 1996 and 2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site studied was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender in four, and for testicular cancer in two. Non-significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males. In a small number of instances a significant deficit was reported, mainly for thyroid and prostate cancer. Although increased incidence of one or more cancer sites studied were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered tumours do not permit concluding causal links with environmental contamination. Regarding the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  13. Incidence of Breast, Prostate, Testicular, and Thyroid Cancer in Italian Contaminated Sites with Presence of Substances with Endocrine Disrupting Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Marta; Zona, Amerigo; Beccaloni, Eleonora; Carere, Mario; Comba, Pietro

    2017-03-29

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the incidence of breast (females), prostate, testicular, and thyroid cancer in the Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites (NPCSs), served by cancer registries, where the presence of endocrine disruptors (EDs), reported to be linked to these tumours, was documented. Evidence of carcinogenicity of EDs present in NPCSs was assessed based on evaluation by international scientific institutions and committees. Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIRs) were computed for each NPCS and cancer site between 1996 and 2005. Excess incidence of one or more cancer site studied was found in twelve out of fourteen NPCSs. Significantly increased SIRs were found for breast cancer in eight NPCSs, for prostate cancer in six, for thyroid cancer (both gender) in four, and for testicular cancer in two. Non-significantly increased SIRs were found in five NPCSs for testicular cancer and in two for thyroid cancer (males). In a small number of instances a significant deficit was reported, mainly for thyroid and prostate cancer. Although increased incidence of one or more cancer sites studied were found in several NPCSs, the ecological study design and the multifactorial aetiology of the considered tumours do not permit concluding causal links with environmental contamination. Regarding the observation of some excesses in SIRs, continuing epidemiological surveillance is warranted.

  14. Reproductive toxicity of the endocrine disrupters vinclozolin and bisphenol A in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille, 1804).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, M F L; van Gestel, C A M; Soares, A M V M

    2010-02-01

    Endocrine Disruptor Compounds (EDCs) have been largely studied concerning their effects on vertebrates. Nevertheless, invertebrates as targets for these chemicals have been neglected and few studies are available. Specifically for edaphic invertebrates, data concerning the effects of EDCs is residual. Influences of EDCs on the reproduction systems of these organisms, with consequences at the population level, are expected but have not been confirmed. This work aimed to study the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and vinclozolin (Vz) on the reproduction of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. Isopods were coupled and exposed to increasing concentrations of Vz and BPA and the females' reproductive cycle followed for 56d. Both compounds elicited reproductive toxicity. Vz and BPA decreased female reproductive allocation. Vz reduced pregnancy duration; increased the abortion percentage; decreased the number of pregnancies; and decreased the number of juveniles per female while BPA increased abortions at the lowest and highest test concentrations. The reproductive endpoints presented in here are indicative of the possible impact that this type of compounds might have on isopod population dynamics, which may eventually lead to population decline.

  15. Disruptores endocrinos. El caso particular de los xenobióticos estrogénicos. I Estrógenos naturales Endocrine disrupters. The case of estrogen xenobiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín Olmedo

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available El interés de la comunidad científica por la exposición humana a sustancias químicas capaces de alterar el equilibrio hormonal -disruptores endocrinos— ha crecido al mismo tiempo que se han presentado pruebas de las con- secuencias de la exposición a estas sustancias sobre poblaciones animales. Como ha ocurrido en ocasiones anteriores, los datos observacionales en poblaciones animales han sido lo suficientemente sugerentes como para inducir entre los clínicos cierto grado de preocupación, por si estuvieran produciéndose efectos similares en poblaciones humanas. Si bien es cierto que los datos sobre afectación de poblaciones animales se generan mas fácilmente de forma poblacional que individual, también es verdad que las observaciones individuales en la clínica junto con algunos pocos estudios epidemiológicos han demostrado cierto paralelismo. De hecho, modelos in vitro e in vivo han servido para asignar capacidad mimetizadora hormonal a muchos compuestos químicos, tanto naturales como de producción humana, para los cuales existe riesgo de exposición. En este trabajo se revisan las premisas conceptuales sobre disrupción endocrina y como se llegó a acuñar el término.Interest of the scientific community in chemical substances able to alter the hormone balance –endocrine disrupters- has grown with increasing evidence of the consequences for animal populations of exposure to these substances. As has occurred on previous occasions, observational data on animal populations have been sufficiently suggestive to cause concerns among clinicians that similar effects may be produced in human populations. Although data on the effects on populations of animals are more easily generated than those on individuals, clinical observations on human individuals alongside the few existing epidemiological studies have shown a certain parallelism. Indeed, in vitro and in vivo models have been able to designate many chemical compounds as hormonal

  16. Kinetics of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of endocrine disrupting chemicals using sulfur-doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-jian; JIN Yu-ping; WANG Bin; LIU Hui-ling; CHEN Chao; HAN Lei

    2010-01-01

    In this study,sulfur-doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrodes were prepared by anodization.The morphology,crystalline structure,composition of sulfur-doped TiO2/Ti film and light absorption property were examined by SEM,XRD,XRF,XPS and UV/VIS respectively.Dimethyl phthalate(DMP),one kind of environmental disrupting chemicals(EDCs),was degraded by the optimized photoelectrodes.Power of xenon light,initial concentration of DMP,photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) area of photoelectrode and bias were investigated in the study on kinetics of PEC degradation of DMP.Hence,this study concluded that the optimum conditions were power of xenon light 150 W,initial concentration of DMP 1 mg/L,PEC area of sulfur-doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrode 10 cm2,bias 1.3 V in the PEC reaction system.

  17. 环境污染对几类水生无脊椎动物内分泌功能扰乱的研究现状%Current status of environmental endocrine disruption in selected aquatic invertebrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enmin ZOU

    2003-01-01

    近年来,在环境毒理学这门边缘学科中又诞生了一个新的领域,即环境污染对内分泌功能的扰乱.研究发现,许多人工合成的杀虫剂和工业化合物能够扰乱脊椎动物的内分泌功能,这些化合物也存在于水环境中.近年来,这些环境有机污染物是否对水生无脊椎动物的内分泌功能同样具有扰乱作用成了环境内分泌学这个新领域的热点之一.由于近年来的研究侧重于腔肠动物、轮虫、软体动物、甲壳动物及棘皮动物,因此,本文主要介绍有关环境污染物对这几类水生无脊椎动物内分泌功能扰乱的研究进展.另外,对环境污染对水生无脊椎动物内分泌扰乱这个研究热点的现状以及今后的发展方向进行了评述.在从事环境污染对无脊椎动物内分泌功能影响的研究时,研究者必须意识到无脊椎动物和脊椎动物在内分泌机制上的差异,不可随意地在这两大类动物类群之间互相引伸研究结果.%Endocrine disruption by environmental contaminants has recently emerged as a new subdiscipline of environmental toxicology. Aquatic environments are increasingly contaminated with various anthropogenic chemicals,many of which are capable of disrupting endocrine functions of vertebrates. Where aquatic invertebrates are concerned, most of the recent reports are concerned with the impact of organic xenobiotics on endocrine functions in cnidarians, rotifers, mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms. This review provides an overview of the current status of this research on endocrine disruption in these invertebrates. Suggestions for future research directions in the field of invertebrate endocrine disruption are also presented. Because of the disparities between the endocrine systems of invertebrates and vertebrates, care must be exercised in extrapolating to invertebrates, particularly the non-deuterostome invertebrates, the results of endocrine disruption studies with vertebrates

  18. Feminization of Longnose Dace (Rhinichthys cataractae in the Oldman River, Alberta, (Canada Provides Evidence of Widespread Endocrine Disruption in an Agricultural Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce S. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sampled an abundant, native minnow (Longnose dace—Rhinichthys cataractae throughout the Oldman River, Alberta, to determine physiological responses and possible population level consequences from exposure to compounds with hormone-like activity. Sex ratios varied between sites, were female-biased, and ranged from just over 50% to almost 90%. Histological examination of gonads revealed that at the sites with >60% females in the adult population, there was up to 38% occurrence of intersex gonads in fish identified through visual examination of the gonads as male. In the majority of intersex gonad cases, there was a large proportion (approx., 50% of oocytes within the testicular tissue. In male dace, vitellogenin mRNA expression generally increased with distance downstream. We analyzed river water for 28 endocrine disrupting compounds from eight functional classes, most with confirmed estrogen-like activity, including synthetic estrogens and hormone therapy drugs characteristic of municipal wastewater effluent, plus natural hormones and veterinary pharmaceuticals characteristic of livestock production. The spatial correlation between detected chemical residues and effects to dace physiology indicate that multiple land uses have a cumulative impact on dace in the Oldman River and effects range from altered gene regulation to severely female-biased sex ratios.

  19. Investigation of pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disrupting chemicals in a tropical urban catchment and the influence of environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Luhua; Nguyen, Viet Tung; Pal, Amrita; Chen, Huiting; He, Yiliang; Reinhard, Martin; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies showed the presence of multiple emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in urban surface waters of Singapore even though there are no obvious direct wastewater discharges. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and distribution of 17 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disruptive compounds (EDCs) in a tropical urban catchment of Singapore. Monthly samples were collected from a reservoir and its 5 upstream tributaries during a 16-month period. Analysis of samples showed all sites had measurable PPCP and EDC concentrations, with caffeine (33.9-2980 ng/L), salicylic acid (5-838 ng/L), acetaminophen (precipitation were observed. These factors appeared to affect the distribution and attenuation of EOCs, depending on their physicochemical properties. Rainfall also influenced the temporal distribution of caffeine, BPA, triclosan, fipronil and DEET in the reservoir. Ecological risk assessment showed that caffeine, acetaminophen, estrone, BPA, triclosan and fipronil may warrant further survey. In particular, BPA levels exceeded the literature-based Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) value, highlighting the need for source control and/or water remediation in this urban catchment.

  20. Application of ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid phase microextraction for highly sensitive simultaneous determination of three endocrine disrupting compounds in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Danfeng; Xu, Xu; Zhang, Lei

    2016-04-15

    Ionic liquid (IL) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) method was successfully developed for extracting three endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (bisphenol A, bisphenol AF and bisphenol AP) from the food packaging. 1-Octyl-3-methylimidazoliumhexafluorophosphate ([C8MIM][PF6]) was selected as extraction solution. The extraction procedure did not require a dispersive solvent. Three EDCs extraction kinetics were found to be very fast and the equilibrium was attained within 3.0 min following the pseudo-first-order model. The H-bonding and hydrophobic interactions play an important role in the partitioning of EDCs into IL from aqueous solution. The recovered IL could be reused for three runs without significant loss of extraction efficiencies. The spiked recoveries of three targets in food packaging were in the range of 97.8-103.1%. The limits of detection ranged from 0.50 to 1.50 ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). As a result, this method has been successfully applied for the sensitive detection of three EDCs in real samples.

  1. Application of solid-phase extraction coupled with freezing-lipid filtration clean-up for the determination of endocrine-disrupting phenols in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yun Gyong [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Civil Environment Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jeoung Hwa; Kim, Hye-Young [Hazardous Substance Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Khim, Jeehyeong [Department of Civil Environment Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Mi-Kyoung [College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jongki [College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jhong@khu.ac.kr

    2007-11-05

    An analytical method has been developed for the determination of endocrine-disrupting phenols (eight alkylphenols and bisphenol A) in fish samples. The extraction of nine phenols from fish samples was carried out by ultrasonification. After the extraction, high levels of lipids were removed by freezing-lipid filtration instead of the traditional methods of column chromatography or saponification. During freezing-lipid filtration, about 90% of the lipids were eliminated without any significant loss of phenolic compounds. For further purification, hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced copolymer (HLB) sorbent with a poly(divinylbenzene-co-N-vinylpyrrolidone) phase and Florisil-solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges were used to eliminate the remaining interferences. Silyl-derivatization, with N,N'-methyl-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), was applied to enhance the sensitivity of detection of phenolic compounds. Quantification was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode, using deuterium-labeled internal standards. Spiking experiments were carried out to determine the recovery, precision and detection limit of the method. The overall recoveries ranged between 70 and 120%, with relative standard deviations of 3-17% for the entire procedure. The detection limits of the method for the nine phenols ranged from 0.02 to 0.41 ng g{sup -1}. The method provided simultaneous screening and accurate confirmation of each phenol when applied to biological samples.

  2. The removal of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceutically activated compounds and cyanobacterial toxins during drinking water preparation using activated carbon--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Luis F; Charles, Philippe; Glucina, Karl; Morlay, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    This paper provides a review of recent scientific research on the removal by activated carbon (AC) in drinking water (DW) treatment of 1) two classes of currently unregulated trace level contaminants with potential chronic toxicity-pharmaceutically activate compounds (PhACs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs); 2) cyanobacterial toxins (CyBTs), which are a group of highly toxic and regulated compounds (as microcystin-LR); and 3) the above mentioned compounds by the hybrid system powdered AC/membrane filtration. The influence of solute and AC properties, as well as the competitive effect from background natural organic matter on the adsorption of such trace contaminants, are also considered. In addition, a number of adsorption isotherm parameters reported for PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs are presented herein. AC adsorption has proven to be an effective removal process for such trace contaminants without generating transformation products. This process appears to be a crucial step in order to minimize PhACs, EDCs and CyBTs in finished DW, hence calling for further studies on AC adsorption removal of these compounds. Finally, a priority chart of PhACs and EDCs warranting further study for the removal by AC adsorption is proposed based on the compounds' structural characteristics and their low removal by AC compared to the other compounds.

  3. The impact of variations of influent loading on the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant to remove endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lisa A; Tremblay, Louis A; Northcott, Grant L; Boake, Michael; Lim, Richard P

    2016-08-01

    The impact of changes in influent load on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by sewage treatment has not been fully characterised. This study assessed the efficacy of an advanced tertiary sewage treatment plant (STP) to remove EDCs during normal and peak flow events of sewage influent using trace chemical analysis of selected EDCs and four estrogenic in vitro bioassays. During the summer holiday season, influent volume increased by 68%, nutrient concentrations by at least 26% and hydraulic retention time was reduced by 40% compared with base flow conditions. Despite these pressures on the treatment system the concentrations and mass loading of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, Bisphenol A, 4-t-octylphenol and technical nonylphenol were not significantly higher (p>0.05) during the peak flow conditions compared with base flow conditions. Chemical analysis and in vitro bioassays showed that the efficacy of the STP in removing EDCs was not affected by the different loadings between baseline and peak flow regimes. This study demonstrates that large flow variations within the design capacity of advanced multi-stage STPs should not reduce the removal efficacy of EDCs.

  4. Evaluation of a screening system for obesogenic compounds: screening of endocrine disrupting compounds and evaluation of the PPAR dependency of the effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pereira-Fernandes

    Full Text Available Recently the environmental obesogen hypothesis has been formulated, proposing a role for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs in the development of obesity. To evaluate this hypothesis, a screening system for obesogenic compounds is urgently needed. In this study, we suggest a standardised protocol for obesogen screening based on the 3T3-L1 cell line, a well-characterised adipogenesis model, and direct fluorescent measurement using Nile red lipid staining technique. In a first phase, we characterised the assay using the acknowledged obesogens rosiglitazone and tributyltin. Based on the obtained dose-response curves for these model compounds, a lipid accumulation threshold value was calculated to ensure the biological relevance and reliability of statistically significant effects. This threshold based method was combined with the well described strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD method for classification of non-, weak- or strong obesogenic compounds. In the next step, a range of EDCs, used in personal and household care products (parabens, musks, phthalates and alkylphenol compounds, were tested to further evaluate the obesogenicity screening assay for its discriminative power and sensitivity. Additionally, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ dependency of the positive compounds was evaluated using PPARγ activation and antagonist experiments. Our results showed the adipogenic potential of all tested parabens, several musks and phthalate compounds and bisphenol A (BPA. PPARγ activation was associated with adipogenesis for parabens, phthalates and BPA, however not required for obesogenic effects induced by Tonalide, indicating the role of other obesogenic mechanisms for this compound.

  5. Construction of amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven surface and its application in removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Wei, Junfu, E-mail: junfuwei1963@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Zhou, Xiangyu [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); Liu, Nana [State Key Laboratory of Hollow Fiber Membrane Materials and Processes, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China); School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300160 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • The amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven surface were constructed successfully. • The adsorption behavior for EDCs of the amphiphilic adsorption materials was systematically studied. • The novel amphiphilic adsorption materials have broad application prospects in EDCs removal from aqueous solution. - Abstract: The amphiphilic segments on polypropylene nonwoven (PP nonwoven) surface were constructed using the ultraviolet (UV) irradiation graft polymerization for the removal of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) with different polarity from aqueous solution. The stearyl acrylate (SA) as hydrophobic functional monomer was introduced onto the surface of PP nonwoven fabric at first stage and then the hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA) as hydrophilic functional monomer was introduced subsequently. The effect of functional monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on grafting ratio was studied and discussed. The novel amphiphilic structure was designed and constructed based on adsorption capacity for the target micropollutants. The structure and composition of the amphiphilic adsorption materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle (CA). The adsorption behaviors for EDCs of the amphiphilic adsorption materials were studied and the results indicated that the adsorption capacity and adsorption rate were superior to single SA grafted PP nonwoven (PP-g-SA) and single HEA grafted PP nonwoven (PP-g-HEA). The novel amphiphilic adsorption material was efficient for the removal of EDCs with different polarity and could be utilized as a potential adsorption material for removing EDCs from aqueous solution.

  6. Distribution of endocrine-disrupting PCBs in hard roes of loaches and their potential ecological effects in Weishanhu Lake,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Shao-ping

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary study is carried out on the endocrine-disrupting organic chemicals of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs: PCB-28, 60,104, 153, 190) in hard roes of loaches( Misgurnus anguillicaudatas) in Weishanhu Lake, China. Results showed that the hard roes of loaches collected from the areas near the influx( such as Pengkou T-PCB = O. 243 μg/g) or efflux( such as Hanzhuang T-PCB = 0.221 μg/g)are characterized by higher PCB contents, about 4 times that from the central lake(T-PCB = 0.066 μg/g), suggesting great difference between their pollutions. The PCB distributions indicated that PCB congeners with more chlorine are more easily accumulated in roes of loaches. The microscopic characteristics reveal that the PCB contents at present cannot lead the roes of loaches to be abnormal.However, the roes with higher PCBs in Pengkou and Hanzhuang are obviously bigger than those with lower PCBs(T-PCBs<0. 176 μg/g)in other localities. It is suggested that PCBs have a stronger estrogenic activity on the roes of loaches, and the phenomenon is likely premonitory for the abnormal development of the hard roes.

  7. Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals - hazards to man and animal; Hormonell wirksame Umweltchemikalien - Gefahr fuer Mensch und Tier? Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, G.; Koller, U.; Klemmer, A.; Haury, H.J. [comps.

    1998-08-01

    The spectrum of problems relating to endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals was presented by competent experts from public authorities and scientific institutions. The lecturers described the current stage and future tasks of research. Their lectures focused on effects of hormone-like substances on humans and animals and an assessment of risk factors on the basis of data from scientific tests and current environmental exposure. There was also a contribution presenting the chemical industry`s view of the matter. [Deutsch] Kompetente Sachverstaendige aus Behoerden und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen stellten das Themenspektrum vor, fuehrten in den Forschungsstand ein und zeigten den Forschungsbedarf auf. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der Darstellung der der Auswirkungen hormonell wirksamer Substanzen, wie z.B. DDT, Dioxinen und PCBs, auf Mensch und Tier sowie in der Abschaetzung der Risikofaktoren anhand der bekannten Daten aus wissenschaftlichen Tests sowie der aktuellen Exposition in der Umwelt. Mit einem Beitrag der chemischen Industrie wurde auch deren Einschaetzung der Umweltproblematik aufgezeigt. (orig./MG) m9

  8. Development and characterization of a nanodendritic silver-based solid-phase extraction sorbent for selective enrichment of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuanji; Xia, Bing; Liu, Jie; Ji, Baocheng; Ma, Fengwei; Ding, Lisheng; Li, Bangjing; Zhou, Yan

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 4-[4-phenylazo-phenoxy] butyl-1-thiol (AzSH) functionalized nanodendritic silver (AzS@AgNDs) materials were prepared as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the selective extraction of estrogens. AzS@AgNDs possess an extremely large surface-to-volume ratio and a small average particle size. The performance of the material was evaluated by selective enrichment of hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, dienestrol and bisphenol A in water and milk samples followed by rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) analyses. The results exhibited that AzS@AgNDs had excellent adsorption capability for the targeted estrogens. The limits of detection of the four estrogens ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 pg/mL. The recoveries of the estrogens spiked into tap water were over the range of 83.6-105.3% with relative standard deviations of 2.8-6.0%. The results indicated the capability of this method for the rapid determination of estrogens in milk and other environmental water samples. In addition, this method would be useful for the determination of human exposure and health risk assessments trace level of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in drinking water.

  9. Enhancement removal of endocrine-disrupting pesticides and nitrogen removal in a biofilm reactor coupling of biodegradable Phragmites communis and elastic filler for polluted source water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lijuan; Yang, Guangfeng; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiangyang; Gao, Feng; Mu, Jun; Xu, Yanmei

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of conventional elastic filler and solid carbon source of Phragmites communis (P. communis) as the biofilm support was applied in a biofilm system for treating polluted source water containing nitrogen and trace endocrine-disrupting pesticides (cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos). Results showed that removal efficiencies of TN and EDPs were improved with addition of 3.6kg P. communis/m(3) in the biofilm system. Meanwhile, the uniform distribution of P. communis favored simultaneously nitrogen and organics removal but not to trace EDPs compared with non-uniform distribution of P. communis. The biofilm on elastic filler was mainly responsible for the nitrification with NH4(+)-N oxidation efficiency of 82.9±1.5%. Poor nitrification with NH4(+)-N oxidation efficiency of 36.3±6.1% but effective denitrification with a TN removal efficiency of 56.5±2.0% were obtained by the biofilm on P. communis. Cypermethrin was mainly removed via adsorption and microbial degradation, and chlorpyrifos removal mostly depended on the microbial degradation in biofilm system.

  10. Removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical (17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol) from wastewater effluent by activated carbon adsorption: Effects of activated carbon type and competitive adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ifelebuegu, A.O.; Lester, J.N.; Churchley, J.; Cartmell, E. [Cranfield University, Cranfield (United Kingdom). School of Water Science

    2006-12-15

    Granular activated carbon has been extensively used for the adsorption of organic micropollutants for potable water production. In this study the removal of an endocrine disrupting chemical from wastewater final effluent by three types of granular activated carbon (wood, coconut and coal based) has been investigated in batch adsorption experiments and correlated with the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC) and ultraviolet absorbance (UV). The results obtained demonstrated 17 alpha-ethinyloestradiol (EE2) removals of 98.6%, 99.3%, and 96.4% were achieved by the coal based (ACo), coconut based (ACn) and wood based (AWd) carbons respectively at the lowest dose of carbon (0.1 gl{sup -1}). The other adsorbates investigated all exhibited good removal. At an equilibrium concentration of 7 mgl{sup -1} the COD adsorption capacities were 3.16 mg g{sup -1}, 4.8 mg g{sup -1} and 7.1 mg g{sup -1} for the wood, coconut and coal based carbons respectively. Overall, the order of removal efficiency of EE2 and the other adsorbates for the three activated carbons was ACn {gt} ACo {gt} AWd. The adsorption capacities of the carbons were found to be reduced by the effects of other competing adsorbates in the wastewater effluent.

  11. Passive sampling and stir bar sorptive extraction for the determination of endocrine-disrupting compounds in water by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, Emanuele; Di Carro, Marina; Liscio, Camilla

    2010-06-01

    A new method using the extraction and preconcentration capabilities of stir bar sorptive extraction, combined with high-resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, was developed for the determination of five selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (4-n-nonylphenol, bisphenol A, estrone, 17beta-estradiol, and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol) in water. In situ derivatization to transform the phenolic compounds into lipophilic and volatile analytes was carried out with acetic anhydride. Two different methods of headspace derivatization to further improve the chromatographic properties of 17beta-estradiol and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol were developed and compared. The optimized method provided good sensitivity (limits of quantitation 1.2-2.6 ng), repeatability (relative standard deviation 2-9%), and reproducibility (relative standard deviation 10-17%). Passive sampling by means of polar organic chemical integrative samplers was applied to monitor river waters used as supply sources for drinking water treatment plants in the Liguria region of Italy. The analytes showed a different distribution at the three sites considered; bisphenol A proved to be the most abundant, ranging from 185 to 459 ng per sampler.

  12. Investigations of potential endocrine disruption and sexual dimorphism in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with a range of PCB body burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Bakst, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) elicit endocrine disruptive effects in many species, including birds. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied at eight sites, located in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, with a range of PCB contamination to determine effects on gender and gonadal development of nestling offipring. Blood samples were collected from nestlings and genetic sex was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of sex chromatin in nucleated red blood cells. Gonads were excised and fixed for subsequent gross and histologic examination. PCB analyses of twelve-day old nestlings indicated that residue concentrations varied considerably among the eight sites. Of the 145 nestlings examined anatomically, the phenotypic sex ratio was 53% female and 47% male. No intersexes were observed. Histological observations revealed some variation such as numbers of spermatogonia and stages of follicular development among individuals. Genotypic evaluation of the 145 nestlings revealed complete concordance with phenotypic observations. Although there were significant differences in PCB exposure among study sites, there was no evidence of abnormal gonadal development or anatomical gender alteration in nestling Tree swallows.

  13. Biomonitoring of 21 endocrine disrupting chemicals in human hair samples using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, R; Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Alonso, E; Vílchez, J L; Navalón, A

    2017-02-01

    Rapid industrial growth has increased human exposure to a large variety of chemicals with adverse health effects. These industrial chemicals are usually present in the environment, foods, beverages, clothes and personal care products. Among these compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have raised concern over the last years. In the present work, the determination of 21 EDCs in human hair samples is proposed. An analytical method based on the digestion of the samples with a mixture of acetic acid/methanol (20:80, v/v) followed by a solid-liquid microextraction and analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated. The most influential parameters affecting the extraction method were optimized. The method was validated using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays. Limits of detection ranged from 0.2 to 4 ng g(-1), limits of quantification from 0.5 to 12 ng g(-1), and inter- and intra-day variability was under 15% in all cases. Recovery rates for spiked samples ranged from 92.1 to 113.8%. The method was applied for the determination of the selected compounds in human hair. Samples were collected weekly from six randomly selected volunteers (three men and three women) over a three-month period. All the analyzed samples tested positive for at least one of the analyzed compounds.

  14. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals in surface water and suspended particulate matter of Yangtze River (Nanjing section).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Ji, Gui-Xiang; Wu, Sheng-Min; Guo, Rui-Xin; Cheng, Jie; Yan, Zheng-Yu; Chen, Jian-Qiu

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of eight selected endocrine-disrupting chemicals were investigated in samples of surface water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Nanjing section of Yangtze River over a year (the flow period, the wet period and the dry period). All target compounds were detected at least once in surface water with 4-tert-butylphenol (4-TBP), nonyphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) as the dominant compounds, with concentrations in the range of 225-1121ng/L, 1.4-858ng/L and 1.7-563ng/L, respectively. Except for December, all selected compounds for the other sampling times were not found in all sampling points. NP (mean concentration 69.8µg/g) and BPA (mean concentration 51.8µg/g) were also the dominant estrogens in SPM. In addition, the highest total compounds concentrations were found in December in both phases, which could be due to the low flow conditions and temperature during this season. Meanwhile, a significant positive correlation was found between the total compounds concentrations in the water phase and those in SPM phase. Risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQ) showed that low and moderate risk for the aquatic environment from presence of the target compounds at all sampling points with exception of 4-TBP and NP which might pose a high risk to aquatic organisms.

  15. One-pot synthesized functionalized mesoporous silica as a reversed-phase sorbent for solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting compounds in milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán, Judith; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Marina, María Luisa; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-01-08

    A new procedure for the determination of 12 naturally occurring hormones and some related synthetic chemicals in milk, commonly used as growth promoters in cattle, is reported. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a new one-pot synthesized ordered mesoporous silica (of the SBA-15 type) functionalized with octadecyl groups (denoted as SBA-15-C18-CO) as reversed-phase sorbent. The analytes were eluted with methanol and then submitted to HPLC with diode array detection. Under optimal conditions, the method quantification limit for the analytes ranged from 0.023 to 1.36μg/mL. The sorbent affored the extraction of estrone, 17β-estradiol, estriol, progesterone, hexestrol, diethylstilbestrol, 4-androstene-3,17-dione, ethinylestradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, nandrolone, prednisolone and testosterone with mean recoveries ranging from 72% to 105% (except for diethylstilbestrol) with RSDextraction methods, therefore SBA-15-C18-CO mesoporous silica possess a high potential as a reversed-phase sorbent for SPE of the 12 mentioned endocrine disrupting compounds in milk samples.

  16. Full automation of solid-phase microextraction/on-fiber derivatization for simultaneous determination of endocrine-disrupting chemicals and steroid hormones by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lihua; Lan, Chongyu; Liu, Hongtao; Dong, Jun; Luan, Tiangang

    2006-09-01

    A fully automated method using direct immersion solid-phase microextraction (DI-SPME) and headspace on-fiber silylation for simultaneous determinations of exogenous endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and endogenous steroid hormones in environmental aqueous and biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and compared to a previously reported manual method. Three EDCs and five endocrine steroid hormones were selected to evaluate this method. The extraction and derivatization time, ion strength, pH, incubation temperature, sample volume, and extraction solvent were optimized. Satisfactory results in pure water were obtained in terms of linearity of calibration curve (R2=0.9932-1.0000), dynamic range (3 orders of magnitude), precision (4-9% RSD), as well as LOD (0.001-0.124 microg L(-1)) and LOQ (0.004-0.413 microg L(-1)), respectively. These results were similar to those obtained using a manual method, and moreover, the precision was improved. This new automated method has been applied to the determinations of target compounds in real samples used in our previous study on a manual SPME method. Exogenous octylphenol (OP), technical grade nonylphenol (t-NP), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) were at 0.13, 5.03, and 0.02 microg L(-1) in river water and 3.76, 13.25, and 0.10 microg L(-1) in fish serum, respectively. Natural steroid hormones estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) were at 0.19, 0.11, and 6.22 microg L(-1) in river water; and in female fish serum E1, E2, and pregnenolone (PREG) were at 1.37, 1.95, and 6.25 microg L(-1), respectively. These results were confirmed by the manual method. The developed fully automated SPME and on-fiber silylation procedures showed satisfactory applications in environmental analysis and the performances show improved precision and a reduced analysis time compared to the manual method.

  17. Effects of benzophenone-3 exposure on endocrine disruption and reproduction of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)—A two generation exposure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sujin; Jung, Dawoon [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kho, Younglim [Department of Health, Environment and Safety, Eulji University, Seongnam 461-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyungho, E-mail: kyungho@snu.ac.kr [School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to BP-3 led to adverse reproduction effects on Japanese medaka at 26 μg/L. • Changes in sex hormones and steroidogenic gene transcription were observed. • Parental exposure to BP-3 influenced on the growth of second generation fish. - Abstract: Benzophenone-3 (BP-3) has been widely used in sunscreens and cosmetics to protect human skin from the harmful effects of UV irradiation. While BP-3 has been frequently detected in surface waters, sediments and biota, only limited information is available on its in vivo toxicity, particularly in fish. In the present study the endocrine disrupting capacity of BP-3 and its underlying mechanisms were investigated using Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Adult Japanese medaka pairs (F0) were exposed to 0, 4.7, 8.4, 26, or 90 μg/L (or 0, 15, 50, 150, or 500 μg/L of BP-3 based on nominal concentration) for 14 d and its effects on sex steroid hormones, and transcription of various associated genes were determined. Following additional 14 d of exposure, the F1 eggs reproduced were counted and were further exposed to 0, 5.4, 12, or 30 μg/L of BP-3 (or 0, 15, 50, or 150 μg/L based on nominal concentrations) until 30 d after hatching. Chemical analysis of the exposed media confirmed transformation of BP-3 to benzophenone-1 (BP-1), a more potent estrogen agonist. After 14 d of the adult fish exposure, plasma concentrations of testosterone (T) significantly increased in male fish. The 17β-estradiol (E2) to T (E2/T) ratio showed significant decreases in both male and female fish. Overall down-regulation of gonadal steroidogenic genes such as star, cyp11a, cyp17, hsd3b, hsd17b3, and cyp19a was also observed. After 28 d of exposure, the daily average egg reproduction per female was significantly reduced at 26 μg/L of BP-3. However, hatchability of F1 eggs was not affected by continuous exposure. After continued exposure until 30 dph, juvenile fish showed concentration-dependent decrease of condition factor

  18. FY 1998 results of the intellectual basement project using functions of private companies (venture promotion type basement creation R and D project). Development of endocrine disrupter testing method and development of environmental assessment method; 1998 nendo naibunpi kakuran busshitsu ni taisuru shiken hoho kaihatsu oyobi eikyo hyoka shuho kaihatsu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of assessing the risk in relation to endocrine disrupting chemicals, the following were conducted: development of testing/assessment method for endocrine disrupting chemicals, survey of the actual exposure assessment, development of measuring method for the concentration in the environment. In the development of the testing method, the following were carried out: development of a high-throughput screening method for evaluating endocrine disrupting chemicals; as screening testing method using mammals, uterotrophic assay, Hershberger assay using castrated male rats, thyroid hormone assay in pubertal rats, enhanced OECD 407 test guideline for 28-day toxicity test; study on yeast two-hybrid assay for endocrine disrupter; sex-reversal assay for suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals using S-rR strain medaka. In the development of exposure assessment method, estrogenic potency of individual nonylphenol congeners isolated from technical mixtures; determination of endocrine disrupters and related chemicals from industry and nature origin in river water and sediment; research for the flow of industrial origin chemicals; reconstruction of pollution history of chemicals using sediment cores. (NEDO)

  19. Endocrine Disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Endocrine Disruptors Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials What ... Disruptors General Information For Educators Related Topics Introduction Endocrine Disruptors Introduction Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that may interfere ...

  20. The impact of endocrine disruptors on endocrine targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, E; Palioura, E; Kandarakis, S A; Koutsilieris, M

    2010-07-01

    Endocrine disruption represents one of the most controversial environmental issues of our époque. So far, many substances, both natural and artificial, have been recognized to interfere with endocrine signaling pathways. In intact laboratory animals, this interaction has been documented to generate adverse health outcomes by impairing normal functions. With regard to humans, evidence is limited and inconsistent to clearly establish a causal inference, however, accumulating data incriminate endocrine disrupting chemicals to reproductive disorders and disturbed thyroid homeostasis. Recently, as a result of animal models and preliminary human studies, a new area of interest has arisen concerning the implication of endocrine disruptors in the etiology of obesity and diabetes, the two major, life-threatening, epidemics of modern world. This article reviews the evidence linking endocrine disrupting chemicals to a broad spectrum of clinical perturbations from reproduction and thyroid to metabolic regulation.

  1. Very high concentrations of DDE and toxaphene residues in crocodiles from the Ord River, Western Australia: an investigation into possible endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Kay, Winston R; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Maki; Yanai, Tokuma; Kamata, Ryo; Edmonds, John S; Morita, Masatoshi

    2006-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide concentrations, particularly those of the DDT family and of toxaphene, were measured by gas chromatography in samples of liver and body fat taken from Australian freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni at three locations along the Ord River in Western Australia. The three sampling sites were the irrigation area, downstream of the irrigation area, and well upstream of the irrigation area; the last site serving as the control. DDT and toxaphene were applied in large and known quantities to cotton grown in the Ord Irrigation Area from 1964 to 1974. Thus the residues in the crocodile tissues are representative of the situation almost thirty years after the use of DDT and toxaphene ceased in the area. Very high concentrations of p,p'-DDE and toxaphene were found in the lipid-rich tissues that were examined. Livers and body fat from estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus from the downstream site were also analysed. As p,p'-DDE and toxaphene are both known to be disruptive of endocrine systems, a range of blood parameters, including estradiol and testesterone concentrations, were also measured for all the animals studied. The ovaries and testes of the freshwater crocodiles were also examined histologically. There were no obvious effects on blood chemistry or gonad histology of the large burden of pesticides and their metabolites carried by exposed animals, although the limited number of samples and the variability of the breeding state of the animals examined may have masked possible effects. The isolation of the area, the accurately known applications of DDT and toxaphene, and the simplicity of the drainage system make the lower Ord River a unique natural laboratory for studying the long term breakdown and effects of pesticides applied in a tropical environment.

  2. Determination of endocrine disrupting compounds in fish liver, brain, and muscle using focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction and dispersive solid phase extraction as clean-up strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Oihana; Vallejo, Asier; Olivares, Maitane; Etxebarria, Nestor; Prieto, Ailette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new method for the simultaneous extraction of several endocrine disrupting compounds, including alkylphenols (APs), estrogen, bisphenol-A (BPA) and one phthalate metabolite (mono-2-ethylhexyl ester, MEHP) in fish liver, brain, and muscle. Parameters affecting the extraction (extraction solvent and temperature) and the clean-up (dispersive phase nature and amount) steps were evaluated. The extraction was performed by means of focused ultrasound solid-liquid extraction (FUSLE) using 10 mL of n-hexane:acetone (50:50, v/v) for 5 min at ~0 °C, and the clean-up was done by means of dispersive solid phase extraction (dSPE) using 100 mg of ENVI-CARB and 100 mg of MgSO4 for the cleaning of brain and muscle extracts together with 100 mg of PSA in the case of liver extracts. Good apparent recoveries were obtained in the case of liver (62-132 %), brain (66-120 %), and muscle (74-129 %), relative standard deviation (RSD%) was always below 26 %, and the method detection limits (MDLs) were at low ng/g level. The developed method was applied to fish captured in Urdaibai estuary (Bay of Biscay) in December 2015, and the concentrations obtained were in the range MDL-1115 ng/g in brain, MDL-962 ng/g in muscle, and MDL-672 ng/g in liver. In general, the highest concentrations were measured in liver, followed by brain and muscle. In addition, diethylstilbestrol was only detected in fish brain. Graphical Abstract MS method scheme for the/MS method scheme for the determination of EDCs in fish liver, brain and muscle.

  3. The role of activated carbon and disinfection on the removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noutsopoulos, Constantinos; Mamais, Daniel; Mpouras, Thanasis; Kokkinidou, Despina; Samaras, Vasilios; Antoniou, Korina; Gioldasi, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are two important groups of emerging pollutants due to their toxicological and chemical characteristics and their persistent detection in the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants are a significant pathway for their transfer to the water courses. It is well evidenced that these chemicals are only partially removed through biological treatment of wastewater and therefore being detected in secondary effluents. This work focuses on the evaluation of the efficiency of two well-established disinfection technologies (chlorination and UV irradiation) along with UV/H2O2 and powdered activated carbon (PAC) to remove these chemicals from biologically treated wastewater. Based on the results it is shown that appreciable removal efficiencies due to chlorination should be expected for most of the target compounds, whereas this was not the case for ibuprofen and ketoprofen. With the exemption of diclofenac and ketoprofen direct UV irradiation did not efficiently removed target compounds for UV doses usually applied for disinfection purposes. The application of advanced UV treatment through the addition of H2O2 although resulted in increased removal of the target compounds is not sufficient at moderate UV and H2O2 doses to achieve satisfactory removal efficiencies. PAC use resulted in sufficient removal of target compounds although high PAC doses were required for some chemicals. Comparison of Freundlich isotherms of this study with those of other studies, derived employing water samples, suggested that the water matrix along with the target compounds concentration range can significantly affect the outcome of the experiments.

  4. Determination of endocrine-disrupting compounds in water by carbon nanotubes solid-phase microextraction fiber coupled online with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoxia; Li, Quanlong; Yuan, Dongxing

    2011-09-30

    The commercial solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers are not stable enough in organic solvent and tend to swell and strip off from the silica fiber in the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phase, and therefore the application of SPME coupled online with HPLC is limited. In this study, an SPME fiber coated with single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), prepared by means of electrophoretic deposition, was coupled on line to HPLC for the determination of four endocrine-disrupting compounds, i.e. bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E(1)), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE(2)) and octylphenol (OP), in aqueous samples. The results showed that the SWCNTs coating on the prepared fiber did not swell and strip off from the platinum fiber throughout the experiment, thus indicating a high resistance to the HPLC mobile phase, the mixture of water and acetonitrile. The SWCNTs fiber had similar (for OP) or higher (for BPA, EE(2) and E(1)) extraction efficiencies than the commonly used polyacrylate fiber, and had a lifetime of more than 120 operation times. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity of the proposed method was 1.0-30.0 μg/L for BPA and OP and 3.0-90.0 μg/L for E(1) and EE(2). The limits of detection (LODs; S/N=3) and limits of quantification (LOQs; S/N=10) of the method were 0.32-0.52 μg/L and 1.06-1.72 μg/L, respectively. Repeatability for one fiber (n=3) was in the range of 1.3-7.1% and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility (n=3) was in the range of 1.6-8.4%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of spiked tap water and seawater samples with recoveries from 81.8 to 97.3%.

  5. Determination of 13 endocrine disrupting chemicals in sediments by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using subcritical water extraction coupled with dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction and derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke; Kang, Haining; Yue, Zhenfeng; Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Wang, Xiaowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-03-25

    In this study, a sample pretreatment method was developed for the determination of 13 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in sediment samples based on the combination of subcritical water extraction (SWE) and dispersed liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The subcritical water that provided by accelerated solvent extractor (ASE) was the sample solution (water) for the following DLLME and the soluble organic modifier that spiked in the subcritical water was also used as the disperser solvent for DLLME in succession. Thus, several important parameters that affected both SWE and DLLME were investigated, such as the extraction solvent for DLLME (chlorobenzene), extraction time for DLLME (30s), selection of organic modifier for SWE (acetone), volume of organic modifier (10%) and extraction temperature for SWE (150 °C). In addition, good chromatographic behavior was achieved for GC-MS after derivatisation by using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). As a result, proposed method sensitive and reliable with the limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.006 ng g(-1) (BPA) to 0.639 ng g(-1) (19-norethisterone) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 1.5% (E2) and 15.0% (DES). Moreover, the proposed method was compared with direct ASE extraction that reported previously, and the results showed that SWE-DLLME was more promising with recoveries ranging from 42.3% (dienestrol) to 131.3% (4,5α-dihydrotestosterone), except for diethylstilbestrol (15.0%) and nonylphenols (29.8%). The proposed method was then successfully applied to determine 13 EDCs sediment of Humen outlet of the Pearl River, 12 of target compounds could be detected, and 10 could be quantitative analysis with the total concentration being 39.6 ng g(-1), and which indicated that the sediment of Humen outlet was heavily contaminated by EDCs.

  6. A multiclass method for the analysis of endocrine disrupting chemicals in human urine samples. Sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela-Soria, F; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Ballesteros, L; Navalón, A

    2014-11-01

    The population is continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This has influenced an increase in diseases and syndromes that are more frequent nowadays. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new analytical procedures to evaluate the exposure with the ultimate objective of establishing, in an accurate way, relationships between EDCs and harmful health effects. In the present work, a new method based on a sample treatment by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) for the extraction of six parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, isopropyl-, propyl-, isobutyl and butylparaben), six benzophenones (benzophenone-1, benzophenone-2, benzophenone-3, benzophenone-6, benzophenone-8 and 4-hydroxybenzophenone) and two bisphenols (bisphenol A and bisphenol S) in human urine samples, followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis is proposed. An enzymatic treatment allows determining the total content of the target EDCs. The extraction parameters were accurately optimized using multivariate optimization strategies. Ethylparaben ring-(13)C6 and bisphenol A-d16 were used as surrogates. Found limits of quantification ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 ng mL(-1) and inter-day variability (evaluated as relative standard deviation) ranging from 2.0% to 14.9%. The method was validated using matrix-matched standard calibration followed by a recovery assay with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94% to 105%. A good linearity, for concentrations up to 300 ng mL(-1) for parabens and 40 ng mL(-1) for benzophenones and bisphenols, respectively, was obtained. The method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of target compounds in human urine samples from 20 randomly selected individuals.

  7. Pregnant ewes exposed to multiple endocrine disrupting pollutants through sewage sludge-fertilized pasture show an anti-estrogenic effect in their trabecular bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: Monica.Lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Ullerakersvaegen 40, 751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Oberg, Denise [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Larsson, Sune [Department of Orthopaedics, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Kyle, Carol E. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Orberg, Jan [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Rhind, Stewart M. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-01

    Pregnant ewes were maintained on pastures fertilized, twice yearly, with either sewage sludge (2.25 tonnes dry matter/ha; Treated; T) or inorganic fertilizer containing equivalent amounts of nitrogen (Control; C), to determine effects on maternal and fetal bone structures, density and mechanical properties of exposure to environmental concentrations of multiple endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and heavy metal pollutants. The ewes were maintained on the respective pastures from the age of about 8 months until they were 4-6 years of age and they were slaughtered at 110 d gestation. Metaphyseal parts of adult ewe femurs exhibited a significantly reduced mean, total cross sectional area (CSA, - 4%; p < 0.05), lower trabecular bone mineral content (BMC, mg/mm; - 18%; p < 0.05), trabecular bone mineral density (BMD, mg/cm{sup 3}, - 8.0%; p < 0.05) and trabecular CSA, mm{sup 2}, - 11.1%; p < 0.05) in T compared with C animals. Femurs of T ewes were stronger than those of C ewes but this may reflect greater body weights. At the mid-diaphyseal part of the fetal bones, there was a reduction in endosteal circumference (- 6.7%, p < 0.05) and marrow cavity area (- 13.8%, p < 0.05) in the female T fetuses compared with female C fetuses. In the male fetuses the mid-diaphyseal part total bone mineral content was higher (+ 3.0%, p < 0.05) in T than in C animals. No treatment difference in biomechanical bending was detected in the fetuses. It is concluded that ewes grazing pasture fertilized with sewage sludge exhibited an anti-estrogenic effect on their trabecular bone in the form of reduced mineral content and density, despite increased body weight. It is suggested that human exposure to low levels of multiple EDCs may have implications for bone structure and human health.

  8. Fabrication of a polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent for multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals in complicated samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Miao; Zhang, Zirui; Huang, Xiaojia; Wu, Yuanfei

    2017-04-01

    A multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction (MMF-SPME) utilizing polymeric ionic liquid-based adsorbent was prepared. The adsorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-trimethyl-(4-vinylbenzyl) aminium chloride and dual cross-linkers (divinylbenzene and ethylenedimethacrylate). The effect of preparation conditions including the content of ionic liquid and porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied in detail. Infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry were used to inspect the physicochemical properties of the new adsorbent. The applicability of the new MMF-SPME was demonstrated by the extraction of trace endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Results indicated that the prepared MMF-SPME could extract EDCs effectively through multi-interactions such as ion-exchange, π-π and hydrophobic interactions. After optimization of extraction parameters, a method of MMF-SPME coupled to high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection was conducted to detect trace EDCs in complicated samples including environmental water and human urine. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and quantification (S/N=10) for targeted compounds were 0.011-0.065μg/L and 0.036-0.21μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory precision was also achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 9% and 10%, respectively. At the same time, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of EDCs in water and human urine with spiking recoveries ranged from 70.6% to 119%.

  9. Short-term effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on the expression of estrogen-responsive genes in male medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Akemi; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Kohra, Shinya; Arizono, Koji; Tominaga, Nobuaki

    2005-04-30

    To evaluate the estrogenic activities of selected estrogenic compounds such as estradiol-17beta (E2), nonylphenol (NP), 4-(1-adamantyl)phenol (AdP), bisphenol A (BPA), BPA metabolite 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) and 4,4'-dihydroxy-alpha-methylstilbene (DHMS) in the shortest possible time, we investigated the expression of estrogen-responsive genes such as vitellogenin I, vitellogenin II and alpha-type estrogen receptor genes in the liver of male medaka (Oryzias latipes) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. These estrogen-responsive genes responded rapidly to selected estrogenic compounds after 8 h exposure, and the expression of hepatic vitellogenin II and estrogen receptor alpha mRNA was found to be more responsive than that of vitellogenin I mRNA. As a result, the relative estrogenic potencies of tested chemicals descended in the order of E2 (100)>MBP (0.38)>AdP (0.25)>DHMS (0.05)>NP (0.02)>BPA (0.001). Moreover, this preliminary study indicates that AdP and DHMS should be considered as candidate estrogenic compounds with the potential to induce hepatic estrogen-responsive genes in male medaka. These results suggest that vitellogenin I, vitellogenin II and estrogen receptor alpha gene expression patterns alter in male medaka treated with selected estrogenic compounds, and that these genes may be useful molecular biomarkers for screening estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the shortest possible time.

  10. Maternal exposure to estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds alters the sensitivity of sea urchin embryos and the expression of an orphan steroid receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Troy A; Chang, Ernest S; Cherr, Gary N

    2006-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are known to affect reproduction and development in marine invertebrates. In previous work, we have shown that developing sea urchin embryos were sensitive to estradiol and estrogenic EDCs at environmentally relevant concentrations in a tamoxifen-sensitive manner (Roepke et al. 2005. Aquat Toxicol 71:155-173). In this study, we report the effects of maternal exposure to EDCs on embryo sensitivity and regulation of an orphan steroid receptor in sea urchin eggs. Maternal exposures were conducted by injecting female Strongylocentrotus purpuratus sea urchins initiating oogenesis with two concentrations of estradiol, octylphenol, tributyltin and o, p-DDD for 8 weeks with an induced spawning before and after the injection cycle. Developing embryos were less sensitive to estradiol following maternal exposure to estradiol, octylphenol and DDD. The steroidogenesis inhibitor, spironolactone, and the aromatase inhibitor, formestane, affected normal sea urchin development with EC50 values of 18 and 2 microM, respectively. Binding of estradiol was demonstrated in homogenates supernatants of sea urchin embryos by filtration centrifugation and column chromatography, but saturation was not reached until 4-6 hr and was highly variable. Analysis of eggs from pre- and post-injection spawns using real-time Q-PCR for the mRNA of an orphan steroid receptor, SpSHR2, shows that receptor mRNA increased in eggs with estradiol, octylphenol and tributyltin but decreased with DDD. RIA showed that estradiol may be present during gastrulation. In summary, maternal exposure to estradiol and EDCs alters embryo sensitivity and regulates the expression of an orphan steroid receptor in the egg.

  11. Similarities in the endocrine-disrupting potencies of indoor dust and flame retardants by using human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell-based reporter gene assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Go; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Malarvannan, Govindan; Sudaryanto, Agus; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Brouwer, Abraham; Uramaru, Naoto; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2013-03-19

    Indoor dust is a sink for many kinds of pollutants, including flame retardants (FRs), plasticizers, and their contaminants and degradation products. These pollutants can be migrated to indoor dust from household items such as televisions and computers. To reveal high-priority end points of and contaminant candidates in indoor dust, using CALUX reporter gene assays based on human osteosarcoma (U2OS) cell lines, we evaluated and characterized the endocrine-disrupting potencies of crude extracts of indoor dust collected from Japan (n = 8), the United States (n = 21), Vietnam (n = 10), the Philippines (n = 17), and Indonesia (n = 10) and for 23 selected FRs. The CALUX reporter gene assays used were specific for compounds interacting with the human androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2). Indoor dust extracts were agonistic to ERα, GR, and PPARγ2 and antagonistic against AR, PR, GR, and PPARγ2. In comparison, a majority of FRs was agonistic to ERα and PPARγ2 only, and some FRs demonstrated receptor-specific antagonism against all tested nuclear receptors. Hierarchical clustering clearly indicated that agonism of ERα and antagonism of AR and PR were common, frequently detected end points for indoor dust and tested FRs. Given our previous results regarding the concentrations of FRs in indoor dust and in light of our current results, candidate contributors to these effects include not only internationally controlled brominated FRs but also alternatives such as some phosphorus-containing FRs. In the context of indoor pollution, high-frequency effects of FRs such as agonism of ERα and antagonism of AR and PR are candidate high-priority end points for further investigation.

  12. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents.

  13. Novel in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays elucidating the effects of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) on thyroid hormone action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schriks, M.

    2006-01-01

    The last years, both scientific and public concern about the possible threat of compounds in the environment that may affect endocrine functions has increased. Thus far, the majority of endocrine disruptor research has focused on the interference of compounds with the sex hormone homeostasis. Less a

  14. System chemical biology studies of endocrine disruptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Oprea, Tudor I.

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter hormonal balance and other physiological systems through inappropriate developmental or adult exposure, perturbing the reproductive function of further generations. While disruption of key receptors (e.g., estrogen, androgen, and thyroid) at the ligand...

  15. Tumorigenic effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals are alleviated by licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract through suppression of AhR expression in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiao Ting; de la Cruz, Joseph; Hwang, Seong Gu; Hong, Heeok

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been reported to interfere with estrogen signaling. Exposure to these chemicals decreases the immune response and causes a wide range of diseases in animals and humans. Recently, many studies showed that licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) root extract (LRE) commonly called "gamcho" in Korea exhibits antioxidative, chemoprotective, and detoxifying properties. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of action of LRE and to determine if and how LRE can alleviate the toxicity of EDCs. LRE was prepared by vacuum evaporation and freeze-drying after homogenization of licorice root powder that was soaked in 80% ethanol for 72 h. We used 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a representative EDC, which is known to induce tumors or cancers; MCF-7 breast cancer cells, used as a tumor model, were treated with TCDD and various concentrations of LRE (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 μg/mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. As a result, TCDD stimulated MCF-7 cell proliferation, but LRE significantly inhibited TCDD-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of TCDD toxicity-related genes, i.e., aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), AhR nuclear translocator, and cytochrome P450 1A1, was also down-regulated by LRE in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of cell cycle distribution after treatment of MCF-7 cells with TCDD showed that LRE inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells via G2/M phase arrest. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis also revealed that LRE dose-dependently increased the expression of the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p27 and down-regulated the expression of cell cycle-related genes. These data suggest that LRE can mitigate the tumorigenic effects of TCDD in breast cancer cells by suppression of AhR expression and cell cycle arrest. Thus, LRE can be used as a potential toxicity-alleviating agent against EDC-mediated diseases.

  16. Year-long evaluation on the occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine disrupting chemicals in an urban drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Lokesh P; Yao, Hong; Kung'u, Francis T; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2014-03-15

    The occurrence and removal of thirty representative pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in an urban drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) were investigated for a period of one year to evaluate current system's treatment efficacy and assess occurrence of PPCPs and EDCs in finished drinking water. Results showed that the average total PPCPs and EDCs concentration in the surface water source was around 360 ng/L (median concentration = 340 ng/L) with 57% coefficient of variation (CV). The median concentrations of most of the individual PPCPs and EDCs in the surface water were below 15 ng/L except for N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET) and nonylphenol, which were at 122 and 83 ng/L, respectively. The compounds DEET, nonylphenol, ibuprofen, triclosan, atrazine, tris(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), bisphenol-A, and caffeine (in the order of decreasing median concentration) were among twenty compounds detected at least once in the surface water, while all of the above detected compounds, except two, were also detected in the finished drinking water. The average total PPCPs and EDCs concentration in the finished drinking water was around 98 ng/L (median concentration = 96 ng/L) with 66% CV. The median concentrations of most detected PPCPs and EDCs in drinking water were below 5 ng/L except for DEET and nonylphenol, which were at 12 and 20 ng/L, respectively. There was a strong correlation (r = 0.97) between PPCPs and EDCs' concentrations in the source water and in the drinking water over the one-year study period when data points from two sampling events with unusual removals were excluded. Individual water treatment unit processes showed greater temporal variations of PPCPs and EDCs removal efficiencies than the overall treatment processes. The removal efficiencies also varied greatly among different PPCPs and EDCs. The average removal for total PPCPs and EDCs was 76 ± 18% at the DWTP, with ozonation

  17. Metabolism of UV-filter benzophenone-3 by rat and human liver microsomes and its effect on endocrine-disrupting activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoko, E-mail: y-watanabe@nichiyaku.ac.jp [Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Komuro 10281, Ina-machi, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan); Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji [Hokkaido Institute of Public Health, Kita-19, Nishi-12, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0819 (Japan); Uramaru, Naoto [Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Komuro 10281, Ina-machi, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan); Sanoh, Seigo [Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Sugihara, Kazumi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hiroshima International University, Koshingai 5-1-1, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0112 (Japan); Kitamura, Shigeyuki [Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Komuro 10281, Ina-machi, Saitama 362-0806 (Japan); Ohta, Shigeru [Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Kasumi 1-2-3, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Benzophenone-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone; BP-3) is widely used as sunscreen for protection of human skin and hair from damage by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In this study, we examined the metabolism of BP-3 by rat and human liver microsomes, and the estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities of the metabolites. When BP-3 was incubated with rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, 2,4,5-trihydroxybenzophenone (2,4,5-triOH BP) and 3-hydroxylated BP-3 (3-OH BP-3) were newly identified as metabolites, together with previously detected metabolites 5-hydroxylated BP-3 (5-OH BP-3), a 4-desmethylated metabolite (2,4-diOH BP) and 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzophenone (2,3,4-triOH BP). In studies with recombinant rat cytochrome P450, 3-OH BP-3 and 2,4,5-triOH BP were mainly formed by CYP1A1. BP-3 was also metabolized by human liver microsomes and CYP isoforms. In estrogen reporter (ER) assays using estrogen-responsive CHO cells, 2,4-diOH BP exhibited stronger estrogenic activity, 2,3,4-triOH BP exhibited similar activity, and 5-OH BP-3, 2,4,5-triOH BP and 3-OH BP-3 showed lower activity as compared to BP-3. Structural requirements for activity were investigated in a series of 14 BP-3 derivatives. When BP-3 was incubated with liver microsomes from untreated rats or phenobarbital-, 3-methylcholanthrene-, or acetone-treated rats in the presence of NADPH, estrogenic activity was increased. However, liver microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats showed decreased estrogenic activity due to formation of inactive 5-OH BP-3 and reduced formation of active 2,4-diOH BP. Anti-androgenic activity of BP-3 was decreased after incubation with liver microsomes. - Highlights: • Metabolic modification of the endocrine-disrupting activity of BP-3 was examined. • 2,4,5-TriOH BP and 3-OH BP-3 were identified as new BP-3 metabolites. • 2,4-DiOH BP and 2,3,4-triOH BP exhibited high or similar estrogenic activities. • Estrogenic activity of BP-3 was enhanced by incubation with rat liver

  18. An electrochemical DNA-sensor developed with the use of methylene blue as a redox indicator for the detection of DNA damage induced by endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Xiaoyun [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); College of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Ni, Yongnian, E-mail: ynni@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); College of Chemistry, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Kokot, Serge, E-mail: s.kokot@qut.edu.au [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane 4001 (Australia)

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • A new method for detecting DNA damage was successfully developed. • A novel biosensor, MB/dsDNA/GO-CS/AuNPs/GCE biosensor was constructed. • Loading/release of MB in/out of dsDNA/GO-CS/AuNPs film was investigated. • DNA damage induced by BPA, NP and OP was detected and estimated. - Abstract: An electrochemical biosensor capable of indirect detection of DNA damage induced by any one of the three endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) – bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (NP) and 4-t-octylphenol (OP), has been researched and developed. The methylene blue (MB) dye was used as the redox indicator. The glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified by the assembled dsDNA/graphene oxide-chitosan/gold nano-particles to produce a dsDNA/GO-CS/AuNPs/GCE sensor. It was characterized with the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The loading/release of the MB dye by the dsDNA/GO-CS/AuNPs film was investigated, and the results showed that the process was reversible. Based on this, the sensor was used to measure the difference between the loading capabilities of intact and damaged dsDNA in the films. The sensor was then successfully applied to detect DNA damage electrochemically. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) peak current ratio for MB, observed before and after DNA damage, increased linearly in the presence the BPA, NP or OP compounds; the treatment range was 10–60 min, and the respective damage rates were 0.0069, 0.0044 and 0.0031 min{sup −1}, respectively. These results were confirmed by the binding constants: 2.09 × 10{sup 6} M{sup −1} (BPA-DNA), 1.28 × 10{sup 6} M{sup −1} (NP-DNA) and 9.33 × 10{sup 5} M{sup −1} (OP-DNA), all of which were obtained with the use of differential pulse stripping voltammetry (DPSV)

  19. A fungal P450 (CYP5136A3 capable of oxidizing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disrupting alkylphenols: role of Trp(129 and Leu(324.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khajamohiddin Syed

    Full Text Available The model white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, which is known for its versatile pollutant-biodegradation ability, possesses an extraordinarily large repertoire of P450 monooxygenases in its genome. However, the majority of these P450s have hitherto unknown function. Our initial studies using a genome-wide gene induction strategy revealed multiple P450s responsive to individual classes of xenobiotics. Here we report functional characterization of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP5136A3 that showed common responsiveness and catalytic versatility towards endocrine-disrupting alkylphenols (APs and mutagenic/carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Using recombinant CYP5136A3, we demonstrated its oxidation activity towards APs with varying alkyl side-chain length (C3-C9, in addition to PAHs (3-4 ring size. AP oxidation involves hydroxylation at the terminal carbon of the alkyl side-chain (ω-oxidation. Structure-activity analysis based on a 3D model indicated a potential role of Trp(129 and Leu(324 in the oxidation mechanism of CYP5136A3. Replacing Trp(129 with Leu (W129L and Phe (W129F significantly diminished oxidation of both PAHs and APs. The W129L mutation caused greater reduction in phenanthrene oxidation (80% as compared to W129F which caused greater reduction in pyrene oxidation (88%. Almost complete loss of oxidation of C3-C8 APs (83-90% was observed for the W129L mutation as compared to W129F (28-41%. However, the two mutations showed a comparable loss (60-67% in C9-AP oxidation. Replacement of Leu(324 with Gly (L324G caused 42% and 54% decrease in oxidation activity towards phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively. This mutation also caused loss of activity towards C3-C8 APs (20-58%, and complete loss of activity toward nonylphenol (C9-AP. Collectively, the results suggest that Trp(129 and Leu(324 are critical in substrate recognition and/or regio-selective oxidation of PAHs and APs. To our knowledge, this is the first

  20. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  1. Application of biotests for the characterization of exposure pathways for endocrine disrupters from plastics; Anwendung von Biotests zur Charakterisierung der Expositionspfade fuer Umwelthormone aus Kunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Aquatische Oekotoxikologie

    2011-12-15

    The present project aims to characterise the exposure pathways for endocrine disruptors from plastic materials. A bioassay-based approach was employed to investigate and characterise the endocrine activity. Migration studies with food packaging and plastic preforms document the leaching of estrogen-like compounds from several types of plastic in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and the E-Screen. Additionally, anti-estrogenic activity was predominant in many samples. The detection of complex migration profiles provides evidence for the leaching of several, diverse-acting endocrine disruptors. Moreover, extracts of plastic food packaging exhibited agonistic activity on the estrogen receptor, retinoid X receptor, and vitamin D receptor. A theoretical exposure assessment for marine molluscs implies that endocrine disruptors from plastic might induce relevant effect in the environment. Within the exemplary investigation of bottled mineral water, 60% of the products were characterised as significantly estrogenic using the YES and E-Screen. These in vitro data point to the plastic packaging being one source of estrogenic contamination. An in vivo study employing the estrogen-sensitive model organism Potamopyrgus antipodarum supports this hypothesis. By using several analytical techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS/MS) we identified several well-known endocrine disruptors in bottled water and the plastic material, e.g. numerous phthalates and phenols. Moreover, potent antagonists of the estrogen and androgen receptor were extracted from bottled water. In a non-target analysis (Orbitrap-MS) a compound with the exact mass of 363.1992 [M+H{sup +}] correlated highly significantly with the biological activity. On the basis of the methods optimised and applied within the project we elaborated a set of aspects that are crucial for the applicability of bioassays to characterise the endocrine activity of complex samples. Employing a bioassay-based approach we provide evidence for the presence and

  2. 三丁基锡内分泌干扰及生殖毒性研究进展%Research Progress on Endocrine Disrupting and Reproductive Toxicity of Tributyltin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张园; 赵琢; 王华; 李宁涛; 王利兵

    2011-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin chemical used for various industrial purposes, and can be detected in waters,marine food and dunnage. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been become the important public issue discussed universally.Tributyltin has potential hazard effects on human health. This article introduced research advance made by scientists from various countries on tributyltin environment pollution, human exposure, endocrine disrupting and reproductive toxicity, and discussed the mechanism of reproductive toxicity mediated by tributyltin.%三丁基锡是一种用途广泛的有机锡化合物,在水体、海洋食品和生活用品中均可检测到三丁基锡.内分泌干扰物成为近年来热议的公共卫生问题.三丁基锡对人体健康具有潜在危害,笔者从三丁基锡环境污染、人体暴露、内分泌干扰和生殖毒性方面,对三丁基锡国内外研究资料进行综述,并探讨三丁基锡生殖毒性机制.

  3. 农药联苯菊酯对大鼠内分泌干扰作用的研究%Potential endocrine disrupting effects of bifenthrin in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭彦君; 王恒娟; 宋雁; 杨辉; 贾旭东; 李宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the potential endocrine disrupting effects of bifenthrin (BIF)by using uterotrophic assay and Hershberger assay. Methods In uterotrophic assay ,60 female SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, 10 rats per group. Rats in bifenthrin-treated groups were given different doses of bifenthrin (1.47,4.41 and 13. 23mg/kg BW by gavage for 3 consecutive days). Rats in negative control groups were given com oil by gavage. Rats in ethinyl estradiol ( EE) oral positive control groups were given EE 1.0μg/kg BW by gavage. Rats in EE injected positive groups were given 0. 6μg/kg BW EE by subcutaneously injection while given corn oil by gavage. At necropsy, the wet and blotted uteri were weighed. The relative uteri weights were calculated,and the histology of uteri was observed. In Hershberger assay,60 castrated male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, with 10 rats in each group. Rats in BIF-treated groups were given different doses of BIF(1.4,4. 2 and 12.6mg/kg BW) by gavage. Flutamide(3. 0mg/kg BW)were given to animals in the positive control group by gavage. Rats in the negative control group and testosterone propionate group were given corn oil by gavage for 10 consecutive days. Rats in all groups except the negative control group were also treated with testosterone propionate(TP,0.2mg/kg BW)by subcutaneous injection. At necropsy, ventral prostate (VP), seminal vesicle plus fluids and coagulating glands ( SVCG) , levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle ( LABC ), paired Cowper's glands (COW) and the glands penis ( GP ) , liver, kidneys, adrenals were weighed. Serum triiodothyronine(T3)and thyroxine(T4)were determined. Results In uterotrophic assay, compared with the negative control group, the mean relative wet weight and relative blotted weight of uterine were increased significantly in the female rats given by BIF at 13. 23mg/kg BW for 3 days( P < 0. 05 ) . BIF resulted in a significant increase of epithelial cell heights of uteri at 4.41 and 13

  4. Landscape structure and management alter the outcome of a pesticide ERA: evaluating impacts of endocrine disruption using the ALMaSS European Brown Hare model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Dalby, Lars; Skov, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    , and indeed how to generate such landscapes. This paper evaluates the contribution of landscape and farming components to a model based risk assessment of a fictitious endocrine disruptor on hares. In addition, we present methods and code examples for generation of landscape structures and farming simulation...

  5. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely t...

  6. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  7. A novel framework for interpretation of data from the fish short-term reproduction assay (FSTRA) for the detection of endocrined-disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fish short term reproduction assay (FSTRA) is a key component of the USEPA endocrine disruptor screening program (EDSP). The FSTRA considers several mechanistic and apical responses in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) to determine whether an unknown chemical is likely to...

  8. Environmental epigenetics: a role in endocrine disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Wright, Robert O; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2012-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals that are structurally similar to steroid or amine hormones have the potential to mimic endocrine endpoints at the receptor level. However, more recently, epigenetic-induced alteration in gene expression has emerged as an alternative way in which environmental compounds may exert endocrine effects. We review concepts related to environmental epigenetics and relevance for endocrinology through three broad examples: 1) effect of early-life nutritional exposures on future obesity and insulin resistance, 2) effect of lifetime environmental exposures such as ionizing radiation on endocrine cancer risk, and 3) potential for compounds previously classified as endocrine disrupting to additionally or alternatively exert effects through epigenetic mechanisms. The field of environmental epigenetics is still nascent, and additional studies are needed to confirm and reinforce data derived from animal models and preliminary human studies. Current evidence suggests that environmental exposures may significantly impact expression of endocrine-related genes and thereby affect clinical endocrine outcomes.

  9. Molecular targets of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) within the zebrafish ovary: Insights into TCDD-induced endocrine disruption and reproductive toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    TCDD is a reproductive toxicant and endocrine disruptor, yet the mechanisms by which it causes these reproductive alterations are not fully understood. In order to provide additional insight into the molecular mechanisms that underlie TCDD’s reproductive toxicity, we assessed TCDD-induced transcriptional changes in the ovary as they relate to previously described impacts on serum estradiol concentrations and altered follicular development in zebrafish. In-silico computational approaches were ...

  10. Effects of Common Pesticides on Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) Inhibition in SC5 Mouse Sertoli Cells, Evidence of Binding at the COX-2 Active Site, and Implications for Endocrine Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugathas, Subramaniam; Audouze, Karine; Ermler, Sibylle; Orton, Frances; Rosivatz, Erika; Scholze, Martin; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are concerns that diminished prostaglandin action in fetal life could increase the risk of congenital malformations. Many endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been found to suppress prostaglandin synthesis, but to our knowledge, pesticides have never been tested for these effects. Objectives: We assessed the ability of pesticides that are commonly used in the European Union to suppress prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis. Methods: Changes in PGD2 secretion in juvenile mouse Sertoli cells (SC5 cells) were measured using an ELISA. Coincubation with arachidonic acid (AA) was conducted to determine the site of action in the PGD2 synthetic pathway. Molecular modeling studies were performed to assess whether pesticides identified as PGD2-active could serve as ligands of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) binding pocket. Results: The pesticides boscalid, chlorpropham, cypermethrin, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, imazalil (enilconazole), imidacloprid, iprodione, linuron, methiocarb, o-phenylphenol, pirimiphos-methyl, pyrimethanil, and tebuconazole suppressed PGD2 production. Strikingly, some of these substances—o-phenylphenol, cypermethrin, cyprodinil, linuron, and imazalil (enilconazole)—showed potencies (IC50) in the range between 175 and 1,500 nM, similar to those of analgesics intended to block COX enzymes. Supplementation with AA failed to reverse this effect, suggesting that the sites of action of these pesticides are COX enzymes. The molecular modeling studies revealed that the COX-2 binding pocket can accommodate most of the pesticides shown to suppress PGD2 synthesis. Some of these pesticides are also capable of antagonizing the androgen receptor. Conclusions: Chemicals with structural features more varied than previously thought can suppress PGD2 synthesis. Our findings signal a need for in vivo studies to establish the extent of endocrine-disrupting effects that might arise from simultaneous interference with PGD2 signaling and androgen action

  11. Zearalenone endocrine system catch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bursić Vojislava P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the contamination of our environment with thousands of both natural and man-made chemicals which affect the endocrine system of humans and animals. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are thought to mimic or block the action of hormones and therefore disrupt sexual development in utero. EDCs are organochlorine pesticides, dioxin compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, alkylpolyethoxylates, plastic additives and phytoestrogens (occurring naturally in foods: isoflavones coumenestans and zearalenone. The structure of zearalenone is similar to the structure of estrogens and it enables binding to the estrogenic receptors. DNA laddering on gel electrophoresis was present 12 h after dosing thus indicating a conclusion that there was apoptosis. Apoptosis is the principal mechanism contributing to germ cell depletion and testicular atrophy following zearalenone exposure.

  12. Many Putative Endocrine Disruptors Inhibit Prostaglandin Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David M.; Skalkam, Maria L.; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prostaglandins (PGs) play key roles in development and maintenance of homeostasis of the adult body. Despite these important roles, it remains unclear whether the PG pathway is a target for endocrine disruption. However, several known endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) share a high...... of endocrine disruption. Results: We found that many known EDCs inhibit the PG pathway in a mouse Sertoli cell line and in human primary mast cells. The EDCs also reduced PG synthesis in ex vivo rat testis and it was correlated with a reduced testosterone production. The inhibition of PG synthesis occurs...

  13. Surface molecular imprinting onto fluorescein-coated magnetic nanoparticlesvia reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization: A facile three-in-one system for recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Dong, Cunku; Chu, Jia; Qi, Jingyao; Li, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals.In this study, we present a general protocol for the making of surface-imprinted magnetic fluorescence beads viareversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. The resulting composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The as-synthesized beads exhibited homogeneous polymer films (thickness of about 5.7 nm), spherical shape, high fluorescence intensity and magnetic property (Magnetization (Ms) = 3.67 emu g-1). The hybrids bind the original template 17β-estradiol with an appreciable selectivity over structurally related compounds. In addition, the resulting hybrids performed without obvious deterioration after five repeated cycles. This study therefore demonstrates the potential of molecularly imprinted polymers for the recognition and separation of endocrine disrupting chemicals. Electronic

  14. Behavior and fate of endocrine disrupting chemicals inmunicipal sewage treatment plants: A review%内分泌干扰物在城市污水处理厂中的行为和归趋:综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂亚峰; 强志民; 张鹤清; 贲伟伟

    2011-01-01

    内分泌干扰物作为一类新型污染物,由于其在环境水体中微量的浓度即可对野生动物产生内分泌干扰效应,因此引起了人们的广泛关注.本文以两类主要内分泌干扰物(即类固醇雌激素和酚类内分泌干扰物)作为研究对象,综述了它们在城市污水处理厂中的浓度水平以及相应的去除效率,并探讨了不同生物处理工艺、运行操作条件等对去除效率的影响.此外,通过分析内分泌干扰物在活性污泥上的吸附和生物降解特征,提出了其在活性污泥处理系统中可能的去除机制.%Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) , as a class of emerging contaminants, have raised worldwide concern due to their potential disrupting effects on the endocrine system of wild animals even at trace levels in the aquatic environment. This paper reviews the occurrence and removal efficiency of two groups of typical EDCs (I. E. , steroid estrogens and phenolic EDCs) in municipal sewage treatment plants, and particularly discusses the effects of different biological treatment processes as well as operational parameters on their removal efficiency. Further, through examining the adsorption and biodegradation characteristics of EDCs, the possible removal mechanisms of EDCs in the activated sludge process are proposed.

  15. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born......, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory...

  16. Estimation of the Mechanism of Adrenal Action of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Using a Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis in NCI-H295R Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Saito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1. It was reconstructed in an experimental dynamics of cholesterol and 14 steroids from an in vitro steroidogenesis assay using NCI-H295R cells. Results of dynamic sensitivity analysis suggested that HSD3B2 plays the most important role in the metabolic balance of adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on differential metabolic profiling of 12 steroid hormones and 11 adrenal toxic compounds, we could estimate which steroidogenic enzymes were affected in this mathematical model. In terms of adrenal steroidogenic inhibitors, the predicted action sites were approximately matched to reported target enzymes. Thus, our computer-aided system based on systems biological approach may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of endocrine-active compounds and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs.

  17. Estimation of the Mechanism of Adrenal Action of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds Using a Computational Model of Adrenal Steroidogenesis in NCI-H295R Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Ryuta; Terasaki, Natsuko; Yamazaki, Makoto; Masutomi, Naoya; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Okamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Adrenal toxicity is one of the major concerns in drug development. To quantitatively understand the effect of endocrine-active compounds on adrenal steroidogenesis and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs, we developed a mathematical model of steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295R cells. The model includes cellular proliferation, intracellular cholesterol translocation, diffusional transport of steroids, and metabolic pathways of adrenal steroidogenesis, which serially involve steroidogenic proteins and enzymes such as StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2, CYP21A2, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD17B3, and CYP19A1. It was reconstructed in an experimental dynamics of cholesterol and 14 steroids from an in vitro steroidogenesis assay using NCI-H295R cells. Results of dynamic sensitivity analysis suggested that HSD3B2 plays the most important role in the metabolic balance of adrenal steroidogenesis. Based on differential metabolic profiling of 12 steroid hormones and 11 adrenal toxic compounds, we could estimate which steroidogenic enzymes were affected in this mathematical model. In terms of adrenal steroidogenic inhibitors, the predicted action sites were approximately matched to reported target enzymes. Thus, our computer-aided system based on systems biological approach may be useful to understand the mechanism of action of endocrine-active compounds and to assess the human adrenal toxicity of novel pharmaceutical drugs.

  18. Strain Specific Induction of Pyometra and Differences in Immune Responsiveness in Mice Exposed to 17α-Ethinyl Estradiol or the Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorski, Jessica A.; Kendig, Eric L.; Gear, Robin L.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Pyometra is an inflammatory disease of the uterus that can be caused by chronic exposure to estrogens. It is unknown whether weakly estrogenic endocrine disruptors can cause pyometra. We investigated whether dietary exposures to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) induced pyometra. Pyometra did not occur in CD1 mice exposed to different dietary doses of BPA ranging from 4.1 to >4000 µg/kg/day or 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE; 1.2 to >150 µg/kg/day). In the C57BL/6 strain, pyometra occurred in the 15 µg/kg/day EE and 33 µg/kg/day BPA treatment groups. At the effective concentration of BPA, histological analysis revealed pathological alterations of uterine morphology associated with a >5.3-fold increase in macrophage numbers in non-pyometra uteri of C57BL/6 mice exposed to BPA. These results suggest that BPA enhances immune responsiveness of the uterus and that heightened responsiveness in C57BL/6 females is related to increased susceptibility to pyometra. PMID:22429997

  19. Disruptores endocrinos. El caso particular de los xenobióticos estrogénicos. II Estrógenos sintéticos Endocrine disrupters. The case of oestrogenic xenobiotics II: synthetic oestrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín Olmedo

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha puesto en evidencia que muchas sustancias químicas de origen antropogénico son capaces de alterar el sistema endocrino de los seres vivos y se ha acuñado el nombre de disruptores endocrinos para definirlas. El número de disruptores endocrinos es una preocupación creciente si se añade a la inclusión de nuevos compuestos químicos, hasta ahora insospechados, la información generada sobre sus precursores, metabolitos y productos de degradación que tan solo ahora empiezan a conocerse. No se ha podido definir una estructura química única que permita clasificar a un compuesto químico como mimetizador de las hormonas sexuales femeninas, de tal manera que estructuras químicas similares a los estrógenos naturales, basados en el ciclopentanoperhidrofenantreno, comparten con los estilbenos, bisfenoles, bifenilos, alquilfenoles, dioxinas, furanos y parabenes su efecto hormonal estrogénico. El reconocimiento de la actividad estrogénica en diferentes modelos biológicos se ha utilizado para actualizar el censo de xenoestrógenos y poner de manifiesto fuentes de exposición humana hasta el momento insospechadas.In recent years, it has been demonstrated that endocrine systems of living beings can be altered by many chemical substances of anthropogenic origin, designated as endocrine disrupters. There are growing concerns about the number of these endocrine disrupters. It has not been possible to define a single chemical structure that allows the classification of a chemical compound as a mimic of female sex hormones, so that chemical structures similar to natural estrogens, based on cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene, share their hormonal effect with stilbenes, bisphenols, alkylphenols, dioxins, furans and parabenes. The recognition of estrogenic activity in different biological models has been used to update the list of xenoestrogens and reveal sources of human exposure that were previously unknown. New previously

  20. Environmental Epigenetics: A Role in Endocrine Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Wright, Robert O.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals that are structurally similar to steroid or amine hormones have the potential to mimic endocrine endpoints at the receptor level. However, more recently, epigenetic-induced alteration in gene expression has emerged as an alternative way in which environmental compounds may exert endocrine effects. We review concepts related to environmental epigenetics and relevance for endocrinology through three broad examples, 1) effect of early-life nutritional exposures on ...