WorldWideScience

Sample records for bio-nanocomposites biopolymer matrix

  1. Effect of type and content of modified montmorillonite on the structure and properties of bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate and montmorillonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Sandeep, K P; Alavi, S; Truong, V D; Gorga, R E

    2010-06-01

    The nonbiodegradable and nonrenewable nature of plastic packaging has led to a renewed interest in packaging materials based on bio-nanocomposites (biopolymer matrix reinforced with nanoparticles such as layered silicates). Bio-nanocomposite films based on soy protein isolate (SPI) and modified montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared using melt extrusion. The effect of different type (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) and content (0% to 15%) of modified MMT on the structure (degree of intercalation and exfoliation) and properties (color, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, thermal stability, and water vapor permeability) of SPI-MMT bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Extrusion of SPI and modified MMTs resulted in bio-nanocomposites with exfoliated structures at lower MMT content (5%). At higher MMT content (15%), the structure of bio-nanocomposites ranged from intercalated for Cloisite 20A to disordered intercalated for Cloisite 30B. At an MMT content of 5%, bio-nanocomposite films based on modified MMTs (Cloisite 20A and Cloisite 30B) had better mechanical (tensile strength and percent elongation at break), dynamic mechanical (glass transition temperature and storage modulus), and water barrier properties as compared to those based on natural MMT (Cloisite Na(+)). Bio-nanocomposite films based on 10% Cloisite 30B had mechanical properties comparable to those of some of the plastics that are currently used in food packaging applications. However, much higher WVP values of these films as compared to those of existing plastics might limit the application of these films to packaging of high moisture foods such as fresh fruits and vegetables.

  2. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial Senegalia (Acacia) senegal/iron–silica bio-nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şişmanoğlu, Tuba; Karakuş, Selcan; Birer, Özgür; Soylu, Gülin Selda Pozan; Kolan, Ayşen; Tan, Ezgi; Ürk, Öykü; Akdut, Gizem; Kilislioglu, Ayben

    2015-01-01

    Many studies that research bio-nanocomposites utilize techniques that involve the dispersion of strengthening components like silica, metal and metal oxides through a host biopolymer matrix. The biggest success factor for the bio-nanocomposite is having a smooth integration of organic and inorganic phases. This interattraction between the surfaces of inorganic particles and organic molecules are vital for good dispersion. In this study, a novel biodegradable antibacterial material was developed using gum arabic from Senegalia senegal (stabilizer), silica (structure reinforcer) and zero valent iron particles. Silica particles work to not only strengthen the mechanical properties of the Senegalia senegal but also prevent the accumulation of ZVI nanoparticles due to attraction between hydroxyl groups and FeO. The gum arabic/Fe–SiO 2 bio-nanocomposite showed effective antibacterial property against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Using Scanning electron microscopy, homogeneous dispersion and uniform particle size was viewed in the biopolymer. X-ray diffraction studies of iron particles organization in Senegalia senegal also showed that the main portion of iron was crystalline and in the form of FeO and Fe 0 . X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the surface but no appreciable peak was measured for the iron before Ar etching. These results suggest that the surface of iron nanoparticles consist mainly of a layer of iron oxides in the form of FeO. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to determine the thermal stability and absorbed moisture content.

  3. Preparation and characterization of antibacterial Senegalia (Acacia) senegal/iron–silica bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şişmanoğlu, Tuba; Karakuş, Selcan [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Birer, Özgür [Koç University, Department of Chemistry, Sarıyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Koç University, KUYTAM Surface Science and Technology Center, Sarıyer 34450, Istanbul (Turkey); Soylu, Gülin Selda Pozan [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Kolan, Ayşen; Tan, Ezgi; Ürk, Öykü; Akdut, Gizem [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey); Kilislioglu, Ayben, E-mail: ayben@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Chemistry, 34320 Avcilar, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-11-01

    Many studies that research bio-nanocomposites utilize techniques that involve the dispersion of strengthening components like silica, metal and metal oxides through a host biopolymer matrix. The biggest success factor for the bio-nanocomposite is having a smooth integration of organic and inorganic phases. This interattraction between the surfaces of inorganic particles and organic molecules are vital for good dispersion. In this study, a novel biodegradable antibacterial material was developed using gum arabic from Senegalia senegal (stabilizer), silica (structure reinforcer) and zero valent iron particles. Silica particles work to not only strengthen the mechanical properties of the Senegalia senegal but also prevent the accumulation of ZVI nanoparticles due to attraction between hydroxyl groups and FeO. The gum arabic/Fe–SiO{sub 2} bio-nanocomposite showed effective antibacterial property against the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. Using Scanning electron microscopy, homogeneous dispersion and uniform particle size was viewed in the biopolymer. X-ray diffraction studies of iron particles organization in Senegalia senegal also showed that the main portion of iron was crystalline and in the form of FeO and Fe{sup 0}. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to evaluate the chemical composition of the surface but no appreciable peak was measured for the iron before Ar etching. These results suggest that the surface of iron nanoparticles consist mainly of a layer of iron oxides in the form of FeO. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to determine the thermal stability and absorbed moisture content.

  4. Transmission electron microscopy of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV)/nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) bio-nanocomposite prepared using cryo-ultramicrotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismarul, N. I.; Engku, A. H. E. U.; Siti, N. K.; Tay, K. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental issues on disposal and end-of-life for product made from synthetic petroleum-derived polymers have gained increasing attention from materials scientist to search for new materials with similar physical and mechanical properties but environmental friendly in a way that they are renewable and biodegradable as well. This work is to study the effect of nanocrystalline cellulose in improving the thermal stability of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-valerate biopolymer for high temperature processing of packaging material. 10 % w/w PHBV-NCC bio-nanocomposite feedstock pellet prepared using RONDOL minilab compounder was used as the sample for the preparation of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) sample. RMC Cryo-Ultramicrotomy equipment was used to prepare the ultra-thin slice of the bio-nanocomposite pellet under liquid nitrogen at - 60 °C. Diamond knife was used to slice off about 80-100 nm ultra-thin bio-nanocomposite films and was transferred into the lacey carbon film coated grid using cooled sugar solution. A few drops of phosphotungstic acid was used as negative stain to improve the contrast during the TEM analysis. HITACHI TEM systems was used to obtain the TEM micrograph of PHBV-NCC bio-nanocomposite using 80kV accelerating voltage. A well dispersed NCC in PHBV matrix, ranging from 5 to 25 nm in width was observed.

  5. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Naderi, Nima; Ooi, Ch Raymond; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2013-08-27

    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the addition of a small amount of ZnO NRs in the biopolymer matrix. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in the intensity of the crystal facets of (10ī1) and (0002) with the addition of ZnO NRs in the biocomposite matrix. The surface topography of the fish gelatin films indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing ZnO NR concentrations. The conductivity of the films also significantly increased with the addition of ZnO NRs. These results indicated that bio-nanocomposites based on ZnO NRs had great potentials for applications in packaging technology, food preservation, and UV-shielding systems.

  6. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Naderi, Nima; Ooi, CH Raymond; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2013-08-01

    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the addition of a small amount of ZnO NRs in the biopolymer matrix. X-ray diffraction showed an increase in the intensity of the crystal facets of (10ī1) and (0002) with the addition of ZnO NRs in the biocomposite matrix. The surface topography of the fish gelatin films indicated an increase in surface roughness with increasing ZnO NR concentrations. The conductivity of the films also significantly increased with the addition of ZnO NRs. These results indicated that bio-nanocomposites based on ZnO NRs had great potentials for applications in packaging technology, food preservation, and UV-shielding systems.

  7. Processing and properties of eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films filled with cellulose nanocrystals from sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achaby, Mounir; El Miri, Nassima; Aboulkas, Adil; Zahouily, Mohamed; Bilal, Essaid; Barakat, Abdellatif; Solhy, Abderrahim

    2017-03-01

    Novel synthesis strategy of eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films have been exploited using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and polyvinyl alcohol/carboxymethyl cellulose (PVA/CMC) blend matrix as a potential in food packaging application. The CNC were extracted from sugarcane bagasse using sulfuric acid hydrolysis, and they were successfully characterized regarding their morphology, size, crystallinity and thermal stability. Thereafter, PVA/CMC-CNC bio-nanocomposite films, at various CNC contents (0.5-10wt%), were fabricated by the solvent casting method, and their properties were investigated. It was found that the addition of 5wt% CNC within a PVA/CMC increased the tensile modulus and strength by 141% and 83% respectively, and the water vapor permeability was reduced by 87%. Additionally, the bio-nanocomposites maintained the same transparency level of the PVA/CMC blend film (transmittance of ∼90% in the visible region), suggesting that the CNC were dispersed at the nanoscale. In these bio-nanocomposites, the adhesion properties and the large number of functional groups that are present in the CNC's surface and the macromolecular chains of the PVA/CMC blend are exploited to improve the interfacial interactions between the CNC and the blend. Consequently, these eco-friendly structured bio-nanocomposites with superior properties are expected to be useful in food packaging applications. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Ecologically friendly chitosan-montmorillonite bio-nanocomposite as adsorbent for textile dyes from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović-Jovičić Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The bio-nanocomposite of montmorillonite and natural biopolymer chitosan (C-MM was synthesized. Intercalation of chitosan in form of monolayer into the interlamellar space of montmorillonite was confirmed by XRD and IR analysis. The adsorption of textile dyes: Acid Yellow 99 (AY99, Acid Orange 10 (AO10 and Reactive Black 5 (RB5 onto C-MM was investigated. The adsorption was performed with the respect to adsorption time, pH and initial dye concentration. The kinetics of adsorption obeyed pseudo-second-order of kinetics and was the most efficient in acidic pH. Langmuir model best described the adsorption of AY99 and AO10 , while RB5 adsorption isotherm was best fitted with Freundlich model. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. Project III 45001

  9. Bio-nanocomposite films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals: Rheology of film-forming solutions, transparency, water vapor barrier and tensile properties of films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Miri, Nassima; Abdelouahdi, Karima; Barakat, Abdellatif; Zahouily, Mohamed; Fihri, Aziz; Solhy, Abderrahim; El Achaby, Mounir

    2015-09-20

    This study was aimed to develop bio-nanocomposite films of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/starch (ST) polysaccharide matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the solution casting method. The CNC were extracted at the nanometric scale from sugarcane bagasse via sulfuric acid hydrolysis and used as reinforcing phase to produce CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposite films at different CNC loading levels (0.5-5.0 wt%). Steady shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic measurements of film-forming solution (FFS) of neat CMC, CMC/ST blend and CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposites were evaluated. Viscosity measurements revealed that a transition from Newtonian behavior to shear thinning occurred when CNC were added. The dynamic tests confirmed that all FFS have a viscoelastic behavior with an entanglement network structure, induced by the hydrogen bonding. In regard to the cast film quality, the rheological data showed that all FFS were suitable for casting of films at ambient temperature. The effect of CNC addition on the optical transparency, water vapor permeability (WVP) and tensile properties of bio-nanocomposite films was studied. It was found that bio-nanocomposite films remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale. The WVP was significantly reduced and the elastic modulus and tensile strength were increased gradually with the addition of CNC. Herein, the steps to form new eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films were described by taking advantage of the combination of CMC, ST and CNC. The as-produced films exhibited good optical transparency, reduced WVP and enhanced tensile properties, which are the main properties required for packaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanical and solubility properties of bio-nanocomposite film of semi refined kappa carrageenan/ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputri, Apriliana Eka; Praseptiangga, Danar; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this present work is to develop semi refined kappa carrageenan based bio-nanocomposite film as an alternative to synthetic petroleum based food packaging materials. Among natural polymers, carrageenan is one of the most promising material, since it is a renewable bioresource. The ZnO nanoparticles (0.5%; 1.0%; 1.5% w/w carrageenan) was incorporated into carrageenan polymer to prepare bio-nanocomposite films, where ZnO acts as reinforcement for carrageenan matrix. The mechanical and solubility properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of ZnO concentration. The results indicated that the addition of ZnO exhibits greater solubility compared to the neat film. The elongation at break is insignificantly different on the films with and without addition ZnO. The tensile strength of the film was highest for the sample with 0.5% ZnO. These mechanical and solubility properties suggest that bio-nanocomposite film of semi refined kappa carrageenan and nanoparticle ZnO can be effectively used as food packaging material.

  11. TiO₂ (rutile) embedded inulin--A versatile bio-nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthi Kalaivani, G; Suja, S K

    2016-06-05

    Inulin, a water soluble carbohydrate polymer, was extracted from Allium sativum L. by hot water diffusion method. A novel bio-nanocomposite was prepared by embedding TiO2 (rutile) onto the inulin matrix. The extracted inulin and the prepared bio-nanocomposite were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM and TGA techniques. The photocatalytic activity of the bio-nanocomposite for the degradation of methylene blue was studied under UV illumination in batch mode experiment and was found to be twice as high as that of pristine TiO2. The kapp for inulin-TiO2 (0.0449 min(-1)) was higher than that for TiO2 (0.0325 min(-1)) which may be due to the synergistic action of inulin and TiO2. The stabilization of photo excited electron suppressed the electron-hole pair recombination thereby inducing the electrons and the holes to participate in the photo reduction and oxidation processes, respectively and enhancing the photocatalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Binary PVA bio-nanocomposites containing cellulose nanocrystals extracted from different natural sources: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunati, E; Puglia, D; Luzi, F; Santulli, C; Kenny, J M; Torre, L

    2013-09-12

    PVA bio-nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) extracted from commercial microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and from two types of natural fibres, Phormium tenax and Flax of the Belinka variety, were produced by solvent casting in water. Morphological, thermal, mechanical and transparency properties were studied while the respective efficiency of the extraction process of CNC from the three sources was evaluated. The effect of CNC types and content on PVA properties and water absorption capacity were also evaluated. Natural fibres offered higher levels of extraction efficiency when compared with MCC hydrolysis yield. Thermal analysis proved that CNC promotes the crystallization of the PVA matrix, while improving its plastic response. It was also clarified that all PVA/CNC systems remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale, while being all saturated after the first 18-24h of water absorption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of halloysite content on carboxymethyl cellulose/halloysite nanotube bio-nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Kathiravan; Leng, Teh Pei; Husseinsyah, Salmah; Rahman, Rozyanty; Keat, Yeoh Cheow

    2017-04-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose/halloysite nanotube (CMC/HNT) bio-nanocomposite films were prepared by solution casting method. The effect of HNT content on tensile properties and morphology were studied. The results showed that the tensile strength of the CMC/HNT bio-nanocomposite films achieved optimum at 10 wt% of HNT content. The elongation at break and modulus of elasticity increased with increasing HNT content. The morphology of CMC/HNT bio-nanocomposite films showed that the poor distribution of HNT filler was observed at 20 wt% of HNT content.

  14. Fabrication, nanomechanical characterization, and cytocompatibility of gold-reinforced chitosan bio-nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Nimitt G.; Kumar, Ajeet; Jayawardana, Veroni N.; Woodworth, Craig D.; Yuya, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan, a naturally derived polymer represents one of the most technologically important classes of active materials with applications in a variety of industrial and biomedical fields. Gold nanoparticles (∼ 32 nm) were synthesized via a citrate reduction method from chloroauric acid and incorporated in Chitosan matrix. Bio-nanocomposite films with varying concentrations of gold nanoparticles were prepared through solution casting process. Uniform distribution of gold nanoparticles was achieved throughout the chitosan matrix and was confirmed with SEM. Synthesis outcomes and prepared nanocomposites were characterized using SEM, TEM, EDX, SAED, UV–vis, XRD, DLS, and Zeta potential for their physical, morphological and structural properties. Nanoscale properties of materials under the influence of temperature were characterized through nanoindentation techniques. From quasi-static nanoindentation, it was observed that hardness and reduced modulus of the nanocomposites were increased significantly in direct proportion to the gold nanoparticle concentration. Gold nanoparticle concentration also showed positive impact on storage modulus and thermal stability of the material. The obtained films were confirmed to be biocompatible by their ability to support growth of human cells in vitro. In summary, the results show enhanced mechanical properties with increasing gold nanoparticle concentration, and provide better understanding of the structure–property relationships of such biocompatible materials for potential biomedical applications. - Highlights: • We fabricated gold reinforced chitosan nanocomposite for biomedical applications. • Gold nanoparticles significantly enhanced nanomechanical properties of chitosan. • Nanocomposite films supported growth of human cells in vitro. • Gold nanoparticles significantly improved cell proliferation on chitosan films

  15. Preparation and Properties of Cellulose Laurate (CL/Starch Nanocrystals Acetate (SNA Bio-nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yuan Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, a series of totally novel bio-nanocomposite films from cellulose laurate (CL and starch nanocrystals acetate (SNA were fabricated, and the properties of nanocomposite films were investigated in detail. SNA was obtained by modifying starch nanocrystals (SNs produced by sulfuric acid hydrolysis of corn starch with acetic anhydride. The favorable dispersity of SNA in chloroform made it ready to convert into nanocomposite films with CL via casting/evaporation method. The transmittance, thermal behavior, mechanical properties, barrier properties and hydrophobicity of CL/SNA nanocomposite films were investigated with UV-vis spectrophotometer, simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA, universal tensile tester/dynamic thermomechanical analysis (DMA, water vapor permeation meter/oxygen permeability tester, and contact angle tester, respectively. The transmittance of nanocomposite films decreased with the increase of SNA content. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results showed that the introduction of SNA into CL matrix did not severely decrease the thermal behavior of CL/SNA nanocomposites. Moreover, non-linear and linear mechanical analysis reflected the enhancement of SNA. At lower contents of SNA (<5.0 wt%, the values of Young’s modulus, tensile strength and the elongation at break of nanocomposite films were comparable with those of neat CL. However, with the increase of SNA, the Young’s modulus and tensile strength were improved significantly and were accompanied by the decreased elongation at break. The water vapor permeability (WVP and oxygen permeability (PO2 of CL/SNA nanocomposite films were significantly improved by the addition of SNA.

  16. Development of silver and clay-starch bio-nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Ana S.; Oliveira, M.; Machado, A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Starch, among biopolymers is that had the lowest production cost, wide availability, fully biodegradability and is a renewable agriculture resource. Starch due to its sensitivity to humidity and poor mechanical properties cannot be used in many applications. For that, the dispersion of clays in this material improves their physical and mechanical properties, at very low filler loadings. On the other hand, the incorporation of silver nanoparticles into biocompatible and biod...

  17. Novel fungus-titanate bio-nanocomposites as high performance adsorbents for the efficient removal of radioactive ions from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingze; Wei, Guodong; Liu, Na; Zhou, Liang; Fu, Chengwei; Chubik, M.; Gromov, A.; Han, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Reclaimable adsorbents have a critical application in the adsorption of radioactive materials. In this study, the novel bio-nanocomposites comprising fungi and titanate nanotubes are successfully synthesized by a simple and low-cost method. Morphological characterizations and composite mechanism analysis confirm that the composites are sufficiently stable to avoid dust pollution resulting from the titanate nanomaterials. Adsorption experiments demonstrate that the bio-nanocomposites are efficient adsorbents with a saturated sorption capacity as high as 120 mg g-1 (1.75 meq. g-1) for Ba2+ ions. The results suggest that the bio-nanocomposites can be used as promising radioactive adsorbents for removing radioactive ions from water caused by nuclear leakage.Reclaimable adsorbents have a critical application in the adsorption of radioactive materials. In this study, the novel bio-nanocomposites comprising fungi and titanate nanotubes are successfully synthesized by a simple and low-cost method. Morphological characterizations and composite mechanism analysis confirm that the composites are sufficiently stable to avoid dust pollution resulting from the titanate nanomaterials. Adsorption experiments demonstrate that the bio-nanocomposites are efficient adsorbents with a saturated sorption capacity as high as 120 mg g-1 (1.75 meq. g-1) for Ba2+ ions. The results suggest that the bio-nanocomposites can be used as promising radioactive adsorbents for removing radioactive ions from water caused by nuclear leakage. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The experimental section and supplementary figures are shown in supplementary information. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03467d

  18. Stiffening mechanisms in amorphous polyamide bio-nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter W. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Macheca, Afonso D. [Institute of Applied Materials, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Hatfield 0028, Pretoria (South Africa); Department of Chemical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, P.O. Box 257, Maputo (Mozambique); Benhamida, Aida; Kaci, Mustapha [Laboratoire des Matériaux Polymères Avancés (LMPA), Université de Bejaia 06000 (Algeria)

    2016-05-18

    Dimer fatty acid polyamide nanocomposites based on flake- or needle-shaped nanoparticles were prepared via melt compounding. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of both individually dispersed particles and particle agglomerates in the polymer matrix. Dynamic mechanical analysis suggests that three stiffening mechanisms were operating. The reinforcing effect of the high stiffness inorganic filler particles is the primary contributor. Together with the chain confinement effect, that expresses itself in an apparent increase in the glass transition temperature, this provided an adequate rationalization of the stiffness variation below Tg. However, an additional stiffening effect is indicated at temperatures above Tg. The mechanism may involve dynamic network formation based on fluctuating hydrogen bonding interactions between the polymer chains and the filler particles.

  19. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan-polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Dervisevic, Esma; Çevik, Emre; Şenel, Mehmet

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan-polypyrrole-gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1-200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Novel electrochemical xanthine biosensor based on chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muamer Dervisevic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the electrochemical detection of the adenosine-3-phosphate degradation product, xanthine, using a new xanthine biosensor based on a hybrid bio-nanocomposite platform which has been successfully employed in the evaluation of meat freshness. In the design of the amperometric xanthine biosensor, chitosan–polypyrrole–gold nanoparticles fabricated by an in situ chemical synthesis method on a glassy carbon electrode surface was used to enhance electron transfer and to provide good enzyme affinity. Electrochemical studies were carried out by the modified electrode with immobilized xanthine oxidase on it, after which the biosensor was tested to ascertain the optimization parameters. The Biosensor exhibited a very good linear range of 1–200 μM, low detection limit of 0.25 μM, average response time of 8 seconds, and was not prone to significant interference from uric acid, ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium benzoate. The resulting bio-nanocomposite xanthine biosensor was tested with fish, beef, and chicken real-sample measurements.

  1. Effect of gamma ray on magnetic bio-nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Sima [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Frounchi, Masoud, E-mail: frounchi@sharif.edu [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dadbin, Susan [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (M-PVA) films were prepared via solution casting filled with surface modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles (M-NPs). The M-NPs were coated with citric acid during synthesis. The chemical interaction between the citric acid and M-NPs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The average hydrodynamic diameter of M-NPs was 19.7 nm measured by dynamic light scattering DLS and appeared almost spherical in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The M-NPs were uniformly dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and showed high optical transparency with good mechanical properties. M-PVA hydrogels were synthesized using gamma irradiation. The characteristic XRD peak of PVA at 19.4° was split after irradiation indicating formation of different crystallite sizes. The M-PVA hydrogel showed higher saturation magnetization compared to un-irradiated M-PVA. Also the presence of M-NPs enhanced the crosslinking of PVA by irradiation. - Highlights: • PVA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films and hydrogels were prepared. • Gamma-irradiated hydrogels showed high saturation magnetization. • The nanocomposite films had excellent mechanical properties. • Magnetic hydrogels showed high equilibrium water content.

  2. Effect of gamma ray on magnetic bio-nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadi, Sima; Frounchi, Masoud; Dadbin, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic polyvinyl alcohol (M-PVA) films were prepared via solution casting filled with surface modified superparamagnetic nanoparticles (M-NPs). The M-NPs were coated with citric acid during synthesis. The chemical interaction between the citric acid and M-NPs was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The average hydrodynamic diameter of M-NPs was 19.7 nm measured by dynamic light scattering DLS and appeared almost spherical in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The M-NPs were uniformly dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrix and showed high optical transparency with good mechanical properties. M-PVA hydrogels were synthesized using gamma irradiation. The characteristic XRD peak of PVA at 19.4° was split after irradiation indicating formation of different crystallite sizes. The M-PVA hydrogel showed higher saturation magnetization compared to un-irradiated M-PVA. Also the presence of M-NPs enhanced the crosslinking of PVA by irradiation. - Highlights: • PVA and Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite films and hydrogels were prepared. • Gamma-irradiated hydrogels showed high saturation magnetization. • The nanocomposite films had excellent mechanical properties. • Magnetic hydrogels showed high equilibrium water content.

  3. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Murillo L; Saeki, Margarida J.; Telling, Mark T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatm...

  4. New bio-nanocomposites based on iron oxides and polysaccharides applied to oxidation and alkylation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daily Rodríguez-Padrón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharides from natural sources and iron precursors were applied to develop new bio-nanocomposites by mechanochemical milling processes. The proposed methodology was demonstrated to be advantageous in comparison with other protocols for the synthesis of iron oxide based nanostructures. Additionally, mechanochemistry has enormous potential from an environmental point-of-view since it is able to reduce solvent issues in chemical syntheses. The catalytic activity of the obtained nanocatalysts was investigated in both the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and in the alkylation of toluene with benzyl chloride. The microwave-assisted oxidation of benzyl alcohol reached 45% conversion after 10 min. The conversion of the alkylation of toluene in both microwave-assisted and conventional heating methods was higher than 99% after 3 min and 30 min, respectively. The transformation of benzyl alcohol and toluene into valuable product in both the oxidation and alkylation reaction reveals a potential method for the valorization of lignocellulosic biomass.

  5. Bioinspired and highly oriented clay nanocomposites with a xyloglucan biopolymer matrix: extending the range of mechanical and barrier properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochumalayil, Joby J; Bergenstråhle-Wohlert, Malin; Utsel, Simon; Wågberg, Lars; Zhou, Qi; Berglund, Lars A

    2013-01-14

    The development of clay bionanocomposites requires processing routes with nanostructural control. Moreover, moisture durability is a concern with water-soluble biopolymers. Here, oriented bionanocomposite coatings with strong in-plane orientation of clay platelets are for the first time prepared by continuous water-based processing. Montmorillonite (MTM) and a "new" unmodified biological polymer (xyloglucan (XG)) are combined. The resulting nanocomposites are characterized by FE-SEM, TEM, and XRD. XG adsorption on MTM is measured by quartz crystal microbalance analysis. Mechanical and gas barrier properties are measured, also at high relative humidity. The reinforcement effects are modeled. XG dimensions in composites are estimated using atomistic simulations. The nanostructure shows highly oriented and intercalated clay platelets. The reinforcement efficiency and effects on barrier properties are remarkable and are likely to be due to highly oriented and well-dispersed MTM and strong XG-MTM interactions. Properties are well preserved in humid conditions and the reasons for this are discussed.

  6. Encapsulation of paclitaxel into a bio-nanocomposite. A study combining inelastic neutron scattering to thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Orecchini, Andrea; Aguilera, Luis; Eckert, Juergen; Embs, Jan; Matic, Aleksander; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer drug paclitaxel was encapsulated into a bio-nanocomposite formed by magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan and apatite. The aim of this drug carrier is to provide a new perspective against breast cancer. The dynamics of the pure and encapsulated drug were investigated in order to verify possible molecular changes caused by the encapsulation, as well as to follow which interactions may occur between paclitaxel and the composite. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, inelastic and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments were performed. These very preliminary results suggest the successful encapsulation of the drug.

  7. Physical properties of fish gelatin-based bio-nanocomposite films incorporated with ZnO nanorods

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Naderi, Nima; Ooi, CH Raymond; Mahmood, Mohamad Rusop

    2013-01-01

    Well-dispersed fish gelatin-based nanocomposites were prepared by adding ZnO nanorods (NRs) as fillers to aqueous gelatin. The effects of ZnO NR fillers on the mechanical, optical, and electrical properties of fish gelatin bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. Results showed an increase in Young's modulus and tensile strength of 42% and 25% for nanocomposites incorporated with 5% ZnO NRs, respectively, compared with unfilled gelatin-based films. UV transmission decreased to zero with the...

  8. Biopolymer gels containing fructooligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karen Cristina Guedes; Sato, Ana Carla Kawazoe

    2017-11-01

    The influence of the addition of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in an external gelated alginate/gelatin biopolymer matrix, was evaluated in order to produce biopolymeric structures with functional effects. Solutions were characterized regarding their rheological properties, macrogels regarding their microstructure and mechanical properties and microgels were characterized in relation to their particle size distribution and morphology. Close relationship was found between the microstructure, rheological and mechanical properties of the biopolymeric systems. An increased viscosity and accentuated elastic and pseudoplastic behavior were associated to denser microstructures. The FOS addition caused changes in the evaluated properties, resulting in more cohesive structures, with smaller pores and higher viscosity, compared to alginate-gelatin gels. The addition of 3% FOS to biopolymeric system provided an optimal condition, allowing the formation of stronger gels, with smaller pores and beads with smaller sizes, indicating the potential use of these functional systems as texture modifiers or encapsulation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biopolymer colloids for controlling and templating inorganic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Preiss

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and biopolymer colloids can act as controlling agents and templates not only in many processes in nature, but also in a wide range of synthetic approaches. Inorganic materials can be either synthesized ex situ and later incorporated into a biopolymer structuring matrix or grown in situ in the presence of biopolymers. In this review, we focus mainly on the latter case and distinguish between the following possibilities: (i biopolymers as controlling agents of nucleation and growth of inorganic materials; (ii biopolymers as supports, either as molecular supports or as carrier particles acting as cores of core–shell structures; and (iii so-called “soft templates”, which include on one hand stabilized droplets, micelles, and vesicles, and on the other hand continuous scaffolds generated by gelling biopolymers.

  10. Morphological Investigation into Starch Bio-Nanocomposites via Synchrotron Radiation and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihua Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a hydrophilic, plasticized bionanocomposite system involving sorbitol plasticizer, amylose biopolymer, and montmorillonite (MMT for the presence of competitive interactions among them at different moisture content. Synchrotron analysis via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and thermal analysis using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC were performed to understand crystalline growth and the distribution of crystalline domains within the samples. The SAXS diffraction patterns showed reduced interhelix spacing in the amylose network indicating strong amylose-sorbitol interactions. Depending on the sorbitol and MMT concentration, these interactions also affected the free moisture content and crystalline domains. Domains of around 95 Å and 312 Å were found in the low-moisture-content samples as compared to a single domain of 95 Å in the high-moisture-content samples. DSC measurements confirmed that the MMT increased the onset and the melting temperature of nanocomposites. Moreover, the results showed that the ternary interactions among sorbitol-amylose-MMT supported the crystalline heterogeneity through secondary nucleation.

  11. Influence of alkali metal cations on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of rectorite/chitosan bio-nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul Reddy, A; Jayaramudu, J; Siva Mohan Reddy, G; Manjula, B; Sadiku, E R

    2015-05-20

    The main theme of this work is to study the influence of ion-exchangeable alkali metal cations, such as: Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Cs(+) on the thermal, mechanical and morphological properties. In this regard, a set of rectorite/chitosan (REC-CS) bio-nanocomposite films (BNCFs) was prepared by facile reaction of chitosan with ion-exchanged REC clay. The microstructure and morphology of BNCFs were investigated with XRD, TEM, SEM and AFM. Thermal and tensile properties of BNCFs were also investigated. As revealed from TEM and XRD results, the BNCFs featured a mixed morphology. Some intercalated clay sheets, together with nano-sized clay tactoids were obtained in LiREC/CS, NaREC/CS and KREC/CS of the BNCFs. From fractured surface study, via SEM, it was observed that the dispersion of chitosan polymer attaches to (and covers) the clay platelets. FTIR confirmed strong hydrogen bonds between clay and chitosan polymer. In addition, the thermal stabilities significantly varied when alkali metal cations varied from Li(+) to Cs(+). The BNCFs featured high tensile strengths (up to 84 MPa) and tensile moduli (up to 45 GPa). After evaluating these properties of BNCFs, we came to conclusion that these bio-nano composites can be used for packaging applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: murillolongo@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida Juri [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Parra, Joao P.R.L.L. [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Landsgesell, Sven [Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Smith, Ron I. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • We synthesized a magnetic bio-NCP with potential to be used against breast cancer. • The magnetic nanoparticles have an inverted spinel structure. • The coating with chitosan does not cause changes to the particle microstructure. • The hydration level of bio-NCP is crucial to the surface modification with apatite. • Bio-NCP with narrow size distribution and high magnetic response was obtained. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution and high magnetic response at room temperature and is a very promising material for early diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment.

  13. Physicochemical and antifungal properties of bio-nanocomposite film based on gelatin-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraee, Samar; Milani, Jafar M; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The gelatin-based nanocomposite films containing chitin nanoparticles (N-chitin) with concentrations of 0, 3, 5 and 10% were prepared and their physical, thermal and anti-microbial properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that N-chitin size distribution was around 60-70nm which dispersed appropriately at low concentration in gelatin matrix. The results showed that incorporation of N-chitin significantly influenced apparent color and transparency of the gelatin films. The reduced water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility and higher surface hydrophobicity of the nanocomposite films were obtained by enhancing N-chitin concentration in film formulation. The use of N-chitin up to 5% concentration in the gelatin based nanocomposite film led to improved mechanical properties. Also, the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed improved stability of nanocomposite films against melting and degradation at high temperatures in comparison to neat gelatin film. The well compatibility of chitin nanoparticles with gelatin polymer was concluded from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) plots. Finally, the gelatin based nanocomposite films had anti-fungal properties against Aspergillus niger in the contact surface zone. Increasing the concentration of N-chitin up to 5% enlarged inhibition zone diameter, but the nanocomposite film containing 10% N-chitin showed smaller inhibition zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel fungus-Fe3O4 bio-nanocomposites as high performance adsorbents for the removal of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Sun, Yubing; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungus was used as a template for the assembly of nano-Fe 3 O 4 . • Fungal template directed the nano-Fe 3 O 4 structure from the micro-scale level. • Fungal template enhanced the dispersity and stability of nano-Fe 3 O 4 . • Fungus-Fe 3 O 4 exhibited high sorption capacity for Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI). • Fungus-Fe 3 O 4 possessed satisfactory regeneration performance and reusability. - Abstract: The bio-nanocomposites of fungus-Fe 3 O 4 were successfully synthesized using a low-cost self-assembly technique. SEM images showed uniform decoration of nano-Fe 3 O 4 particles on fungus surface. The FTIR analysis indicated that nano-Fe 3 O 4 was combined to the fungus surface by chemical bonds. The sorption ability of fungus-Fe 3 O 4 toward Sr(II), Th(IV) and U(VI) was evaluated by batch techniques. Radionuclide sorption on fungus-Fe 3 O 4 was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexion dominated their sorption. XPS analysis indicated that the inner-sphere radionuclide complexes were formed by mainly bonding with oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., alcohol, acetal and carboxyl) of fungus-Fe 3 O 4 . The maximum sorption capacities of fungus-Fe 3 O 4 calculated from Langmuir isotherm model were 100.9, 223.9 and 280.8 mg/g for Sr(II) and U(VI) at pH 5.0, and Th(IV) at pH 3.0, respectively, at 303 K. Fungus-Fe 3 O 4 also exhibited excellent regeneration performance for the preconcentration of radionuclides. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the sorption of radionuclides on fungus-Fe 3 O 4 was a spontaneous and endothermic process. The findings herein highlight the novel synthesis method of fungus-Fe 3 O 4 and its high sorption ability for radionuclides

  15. Characterization of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells immobilized in a loofa sponge matrix, and application of this biopolymer in the development of functional yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Martinez, Camila; Pereira Ruiz, Suelen; Carvalho Fenelon, Vanderson; Rodrigues de Morais, Gutierrez; Luciano Baesso, Mauro; Matioli, Graciette

    2016-05-01

    Agrobacterium sp. IFO 13140 cells were immobilized on a loofa sponge and used to produce curdlan over five successive cycles. The interaction between microbial cells and the loofa sponge as well as the produced curdlan were characterized by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectrometry. The purity of the curdlan was also evaluated. The storage stability of the immobilized cells was assessed and the produced curdlan was used in a functional yogurt formulation. The average curdlan production by immobilized cells was 17.84 g L(-1) . The presence of the microorganism in the sponge was confirmed and did not cause alterations in the matrix, and the chemical structure of the curdlan was the same as that of commercial curdlan. The purity of both was similar. The immobilized cells remained active after 300 days of storage at -18 °C. The use of the produced curdlan in a functional yogurt resulted in a product with lower syneresis. A large number of cells physically adhered to the surface of loofa sponge fibers, and its use as an immobilization matrix to produce curdlan was effective. The use of the produced curdlan in yogurt allowed the development of a more stable product. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The pharmaceutical applications of a biopolymer isolated from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds: Focus on the freeze-dried matrix forming capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Iurian

    2017-12-01

    The FSM dispersions revealed shear thinning flow type. Based on colloidal dispersions' rheological properties, five FSM concentrations were taken forward to the lyophilization step. Completely dry and elegant tablets were obtained. Texture analysis indicated highly porous structures, confirmed by SEM analysis, which explain the fast disintegration properties. All the prepared tablets disintegrated in less than 47 s. The disintegration process was prolonged by the increase in FSM content, due to the high viscosity the polymer creates in aqueous media. FSM tablets presented longer disintegration times, as compared to gelatin tablets, but also higher crushing strength. Considering the fast disintegration and the high crushing strength, FSM is a good candidate as matrix forming agent for fast disintegrating dosage forms or other freeze-dried preparations.

  17. Biopolymer based nanocomposites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.; Mistretta, M. C.; La Mantia, F. P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, UdR INSTM di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work, biopolymer based nanocomposites filled with graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) were prepared by melt compounding in a batch mixer. The polymer used as matrix was a commercial biodegradable polymer-blend of PLA and a copolyester (BioFlex®). The prepared materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), rheological and mechanical measurements. Moreover, the effect of the GnP amount on the investigated properties was evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GnP increased the stiffness of the biopolymeric matrix.

  18. Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Bio-Polymer Graphite Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddam Kamarudin, M.; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Munirah Abdullah, Nur; Abdullah, M. F. L.

    2017-08-01

    Waste cooking oil is used as the main substances in producing graphite biopolymer thin films. Biopolymer is produce from the reaction of bio-monomer and cross linker with the ratio of 2:1 and addition of graphite with an increment of 2% through a slip casting method. The morphological surface properties of the samples are observed by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). It is shown that the graphite particle is well mixed and homogenously dispersed in biopolymer matrix. Meanwhile, the mechanical response of materials by monitoring the change in the material properties in terms of frequency and temperature of the samples were determined using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA). The calculated cross-linked density of biopolymer composites revealed the increment of graphite particle loading at 8% gives highest results with 260.012 x 103 M/m3.

  19. Cytoxicity, dynamic and thermal properties of bio-based rosin-epoxy resin/ castor oil polyurethane/ carbon nanotubes bio-nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Li; Wang, Dan; Liu, Hongmei; Jia, Pan; Gao, Jungang

    2016-08-01

    In order to prepare bio-nanocomposites with no-cytotoxicity, the rosin-based epoxy resin (MPAER) and castor oil-based polyurethane (COPU) were synthesized and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was used to enhance the properties of curing MPAER/COPU materials. The curing reaction, dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of this system were characterized by FTIR, NMR, DMA, TG et al. The cytotoxicity of materials is evaluated for HeLa cells using a MTT cell-viability assay. The results showed that COPU can cure MPAER and CNTs can increase effectively the properties of MPAER/COPU nanocomposites. The Tg of MPAER/COPU/CNTs has the highest value when CNTs content is 0.4 wt%, which is 52.4 °C higher than the pure MPAER/COPU. Thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced by the addition of CNTs, the initial decomposition temperature Td5 of the sample No. 0.4 has increased from 284.5 to 305.2 °C, which is 20.7 °C higher than No. 0. The impact strength of the No. 0.4 film is 15 kg cm higher than the pure resin system. The survival rate of HeLa cells to the products is greater than 90% within 48 and 72 h, which demonstrate that this material has excellent biocompatibility and no obvious cytotoxicity for HeLa cells, which may be used in the medical treatment.

  20. Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films based on cassava starch or chitosan, reinforced with montmorillonite or bamboo nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Jaiber H R; Tadini, Carmen C

    2018-02-01

    In this study, films based on two different polysaccharides (chitosan and cassava starch) were produced by casting technique and nanostructured by montmorillonite (MMTNPs) or bamboo nanofibers (BNFs) at two different concentrations: 0.5g/100g and 1.0g/100g of polymer, using glycerol as plasticizer at concentration of 30g/100g of polymer. The particle size and surface charge of the MMTNPs and BNFs nanoparticles were 315±14nm and 60±3nm and -31.78mV and -20.77mV, respectively. In relation to the mechanical properties, the nanofibers increased the tensile strength in 50% of starch films, while the elongation at break shows a similar increase (66%) for both types of nanoparticles at concentration of 1.0g/100g. Cassava starch films showed a better response to nanostructure process, noticed through by the mechanical properties. XRD analyses showed good interaction between the polymer matrix and bamboo nanofibers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biocompatibility of plasma nanostructured biopolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Slepička, P.; Bačáková, Lucie; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 307, Jul 15 (2013), s. 642-646 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : biopolymer * plasma treatment * biocompatibility Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2013

  2. Nanostructure features of microalgae biopolymer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cybulska, J.; Halaj, M.; Cepák, Vladislav; Lukavský, Jaromír; Capek, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, 7-8 (2016), s. 629-636 ISSN 0038-9056 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dictyosphaerium * biopolymer s * alga Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2016

  3. Nanostructure features of microalgae biopolymer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cybulska, J.; Halaj, M.; Cepák, Vladislav; Lukavský, Jaromír; Capek, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, 7-8 (2016), s. 629-636 ISSN 0038-9056 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Dictyosphaerium * biopolymers * alga Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.837, year: 2016

  4. Biopolymer chitin: extraction and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sania M.B. de; Ladchumananandasivam, Rasiah

    2011-01-01

    The biopolymers are materials made from renewable sources such as soybean, corn, cane sugar, cellulose and chitin. Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer found in nature, after cellulose. The chemical structure of chitin is distinguished by the hydroxyl group, of structure from cellulose, located at position C-2, which in the chitin is replaced by acetamine group. The objective of this study was to develop the chitin from exoskeletons of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, which are discarded as waste, causing pollutions, environmental problems and thus obtain better utilization of these raw materials. It also, show the extraction process and deacetylation of chitosan. The extraction of chitin followed steps of demineralization, desproteinization and deodorization. Chitin and chitosan were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the thermals properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). (author)

  5. Hydrogels from Biopolymer Hybrid for Biomedical, Food, and Functional Food Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Spiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid hydrogels from biopolymers have been applied for various indications across a wide range of biomedical, pharmaceutical, and functional food industries. In particular, hybrid hydrogels synthesized from two biopolymers have attracted increasing attention. The inclusion of a second biopolymer strengthens the stability of resultant hydrogels and enriches its functionalities by bringing in new functional groups or optimizing the micro-environmental conditions for certain biological and biochemical processes. This article presents approaches that have been used by our groups to synthesize biopolymer hybrid hydrogels for effective uses for immunotherapy, tissue regeneration, food and functional food applications. The research has achieved some challenging results, such as stabilizing physical structure, increasing mucoadhesiveness, and the creation of an artificial extracellular matrix to aid in guiding tissue differentiation.

  6. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  7. Autonomous valve for detection of biopolymer degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Urs; Noeth, Nadine-Nicole; Fetz, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    We present a polymer microvalve that allows the detection of biopolymer degradation without the need of external energy. The valve is based on a polymer container filled with a colored marker solution and closed by a thin lid. This structure is covered by a film of poly(L-lactide) and degradation...... of the biopolymer triggers the release of the color which is detected visually. The autonomous valve has potential for the fast testing of biopolymer degradation under various environmental conditions or by specific enzymes....

  8. Electrochemistry of organic, bioactive compounds and biopolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojta, Miroslav; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 721-721 ISSN 0026-9247 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : electrochemistry * biopolymers Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  9. System for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, V.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprising: a set of containers adapted for receiving aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers which are subsequently precipitated in said containers on particles of diatomite in the presence of a coprecipitator, then filtered, dissolved, and mixed with a scintillator; radioactivity measuring means including a detection chamber to which is fed the mixture produced in said set of containers; an electric drive for moving said set of containers in a stepwise manner; means for proportional feeding of said coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to said containers which contain the biological sample for forming an acid precipitation of biopolymers; means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers; precipitated biopolymer filtering means for successively filtering the precipitate, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers mixed with said scintillator for feeding of the mixture to said detection chamber; a system of pipelines interconnecting said above-recited means; and said means for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers including, a measuring cell arranged in a detection chamber and communicating with said means for filtering precipitated biopolymers through one pipeline of said system of pipelines; a program unit electrically connected to said electric drive, said means for acid precipatation of biopolymers, said means for the removal of precipitated samples from said containers, said filtering means, and said radioactivity measuring device; said program unit adapted to periodically switch on and off the above-recited means and check the sequence of the radioactivity measuring operations; and a control unit for controlling the initiation of the system and for selecting programs

  10. Formatting biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Daniel; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  11. Invited review nonmulberry silk biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, S C; Kundu, Banani; Talukdar, Sarmistha; Bano, Subia; Nayak, Sunita; Kundu, Joydip; Mandal, Biman B; Bhardwaj, Nandana; Botlagunta, Mahendran; Dash, Biraja C; Acharya, Chitrangada; Ghosh, Ananta K

    2012-06-01

    The silk produced by silkworms are biopolymers and can be classified into two types--mulberry and nonmulberry. Mulberry silk of silkworm Bombyx mori has been extensively explored and used for century old textiles and sutures. But for the last few decades it is being extensively exploited for biomedical applications. However, the transformation of nonmulberry silk from being a textile commodity to biomaterials is relatively new. Within a very short period of time, the combination of load bearing capability and tensile strength of nonmulberry silk has been equally envisioned for bone, cartilage, adipose, and other tissue regeneration. Adding to its advantage is its diverse morphology, including macro to nano architectures with controllable degradation and biocompatibility yields novel natural material systems in vitro. Its follow on applications involve sustained release of model compounds and anticancer drugs. Its 3D cancer models provide compatible microenvironment systems for better understanding of the cancer progression mechanism and screening of anticancer compounds. Diversely designed nonmulberry matrices thus provide an array of new cutting age technologies, which is unattainable with the current synthetic materials that lack biodegradability and biocompatibility. Scientific exploration of nonmulberry silk in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and biotechnological applications promises advancement of sericulture industries in India and China, largest nonmulberry silk producers of the world. This review discusses the prospective biomedical applications of nonmulberry silk proteins as natural biomaterials. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Investigation on wear characteristic of biopolymer gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Wafiuddin Bin Md; Daing Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Bin; Sofian, Azizul Helmi Bin; Basrawi, Mohamad Firdaus bin; Khalil Ibrahim, Thamir

    2017-10-01

    Polymer is widely used in many mechanical components such as gear. With the world going to a more green and sustainable environment, polymers which are bio based are being recognized as a replacement for conventional polymers based on fossil fuel. The use of biopolymer in mechanical components especially gear have not been fully explored yet. This research focuses on biopolymer for spur gear and whether the conventional method to investigate wear characteristic is applicable. The spur gears are produced by injection moulding and tested on several speeds using a custom test equipment. The wear formation such as tooth fracture, tooth deformation, debris and weight loss was observed on the biopolymer spur gear. It was noted that the biopolymer gear wear mechanism was similar with other type of polymer spur gears. It also undergoes stages of wear which are; running in, linear and rapid. It can be said that the wear mechanism of biopolymer spur gear is comparable to fossil fuel based polymer spur gear, thus it can be considered to replace polymer gears in suitable applications.

  13. Chitin and chitosan: biopolymers for wound management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rita; Shitiz, Kirti; Singh, Antaryami

    2017-12-01

    Chitin and chitosan are biopolymers with excellent bioactive properties, such as biodegradability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, haemostatic activity and antimicrobial activity. A wide variety of biomedical applications for chitin and chitin derivatives have been reported, including wound-healing applications. They are reported to promote rapid dermal regeneration and accelerate wound healing. A number of dressing materials based on chitin and chitosan have been developed for the treatment of wounds. Chitin and chitosan with beneficial intrinsic properties and high potential for wound healing are attractive biopolymers for wound management. This review presents an overview of properties, biomedical applications and the role of these biopolymers in wound care. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The biofilm matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Hans-Curt; Wingender, Jost

    2010-09-01

    The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that form their immediate environment. EPS are mainly polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids; they provide the mechanical stability of biofilms, mediate their adhesion to surfaces and form a cohesive, three-dimensional polymer network that interconnects and transiently immobilizes biofilm cells. In addition, the biofilm matrix acts as an external digestive system by keeping extracellular enzymes close to the cells, enabling them to metabolize dissolved, colloidal and solid biopolymers. Here we describe the functions, properties and constituents of the EPS matrix that make biofilms the most successful forms of life on earth.

  15. Fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers using nanoimprint lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Fisker-Bødker, Nis

    2011-01-01

    The biodegradable polymer poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) was introduced for the fabrication of micromechanical devices. For this purpose, thin biopolymer films with thickness around 10 μm were spin-coated on silicon substrates. Patterning of microcantilevers is achieved by nanoimprint lithography. A major...... challenge was the high adhesion between PLLA and silicon stamp. Optimized stamp fabrication and the deposition of a 125 nm thick fluorocarbon anti-stiction coating on the PLLA allowed the fabrication of biopolymer cantilevers. Resonance frequency measurements were used to estimate the Young’s modulus...

  16. Dispersion of cellulose nanofibers in biopolymer based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei

    The focus of this work was to understand the fundamental dispersion mechanism of cellulose based nanofibers in bionanocomposites. The cellulose nanofibers were extracted from soybean pod and hemp fibers by chemo-mechanical treatments. These are bundles of cellulose nanofibers with a diameter ranging between 50 to 100 nm and lengths of thousands of nanometers which results in very high aspect ratio. In combination with a suitable matrix polymer, cellulose nanofiber networks show considerable potential as an effective reinforcement for high quality specialty applications of bio-based nanocomposites. Cellulose fibrils have a high density of --OH groups on the surface, which have a tendency to form hydrogen bonds with adjacent fibrils, reducing interaction with the surrounding matrix. The use of nanofibers has been mostly restricted to water soluble polymers. This thesis is focused on synthesizing the nanocomposite using a solid phase matrix polypropylene (PP) or polyethylene (PE) by hot compression and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in an aqueous phase by film casting. The mechanical properties of nanofiber reinforced PVA film demonstrated a 4-5 fold increase in tensile strength, as compared to the untreated fiber-blend-PVA film. It is necessary to reduce the entanglement of the fibrils and improve their dispersion in the matrix by surface modification of fibers without deteriorating their reinforcing capability. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was used to explore how various surface treatments would change the dispersion component of surface energy and acid-base character of cellulose nanofibers and the effect of the incorporation of these modified nanofibers into a biopolymer matrix on the properties of their nano-composites. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) based nanocomposites using cellulose nanofibers were prepared by extrusion, injection molding and hot compression. The IGC results indicated that styrene maleic anhydride coated and ethylene

  17. All Green Composites from Fully Renewable Biopolymers: Chitosan-Starch Reinforced with Keratin from Feathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Flores-Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performance as reinforcement of a fibrillar protein such as feather keratin fiber over a biopolymeric matrix composed of polysaccharides was evaluated in this paper. Three different kinds of keratin reinforcement were used: short and long biofibers and rachis particles. These were added separately at 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt% to the chitosan-starch matrix and the composites were processed by a casting/solvent evaporation method. The morphological characteristics, mechanical and thermal properties of the matrix and composites were studied by scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis. The thermal results indicated that the addition of keratin enhanced the thermal stability of the composites compared to pure matrix. This was corroborated with dynamic mechanical analysis as the results revealed that the storage modulus of the composites increased with respect to the pure matrix. The morphology, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, indicated a uniform dispersion of keratin in the chitosan-starch matrix as a result of good compatibility between these biopolymers, also corroborated by FTIR. These results demonstrate that chicken feathers can be useful to obtain novel keratin reinforcements and develop new green composites providing better properties, than the original biopolymer matrix.

  18. Separation of no-carrier-added 66,67Ga from bulk cobalt by a biopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Anupam; Nayak, Dalia; Lahiri, Susanta

    2007-01-01

    Heavy ion activation of natural cobalt foil with 80.5MeV 12 C results in the formation of no-carrier-added 66,67 As radionuclides, along with their corresponding decay products, 66,67 Ge and 66,67 Ga in the matrix. Attempt has been made to separate the no-carrier-added gallium radionuclides from the target matrix cobalt using a biopolymer, Fe doped calcium alginate (Fe-CA) beads. A complete separation was achieved by adsorbing 66,67 Ga and lesser amount of bulk Co at pH3 followed by washing the beads with 0.4M NaNO. (author)

  19. Sustainably Sourced, Thermally Resistant, Radiation Hard Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugel, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This material represents a breakthrough in the production, manufacturing, and application of thermal protection system (TPS) materials and radiation shielding, as this represents the first effort to develop a non-metallic, non-ceramic, biomaterial-based, sustainable TPS with the capability to also act as radiation shielding. Until now, the standing philosophy for radiation shielding involved carrying the shielding at liftoff or utilizing onboard water sources. This shielding material could be grown onboard and applied as needed prior to different radiation landscapes (commonly seen during missions involving gravitational assists). The material is a bioplastic material. Bioplastics are any combination of a biopolymer and a plasticizer. In this case, the biopolymer is a starch-based material and a commonly accessible plasticizer. Starch molecules are composed of two major polymers: amylase and amylopectin. The biopolymer phenolic compounds are common to the ablative thermal protection system family of materials. With similar constituents come similar chemical ablation processes, with the potential to have comparable, if not better, ablation characteristics. It can also be used as a flame-resistant barrier for commercial applications in buildings, homes, cars, and heater firewall material. The biopolymer is observed to undergo chemical transformations (oxidative and structural degradation) at radiation doses that are 1,000 times the maximum dose of an unmanned mission (10-25 Mrad), indicating that it would be a viable candidate for robust radiation shielding. As a comparison, the total integrated radiation dose for a three-year manned mission to Mars is 0.1 krad, far below the radiation limit at which starch molecules degrade. For electron radiation, the biopolymer starches show minimal deterioration when exposed to energies greater than 180 keV. This flame-resistant, thermal-insulating material is non-hazardous and may be sustainably sourced. It poses no hazardous

  20. Bioflocculation of Basic Dye onto Isolated Microbial Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elkady

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three purified biopolymers isolated from Bacillus velezensis (40B, Bacillus mojavensis (32A and Pseudomonas (38A strains were evaluated for dye decolourization as bioflocculants. The decolourization capacity of the three polymers was inspected using C.I 28 basic yellow dye as hazardous pollutant. The chemical compositions of these purified biopolymers were considered by HPLC and FTIR spectrum. The decolourization efficiency of the three purified biopolymers was determined using both real dye polluted wastewater (discharged from AKSA EGYPT acrylic fibres industry and simulated synthetic wastewater. The maximum decolourization efficiencies of the purified biopolymers of the three studied strains (40B, (32A and (38A were 91, 89 and 88 %, respectively. The equilibrium of dye sorption process onto biopolymers was described using Langmuir isotherm equation. However, its kinetics follows the pseudo second order model. The thermodynamic examination investigated the exothermic and spontaneous nature of the decolourization process using the purified biopolymers.

  1. New Guar Biopolymer Silver Nanocomposites for Wound Healing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runa Ghosh Auddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is an innate physiological response that helps restore cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Selective biodegradable and biocompatible polymer materials have provided useful scaffolds for wound healing and assisted cellular messaging. In the present study, guar gum, a polymeric galactomannan, was intrinsically modified to a new cationic biopolymer guar gum alkylamine (GGAA for wound healing applications. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (Agnp were further impregnated in GGAA for extended evaluations in punch wound models in rodents. SEM studies showed silver nanoparticles well dispersed in the new guar matrix with a particle size of ~18 nm. In wound healing experiments, faster healing and improved cosmetic appearance were observed in the new nanobiomaterial treated group compared to commercially available silver alginate cream. The total protein, DNA, and hydroxyproline contents of the wound tissues were also significantly higher in the treated group as compared with the silver alginate cream (P<0.05. Silver nanoparticles exerted positive effects because of their antimicrobial properties. The nanobiomaterial was observed to promote wound closure by inducing proliferation and migration of the keratinocytes at the wound site. The derivatized guar gum matrix additionally provided a hydrated surface necessary for cell proliferation.

  2. Significance of collective motions in biopolymers and neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, Nobuhiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Importance of collective variable description of conformational dynamics of biopolymers and the vital role that neutron inelastic scattering phenomena would play in its experimental determination are discussed. (author)

  3. Biopolymer plugging effect. Laboratory-pressurized pumping flow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatoorian, Robert; Petrisor, Ioana G.; Kwan, Chang-Chin; Yen, Teh Fu [Environmental Engineering Program, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Kap. 210, 3620 S. Vermont Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2531 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    The use of biopolymers and their producing microorganisms to form a wide range of impervious barriers, as well as for enhancement of oil recovery (EOR) is already well documented. Both of these important applications of biopolymers are based on their plugging characteristics. Flow systems are essential to examine the plugging effect of biopolymers under different conditions, in order to select suitable biopolymers for a particular application. In the present study, the plugging effect of a number of biopolymers, namely xanthan, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), guar gum, polyglutamic acid (PGA) and chitosan, has been investigated in a laboratory-pressurized pumping flow system. The present work is also targeted to study the correlation, if any, between biopolymer structure and plugging effect. The experimental system included a horizontally mounted sand-pack column and provided a constant flow, using a transducer and recording the pressure difference. Thus, the permeability ratio could be evaluated for each biopolymer as models in the field. All of the biopolymers studied have shown positive plugging effects by reducing the permeability of sand over the 11-day experimental period. The best plugging effect was obtained for PHB, which can reach more than a billion-fold permeability reduction, followed by chitosan and PGA, with a million-fold reduction of permeability. These biopolymers can be successfully used alone or in combination in field applications for stabilizing underground contamination to stop the plumes of subsurface pollutants, as well as for improving oil recovery from the field. Our results show that the plugging effect is influenced by the structure of biopolymers. This study will lead to a new method for characterizing the biopolymers used for plugging.

  4. Biopolymers and its aplication on environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ospina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of disposable packaging has made the world million tons of non-biodegradable waste generated . For many years we used non-biodegradable , petroleum plastic packaging . Belatedly we have realized that to continue this rate of contamination, soon ocasionaremos irreparable damage to the environment . It is therefore all efforts on seeking alternatives to the use of non-biodegradable packaging, are of great importance , in order to restore the damaged environment so far, and prevent deterioration onwards. In this regard , research in different areas of biotechnology has allowed the production of biodegradable packaging produced from microbial biopolymers.

  5. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kweon, Jin Jung; Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui; Jung, Seunho; Kwon, Chanho

    2014-07-01

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame 1H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  6. Proton conduction in biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Jin Jung [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32310 (United States); Lee, Kyu Won; Kim, Hyojung; Lee, Cheol Eui, E-mail: rscel@korea.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seunho [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology and UBITA, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Chanho [Naraebio Research Laboratories, 177 Dangha-ri, Bongdam-eup, Hawseong-si 445-892 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-07

    Protonic currents play a vital role in electrical signalling in living systems. It has been suggested that succinoglycan plays a specific role in alfalfa root nodule development, presumably acting as the signaling molecules. In this regard, charge transport and proton dynamics in the biopolymer exopolysaccharide succinoglycan have been studied by means of electrical measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In particular, a dielectric dispersion in the system has revealed that the electrical conduction is protonic rather electronic. Besides, our laboratory- and rotating-frame {sup 1}H NMR measurements have elucidated the nature of the protonic conduction, activation of the protonic motion being associated with a glass transition.

  7. Sugar and polyol solutions as effective solvent for biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of biopolymers, sugars or polyols and water can be treated as a pseudo binary system with respect to melting of the biopolymer. Sugar and polyol solutions can be treated as an effective solvent, characterized by the density of hydroxyl groups available for intermolecular hydrogen

  8. Moisture sorption in mixtures of biopolymer, disaccharides and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The moisture sorption of ternary mixtures of biopolymer, sugar and water is investigated by means of the Free-Volume-Flory-Huggins (FVFH) theory. The earlier FVFH theory developed for binary mixtures of biopolymer/water and sugar/water has to be modified to account for two effects: 1) the change in

  9. Biopolymers as materials for developing products in pharmaceutical applications and biomedical uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Guillermo Rojas Cortés

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers have been widely studied for use in pharmaceutical applications. They have been used for modifying drug release, orientating a drug towards its therapeutic target, penetrating physiological barriers (tissues and cells and protecting unstable therapeutic agents against physiological conditions which are present in a less invasive administration routes. The importance of biopolymers in designing new biomedical devices must thus be stressed, es-pecially when a pharmaceutical substance must be incorporated into a polymer matrix. A new generation of alterna-tives for human health has thus been generated by designing pharmaceutical therapeutic systems in line with the concept of “integrated custom-made product design”. This document reviews the trends concerning using biopoly-mers for designing products having pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. The paper also introduces the elements which should be mastered by engineers for obtaining material which can be used in the health field and tries to provide a reference point regarding the state of the art in this specific field of knowledge.

  10. 3D-Printed Biopolymers for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing technology has recently gained substantial interest for potential applications in tissue engineering due to the ability of making a three-dimensional object of virtually any shape from a digital model. 3D-printed biopolymers, which combine the 3D printing technology and biopolymers, have shown great potential in tissue engineering applications and are receiving significant attention, which has resulted in the development of numerous research programs regarding the material systems which are available for 3D printing. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of biopolymer materials, including natural biopolymer-based materials and synthetic biopolymer-based materials prepared using 3D printing technology, and some future challenges and applications of this technology are discussed.

  11. Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Biopolymer Delivered Circulating Angiogenic Cells in Hibernating Myocardium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Celine

    Vasculogenic cell-based therapy combined with tissue engineering is a promising revascularization strategy for patients with hibernating myocardium, a common clinical condition. We used a clinically relevant swine model of hibernating myocardium to examine the benefits of biopolymer-supported delivery of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) in this context. Twenty-five swine underwent placement of an ameroid constrictor on the left circumflex artery (LCx). After 2 weeks, positron emission tomography measures of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) were reduced in the affected region (both pstress MBF and MFR were increased only in the cells+matrix group (panimals (p=0.02) compared to controls. Similar results were found using microsphere-measured MBF. Wall motion abnormalities and ejection fraction improved only in the cells+matrix group. This preclinical swine model demonstrated ischemia and hibernation, which was improved by the combined delivery of CACs and a collagen-based matrix. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the mechanisms and effects of combining progenitor cells and biopolymers in the setting of myocardial hibernation, a common clinical condition in patients with advanced coronary artery disease.

  12. pH-induced contrast in viscoelasticity imaging of biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapp, R D; Insana, M F

    2009-01-01

    Understanding contrast mechanisms and identifying discriminating features is at the heart of diagnostic imaging development. This paper focuses on how pH influences the viscoelastic properties of biopolymers to better understand the effects of extracellular pH on breast tumour elasticity imaging. Extracellular pH is known to decrease as much as 1 pH unit in breast tumours, thus creating a dangerous environment that increases cellular mutatation rates and therapeutic resistance. We used a gelatin hydrogel phantom to isolate the effects of pH on a polymer network with similarities to the extracellular matrix in breast stroma. Using compressive unconfined creep and stress relaxation measurements, we systematically measured the viscoelastic features sensitive to pH by way of time-domain models and complex modulus analysis. These results are used to determine the sensitivity of quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging to pH. We found a strong elastic response of the polymer network to pH, such that the matrix stiffness decreases as pH was reduced; however, the viscous response of the medium to pH was negligible. While physiological features of breast stroma such as proteoglycans and vascular networks are not included in our hydrogel model, observations in this study provide insight into viscoelastic features specific to pH changes in the collagenous stromal network. These observations suggest that the large contrast common in breast tumours with desmoplasia may be reduced under acidic conditions, and that viscoelastic features are unlikely to improve discriminability.

  13. Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs. Bacillus species possess hydrolytic enzymes that can be exploited for economical PHAs production. This review summarizes the recent trends in both non-growth and growth associated PHAs production by Bacillus species which may provide direction leading to future research towards this growing quest for biodegradable plastics, one more critical step ahead towards sustainable development.

  14. Biopolymers used in the manufacture of food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lucia Hernández Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work includes various biopolymers used in the production of food packaging such as: polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, etc. It begins with the definition and classification of polymers with a special emphasis on the process of degradation of these as an alternative solution to the environmental problem caused by the indiscriminate use of plastics. It also sets out the different types of biopolymers used in the production of containers are given on the advantages and disadvantages of such materials, as well as some trends and innovations in the use of biopolymers.

  15. Radiotracer experiments with biopolymers and bio-compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The applications of biopolymer and biocompatible polymer employing radiotracers have been reviewed. Two different aspects have been studied. Environmentally benign methodologies for the removal, immobilization, separation or speciation of heavy, toxic elements and clinically important radionuclides have been developed using biopolymer and bio-compatible polymer as well. The complex formation ability of a bio-compatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with clinically important radionuclides have been tested which have tremendous importance in radiopharmaceutical sciences. (author)

  16. Equilibrium & Nonequilibrium Fluctuation Effects in Biopolymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Devin Michael

    Fluctuation-induced interactions are an important organizing principle in a variety of soft matter systems. In this dissertation, I explore the role of both thermal and active fluctuations within cross-linked polymer networks. The systems I study are in large part inspired by the amazing physics found within the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. I first predict and verify the existence of a thermal Casimir force between cross-linkers bound to a semi-flexible polymer. The calculation is complicated by the appearance of second order derivatives in the bending Hamiltonian for such polymers, which requires a careful evaluation of the the path integral formulation of the partition function in order to arrive at the physically correct continuum limit and properly address ultraviolet divergences. I find that cross linkers interact along a filament with an attractive logarithmic potential proportional to thermal energy. The proportionality constant depends on whether and how the cross linkers constrain the relative angle between the two filaments to which they are bound. The interaction has important implications for the synthesis of biopolymer bundles within cells. I model the cross-linkers as existing in two phases: bound to the bundle and free in solution. When the cross-linkers are bound, they behave as a one-dimensional gas of particles interacting with the Casimir force, while the free phase is a simple ideal gas. Demanding equilibrium between the two phases, I find a discontinuous transition between a sparsely and a densely bound bundle. This discontinuous condensation transition induced by the long-ranged nature of the Casimir interaction allows for a similarly abrupt structural transition in semiflexible filament networks between a low cross linker density isotropic phase and a higher cross link density bundle network. This work is supported by the results of finite element Brownian dynamics simulations of semiflexible filaments and transient cross-linkers. I

  17. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen, Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen*, Wilfred

    2005-10-01

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create `artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  18. Formatting and ligating biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Daniel J.; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  19. Obtention of gelatin biopolymers by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura

    2014-01-01

    The gelatin (Gel) is a biocompatible and biodegradable biopolymer, which naturally forms semi-solid colloids or hydrogels in aqueous solutions. As a hydrophilic polymer, the Gel has structural and physico-mechanical properties that distinguish it from synthetic hydrophilic polymers. The study of these properties led to the development of the present work. Thus, Gel-based films and hydrogels were developed using ionizing radiation technology by different techniques: irradiation with 60 Co, electron beam (EB) and/or pulsed EB. The Gel based-films enriched with different additives, such as glycerol (GLY), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), acrylamide and/or vegetal fiber, were irradiated with doses from 10 to 60 kGy, depending on the additive; some parameters like mechanical properties, color, and water absorption were analyzed. In the radio-induced synthesis of GEL nanohydrogels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the mixture (MIX) of additives, PEG and GEL, the size, molar mass and surface morphology of the nanohydrogels were analyzed. There was a significant increase of gel fraction with increase of the radiation dose for the GEL/fiber samples. The GEL based-films with 10% PVA irradiated at 20 kGy showed the highest puncture strength. The addition of antioxidant BHT affected on some GEL based-films properties on applied conditions. Regarding the nanohydrogels, there was a decrease of hydrodynamic radius of MIX irradiated with 60 Co from 68 ± 25 nm (2 kGy) to 35 ± 4 nm (5 kGy). The radiation proved to be a convenient tool in the modification of polymeric materials for both, GEL films and hydrogels. (author)

  20. Conformon-driven biopolymer shape changes in cell modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sungchul; Ciobanu, Gabriel

    2003-07-01

    Conceptual models of the atom preceded the mathematical model of the hydrogen atom in physics in the second decade of the 20th century. The computer modeling of the living cell in the 21st century may follow a similar course of development. A conceptual model of the cell called the Bhopalator was formulated in the mid-1980s, along with its twin theories known as the conformon theory of molecular machines and the cell language theory of biopolymer interactions [Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 227 (1974) 211; BioSystems 44 (1997) 17; Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 870 (1999a) 411; BioSystems 54 (2000) 107; Semiotica 138 (1-4) (2002a) 15; Fundamenta Informaticae 49 (2002b) 147]. The conformon theory accounts for the reversible actions of individual biopolymers coupled to irreversible chemical reactions, while the cell language theory provides a theoretical framework for understanding the complex networks of dynamic interactions among biopolymers in the cell. These two theories are reviewed and further elaborated for the benefit of both computational biologists and computer scientists who are interested in modeling the living cell and its functions. One of the critical components of the mechanisms of cell communication and cell computing has been postulated to be space- and time-organized teleonomic (i.e. goal-directed) shape changes of biopolymers that are driven by exergonic (free energy-releasing) chemical reactions. The generalized Franck-Condon principle is suggested to be essential in resolving the apparent paradox arising when one attempts to couple endergonic (free energy-requiring) biopolymer shape changes to the exergonic chemical reactions that are catalyzed by biopolymer shape changes themselves. Conformons, defined as sequence-specific mechanical strains of biopolymers first invoked three decades ago to account for energy coupling in mitochondria, have been identified as shape changers, the agents that cause shape changes in biopolymers. Given a set of space- and time

  1. Effect of sugarcane biopolymer gel injected in rabbit vocal fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto de Souza Leão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Alterations in the vocal folds that involve volume reduction and glottal closure failure result in exaggerated air escape during speech. For such situations, the use of implants or grafts of different materials has been proposed. OBJECTIVE: To define the effect of sugarcane biopolymer gel when implanted in the vocal folds of rabbits. METHODS: This was an experimental study. The vocal folds of rabbits injected with sugarcane biopolymer and saline solution were histologically evaluated after 21 and 90 days. RESULTS: Mild to moderate inflammation and increased volume were observed in all vocal folds injected with biopolymer, when compared to controls. There were no cases of necrosis or calcification. DISCUSSION: This study showed higher inflammatory reaction in cases than in controls and biopolymer biointegration to the vocal fold. This fibrogenic response with absence of epithelial repercussions suggests that the biopolymer in its gel form can be bioactive and preserve the normal vibratory function of the epithelium. CONCLUSION: We show that in spite of producing an inflammatory reaction in vocal fold tissues, the material remained in vocal fold throughout the study period.

  2. Surface changes of biopolymers PHB and PLLA induced by Ar+ plasma treatment and wet etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N.; Slepička, P.; Sajdl, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2014-08-01

    Polymers, especially group of biopolymers find potential application in a wide range of disciplines due to their biodegradability. In biomedical applications these materials can be used as a scaffold or matrix. In this work, the influence of the Ar+ plasma treatment and subsequent wet etching (acetone/water) on the surface properties of polymers were studied. Two biopolymers - polyhydroxybutyrate with 8% polyhydroxyvalerate (PHB) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were used in these experiments. Modified surface layers were analyzed by different methods. Surface wettability was characterized by determination of water contact angle. Changes in elemental composition of modified surfaces were performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology and roughness was examined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Gravimetry method was used to study the mass loss. It was found that the modification from both with plasma and wet etching leads to dramatic changes of surface properties (surface chemistry, morphology and roughness). Rate of changes of these features strongly depends on the modification parameters.

  3. Some geomechanical properties of a biopolymer treated medium sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiszniewski Mateusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Some geomechanical properties of a biopolymer treated medium sand. This paper presents a laboratory assessment of geomechanical properties of sandy soil improved by biopolymer application. Additives (biosubstance consist of polysaccharides and water. Biosubstance used in the project was xanthan gum, which comes from bacteria Xanthomonas campestris. Triaxial shear compression tests and unconfined compression tests were carried out for investigation purposes. Amount of the biopolymer used in the samples was 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%, on dry weight basis. It is thought that such application, which is a relatively new technique, could be used as a ground improvement and water seepage barrier, required to strengthen and protect some geotechnical works including foundation, underground structures and waste disposals. The results indicate that behavior of the soil changes rapidly based on the amount of biosubstance. Shear strength parameters have shown a significant increase, which gives a chance for further development and possible applications.

  4. The surface properties of biopolymer-coated fruit: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cristina Moncayo Martinez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conservation concerns have led to research and development regarding biodegradable materials from biopolymers, leading to new formulations for edible films and coatings for preserving the quality of fresh fruit and vegetables. Determining fruit skin surface properties for a given coating solution has led to predicting coating efficiency. Wetting was studied by considering spreading, adhesion and cohesion and measuring the contact angle, thus optimising the coating formulation in terms of biopolymer, plasticiser, surfactant, antimicrobial and antioxidant concentration. This work reviews the equations for determining fruit surface properties by using polar and dispersive interaction calculations and by determining the contact angle.

  5. Liquid crystalline biopolymers: A new arena for liquid crystal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra

    2001-07-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction to liquid crystals on the basis of biopolymers and reviews literature on liquid crystalline behaviour of biopolymers both in vitro and in vivo in relation to their implications in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. Knowledge in the field of biological liquid crystals is crucial for understanding complex phenomena at supramolecular level which will give information about processes involved in biological organization and function. The understanding of the interaction of theses crystals with electric, magnetic, optical and thermal fields will uncover mechanisms of near quantum-energy detection capabilities of biosystems

  6. Models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    Many biopolymers such as proteins, DNA, and RNA have been studied because they have important biomedical roles and may be good targets for therapeutic action in treating diseases. This report describes how plastic models of the solvent-accessible surface of biopolymers were made. Computer files containing sets of triangles were calculated, then used on a stereolithography machine to make the models. Small (2 in.) models were made to test whether the computer calculations were done correctly. Also, files of the type (.stl) required by any ISO 9001 rapid prototyping machine were written onto a CD-ROM for distribution to American companies.

  7. Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on the Physical and Antimicrobial Properties of Biopolymer-Based Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Scaffaro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, biopolymer-based nanocomposites with antimicrobial properties were prepared via melt-compounding. In particular, graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs as fillers and an antibiotic, i.e., ciprofloxacin (CFX, as biocide were incorporated in a commercial biodegradable polymer blend of poly(lactic acid (PLA and a copolyester (BioFlex®. The prepared materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and rheological and mechanical measurements. Moreover, the effect of GnPs on the antimicrobial properties and release kinetics of CFX was evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of GnPs increased the stiffness of the biopolymeric matrix and allowed for the tuning of the release of CFX without hindering the antimicrobial activity of the obtained materials.

  8. Hindrances to precise recovery of cellular forces in fibrous biopolymer networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Feng, Jingchen; Heizler, Shay I.; Levine, Herbert

    2018-03-01

    How cells move through the three-dimensional extracellular matrix (ECM) is of increasing interest in attempts to understand important biological processes such as cancer metastasis. Just as in motion on flat surfaces, it is expected that experimental measurements of cell-generated forces will provide valuable information for uncovering the mechanisms of cell migration. However, the recovery of forces in fibrous biopolymer networks may suffer from large errors. Here, within the framework of lattice-based models, we explore possible issues in force recovery by solving the inverse problem: how can one determine the forces cells exert to their surroundings from the deformation of the ECM? Our results indicate that irregular cell traction patterns, the uncertainty of local fiber stiffness, the non-affine nature of ECM deformations and inadequate knowledge of network topology will all prevent the precise force determination. At the end, we discuss possible ways of overcoming these difficulties.

  9. Memory-like behavior as a feature of electrical signal transmission in melanin-like bio-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrico, M.; Ambrico, P. F.; Ligonzo, T.; Cardone, A.; Cicco, S. R.; Lavizzera, A.; Augelli, V.; Farinola, G. M.

    2012-06-01

    The memory-like behavior of melanin biopolymer under electrical stimuli is shown through electrical transport characterization performed on melanin based metal insulator semiconductor structures on silicon. The presence of a memory window and retention behavior is verified by capacitance-voltage read outs before and after the application of voltage pulses. Interestingly, these phenomena occur without the presence of metallic nanoclusters enclosed in the melanin matrix. Charge trapping is considered the main mechanism responsible for the melanin memory-like character. The inability to erase the memory window has been ascribed to the permanent polarization effect during the application of the voltage pulse.

  10. The Effect of Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Polyacrylamide Grafted onto Kappa-Carrageenan on the Spectrofluorometric Properties of Water-Soluble CdS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fluorescent composite based on CdS quantum dots immobilized on the multidentate biopolymer matrix is prepared through the graft copolymerization of the acrylamide onto kappa-Carrageenan. A variety of techniques like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR was used to confirm the structure of the obtained samples. To investigate the spectrofluorometric properties, fluorescence spectroscopy of the obtained quantum dots was studied.

  11. Biopolymer composites for engineering food structures to control product functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.; Moschakis, T.; Biliaderis, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for food systems with tailored properties using essential ingredients. This review provides an overview of how interactions between different ingredients, such as proteins, polysaccharides and lipids can be used to design different biopolymer composites, and how isotropic

  12. Biopolymer-based material used in optical image correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mysliwiec, J.; Kochalska, Anna; Miniewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2008), s. 1902-1906 ISSN 0003-6935 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biopolymer * DNA * optical correlation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.763, year: 2008

  13. Dispersability of Carbon Nanotubes in Biopolymer-Based Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Tardani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review the dispersability of carbon nanotubes in aqueous solutions containing proteins, or nucleic acids, is discussed. Data reported previously are complemented by unpublished ones. In the mentioned nanotube-based systems several different phases are observed, depending on the type and concentration of biopolymer, as well as the amount of dispersed nanotubes. The phase behavior depends on how much biopolymers are adsorbing, and, naturally, on the molecular details of the adsorbents. Proper modulation of nanotube/biopolymer interactions helps switching between repulsive and attractive regimes. Dispersion or phase separation take place, respectively, and the formation of liquid crystalline phases or gels may prevail with respect to dispersions. We report on systems containing ss-DNA- and lysozyme-stabilized nanotubes, representative of different organization modes. In the former case, ss-DNA rolls around CNTs and ensures complete coverage. Conversely, proteins randomly and non-cooperatively adsorb onto nanotubes. The two functionalization mechanisms are significantly different. A fine-tuning of temperature, added polymer, pH, and/or ionic strength conditions induces the formation of a given supra-molecular organization mode. The biopolymer physico-chemical properties are relevant to induce the formation of different phases made of carbon nanotubes.

  14. Anti-Microbial Biopolymer Hydrogel Scaffolds for Stem Cell Encapsulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhn, Philipp T.; Rozenbaum, Rene T.; Perrels, Estelle; Sharma, Prashant K.; van Rijn, Patrick

    Biopolymer hydrogels are an attractive class of materials for wound dressings and other biomedical applications because of their ease of use and availability from biomass. Here, we present a hydrogel formation approach based on alginate and chitosan. Alginate is conventionally cross-linked using

  15. Biopolymers produced from gelatin and other sustainable resources using polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated the feasibility of producing biopolymers from the reaction of polyphenolics with gelatin in combination with other proteins (e.g. whey) or with carbohydrates (e.g. chitosan and pectin). These combinations would take advantage of the unique properties o...

  16. Micromechanical sensors for the measurement of biopolymer degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Gammelgaard, Lene; Jensen, M P

    2011-01-01

    We present microcantilever-based sensors for the characterization of biopolymer degradation by enzymes. Thin films of Poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) were spray-coated onto SU-8 cantilevers with well-known material properties and dimensions. The micromechanical sensors were immersed in solutions...

  17. Mechanical response of biopolymer double networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Joshua; Das, Moumita

    We investigate a double network model of articular cartilage (AC) and characterize its equilibrium mechanical response. AC has very few cells and the extracellular matrix mainly determines its mechanical response. This matrix can be thought of as a double polymer network made of collagen and aggrecan. The collagen fibers are stiff and resist tension and compression forces, while aggrecans are flexible and control swelling and hydration. We construct a microscopic model made of two interconnected disordered polymer networks, with fiber elasticity chosen to qualitatively mimic the experimental system. We study the collective mechanical response of this double network as a function of the concentration and stiffness of the individual components as well as the strength of the connection between them using rigidity percolation theory. Our results may provide a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the mechanical resilience of AC, and more broadly may also lead to new perspectives on the mechanical response of multicomponent soft materials. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  18. Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging

  19. Biopolymer chitin: extraction and characterization; Biopolimero quitina: extracao e caracterizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The biopolymers are materials made from renewable sources such as soybean, corn, cane sugar, cellulose and chitin. Chitin is the most abundant biopolymer found in nature, after cellulose. The chemical structure of chitin is distinguished by the hydroxyl group, of structure from cellulose, located at position C-2, which in the chitin is replaced by acetamine group. The objective of this study was to develop the chitin from exoskeletons of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp, which are discarded as waste, causing pollutions, environmental problems and thus obtain better utilization of these raw materials. It also, show the extraction process and deacetylation of chitosan. The extraction of chitin followed steps of demineralization, desproteinization and deodorization. Chitin and chitosan were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the thermals properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). (author)

  20. Soil Improvement Using MICP and Biopolymers: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail Ashraf, Muhammad; Baharom Azahar, Syed; Zulaikha Yusof, Nur

    2017-08-01

    Ground improvement techniques provide strong natural platforms for construction activities and save the need for designing more resistant structures which would have been necessary on weak ground. This paper discusses the biogeotechnical techniques for improving the resistance of unsaturated sand dunes against surficial erosion by natural processes of wave actions and storm surges. Mechanism of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) and its optimization by utilizing sea water and minimal urea usage is discussed. Common factors affecting the MICP process are briefly discussed. Biomineralization using biopolymers is also described along with the soil strengthening mechanisms. Geotechnical applications of some commonly available biopolymers are described briefly. Advantages and limitations in both these mineralization methods are analyzed and some research opportunities are pointed out for future research.

  1. Optical characteristics of biopolymer films from gelatin, mannan, and glucomannan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Kr.; Panchev, I.; Sainov, S.; Pavlova, K.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigates the optical characteristics of biopolymer films from gelatin, mannan and glucomannan. Glucomannan was produced from the yeast strain Sporobolomyces salmonicolor, isolated from lichem samples from the region of the Bulgarian Base on Jirings for Island, Antarctica. Transmission spectra of gelatin, mannan and glucomarinan in the visible, NIR and JR region of the electromagnetic spectrum have been taken. The refraction indices of biopolymer water solutions studied and of the films obtained from them for two wavelengths have been measured. The dispersion coefficients of Sellmeier of the film and the liquid phase of the given polymers have been calculated. The temperature dependence of refraction index of the given polymers has been studied by means of Refractometer Abbe.

  2. Production of biopolymers by Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from marine source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazia Jamil

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two bacterial strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CMG607w and CMG1421 produce commercially important biopolymers. CMG607w isolated from the sediments of Lyari outfall to Arabian Sea synthesize the mcl-polyhydroxyalkanoates from various carbon sources. The production of PHAs was directly proportional to the incubation periods. Other strain CMG1421, a dry soil isolate, produced high viscous water absorbing extracellular acidic polysaccharide when it was grown aerobically in the minimal medium containing glucose or fructose or sucrose as sole source of carbon. The biopolymer had the ability to absorb water 400 times more than its dry weight. This property was superior to that of currently used non-degradable synthetic water absorbents. It acted as salt filter and had rheological and stabilizing activity as well.

  3. Corrosion Inhibition of High Speed Steel by Biopolymer HPMC Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chen Shi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition characteristics of the derivatives of biopolymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP, and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS film are investigated. Based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements and potentiodynamic polarization, the corrosion inhibition performance of high speed steel coated with HPMC derivatives is evaluated. The Nyquist plot and Tafel polarization demonstrate promising anti-corrosion performance of HPMC and HPMCP. With increasing film thickness, both materials reveal improvement in corrosion inhibition. Moreover, because of a hydrophobic surface and lower moisture content, HPMCP shows better anti-corrosion performance than HPMCAS. The study is of certain importance for designing green corrosion inhibitors of high speed steel surfaces by the use of biopolymer derivatives.

  4. PROPERTIES OF PREPARATIONS FUNCTIONAL BIOPOLYMERS OF A FISH ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of theoretical and practical bases of technology of biocompatible materials of a domestic production on the basis of the natural polymeric systems allocated from raw materials of an animal, fish and a phytogenesis is actual in interests of development of science, health care, ecology. Now practically there are no domestic materials on the basis of products of modification of biopolymers for production of biocompatible materials with adjustable physical and chemical and biological properties. In this regard the special importance is gained by works on studying of functional properties of natural biopolymers, in particular collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid. Interest of researchers to biopolymers of the proteinaceous nature is quite reasonable as they possess sufficient permeability, a big specific surface and sorption capacity, possibility of receiving convenient in technological forms, a low immunogenicity, possibility of regulation лизиса. Data on possible ways of use are presented in article secondary the collagenic wastes - skins of fishes of internal reservoirs of Russia. Innovative processing methods of processing of secondary raw materials with receiving functional biopolymers of a wide range of application are developed. With application of modern methods of researches their characteristics and property are defined. On a complex of organoleptic, physical and chemical indicators, indexes of biological activity the received preparations hyaluronic acid and collagen can find broad application in medicine, cosmetology. The resource-saving technology of receiving tanning semi-finished products easily giving in to further processing for the purpose of receiving leather haberdashery and textile production is developed. Thus, scientific new approaches in processing of skins of pond fishes on the basis of their deep processing are proved.

  5. Nitrogen efficiency in wheat yield through the biopolymer hydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela T. W De Mamann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen use efficiency in wheat biomass and grain yields can be favored by the biopolymer hydrogel. The objective of the study was to analyze the use of the biopolymer hydrogel applied to the seed in the optimization of fertilizer-N on wheat biomass and grain yields, under different conditions of agricultural year and succession systems of high and reduced release of residual-N. In the study, two experiments were conducted, with different farming systems, soybean/wheat and maize/wheat, one to quantify the biomass yield rate and the other to determine grain yield. The experiments were conducted in the years 2014 and 2015, in a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 x 4 factorial scheme, corresponding to hydrogel doses (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 added in the groove along with the seed and N fertilizer rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1, applied as top-dressing. It is possible to improve the fertilizer-N efficiency by wheat using the biopolymer hydrogel for the production of biomass and grains. The highest wheat yield per kilogram of N supplied is obtained with 30 and 60 kg ha-1 of hydrogel, regardless of the year and succession system.

  6. Biodegradation study of some food packaging biopolymers based on PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Elisabeta Tanase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polymers are a common choice as protective materials since they combine flexibility, variable sizes and shapes, relatively light weight, stability, resistance to breaking, barrier properties and perceived high-quality image with cost-effectiveness. Currently, mainly non-biodegradable petroleum-based synthetic polymers are used as packaging materials for foods, because of their availability, low cost and functionality. However, biopolymers can be made from renewable resources without the environmental issues of petroleum-based polymers and with the additional advantage of being available from renewable sources or as by-products or waste-products from the food and agriculture industries. The aim of this study was to test some food packaging biopolymers based on PVA. In this respect, some biopolymers for food packaging applications were subjected to biodegradation tests by covering the tested samples with soil. The samples were incubated in known temperature and humidity conditions. The experiment lasted 45 days, after that the samples were washed, weighed and the biodegradation degree was calculated. The obtained results shows that PVA is a promising material for food packaging usage, as it is made from renewable resources and it is environmentally friendly.

  7. Biopolymers to improve physical properties and leaching characteristics of mortar and concrete: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivia, M.; Jingga, H.; Toni, N.; Wibisono, G.

    2018-04-01

    The invention of environmentally friendly, high performance, and green material such as biopolymers marked an emerging trend for sustainable construction over the past decades. Biopolymer comprises of natural monomers and synthesized by plants or other organisms. The sustainable, biodegradable, and renewable biopolymers were used in concrete mixes to improve their physical and mechanical properties and durability. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief an overview of the impact of biopolymer addition into concrete and mortar mixes. Many studies on the influence of biopolymer on the properties of concrete and mortar by adding biopolymers at a certain proportion (usually less than one wt.%) to the concrete or mortar mixes, and the heavy metal leaching, rheological, and mechanical properties of the mixes were conducted. Biopolymers included in this review are chitosan (CH), xanthan gum (XG), guar gum (GG), lignosulphonate (LS), and cellulose ethers (CE). Data from previous studies showed that the addition of certain types of biopolymer into concrete and mortar mixes improve workability, water retention, and compressive strength by up to 30 percent. Chitosan strengthens heavy metal encapsulation in the mortar and neutralizes the negative impact of heavy metal on the mortar properties and environment. To sum up, the use of biopolymers improve physical properties and leaching characteristics of mortar and concrete.

  8. Improvements in or relating to systems for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, V.N.

    1980-01-01

    A system for measuring radioactivity of labelled biopolymers, comprises a set of containers for containing aqueous solutions of biological samples containing biopolymers; an electric drive for setting the set of containers in stepwise motion: means for acid precipitation of biopolymers arranged to provide feeding of preset volumes of a coprecipitator and a suspension of diatomite in an acid solution to the containers: means for removal of suspensions, filtering, suspending the precipitate, dissolving the biopolymers and consecutively feeding the mixture and a scintillator to a detection chamber, and a measuring cell arranged in the detection chamber. The sequence of operations is controlled automatically. (author)

  9. Introduction of soft X-ray spectromicroscopy as an advanced technique for plant biopolymers research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chithra Karunakaran

    Full Text Available Soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with nano-scale microscopy has been widely used in material science, environmental science, and physical sciences. In this work, the advantages of soft X-ray absorption spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research were demonstrated by determining the chemical sensitivity of the technique to identify common plant biopolymers and to map the distributions of biopolymers in plant samples. The chemical sensitivity of soft X-ray spectroscopy to study biopolymers was determined by recording the spectra of common plant biopolymers using soft X-ray and Fourier Transform mid Infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy techniques. The soft X-ray spectra of lignin, cellulose, and polygalacturonic acid have distinct spectral features. However, there were no distinct differences between cellulose and hemicellulose spectra. Mid infrared spectra of all biopolymers were unique and there were differences between the spectra of water soluble and insoluble xylans. The advantage of nano-scale spatial resolution exploited using soft X-ray spectromicroscopy for plant biopolymer research was demonstrated by mapping plant cell wall biopolymers in a lentil stem section and compared with the FT-IR spectromicroscopy data from the same sample. The soft X-ray spectromicroscopy enables mapping of biopolymers at the sub-cellular (~30 nm resolution whereas, the limited spatial resolution in the micron scale range in the FT-IR spectromicroscopy made it difficult to identify the localized distribution of biopolymers. The advantages and limitations of soft X-ray and FT-IR spectromicroscopy techniques for biopolymer research are also discussed.

  10. Biopolymer nanostructures induced by plasma irradiation and metal sputtering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Juřík, P.; Malinský, Petr; Macková, Anna; Kasálková-Slepičková, N.; Švorčík, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 332, 7-10 (2014), s. 7-10 ISSN 0168-583X. [21st International Conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Seattle, 23.06.2013-28.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR ga13-06609S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/10/1106 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Biopolymer * plasma * surface morphology * RBS * Ripple pattern Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2014

  11. ENCAPSULATION OF ANTITUBERCULAR DRUGS BY BIOPOLYMERS AND POLYELECTROLYTE MULTILAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. H. Mussabayeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of drug-resistant tuberculosis treatment is complex and urgent: the standardof treatment includes the oral administration of six names of antibiotics, i.e. up totwenty tablets a day by the patient. This causes severe side effects, including those appeareddue to the formation of toxic products of drug interactions in the body. Therefore, itis important that some drugs dissolve in a stomach, and others – in the intestine, which willlead to increased bioavailability, reduced dosage and toxicity. The development of targeteddelivery systems for drugs with controlled release, targeted delivery and minimization ofside effects are of interest. One of the promising methods is polyelectrolytic multilayersand the technology of creating such layers by a step-by-step adsorption of heterogeneouslycharged polyelectrolytes.The aim of this article is the microencapsulation of anti-tuberculousdrugs into biopolymers coated with polyelectrolytic multilayers, and the solubilitystudy of microcapsules at pH values simulating various parts of the gastrointestinal tract.Materials and methods. Drugs as isoniazide, pyrazinamide, moxifloxacin, and biopolymers:gellan, pectin and sodium alginate, chitosan and dextran sulfate, as well as EudragitS are used to prepare microcapsules. The obtained microcapsules are studied by a methodof scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative determination of the effectiveness of the inclusionof drugs in microcapsules was carried out using pharmacopoeial methods.Results and discussion. The inclusion efficiency rises with an increase of biopolymer concentration. The inclusion efficiency increases in the row isoniazide

  12. Surface changes of biopolymers PHB and PLLA induced by Ar{sup +} plasma treatment and wet etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slepičková Kasálková, N. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-08-01

    Polymers, especially group of biopolymers find potential application in a wide range of disciplines due to their biodegradability. In biomedical applications these materials can be used as a scaffold or matrix. In this work, the influence of the Ar{sup +} plasma treatment and subsequent wet etching (acetone/water) on the surface properties of polymers were studied. Two biopolymers – polyhydroxybutyrate with 8% polyhydroxyvalerate (PHB) and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) were used in these experiments. Modified surface layers were analyzed by different methods. Surface wettability was characterized by determination of water contact angle. Changes in elemental composition of modified surfaces were performed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Surface morphology and roughness was examined using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Gravimetry method was used to study the mass loss. It was found that the modification from both with plasma and wet etching leads to dramatic changes of surface properties (surface chemistry, morphology and roughness). Rate of changes of these features strongly depends on the modification parameters.

  13. Sodium Mercaptoethane Sulfonate Reduces Collagenolytic Degradation and Synergistically Enhances Antimicrobial Durability in an Antibiotic-Loaded Biopolymer Film for Prevention of Surgical-Site Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Rosenblatt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-associated surgical-site infections can have significant clinical consequences. Previously we reported a method for prophylactically disinfecting implant surfaces in surgical pockets, where an antibiotic solution containing minocycline (M and rifampin (R was applied as a solid film in a crosslinked biopolymer matrix that partially liquefied in situ to provide extended prophylaxis. Here we studied the effect of adding sodium 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MeSNA on durability of prophylaxis in an in vitro model of implant-associated surgical-site infection. Adding MeSNA to the M/R biopolymer, antimicrobial film extended the duration for which biofilm formation by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA was prevented on silicone surfaces in the model. M/R films with and without MeSNA were effective in preventing colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Independent experiments revealed that MeSNA directly inhibited proteolytic digestion of the biopolymer film and synergistically enhanced antimicrobial potency of M/R against MDR-PA. Incubation of the MeSNA containing films with L929 fibroblasts revealed no impairment of cellular metabolic activity or viability.

  14. Integrated bioconversion of syngas into bioethanol and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa-Costa, Borja; Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Fernández-Romasanta, María; Kennes, Christian; Veiga, María C

    2017-09-01

    Syngas bioconversion is a promising method for bioethanol production, but some VFA remains at the end of fermentation. A two-stage process was set-up, including syngas fermentation as first stage under strict anaerobic conditions using C. autoethanogenum as inoculum, with syngas (CO/CO 2 /H 2 /N 2 , 30/10/20/40) as gaseous substrate. The second stage consisted in various fed-batch assays using a highly enriched PHA accumulating biomass as inoculum, where the potential for biopolymer production from the remaining acetic acid at the end of the syngas fermentation was evaluated. All of the acetic acid was consumed and accumulated as biopolymer, while ethanol and 2,3-butanediol remained basically unused. It can be concluded that a high C/N ratio in the effluent from the syngas fermentation stage was responsible for non-consumption of alcohols. A maximum PHA content of 24% was reached at the end of the assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N

    2003-01-01

    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  16. Introduction of Microbial Biopolymers in Soil Treatment for Future Environmentally-Friendly and Sustainable Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Chang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil treatment and improvement is commonly performed in the field of geotechnical engineering. Methods and materials to achieve this such as soil stabilization and mixing with cementitious binders have been utilized in engineered soil applications since the beginning of human civilization. Demand for environment-friendly and sustainable alternatives is currently rising. Since cement, the most commonly applied and effective soil treatment material, is responsible for heavy greenhouse gas emissions, alternatives such as geosynthetics, chemical polymers, geopolymers, microbial induction, and biopolymers are being actively studied. This study provides an overall review of the recent applications of biopolymers in geotechnical engineering. Biopolymers are microbially induced polymers that are high-tensile, innocuous, and eco-friendly. Soil–biopolymer interactions and related soil strengthening mechanisms are discussed in the context of recent experimental and microscopic studies. In addition, the economic feasibility of biopolymer implementation in the field is analyzed in comparison to ordinary cement, from environmental perspectives. Findings from this study demonstrate that biopolymers have strong potential to replace cement as a soil treatment material within the context of environment-friendly construction and development. Moreover, continuing research is suggested to ensure performance in terms of practical implementation, reliability, and durability of in situ biopolymer applications for geotechnical engineering purposes.

  17. Fabrication of Porous Materials from Natural/Synthetic Biopolymers and Their Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeni Gunathilake T.M. Sampath

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers and their applications have been widely studied in recent years. Replacing the oil based polymer materials with biopolymers in a sustainable manner might give not only a competitive advantage but, in addition, they possess unique properties which cannot be emulated by conventional polymers. This review covers the fabrication of porous materials from natural biopolymers (cellulose, chitosan, collagen, synthetic biopolymers (poly(lactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid and their composite materials. Properties of biopolymers strongly depend on the polymer structure and are of great importance when fabricating the polymer into intended applications. Biopolymers find a large spectrum of application in the medical field. Other fields such as packaging, technical, environmental, agricultural and food are also gaining importance. The introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. There are many techniques used to fabricate porous polymers. Fabrication methods, including the basic and conventional techniques to the more recent ones, are reviewed. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the pore characteristics of biomaterials used for various applications. This review can aid in furthering our understanding of the fabrication methods and about controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of porous biopolymer materials.

  18. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morici, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  19. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  20. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Ritamara I.; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E.

    2015-01-01

    This communication presents results of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 ) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticized with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T 2 ). The two short T 2 components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T 2 can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10 -4 S cm -1 for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T 2 continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  1. Extraction of cellulose microcrystalline from galam wood for biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ika; Sa'adiyah, Devy; Rahajeng, Putri; Suprayitno, Abdi; Andiana, Rocky

    2018-04-01

    Consumption of plastic raw materials tends to increase, but until now the meet of the consumption of plastic raw are still low, even some are still imported. Nowadays, Indonesia's plastic needs are supported by petrochemicals where raw materials are still dependent abroad and petropolymer raw materials are derived from petroleum which will soon be depleted due to rising petroleum needs. Therefore, various studies have been conducted to develop natural fiber-based polymers that are biodegradable and abundant in nature. It is because the natural polymer production process is very efficient and very environmentally friendly. There have been many studies of biopolymers especially natural fiber-based polymers from plants, due to plants containing cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. However, cellulose is the only one who has crystalline structures. Cellulose has a high crystality compared to amorphous lignin and hemicellulose. In this study, extracted cellulose as biopolymer and amplifier on composite. The cellulose is extracted from galam wood from East Kalimantan. Cellulose extraction will be obtained in nano / micro form through chemical and mechanical treatment processes. The chemical treatment of cellulose extraction is alkalinization process using NaOH solution, bleaching using NaClO2 and acid hydrolysis using sulfuric acid. After chemical treatment, ultrasonic mechanical treatment is made to make cellulose fibers into micro or nano size. Besides, cellulose results will be characterized. Characterization was performed to analyze molecules of cellulose compounds extracted from plants using Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR) testing. XRD testing to analyze cellulose crystallinity. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) test to analyze morphology and fiber size.

  2. Influence of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Jute/Biopolymer Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Laursen, Louise Løcke; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Biopolymers and natural fibers are receiving wide attention for the potential to have good performance composites with low environmental impact. A current limitation of most biopolymers is however their change in mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. This study investigates the mechanical...... properties of two biomass-based polymers, polylactic acid (PLA) and cellulose acetate (CA), as a function of ambient temperature in the range from 5 to 80C. Tests were done for neat polymers and for jute fiber/biopolymer composites. Micromechanical models were applied to back-calculate the reinforcement...

  3. Lithium ion conducting biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with Lithium nitrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjuladevi, R.; Selvin, P. Christopher; Selvasekarapandian, S.; Shilpa, R.; Moniha, V.

    2018-04-01

    The Biopolymer electrolyte based on pectin doped with lithium nitrate of different concentrations have been prepared by solution casting technique. The decrease in crystalline nature of the biopolymer has been identified by XRD analyses. The complex formation between the polymer and the salt has been revealed using FTIR analysis. The ionic conductivity has been explored using A.C. impedance spectroscopy which reveals that the biopolymer containing 30 wt% Pectin: 70wt%LiNO3 has highest ionic conductivity of 3.97 × 10-3 Scm-1.

  4. Antimicrobial assays of natural extracts and their inhibitory effect against Listeria innocua and fish spoilage bacteria, after incorporation into biopolymer edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturriaga, L; Olabarrieta, I; de Marañón, I Martínez

    2012-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve natural extracts was tested against two fish spoilage bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Aeromonas hydrophila/caviae) and Listeria innocua, in order to assess their potential utilization in the preservation and safety of minimally processed fish products. After a screening of the active extracts by agar diffusion and vapour diffusion methods, oregano and thyme essential oils and citrus extract were selected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the selected extracts was determined by disc diffusion method against target bacteria and at two temperatures: bacteria's optimal growth temperature (30 °C or 37 °C) and refrigeration temperature (4 °C). Due to its better solubility, lack of odour and greater inhibitory effect obtained against L. innocua at refrigerated temperature, citrus extract was selected and incorporated at 1% (v/v) into different biopolymer film forming solutions (gelatin, methyl cellulose and their blend 50:50 w/w). The antimicrobial activity of the developed films was then evaluated, just after preparation of the films and after one month of storage at 43±3% relative humidity and 24±3 °C. Regardless of the biopolymer matrix, all the developed films showed antimicrobial activity against the target bacteria. The most sensitive bacterium towards active films was L. innocua while P. fluorescens appeared as the most resistant one, in accordance with the previously performed antimicrobial tests for pure extracts. The differences in activity of the films between the tested two temperatures were not significant except for L. innocua, for which three times higher inhibition diameters were observed at refrigerated temperature. The inhibitory effectiveness of the films against the tested strains was maintained regardless of the biopolymer matrix for at least one month. Therefore, these edible films show potential for their future use in fresh fish fillets preservation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Mortensen, Alicja; Hadrup, Niels

    Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements....... Biopolymers that are strengthened using reinforcing nano-scale fillers may improve the packaging quality by increasing barrier function and heat-resistance. Toxicological data on clays containing a nano-fraction and organo-modified clays remain very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate...... the genotoxic potential of clays that can be used in biopolymers for food contact materials. Two clays were tested in the comet assay using Caco-2 cells (a human colon cancer cell line); a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite®Na+) and an organo-modified montmorillonite (Cloisite®30B). Both clays were tested...

  6. About possible mechanisms of current transfer in the bio-polymer - semiconductor heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, A.A.; Dosmailov, M.A.; Karibaeva, M.K.; Kenshinbaev, N.K.; Kokanbaev, M.; Uristembekov, B.B.; Tynyshtykbaev, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    Earlier by the bio-polymer films deposition on silicon the bio-polymer - semiconductor heterostructures were created. The influence of silicon surface atoms on self-organization processes in these bio-molecules were studied. Particularly the silicon - bio-cholesterol aqueous solution and the silicon - bio-chlorophyll aqueous solution spectral photo-sensitivity were considered. In this case the of photo-response broadening in the spectral photo-sensitivity short-wave part of these systems have been observed. The similar broadening is explained by both the passivation of surface recombination centers by OH-groups and the anti-reflecting properties of aqueous solutions. Besides it is possible the additional charge carriers generation caused by quasi-inter-zone transfers in the bio-polymers depending on electron-conformation properties of macromolecules. In the paper the possible mechanisms of current transfer in the bio-polymer - semiconductor heterostructure are discussed

  7. Single walled carbon nanotubes functionally adsorbed to biopolymers for use as chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., Alan T.; Gelperin, Alan [Princeton, NJ; Staii, Cristian [Madison, WI

    2011-07-12

    Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

  8. Biopolymers as materials for developing products in pharmaceutical applications and biomedical uses

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Guillermo Rojas Cortés; Bibiana Margarita Vallejo Díaz; Jairo Ernesto Perilla Perilla

    2008-01-01

    Biopolymers have been widely studied for use in pharmaceutical applications. They have been used for modifying drug release, orientating a drug towards its therapeutic target, penetrating physiological barriers (tissues and cells) and protecting unstable therapeutic agents against physiological conditions which are present in a less invasive administration routes. The importance of biopolymers in designing new biomedical devices must thus be stressed, es-pecially when a pharmaceutical substan...

  9. Massive calculations of electrostatic potentials and structure maps of biopolymers in a distributed computing environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishina, T.P.; Ivanov, V.V.; Stepanenko, V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Among the key factors determining the processes of transcription and translation are the distributions of the electrostatic potentials of DNA, RNA and proteins. Calculations of electrostatic distributions and structure maps of biopolymers on computers are time consuming and require large computational resources. We developed the procedures for organization of massive calculations of electrostatic potentials and structure maps for biopolymers in a distributed computing environment (several thousands of cores).

  10. Fabrication, functionalization, and application of electrospun biopolymer nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegel, Christina; Arecchi, Alessandra; Arrechi, Alessandra; Kit, Kevin; McClements, D J; Weiss, Jochen

    2008-09-01

    -fiber manufacturing with a particular emphasis on the use of biopolymers. We will review typical fabrication set-ups, discuss the influence of process conditions on nanofiber properties, and then review previous studies that describe the production of biopolymer-based nanofibers. Finally we briefly discuss emerging methods to further functionalize fibers and discuss potential applications in the area of food science and technology.

  11. Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anoop Kumar; Mortensen, Alicja; Hadrup, Niels

    Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements. Biopoly......Genotoxicity of clays with potential use in biopolymers for food packaging Plastics produced from biopolymers are of commercial interest as they are manufactured from renewable resources such as agricultural crop wastes and have the potential to meet environmental and health requirements....... Biopolymers that are strengthened using reinforcing nano-scale fillers may improve the packaging quality by increasing barrier function and heat-resistance. Toxicological data on clays containing a nano-fraction and organo-modified clays remain very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate...... the genotoxic potential of clays that can be used in biopolymers for food contact materials. Two clays were tested in the comet assay using Caco-2 cells (a human colon cancer cell line); a natural montmorillonite (Cloisite®Na+) and an organo-modified montmorillonite (Cloisite®30B). Both clays were tested...

  12. A Biogeotechnical approach to Stabilize Soft Marine Soil with a Microbial Organic Material called Biopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, I.; Cho, G. C.; Kwon, Y. M.; Im, J.

    2017-12-01

    The importance and demands of offshore and coastal area development are increasing due to shortage of usable land and to have access to valuable marine resources. However, most coastal soils are soft sediments, mainly composed with fines (silt and clay) and having high water and organic contents, which induce complicated mechanical- and geochemical- behaviors and even be insufficient in Geotechnical engineering aspects. At least, soil stabilization procedures are required for those soft sediments, regardless of the purpose of usage on the site. One of the most common soft soil stabilization method is using ordinary cement as a soil strengthening binder. However, the use of cement in marine environments is reported to occur environmental concerns such as pH increase and accompanying marine ecosystem disturbance. Therefore, a new environmentally-friendly treatment material for coastal and offshore soils. In this study, a biopolymer material produced by microbes is introduced to enhance the physical behavior of a soft tidal flat sediment by considering the biopolymer rheology, soil mineralogy, and chemical properties of marine water. Biopolymer material used in this study forms inter-particle bonds between particles which is promoted through cation-bridges where the cations are provided from marine water. Moreover, biopolymer treatment renders unique stress-strain relationship of soft soils. The mechanical stiffness (M) instantly increase with the presence of biopolymer, while time-dependent settlement behavior (consolidation) shows a big delay due to the viscous biopolymer hydrogels in pore spaces.

  13. Mixing behaviour of WPI-pectin-complexes in meat dispersions: impact of biopolymer ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Benjamin; Schöck, Vanessa; Schmid, Nicole; Majer, Lisa; Herrmann, Kurt; Hinrichs, Jörg; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-01-25

    Particulated complexes composed of oppositely charged biopolymers were incorporated into highly concentrated protein matrices as potential fat replacers and structuring agents. A multistep procedure was therefore utilized to generate process-stable complexes, which were subsequently embedded into emulsion-type sausages, whereas macro- and microstructural properties were then assessed. Firstly, stock WPI and sugar beet pectin solutions were mixed under neutral conditions (pH 7) at various biopolymer ratios r (2 : 1, 5 : 1, 8 : 1). Secondly, the pH of the biopolymer mixture was decreased to 3.5 to promote associative complexation. Thirdly, electrostatically attracted biopolymer particles were subjected to a heat treatment (ϑ = 85 °C, 20 min) to enhance their stability against superimposed stresses. Finally, fat-reduced emulsion-type sausages were fabricated containing stable WPI-pectin complexes. The results revealed that the heat treatment increased the pH-stability of the biopolymer complexes. In addition, textural and sensorial analysis demonstrated that the meat products became increasingly soft as the biopolymer ratio r increased. This effect was attributed to thermodynamic incompatibility between meat proteins and beet pectin. The results obtained from this study might have important implications for the fabrication of processed meat products with reduced fat levels.

  14. Electrical, structural, thermal and electrochemical properties of corn starch-based biopolymer electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chiam-Wen; Ramesh, S

    2015-06-25

    Biopolymer electrolytes containing corn starch, lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) and ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BmImPF6) are prepared by solution casting technique. Temperature dependence-ionic conductivity studies reveal Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher (VTF) relationship which is associated with free volume theory. Ionic liquid-based biopolymer electrolytes show lower glass transition temperature (Tg) than ionic liquid-free biopolymer electrolyte. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies demonstrate higher amorphous region of ionic liquid-added biopolymer electrolytes. In addition, the potential stability window of the biopolymer electrolyte becomes wider and stable up to 2.9V. Conclusively, the fabricated electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) shows improved electrochemical performance upon addition of ionic liquid into the biopolymer electrolyte. The specific capacitance of EDLC based on ionic liquid-added polymer electrolyte is relatively higher than that of ionic liquid-free polymer electrolyte as depicted in cyclic voltammogram. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Packaging related properties of commercially available biopolymers – An overview of the status quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jost

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several commercially available thermoplastic biopolymers were processed in a continuous extrusion line. The molecular weight, crystallinity, and mechanical and permeation properties of the cast films were determined in order to evaluate the status quo of biopolymers currently commercially available. The biopolymers that were evaluated were polylactic acid (PLA, several polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs (Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate (PHBHB, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV, thermoplastic starch (TPS, polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT, polybutylene succinate (PBS, polycaprolactone (PCL and biobased polyethylene (BioPE. Due to its potential for biobased production, thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer (TPU was also analysed. Mechanical analysis showed the PLA and PHA films had high strength and extremely low elongation at break. These were also the materials with the highest molecular weights. Films made of TPU, PCL, TPS, PBAT and BioPE had a significantly lower Young’s modulus and significantly higher elongation at break; these films had comparatively low molecular weights. Permeation measurements showed that PHA films, and particularly PHBV, had the lowest oxygen and water vapour permeability of the biopolymers that were analysed. The biopolymers BioPE, TPS, PCL, TPU and PBAT were highly permeable to oxygen, and had comparatively low molecular weight. The biopolymers TPU, PBS, PBAT, PCL and TPS were highly permeable to water vapour.

  16. Ranitidine Loaded Biopolymer Floats: Designing, Characterization, and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The float formulation is a strategy to improve the bioavailability of drugs by gastroretentive drug delivery system (GRDDS. A drug delivery model based on swellable and reswellable low density biopolymers has been designed to evaluate its drug release profile using ranitidine (RNT as a model drug and formulations have been prepared utilizing 32 factorial designs. The drug release (DR data has been subjected to various kinetic models to investigate the DR mechanism. A reduction in rate has been observed by expanding the amounts of PSG and LSG parts, while an expansion has been noted by increasing the concentration of tragacanth (TG and citric acid (CA with an increment in floating time. The stearic acid (SA has been used to decrease the lag time because a decrease in density of system was observed. The kinetic analysis showed that the optimized formulation (S4F3 followed zero-order kinetics and power law was found to be best fitted due to its minimum lag time and maximum floating ability. The resemblance of observed and predicted values indicated the validity of derived equations for evaluating the effect of independent variables while kinetic study demonstrated that the applied models are feasible for evaluating and developing float for RNT.

  17. Interfacial rheological properties of self-assembling biopolymer microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaili; de Loubens, Clément; Dubreuil, Frédéric; Gunes, Deniz Z; Jaeger, Marc; Léonetti, Marc

    2017-09-20

    Tuning the mechanical properties of microcapsules through a cost-efficient route of fabrication is still a challenge. The traditional method of layer-by-layer assembly of microcapsules allows building a tailored composite multi-layer membrane but is technically complex as it requires numerous steps. The objective of this article is to characterize the interfacial rheological properties of self-assembling biopolymer microcapsules that were obtained in one single facile step. This thorough study provides new insights into the mechanics of these weakly cohesive membranes. Firstly, suspensions of water-in-oil microcapsules were formed in microfluidic junctions by self-assembly of two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes, namely chitosan (water soluble) and phosphatidic fatty acid (oil soluble). In this way, composite membranes of tunable thickness (between 40 and 900 nm measured by AFM) were formed at water/oil interfaces in a single step by changing the composition. Secondly, microcapsules were mechanically characterized by stretching them up to break-up in an extensional flow chamber which extends the relevance and convenience of the hydrodynamic method to weakly cohesive membranes. Finally, we show that the design of microcapsules can be 'engineered' in an extensive way since they present a wealth of interfacial rheological properties in terms of elasticity, plasticity and yield stress whose magnitudes can be controlled by the composition. These behaviors are explained by the variation of the membrane thickness with the physico-chemical parameters of the process.

  18. Thermal Behavior of Tacca leontopetaloides Starch-Based Biopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Shuhada Mohd Makhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is used whenever there is a need for natural elastic properties combined with low cost of production. However, the hydrophilic properties in structural starch will decrease the thermal performance of formulated starch polymer. Therefore, the effect of glycerol, palm olein, and crude palm oil (CPO, as plasticizers, on the thermal behavior of Tacca leontopetaloides starch incorporated with natural rubber in biopolymer production was investigated in this paper. Four different formulations were performed and represented by TPE1, TPE2, TPE3, and TPE4. The compositions were produced by using two-roll mill compounding. The sheets obtained were cut into small sizes prior to thermal testing. The addition of glycerol shows higher enthalpy of diffusion in which made the material easily can be degraded, leaving to an amount of 6.6% of residue. Blending of CPO with starch (TPE3 had a higher thermal resistance towards high temperature up to 310°C and the thermal behavior of TPE2 only gave a moderate performance compared with other TPEs.

  19. Bioinspired vesicle restraint and mobilization using a biopolymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao; Lee, Jae-Ho; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Payne, Gregory F

    2006-03-28

    Biology employs vesicles to package molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters) for their targeted delivery in response to specific spatiotemporal stimuli. Biology is also capable of employing localized stimuli to exert an additional control on vesicle trafficking; intact vesicles can be restrained (or mobilized) by association with (or release from) a cytoskeletal scaffold. We mimic these capabilities by tethering vesicles to a biopolymer scaffold that can undergo (i) stimuli-responsive network formation (for vesicle restraint) and (ii) enzyme-catalyzed network cleavage (for vesicle mobilization). Specifically, we use the aminopolysaccharide chitosan as our scaffold and graft a small number of hydrophobic moieties onto its backbone. These grafted hydrophobes can insert into the bilayer to tether vesicles to the scaffold. Under acidic conditions, the vesicles are not restrained by the hydrophobically modified chitosan (hm-chitosan) because this scaffold is soluble. Increasing the pH to neutral or basic conditions allows chitosan to form interpolymer associations that yield a strong, insoluble restraining network. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this scaffold by chitosanase cleaves the network and mobilizes intact vesicles. Potentially, this approach will provide a controllable means to store and liberate vesicle-based reagents/therapeutics for microfluidic/medical applications.

  20. The cellulose resource matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  1. Biopolymers/poly(ε-caprolactone)/polyethylenimine functionalized nano-hydroxyapatite hybrid cryogel: Synthesis, characterization and application in gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simionescu, Bogdan C; Drobota, Mioara; Timpu, Daniel; Vasiliu, Tudor; Constantinescu, Cristina Ana; Rebleanu, Daniela; Calin, Manuela; David, Geta

    2017-12-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), surface functionalized with linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), was used for the preparation of biocomposites in combination with biopolymers and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), by cryogelation technique, to yield biomimetic scaffolds with controlled interconnected macroporosity, mechanical stability, and predictable degradation behavior. The structural characteristics, swelling and degradation behavior of hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) filled matrices were investigated as compared to the corresponding naked polymer 3D system. It was found that the homogeneity and cohesivity of the composite are significantly dependent on the size and amount of the included inorganic particles, which are thus determining the structural parameters. Surface modification with LPEI and nanodimensions favored the nHAp integration in the organic matrix, with preferential location along protein fibers, while β-TCP microparticles induced an increased disorder in the hybrid system. The biocomposite including nHAp only was further investigated targeting biomedical uses, and proved to be non-cytotoxic and capable of acting as gene-activated matrix (GAM). It allowed sustained delivery over time (until 22days) of embedded PEI 25 -pDNA polyplexes at high levels of transgene expression, while insuring a decrease in cytotoxicity as compared to polyplexes alone. Experimental data recommend such biocomposite as an attractive material for regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E

    1959-01-01

    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  3. Matrix superpotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Anatoly G.; Karadzhov, Yuri

    2011-07-01

    We present a collection of matrix-valued shape invariant potentials which give rise to new exactly solvable problems of SUSY quantum mechanics. It includes all irreducible matrix superpotentials of the generic form W=kQ+\\frac{1}{k} R+P, where k is a variable parameter, Q is the unit matrix multiplied by a real-valued function of independent variable x, and P and R are the Hermitian matrices depending on x. In particular, we recover the Pron'ko-Stroganov 'matrix Coulomb potential' and all known scalar shape invariant potentials of SUSY quantum mechanics. In addition, five new shape invariant potentials are presented. Three of them admit a dual shape invariance, i.e. the related Hamiltonians can be factorized using two non-equivalent superpotentials. We find discrete spectrum and eigenvectors for the corresponding Schrödinger equations and prove that these eigenvectors are normalizable.

  4. On the suppression of superconducting phase formation in YBCO materials by templated synthesis in the presence of a sulfated biopolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Elliott; Schnepp, Zoe; Wimbush, Stuart C.; Hall, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biopolymers as templates to control superconductor crystallization is a recent phenomenon and is generating a lot of interest both from the superconductor community and in materials chemistry circles. This work represents a critical finding in the use of such biopolymers, in particular the contraindicatory nature of sulfur when attempting to affect a morphologically controlled synthesis. Synthesis of superconducting nanoparticles was attempted using carrageenan as a morphological template. Reactive sulfate groups on the biopolymer prevent this, producing instead significant quantities of barium sulfate nanotapes. By substituting the biopolymer for structurally analogous, non-sulfated agar, we show that superconducting nanoparticles could be successfully synthesized

  5. NOS-based biopolymers; towards novel thromboresistant NO-release materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Diwan, Charbel

    Nitric Oxide releasing biopolymers have the potential to prolong vascular graft and stent potency without adverse systemic vasodilation. It was reported in literature that eNOS-overexpressing endothelial cell seeding of synthetic small diameter vascular grafts decreased human platelet aggregation by 46% and bovine aortic smooth muscle cell proliferation by 67.2% in vitro. We hypothesized that incorporating the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in biocompatible polymeric matrix will provide a source of NO that utilizes endogenous compounds to maintain an unlimited supply of NO. To test this hypothesis, we have incorporated the enzyme nitric oxide synthase into a polyethyleneimine film using a layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition. This approach will provide a source of NO that utilizes endogenous compounds available in the blood matrix to maintain a constant supply of NO at the blood/device interface. When coated onto the surface of various blood-contacting implantable medical devices, it will provide NO fluxes at levels equal or greater than the normal endothelial cells, and for extended time periods. This configuration will help solve the issues of both thrombosis and stenosis that occur as side effects for several types of biomedical implants. Our results indicate a proof of principle of a new approach for making antithrombotic coatings for medical devices and implants based on NO release. We have demonstrated that NOS-based polymetric films successfully generate NO under physiologic conditions at small levels equal to and higher than those observed for endothelial cells. The level of NO release can be fine-tuned through varying the number of NOS layers in the film buildup. We have shown that NO fluxes from our NOS-based PEI films are sustained for prolonged periods of time, which has the potential of producing efficient, short and long-term, antithrombotic coatings for medical devices and blood-contacting tools such as stents and catheters. We also show that

  6. Monomers of cutin biopolymer: sorption and esterification on montmorillonite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara; Chefetz, Benny

    2013-04-01

    One of the important precursors for soil organic matter is plant cuticle, a thin layer of predominantly lipids that cover all primary aerial surfaces of vascular plants. In most plant species cutin biopolymer is the major component of the cuticle (30-85% weight). Therefore cutin is the third most abundant plant biopolymer (after lignin and cellulose). Cutin is an insoluble, high molecular weight bio-polyester, which is constructed of inter-esterified cross linked hydroxy-fatty acids and hydroxyepoxy-fatty acids. The most common building blocks of the cutin are derivatives of palmitic acid, among them 9(10),16 dihydroxy palmitic acid (diHPA) is the main component. These fatty acids and their esters are commonly found in major organo-mineral soil fraction-humin. Hence, the complexes of cutin monomers with minerals may serve as model of humin. Both cutin and humin act as adsorption efficient domains for organic contaminants. However, only scarce information is available about the interactions of cutin with soil mineral surfaces, in particular with common soil mineral montmorillonite. The main hypothesize of the study is that adsorbed cutin monomers will be reconstituted on montmorillonite surface due to esterification and oligomerization, and that interactions of cutin monomers with montmorillonite will be affected by the type of exchangeable cation. Cutin monomers were obtained from the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Adsorption of monomers was measured for crude Wyoming montmorillonites and montmorillonites saturated with Fe3+ and Ca2+. To understand the mechanism of monomer-clay interactions and to evaluate esterification on the clay surface, XRD and FTIR analyses of the montmorillonite-monomers complexes were performed. Our results demonstrated that the interactions of cutin monomers with montmorillonite are affected by the type of exchangeable cation. Isotherms of adsorption of cutin monomers on montmorillonites were fitted by a dual mode model of

  7. Modelling of proton and metal exchange in the alginate biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Concetta; Gianguzza, Antonio; Piazzese, Daniela; Sammartano, Silvio

    2005-10-01

    Acid-base behaviour of a commercial sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) has been investigated at different ionic strengths (0.1titration calorimetric data were expressed as a function of the dissociation degree (alpha) using different models (Henderson-Hasselbalch modified, Högfeldt three parameters and linear equations). The dependence on ionic strength of the protonation constants was taken into account by a modified specific interaction theory model. Differences among different media were explained in terms of the interaction between polyanion and metal cations of the supporting electrolytes. Quantitative information on the proton-binding capacity, together with the stabilities of different species formed, is reported. Protonation thermodynamic parameters, at alpha=0.5, are log K H=3.686+/-0.005, DeltaG 0=-21.04+/-0.03 kJ mol(-1), DeltaH 0=4.8+/-0.2 kJ mol(-1) and TDeltaS 0=35.7+/-0.3 kJ mol(-1), at infinite dilution. Protonation enthalpies indicate that the main contribution to proton binding arises from the entropy term. A strict correlation between DeltaG and TDeltaS was found, TDeltaS=-9.5-1.73 DeltaG. Results are reported in light of building up a chemical complexation model of general validity to explain the binding ability of naturally occurring polycarboxylate polymers and biopolymers. Speciation profiles of alginate in the presence of sodium and magnesium ions, naturally occurring cations in natural waters, are also reported.

  8. Novel entries in a fungal biofilm matrix encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnowski, Robert; Westler, William M; Lacmbouh, Ghislain Ade; Marita, Jane M; Bothe, Jameson R; Bernhardt, Jörg; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Sanchez, Hiram; Hatfield, Ronald D; Ntambi, James M; Nett, Jeniel E; Mitchell, Aaron P; Andes, David R

    2014-08-05

    Virulence of Candida is linked with its ability to form biofilms. Once established, biofilm infections are nearly impossible to eradicate. Biofilm cells live immersed in a self-produced matrix, a blend of extracellular biopolymers, many of which are uncharacterized. In this study, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the matrix manufactured by Candida albicans both in vitro and in a clinical niche animal model. We further explore the function of matrix components, including the impact on drug resistance. We uncovered components from each of the macromolecular classes (55% protein, 25% carbohydrate, 15% lipid, and 5% nucleic acid) in the C. albicans biofilm matrix. Three individual polysaccharides were identified and were suggested to interact physically. Surprisingly, a previously identified polysaccharide of functional importance, β-1,3-glucan, comprised only a small portion of the total matrix carbohydrate. Newly described, more abundant polysaccharides included α-1,2 branched α-1,6-mannans (87%) associated with unbranched β-1,6-glucans (13%) in an apparent mannan-glucan complex (MGCx). Functional matrix proteomic analysis revealed 458 distinct activities. The matrix lipids consisted of neutral glycerolipids (89.1%), polar glycerolipids (10.4%), and sphingolipids (0.5%). Examination of matrix nucleic acid identified DNA, primarily noncoding sequences. Several of the in vitro matrix components, including proteins and each of the polysaccharides, were also present in the matrix of a clinically relevant in vivo biofilm. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis demonstrated interaction of aggregate matrix with the antifungal fluconazole, consistent with a role in drug impedance and contribution of multiple matrix components. Importance: This report is the first to decipher the complex and unique macromolecular composition of the Candida biofilm matrix, demonstrate the clinical relevance of matrix components, and show that multiple matrix components are needed

  9. Electrospun Chitosan-Gelatin Biopolymer Composite Nanofibers for Horseradish Peroxidase Immobilization in a Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Teepoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor based on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymers nanofibers is found to be effective for the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase to detect hydrogen peroxide. The biopolymer nanofibers were fabricated by an electrospining technique. Upon optimization of synthesis parameters, biopolymers nanofibers, an average of 80 nm in diameter, were obtained and were then modified on the working electrode surface. The effects of the concentration of enzyme, pH, and concentration of the buffer and the working potential on the current response of the nanofibers-modified electrode toward hydrogen peroxide were optimized to obtain the maximal current response. The results found that horseradish peroxidase immobilization on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymer nanofibers had advantages of fast response, excellent reproducibility, high stability, and showed a linear response to hydrogen peroxide in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1.7 mM with a detection limit of 0.05 mM and exhibited high sensitivity of 44 µA∙mM−1∙cm−2. The developed system was evaluated for analysis of disinfectant samples and showed good agreement between the results obtained by the titration method without significant differences at the 0.05 significance level. The proposed strategy based on chitosan-gelatin composite biopolymer nanofibers for the immobilization of enzymes can be extended for the development of other enzyme-based biosensors.

  10. Characterization of biopolymers and soy protein isolate-high-methoxyl pectin complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mírian Luisa Faria Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed at characterizing the soy protein isolate and high-methoxyl pectin biopolymers individually, and the complexes formed by both at different proportions and pHs in order to find the most suitable pH and biopolymer ratios to food application as stabilizers. The biopolymers were evaluated through solubility, charges, turbidimetry, and optical microscopy analyses; the systems with the pair of biopolymers were analyzed through turbidimetry and optical microscopy. High-methoxyl pectin showed high solubility at all pHs investigated. The soy protein isolate showed low solubility at pH 4.5, which is close to its isoelectric point, and complete solubility at pH 11.0. The formation of complexes suggested an attractive interaction between the biopolymers, with high absorbance reading values and images of complexes from optical microscopy. These complexes were present in systems with pHs below the soy protein isolate's isoelectric point, with positive charges; the high-methoxyl pectin, however, had negative ones.

  11. Chemical Modeling of Acid-Base Properties of Soluble Biopolymers Derived from Municipal Waste Treatment Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tabasso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a study of the proton-binding capacity of biopolymers obtained from different materials supplied by a municipal biowaste treatment plant located in Northern Italy. One material was the anaerobic fermentation digestate of the urban wastes organic humid fraction. The others were the compost of home and public gardening residues and the compost of the mix of the above residues, digestate and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed under alkaline conditions to yield the biopolymers by saponification. The biopolymers were characterized by 13C NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The titration data were elaborated to attain chemical models for interpretation of the proton-binding capacity of the biopolymers obtaining the acidic sites concentrations and their protonation constants. The results obtained with the models and by NMR spectroscopy were elaborated together in order to better characterize the nature of the macromolecules. The chemical nature of the biopolymers was found dependent upon the nature of the sourcing materials.

  12. Valorisation of CO2-rich off-gases to biopolymers through biotechnological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen

    2017-11-01

    As one of the key enabling technologies, industrial biotechnology has a high potential to tackle harmful CO2 emissions and to turn CO2 into a valuable commodity. So far, experimental work mainly focused on the bioconversion of pure CO2 to chemicals and plastics and little is known about the tolerance of the bioprocesses to the presence of impurities. This work is the first to investigate the impact of real CO2-rich off-gases on autotrophic production of polyhydroxybutyrate. To this end, two-phase heterotrophic-autotrophic fermentation experiments were set up, consisting of heterothrophic cell mass growth using glucose as substrate followed by autotrophic biopolymer production using either pure synthetic CO2 or industrial off-gases sampled at two point sources. The use of real off-gases did not affect the bacterial performance. High biopolymer content (up to 73%) and productivities (up to 0.227 g/lh) were obtained. Characterisation of the polymers showed that all biopolymers had similar properties, independent of the CO2 source. Moreover, the CO2-derived biopolymers' properties were comparable to commercial ones and biopolymers reported in literature, which are all produced from organic carbon sources. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Measurement of Cadmium Ion in the Presence of Metal-Binding Biopolymers in Aqueous Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Pu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In aqueous environment, water-soluble polymers are effectively used to separate free metal ions from metal-polymer complexes. The feasibilities of four different analytical techniques, cadmium ion-selective electrode, dialysis sack, chelate disk cartridge, and ultrafiltration, in distinguishing biopolymer-bound and nonbound cadmium in aqueous samples were investigated. And two different biopolymers were used, including bovine serum albumin (BSA and biopolymer solution extracted from cultivated activated sludge (ASBP. The ISE method requires relatively large amount of sample and contaminates sample during the pretreatment. After the long reaction time of dialysis, the equilibrium of cadmium in the dialysis sack would be shifted. Due to the sample nature, chelate disk cartridge could not filter within recommended time, which makes it unavailable for biopolymer use. Ultrafiltration method would not experience the difficulties mentioned above. Ultrafiltration method measuring both weakly and strongly bound cadmium was included in nominally biopolymer-cadmium complex. It had significant correlation with the Ion-selective electrode (ISE method (R2=0.989 for BSA, 0.985 for ASBP.

  14. Effect on tomato plant and fruit of the application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdones, Ángela; Tur, Núria; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2016-10-01

    Oregano essential oil (EO) was incorporated into film-forming dispersions (FFDs) based on biopolymers (chitosan and/or methylcellulose) at two different concentrations. The effect of the application of the FFDs was evaluated on tomato plants (cultivar Micro-Tom) at three different stages of development, and on pre-harvest and postharvest applications on tomato fruit. The application of the FFDs at '3 Leaves' stage caused phytotoxic problems, which were lethal when the EO was applied without biopolymers. Even though plant growth and development were delayed, the total biomass and the crop yield were not affected by biopolymer-EO treatments. When the FFDs were applied in the 'Fruit' stage the pre-harvest application of FFDs had no negative effects. All FFDs containing EO significantly reduced the respiration rate of tomato fruit and diminished weight loss during storage. Moreover, biopolymer-EO FFDs led to a decrease in the fungal decay of tomato fruit inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer spores, as compared with non-treated tomato fruit and those coated with FFDs without EO. The application of biopolymer-oregano essential oil coatings has been proven to be an effective treatment to control R. stolonifer in tomato fruit. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M.; Sanchez-Salcedo, S.; Cicuendez, M.; Izquierdo-Barba, I.; Vallet-Regi, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams as potential devices for the treatment of heavy metal ions. → HA stable foams coated with biopolymers. → Feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. - Abstract: 3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 μmol/g in the case of Pb 2+ , 378 μmol/g of Cu 2+ and 316 μmol/g of Cd 2+ . These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods.

  16. Complex electrical monitoring of biopolymer and iron mineral precipitation for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, C. G.; Dong, W.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2011-12-01

    Microbially enhanced hydrocarbon recovery (MEHR) mechanisms are expected to be impacted by processes and properties that occur over a wide range of scales, ranging from surface interactions and microbial metabolism at the submicron scale to changes in wettability and pore geometry at the pore scale to geological heterogeneities at the petroleum reservoir scale. To eventually ensure successful, production-scale implementation of laboratory-developed MEHR procedures under field conditions, it is necessary to develop approaches that can remotely monitor and accurately predict the complex microbially-facilitated transformations that are expected to occur during MEHR treatments in reservoirs (such as the evolution of redox profiles, oil viscosity or matrix porosity/permeability modifications). Our initial studies are focused on laboratory experiments to assess the geophysical signatures of MEHR-induced biogeochemical transformations, with an ultimate goal of using these approaches to monitor field treatments. Here, we explore the electrical signatures of two MEHR processes that are designed to produce end-products that will plug high permeability zones in reservoirs and thus enhance sweep efficiency. The MEHR experiments to induce biopolymers (in this case dextran) and iron mineral precipitates were conducted using flow-through columns. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, a facultative anaerobe, known to produce dextran from sucrose was used in the biopolymer experiments. Paused injection of sucrose, following inoculation and initial microbial attachment, was carried out on daily basis, allowing enough time for dextran production to occur based on batch experiment observations. Electrical data were collected on daily basis and fluid samples were extracted from the column for characterization. Changes in electrical signal were not observed during initial microbial inoculation. Increase of electrical resistivity and decrease of electrical phase response were observed during the

  17. Matrix thermalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  18. Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution using Ca-alginate biopolymer beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goek, C.; Aytas, S.; Gerstmann, U.

    2009-01-01

    Biosorption of strontium ions from aqueous solution onto calcium alginate biopolymer beads was investigated in a batch system. Ca-alginate biopolymer beads were prepared from Na-alginate via cross-linking with divalent calcium ions according to the egg box model. Optimum biosorption conditions were determined as a function of initial solution pH, initial Sr concentration, contact time, biomass dosage and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) models were applied to describe the biosorption isotherm of Sr ions by Ca-alginate biopolymer beads. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, ΔG) for Sr sorption onto biosorbent were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results indicate that this biosorbent has a good potential for removal of Sr ions from dilute aqueous solution.

  19. CdTe Quantum Dots Embedded in Multidentate Biopolymer Based on Salep: Characterization and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Rezanejade Bardajee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for surface modification of water soluble CdTe quantum dots (QDs by using poly(acrylic acid grafted onto salep (salep-g-PAA as a biopolymer. As-prepared CdTe-salep-g-PAA QDs were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectrum, thermogravimetric (TG analysis, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were measured to investigate the effect of salep-g-PAA biopolymer on the optical properties of CdTe QDs. The results showed that the optical properties of CdTe QDs were significantly enhanced by using salep-g-PAA-based biopolymer.

  20. Clinical applications of naturally derived biopolymer-based scaffolds for regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppel, Whitney L; Ghezzi, Chiara E; McNamara, Stephanie L; Black, Lauren D; Kaplan, David L

    2015-03-01

    Naturally derived polymeric biomaterials, such as collagens, silks, elastins, alginates, and fibrins are utilized in tissue engineering due to their biocompatibility, bioactivity, and tunable mechanical and degradation kinetics. The use of these natural biopolymers in biomedical applications is advantageous because they do not release cytotoxic degradation products, are often processed using environmentally-friendly aqueous-based methods, and their degradation rates within biological systems can be manipulated by modifying the starting formulation or processing conditions. For these reasons, many recent in vivo investigations and FDA-approval of new biomaterials for clinical use have utilized natural biopolymers as matrices for cell delivery and as scaffolds for cell-free support of native tissues. This review highlights biopolymer-based scaffolds used in clinical applications for the regeneration and repair of native tissues, with a focus on bone, skeletal muscle, peripheral nerve, cardiac muscle, and cornea substitutes.

  1. Biopolymer nanocomposites: processing, properties, and applications (wiley series on polymer engineering and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Interest in biopolymer nanocomposites is soaring. Not only are they green and sustainable materials, they can also be used to develop a broad range of useful products with special properties, from therapeutics to coatings to packaging materials. With contributions from an international team of leading nanoscientists and materials researchers, this book draws together and reviews the most recent developments and techniques in biopolymer nano-composites. It describes the preparation, processing, properties, and applications of bio- polymer nanocomposites developed from chitin, starch, and cellulose, three renewable resources.Biopolymer Nanocomposites features a logical organization and approach that make it easy for readers to take full advantage of the latest science and technology in designing these materials and developing new products and applications. It begins with a chapter reviewing our current understanding of b...

  2. BIOREFINE-2G — Result In Brief: Novel biopolymers from biorefinery waste-streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stovicek, Vratislav; Chen, Xiao; Borodina, Irina

    Second generation biorefineries are all about creating value from waste, so it seems only right that the ideal plant should leave nothing behind. With this in mind, the BIOREFINE-2G project has developed novel processes to convert pentose-rich side-streams into biopolymers.......Second generation biorefineries are all about creating value from waste, so it seems only right that the ideal plant should leave nothing behind. With this in mind, the BIOREFINE-2G project has developed novel processes to convert pentose-rich side-streams into biopolymers....

  3. Parallelized system for biopolymer degradation studies through automated microresonator measurement in liquid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casci Ceccacci, Andrea; Morelli, Lidia; Bosco, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present a novel automated system which allows the study of enzymatic degradation of biopolymer films coated on micromechanical resonators. The system combines an optical readout based on Blu-Ray technology with a software-controlled scanning mechanism. Integrated with a microfluidic...... setup unit, the system allows high-throughput measurements of resonance frequency over microresonator arrays under controlled flow conditions. We here demonstrate the acquisition of statistical data on biopolymer films degradation under enzymatic reaction over a large sample of micromechanical...

  4. Incorporation of zinc oxide to dispersions of biopolymers and release of the metallic ion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, Marina S.R.; Ferreira, Willian H.; Andrade, Cristina T.

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, obtained from a commercial product, were dispersed in different biopolymers, to be added to piglet feeds. The resulting products, prepared with sodium alginate (SA), chitosan (CH) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release of Zn 2+ was investigated under simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA). The results showed that the structural factors, which have influence on the biopolymer/ZnO interactions, govern the behavior of Zn 2+ release. (author)

  5. The effect of BIOPOLYM GRANULAT on quality components in cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana HNISOVÁ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the impact of the liquid Biopolym Granulat on quality components in cow milk. Biopolym Granulat, was by a milking robot calibrated, given to dairy cows in a selected breeding around České Budějovice for a selected period of time. A slight increase, 23.24L as compared to the 22.07 L of the control group, has been consequently found in values of the average daily milk yield. When considering the components of milk there has been a slight increase in values of fat in themilk, while the values of protein have been decreased.

  6. The Influence of Biopolym FTZ on the Content of Nitrogen Compounds in Rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Petrášková

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effect of Biopolym FZT on the crude protein in the ruminal content. The experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions. Rumen content was removed from the Holstein breed cow fitted with ruminal fistula. The hydrolyzed brown seaweed was added to the samples of the ruminal content. After incubation of the samples the crude protein content was determined. In experiments with solid ruminal contents positive effects of Biopolym on the crude protein content was shown. The best results were achieved at the dilution of 1:2000.

  7. The Reciprocal Pascal Matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The reciprocal Pascal matrix is the Hadamard inverse of the symmetric Pascal matrix. We show that the ordinary matrix inverse of the reciprocal Pascal matrix has integer elements. The proof uses two factorizations of the matrix of super Catalan numbers.

  8. Improved oil production using economical biopolymer-surfactant blends for profile modification and mobility control. Final report, November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, J. [Prairie View A and M Univ., TX (United States); Barrufet, M.A.; Burnett, D.B. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1998-12-01

    In the past, starch hydrocolloids have not been effective alternates to partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides, copolymers, and xanthan gum polymers as water shutoff agents in fractures and in matrix flow configurations. Poor injectivity and questionable stability have usually prevented their use in profile control applications. However, in recent years, the demands of the oil and gas drilling industry have led to the development of new drilling, drill-in, and completion fluids with improved functionality. New types of modified starches have contributed to these new drill in fluid (DIF) products. It was felt that the properties of the new products would lend themselves to applications in improved recovery. The objective of this project has been to evaluate the use of agricultural starch biopolymers for gelled and polymer applications in oil recovery processes. The authors believe that there is great potential for finding new functional starch products because of their chemical and structural flexibility, low cost, and wide availability. The goals of this project have been, therefore, to systematically investigate how the physical properties and chemical composition of relatively inexpensive agricultural starch products will influence their use as effective selective permeability control agents or as gels for water shut-off.

  9. Matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhan, Xingzhi

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this monograph is to report on recent developments in the field of matrix inequalities, with emphasis on useful techniques and ingenious ideas. Among other results this book contains the affirmative solutions of eight conjectures. Many theorems unify or sharpen previous inequalities. The author's aim is to streamline the ideas in the literature. The book can be read by research workers, graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

  10. Biopolymer gel swelling analysed with scaling laws and Flory-Rehner theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The swelling of biopolymer gels is analysed with scaling laws from polymer physics, as an alternative for the classical Flory-Rehner theory. With these scaling laws, holding for polymer concentrations in the semi-dilute regime, experimental data on deswelling of gels can be collapsed to a single

  11. Ionic Liquid Microemullsions, Templates for Directing Morphology of Cellulose Biopolymer Nanoparticles (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-19

    Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-August 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ionic Liquid Microemullsions, Templates for Directing Morphology of...unlimited AFRL Public Affairs Clearance No. TBD Ionic Liquid Microemullsions, Templates for Directing Morphology of Cellulose Biopolymer...AFRL Public Affairs Clearance No. 15438 Outline • Background on Cellulose and Ionic Liquids • Materials and Methods • Results: Designing an IL

  12. Small Strain Topological Effects of Biopolymer Networks with Rigid Cross-Links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zagar, G.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.; Garikipati, K; Arruda, EM

    2010-01-01

    Networks of cross-linked filamentous biopolymers form topological structures characterized by L, T and X cross-link types of connectivity 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The distribution of cross-links over these three types proofs to be very important for the initial elastic shear stiffness of isotropic

  13. BIOLOGICAL NANOPORES FOR BIOPOLYMER SENSING AND SEQUENCING BASED ON FRAC ACTINOPORIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maglia, Giovanni; Wloka, Carsten; Mutter, Natalie Lisa; Soskine, Misha; Huang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates generally to the field of nanopores and the use thereof in various applications, such as analysis of biopolymer s and macromolecules, typically by making electrical measurements during translocation through a nanopores. Provided is a system comprising a funnel- shaped

  14. Fracture mechanisms in biopolymer films using coupling of mechanical analysis and high speed visualization technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paes, S.S.; Yakimets, I.; Wellner, N.; Hill, S.E.; Wilson, R.H.; Mitchell, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the fracture mechanisms in three different biopolymer thin materials: gelatin, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and cassava starch films. That was achieved by using a combination of fracture mechanics methodology and in situ visualization

  15. A novel method of providing a library of n-mers or biopolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of providing a library of n-mer sequences, wherein the library is composed of an n-mer sequence. Also the invention concerns a method of providing a library of biopolymer sequences having one or more n-mers in common. Further provided are specific primers...

  16. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Numata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin, protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin. The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed.

  17. The Effect of Sodium Hydroxide on Drag Reduction using a Biopolymer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Harvin Kaur A/P Gurchran

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction is observed as reduced frictional pressure losses under turbulent flow conditions and hence, substantially increases the flowrate of the fluid. Practical application includes water flooding system, pipeline transport and drainage system. Drag reduction agent, such as polymers, can be introduced to increase the flowrate of water flowing, reducing the water accumulation in the system and subsequently lesser possibility of heavy flooding. Currently used polymer as drag reduction agents is carboxymethylcellulose, to name one. This is a synthetic polymer which will seep into the ground and further harm our environment in excessive use of accumulation. A more environmentally-friendly drag reduction agent, such as the polymer derived from natural sources or biopolymer, is then required for such purpose. As opposed to the synthetic polymers, the potential of biopolymers as drag reduction agents, especially those derived from a local plant source, are not extensively explored. The drag reduction of a polymer produced from a local plant source within the turbulent regime will be explored and assessed in this study using a rheometer where a reduced a torque produced can be perceived as a reduction of drag. The cellulose powder was converted to carboxymethylcellulose (CMC by etherification process using sodium monochloroacetate and sodium hydroxide. The carboxymethylation reaction then was optimized against concentration of NaOH. The research is structured to focus on producing the biopolymer and also assess the drag reduction ability of the biopolymer produced against concentration of sodium hydroxide.

  18. Models for stiffening in cross-linked biopolymer networks : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dillen, T.; Onck, P. R.; Van der Giessen, E.

    In a recent publication, we studied the mechanical stiffening behavior in two-dimensional (2D) cross-linked networks of semiflexible biopolymer filaments under simple shear [Onck, P.R., Koeman, T., Van Dillen, T., Van der Giessen, E., 2005. Alternative explanation of stiffening in cross-linked

  19. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) Synthesis by Spirulina sp. LEB 18 Using Biopolymer Extraction Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Cleber Klasener; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira; de Morais, Michele Greque

    2018-01-20

    The reuse of waste as well as the production of biodegradable compounds has for years been the object of studies and of global interest as a way to reduce the environmental impact generated by unsustainable exploratory processes. The conversion of linear processes into cyclical processes has environmental and economic advantages, reducing waste deposition and reducing costs. The objective of this work was to use biopolymer extraction waste in the cultivation of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, for the cyclic process of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis. Concentrations of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% (v/v) of biopolymer extraction waste were tested. For comparison, two assays were used without addition of waste, Zarrouk (SZ) and modified Zarrouk (ZM), with reduction of nitrogen. The assays were carried out in triplicate and evaluated for the production of microalgal biomass and PHB. The tests with addition of waste presented a biomass production statistically equal to ZM (0.79 g L -1 ) (p < 0.1). The production of PHB in the assay containing 25% of waste was higher when compared to the other cultivations, obtaining 10.6% (w/w) of biopolymer. From the results obtained, it is affirmed that the use of PHB extraction waste in the microalgal cultivation, aiming at the synthesis of biopolymers, can occur in a cyclic process, reducing process costs and the deposition of waste, thus favoring the preservation of the environment.

  20. MOLECULAR TRACERS FOR SMOKE FROM CHARRING/BURNING OF CHITIN BIOPOLYMER. (R823990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractMonosaccharide derivatives from the breakdown of cellulose are the major organic components of smoke particles emitted to the atmosphere from biomass burning. In urban areas a related biopolymer, chitin, may contribute markers to smoke from grilling/charring o...

  1. Network and Nakamura tridiagonal computational simulation of electrically-conducting biopolymer micro-morphic transport phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar Bég, O; Zueco, J; Norouzi, M; Davoodi, M; Joneidi, A A; Elsayed, Assma F

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been shown to achieve excellent fabrication control and manipulation of conductive bio-polymer characteristics. To simulate magnetohydrodynamic effects on non-Newtonian electro-conductive bio-polymers (ECBPs) we present herein a theoretical and numerical simulation of free convection magneto-micropolar biopolymer flow over a horizontal circular cylinder (an "enrobing" problem). Eringen's robust micropolar model (a special case of the more general micro-morphic or "microfluid" model) is implemented. The transformed partial differential conservation equations are solved numerically with a powerful and new code based on NSM (Network Simulation Method) i.e. PSPICE. An extensive range of Hartmann numbers, Grashof numbers, micropolar parameters and Prandtl numbers are considered. Excellent validation is also achieved with earlier non-magnetic studies. Furthermore the present PSPICE code is also benchmarked with an implicit tridiagonal solver based on Nakamura's method (BIONAK) again achieving close correlation. The study highlights the excellent potential of both numerical methods described in simulating nonlinear biopolymer micro-structural flows. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Effect of chitosan biopolymer and UV/TiO 2 method for the de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose for this study is to de-color C.I. Acid Blue 40 simulated textile wastewater using chitosan and UV/TiO2 system. The methodology is to use chitosan biopolymer and UV/TiO2 to degrade textile wastewater and to measure the color removal by UV-visible spectrophotometer. The operational parameters are chitosan ...

  3. Single walled carbon nanotubes with functionally adsorbed biopolymers for use as chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jr., Alan T

    2013-12-17

    Chemical field effect sensors comprising nanotube field effect devices having biopolymers such as single stranded DNA or RNA functionally adsorbed to the nanotubes are provided. Also included are arrays comprising the sensors and methods of using the devices to detect volatile compounds.

  4. A novel method for biopolymer surface nanostructuring by platinum deposition and subsequent thermal annealing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slepička, P.; Juřík, P.; Kolská, Z.; Malinský, Petr; Macková, Anna; Michaljaničová, I.; Švorčík, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 671 (2012), s. 1-6 ISSN 1931-7573 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanopattering * surface morphology * biopolymer * platinum sputtering * thermal annealing Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.524, year: 2012

  5. A differential vapor-pressure equipment for investigations of biopolymer interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim B; Koga, Y.; Westh, Peter

    2002-01-01

    , particularly a "gas-phase titration" routine for changing the cell composition, makes it effective for the investigations of several types of biopolymer interactions. These include isothermal studies of net affinities such as the adsorption of water to proteins or membranes, the preferential interaction...

  6. Overview of biopolymers as carriers of antiphlogistic agents for treatment of diverse ocular inflammations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anil Kumar; Arya, Amit; Sahoo, Pravat Kumar; Majumdar, Dipak Kanti

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation of the eye is a usual clinical condition that can implicate any part of the eye. The nomenclature of variety of such inflammations is based on the ocular part involved. These diseases may jeopardize normal functioning of the eye on progression. In general, corticosteroids, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat inflammatory diseases/disorders of the eye. There have been several attempts via different approaches of drug delivery to overcome the low ocular bioavailability resulting from shorter ocular residence time. The features like safety, ease of elimination and ability to sustain drug release have led to application of biopolymers in ocular therapeutics. Numerous polymers of natural origin such as gelatin, collagen, chitosan, albumin, hyaluronic acid, alginates etc. have been successfully employed for preparation of different ocular dosage forms. Chitosan is the most explored biopolymer amongst natural biopolymers because of its inherent characteristics. The emergence of synthetic biopolymers (like PVP, PACA, PCL, POE, polyanhydrides, PLA, PGA and PLGA) has also added new dimensions to the drug delivery strategies meant for treatment of ophthalmic inflammations. The current review is an endeavor to describe the utility of a variety of biomaterials/polymers based drug delivery systems as carrier for anti-inflammatory drugs in ophthalmic therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell contraction induces long-ranged stress stiffening in the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu Long; Ronceray, Pierre; Xu, Guoqiang; Malandrino, Andrea; Kamm, Roger D; Lenz, Martin; Broedersz, Chase P; Guo, Ming

    2018-04-04

    Animal cells in tissues are supported by biopolymer matrices, which typically exhibit highly nonlinear mechanical properties. While the linear elasticity of the matrix can significantly impact cell mechanics and functionality, it remains largely unknown how cells, in turn, affect the nonlinear mechanics of their surrounding matrix. Here, we show that living contractile cells are able to generate a massive stiffness gradient in three distinct 3D extracellular matrix model systems: collagen, fibrin, and Matrigel. We decipher this remarkable behavior by introducing nonlinear stress inference microscopy (NSIM), a technique to infer stress fields in a 3D matrix from nonlinear microrheology measurements with optical tweezers. Using NSIM and simulations, we reveal large long-ranged cell-generated stresses capable of buckling filaments in the matrix. These stresses give rise to the large spatial extent of the observed cell-induced matrix stiffness gradient, which can provide a mechanism for mechanical communication between cells.

  8. FS laser processing of bio-polymer thin films for studying cell-to-substrate specific response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalova, A., E-mail: a_daskalova@code.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tsarigradsko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Nathala, Chandra S.R. [Institute of General Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/134, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Spectra-Physics Vienna, Fernkorngasse 10, 1100 Wien (Austria); Kavatzikidou, P.; Ranella, A. [Institute for Electronic Structure and Lasers-FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Szoszkiewicz, R. [Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 141 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw, Poland (Poland); Husinsky, W. [Institute of General Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstr. 8-10/134, A-1040 Wien (Austria); Fotakis, C. [Institute for Electronic Structure and Lasers-FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, Vassilika Vouton, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Systematic research in the field of fs laser interaction with biopolymers for application in tissue engineering. • Utilizing a new biopolymer blend of collagen/elastin material for studying the interaction process in the fs domain. • Obtaining of improved, circularly shaped, interconnected nanopores, with high reproducibility from collagen/elastin layer. • Observation of randomly arranged pattern outside modification zone due to formation of an impact wave over biofilm surface. • NIH/3T3 cell-interface interaction reveal a preferable cell migration on fs laser-modified surface array. - Abstract: The use of ultra-short pulses for nanoengineering of biomaterials opens up possibilities for biological, medical and tissue engineering applications. Structuring the surface of a biomaterial into arrays with micro- and nanoscale features and architectures, defines new roadmaps to innovative engineering of materials. Thin films of novel collagen/elastin composite and gelatin were irradiated by Ti:sapphire fs laser in air at central wavelength 800 nm, with pulse durations in the range of 30 fs. The size and shape as well as morphological forms occurring in the resulted areas of interaction were analyzed as a function of irradiation fluence and number of pulses by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The fs interaction regime allows generation of well defined micro porous surface arrays. In this study we examined a novel composite consisting of collagen and elastin in order to create a biodegradable matrix to serve as a biomimetic surface for cell attachment. Confocal microscopy images of modified zones reveal formation of surface fringe patterns with orientation direction alongside the area of interaction. Outside the crater rim a wave-like topography pattern is observed. Structured, on a nanometer scale, surface array is employed for cell-culture experiments for testing cell’s responses to substrate morphology. Mice fibroblasts migration was monitored

  9. Hybrid waste filler filled bio-polymer foam composites for sound absorbent materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Anika Zafiah M.; Azahari, M. Shafiq M.; Kormin, Shaharuddin; Soon, Leong Bong; Zaliran, M. Taufiq; Ahraz Sadrina M. F., L.

    2017-09-01

    Sound absorption materials are one of the major requirements in many industries with regards to the sound insulation developed should be efficient to reduce sound. This is also important to contribute in economically ways of producing sound absorbing materials which is cheaper and user friendly. Thus, in this research, the sound absorbent properties of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers of wood dust and waste tire rubber has been investigated. Waste cooking oil from crisp industries was converted into bio-monomer, filled with different proportion ratio of fillers and fabricated into bio-polymer foam composite. Two fabrication methods is applied which is the Close Mold Method (CMM) and Open Mold Method (OMM). A total of four bio-polymer foam composite samples were produce for each method used. The percentage of hybrid fillers; mixture of wood dust and waste tire rubber of 2.5 %, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10% weight to weight ration with bio-monomer. The sound absorption of the bio-polymer foam composites samples were tested by using the impedance tube test according to the ASTM E-1050 and Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the morphology and porosity of the samples. The sound absorption coefficient (α) at different frequency range revealed that the polymer foam of 10.0 % hybrid fillers shows highest α of 0.963. The highest hybrid filler loading contributing to smallest pore sizes but highest interconnected pores. This also revealed that when highly porous material is exposed to incident sound waves, the air molecules at the surface of the material and within the pores of the material are forced to vibrate and loses some of their original energy. This is concluded that the suitability of bio-polymer foam filled with hybrid fillers to be used in acoustic application of automotive components such as dashboards, door panels, cushion and etc.

  10. Boletus edulis biologically active biopolymers induce cell cycle arrest in human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Cardoso, Claudia; Ferreira Milheiro Nunes, Fernando Hermínio; Ramos Novo Amorim de Barros, Ana Isabel; Marques, Guilhermina; Pożarowski, Piotr; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2013-04-25

    The use of biologically active compounds isolated from edible mushrooms against cancer raises global interest. Anticancer properties are mainly attributed to biopolymers including mainly polysaccharides, polysaccharopeptides, polysaccharide proteins, glycoproteins and proteins. In spite of the fact that Boletus edulis is one of the widely occurring and most consumed edible mushrooms, antitumor biopolymers isolated from it have not been exactly defined and studied so far. The present study is an attempt to extend this knowledge on molecular mechanisms of their anticancer action. The mushroom biopolymers (polysaccharides and glycoproteins) were extracted with hot water and purified by anion-exchange chromatography. The antiproliferative activity in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (LS180) was screened by means of MTT and BrdU assays. At the same time fractions' cytotoxicity was examined on the human colon epithelial cells (CCD 841 CoTr) by means of the LDH assay. Flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to cell cycle analysis and protein expression involved in anticancer activity of the selected biopolymer fraction. In vitro studies have shown that fractions isolated from Boletus edulis were not toxic against normal colon epithelial cells and in the same concentration range elicited a very prominent antiproliferative effect in colon cancer cells. The best results were obtained in the case of the fraction designated as BE3. The tested compound inhibited cancer cell proliferation which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1-phase. Growth inhibition was associated with modulation of the p16/cyclin D1/CDK4-6/pRb pathway, an aberration of which is a critical step in the development of many human cancers including colon cancer. Our results indicate that a biopolymer BE3 from Boletus edulis possesses anticancer potential and may provide a new therapeutic/preventive option in colon cancer chemoprevention.

  11. Biopolymers coated superparamagnetic Nickel Ferrites: Enhanced biocompatibility and MR imaging probe for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bano, Shazia, E-mail: shaziaphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Zafar, Tayyaba [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Akhtar, Shahnaz [Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Buzdar, Saeed Ahmed [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Waraich, Mustansar Mahmood, E-mail: mustansarwaraich@gmail.com [Quaid-e-Azam Medical College B.V. Hospital, Bahawalpur (Pakistan); Afzal, Muhammad [Department of Physics, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2016-11-01

    We report evidence for the promising application of bovine serum albumin (BSA), chitosan (CS) or carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} cores for improved biocompatibility and enhanced T2 relaxivity, through a single combinatorial approach. Pure nickel-ferrite nano cores (NFs) successfully synthesized by thermolysis, were immobilize with BSA, CS or CMC layer employing a simple cross linking procedure to avoid any significant influence of these biopolymers on the morphology and crystal structure of the cores. Phase, morphology, magnetic hysteresis and surface chemistry were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The preliminary haemolysis and cell viability experiments show that biopolymers conjugation mitigates the haemolytic effect of the NFs on erythrocytes as the haemolytic index is less than 2% and cell viability is up to 100%, when normalized with the nontreated cells. The relaxivity value of coated NFs is 351±2.6 when compared to 84±0.22 of NFs without biopolymer conjugation. The results demonstrate that BSA, CS or CMC covering on NFs provide a single combinatorial approach to improve the biocompatibility and enhance the relaxivity value. Thus addressing the current challenge of the same with very good contrast for targeting MCF-7 without any further vectorization. - Highlights: • A single combinatorial system for the promising application of biopolymers coated NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} cores. • Immobilization of a thin layer of three different biopolymers via a simple approach. • Excellent MR contrast enhancement and targeting of MCF-7 without any further vectorization.

  12. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  13. Matrix pentagons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4) matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  14. Matrix pentagons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Operator Product Expansion for null polygonal Wilson loop in planar maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory runs systematically in terms of multi-particle pentagon transitions which encode the physics of excitations propagating on the color flux tube ending on the sides of the four-dimensional contour. Their dynamics was unraveled in the past several years and culminated in a complete description of pentagons as an exact function of the 't Hooft coupling. In this paper we provide a solution for the last building block in this program, the SU(4 matrix structure arising from internal symmetry indices of scalars and fermions. This is achieved by a recursive solution of the Mirror and Watson equations obeyed by the so-called singlet pentagons and fixing the form of the twisted component in their tensor decomposition. The non-singlet, or charged, pentagons are deduced from these by a limiting procedure.

  15. A CRADLE TO GATE LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF THE BIOPOLYMER POLYLACTIC ACID: LOOKING BEYOND GLOBAL WARMING AND FOSSIL FUEL USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derived from corn, the biopolymer polylactic acid (PLA) has recently emerged in the marketplace and is advertised as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based polymers. Research into the environmental implications of biobased production has focused primarily on global warming...

  16. Biopolymer as an Alternative to Petroleum-based Polymers to Control Soil Erosion: Iowa Army Ammunition Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    of the manufacturing plant. Maintaining berm height is a critical parameter to explosion containment. 1.1.2 Technology Description Rhizobium...should not be necessary. Soils with little organic matter or nutrient content, however, may need to be supplemented with compost and/or fertilizer...Table 6. Comparative cost and maintenance of an earthen berm and a biopolymer-treated berm. Cost Parameter Earthen Berm (2012 $) Biopolymer

  17. ASM1-based activated sludge model with biopolymer kinetics for integrated simulation of membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Tomasz; Ulanicki, Bogumil

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an activated sludge model suitable for modelling membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for wastewater treatment. The model, later referred to as combined EPS and SMP production ASM1-based model (CES-ASM1), extends Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1) with biokinetics of two types of bacterial biopolymers: soluble microbial products (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The biopolymer kinetics in CES-ASM1 are, in their majority, borrowed from Laspidou and Rittmann[1] ...

  18. Thermal degradation of biopolymer binders: the example of starch-poly(acrylic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterise a polymer, it is of fundamental importance to determine its parameters, like the temperatures of destruction, vitrification, melting point, specific mass losses or polymorphic transformations, which frequently determine the quality of the product and its applications. Thermal analyses were conducted of samples of a biopolymer binder: a starch-poly(acrylic acid composition and a moulding sand with a biopolymer binder previously hardened with microwaves. In order to determine the thermal stability of the examined samples by determining the destruction temperature and the thermal effects of transformations taking place during heating, FTIR spectroscopy and thermal analysis (DSC, DTG, TG methods were used. In addition, volatile products of degradation were analysed using the thermogravimetry (TG method coupled online with mass spectrometry (MS. These examinations were also aimed at identifying the changes that can take place in the moulding sand when it comes into contact with liquid metal.

  19. Extraction of alginate biopolymer present in marine alga sargassum filipendula and bioadsorption of metallic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirlei Jaiana Kleinübing

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the bioadsorption of Pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ ions by marine alga Sargassum filipendula and by the alginate biopolymer extracted from this alga. The objective is to evaluate the importance of this biopolymer in removing different metallic ions by the marine alga S. filipendula. In the equilibrium study, the same affinity order was observed for both bioadsorbents: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+. For Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions when the alginate is isolated and acting as bioadsorbents, adsorption capacities greater than those found for the alga were observed, indicating that it is the main component responsible for the removal of metallic ions. For Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, greater bioadsorption capacities were observed for the alga, indicating that other functional groups of the alga, such as sulfates and amino, are also important in the bioadsorption of these ions.

  20. Phylogenetic Investigation of the Aliphatic, Non-hydrolyzable Biopolymer Algaenan, with a Focus on Green Algae

    OpenAIRE

    Kodner, Robin B.; Summons, Roger E.; Knoll, Andrew Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Algaenan, an aliphatic biopolymer found in various microalgae, has been implicated as the source of a sizable proportion of the aliphatic refractory organic matter in sedimentary rocks. Because of its recalcitrant nature, algaenan is thought to be preserved selectively in the formation of kerogen and microfossils. Its taxonomic distribution in organisms has not been studied in detail or in a phylogenetic context. Here, we evaluate the distribution and phylogenetic relationships of algaenan-pr...

  1. Overview of biopolymers as carriers of antiphlogistic agents for treatment of diverse ocular inflammations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anil Kumar; Arya, Amit; Sahoo, Pravat Kumar; Majumdar, Dipak Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation of the eye is a usual clinical condition that can implicate any part of the eye. The nomenclature of variety of such inflammations is based on the ocular part involved. These diseases may jeopardize normal functioning of the eye on progression. In general, corticosteroids, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat inflammatory diseases/disorders of the eye. There have been several attempts via different approaches of drug delivery to overcome the low ocular bioavailability resulting from shorter ocular residence time. The features like safety, ease of elimination and ability to sustain drug release have led to application of biopolymers in ocular therapeutics. Numerous polymers of natural origin such as gelatin, collagen, chitosan, albumin, hyaluronic acid, alginates etc. have been successfully employed for preparation of different ocular dosage forms. Chitosan is the most explored biopolymer amongst natural biopolymers because of its inherent characteristics. The emergence of synthetic biopolymers (like PVP, PACA, PCL, POE, polyanhydrides, PLA, PGA and PLGA) has also added new dimensions to the drug delivery strategies meant for treatment of ophthalmic inflammations. The current review is an endeavor to describe the utility of a variety of biomaterials/polymers based drug delivery systems as carrier for anti-inflammatory drugs in ophthalmic therapeutics. - Highlights: • Numerous eye inflammations pose troubles in vision functions. • Low bioavailability by conventional drug delivery systems due to eye constraints • Drug carriers ensuring improved bioavailability to the eye are need of the hour. • Chitosan - most explored amongst all biomaterials for ocular delivery. • Emergence of novel synthetic carriers in ophthalmology

  2. Biopolymer strategy for the treatment of Wilson´s disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetrík, Miroslav; Mattová, J.; Macková, Hana; Kučka, Jan; Poučková, P.; Kukačková, Olivia; Brus, Jiří; Eigner-Henke, S.; Sedláček, Ondřej; Šefc, L.; Štěpánek, Petr; Hrubý, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 273, 10 March (2018), s. 131-138 ISSN 0168-3659 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02870S; GA MZd(CZ) NV15-25781A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015064; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Wilson's disease * copper chelators * biopolymers Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.786, year: 2016

  3. Overview of biopolymers as carriers of antiphlogistic agents for treatment of diverse ocular inflammations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Anil Kumar, E-mail: sharmarahul2004@gmail.com [Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Formerly College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector III, New Delhi 110017,India (India); Arya, Amit; Sahoo, Pravat Kumar [Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Formerly College of Pharmacy, University of Delhi, Pushp Vihar, Sector III, New Delhi 110017,India (India); Majumdar, Dipak Kanti [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Apeejay Stya University, Sohna-Palwal Road, Gurgaon 122103 (India)

    2016-10-01

    Inflammation of the eye is a usual clinical condition that can implicate any part of the eye. The nomenclature of variety of such inflammations is based on the ocular part involved. These diseases may jeopardize normal functioning of the eye on progression. In general, corticosteroids, antihistamines, mast cell stabilizers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to treat inflammatory diseases/disorders of the eye. There have been several attempts via different approaches of drug delivery to overcome the low ocular bioavailability resulting from shorter ocular residence time. The features like safety, ease of elimination and ability to sustain drug release have led to application of biopolymers in ocular therapeutics. Numerous polymers of natural origin such as gelatin, collagen, chitosan, albumin, hyaluronic acid, alginates etc. have been successfully employed for preparation of different ocular dosage forms. Chitosan is the most explored biopolymer amongst natural biopolymers because of its inherent characteristics. The emergence of synthetic biopolymers (like PVP, PACA, PCL, POE, polyanhydrides, PLA, PGA and PLGA) has also added new dimensions to the drug delivery strategies meant for treatment of ophthalmic inflammations. The current review is an endeavor to describe the utility of a variety of biomaterials/polymers based drug delivery systems as carrier for anti-inflammatory drugs in ophthalmic therapeutics. - Highlights: • Numerous eye inflammations pose troubles in vision functions. • Low bioavailability by conventional drug delivery systems due to eye constraints • Drug carriers ensuring improved bioavailability to the eye are need of the hour. • Chitosan - most explored amongst all biomaterials for ocular delivery. • Emergence of novel synthetic carriers in ophthalmology.

  4. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  5. Microencapsulated cells of Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in biopolymer complex coacervates and their function in a yogurt matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnea, L A; Moschakis, T; Biliaderis, C G

    2017-02-22

    L. paracasei subsp. paracasei E6 cells were encapsulated by complex coacervation using whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum arabic and introduced in stirred yogurts after fermentation. For comparison purposes, yogurts without addition of L. paracasei and yogurts with free cells of L. paracasei were produced. The survival of free and microencapsulated L. paracasei cells was evaluated during storage of the yogurts for 45 days at 4 °C. In addition, yogurts were exposed to simulated gastric juice and the reduction in viable numbers of L. paracasei cells was assessed. The effect of complex coacervates' addition on the rheological properties of yogurts was also evaluated. Yogurts containing encapsulated L. paracasei cells showed a slightly improved cell survival (≤0.22 log CFU g -1 reduction) during storage when compared to yogurts containing free cells (≤0.64 log CFU g -1 reduction). Moreover, the microencapsulated L. paracasei cells exhibited greater survival compared to free cells upon exposure of the yogurt samples to simulated gastric juice (pH 2.0) for 3 h. Finally, the incorporation of complex coacervates did not significantly affect the rheological properties of yogurts especially when added at concentrations less than 10% w/w. Consequently, the inclusion of microencapsulated bacteria by complex coacervation in yogurts, could become an effective vehicle for successful delivery of probiotics to the gut, and hence contributing to the improvement of the gastrointestinal tract health, without altering the texture of the product.

  6. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Greque de Morais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs, biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection.

  7. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Cicuéndez, M; Izquierdo-Barba, I; Vallet-Regí, María

    2011-08-15

    3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 μmol/g in the case of Pb(2+), 378 μmol/g of Cu(2+) and 316 μmol/g of Cd(2+). These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. New technologies from the bioworld: selection of biopolymer-producing microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Guimarães Martins

    Full Text Available Abstract Microalgae are studied because of their biotechnological potential. The growth of microalgae aims at obtaining natural compounds. Due to the large amount of accumulated polymer waste, one of the solutions is the use of biodegradable polymers. The objective of this work was to select biopolymer-producing microalgae and to study the cell growth phase in which maximum production occurs. Microalgae Cyanobium sp., Nostoc ellipsosporum, Spirulina sp. LEB 18 and Synechococcus nidulans were studied. The growth was carried out in closed 2 L photobioreactors kept in a chamber thermostated at 30 °C with an illuminance of 41.6 μmolphotons.m-2.s-1 and a 12 h light/dark photoperiod. The biopolymers were extracted at times of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 d. The microalgae that had the highest yields were Nostoc ellipsosporum and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 with crude biopolymer efficiency of 19.27 and 20.62% in 10 and 15 d, respectively, at the maximum cell growth phase.

  9. Nanoencapsulation of the Bioactive Compounds of Spirulina with a Microalgal Biopolymer Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greque de Morais, Michele; Greque de Morais, Etiele; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; Gonçalves, Carolina Ferrer; Lisboa, Cristiane; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have been studied in biotechnological processes due to the various biocompounds that can be obtained from their biomasses, including pigments, proteins, antioxidants, biopeptides, fatty acids and biopolymers. Microalgae biopolymers are biodegradable materials that present similar characteristics to traditional polymers, with the advantage of being rapidly degraded when discarded. In addition, nanoencapsulation is capable of increasing the availability of bioactive compounds by allowing the release of these biocompounds to occur slowly over time. The use of polymers in the nanoencapsulation of active ingredients can mask the undesired physicochemical properties of the compounds to be encapsulated, thereby enhancing consumer acceptability. This covering also acts as a barrier against several foreign substances that can react with bioactive compounds and reduce their activity. Studies of the development of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) nanocapsules from microbial sources are little explored; this review addresses the use of nanotechnology to obtain bioactive compounds coated with biopolymer nanocapsules, both obtained from Spirulina biomasses. These microalgae are Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) certified, which guarantees that the biomass can be used to obtain high added value biocompounds, which can be used in human and animal supplementation.

  10. Bioactivity of noble metal nanoparticles decorated with biopolymers and their application in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash P; Gupta, Indarchand; Brandelli, Adriano

    2015-12-30

    The unique properties of nanomaterials can be applied to solve different problems including new ways of drug delivery. Noble metal nanoparticles are most promising because they have been used for medicinal purposes since ancient time. It is evident from the past studies that the metallic nanoparticles are much more effective against various microorganisms when compared to their conventional counterparts. However, decoration of such nanoparticles with biomaterials add more advantages to their antimicrobial activity. Decoration of metal nanoparticles with biopolymers is a quite new area of research. Studies performed hitherto shown that nanoparticles of noble metals like silver, gold and platinum demonstrated better antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activities when conjugated with biopolymers. The development of such technology has potential to develop materials that are more effective in the field of health science. Considering the importance and uniqueness of this concept, the present review aims to discuss the use of biopolymer-decorated metal nanoparticles for combating various diseases caused by microbial pathogens. Moreover, the nanotoxicity aspect has also been discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Applications of free-electron lasers to measurements of energy transfer in biopolymers and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Glenn S.; Johnson, J. B.; Kozub, John A.; Tribble, Jerri A.; Wagner, Katrina

    1992-08-01

    Free-electron lasers (FELs) provide tunable, pulsed radiation in the infrared. Using the FEL as a pump beam, we are investigating the mechanisms for energy transfer between localized vibrational modes and between vibrational modes and lattice or phonon modes. Either a laser-Raman system or a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer will serve as the probe beam, with the attribute of placing the burden of detection on two conventional spectroscopic techniques that circumvent the limited response of infrared detectors. More specifically, the Raman effect inelastically shifts an exciting laser line, typically a visible frequency, by the energy of the vibrational mode; however, the shifted Raman lines also lie in the visible, allowing for detection with highly efficient visible detectors. With regards to FTIR spectroscopy, the multiplex advantage yields a distinct benefit for infrared detector response. Our group is investigating intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfer processes in both biopolymers and more traditional materials. For example, alkali halides contain a number of defect types that effectively transfer energy in an intermolecular process. Similarly, the functioning of biopolymers depends on efficient intramolecular energy transfer. Understanding these mechanisms will enhance our ability to modify biopolymers and materials with applications to biology, medecine, and materials science.

  12. Biological Effects of Spirulina (Arthrospira) Biopolymers and Biomass in the Development of Nanostructured Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Vaz, Bruna da Silva; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina is produced from pure cultures of the photosynthetic prokaryotic cyanobacteria Arthrospira. For many years research centers throughout the world have studied its application in various scientific fields, especially in foods and medicine. The biomass produced from Spirulina cultivation contains a variety of biocompounds, including biopeptides, biopolymers, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids, minerals, oligoelements, and sterols. Some of these compounds are bioactive and have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antifungal properties. These compounds can be used in tissue engineering, the interdisciplinary field that combines techniques from cell science, engineering, and materials science and which has grown in importance over the past few decades. Spirulina biomass can be used to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biopolymers that can substitute synthetic polymers in the construction of engineered extracellular matrices (scaffolds) for use in tissue cultures or bioactive molecule construction. This review describes the development of nanostructured scaffolds based on biopolymers extracted from microalgae and biomass from Spirulina production. These scaffolds have the potential to encourage cell growth while reducing the risk of organ or tissue rejection. PMID:25157367

  13. Structural, mechanical and electrical properties biopolymer blend nanocomposites derived from poly (vinyl alcohol)/cashew gum/magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesan, M. T.; Jayakrishnan, P.; Manojkumar, T. K.; Mathew, G.

    2018-01-01

    Blending of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) and natural biopolymers such as cashew gum (CG) with magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles has been a promising way for preparing bio-degradable polymeric blend nanocomposites. PVA/CG/Fe3O4 blend nanocomposites have been prepared by a simple solution casting technique using water as the green solvent. The characterization of blend nanocomposites has been carried out by using Fourier transform infrared, UV, x-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity. The interaction between nanoparticles and the blend segments was confirmed from the shift in characteristic absorption peaks of nanocomposites compared to PVA/CG blend. XRD analysis has shown the presence of crystalline peaks of nanoparticles in the blend matrix. The uniform distribution of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the blend was revealed by TEM and SEM. The strong interaction of nanoparticles with the blend has been confirmed by the increase in glass transition temperature resulting from the reduced flexibility of the blend nanocomposite compared to that of the blend system. An increase in thermal stability and tensile strength and reduction in elongation at break of nanocomposites have been noticed with the increasing loading of nanoparticles. The AC electrical conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the nanocomposites have been found to be higher than that of the blend. Generally, it can be stated that the magnetite nanoparticles acts as a potential filler in the PVA/CG blend at 7 wt% loading, giving the best balance of properties.

  14. Engineered biosealant strains producing inorganic and organic biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdale, Terran E; Pinkelman, Rebecca J; Hughes, Stephen R; Zambelli, Barbara; Ciurli, Stefano; Bang, Sookie S

    2012-10-31

    Microbiologically induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICCP) is a naturally occurring biological process that has shown its potential in remediation of a wide range of structural damages including concrete cracks. In this study, genetically engineered microorganisms, capable of producing extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) as well as inducing MICCP, were developed based on the assumption that the complex of inorganic CaCO(3) and organic EPS would provide a stronger matrix than MICCP alone as biosealant. In order to develop a recombinant biosealant microorganism, the entire Sporosarcina pasteurii urease gene sequences including ureA, ureB, ureC, ureD, ureE, ureF, and ureG from plasmid pBU11 were sub-cloned into the shuttle vector, pUCP18. The newly constructed plasmid, pUBU1, was transformed into two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, 8821 and PAO1, to develop recombinants capable of inducing calcite precipitation in addition to their own ability to produce EPS. Nickel-dependent urease activities were expressed from the recombinant P. aeruginosa 8821 (pUBU1) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 (pUBU1), at 99.4% and 60.9% of the S. pasteurii urease activity, respectively, in a medium containing 2mM NiCl(2). No urease activities were detected from the wild type P. aeruginosa 8821 and P. aeruginosa PAO1 under the same growth conditions. Recombinant Pseudomonas strains induced CaCO(3) precipitation at a comparable rate as S. pasteurii and scanning electron microscopy evidenced the complex of CaCO(3) crystals and EPS layers surrounding the cells. The engineered strains produced in this study are expected to serve as a valuable reference to future biosealants that could be applied in the environment. However, the pathogenic potential of P. aeruginosa, used here only as a model system to show the proof of principle, prevents the use of this recombinant organism as a biosealant. In practical applications, other recombinant organisms should be used. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  15. Monitoramento tecnológico e mercadológico de biopolímeros Biopolymers' technology and market monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Borschiver

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda um estudo de monitoramento tecnológico em biopolímeros aplicados em diversas áreas, usando como fontes de informações artigos científicos e patentes. Para tanto, foram utilizados, respectivamente, o programa Scifinder Scholar, que emprega as bases de dados CAPLUS e MEDLINE, e a base de dados americana de patentes, a USPTO. Os dados foram obtidos utilizando-se como palavras-chaves "biopolymers" e "biomaterials". Foram realizadas análises "macro", "meso" e "micro" em relação às principais universidades/centros de pesquisa, países de publicação, tipos de aplicações, principais biopolímeros mencionados, principais matérias-primas utilizadas e principais métodos de produção.This paper reports a survey on the technology of biopolymers for various sector, using information extracted from scientific articles and patents. The Scifinder Scholar program based on the CAPLUS and MEDLINE databases and the USPTO databases were used as inputs, respectively. All the data were mined using biopolymers and biomaterials as keywords. The output of this research is a map of biopolymers' university/research centers, origin countries, types of biopolymers and its applications, major raw materials and production methods.

  16. In-situ modification, regeneration, and application of keratin biopolymer for arsenic removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khosa, Muhammad A.; Ullah, Aman, E-mail: amanullah@ualberta.ca

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In-situ chemical modification of keratin based material was carried out. • Characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, XRD, and DSC were employed. • TGA data was elaborated for its complete thermal and kinetic study. • Sorption of As(III) using modified material was experimentally studied. • Thermodynamics and Isotherm study was made for elucidation of adsorption data. - Abstract: Chemical modification of chicken feathers (CF) and their subsequent role in arsenic removal from water is presented in this paper. The ground CF were chemically treated with four selective dopants such as poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) diglycidyl ether, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), allyl alcohol (AA) and TrisilanolCyclohexyl POSS. After modification, the solubilized keratin was regenerated by precipitation at acidic pH. The structural changes and properties of modified biopolymer were compared with untreated CF and confirmed by different characterization techniques such as SEM, FTIR, XRD, and DSC. The TGA data was used to discuss thermal decomposition and kinetic behavior of modified biopolymer exhaustively. The modified biopolymers were further investigated as biosorbents for their application in As(III) removal from water. The AA and POSS supported biosorbents executed high removal capacity for As(III) up to 11.5 × 10{sup −2}and 11.0 × 10{sup −2} mg/g from 100 ml arsenic polluted water solution respectively. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG{sup 0}, ΔH{sup 0}, ΔS{sup 0} were also evaluated with the finding that overall sorption process was endothermic and spontaneous in nature. Based on linear and non-linear regression analysis, Freundlich Isotherm model showed good fit for obtained sorption data apart from high linear regression values supporting Langmuir isotherm model in sorption of As(III)

  17. Role of adsorption in combined membrane fouling by biopolymers coexisting with inorganic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu-di; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xiao, Kang; Guan, Jing; Xie, Yuefeng F; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Waite, T David

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to obtain a better understanding of the combined fouling by biopolymers coexisting with inorganic particles from the aspects of fouling index, fouling layer structure and biopolymer-particle interactions. Calcium alginate was used as the model biopolymer and Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , kaolin, and SiO 2 were used as model inorganic particles. Results showed that the combined fouling differed greatly among the four types of inorganic particles. The differences were attributed particularly to the different adsorption capacities for calcium alginate by the particles with this capacity decreasing in the order of Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , kaolin and SiO 2 . Particle size measurement and electron microscopic observation indicated the formation of agglomerates between calcium alginate and those inorganic particles exhibiting strong adsorption capacity. A structure was proposed for the combined fouling layer comprised of a backbone cake layer of alginate-inorganic particle agglomerates with the pores partially filled with discontinuous calcium alginate gels. The filterability of the fouling layer was primarily determined by the abundance of the gels. The strength of physical interaction between calcium alginate and each type of inorganic particle was calculated from the respective surface energies and zeta potentials. Calculation results showed that the extent of physical interaction increased in the order of Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 , kaolin and SiO 2 , with this order differing from that of adsorption capacity. Chemical interactions may also play an important role in the adsorption of alginate and the consequent combined fouling. High-resolution XPS scans revealed a slight shift of electron binding energies when alginate was adsorbed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Facile route of biopolymer mediated ferrocene (FO) nanoparticles in aqueous dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaus, Noor Haida Mohd., E-mail: noorhaida@usm.my [School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang, Malaysia and Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Cantock' s Close, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom); Collins, A. M.; Mann, S. [Centre for Organized Matter Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Cantock' s Close, BS8 1TS, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-24

    In this paper, we present a facile method for production stable aqueous dispersion of ferrocene (FO) nanoparticles. Ferrocene compounds were employed to achieve stable nanodispersions, stabilized with three different biopolymers namely, alginate, CM-dextran and chitosan. The nanoparticles produce are spherical, less than 10 nm in mean diameter and highly stable without any sedimentation. Fourier infrared transform (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies confirmed the purity of ferrocene nanoparticles there is no modifications occur during the preparation route. FTIR spectra results were consistent with the presence of absorption band of cyclopentadienyl ring (C{sub 5}H{sub 5}{sup −} ion) which assigned to ν(C-C) vibrations (1409 cm-1), δ(C-H) stretching at 1001 cm{sup −1} and π(C-H) vibrations at 812 cm{sup −1}. Furthermore, all functional group for biopolymers such as CO from carboxyl group of CM-dextran and sodium alginate appears at 1712 cm{sup −1} and 1709 cm{sup −1} respectively, indicating there are steric repulsion interactions for particles stabilization. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns of sedimented samples of the biopolymers-stabilized ferrocene (FO) showed all reflections which were indexed respectively to the (−110), (001), (−201), (−111), (200), (−211), (210), (120) and (111) according to the monoclinic phase ferrocene. This confirmed that the products obtained were of high purity of Fe and EDAX analysis also suggests that the presence of the Fe element in the colloidal dispersion.

  19. Biolubricant induced phase inversion and superhydrophobicity in rubber-toughened biopolymer/organoclay nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ilker S.; Steele, Adam; Martorana, Philip; Loth, Eric; Robinson, Scott J.; Stevenson, Darren

    2009-08-01

    We present a simple technique to fabricate rubber-toughened biopolymer/organoclay nanocomposite coatings with highly water repellent surface wetting characteristics and strong adhesion to metal surfaces. The technique combines the principles of phase inversion and atomization of multicomponent polymer/organoclay suspensions containing a biolubricant as the nonsolvent. The biolubricant was a blend of cyclomethicone/dimethiconol oil with fruit kernel oils. The ternary system of cellulose nitrate/solvent/biolubricant was blended with rubber dispersed organoclay nanofluids. Natural, synthetic, and fluoroacrylic latex rubbers were used for the purpose. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic coatings were obtained from synthetic and fluoroacrylic rubbers whereas natural rubber containing formulations resulted in sticky superhydrophobic coatings.

  20. Neutron scattering studies of the dynamics of biopolymer-water systems using pulsed-source spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middendorf, H.D.; Miller, A.

    1994-01-01

    Energy-resolving neutron scattering techniques provide spatiotemporal data suitable for testing and refining analytical models or computer simulations of a variety of dynamical processes in biomolecular systems. This paper reviews experimental work on hydrated biopolymers at ISIS, the UK Pulsed Neutron Facility. Following an outline of basic concepts and a summary of the new instrumental capabilities, the progress made is illustrated by results from recent experiments in two areas: quasi- elastic scattering from highly hydrated polysaccharide gels (agarose and hyaluronate), and inelastic scattering from vibrational modes of slightly hydrated collagen fibers

  1. [Distribution and spatial ordering of biopolymer molecules in resting bacterial spores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, V I; Korolev, Iu N; El'-Registan, G I; Duzha, M V; Telegin, N L

    1978-01-01

    The presence, distribution and spatial arrangement of biopolymers in situ were studied in both a total intact spore and in a certain cellular layer using a spectroscopic technique of attenuated total refraction (ATR-IR) in the IR region. In contrast to vegetative cells, intact spores were characterized by isotropic distribution of protein components. This feature can be regarded as an index of the cryptobiotic state of spores. However, the distribution of protein components among individual layers of a spore was anisotropic. Bonds characterized by amide I and amide II bands were most often ordered in a layer which comprised cellular structures from the exosporium to the inner spore membrane.

  2. Eco-Friendly Extraction of Biopolymer Chitin and Carotenoids from Shrimp Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prameela, K.; Venkatesh, K.; Divya vani, K.; Sudesh Kumar, E.; Mohan, CH Murali

    2017-08-01

    Astaxanthin a nutraceutical and chitin a natural biopolymer present in shrimp waste. In current chemical extraction methods HCl and NaOH are used for extraction and these chemicals are introduced into aquatic ecosystems are spoiling aquatic flora and fauna, pollute the environment and destroy astaxanthin. Lactobacillus species were isolated from gut of Solenocera melantho and characterized phenotypically and genotypically. Initial screening experiments have shown to be an effective and identified as Lactobacillus plantaram based on morphological, biochemical characteristics and molecular analysis. Efficiency of fermentation has shown with good yield of astaxanthin and recovery of chitin. Hence this alternative microbial process is having advantage than existing hazardous, non-economical chemical process.

  3. Conducting composite materials from the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan and carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Aldalbahi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Conducting composite films containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs were prepared by using the biopolymer kappa-carrageenan (KC as a dispersant. Rheological studies indicated that 0.5% w/v was the appropriate KC concentration for dispersing CNTs. Our results showed that multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs required less sonic energy than single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs for the dispersion process to be complete. Films prepared by vacuum filtration exhibited higher conductivity and improved mechanical characteristics compared to those prepared by evaporative casting. All composite films displayed sensitivity to water vapour, but MWNT films were more sensitive than SWNT films.

  4. Blu-Ray-based micromechanical characterization platform for biopolymer degradation assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casci Ceccacci, Andrea; Chen, Ching-Hsiu; Hwu, En-Te

    2017-01-01

    characterization of sensor properties and then perform degradation studies of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) in steady flow for three different enzyme concentrations. The degradation has been performed in liquid environment. Before each resonator measurement, the measuring chamber has been automatically...... microfluidic chip, to characterize biopolymer degradation under the action of enzymes in controlled flow condition. The sensing platform is based on the mechanics and optics from a Blu-Ray player, which automatically localize individual sensors within the array, and sequentially measure and record...

  5. Adsorption of aluminum and lead from wastewater by chitosan-tannic acid modified biopolymers: Isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics and process mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, M A; Negm, N A; Abou Kana, M T H; Hefni, H H; Abdel Moneem, M M

    2017-06-01

    Chitosan was reacted by tannic acid to obtain three modified chitosan biopolymer. Their chemical structures were characterized by FTIR and elemental analysis. The prepared biopolymers were used to adsorb Al(III) and Pb(II) metal ions from industrial wastewater. The factors affecting the adsorption process were biosorbent amount, initial concentration of metal ion and pH of the medium. The adsorption efficiency increased considerably with the increase of the biosorbent amount and pH of the medium. The adsorption process of biosorbent on different metal ions was fitted by Freundlich adsorption model. The adsorption kinetics was followed Pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process occurred according to diffusion mechanism which was confirmed by the interparticle diffusion model. The modified biopolymers were efficient biosorbents for removal of Pb(II) and Al(III) metal ions from the medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biosurfactant-biopolymer driven microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) and its optimization by an ANN-GA hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Rangarajan, Vivek; Bandi, Chandrakanth; Dixit, Abhivyakti; Das, Susmita; Ale, Kranthikiran; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2017-08-20

    A lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by marine Bacillus megaterium and a biopolymer produced by thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis were tested for their application potential in the enhanced oil recovery. The crude biosurfactant obtained after acid precipitation effectively reduced the surface tension of deionized water from 70.5 to 28.25mN/m and the interfacial tension between lube oil and water from 18.6 to 1.5mN/m at a concentration of 250mgL -1 . The biosurfactant exhibited a maximum emulsification activity (E 24 ) of 81.66% against lube oil. The lipopeptide micelles were stabilized by addition of Ca 2+ ions to the biosurfactant solution. The oil recovery efficiency of Ca 2+ conditioned lipopeptide solution from a sand-packed column was optimized by using artificial neural network (ANN) modelling coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) optimization. Three important parameters namely lipopeptide concentration, Ca 2+ concentration and solution pH were considered for optimization studies. In order to further improve the recovery efficiency, a water soluble biopolymer produced by Bacillus licheniformis was used as a flooding agent after biosurfactant incubation. Upon ANN-GA optimization, 45% tertiary oil recovery was achieved, when biopolymer at a concentration of 3gL -1 was used as a flooding agent. Oil recovery was only 29% at optimal conditions predicted by ANN-GA, when only water was used as flooding solution. The important characteristics of biopolymers such as its viscosity, pore plugging capabilities and bio-cementing ability have also been tested. Thus, as a result of biosurfactant incubation and biopolymer flooding under the optimal process conditions, a maximum oil recovery of 45% was achieved. Therefore, this study is novel, timely and interesting for it showed the combined influence of biosurfactant and biopolymer on solubilisation and mobilization of oil from the soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Combining asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation with light-scattering and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection for characterization of nanoclay used in biopolymer nanocomposites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Bjørn; Petersen, Jens Højslev; Koch, C. Bender

    2009-01-01

    It is expected that biopolymers obtained from renewable resources will in due course become fully competitive with fossil fuel-derived plastics as food-packaging materials. In this context, biopolymer nanocomposites are a field of emerging interest since such materials can exhibit improved...

  8. Permeability modification by in-situ gelation with a newly discovered biopolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossoughi, S.; Buller, C.S. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States))

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports that, in a typical gelled polymer process, a polymer reacts with a metal ion to yield a 3D crosslinked system. The success of the process depends on monitoring a large number of variables, including the concentrations of the metal ions, polymer, and reducing agent. Controlling these variables in field-scale tests is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Devising a process with fewer variables is therefore desirable. The in-situ gelation process in this paper uses a newly discovered biopolymer produced by Cellulomonas flavigena Strain KU. The bacteria produce the biopolymer when cultured in a simple salts medium containing any one of the variety of hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, or such inexpensive substrates as starch or molasses as the carbon and energy sources for growth. The polymer produced remains associated with the producer bacteria, causing them to aggregate and to settle out from the growth medium. The polymer is extracted from the bacteria easily by suspension in dilute alkali. Upon neutralization of such extracts, the polymer precipitates as a hydrogel. The gelation process is reversible, and the hydrogels are stable at high temperatures. A linear coreflood was performed to reveal the feasibility of using the microbial polymer for the in-situ gelation process. The core initially was waterflooded and then flushed with acid. The subsequent injection of an alkaline solution of the polymer resulted in in-situ formation of hydrogels.

  9. Biopolymer production using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíssa Rodrigues Araújo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated extracellular production of biopolymer using fungus Mucor racemosus Fresenius and glycerol as a carbon source. Initially employing conical flasks of 500 mL containing 100 mL of cultive medium with 0.18 ± 0.03 g.L–1 of microorganisms, the results showed that the best conditions of the variables studied were: initial concentration of glycerol 50 g.L–1, fermentation time of 96 h, inoculum cultivation time of 120 h, and aeration in two stages–the first 24 hours without aeration and 72 hours fermentation with aeration of 2 vvm and 2 g.L–1 of yeast extract. The experiments conducted in a Biostat B fermenter with a 2.0 L capacity that contained 1.0 L of medium showed production of 16.35 g.L–1 gum formed and 75% glycerol consumption. These conditions produced a biopolymer with the molecular weight and total sugar content of 4.607×106 g.mol–1 (Da and 89.5%, respectively.

  10. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  11. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, F., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de; Schneider, A., E-mail: florian.rapp@ict.fraunhofer.de, E-mail: anja.schneider@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT (Germany); Elsner, P., E-mail: peter.elsner@ict.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Chemical Technology ICT, Germany and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO{sub 2} balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  12. Comparison of KrF and ArF excimer laser treatment of biopolymer surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaljaničová, I. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Slepička, P., E-mail: petr.slepicka@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Heitz, J.; Barb, R.A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Sajdl, P. [Department of Power Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, V. [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-06-01

    Highlights: • The influence of ArF and KrF laser on biopolymer surface was determined. • ArF laser acts predominantly on biopolymer surface. • PHB roughness is increased similarly for both applied wavelengths. • Roughness of nanostructures can be precisely controlled. • ArF laser introduces nitrogen on PHB surface. - Abstract: The goal of this work was the investigation of the impact of two different excimer lasers on two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers (poly-L-lactide and poly hydroxybutyrate). Both polymers find usage in medical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymers were modified by KrF and ArF excimer lasers. Subsequently the impact on surface morphology, surface chemistry changes, and thermal properties was studied by means of confocal and AFM microscopy, FTIR and XPS spectroscopy and DSC calorimetry. Under the same conditions of laser treatment it was observed that ArF laser causes more significant changes on surface chemistry, surface morphology and pattern formation on the polymers under investigation. The data obtained in this work can be used for a wide range of possible applications, in tissue engineering or in combination with metallization in electronics, e.g. for biosensors.

  13. Natural Minerals Coated by Biopolymer Chitosan: Synthesis, Physicochemical, and Adsorption Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnyak, T. M.; Yanovska, E. S.; Kichkiruk, O. Yu.; Sternik, D.; Tertykh, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Natural minerals are widely used in treatment technologies as mineral fertilizer, food additive in animal husbandry, and cosmetics because they combine valuable ion-exchanging and adsorption properties together with unique physicochemical and medical properties. Saponite (saponite clay) of the Ukrainian Podillya refers to the class of bentonites, a subclass of layered magnesium silicate montmorillonite. Clinoptilolits are aluminosilicates with carcase structure. In our work, we have coated biopolymer chitosan on the surfaces of natural minerals of Ukrainian origin — Podilsky saponite and Sokyrnitsky clinoptilolite. Chitosan mineral composites have been obtained by crosslinking of adsorbed biopolymer on saponite and clinoptilolite surface with glutaraldehyde. The obtained composites have been characterized by the physicochemical methods such as thermogravimetric/differential thermal analyses (DTA, DTG, TG), differential scanning calorimetry, mass analysis, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to determine possible interactions between the silica and chitosan molecule. The adsorption of microquantities of cations Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(III), Cd(II), and Pb(II) by the obtained composites and the initial natural minerals has been studied from aqueous solutions. The sorption capacities and kinetic adsorption characteristics of the adsorbents were estimated. It was found that the obtained results have shown that the ability of chitosan to coordinate heavy metal ions Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Fe(III) is less or equal to the ability to retain ions of these metals in the pores of minerals without forming chemical bonds.

  14. Biopolymer-based thermoplastic mixture for producing solid biodegradable shaped bodies and its photo degradation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulong, Nurulsaidatulsyida; Rus, Anika Zafiah M.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, biopolymers with controllable lifetimes have become increasingly important for many applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedical implants and drug release, forestry, wild life conservation and waste management. Natural oils are considered to be the most important class of renewable sources. They can be obtained from naturally occurring plants, such as sunflower, cotton, linseed and palm oil. In Malaysia, palm oil is an inexpensive and commodity material. Biopolymer produced from palm oil (Bio-VOP) is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer and readily available from agriculture. For packaging use however, Bio-VOP is not thermoplastic and its granular form is unsuitable for most uses in the plastics industry, mainly due to processing difficulties during extrusion or injection moulding. Thus, research workers have developed several methods to blend Bio-VOP appropriately for industrial uses. In particular, injections moulding processes, graft copolymerisation, and preparation of blends with thermoplastic polymers have been studied to produce solid biodegradable shaped bodies. HDPE was chosen as commercial thermoplastic materials and was added with 10% Bio-VOP for the preparation of solid biodegradable shaped bodies named as HD-VOP. The UV light exposure of HD-VOP at 12 minutes upon gives the highest strength of this material that is 17.6 MPa. The morphological structure of HD-VOP shows dwi structure surface fracture which is brittle and ductile properties.

  15. The evolution of hydrophobic cell wall biopolymers: from algae to angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklas, Karl J; Cobb, Edward D; Matas, Antonio J

    2017-11-09

    The transition from an aquatic ancestral condition to a terrestrial environment exposed the first land plants to the desiccating effects of air and potentially large fluctuations in temperature and light intensity. To be successful, this transition necessitated metabolic, physiological, and morphological modifications, among which one of the most important was the capacity to synthesize hydrophobic extracellular biopolymers such as those found in the cuticular membrane, suberin, lignin, and sporopollenin, which collectively reduce the loss of water, provide barriers to pathogens, protect against harmful levels of UV radiation, and rigidify targeted cell walls. Here, we review phylogenetic and molecular data from extant members of the green plant clade (Chlorobionta) and show that the capacity to synthesize the monomeric precursors of all four biopolymers is ancestral and extends in some cases to unicellular plants (e.g. Chlamydomonas). We also review evidence from extant algae, bryophytes, and early-divergent tracheophytes and show that gene duplication, subsequent neo-functionalization, and the co-option of fundamental and ancestral metabolic pathways contributed to the early evolutionary success of the land plants. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Active biopolymers in green non-conventional media: a sustainable tool for developing clean chemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Pedro; Bernal, Juana M; Nieto, Susana; Gomez, Celia; Garcia-Verdugo, Eduardo; Luis, Santiago V

    2015-12-21

    The greenness of chemical processes turns around two main axes: the selectivity of catalytic transformations, and the separation of pure products. The transfer of the exquisite catalytic efficiency shown by enzymes in nature to chemical processes is an important challenge. By using appropriate reaction systems, the combination of biopolymers with supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and ionic liquids (ILs) resulted in synergetic and outstanding platforms for developing (multi)catalytic green chemical processes, even under flow conditions. The stabilization of biocatalysts, together with the design of straightforward approaches for separation of pure products including the full recovery and reuse of enzymes/ILs systems, are essential elements for developing clean chemical processes. By understanding structure-function relationships of biopolymers in ILs, as well as for ILs themselves (e.g. sponge-like ionic liquids, SLILs; supported ionic liquids-like phases, SILLPs, etc.), several integral green chemical processes of (bio)catalytic transformation and pure product separation are pointed out (e.g. the biocatalytic production of biodiesel in SLILs, etc.). Other developments based on DNA/ILs systems, as pathfinder studies for further technological applications in the near future, are also considered.

  17. Development of Seaweed-based Biopolymers for Edible Films and Lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.

    2017-04-01

    Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) as one of important groups of biopolymers play an important role in human life. Biopolymers have been studied regarding their film-forming properties to produce edible films intended as food packaging and active ingredient carriers. Edible film, a thin layer or which is an integral part of food and can be eaten together with, have been used to avoid food quality deterioration due to physico-chemical changes, texture changes, or chemical reactions. Film-forming materials can be utilized individually or as mixed composite blends. Proteins and polysaccharides used for their mechanical and structural properties, and hydrophobic substances (lipids, essential oils, and emulsifiers) to provide good moisture barrier properties. In addition, bioactive substances from marine natural products, including seaweeds, have been explored for being used in the fields of medicine, food science, pharmaceutical science, biochemistry, and glycobiology. Among them, lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins from seaweeds have recently been remarked. Lectins (hemagglutinins) are widely distributed in nature and also good candidates in such prospecting of seaweeds. They are useful as convenient tools to discriminate differences in carbohydrate structures and reveal various biological activities through binding and interacting to carbohydrates, suggesting that they are promising candidates for medicinal and clinical application.

  18. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO 2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  19. Metrologically Traceable Determination of the Water Content in Biopolymers: INRiM Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, F.; Beltramino, G.; Fernicola, V.; Sega, M.; Verdoja, A.

    2017-03-01

    Water content in materials is a key factor affecting many chemical and physical properties. In polymers of biological origin, it influences their stability and mechanical properties as well as their biodegradability. The present work describes the activity carried out at INRiM on the determination of water content in samples of a commercial starch-derived biopolymer widely used in shopping bags (Mater-Bi^{circledR }). Its water content, together with temperature, is the most influencing parameter affecting its biodegradability, because of the considerable impact on the microbial activity which is responsible for the biopolymer degradation in the environment. The main scope of the work was the establishment of a metrologically traceable procedure for the determination of water content by using two electrochemical methods, namely coulometric Karl Fischer (cKF) titration and evolved water vapour (EWV) analysis. The obtained results are presented. The most significant operational parameters were considered, and a particular attention was devoted to the establishment of metrological traceability of the measurement results by using appropriate calibration procedures, calibrated standards and suitable certified reference materials. Sample homogeneity and oven-drying temperature were found to be the most important influence quantities in the whole water content measurement process. The results of the two methods were in agreement within the stated uncertainties. Further development is foreseen for the application of cKF and EWV to other polymers.

  20. Preparation of a Novel Chitosan Based Biopolymer Dye and Application in Wood Dyeing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqian Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye possessing antibacterial properties was synthesized by reaction of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and Acid Red GR. The synthesized materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, degree of substitution (DS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, thermogravimetric analysis (TG, X-ray diffraction (XRD, water solubility test, antibacterial property test, and dyeing performance, including dye uptake, color difference, and fastness. Results showed that the synthesized dye was combined by –NH3+ of O-carboxymethyl chitosan and the sulfonic group of Acid Red GR. According to the comprehensive analysis of XRD and water solubility, the introduction of the carboxymethyl group and acid dye molecule changed the structure of the chitosan from compact to loose, which improved the synthesized dye’s water solubility. However, the thermal stability of the synthesized dye was decreased. The antibacterial property of the poplar wood dyed with the synthesized dye was enhanced and its antibacterial rate, specifically against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, also increased to a rate of more than 99%. However, the dye uptake of the synthesized dye was lower than that of the original dye. Despite this, though, the dyeing effect of the synthesized dye demonstrated better water-fastness, and light-fastness than the original dye. Therefore, the novel chitosan-based biopolymer dye can be a promising product for wood dyeing.

  1. Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-06-15

    This study was aimed to develop biopolymer based antimicrobial films for active food packaging and to reduce environmental pollution caused by accumulation of synthetic packaging. The ZnO NPs were incorporated as antimicrobials into different biopolymers such as agar, carrageenan and CMC. Solvent casting method was performed to prepare active nanocomposite films. Methods such as FE-SEM, FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize resulting films. Physical, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties were also examined. Remarkable surface morphological differences were observed between control and nanocomposite films. The crystallinity of ZnO was confirmed by XRD analysis. The addition of ZnO NPs increased color, UV barrier, moisture content, hydrophobicity, elongation and thermal stability of the films, while decreased WVP, tensile strength and elastic modulus. ZnO NPs impregnated films inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli. So these newly prepared nanocomposite films can be used as active packaging film to extend shelf-life of food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using biopolymers, carboxymethylated-curdlan and fucoidan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Thomas Chun-Yiu; Wong, Chung Kai; Xie Yong

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing need in developing a reliable and eco-friendly methodology for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles, which may be applied for many nanotechnological applications. Natural compounds such as biopolymers are one of the resources which could be used for this purpose. The present study involves the development of a simple, ecological and user-friendly method in synthesizing silver nanoparticles by using carboxymethylated-curdlan or fucoidan as reducing and stabilizing agents. Reduction of silver ions by these biopolymers occurred when heating at 100 deg. C, led to the formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 40-80 nm in dimensions. The silver nanoparticles were formed readily within 10-15 min. Morphological observation and characterization of the silver nanoparticles were performed by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and UV-vis absorption spectrophotometer. The size of silver nanoparticles can be controlled by using different concentrations of carboxymethylated-curdlan, fucoidan or silver nitrate. This way of silver nanoparticles preparation is easy, fast, user-friendly and suitable for large-scale production.

  3. Strength, toughness, and reliability of a porous glass/biopolymer composite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Jia, Weitao; Lau, Grace Y; Tomsia, Antoni P

    2018-04-01

    Development of bioactive glass and ceramic scaffolds intended for the reconstruction of large segmental bone defects remains a challenge for materials science due to the complexities involved in clinical implantation, bone-implant reaction, implant degradation and the multiple loading modes the implants subjected to. A comprehensive evaluation of the mechanical properties of inorganic scaffolds and exploration of new ways to toughen brittle constructs are critical prior to their successful application in loaded sites. A simple and widely adopted approach involves the coating of an inorganic scaffold with a polymeric material. In this work, a systematic evaluation of the influence of a biopolymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), coating on the mechanical performance of bioactive glass scaffolds was carried out. Results from this work indicate that a biopolymer PCL coating was more effective in increasing the compressive strength and reliability of the glass scaffold under compression, but less effective in improving its flexural strength or fracture toughness. This is the first report that reveals the limited successfulness of a polymer coating in improving the toughness of strong scaffolds, suggesting that new and novel ways of toughening inorganic scaffolds should be future research directions for scaffolds applied in loaded sites. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 1209-1217, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Efficiency criterion for teleportation via channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Wei Zha

    Full Text Available In this paper, three kinds of coefficient matrixes (channel matrix, measurement matrix, collapsed matrix associated with the pure state for teleportation are presented, the general relation among channel matrix, measurement matrix and collapsed matrix is obtained. In addition, a criterion for judging whether a state can be teleported successfully is given, depending on the relation between the number of parameter of an unknown state and the rank of the collapsed matrix. Keywords: Channel matrix, Measurement matrix, Collapsed matrix, Teleportation

  5. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  6. A matrix lower bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  7. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interphotoreceptor matrix-poly(ϵ-caprolactone composite scaffolds for human photoreceptor differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Baranov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering has been widely applied in different areas of regenerative medicine, including retinal regeneration. Typically, artificial biopolymers require additional surface modification (e.g. with arginine–glycine–aspartate-containing peptides or adsorption of protein, such as fibronectin, before cell seeding. Here, we describe an alternative approach for scaffold design: the manufacture of hybrid interphotoreceptor matrix-poly (ϵ-caprolactone scaffolds, in which the insoluble extracellular matrix of the retina is incorporated into a biodegradable polymer well suited for transplantation. The incorporation of interphotoreceptor matrix did not change the topography of polycaprolactone film, although it led to a slight increase in hydrophilic properties (water contact angle measurements. This hybrid scaffold provided sufficient stimuli for human retinal progenitor cell adhesion and inhibited proliferation, leading to differentiation toward photoreceptor cells (expression of Crx, Nrl, rhodopsin, ROM1. This scaffold may be used for transplantation of retinal progenitor cells and their progeny to treat retinal degenerative disorders.

  9. Transition Matrix Cluster Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Yevick, David; Lee, Yong Hwan

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate that a series of simple procedures for increasing the efficiency of transition matrix calculations can be realized by integrating the standard single-spin reversal transition matrix method with global cluster inversion techniques.

  10. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  11. Fully automated system for the gas chromatographic characterization of polar biopolymers based on thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, E.; de Koning, S.; Brudin, S.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) is a powerful tool for the detailed compositional analysis of polymers. A major problem of Py-GC is that polar (bio)polymers yield polar pyrolyzates which are not easily accessible to further GC characterization. In the present work, a newly developed fully

  12. Preformed amide-containing biopolymer for improving the environmental performance of synthesized urea–formaldehyde in agro-fiber composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf H. Basta; Houssni El-Saied; Jerrold E. Winandy; Ronald Sabo

    2011-01-01

    Investigations have continued for production high performance agro-based composites using environmentally acceptable approaches. This study examines the role of adding amide-containing biopolymers during synthesis of urea–formaldehyde (UF) on properties of adhesive produced, especially its adhesion potential. The environmental performance of UF-resin synthesized in the...

  13. Stochastic Matrix Factorization

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a restriction to non-negative matrix factorization in which at least one matrix factor is stochastic. That is, the elements of the matrix factors are non-negative and the columns of one matrix factor sum to 1. This restriction includes topic models, a popular method for analyzing unstructured data. It also includes a method for storing and finding pictures. The paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions on the observed data such that the factorization is unique. I...

  14. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz

    2011-01-01

    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  15. Biopolymers for Hard and Soft Engineered Tissues: Application in Odontoiatric and Plastic Surgery Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zavan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of modern dentistry and plastic surgery is to restore the patient to normal function, health and aesthetics, regardless of the disease or injury to the stomatognathic and cutaneous system respectively. In recent years tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have yielded many novel tissue replacements and implementation strategies. Scientific advances in biomaterials, stem cell isolation, growth and differentiation factors and biomimetic environments have created unique opportunities to fabricate tissues in the laboratory. Repairing of bone and skin is likely to become of clinical interest when three dimensional tissue reconstructive procedures and the appropriate supporting biomimetic materials are correctly assembled. In the present review, we provide an overview of the most promising biopolymers that may find clinical application in dento-maxillo-facial and plastic surgery.

  16. Properties of films obtained from biopolymers of different origins for skin lesions therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Zilioli Bellini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of the origin of xanthan used, in combination with chitosan, to prepare films for the treatment of skin lesions were evaluated. The characteristics of the films obtained with xanthan commercially available for the food industry sector and xanthan originated from a fermentation process conducted in a pilot plant were compared. Results showed that the source did not strongly interfere in many of the properties of the films, such as the mechanical properties, cytotoxicity to L929 cells, absorption of simulated body fluid and culture medium, stability in water and saline solution. Hence, even though the properties of biopolymers of different sources might vary, the films prepared with two distinct types of xanthan gum could be considered as potentially safe and similar in terms of relevant characteristics considering the aimed application.

  17. Effect of Some Biopolymers on the Rheological Behavior of Surimi Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Noda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selected biopolymers on the rheological properties of surimi. In our paper, we highlight the functional properties and rheological aspects of some starch mixtures used in surimi. However, the influence of some other ingredients, such as cryoprotectants, mannans, and hydroxylpropylmethylcellulose (HPMC, on the rheological properties of surimi is also described. The outcome reveals that storage modulus increased with the addition of higher levels of starch. Moreover, the increasing starch level increased the breaking force, deformation, and gel strength of surimi as a result of the absorption of water by starch granules in the mixture to make the surimi more rigid. On the other hand, the addition of cryoprotectants, mannans, and HPMC improved the rheological properties of surimi. The data obtained in this paper could be beneficial particularly to the scientists who deal with food processing field.

  18. Understanding release kinetics of biopolymer drug delivery microcapsules for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, Salil, E-mail: sdesai@ncat.ed [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, North Carolina A and T State University, NC 27411 (United States); Center for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Wake Forest University Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Perkins, Jessica [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, North Carolina A and T State University, NC 27411 (United States); Center for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Harrison, Benjamin S. [Wake Forest University Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 (United States); Sankar, Jag [Center for Advanced Materials and Smart Structures, North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Drug delivery and dosage concentrations are considered as major focal points in conventional as well as battlefield emergency medicine. The concept of localizing drug delivery via microcapsules is an evolving field to confine the adverse side effects of high concentration drug doses. This paper focuses on understanding release kinetics through biopolymer microcapsules for time-dependent drug release. Calcium alginate microcapsules were manufactured using a direct-write inkjet technique. Rhodamine 6G was used as the release agent to observe the release kinetics from calcium alginate beads in distilled water. A design of experiments was constructed to compare the effect of the microcapsule diameter and different concentrations of calcium chloride (M) and sodium alginate (%, w/v) solutions on the release kinetics profiles of the microcapsules. This research gives insight to identify favorable sizes of microcapsules and concentrations of sodium alginate and calcium chloride solutions for controlled release behavior of drug delivery microcapsules.

  19. Local raster scanning for high-speed imaging of biopolymers in atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peter I; Huang, Peng; Maeng, Jungyeoul; Andersson, Sean B

    2011-06-01

    A novel algorithm is described and illustrated for high speed imaging of biopolymers and other stringlike samples using atomic force microscopy. The method uses the measurements in real-time to steer the tip of the instrument to localize the scanning area over the sample of interest. Depending on the sample, the scan time can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more while maintaining image resolution. Images are generated by interpolating the non-raster data using a modified Kriging algorithm. The method is demonstrated using physical simulations that include actuator and cantilever dynamics, nonlinear tip-sample interactions, and measurement noise as well as through scanning experiments in which a two-axis nanopositioning stage is steered by the algorithm using simulated height data. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia; Galland, Griselda

    2001-01-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The 13 C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  1. Biopolymer-activated graphitic carbon nitride towards a sustainable photocathode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjian; Schnepp, Zoë; Cao, Junyu; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Ying; Ye, Jinhua; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of solar light into chemical fuels is one of the most promising solutions to the challenge of sustainable energy. Graphitic carbon (IV) nitride polymer (g-CN) is an interesting sustainable photocathode material due to low-cost, visible-light sensitivity, and chemical stability up to 500 °C in air. However, grain boundary effects and limited active sites greatly hamper g-CN activity. Here, we demonstrate biopolymer-activation of g-CN through simultaneous soft-templating of a sponge-like structure and incorporation of active carbon-dopant sites. This facile approach results in an almost 300% increase in the cathodic PEC activity of g-CN under simulated solar-irradiation.

  2. Active biopolymer film based on carboxymethyl cellulose and ascorbic acid for food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Al Luqman Abdul; Kamari, Azlan

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, an active biopolymer film based on carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and ascorbic acid (AA) was synthesised at an incorporation rate of 15% (w/w). Several analytical instruments such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR), Thermogravimetry Analyser (TGA), UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Universal Testing Machine were used to characterise the physical and chemical properties of CMC-AA film. The addition of AA significantly reduced elongation at break (322%) and tensile strength (10 MPa) of CMC-AA film. However, CMC-AA film shows a better antimicrobial property against two bacteria, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) as compared to CMC film. The CMC-AA film was able to preserve cherry tomato with low weight loss and browning index. Overall, results from this study highlight the feasibility of CSAA film for food preservation.

  3. Metal sulfide nanoparticles synthesized via enzyme treatment of biopolymer stabilized nanosuspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Walsh, Dominic

    2010-02-01

    Nanoparticles of CuS, CuxS, Ag2S and CdS were successfully prepared using a novel general and green synthetic process to give dextran biopolymer stabilised metal sulfifde nanosuspensions. Following preparation, dextranase enzyme was used to remove the bulk of the bound dextran to give pure stable metal sulfide nanocrystals for application in for example aspects of medicine, photonics and solar cells. Particles of good homogeneity were obtained and the CuS nanoparticle size was controlled to 9-27 nm by adjusting the reaction conditions. Cu2S nanoparticles were 14 nm, Ag2S nanoparticles were 20-50 nm and CdS nanoparticles were 9 nm is size. The complexing mechanism of nanoparticle sulfides to dextrans was further studied using carboxylmethyl dextran as a complexing agent and crosslinked Sephadex (dextran) `beads as substrate. Particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, TGA, FT-IR and zeta-potential measurement, and their UV-vis spectroscopic absorption properties were determined. Stabilization of the sulfide nanoparticles with soluble hydroxylated biopolymers such as dextran is previously unreported and is here interpreted in terms of viscosity, pH of the system and weak polar S-H or S(metal)OH2+ interactions with dextran depending on the material. Notably, the complexing mechanism appears to differ significantly from that taking place in known dextran-metal oxide systems. The process shown here has good potential for scale-up as a biosynthetic route for a range of functional sulfide nanoparticles.Nanoparticles of CuS, CuxS, Ag2S and CdS were successfully prepared using a novel general and green synthetic process to give dextran biopolymer stabilised metal sulfifde nanosuspensions. Following preparation, dextranase enzyme was used to remove the bulk of the bound dextran to give pure stable metal sulfide nanocrystals for application in for example aspects of medicine, photonics and solar cells. Particles of good homogeneity were obtained and the CuS nanoparticle size

  4. Effect of Nanopore Length on the Translocation Process of a Biopolymer: Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Kweon Suh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we simulate the electrophoretic motion of a bio-polymer through a synthetic nanopore in the presence of an external bias voltage by considering the hydrodynamic interactions between the polymer and the fluid explicitly. The motion of the polymer is simulated by 3D Langevin dynamics technique by modeling the polymer as a worm-like-chain, while the hydrodynamic interactions are incorporated by the lattice Boltzmann equation. We report the simulation results for three different lengths of the nanopore. The translocation time increases with the pore length even though the electrophoretic force on the polymer is the same irrespective of the pore length. This is attributed to the fact that the translocation velocity of each bead inside the nanopore decreases with the pore length due to the increased fluid resistance force caused by the increase in the straightened portion of the polymer. We confirmed this using a theoretical formula.

  5. Characterization of polyethylene glycol plasticized carboxymethyl cellulose-ammonium fluoride solid biopolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramlli, M. A.; Maksud, M. A.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-03-01

    An attempt to increase the ionic conductivity of solid biopolymer electrolyte (SBE) from carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) doped with 9 wt. % of ammonium fluoride (AF) has been made by the plasticizing with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate the ionic conductivity of the CMC-AF-PEG SBEs. The study shows that the highest conductivity achieved is 6.62×10-7 S cm-1 at room temperature for SBE with 25 % wt. PEG. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) study proved that the highest conductive SBE has the highest amorphous nature which contributes to the high conductivity of the SBE. The interaction of CMC and AF was enhanced by the addition of PEG at C-O band in the CMC.

  6. Biopolymer-Activated Graphitic Carbon Nitride towards a Sustainable Photocathode Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanjian; Schnepp, Zoë; Cao, Junyu; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Ying; Ye, Jinhua; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of solar light into chemical fuels is one of the most promising solutions to the challenge of sustainable energy. Graphitic carbon (IV) nitride polymer (g-CN) is an interesting sustainable photocathode material due to low-cost, visible-light sensitivity, and chemical stability up to 500°C in air. However, grain boundary effects and limited active sites greatly hamper g-CN activity. Here, we demonstrate biopolymer-activation of g-CN through simultaneous soft-templating of a sponge-like structure and incorporation of active carbon-dopant sites. This facile approach results in an almost 300% increase in the cathodic PEC activity of g-CN under simulated solar-irradiation. PMID:23831846

  7. Preparation of biopolymer-coated magnetite nanoparticles for magnetic resonance image contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J H; Ko, S G; Ahn, Y K; Song, K C; Choi, E J

    2009-02-01

    The magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using the sonochemical method with oleic acid as surfactant. The average size of the magnetite particles can be controlled by the ratio R = [H2O]/[surfactant] in the range of 2 to 9 nm. The size of the magnetite nanoparticles prepared by this method shows the narrow distribution. To prepare biopolymer(beta-glucan)-coated magnetite nanoparticles, beta-glucan solution was added to the magnetic colloid suspensions under the ultrasonication at room temperature. The beta-glucan coated magnetite colloidal suspensions of various concentrations did not agglomerate for 15 days, indicating their good stability. The beta-glucan-coated magnetite colloidal suspensions exhibited the enhancement of MRI contrasts in vitro.

  8. Influence of Biopolym Granulat effects on reductionof ammonia concentration in stables of intensive farm animals breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuslav Čermák

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The living environment distress is connected currently not only with industrial production but also agriculture is biggest producer of toxic gas – ammonia (NH3 .Emissions of that gas originate mainly in the farm animals breeding and generate within storage and handling with farmyard manure, slurry, poultry excrements and litter. Agriculture influences considerably landscape. has impact on basic effect on soil, water and air. In assessing experiment the preparation Biopolym Granulat rumen metabolism and N-balance was found positive effects in terms of increased ammonia nitrogen, the number of ciliates and the reduction of N-compounds in feces. Confirmed the impact on the ammonia content in well-ventilated dairy stable. The economic evaluation depends on the exercise price of milk.

  9. Detection of single macromolecules using a cryogenic particle detector coupled to a biopolymer mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twerenbold, Damian; Vuilleumier, Jean-Luc; Gerber, Daniel; Tadsen, Almut; van den Brandt, Ben; Gillevet, Patrick M.

    1996-06-01

    Macromolecules with masses up to 50 kDa have been detected with a cryogenic particle detector in a MALDI time-of-flight biopolymer mass spectrometer. The cryogenic particle detector was a Sn/Sn-ox/Sn tunnel junction operated at a temperature of 0.4 K. A calibration with 6 keV single photons inferred that the delayed detector pulses corresponded to the absorption of the kinetic energy of a single macromolecule. Time-of-flight spectra of lysozyme proteins are presented. The mass resolution is 100 Da at 14 300 Da. The energy sensitive detection mechanism suggests that cryogenic particle detectors have a high and mass independent detection efficiency for macromolecules.

  10. Mechanical strength of ceramic scaffolds reinforced with biopolymers is comparable to that of human bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, S S; Ding, M; Vinther Juhl, M

    2011-01-01

    Eight groups of calcium-phosphate scaffolds for bone implantation were prepared of which seven were reinforced with biopolymers, poly lactic acid (PLA) or hyaluronic acid in different concentrations in order to increase the mechanical strength, without significantly impairing the microarchitecture....... Controls were un-reinforced calcium-phosphate scaffolds. Microarchitectural properties were quantified using micro-CT scanning. Mechanical properties were evaluated by destructive compression testing. Results showed that adding 10 or 15% PLA to the scaffold significantly increased the mechanical strength....... The increase in mechanical strength was seen as a result of increased scaffold thickness and changes to plate-like structure. However, the porosity was significantly lowered as a consequence of adding 15% PLA, whereas adding 10% PLA had no significant effect on porosity. Hyaluronic acid had no significant...

  11. Polysaccharides as biopolymers for food shelf-life extention: recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria G; Malinconico, Mario; Varricchio, Ettore; Paolucci, Marina

    2010-06-01

    Biopolymers have properties that make them suitable for use in increasing food shelf-life. At present, conventional polymers could be substituted with biobased food packaging materials in several areas such as meat products, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, frozen food, dry food, snacks, ready to eat food and drinks. In spite of the enormous amount of published scientific articles and reviews on polysaccharide employment in food shelf-life extension, there is a comparatively limited number of patents issued from industry. Several polysaccharides alone or in combination with other substances are proposed in the patents aimed to extend the food shelf-life of fresh food, reducing modifications in color, flavor and taste. In this review, we will focus on polysaccharides extracted from biomass and their applications in the food industry, in particular on food shelf-life extension. The patents issued in the last twenty years for polysaccharides and their applications in food shelf-life extension will be reviewed.

  12. Use of a gel biopolymer for the treatment of eviscerated eyes: experimental model in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Cordeiro-Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histologically the integration process of cellulose gel produced by Zoogloea sp when implanted into rabbits' eviscerated eyes. METHODS: This experimental study employed 36 eyes of 18 rabbits subjected to evisceration of their right eyes. The sclerocorneal bag was sutured and filled with biopolymer from sugar cane in the gel state. All animals were clinically examined by biomicroscopy until the day of their sacrifice which occurred on the 7th, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th, or 240th day. The eyeballs obtained, including the left eyes considered controls were sent for histopathological study by optical macroscopy and microscopy. Tissue staining techniques used included hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome (with aniline, Gomori trichrome, Van Gienson, Picrosirius red, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS. RESULTS: No clinical signs of infection, allergy, toxicity, or extrusion were observed throughout the experiment. The corneas were relatively preserved. Macroscopic examination revealed a decrease of ~ 8% in the volume of the bulbs implanted with the biopolymer. After cutting, the sclerocorneal bag was solid, compact, elastic, and resistant to traction, with a smooth and whitish surface, and showed no signs of necrosis or liquefaction. The episcleral tissues were somewhat hypertrophied. The histological preparations studied in different colors revealed an initial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, replaced by a fibroblastic response and proliferation of histiocytes, along with formation of giant cells. Few polymorphonuclearneutrophils and eosinophils were also found. Neovascularization and collagen deposition were present in all animals starting from day 30; although on the 240th day of the experiment the chronic inflammatory response, neovascularization and collagen deposition had not yet reached the center of the implant. CONCLUSION: In this model, the cellulose gel produced by Zoogloea sp proved to be biocompatible and integrated into the

  13. Electron migration in hydrated biopolymers following pulsed irradiation at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lith, D. van.

    1987-01-01

    Charge migration in biopolymer-water mixtures and the effect of water concentration on the charge migration is investigated by measuring the electrical conductivity and the light emission with the pulse radiolysis technique. A preliminary account of the microwave conductivity observed in hydrated DNA and collagen at low temperature after pulsed irradiation is given. The results show that when hydrated DNA or collagen are irradiated at low temperatures, conductivity transients with microsecond lifetime are observed. It is tentatively concluded that these transients are due to the highly mobile dry electron. The effect of water concentration on mobility, lifetime and migration distance of the electron is discussed. The effect of additives to the hydrated systems on the behaviour of the electron is described. It is shown that the observed effects of the additives confirm the earlier conclusions that the dry electron is the species responsible for the radiation induced conductivity. The water concentration in the DNA- and collagen-systems could be varied only between zero and approximately fifty percent, due to inhomogeneities which occur at higher water concentrations. Experiments on gelatin, a biopolymer which forms homogeneous samples with levels of hydration varying from almost zero to 100% water (ice) are described. Both the radiation induced and the dark microwave conductivity have been studied as a function of water content. Preliminary results of a study of the light emission from pulse irradiated DNA-water mixtures are reported in an attempt to establish a relation between the observed electron migration and the formation of excited states via charge neutralization. (Auth.)

  14. An optimized methodology to analyze biopolymer capsules by environmental scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conforto, Egle, E-mail: egle.conforto@univ-lr.fr [LaSIE UMR 7356 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Joguet, Nicolas [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Buisson, Pierre [INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Vendeville, Jean-Eudes; Chaigneau, Carine [IDCAPS, filiale R and D INNOV' IA, 4 rue Samuel Champlain, Z.I. Chef de Baie, 17000 La Rochelle (France); Maugard, Thierry [Equipe Approches Moléculaires Environnement-Santé, LIENSs, UMR 7266 CNRS-ULR, Université de La Rochelle, UFR Sciences, Avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe an optimized methodology to study the surface characteristics and internal structure of biopolymer capsules using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in environmental mode. The main advantage of this methodology is that no preparation is required and, significantly, no metallic coverage is deposited on the surface of the specimen, thus preserving the original capsule shape and its surface morphology. This avoids introducing preparation artefacts which could modify the capsule surface and mask information concerning important feature like porosities or roughness. Using this method gelatin and mainly fatty coatings, difficult to be analyzed by standard SEM technique, unambiguously show fine details of their surface morphology without damage. Furthermore, chemical contrast is preserved in backscattered electron images of unprepared samples, allowing visualizing the internal organization of the capsule, the quality of the envelope, etc.… This study provides pointers on how to obtain optimal conditions for the analysis of biological or sensitive material, as this is not always studied using appropriate techniques. A reliable evaluation of the parameters used in capsule elaboration for research and industrial applications, as well as that of capsule functionality is provided by this methodology, which is essential for the technological progress in this domain. - Highlights: • We optimized a methodology using ESEM to analyze biopolymer capsules. • This methodology allows analyzing original surface samples without any preparation. • No preparation artefact are introduced which would mask important surface details. • Morphological details and chemical contrast from the original surface are preserved. • Capsule shape, volume, surface roughness and coating quality were reliably evaluated.

  15. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with biopolymer encapsulated silver nanosubstrates for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Jaya; Park, Bosoon; Kwon, Yongkuk; Lawrence, Kurt C

    2013-10-01

    A biopolymer encapsulated with silver nanoparticles was prepared using silver nitrate, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution, and trisodium citrate. It was deposited on a mica sheet to use as SERS substrate. Fresh cultures of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua were washed from chicken rinse and suspended in 10 ml of sterile deionized water. Approximately 5 μl of the bacterial suspensions was placed on the substrate individually and exposed to 785 nm HeNe laser excitation. SERS spectral data were recorded over the Raman shift between 400 and 1800 cm(-1) from 15 different spots on the substrate for each sample; and three replicates were done on each bacteria type. Principal component analysis (PCA) model was developed to classify foodborne bacteria types. PC1 identified 96% of the variation among the given bacteria specimen, and PC2 identified 3%, resulted in a total of 99% classification accuracy. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogies (SIMCA) of validation set gave an overall correct classification of 97%. Comparison of the SERS spectra of different types of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria indicated that all of them have similar cell walls and cell membrane structures. Conversely, major differences were noted around the nucleic acid and amino acid structure information between 1200 cm(-1) and 1700 cm(-1) and at the finger print region between 400 cm(-1) and 700 cm(-1). Silver biopolymer nanoparticle substrate could be a promising SERS tool for pathogen detection. Also this study indicates that SERS technology could be used for reliable and rapid detection and classification of food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  17. Biopolymers under large external forces and mean-field RNA virus evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Syed Amir

    The modeling of the mechanical response of single-molecules of DNA and RNA under large external forces through statistical mechanical methods is central to this thesis with a small portion devoted to modeling the evolutionary dynamics of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. In order to develop and test models of biopolymer mechanics and illuminate the mechanisms underlying biological processes where biopolymers undergo changes in energy on the order of the thermal energy, , entails measuring forces and lengths on the scale of piconewtons (pN) and nanometers (nm), respectively. A capacity achieved in the past two decades at the single-molecule level through the development of micromanipulation techniques such as magnetic and optical tweezers, atomic force microscopy, coupled with advances in micro- and nanofabrication. The statistical mechanical models of biopolymers developed in this dissertation are dependent upon and the outcome of these advancements and resulting experiments. The dissertation begins in chapter 1 with an introduction to the structure and thermodynamics of DNA and RNA, highlighting the importance and effectiveness of simple, two-state models in their description as a prelude to the emergence of two-state models in the research manuscripts. In chapter 2 the standard models of the elasticity of polymers and of a polymer gel are reviewed, characterizing the continuum and mean-field models, including the scaling behavior of DNA in confined spaces. The research manuscript presented in the last section of chapter 2 (section 2.5), subsequent to a review of a Flory gel and in contrast to it, is a model of the elasticity of RNA as a gel, with viral RNA illustrating an instance of such a network, and shown to exhibit anomalous elastic behavior, a negative Poisson ratio, and capable of facilitating viral RNA encapsidation with further context provided in section 5.1. In chapter 3 the experimental methods and behavior of DNA and RNA under mechanical

  18. Porous silicon photonic crystals as hosts for polymers, biopolymers, and magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang Yang

    This thesis describes the construction of one-dimensional photonic crystals of porous silicon by electrochemically etching and the use of these materials as hosts for polymers, biopolymers, and magnetic nanoparticles. The spectral features of the photonic crystals derive from a porosity gradient that is determined by the electrochemical etching parameters. Since the photonic crystals are constructed of a porous material, they can serve as hosts for other materials. The first chapter of the thesis provides an introduction to porous Si, templating techniques and the use of porous materials for controlled release of drugs. This latter section is added because much of the thesis work addresses the application of porous Si hosts for controlled release of drugs. In the second chapter, it is shown that the spectral properties of the porous Si photonic crystal template can be transferred to a variety of organic and biopolymers. It is demonstrated that these castings can be used as vapor sensors and as self-reporting, bioresorbable materials. If the template is not removed, porous Si polymer composites are formed. The third chapter discussed that by spray-coating a fine mist of polymer solution onto the porous Si film, robust and smooth micron-sized cylindrical photonic crystals suitable for bioassays can be prepared. The fourth chapter focuses on using porous Si photonic crystals as a host for magnetic nanoparticles. The magnetic nanoparticles in this work are found to adhere to the surface of the porous Si film as well to infiltrate the pore structure. In a demonstration of optical switching that may be useful for information display applications, flipping between the colored to dark sides by application of a magnetic field is found to occur at rates of as large as 175 Hz. As the host for soluble molecular species, porous Si photonic crystals can be impregnated from solution. The aggregates that form upon evaporation of solvent are found to scatter light from the resonant

  19. Electrospun fibers of layered double hydroxide/biopolymer nanocomposites as effective drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Zhu Hong; Chen Dan; Wang Ruiyu; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Liu Tianxi

    2012-01-01

    Ibuprofen intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH-IBU)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and LDH-IBU/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite fibers are electrospun based on a combination of LDH-IBU with two kinds of biopolymers (i.e. PCL and PLA), to act as effective drug delivery systems. Ibuprofen (IBU) is chosen as a model drug, which is intercalated in MgAl-LDH by coprecipitation. Poly(oxyethylene-b-oxypropylene-b-oxyethylene) (Pluronic) is also added into PLA-based fibers as hydrophilicity enhancer and release modulator. LDH-IBU nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed throughout the nanocomposite fibers, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. In vitro drug release studies show that initial IBU liberation from LDH-IBU/PCL composite fibers is remarkably slower than that from IBU/PCL fibers due to the sustained release property of LDH-IBU and heterogeneous nucleation effect of LDH-IBU on PCL chain segments. Surprisingly, the initial IBU release from LDH-IBU/PLA and LDH-IBU/PLA/Pluronic composite fibers is faster than that from the corresponding IBU/PLA and IBU/PLA/Pluronic fibers. This effect can be attributed to the strong interaction between alkyl groups in IBU molecules and methyl substituent groups of PLA as well as the hydrophilicity of LDH-IBU, which lead to an easier diffusion of water with a faster release of IBU from LDH-IBU/PLA and LDH-IBU/PLA/Pluronic composite fibers. - Graphical abstract: Ibuprofen intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH-IBU)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and LDH-IBU/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite fibers are electrospun based on the combination of LDHs with two kinds of biopolymers (i.e. PCL and PLA). LDH-IBU nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed throughout all the electrospun nanocomposite fibers even at a high loading level of 5 wt%. By combining the tunable drug release property of LDHs and electrospinning technique, the new drug delivery system is anticipated for effective loading and sustained release of drugs

  20. Electrospun fibers of layered double hydroxide/biopolymer nanocomposites as effective drug delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Zhu Hong; Chen Dan; Wang Ruiyu [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Tjiu, Weng Weei [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Liu Tianxi, E-mail: txliu@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2012-06-15

    Ibuprofen intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH-IBU)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and LDH-IBU/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite fibers are electrospun based on a combination of LDH-IBU with two kinds of biopolymers (i.e. PCL and PLA), to act as effective drug delivery systems. Ibuprofen (IBU) is chosen as a model drug, which is intercalated in MgAl-LDH by coprecipitation. Poly(oxyethylene-b-oxypropylene-b-oxyethylene) (Pluronic) is also added into PLA-based fibers as hydrophilicity enhancer and release modulator. LDH-IBU nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed throughout the nanocomposite fibers, as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. In vitro drug release studies show that initial IBU liberation from LDH-IBU/PCL composite fibers is remarkably slower than that from IBU/PCL fibers due to the sustained release property of LDH-IBU and heterogeneous nucleation effect of LDH-IBU on PCL chain segments. Surprisingly, the initial IBU release from LDH-IBU/PLA and LDH-IBU/PLA/Pluronic composite fibers is faster than that from the corresponding IBU/PLA and IBU/PLA/Pluronic fibers. This effect can be attributed to the strong interaction between alkyl groups in IBU molecules and methyl substituent groups of PLA as well as the hydrophilicity of LDH-IBU, which lead to an easier diffusion of water with a faster release of IBU from LDH-IBU/PLA and LDH-IBU/PLA/Pluronic composite fibers. - Graphical abstract: Ibuprofen intercalated layered double hydroxide (LDH-IBU)/polycaprolactone (PCL) and LDH-IBU/polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite fibers are electrospun based on the combination of LDHs with two kinds of biopolymers (i.e. PCL and PLA). LDH-IBU nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed throughout all the electrospun nanocomposite fibers even at a high loading level of 5 wt%. By combining the tunable drug release property of LDHs and electrospinning technique, the new drug delivery system is anticipated for effective loading and sustained release of drugs

  1. Effect of Different Purification Techniques on the Characteristics of Heteropolysaccharide-Protein Biopolymer from Durian (Durio zibethinus Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Mirhosseini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural biopolymers from plant sources contain many impurities (e.g., fat, protein, fiber, natural pigment and endogenous enzymes, therefore, an efficient purification process is recommended to minimize these impurities and consequently improve the functional properties of the biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different purification techniques on the yield, protein content, solubility, water- and oil-holding capacity of a heteropolysaccharide-protein biopolymer obtained from durian seed. Four different purification methods using different chemicals and solvents (i.e., A (isopropanol and ethanol, B (isopropanol and acetone, C (saturated barium hydroxide, and D (Fehling solution] to liberate the purified biopolymer from its crude form were compared. In most cases, the purification process significantly (p < 0.05 improved the physicochemical properties of heteropolysaccharide-protein biopolymer from durian fruit seed. The present work showed that the precipitation using isopropanol and acetone (Method B resulted in the highest purification yield among all the tested purification techniques. The precipitation using saturated barium hydroxide (Method C led to induce the highest solubility and relatively high capacity of water absorption. The current study reveals that the precipitation using Fehling solution (Method D most efficiently eliminates the protein fraction, thus providing more pure biopolymer suitable for biological applications.

  2. Technology Transfer of Biopolymer Soil Amendment for Rapid Revegetation and Erosion Control at Fort A. P. Hill, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    demonstrations, been shown to be an effective and low-cost method of reducing soil erosion and facility maintenance costs (Larson et al. 2012, Muller and...TN) evaluates application of this biopolymer to a highly disturbed and erodible soil . BACKGROUND: Most training areas present soil erosion ...plant/ soil rhyzobial microbial activity, was demonstrated to enhance site vegetation and control erosion . The effort was supported by the

  3. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  4. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.

    2013-01-01

    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  5. Unitarity of CKM Matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, M

    2002-01-01

    The Unitarity of the CKM matrix is examined in the light of the latest available accurate data. The analysis shows that a conclusive result cannot be derived at present. Only more precise data can determine whether the CKM matrix opens new vistas beyond the standard model or not.

  6. Probability matrix decomposition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maris, E.; DeBoeck, P.; Mechelen, I. van

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a class of models for two-way matrices with binary entries of 0 and 1. First, we consider Boolean matrix decomposition, conceptualize it as a latent response model (LRM) and, by making use of this conceptualization, generalize it to a larger class of matrix decomposition

  7. Triangularization of a Matrix

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ). From this one can see that this equality is als9 true for diagonalizable matrices; just note that eSAs-. 1 = SeAS-I. Finally, the equality car- ries over to all matrices since both sides are continuous functions of a matrix and every matrix is a limit ...

  8. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Optimization of methylene blue using Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M; Tamilarasan, R; Arthanareeswaran, G; Ismail, A F

    2015-11-01

    Recently noted that the methylene blue cause severe central nervous system toxicity. It is essential to optimize the methylene blue from aqueous environment. In this study, a comparison of an optimization of methylene blue was investigated by using modified Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) bio-polymer hydrogel beads. A batch mode study was conducted using various parameters like time, dye concentration, bio-polymer dose, pH and process temperature. The isotherms, kinetics, diffusion and thermodynamic studies were performed for feasibility of the optimization process. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm equations were used for the prediction of isotherm parameters and correlated with dimensionless separation factor (RL). Pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order Lagegren's kinetic equations were used for the correlation of kinetic parameters. Intraparticle diffusion model was employed for diffusion of the optimization process. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) shows different absorbent peaks of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) beads and the morphology of the bio-polymer material analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The TG & DTA studies show that good thermal stability with less humidity without production of any non-degraded products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23965957

  11. The effects of biopolymer encapsulation on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk during in vitro human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun-Jin; Kim, Young-Chan; Choi, Inwook; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2013-08-07

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Fuzzy vulnerability matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, Jorge H.; Rivera, S.S.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called vulnerability matrix is used in the evaluation part of the probabilistic safety assessment for a nuclear power plant, during the containment event trees calculations. This matrix is established from what is knows as Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. This matrix is usually established with numerical values obtained with traditional arithmetic using the set theory. The representation of this matrix with fuzzy numbers is much more adequate, due to the fact that the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement are better represented with linguistic variables, such as 'highly probable', 'probable', 'impossible', etc. In the present paper a methodology to obtain a Fuzzy Vulnerability Matrix is presented, starting from the recommendations on the Numerical Categories for Engineering Judgement. (author)

  13. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia

    2007-01-01

    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing...... such comparisons, matrix generation, and the composition of proximity measures, are introduced and discussed. In this second part, the authors introduce and thoroughly demonstrate two related matrix comparison techniques the Mantel test and Procrustes analysis, respectively. These techniques can compare...... and evaluate the degree of monotonicity between different proximity measures or their ordination results. In common with these techniques is the application of permutation procedures to test hypotheses about matrix resemblances. The choice of technique is related to the validation at hand. In the case...

  14. Effect of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as biopolymers to the edible film sorghum starch hydrophobicity characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Rr. Dewi Artanti; Setiawan, Aji; Anggraini, Puji D.

    2017-03-01

    The use of synthetic plastic should be limited because it causes the plastic waste that can not be decomposed quickly, triggering environmental problems. The solution of the plastic usage is the use of biodegradable plastic as packaging which is environmentally friendly. Synthesis of edible film can be done with a variety of components. The component mixture of starch and cellulose derivative products are one of the methods for making edible film. Sorghum is a species of cereal crops containing starch amounted to 80.42%, where the use of sorghum in Indonesia merely fodder. Therefore, sorghum is a potential material to be used as a source of starch synthesis edible film. This research aims to study the characteristics of edible starch films Sorghum and assess the effect of CMC (Carboxymethyl Cellulose) as additional materials on the characteristics of biopolymers edible film produced sorghum starch. This study is started with the production of sorghum starch, then the film synthesizing with addition of CMC (5, 10, 15, 20, and 25% w/w starch), and finally the hydrophobicity characteristics test (water uptake test and water solubility test). The addition of CMC will decrease the percentage of water absorption to the film with lowest level of 65.8% in the degree of CMC in 25% (w/w starch). The addition of CMC also influences the water solubility of film, where in the degree of 25% CMC (w/w starch) the solubility of water was the lowest, which was 28.2% TSM.

  15. Antibacterial activity of combination of synthetic and biopolymer non-woven structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Sukhwinder K; Özsel, Burcak Kaya; Yadav, Ramesh; Kaur, Ginpreet; Chintamaneni, Meena; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-12-01

    Fibrous structures and synthetic polymer blends offer potential usages in making biomedical devices, textiles used in medical practices, food packaging, tissue engineering, environmental applications and biomedical arena. These products are also excellent candidates for building scaffolds to grow stem cells for implantation, to make tissue engineering grafts, to make stents to open up blood vessels caused by atherosclerosis or narrowed by blood clots, for drug delivery systems for micro- to nano-medicines, for transdermal patches, and for healing of wounds and burn care. The current study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of woven and non-woven forms of nano- and macro-scale blended polymers having biocompatible and biodegradable characteristics. The antimicrobial activity of non-woven fibrous structures created with the combination of synthetic and biopolymer was assessed using Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes using pour plate method. Structural evaluation of the fabricated samples was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Broad spectrum antibacterial activities were found from the tested materials consisting of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with chitosan and nylon-6 combined with chitosan and formic acid. The combination of PVA with chitosan was more bactericidal or bacteriostatic than that of nylon-6 combined with chitosan and formic acid. PVA combination with chitosan appears to be a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent.

  16. Cytotoxicity control of silicon nanoparticles by biopolymer coating and ultrasound irradiation for cancer theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, A P; Osminkina, L A; Kharin, A Yu; Gongansky, M B; Kargina, J V; Kudryavtsev, A A; Bezsudnova, Yu I; Perova, T S; Geloen, A; Lysenko, V; Timoshenko, V Yu

    2017-03-10

    Silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) prepared by mechanical grinding of luminescent porous silicon were coated with a biopolymer (dextran) and investigated as a potential theranostic agent for bioimaging and sonodynamic therapy. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and Raman scattering measurements of dextran-coated SiNPs gave evidence of their enhanced stability in water. In vitro experiments confirmed the lower cytotoxicity of the dextran-coated NPs in comparison with uncoated ones, especially for high concentrations of about 2 mg ml -1 . Efficient uptake of the NPs by cancer cells was found using bioimaging in the optical transmittance and photoluminescence modes. Treatment of the cells with uptaken SiNPs by therapeutic ultrasound for 5-20 min resulted in a strong decrease in the number of living cells, while the total number of cells remained nearly unchanged. The obtained data indicate a 'mild' effect of the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and SiNPs on cancer cells. The observed results reveal new opportunities for controlling the photoluminescent and sonosensitizing properties of silicon-based NPs for applications in the diagnostics and mild therapy of cancer.

  17. Middle ear packing materials: comparison between absorbable hemostatic gelatine sponge and sugarcane biopolymer sponge in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Lopes Bunzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several biomaterials can be used in ear surgery to pack the middle ear or support the graft. The absorbable gelatin sponge is the most widely used, but it may produce fibrosis and impair ventilation of the middle ear. OBJECTIVE: This experimental study aimed to investigate the inflammatory effects of the sugarcane biopolymer sponge (BP in the rat middle ear compared with absorbable gelatin sponge (AGS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective experimental study design. Thirty adult female Wistar rats were allocated to receive the BP sponge into the right ear and AGS into the left ear. Animals were randomly killed at 4 and 12 weeks post-procedure. Qualitative histological assessments were performed to evaluate the inflammatory reaction in the tympanic bullae. RESULTS: The BP sponge caused inflammation more intense and persistent than AGS. The BP was not absorbed during the experiment. Fibrosis was observed only in the ears with AGS. There were thickening of the mucosa and neoangiogenesis in the group of AGS. CONCLUSION: Despite inflammation, the BP sponge produced less fibrosis and neoangiogenesis compared to AGS. The sponge BP appeared to be a non-absorbable biomaterial in the middle ear.

  18. Development of Biopolymer Composite Films Using a Microfluidization Technique for Carboxymethylcellulose and Apple Skin Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inyoung Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymer films based on apple skin powder (ASP and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC were developed with the addition of apple skin extract (ASE and tartaric acid (TA. ASP/CMC composite films were prepared by mixing CMC with ASP solution using a microfluidization technique to reduce particle size. Then, various concentrations of ASE and TA were incorporated into the film solution as an antioxidant and an antimicrobial agent, respectively. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, optical, mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties of the developed films were then evaluated to determine the effects of ASE and TA on physicochemical properties. The films were also analyzed for antioxidant effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Shigella flexneri. From the results, the ASP/CMC film containing ASE and TA was revealed to enhance the mechanical, water barrier, and solubility properties. Moreover, it showed the additional antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for application as an active packaging film.

  19. The graphene oxide and chitosan biopolymer loads TiO2for antibacterial and preservative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weirui; Xie, Wenjie; Huang, Xiaoquan; Chen, Xu; Huang, Na; Wang, Xin; Liu, Jie

    2017-04-15

    Microorganism breeding is a known cause of food spoilage and disease transmission. Aspergillus niger (A. niger) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) are examples of microorganisms that cause deterioration of fresh fruits and vegetables during storage, which can be a serious threat to human health. In this work, we synthesized a self-assembled film of graphene oxide (GO) and chitosan (CS) biopolymers with titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles embedded in its surface. We then characterized its antibacterial and preservative properties. We found that these non-cytotoxic nanometer-scale films, especially when the ratio of graphene oxide, chitosan and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the nanocomposites is 1:20:4, exhibited high antibacterial activity against the biofilm-forming strains A. niger and B. subtilis. The preservation capacity of the nanocomposites was evaluated by enzymatic experiments. The nanocomposites did not show any cytotoxicity against mammalian somatic cells and plant cells. Altogether, this work demonstrated that the nanocomposites disrupted microbial film formation while avoiding internalization by animal and plant cells. Due to their selectivity and safety, these nanocomposites demonstrate potential as antimicrobial coatings for food preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fractional Generalizations of Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt Models for Biopolymer Characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Jóźwiak

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a fractional generalization of the Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models for a description of dynamic behavior of biopolymer materials. It was found that the rheological models of Maxwell-type do not work in the case of modeling of viscoelastic solids, and the model which significantly better describes the nature of changes in rheological properties of such media is the modified fractional Kelvin-Voigt model with two built-in springpots (MFKVM2. The proposed model was used to describe the experimental data from the oscillatory and creep tests of 3% (w/v kuzu starch pastes, and to determine the values of their rheological parameters as a function of pasting time. These parameters provide a lot of additional information about structure and viscoelastic properties of the medium in comparison to the classical analysis of dynamic curves G' and G" and shear creep compliance J(t. It allowed for a comprehensive description of a wide range of properties of kuzu starch pastes, depending on the conditions of pasting process.

  1. Current Status and New Perspectives on Chitin and Chitosan as Functional Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Tuyishime; Lee, Byong H; Fabien, Nsanzabera

    2017-04-01

    The natural biopolymer chitin and its deacetylated product chitosan are found abundantly in nature as structural building blocks and are used in all sectors of human activities like materials science, nutrition, health care, and energy. Far from being fully recognized, these polymers are able to open opportunities for completely novel applications due to their exceptional properties which an economic value is intrinsically entrapped. On a commercial scale, chitosan is mainly obtained from crustacean shells rather than from the fungal and insect sources. Significant efforts have been devoted to commercialize chitosan extracted from fungal and insect sources to completely replace crustacean-derived chitosan. However, the traditional chitin extraction processes are laden with many disadvantages. The present review discusses the potential bioextraction of chitosan from fungal, insect, and crustacean as well as its superior physico-chemical properties. The different aspects of fungal, insects, and crustacean chitosan extraction methods and various parameters having an effect on the yield of chitin and chitosan are discussed in detail. In addition, this review also deals with essential attributes of chitosan for high value-added applications in different fields and highlighted new perspectives on the production of chitin and deacetylated chitosan from different sources with the concomitant reduction of the environmental impact.

  2. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu eValdés

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  3. Conductivity and transport studies of plasticized chitosan-based proton conducting biopolymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukur, M F; Yusof, Y M; Zawawi, S M M; Illias, H A; Kadir, M F Z

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the conductivity and transport properties of chitosan-based solid biopolymer electrolytes containing ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN). The sample containing 40 wt% NH 4 SCN exhibited the highest conductivity value of (1.81 ± 0.50) × 10 −4  S cm −1 at room temperature. Conductivity has increased to (1.51 ± 0.12) × 10 −3  S cm −1 with the addition of 25 wt% glycerol. The temperature dependence of conductivity for both salted and plasticized systems obeyed the Arrhenius rule. The activation energy (E a ) was calculated for both systems and it is found that the sample with 40 wt% NH 4 SCN in the salted system obtained an E a value of 0.148 eV and that for the sample containing 25 wt% glycerol in the plasticized system is 0.139 eV. From the Fourier transform infrared studies, carboxamide and amine bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that chitosan has interacted with NH 4 SCN salt. Changes in the C–O stretching vibration band intensity are observed at 1067 cm −1 with the addition of glycerol. The Rice and Roth model was used to explain the transport properties of the salted and plasticized systems. (paper)

  4. Conductivity and transport studies of plasticized chitosan-based proton conducting biopolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukur, M. F.; Yusof, Y. M.; Zawawi, S. M. M.; Illias, H. A.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the conductivity and transport properties of chitosan-based solid biopolymer electrolytes containing ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). The sample containing 40 wt% NH4SCN exhibited the highest conductivity value of (1.81 ± 0.50) × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Conductivity has increased to (1.51 ± 0.12) × 10-3 S cm-1 with the addition of 25 wt% glycerol. The temperature dependence of conductivity for both salted and plasticized systems obeyed the Arrhenius rule. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated for both systems and it is found that the sample with 40 wt% NH4SCN in the salted system obtained an Ea value of 0.148 eV and that for the sample containing 25 wt% glycerol in the plasticized system is 0.139 eV. From the Fourier transform infrared studies, carboxamide and amine bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that chitosan has interacted with NH4SCN salt. Changes in the C-O stretching vibration band intensity are observed at 1067 cm-1 with the addition of glycerol. The Rice and Roth model was used to explain the transport properties of the salted and plasticized systems.

  5. Silk fibroin/gold nanocrystals: a new example of biopolymer-based nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noinville, S.; Garnier, A.; Courty, A.

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion of nanoparticles in ordered polymer nanostructures can provide control over particle location and orientation, and pave the way for tailored nanomaterials that have enhanced mechanical, electrical, or optical properties. Here we used silk fibroin, a natural biopolymer, to embed gold nanocrystals (NCs), so as to obtain well-ordered structures such as nanowires and self-assembled triangular nanocomposites. Monodisperse gold NCs synthesized in organic media are mixed to silk fibroin and the obtained nanocomposites are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Infrared spectroscopy. The optical properties study of gold NCs and silk-gold nanocomposites shows that the Surface Plasmon band is blue shifted compared to gold NCs. The size and shape of NCs gold superlattices can be well controlled by the presence of silk fibroin giving nanowires and also self-assembled triangular nanocomposites as characterized by TEM, FE-SEM and AFM. The strong interaction between gold NCs and silk fibroin is also revealed by the conformation change of silk protein in presence of gold NCs, as shown by FTIR analysis. The formation of such ordered nanocomposites (gold NCs/silk fibroin) will provide new nanoplasmonic devices.

  6. Fractional Generalizations of Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt Models for Biopolymer Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Bertrand; Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a fractional generalization of the Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigt rheological models for a description of dynamic behavior of biopolymer materials. It was found that the rheological models of Maxwell-type do not work in the case of modeling of viscoelastic solids, and the model which significantly better describes the nature of changes in rheological properties of such media is the modified fractional Kelvin-Voigt model with two built-in springpots (MFKVM2). The proposed model was used to describe the experimental data from the oscillatory and creep tests of 3% (w/v) kuzu starch pastes, and to determine the values of their rheological parameters as a function of pasting time. These parameters provide a lot of additional information about structure and viscoelastic properties of the medium in comparison to the classical analysis of dynamic curves G' and G" and shear creep compliance J(t). It allowed for a comprehensive description of a wide range of properties of kuzu starch pastes, depending on the conditions of pasting process.

  7. Facile synthesis of palladium nanocatalyst using gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium): a natural biopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Lori; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao; Kora, Aruna Jyothi

    2015-12-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesised by using gum kondagogu (GK), a non-toxic ecofriendly biopolymer. GK acted as both reducing and stabilising agent for the synthesis of Pd NPs. Various reaction parameters, such as concentration of gum, Pd chloride and reaction pH were standardised for the stable synthesis of GK reduced stabilised Pd NPs (GK-Pd NPs). The nanoparticles have been characterised using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Physical characterisation revealed that the gum synthesised Pd NPs were in the size range of 6.5 ± 2.3 nm and crystallised in face centred cubic (FCC) symmetry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy implicated the role of carboxyl, amine and hydroxyl groups in the synthesis. The synthesised Pd NPs were found to be highly stable in nature. The synthesised nanoparticles were found to function as an effective green catalyst (k = 0.182 min⁻¹) in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride, which was evident from the colour change of bright yellow (nitrophenolate; λ(max) - 400 nm) to colourless (4-AP; λ(max) - 294 nm) solution. The overall objectives of the current communication were: (i) to synthesize the Pd NPs using a green reducing/capping agent; GK and (ii) to determine the catalytic performance of the synthesised Pd NPs.

  8. An optically transparent, flexible, patterned and conductive silk biopolymer film (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Muhammad; Min, Kyungtaek; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-02-01

    Transparent, flexible, and conducting films are of great interest for wearable electronics. For better biotic/abiotic interface, the films to integrate the electronics components requires the patterned surface conductors with optical transparency, smoothness, good electrical conductivity, along with the biofriendly traits of films. We focus on silk fibroin, a natural biopolymer extracted from the Bombyx mori cocoons, for this bioelectronics applications. Here we report an optically transparent, flexible, and patterned surface conductor on a silk film by burying a silver nanowires (AgNW) network below the surface of the silk film. The conducting silk film reveals high optical transparency of 80% and the excellent electronic conductivity of 15 Ω/sq, along with smooth surface. The integration of light emitting diode (LED) chip on the patterned electrodes confirms that the current can flow through the transparent and patterned electrodes on the silk film, and this result shows an application for integration of functional electronic/opto-electronic devices. Additionally, we fabricate a transparent and flexible radio frequency (RF) antenna and resistor on a silk film and apply these as a food sensor by monitoring the increasing resistance by the flow of gases from the spoiled food.

  9. Calorespirometric feeding control enhances bioproduction from toxic feedstocks-Demonstration for biopolymer production out of methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Maria-Teresa; Paufler, Sven; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and industrial bulk chemicals by microorganisms in biotechnological processes is promising but still facing various challenges. In particular, toxic substrates require an efficient process control strategy. Methanol, as an example, has the potential to become a major future feedstock due to its availability from fossil and renewable resources. However, besides being toxic, methanol is highly volatile. To optimize its dosage during microbial cultivations, an innovative, predictive process control strategy based on calorespirometry, i.e., simultaneous measurements of heat and CO2 emission rates, was developed. This rarely used technique allows an online-estimation of growth parameters such as the specific growth rate and substrate consumption rate as well as a detection of shifts in microbial metabolism thus enabling an adapted feeding for different phases of growth. The calorespirometric control strategy is demonstrated exemplarily for growth of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens on methanol and compared to alternative control strategies. Applying the new approach, the methanol concentration could be maintained far below a critical limit, while increased growth rates of M. extorquens and higher final contents of the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate were obtained. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2113-2121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted toward improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  11. Influence of a biopolymer admixture on corrosion behaviour of steel rebars in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, S.; Bur, N.; Feugeas, F. [LGECO - LISS, INSA de Strasbourg, 24 bd de la Victoire, 67 084 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Ferrari, G. [TNO Science and Industry, Bevesierweg, 1781 CA Den Helder (Netherlands); Tribollet, B. [UPR15 du CNRS, LISE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75 252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2010-12-15

    Among the multitude of concrete structure pathologies, corrosion of rebars is one of the most important problems of concrete durability. In the context of sustainable development, it appears of primary importance to develop new means to protect the rebars against corrosion. This study aims to develop a new eco-friendly and corrosion-inhibiting admixture based on EPS 180 exopolysaccharides, biopolymers used in coatings already studied for the corrosion inhibition on steel in seawater. C15 rebars embedded in CEMI and CEMV cement paste containing EPS 180 were immersed in natural seawater and their electrochemical behaviour was studied using open circuit potential measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. These tests highlight the decrease of the cathodic reaction kinetics due to the EPS 180 action at the rebars surface, and the absence of effect on the passive layer. Capillary imbibition tests carried out on cement paste and mortars showed that although limiting the imbibition kinetics for cement pastes, the EPS 180 did not influence the water imbibition of mortars. Tests comparing capillary imbibition of soaked cement pastes and mortars with EPS 180 solution and the same samples containing the EPS 180 admixture highlight that the corrosion inhibition induced by EPS 180 admixture is more due to the modification of the cement - rebars interface than to the clogging of the cement porous network. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Enhancement of Lignin Biopolymer Isolation from Hybrid Poplar by Organosolv Pretreatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant renewable resource that has the potential to displace petroleum in the production of biomaterials and biofuels. In the present study, the fractionation of different lignin biopolymers from hybrid poplar based on organosolv pretreatments using 80% aqueous methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol at 220°C for 30 min was investigated. The isolated lignin fractions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC, 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results showed that the lignin fraction obtained with aqueous ethanol (EOL possessed the highest yield and the strongest thermal stability compared with other lignin fractions. In addition, other lignin fractions were almost absent of neutral sugars (1.16–1.46% though lignin preparation extracted with 1-butanol (BOL was incongruent (7.53%. 2D HSQC spectra analysis revealed that the four lignin fractions mainly consisted of β-O-4′ linkages combined with small amounts of β-β′ and β-5′ linkages. Furthermore, substitution of Cα in β-O-4′ substructures had occurred due to the effects of dissolvent during the autocatalyzed alcohol organosolv pretreatments. Therefore, aqueous ethanol was found to be the most promising alcoholic organic solvent compared with other alcohols to be used in noncatalyzed processes for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass in biorefinery.

  13. Natural additives and agricultural wastes in biopolymer formulations for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Arantzazu; Mellinas, Ana Cristina; Ramos, Marina; Garrigós, María Carmen; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2014-02-01

    The main directions in food packaging research are targeted towards improvements in food quality and food safety. For this purpose, food packaging providing longer product shelf-life, as well as the monitoring of safety and quality based upon international standards, is desirable. New active packaging strategies represent a key area of development in new multifunctional materials where the use of natural additives and/or agricultural wastes is getting increasing interest. The development of new materials, and particularly innovative biopolymer formulations, can help to address these requirements and also with other packaging functions such as: food protection and preservation, marketing and smart communication to consumers. The use of biocomposites for active food packaging is one of the most studied approaches in the last years on materials in contact with food. Applications of these innovative biocomposites could help to provide new food packaging materials with improved mechanical, barrier, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. From the food industry standpoint, concerns such as the safety and risk associated with these new additives, migration properties and possible human ingestion and regulations need to be considered. The latest innovations in the use of these innovative formulations to obtain biocomposites are reported in this review. Legislative issues related to the use of natural additives and agricultural wastes in food packaging systems are also discussed.

  14. Strategies for Automated Control of the Bioproduction of Mcl-PHA Biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hrnčiřík

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs are polyesters synthesized by numerous bacteria as storage material. Despite being promising candidates for biodegradable materials of industrial interest and environmental value, their usage is still rather limited because of high production costs. One of the areas with considerable potential for further improvements is control of the production process. This paper deals with the experimental work related to the design of control strategies for mcl-PHA biopolymer production process (Pseudomonas putida KT2442 fed-batch cultivations. For this bioprocess, a set of five control strategies (two main and three auxiliary strategies have been proposed, together with the proper sequence of their switching during the fed-batch part of the production process. The application of these strategies with octanoic acid as a sole carbon source resulted in intracellular PHA content (max. mass fraction 65 % of mcl-PHA in cell dry mass (g g–1 and PHA productivity (max. 0.89 g L–1 h–1 comparable to the best results reported in the literature for this type of strain and carbon substrate.

  15. Labelling the complexes biopolymer - N,N-di-(2-chlorethyl)-paraphenylenediamine with iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajkov, Z.D.; Kovacheva, S.; Bogdanova, E.; Todorov, D.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of complexes of certain biopolymers with N,N-di-(2-chlorethyl)-paraphenylenediamine in rats, rabbits and hamsters organs is studied. Labelling is performed with iodine 131. All animals received lugol solution prior to the labelled product administration for blocking the thyroid gland. The distribution of the activity (30 μCi per animal) is investigated by animals scanning and organs radiometry. Free iodine accumulation was not found in the organs investigated. Proteins were retained considerably longer in some organs. The highest activity was found 24 hours after albumin's injection in lungs, lymph nodes and adrenal glands and remained relatively high only in the lymph nodes thereafter. There was high activity after injection of albumin complex in all organs investigated and particularly in adrenals, lymph nodes, kidneys and liver. The activity dropped to the control levels 48 hours later. 24 hours after administration of tyrosinase complex there was high activity in tymus, kidney and liver. After 72 hours the activity remained high only in the tymus; the gland's weight dropped by 40%. High activity was found in the tymus after intravenous injection of the complex but not after this of the tyrosinase. The distribution of the ribonuclease complex was more uniform than that of the other labelled complexes. There was not complexes accumulation in the neoplasms (melanoma and transplantated Joshida tumor). (A.B.)

  16. The nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.; and Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794)

    1976-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the Aapprox. =18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q 2 /sub p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q 2 /sub p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close agreement is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  17. Nuclear reaction matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenciglowa, E.M.; Kung, C.L.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Osnes, E.

    1975-01-01

    Different definitions of the reaction matrix G appropriate to the calculation of nuclear structure are reviewed and discussed. Qualitative physical arguments are presented in support of a two-step calculation of the G-matrix for finite nuclei. In the first step the high-energy excitations are included using orthogonalized plane-wave intermediate states, and in the second step the low-energy excitations are added in, using harmonic oscillator intermediate states. Accurate calculations of G-matrix elements for nuclear structure calculations in the A approximately 18 region are performed following this procedure and treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q/sub 2p/ by the method of Tsai and Kuo. The treatment of Q/sub 2p/, the effect of the intermediate-state spectrum and the energy dependence of the reaction matrix are investigated in detail. The present matrix elements are compared with various matrix elements given in the literature. In particular, close argument is obtained with the matrix elements calculated by Kuo and Brown using approximate methods

  18. N-matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2003-01-01

    An n x n matrix is called an N-matrix if all principal minors are negative. In this paper, we are interested in N-matrix completion problems, that is, when a partial N-matrix hás an N-matrix completion. In general, a combinatorially or non-combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix does not have an N-matrix completion. Here we prove that a combinatorially symmetric partial N-matrix has an N-matrix completion if the graph of its specified entries is a 1-chordal graph. We also prove that there ...

  19. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard

    1980-01-01

    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  20. Quantifying matrix product state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Amandeep Singh; Kumar, Ajay

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by the concept of quantum finite-state machines, we have investigated their relation with matrix product state of quantum spin systems. Matrix product states play a crucial role in the context of quantum information processing and are considered as a valuable asset for quantum information and communication purpose. It is an effective way to represent states of entangled systems. In this paper, we have designed quantum finite-state machines of one-dimensional matrix product state representations for quantum spin systems.

  1. High Performances of Artificial Nacre-Like Graphene Oxide-Carrageenan Bio-Nanocomposite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenkun Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was inspired by the unique multi-scale and multi-level ‘brick-and-mortar’ (B&M structure of nacre layers. We prepared the B&M, environmentally-friendly graphene oxide-carrageenan (GO-Car nanocomposite films using the following steps. A natural polyhydroxy polymer, carrageenan, was absorbed on the surface of monolayer GO nanosheets through hydrogen-bond interactions. Following this, a GO-Car hybridized film was produced through a natural drying process. We conducted structural characterization in addition to analyzing mechanical properties and cytotoxicity of the films. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses showed that the nanocomposite films had a similar morphology and structure to nacre. Furthermore, the results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and Thermogravimetric (TG/DTG were used to explain the GO-Car interaction. Analysis from static mechanical testers showed that GO-Car had enhanced Young’s modulus, maximum tensile strength and breaking elongation compared to pure GO. The GO-Car nanocomposite films, containing 5% wt. of Car, was able to reach a tensile strength of 117 MPa. The biocompatibility was demonstrated using a RAW264.7 cell test, with no significant alteration found in cellular morphology and cytotoxicity. The preparation process for GO-Car films is simple and requires little time, with GO-Car films also having favorable biocompatibility and mechanical properties. These advantages make GO-Car nanocomposite films promising materials in replacing traditional petroleum-based plastics and tissue engineering-oriented support materials.

  2. Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposite films of agar and silver nanoparticles: laser ablation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jong-Whan; Wang, Long-Feng; Lee, Yonghoon; Hong, Seok-In

    2014-03-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared by a laser ablation method and composite films with the AgNPs and agar were prepared by solvent casting method. UV-vis absorbance test and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis results revealed that non-agglomerated spherical AgNPs were formed by the laser ablation method. The surface color of the resulting agar/AgNPs films exhibited the characteristic plasmonic effect of the AgNPs with the maximum absorption peaks of 400-407 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) test results also exhibited characteristic AgNPs crystals with diffraction peaks observed at 2θ values of 38.39°, 44.49°, and 64.45°, which were corresponding to (111), (200), and (220) crystallographic planes of face-centered cubic (fcc) silver crystals, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results showed that thermal stability of the agar/AgNPs composite films was increased by the inclusion of metallic silver. Water vapor barrier properties and surface hydrophobicity of the agar/AgNPs films increased slightly with the increase in AgNPs content but they were not statistically significant (p>0.05), while mechanical strength and stiffness of the composite films decreased slightly (pfilms exhibited distinctive antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli O157:H7) bacterial pathogens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of a Bio-Nanocomposite for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo

    , such as synchrotron and neutron diffraction, Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and neutron scattering spectroscopies. From the images obtained using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM), we were then able to show that the drug carrier has a core-shell like structure and a study comparing...

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of a Bio-Nanocomposite for Cancer Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longo Martins, Murillo

    , such as synchrotron and neutron diffraction, Near Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) and neutron scattering spectroscopies. From the images obtained using Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM), we were then able to show that the drug carrier has a core-shell like structure and a study comparing......Abstract Cancer is one of the biggest public health problems in the whole world. In 2014, about 585,720 Americans are expected to die of cancer, almost 1,600 people per day. Cancer is the second most common cause of death in the US, exceeded only by heart disease, accounting for nearly 1 of every 4...

  5. Mechanical and morphological characterization of a bio-nanocomposite hydroxyapatite / polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Sabina da Memoria Cardoso de; Dias, Carmen Gilda Barroso Tavares; Zavaglia, Cecilia Amelia de Carvalho

    2011-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biocompatible polymers and hydroxyapatite are wide acceptance as bone grafts, the composition, structure and similarity to natural bone and also due to the properties functional, such as surface and mechanical strength. This work there was the making of a bionanocomposite, using nanostructured hydroxyapatite interconnected by polyurethane, generated from the actions of poly(vinylalcohol) and toluene isocyanate HDT. The formation kinetics was monitored by the bionanocomposite spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared FTIR. The material showed good properties both mechanical and morphology. (author)

  6. Tendon functional extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F

    2015-06-01

    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hacking the Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R

    2017-01-05

    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  9. Obtention of gelatin biopolymers by ionizing radiation; Obtencao de biopolimeros de gelatina por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura

    2014-07-01

    The gelatin (Gel) is a biocompatible and biodegradable biopolymer, which naturally forms semi-solid colloids or hydrogels in aqueous solutions. As a hydrophilic polymer, the Gel has structural and physico-mechanical properties that distinguish it from synthetic hydrophilic polymers. The study of these properties led to the development of the present work. Thus, Gel-based films and hydrogels were developed using ionizing radiation technology by different techniques: irradiation with {sup 60}Co, electron beam (EB) and/or pulsed EB. The Gel based-films enriched with different additives, such as glycerol (GLY), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), acrylamide and/or vegetal fiber, were irradiated with doses from 10 to 60 kGy, depending on the additive; some parameters like mechanical properties, color, and water absorption were analyzed. In the radio-induced synthesis of GEL nanohydrogels, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and the mixture (MIX) of additives, PEG and GEL, the size, molar mass and surface morphology of the nanohydrogels were analyzed. There was a significant increase of gel fraction with increase of the radiation dose for the GEL/fiber samples. The GEL based-films with 10% PVA irradiated at 20 kGy showed the highest puncture strength. The addition of antioxidant BHT affected on some GEL based-films properties on applied conditions. Regarding the nanohydrogels, there was a decrease of hydrodynamic radius of MIX irradiated with {sup 60}Co from 68 ± 25 nm (2 kGy) to 35 ± 4 nm (5 kGy). The radiation proved to be a convenient tool in the modification of polymeric materials for both, GEL films and hydrogels. (author)

  10. Two kinds of ketoprofen enteric gel beads (CA and CS-SA using biopolymer alginate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingchao Cheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To obtain expected rapid-release and sustained-release of ketoprofen gel beads, this paper adopted biopolymer alginate to prepare alginate beads and chitosan-alginate gel beads. Formulation factors were investigated and optimized by the single factor test. The release of ketoprofen from calcium alginate gel beads in pH 1.0 hydrochloric acid solution was less than 10% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 95% during 45 min, which met the requirements of rapid-release preparations. However, the drug release of chitosan-alginate gel beads in pH1.0 was less than 5% during 2 h, then in pH6.8 was about 50% during 6 h and reached more than 95% during 12 h, which had a good sustained-release behavior. In addition, the release kinetics of keteprofen from the calcium alginate gel beads fitted well with the Korsmeyer–Peppas model and followed a case-II transport mechanism. However, the release of keteprofen from the chitosan-alginate gel beads exhibited a non-Fickian mechanism and based on the mixed mechanisms of diffusion and polymer relaxation from chitosan-alginate beads. In a word, alginate gel beads of ketoprofen were instant analgesic, while chitosan-alginate gel beads could control the release of ketoprofen during gastro-intestinal tract and prolong the drug's action time. Keywords: Gel beads, Enteric rapid-release, Enteric sustained-release, Ketoprofen

  11. Physical-biopolymer characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) blended with natural rubber latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntanoo, K., E-mail: thip-kk@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Promkotra, S., E-mail: sarunya@kku.ac.th [Department of Geotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand); Kaewkannetra, P., E-mail: paknar@kku.ac.th [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 Thailand (Thailand)

    2015-03-30

    A biopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is blended with bio-based materials, natural rubber latex, to improve their microstructures. The various ratios between PHBV and natural rubber latex are examined to develop their mechanical properties. In general, physical properties of PHBV are hard, brittle and low flexible while natural rubber (NR) is presented itself as high elastic materials. Concentrations of the PHBV solution are constituted at 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v). The mixtures of their PHBV solutions to natural rubber latex are produced the blended films in three different ratios of 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively. They are characterized by appearance analyses which are the scanning electron microscope (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SEM photomicrographs of the blended films and the controlled PHBV can provide the void distribution in the range of 12-14% and 19-21%, respectively. For mechanical properties of the blended films, the various elastic moduli of 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) PHBV are the average of 773, 956 and 1,007 kPa, respectively. The tensile strengths of the blends increase with the increased concentrations of PHBV, similarly trend to the elastic modulus. The crystallization and melting behavior of unmixed PHBV and the blends are determined by DSC. Melting transition temperatures (T{sub m}) of the unmixed PHBV are stated two melting peak at 154°C and 173°C. Besides, the melting peaks of the blends alter in the range of 152-156°C and 168-171°C, respectively. According to morphology of the blends, the void distribution decreases twice compared to the unmixed PHBV. The results of mechanical properties and thermal analysis indicate that the blended PHBV can be developed their properties by more resilient and wide range of temperature than usual.

  12. Physical-biopolymer characterization of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) blended with natural rubber latex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntanoo, K.; Promkotra, S.; Kaewkannetra, P.

    2015-03-01

    A biopolymer of polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is blended with bio-based materials, natural rubber latex, to improve their microstructures. The various ratios between PHBV and natural rubber latex are examined to develop their mechanical properties. In general, physical properties of PHBV are hard, brittle and low flexible while natural rubber (NR) is presented itself as high elastic materials. Concentrations of the PHBV solution are constituted at 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v). The mixtures of their PHBV solutions to natural rubber latex are produced the blended films in three different ratios of 4:6, 5:5 and 6:4, respectively. They are characterized by appearance analyses which are the scanning electron microscope (SEM), universal testing machine (UTM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SEM photomicrographs of the blended films and the controlled PHBV can provide the void distribution in the range of 12-14% and 19-21%, respectively. For mechanical properties of the blended films, the various elastic moduli of 1%, 2% and 3% (w/v) PHBV are the average of 773, 956 and 1,007 kPa, respectively. The tensile strengths of the blends increase with the increased concentrations of PHBV, similarly trend to the elastic modulus. The crystallization and melting behavior of unmixed PHBV and the blends are determined by DSC. Melting transition temperatures (Tm) of the unmixed PHBV are stated two melting peak at 154°C and 173°C. Besides, the melting peaks of the blends alter in the range of 152-156°C and 168-171°C, respectively. According to morphology of the blends, the void distribution decreases twice compared to the unmixed PHBV. The results of mechanical properties and thermal analysis indicate that the blended PHBV can be developed their properties by more resilient and wide range of temperature than usual.

  13. Highly Stable, Functional Hairy Nanoparticles and Biopolymers from Wood Fibers: Towards Sustainable Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Amir; Yang, Han; Alam, Md Nur; van de Ven, Theo G M

    2016-07-20

    Nanoparticles, as one of the key materials in nanotechnology and nanomedicine, have gained significant importance during the past decade. While metal-based nanoparticles are associated with synthetic and environmental hassles, cellulose introduces a green, sustainable alternative for nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we present the chemical synthesis and separation procedures to produce new classes of hairy nanoparticles (bearing both amorphous and crystalline regions) and biopolymers based on wood fibers. Through periodate oxidation of soft wood pulp, the glucose ring of cellulose is opened at the C2-C3 bond to form 2,3-dialdehyde groups. Further heating of the partially oxidized fibers (e.g., T = 80 °C) results in three products, namely fibrous oxidized cellulose, sterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (SNCC), and dissolved dialdehyde modified cellulose (DAMC), which are well separated by intermittent centrifugation and co-solvent addition. The partially oxidized fibers (without heating) were used as a highly reactive intermediate to react with chlorite for converting almost all aldehyde to carboxyl groups. Co-solvent precipitation and centrifugation resulted in electrosterically stabilized nanocrystalline cellulose (ENCC) and dicarboxylated cellulose (DCC). The aldehyde content of SNCC and consequently surface charge of ENCC (carboxyl content) were precisely controlled by controlling the periodate oxidation reaction time, resulting in highly stable nanoparticles bearing more than 7 mmol functional groups per gram of nanoparticles (e.g., as compared to conventional NCC bearing AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) attested to the rod-like morphology. Conductometric titration, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), dynamic light scattering (DLS), electrokinetic-sonic-amplitude (ESA) and acoustic attenuation spectroscopy shed light on the superior properties of these

  14. The battle for the "green" polymer. Different approaches for biopolymer synthesis: bioadvantaged vs. bioreplacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Nacú; Williams, R Christopher; Cochran, Eric W

    2014-05-14

    Biopolymers have been used throughout history; however, in the last two centuries they have seen a decrease in their utilization as the proliferation of inexpensive and mass-produced materials from petrochemical feedstocks quickly became better-suited to meeting society's needs. In recent years, high petroleum prices and the concern of society to adopt greener and cleaner products has led to an increased interest in biorenewable polymers and the use of sustainable technologies to produce them. Industrial and academic researchers alike have targeted several routes for producing these renewable materials. In this perspective, we compare and contrast two distinct approaches to the economical realization of these materials. One mentality that has emerged we term "bioreplacement", in which the fields of synthetic biology and catalysis collaborate to coax petrochemical monomers from sugars and lignocellulosic feedstocks that can subsequently be used in precisely the same ways to produce precisely the same polymers as we know today. For example, the metabolic engineering of bacteria is currently being explored as a viable route to common monomers such as butadiene, isoprene, styrene, acrylic acid, and sebacic acid, amongst others. Another motif that has recently gained traction may be referred to as the "bioadvantage" strategy, where the multifunctional "monomers" given to us by nature are combined in novel ways using novel chemistries to yield new polymers with new properties; for these materials to compete with their petroleum-based counterparts, they must add some advantage, for example less cost. For instance, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil readily undergoes polymerization to thermosets and recently, thermoplastic rubbers. Additionally, many plants produce pre-polymeric or polymeric materials that require little or no post modification to extract and make use of these compounds.

  15. FORMULATION AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF HERBAL PHENOLIC BIOPOLYMER-CONTAINING FILMS FOR BURN TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokadze, S; Barbakadze, V; Mulkijanyan, K; Bakuridze, A; Bakuridze, L

    2017-06-01

    Application of phytofilms based on biosolublepolymers is considered as a prospectivemethod for burn treatment . Herbal remedies contain biologically active substances, that are relatively less toxic, do not cause skin irritation or allergic reactions and, importantly, affectstrains of the microorganisms and viruses resistant to antibiotics and synthetic drugs. Nowadays, the advantages are given to such burn healing drugs, which along with high specific efficacy, have analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects, and don't irritate the tissues. The mentioned peculiarities are characteristic for a new herbal phenolic biopolymer poly[3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) glyceric acid](PDGA), isolated from the roots and stems of different comfrey species . The aim of the study was the development of the formulation and technology of biosoluble films for burn treatment on the basis of PDGA. The optimal content of phytofilm for burn healing was selected on the basis of the biopharmaceutical study results. The impact of the film-former on the quality, adhesion and moisture absorption of the phytofilmhas been studied. The optimal degree of the phytofilm moisture, determining its high adhesive properties,was established. The film prepared on the basis of sodium alginate, with 30.4% humidity, demonstrated the greatest adhesion strength. After investigation of the PDGA release it was found, that the hydrophilic bases such as: sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (69.2%) andsodium alginate (78,65%) appeared to be optimal among the others. At the same time, taking into consideration the disadvantages of sodium carboxymethyl-cellulose (tautening effect on burnt surface, relatively low stability), a film based on sodium alginate has been chosen. The manufacturing technology for obtaining PDGA-containing phytofilm by casting is proposed. Theshelf-lifeofproposedPDGA-containingphytofilmis 2 years.

  16. Constraints effects in swollen particulate composites with hyperelastic polymer matrix of finite extensibility modeled by FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šomvársky, Ján; Dušek, Karel; Dušková-Smrčková, Miroslava

    2014-03-01

    The class of particulate composites with cross-linked hyperelastic polymer matrix and non-deformable filler particles represents many important biopolymer and engineering materials. At application conditions, the matrix is either in the swollen state, or the swollen state is utilized for matrix characterization. In this contribution, a numerical model for simulation of equilibrium stress-strain and swelling behavior of this composite material was developed based on finite element method using COMSOL Multiphysics® software. In the constitutive equations (Gibbs energy), the elastic contribution is based on statistical-mechanical model of a network composed of freely jointed chains of finite extensibility and polymer-solvent mixing term is derived from the Flory-Huggins lattice model. A perfect adhesion of matrix-to-particle is assumed. The adhesion of matrix to stiff surface generates stress and degree-of-swelling fields in the composite. The existence of these fields determines the mechanical and swelling properties of the composite. Spatial distribution of filler particles in the composite plays an important role.

  17. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  18. Chemical composition and molecular structure of polysaccharide-protein biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed: extraction and purification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amid Bahareh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biological functions of natural biopolymers from plant sources depend on their chemical composition and molecular structure. In addition, the extraction and further processing conditions significantly influence the chemical and molecular structure of the plant biopolymer. The main objective of the present study was to characterize the chemical and molecular structure of a natural biopolymer from Durio zibethinus seed. A size-exclusion chromatography coupled to multi angle laser light-scattering (SEC-MALS was applied to analyze the molecular weight (Mw, number average molecular weight (Mn, and polydispersity index (Mw/Mn. Results The most abundant monosaccharide in the carbohydrate composition of durian seed gum were galactose (48.6-59.9%, glucose (37.1-45.1%, arabinose (0.58-3.41%, and xylose (0.3-3.21%. The predominant fatty acid of the lipid fraction from the durian seed gum were palmitic acid (C16:0, palmitoleic acid (C16:1, stearic acid (C18:0, oleic acid (C18:1, linoleic acid (C18:2, and linolenic acid (C18:2. The most abundant amino acids of durian seed gum were: leucine (30.9-37.3%, lysine (6.04-8.36%, aspartic acid (6.10-7.19%, glycine (6.07-7.42%, alanine (5.24-6.14%, glutamic acid (5.57-7.09%, valine (4.5-5.50%, proline (3.87-4.81%, serine (4.39-5.18%, threonine (3.44-6.50%, isoleucine (3.30-4.07%, and phenylalanine (3.11-9.04%. Conclusion The presence of essential amino acids in the chemical structure of durian seed gum reinforces its nutritional value.

  19. Rat adipose tissue-derived stem cells transplantation attenuates cardiac dysfunction post infarction and biopolymers enhance cell retention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E Danoviz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiac cell transplantation is compromised by low cell retention and poor graft viability. Here, the effects of co-injecting adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs with biopolymers on cell cardiac retention, ventricular morphometry and performance were evaluated in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 99mTc-labeled ASCs (1x10(6 cells isolated from isogenic Lewis rats were injected 24 hours post-MI using fibrin a, collagen (ASC/C, or culture medium (ASC/M as vehicle, and cell body distribution was assessed 24 hours later by gamma-emission counting of harvested organs. ASC/F and ASC/C groups retained significantly more cells in the myocardium than ASC/M (13.8+/-2.0 and 26.8+/-2.4% vs. 4.8+/-0.7%, respectively. Then, morphometric and direct cardiac functional parameters were evaluated 4 weeks post-MI cell injection. Left ventricle (LV perimeter and percentage of interstitial collagen in the spare myocardium were significantly attenuated in all ASC-treated groups compared to the non-treated (NT and control groups (culture medium, fibrin, or collagen alone. Direct hemodynamic assessment under pharmacological stress showed that stroke volume (SV and left ventricle end-diastolic pressure were preserved in ASC-treated groups regardless of the vehicle used to deliver ASCs. Stroke work (SW, a global index of cardiac function, improved in ASC/M while it normalized when biopolymers were co-injected with ASCs. A positive correlation was observed between cardiac ASCs retention and preservation of SV and improvement in SW post-MI under hemodynamic stress. CONCLUSIONS: We provided direct evidence that intramyocardial injection of ASCs mitigates the negative cardiac remodeling and preserves ventricular function post-MI in rats and these beneficial effects can be further enhanced by administering co-injection of ASCs with biopolymers.

  20. Characterization of cross-linked porous gelatin carriers and their interaction with corneal endothelium: biopolymer concentration effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Yang Lai

    Full Text Available Cell sheet-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for corneal reconstruction. However, the fragility of bioengineered corneal endothelial cell (CEC monolayers allows us to take advantage of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogels as cell sheet carriers for intraocular delivery. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of biopolymer concentrations (5-15 wt% on the characteristic and safety of hydrogel discs fabricated by a simple stirring process combined with freeze-drying method. Results of scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, and ninhydrin assays showed that, with increasing solid content, the pore size, porosity, and cross-linking index of carbodiimide treated samples significantly decreased from 508±30 to 292±42 µm, 59.8±1.1 to 33.2±1.9%, and 56.2±1.6 to 34.3±1.8%, respectively. The variation in biopolymer concentrations and degrees of cross-linking greatly affects the Young's modulus and swelling ratio of the gelatin carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and glucose permeation studies indicated that for the samples with a highest solid content, the highest pore wall thickness and the lowest fraction of mobile water may inhibit solute transport. When the biopolymer concentration is in the range of 5-10 wt%, the hydrogels have high freezable water content (0.89-0.93 and concentration of permeated glucose (591.3-615.5 µg/ml. These features are beneficial to the in vitro cultivation of CECs without limiting proliferation and changing expression of ion channel and pump genes such as ATP1A1, VDAC2, and AQP1. In vivo studies by analyzing the rabbit CEC morphology and count also demonstrate that the implanted gelatin discs with the highest solid content may cause unfavorable tissue-material interactions. It is concluded that the characteristics of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogel carriers and their triggered biological responses are in relation to biopolymer

  1. Characterization of Cross-Linked Porous Gelatin Carriers and Their Interaction with Corneal Endothelium: Biopolymer Concentration Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jui-Yang; Ma, David Hui-Kang; Lai, Meng-Heng; Li, Ya-Ting; Chang, Ren-Jie; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Cell sheet-mediated tissue regeneration is a promising approach for corneal reconstruction. However, the fragility of bioengineered corneal endothelial cell (CEC) monolayers allows us to take advantage of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogels as cell sheet carriers for intraocular delivery. The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of biopolymer concentrations (5–15 wt%) on the characteristic and safety of hydrogel discs fabricated by a simple stirring process combined with freeze-drying method. Results of scanning electron microscopy, porosity measurements, and ninhydrin assays showed that, with increasing solid content, the pore size, porosity, and cross-linking index of carbodiimide treated samples significantly decreased from 508±30 to 292±42 µm, 59.8±1.1 to 33.2±1.9%, and 56.2±1.6 to 34.3±1.8%, respectively. The variation in biopolymer concentrations and degrees of cross-linking greatly affects the Young’s modulus and swelling ratio of the gelatin carriers. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements and glucose permeation studies indicated that for the samples with a highest solid content, the highest pore wall thickness and the lowest fraction of mobile water may inhibit solute transport. When the biopolymer concentration is in the range of 5–10 wt%, the hydrogels have high freezable water content (0.89–0.93) and concentration of permeated glucose (591.3–615.5 µg/ml). These features are beneficial to the in vitro cultivation of CECs without limiting proliferation and changing expression of ion channel and pump genes such as ATP1A1, VDAC2, and AQP1. In vivo studies by analyzing the rabbit CEC morphology and count also demonstrate that the implanted gelatin discs with the highest solid content may cause unfavorable tissue-material interactions. It is concluded that the characteristics of cross-linked porous gelatin hydrogel carriers and their triggered biological responses are in relation to biopolymer concentration

  2. Fast methods for resumming matrix polynomials and Chebyshev matrix polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wanzen; Baer, Roi; Saravanan, Chandra; Shao Yihan; Bell, Alexis T.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Fast and effective algorithms are discussed for resumming matrix polynomials and Chebyshev matrix polynomials. These algorithms lead to a significant speed-up in computer time by reducing the number of matrix multiplications required to roughly twice the square root of the degree of the polynomial. A few numerical tests are presented, showing that evaluation of matrix functions via polynomial expansions can be preferable when the matrix is sparse and these fast resummation algorithms are employed

  3. 2016 MATRIX annals

    CERN Document Server

    Praeger, Cheryl; Tao, Terence

    2018-01-01

    MATRIX is Australia’s international, residential mathematical research institute. It facilitates new collaborations and mathematical advances through intensive residential research programs, each lasting 1-4 weeks. This book is a scientific record of the five programs held at MATRIX in its first year, 2016: Higher Structures in Geometry and Physics (Chapters 1-5 and 18-21); Winter of Disconnectedness (Chapter 6 and 22-26); Approximation and Optimisation (Chapters 7-8); Refining C*-Algebraic Invariants for Dynamics using KK-theory (Chapters 9-13); Interactions between Topological Recursion, Modularity, Quantum Invariants and Low-dimensional Topology (Chapters 14-17 and 27). The MATRIX Scientific Committee selected these programs based on their scientific excellence and the participation rate of high-profile international participants. Each program included ample unstructured time to encourage collaborative research; some of the longer programs also included an embedded conference or lecture series. The artic...

  4. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  5. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands

    2009-01-01

    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  6. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E

    2012-01-01

    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  7. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  8. Beyond textbook illustrations: Hand-held models of ordered DNA and protein structures as 3D supplements to enhance student learning of helical biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2010-11-01

    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we report a study on how our students learned more from using our ordered DNA and protein models assembled from colored computer-printouts on transparency film sheets that have useful structural details. Our models (reported in BAMBED 2009), having certain distinguished features, helped our students to grasp various aspects of these biopolymers that they usually find difficult. Quantitative and qualitative learning data from this study are reported. Copyright © 2010 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Oxidation of alginate and pectate biopolymers by cerium(IV) in perchloric and sulfuric acid solutions: A comparative kinetic and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Ahmed

    2016-03-15

    The kinetics of oxidation of alginate (Alg) and pectate (Pec) carbohydrate biopolymers was studied by spectrophotometry in aqueous perchloric and sulfuric acid solutions at fixed ionic strengths and temperature. In both acids, the reactions showed a first order dependence on [Ce(IV)], whereas the orders with respect to biopolymer concentrations are less than unity. In perchloric acid, the reactions exhibited less than unit orders with respect to [H(+)] whereas those proceeded in sulfuric acid showed negative fractional-first order dependences on [H(+)]. The effect of ionic strength and dielectric constant was studied. Probable mechanistic schemes for oxidation reactions were proposed. In both acids, the final oxidation products were characterized as mono-keto derivatives of both biopolymers. The activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanisms were computed and discussed. The rate laws were derived and the reaction constants involved in the different steps of the mechanisms were calculated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure and interactions in biomaterials based on membrane-biopolymer self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltover, Ilya

    Physical and chemical properties of artificial pure lipid membranes have been extensively studied during the last two decades and are relatively well understood. However, most real membrane systems of biological and biotechnological importance incorporate macromolecules either embedded into the membranes or absorbed onto their surfaces. We have investigated three classes of self-assembled membrane-biopolymer biomaterials: (i) Structure, interactions and stability of the two-dimensional crystals of the integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR). We have conducted a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study of oriented bR multilayers. The important findings were as follows: (1) the protein 2D lattice exhibited diffraction patterns characteristic of a 2D solid with power-law decay of in-plane positional correlations, which allowed to measure the elastic constants of protein crystal; (2) The crystal melting temperature was a function of the multilayer hydration, reflecting the effect of inter-membrane repulsion on the stability of protein lattice; (3) Preparation of nearly perfect (mosaicity video-enhanced light microscopy we have observed a membrane-distortion induced attraction between the particles with the interaction range of the order of particle diameter. Fluid membranes decorated with many particles exhibited: (i) a finite-sized two-dimensional closed packed aggregates and (ii) a one-dimensional ring-like aggregates. (iii) Structure, stability and interactions in the cationic lipid-DNA complexes. Cationic liposomes complexed with DNA are among the most promising synthetic non-viral carriers of DNA vectors currently used in gene therapy applications. We have established that DNA complexes with cationic lipid (DOTAP) and a neutral lipid (DOPC) have a compact multilayer liquid crystalline structure ( L ca ) with DNA intercalated between the lipid bilayers in a periodic 2D smectic phase. Furthermore, a different 2D columnar phase of complexes was found in mixtures

  11. R-matrix methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The procedures used in the application of R-matrix theory to atomic and molecular collision processes are presented. The computationally advantageous features of these methods are high-lighted, and some applications to electron scattering and photoionization are briefly discussed

  12. A Matrix Isolation Infrared

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The elusive ≡C-H· · ·O complex in the hydrogen bonded systems of Phenylacetylene: A Matrix Isolation Infrared and Ab Initio Study ... A comparison of the spectral shifts observed in the features of PhAc-MeOH and PhAc-DEE would therefore independently confirm the existence or not of n-σ* complex in both these systems.

  13. Challenging the CSCW matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørnø, Rasmus Leth Vergmann; Gynther, Karsten; Christensen, Ove

    2014-01-01

    useful information, we question whether the axis of time and space comprising the matrix pertains to relevant defining properties of the tools, technology or learning environments to which they are applied. Subsequently we offer an example of an Adobe Connect e-learning session as an illustration...

  14. R-matrix analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, D.C.

    1975-01-01

    Scattering and reaction processes involving very few nucleons are studied via the R matrix formalism of Wigner and Eisenbud. As examples, the d + 3 He, p + 4 He, 3 He + 4 He, and p + 6 Li are considered. (3 figures) (SDF)

  15. Combinatorial matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mitjana, Margarida

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the notes of the lectures delivered at an Advanced Course on Combinatorial Matrix Theory held at Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM) in Barcelona. These notes correspond to five series of lectures. The first series is dedicated to the study of several matrix classes defined combinatorially, and was delivered by Richard A. Brualdi. The second one, given by Pauline van den Driessche, is concerned with the study of spectral properties of matrices with a given sign pattern. Dragan Stevanović delivered the third one, devoted to describing the spectral radius of a graph as a tool to provide bounds of parameters related with properties of a graph. The fourth lecture was delivered by Stephen Kirkland and is dedicated to the applications of the Group Inverse of the Laplacian matrix. The last one, given by Ángeles Carmona, focuses on boundary value problems on finite networks with special in-depth on the M-matrix inverse problem.

  16. Relevant insight of surface characterization techniques to study covalent grafting of a biopolymer to titanium implant and its acidic resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Mélanie; Amalric, Julien; Brunon, Céline; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Toury, Bérangère

    2015-02-01

    Peri-implant bacterial infections are the main cause of complications in dentistry. Our group has previously proposed the attachment of chitosan on titanium implants via a covalent bond to improve its antibacterial properties while maintaining its biocompatibility. A better knowledge of the coating preparation process allows a better understanding of the bioactive coating in biological conditions. In this work, several relevant characterization techniques were used to assess an implant device during its production phase and its resistance in natural media at different pH. The titanium surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) followed by grafting of an organic coupling agent; succinic anhydride, able to form two covalent links, with the substrate through a Ti-O-Si bond and the biopolymer through a peptide bond. Each step of the coating synthesis as well as the presence confirmation of the biopolymer on titanium after saliva immersion was followed by FTIR-ATR, SEM, EDS, 3D profilometry, XPS and ToF-SIMS analyses. Results allowed to highlight the efficiency of each step of the process, and to propose a mechanism occurring during the chitosan coating degradation in saliva media at pH 5 and at pH 3.

  17. Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin and its biological, chemical regeneration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Xu, Xing; Tan, Xin; Wang, Yan; Ling, Jianya; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2015-01-22

    Column adsorption of perchlorate by amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin was investigated by considering the bed depth, stream flow rate and influent pH. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) increased with the growth of bed depths, meanwhile rising flow rate at constant bed depth (3.4 cm) decreased the breakthrough time. It was observed that perchlorate adsorption capacity was optimum at neutral condition (pH: 6.0, 170.4 mg/g), and decreased at acidic (pH: 3.0, 96.4 mg/g) or alkalic (pH: 12.0, 72.8 mg/g) influents. The predominant strains of the acclimated sludge for resin biological regeneration were the β-subclass of Proteobacteria. Biological regeneration of the saturated amine-crosslinked biopolymer based resin with mixed bacteria have shown its merit with regeneration and biological perchlorate destruction simultaneously, although its regeneration efficiency was only 61.2-84.1% by contrast to chemical regeneration with efficiency more than 95%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid-State (13)C NMR Delineates the Architectural Design of Biopolymers in Native and Genetically Altered Tomato Fruit Cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Subhasish; Matas, Antonio J; Isaacson, Tal; Kehlet, Cindie; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-01-11

    Plant cuticles on outer fruit and leaf surfaces are natural macromolecular composites of waxes and polyesters that ensure mechanical integrity and mitigate environmental challenges. They also provide renewable raw materials for cosmetics, packaging, and coatings. To delineate the structural framework and flexibility underlying the versatile functions of cutin biopolymers associated with polysaccharide-rich cell-wall matrices, solid-state NMR spectra and spin relaxation times were measured in a tomato fruit model system, including different developmental stages and surface phenotypes. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of the cutin ensures compatibility with the underlying polysaccharide cell walls; the hydroxy fatty acid structures of outer epidermal cutin also support deposition of hydrophobic waxes and aromatic moieties while promoting the formation of cell-wall cross-links that rigidify and strengthen the cuticle composite during fruit development. Fruit cutin-deficient tomato mutants with compromised microbial resistance exhibit less efficient local and collective biopolymer motions, stiffening their cuticular surfaces and increasing their susceptibility to fracture.

  19. Glycerine and levulinic acid: renewable co-substrates for the fermentative synthesis of short-chain poly(hydroxyalkanoate) biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Strahan, Gary D; Zhu, Chengjun; Tappel, Ryan C; Nomura, Christopher T

    2012-08-01

    Glycerine (a biodiesel co-product) and levulinic acid (a pulp and paper co-product) were used as co-substrates for the fermentative synthesis of short-chain polyhydroxyalkanoate (sc-PHA) biopolymers with tunable monomer and molecular weight characteristics. Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682 utilized glycerine alone to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). When levulinic acid was added to the media at shake-flask scale in concentrations ≤0.6 wt.%, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/V) copolymers were produced with 3-HV contents ranging from 37 to 97 mol%; a glycerine:levulinic acid ratio of 0.2%:0.8% (w/v) resulted in poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHV). Ten-liter batch fermentations using glycerine:levulinic acid ratios of 1%:0, 0.75%:0.25%, 0.5%:0.5% and 0.25%:0.75% (w/v) resulted in PHB, P(73%-3HB-co-27%-3HV), P(30%-3HB-co-70%-3HV) and PHV with increasing number average molecular weights (×10(3) g/mol) of 328, 511, 728 and 1330, respectively, owing to glycerine-based chain termination. These results provide a novel means by which glycerine and levulinic acid can be used collectively to produce an array of distinct sc-PHA biopolymers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Influence of agro-ecosystem modeling approach on the greenhouse gas profiles of wheat-derived biopolymer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Miao; Li, ChangSheng; Bell, J Nigel B; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-01-03

    An approach is presented to include a wider range of factors involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles in agro-ecosystems than is typical of many Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of agriculture-based products. This use results from the process-oriented Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC, modified version) model. Here we evaluate the effects of using site-specific N(2)O emissions derived from the DNDC model rather than the values derived from the commonly used Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 empirical model on the results of whole life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) profiles for wheat-based biopolymer products. Statistical methods were also used to analyze the quality of the DNDC and IPCC outputs and to characterize the uncertainty in the GHG results. The results confirm that the GHG profiles of the wheat-derived biopolymer products are sensitive to how the agricultural system is modeled and uncertainty analyses indicate that DNDC is preferred over the IPCC Tier 1 approach for site-specific LCAs. The former allows inclusion of a wider range of important site-specific agricultural parameters in the LCA, provides for improved quality in the LCA data, and permits better calibration of uncertainty in the LCA inventory.

  1. Core-shell biopolymer nanoparticle delivery systems: synthesis and characterization of curcumin fortified zein-pectin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Huang, Xiaoxia; Gao, Yongqing; Huang, Xulin; Xiao, Hang; McClements, David Julian

    2015-09-01

    Biopolymer core-shell nanoparticles were fabricated using a hydrophobic protein (zein) as the core and a hydrophilic polysaccharide (pectin) as the shell. Particles were prepared by coating cationic zein nanoparticles with anionic pectin molecules using electrostatic deposition (pH 4). The core-shell nanoparticles were fortified with curcumin (a hydrophobic bioactive molecule) at a high loading efficiency (>86%). The resulting nanoparticles were spherical, relatively small (diameter ≈ 250 nm), and had a narrow size distribution (polydispersity index ≈ 0.24). The encapsulated curcumin was in an amorphous (rather than crystalline form) as detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra indicated that the encapsulated curcumin interacted with zein mainly through hydrophobic interactions. The nanoparticles were converted into a powdered form that had good water-dispersibility. These core-shell biopolymer nanoparticles could be useful for incorporating curcumin into functional foods and beverages, as well as dietary supplements and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sparse matrix decompositions for clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Blumensath, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Clustering can be understood as a matrix decomposition problem, where a feature vector matrix is represented as a product of two matrices, a matrix of cluster centres and a matrix with sparse columns, where each column assigns individual features to one of the cluster centres. This matrix factorisation is the basis of classical clustering methods, such as those based on non-negative matrix factorisation but can also be derived for other methods, such as k-means clustering. In this paper we de...

  3. Paths correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weixian; Zhou, Xiaojun; Lu, Yingcheng; Xu, Jiang

    2015-09-15

    Both the Jones and Mueller matrices encounter difficulties when physically modeling mixed materials or rough surfaces due to the complexity of light-matter interactions. To address these issues, we derived a matrix called the paths correlation matrix (PCM), which is a probabilistic mixture of Jones matrices of every light propagation path. Because PCM is related to actual light propagation paths, it is well suited for physical modeling. Experiments were performed, and the reflection PCM of a mixture of polypropylene and graphite was measured. The PCM of the mixed sample was accurately decomposed into pure polypropylene's single reflection, pure graphite's single reflection, and depolarization caused by multiple reflections, which is consistent with the theoretical derivation. Reflection parameters of rough surface can be calculated from PCM decomposition, and the results fit well with the theoretical calculations provided by the Fresnel equations. These theoretical and experimental analyses verify that PCM is an efficient way to physically model light-matter interactions.

  4. Partially separable t matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasakawa, T.; Okuno, H.; Ishikawa, S.; Sawada, T.

    1982-01-01

    The off-shell t matrix is expressed as a sum of one nonseparable and one separable terms so that it is useful for applications to more-than-two body problems. All poles are involved in this one separable term. Both the nonseparable and the separable terms of the kernel G 0 t are regular at the origin. The nonseparable term of this kernel vanishes at large distances, while the separable term behaves asymptotically as the spherical Hankel function. These properties make our expression free from defects inherent in the Jost or the K-matrix expressions, and many applications are anticipated. As the application, a compact expression of the many-level formula is presented. Also the application is suggested to the breakup threebody problem based on the Faddeev equation. It is demonstrated that the breakup amplitude is expressed in a simple and physically interesting form and we can calculate it in coordinate space

  5. A matrix contraction process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Michael; Grant, John

    2018-03-01

    We consider a stochastic process in which independent identically distributed random matrices are multiplied and where the Lyapunov exponent of the product is positive. We continue multiplying the random matrices as long as the norm, ɛ, of the product is less than unity. If the norm is greater than unity we reset the matrix to a multiple of the identity and then continue the multiplication. We address the problem of determining the probability density function of the norm, \

  6. Holomorphic matrix integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felder, Giovanni; Riser, Roman

    2004-01-01

    We study a class of holomorphic matrix models. The integrals are taken over middle-dimensional cycles in the space of complex square matrices. As the size of the matrices tends to infinity, the distribution of eigenvalues is given by a measure with support on a collection of arcs in the complex planes. We show that the arcs are level sets of the imaginary part of a hyperelliptic integral connecting branch points

  7. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  8. Extracellular matrix structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K

    2016-02-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Integration of biopolymer production with process water treatment at a sugar factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterrieu, Simon; Quadri, Luca; Geurkink, Bert; Dinkla, Inez; Bengtsson, Simon; Arcos-Hernandez, Monica; Alexandersson, Tomas; Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Karlsson, Anton; Hjort, Markus; Karabegovic, Lamija; Magnusson, Per; Johansson, Peter; Christensson, Magnus; Werker, Alan

    2014-06-25

    selected PHA synthases could not be established and, towards this ambition, it is speculated that a wider representation of PHA synthesases would need to be monitored. Additionally at the factory, beet tail press waters coming from the factory beet residuals management activities are available as a carbon source for PHA accumulation. At pilot scale, beet tail press waters were shown to provide a suitable carbon source for mixed culture PHA production in spite of otherwise being of relatively low organic strength (≤ 10 g-COD/L). A copolymer of 3-hydroxybutyrate with 3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV with 15% HV on a molar basis) of high thermal stability and high weight average molecular mass (980 kDa) was produced from the beet tail press water. The mixed culture accumulation process sustained PHA storage with parallel biomass growth of PHA storing bacteria suggesting a strategy to further leverage the utilization of surplus functional biomass from biological treatment systems. Integration of PHA production into the existing factory water management by using surplus biomass from condensate water treatment and press waters from beet residuals processing was found to be a feasible strategy for biopolymer production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Standard Errors for Matrix Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    Derives the asymptotic standard errors and intercorrelations for several matrix correlations assuming multivariate normality for manifest variables and derives the asymptotic standard errors of the matrix correlations for two factor-loading matrices. (SLD)

  11. ANALYTICAL DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE FIELDS OF BIOPOLYMERS IN THE FORM OF CHANNELS COEXTRUSION DURING EXTRUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Improvement of the theory and methods of calculation of extrusion equipment is a problem whose solution provides the optimal design of its components in order to obtain the desired product quality. As the quality of the extrudate , extrusion machine performance is largely determined by the mode of pre matrix zone worm , article considers the mathematical model of the extrusion process for this particular zone of the extruder. Using co-extrusion will greatly expand the range of multicomponent products , balanced chemical composition and with programmable features. In their manufacture the inner layer is formed from fatvitamin fillings and an outer shell - of the extrusion obtained cereal-based . To ensure the stability of the co-extrusion process forming head channels must be designed so that the pressure generated therein is sufficient to distribute the material and the residence time therein of the extrudate is minimized. Solution of this problem requires an accurate description of the flow of materials in the form of channels . This article contains a mathematical description of the process of co-extrusion feed mixtures in the channel matrix of the extruder. The analytical determination of the distribution of temperature fields in fat-vitamin stuffing. A method for selecting the diameter of the dispensing nozzle to the desired value of the ratio of volumetric flow rates of the extrudate and fillings is proposed. The analysis of the flow of heat-labile non-Newtonian fluids in channels extruder with allowance for dissipative phenomena and nonisothermal is conducted. Analytical determination of the distribution of temperature fields in fat-vitamine filling extrudates was conducted for the sites from the pump outlet to the extruder housing ,in the pre matrix zone and co-extrusion head shape . The resulting mathematical model can be easily adapted to other areas of the extruder.

  12. Anti-tumor Effects of Exo- and Endo-biopolymers Produced from Submerged Cultures of Three Different Mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yong-Tae; Yang, Byung-Keun; Li, Chun-Ru; Song, Chi-Hyun

    2008-06-01

    The anti-tumor effects of exo- (EX) and endo-biopolymers (EN) produced from submerged mycelial cultures of Ganoderma applanatum (GA), Collybia confluens (CC), and Pleurotus eryngii (PE) were studied using Sarcoma 180 bearing mice. Solid tumor growth was inhibited most effectively when 40 mg/kg body weight (BW) of GA-EX or PE-EN was administered to the intraperitoneal (i.p.) cavity of BALB/c mice. The spleen and liver indexes were increased in mice following i.p. administration of GA-EX and PE-EN fractions. GA-EX and PE-EN reduced the tumor formation by 30.7% and 29.4%, respectively. GA-EX and PE-EN increased the natural killer (NK) cell activity of splenocytes by 41.3% and 28.9%, respectively.

  13. Radioprotective influence on mice DNA of biopolymer complexes from tinder Fomes Fomentarius under ionizing radiation in small doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Seniuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of similar doses of the values of common external irradiation (0,19 Gy/4hours and 0,24 Gy/6 months at single-strand DNA breaks and the level of the hydrogen bonds in this molecule in different cell types (lymphocytes, hepatocytes and splenocytes linear mice CC57W/mv are discussed. Mice were exposed to γ-fields produced by “hot” particles of emergency 4-th Chernobyl Unit containing the same radionuclides in the proportions. The possibility of leveling the radiation effects using complex biopolymers from Fomes fomentarius was shown. The ability of melanin-glucan complex to directly counteract the fragmentation of DNA in a model system with lambda phage this macromolecule oxidation products of benzidine and neutralize mutagenic effect in Salmonella typhimurium strains in the classical Ames test was studied.

  14. Radioprotective influence on mice DNA of biopolymer complexes from tinder Fomes Fomentarius under ionizing radiation in small doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Koval'ov, O.V.; Palamar, L.A.; Krul', M.Yi.; Gorovij, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of similar doses of the values of common external irradiation (0,19 Gy/4 hours and 0,24 Gy/6 months) at single-strand DNA breaks and the level of the hydrogen bonds in this molecule in different cell types (lymphocytes, hepatocytes and splenocytes) linear mice CC57W/mv are discussed. Mice were exposed to γ-fields produced by h ot - particles of emergency 4-th Chernobyl Unit containing the same radionuclides in the proportions. The possibility of leveling the radiation effects using complex biopolymers from Fomes Fomentarius was shown. The ability of melanin-glucan complex to directly counteract the fragmentation of DNA in a model system with lambda phage this macromolecule oxidation products of benzidine and neutralize mutagenic effect in Salmonella typhimurium strains in the classical Ames test was studied

  15. Change in the fouling propensity of sludge in membrane bioreactors (MBR) in relation to the accumulation of biopolymer clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fei-yun; Wang, Xiao-mao; Li, Xiao-yan

    2011-04-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) and an activated sludge process (ASP) were operated side by side to evaluate the change of sludge supernatant characteristics and the evolution of the sludge fouling propensity. The MBR sludge had a higher organic concentration and more biopolymer clusters (BPC) in the supernatant compared with ASP. BPC increased in both concentration and size in the MBR. The results show that the change in the liquid-phase property had a profound effect on the sludge fouling propensity. MBR operation transformed typical activated sludge to MBR sludge with a higher fouling propensity. Distinct from the ASP, membrane filtration retained soluble microbial products (SMP) within the MBR, and the vast membrane surface provided a unique environment for the transformation of SMP to large size BPC, leading to further sludge deposition on the membrane surface. Thus, membrane filtration is the crucial cause of the inevitable fouling problem in submerged MBRs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Matrix Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Chillali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  17. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  18. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  19. Flow rate and interference studies for copper binding to a silica-immobilized humin polymer matrix: column and batch experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Contreras, Carolina; de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Peralta-Videa, Jose R

    2005-01-01

    Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II) binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II) solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 +/- 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % +/- 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II) alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II) and Mg(II) did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II) binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II)>Ca(II)>Mg(II). On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II) + Mg(II) at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II) binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II) and Mg(II), separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II) binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II) and Mg(II).

  20. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J

    2013-01-01

    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  1. Study of Thermal Properties, Turbidity, Effective Factors on Particle Size and Oscillatory Rheology of Pectin-Caseinate Biopolymer Nanocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajedeh Bahrani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The biopolymer-based nanocomplexes are a group of nanocapsules that are used for encapsulation and control delivery of nutraceuticals. They are formed by binding of proteins and polysaccharides. In this study, complex formation between pectin and sodium caseinate was taken place by addition of pectin solutions(0.2, 0.45 and 0.7 % w/v into the caseinate solutions (0.5, 1 and 1.5 % w/v and adjusted their pH below isoelecteric point of sodium caseinate. The effect of various factors such as biopolymer concentration, salt concentration, temperature and time of ultrasound on the properties of pectin-casein nanocomplexes was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and particle size analyzer were used for study of complex formation and particle size determination, respectively. The results of DSC and turbidimetry showed complex formation between the pectin and casein at pH below 5 and the results of particle size showed formation of stable dispersion with a minimum size of 86 nm at pH 4.1, caseinate of 1 % w/v and pectin 0.45 % w/v concentration. The ultrasound for more than 1 min reduced particle size and addition of salt at high and low concentrations had different effects on the stability of the colloidal system. The lowering of temperature from 21 to 4°C resulted in smaller particle size of nanocomplexes. The oscillatory rheological results showed that with increasing pectin concentration, viscoelastic moduli were increased and loss moduli were higher than storage modulus.

  2. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  3. Agar/gelatin bilayer gel matrix fabricated by simple thermo-responsive sol-gel transition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifeng; Dong, Meng; Guo, Mengmeng; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jing; Lei, Jian; Guo, Chuanhang; Qin, Chaoran

    2017-08-01

    We present a simple and environmentally-friendly method to generate an agar/gelatin bilayer gel matrix for further biomedical applications. In this method, the thermally responsive sol-gel transitions of agar and gelatin combined with the different transition temperatures are exquisitely employed to fabricate the agar/gelatin bilayer gel matrix and achieve separate loading for various materials (e.g., drugs, fluorescent materials, and nanoparticles). Importantly, the resulting bilayer gel matrix provides two different biopolymer environments (a polysaccharide environment vs a protein environment) with a well-defined border, which allows the loaded materials in different layers to retain their original properties (e.g., magnetism and fluorescence) and reduce mutual interference. In addition, the loaded materials in the bilayer gel matrix exhibit an interesting release behavior under the control of thermal stimuli. Consequently, the resulting agar/gelatin bilayer gel matrix is a promising candidate for biomedical applications in drug delivery, controlled release, fluorescence labeling, and bio-imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. From silver nanoparticles to nanostructures through matrix chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyad, Omar; Munoz-Rojas, David; Oro-Sole, Judith; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Direct in situ reduction of silver ions by a biopolymer such as agar, without any other reducing nor capping agent is shown in this article to lead either to nanoparticles (typically 12(2) nm in an optimized case) or to more complex nanostructures depending on the reaction conditions used. This approach takes advantage of the porous polymer lattice acting as a template and leads to hybrid Ag-Agar materials with long-term synergic stability. Silver acts as an antibacterial agent for agar whereas the biopolymer prevents agglomeration of the inorganic nanoparticles leading to a stable nanocomposite formed by a thermoreversible biopolymer from which silver nanoparticles can eventually be recovered.

  5. Influence of matrix nature on the functional efficacy of biomedical cell product for the regeneration of damaged liver (experimental model of acute liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. A comparative analysis of the functional efficacy of biomedical cell products (BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver based on biopolymer scaffolded porous and hydrogel matrices was performed on the experimental model of acute liver failure. Materials and methods. Matrices allowed for clinical use were employed for BMCP in the form of a sponge made from biopolymer nanostructured composite material (BNCM based on a highly purified bacterial copolymers of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate-co-β-oxyvalerate and polyethylene glycol and a hydrogel matrix from biopolymer microheterogeneous collagen-containing hydrogel (BMCH. Cellular component of BMCP was represented by liver cells and multipotent mesenchymal bone marrow stem cells. The functional efficacy of BMCP for the regeneration of damaged liver was evaluated on the experimental model of acute liver failure in Wistar rats (n = 40 via biochemical, morphological, and immunohistochemical methods. Results. When BMCP was implanted to regenerate the damaged liver on the basis of the scaffolded BNCM or hydrogel BMCH matrices, the lethality in rats with acute liver failure was absent; while in control it was 66.6%. Restoration of the activity of cytolytic enzyme levels and protein-synthetic liver function began on day 9 after modeling acute liver failure, in contrast to the control group, where recovery occurred only by days 18–21. Both matrices maintained the viability and functional activity of liver cells up to 90 days with the formation of blood vessels in BMCP. The obtained data confirm that scaffolded BNCM matrix and hydrogel BMCH matrix retain for a long time (up to 90 days the vital activity of the adherent cells in the BMCP composition, which allows using them to correct acute liver failure. At the same time, hydrogel matrix due to the presence of bioactive components contributes to the creation of the best conditions for adhesion and cell activity which accelerate the regeneration processes

  6. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  7. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.

    1987-01-01

    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  8. Impact of functional properties and release kinetics on antioxidant activity of biopolymer active films and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbettaïeb, Nasreddine; Tanner, Cadhla; Cayot, Philippe; Karbowiak, Thomas; Debeaufort, Frédéric

    2018-03-01

    This work deals with the study of the release kinetics of some natural antioxidants (ferulic acid, caffeic acid and tyrosol) from chitosan-fish gelatin edible films immersed ethanol at 96%, as well as the kinetics of their antioxidant activity using the DPPH assay. The aim was to determine how film functional properties influence the release kinetic and antioxidant activity. The addition of antioxidants to chitosan-fish gelatin matrix decreased the water vapour permeability by more than 30%. The tensile strength (TS) increased up to 50% after the incorporation of antioxidants. Some molecular interactions between polymer chains and antioxidants were confirmed by FTIR where spectra displayed a shift of the amide-III peak. Films containing caffeic acid or a caffeic-ferulic acid mixture exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity, leading to a 90% antioxidant activity at equilibrium but the release rate controlled the efficacy of the system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Biopolymer Based Transdermal Films of Metoclopramide as an Alternative Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Aktar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop and to characterize sodium alginate based matrix-type transdermal films of metoclopramide hydrochloride (MTC in order to improve patient compliance to treatment. The suitability of sodium alginate was shown to be a natural film former in terms of the physicochemical, mechanical, and bioadhesive features of the MTC loaded transdermal films. Terpinolene provided the highest drug release among the different terpenes (nerolidol, eucalyptol, dl-limonene, or terpinolene assessed as enhancer. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy analysis performed to evaluate the effect of the transdermal films on skin barrier confirmed enhancer induced lipid bilayer disruption in stratum corneum, indicating its permeation enhancement effect.

  10. A matrix big bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-10-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  11. Light cone matrix product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  12. A matrix big bang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craps, Ben; Sethi, Savdeep; Verlinde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control

  13. A matrix big bang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craps, Ben [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sethi, Savdeep [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Verlinde, Erik [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2005-10-15

    The light-like linear dilaton background represents a particularly simple time-dependent 1/2 BPS solution of critical type-IIA superstring theory in ten dimensions. Its lift to M-theory, as well as its Einstein frame metric, are singular in the sense that the geometry is geodesically incomplete and the Riemann tensor diverges along a light-like subspace of codimension one. We study this background as a model for a big bang type singularity in string theory/M-theory. We construct the dual Matrix theory description in terms of a (1+1)-d supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a time-dependent world-sheet given by the Milne orbifold of (1+1)-d Minkowski space. Our model provides a framework in which the physics of the singularity appears to be under control.

  14. Correntropy Based Matrix Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the matrix completion problems when the entries are contaminated by non-Gaussian noise or outliers. The proposed approach employs a nonconvex loss function induced by the maximum correntropy criterion. With the help of this loss function, we develop a rank constrained, as well as a nuclear norm regularized model, which is resistant to non-Gaussian noise and outliers. However, its non-convexity also leads to certain difficulties. To tackle this problem, we use the simple iterative soft and hard thresholding strategies. We show that when extending to the general affine rank minimization problems, under proper conditions, certain recoverability results can be obtained for the proposed algorithms. Numerical experiments indicate the improved performance of our proposed approach.

  15. An Application of Matrix Multiplication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    vector whose entries are all non-negative and have sum. 1, and a transition matrix to be a square matrix, each of whose rows is a probability vector. We then define a finite Markov chain (or simply a chain) to consist of an n × n transition matrix P and a 1 × n row vector x: The positions Ei are the states of the chain and our aim.

  16. Homolumo Gap and Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Andric, I; Jurman, D; Nielsen, H B

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  17. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  18. Clay matrix voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdicakis, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In many countries, it is planned that the long life highly radioactive nuclear spent fuel will be stored in deep argillaceous rocks. The sites selected for this purpose are anoxic and satisfy several recommendations as mechanical stability, low permeability and low redox potential. Pyrite (FeS 2 ), iron(II) carbonate, iron(II) bearing clays and organic matter that are present in very small amounts (about 1% w:w) in soils play a major role in their reactivity and are considered today as responsible for the low redox potential values of these sites. In this communication, we describe an electrochemical technique derived from 'Salt matrix voltammetry' and allowing the almost in-situ voltammetric characterization of air-sensitive samples of soils after the only addition of the minimum humidity required for electrolytic conduction. Figure 1 shows the principle of the developed technique. It consists in the entrapment of the clay sample between a graphite working electrode and a silver counter/quasi-reference electrode. The sample was previously humidified by passing a water saturated inert gas through the electrochemical cell. The technique leads to well-defined voltammetric responses of the electro-active components of the clays. Figure 2 shows a typical voltammogram relative to a Callovo-Oxfordian argillite sample from Bure, the French place planned for the underground nuclear waste disposal. During the direct scan, one can clearly distinguish the anodic voltammetric signals for the oxidation of the iron (II) species associated with the clay and the oxidation of pyrite. The reverse scan displays a small cathodic signal for the reduction of iron (III) associated with the clay that demonstrates that the majority of the previously oxidized iron (II) species were transformed into iron (III) oxides reducible at lower potentials. When a second voltammetric cycle is performed, one can notice that the signal for iron (II

  19. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2016-01-12

    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  20. Development of naturally activated edible films with antioxidant properties prepared from red seaweed Porphyra columbina biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Raúl E; Salgado, Pablo R; Drago, Silvina R; González, Rolando J; Mauri, Adriana N

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of phycobiliproteins-phycocolloids-based films, obtained from mixtures of two aqueous fractions extracted from Porphyra columbina red seaweed, one enriched in phycocolloids (PcF) and the other in phycobiliproteins (PF). Films with different ratios of PF:PcF (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% [w/w]) and without plasticizer addition were prepared by casting. PcF films had excellent mechanical properties (tensile strength ∼50MPa, elongation at break ∼3% and an elastic modulus ∼17.5MPa). The addition of PF to formulations exerted a plasticizing effect on the PcF matrix, which was manifested in moisture content, water solubility and mechanical properties of the resulting films but not in its water vapour permeability. The antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the PcF films was significantly increased by the addition of PF and a direct relationship between TEAC and the total phenolic compounds (r(2)=0.9998) and R-phycoerythrin (r(2)=0.9942) was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fabrication and characterization of polymer blends and composites derived from biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj

    This research focuses on fabricating blends and composites from natural polymers especially from proteins and natural epoxy, and describing the properties of plastics made from them. Specifically, plastic samples from partially denatured feathermeal and bloodmeal proteins, derived from the animal co-products (rendering) industry, were successfully produced through a compression molding process. The modulus (stiffness) of the material obtained was found to be comparable with that of commercial synthetic materials, such as polystyrene, but was found to have lower toughness characteristics, which is a common phenomenon among plastics produced from animal and plant proteins. Therefore, this study explored blending methods for improving the toughness. Plastic forming conditions for undenatured animal proteins such as chicken egg whites albumin and whey, used as a model, were established to prepare plastics from their blends with animal co-product proteins. The resultant plastic samples from these biomacromolecular blends demonstrated improved mechanical properties that were also compared with the established theoretical models known for polymer blends and composites. Moreover, plastics from albumin of chicken egg whites and human serum have demonstrated their potential in medical applications that require antibacterial properties. Another natural polymer vegetable oil-based epoxy, especially epoxidized linseed oil, showed significant potential to replace petroleum-derived resins for use as a matrix for composites in structural applications. Moreover, the research showed the benefits of ultrasonic curing, which can help in preparing the out-of-autoclave composites.

  2. Controlled formation of gold nanostructures on biopolymer films upon electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescola, Andrea; Canale, Claudio; Fragouli, Despina; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-10-01

    The localized formation of gold nanostructures with controlled size and shape on chitosan films doped with gold precursor upon electromagnetic irradiation of various types is demonstrated here. Such controlled formation is achieved by tuning the wavelength, the energy and the interaction time of the radiation with the composite films. In particular, the use of a single UV nanosecond laser pulse results in the formation of gold sub-micron platelets with specific crystal structure, while increasing the number of pulses, further precursor reduction and photofragmentation induce the formation of gold nanoparticles. Using x-ray radiation as an alternative energy source, the reduction of the gold precursor and the subsequent formation of particles follow a different pathway. Specifically, x-ray-induced photo-reduction triggers the selective formation of gold sub-micron platelets with a very well defined {111} crystal phase. In this case, the density of crystal platelets increases by increasing the irradiation time of the films, while no photofragmentation process is observed. The gold structures pre-formed by x-ray radiation can be fragmented by subsequent pulsed UV laser irradiation forming nanoparticles with much narrower size distribution compared to that obtained via exclusive UV irradiation. Thanks to the perfect coupling between the natural polymeric matrix and gold nanostructures, the bionanocomposite systems developed could find various applications in biomaterial science and in biosensors field.

  3. Glass matrix armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1991-01-01

    An armor system which utilizes glass. A plurality of constraint cells are mounted on a surface of a substrate, which is metal armor plate or a similar tough material, such that the cells almost completely cover the surface of the substrate. Each constraint cell has a projectile-receiving wall parallel to the substrate surface and has sides which are perpendicular to and surround the perimeter of the receiving wall. The cells are mounted such that, in one embodiment, the substrate surface serves as a sixth side or closure for each cell. Each cell has inside of it a plate, termed the front plate, which is parallel to and in contact with substantially all of the inside surface of the receiving wall. The balance of each cell is completely filled with a projectile-abrading material consisting of glass and a ceramic material and, in certain embodiments, a polymeric material. The glass may be in monolithic form or particles of ceramic may be dispersed in a glass matrix. The ceramic material may be in monolithic form or may be in the form of particles dispersed in glass or dispersed in said polymer.

  4. Type III secretion as a generalizable strategy for the production of full-length biopolymer-forming proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Anum; Li, Cheng; Metcalf, Kevin J; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2016-11-01

    Biopolymer-forming proteins are integral in the development of customizable biomaterials, but recombinant expression of these proteins is challenging. In particular, biopolymer-forming proteins have repetitive, glycine-rich domains and, like many heterologously expressed proteins, are prone to incomplete translation, aggregation, and proteolytic degradation in the production host. This necessitates tailored purification processes to isolate each full-length protein of interest from the truncated forms as well as other contaminating proteins; owing to the repetitive nature of these proteins, the truncated polypeptides can have very similar chemistry to the full-length form and are difficult to separate from the full-length protein. We hypothesized that bacterial expression and secretion would be a promising alternative option for biomaterials-forming proteins, simplifying isolation of the full-length target protein. By using a selective secretion system, truncated forms of the protein are not secreted and thus are not found in the culture harvest. We show that a synthetically upregulated type III secretion system leads to a general increase in secretion titer for each protein that we tested. Moreover, we observe a substantial enhancement in the homogeneity of full-length forms of pro-resilin, tropo-elastin crosslinking domains, and silk proteins produced in this manner, as compared with proteins purified from the cytosol. Secretion via the type III apparatus limits co-purification of truncated forms of the target protein and increases protein purity without extensive purification steps. Demonstrating the utility of such a system, we introduce several modifications to resilin-based peptides and use an un-optimized, single-column process to purify these proteins. The resulting materials are of sufficiently high quantity and yield for the production of antimicrobial hydrogels with highly reproducible rheological properties. The ease of this process and its

  5. Mechanical behavior of biopolymer composite coatings on plastic films by depth-sensing indentation - A nanoscale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovera, Cesare; Cozzolino, Carlo A; Ghaani, Masoud; Morrone, Davide; Olsson, Richard T; Farris, Stefano

    2018-02-15

    Fundamental physical behaviors of materials at the nanoscale level are crucial when local aspects govern the macroscale performance of nanocomposites, e.g., interface and surface phenomena. Because of the increasing interest in biopolymer nanocomposite coatings for many different applications (e.g., optical devices, displays/screens, and packaging), this work investigates the potential of nanoindentation as a method for clarifying the interplay between distinct phases (i.e., organic and inorganic) at local level in thin biopolymer films loaded with nanoparticles. The nanomechanical features of pullulan nanocomposite coatings laid on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were quantified in terms of elastic modulus (E), hardness (H), and creep (C) through an instrumented indentation test composed of a loading-holding-unloading cycle. Colloidal silica (CS) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were used as spherical and rod-like nanoparticles, respectively. An overall reinforcing effect was shown for all nanocomposite coatings over the pristine (unfilled) pullulan coating. A size effect was also disclosed for the CS-loaded surfaces, with the highest E value recorded for the largest particles (8.19 ± 0.35 GPa) and the highest H value belonging to the smallest ones (395.41 ± 25.22 MPa). Comparing CS and CNCs, the addition of spherical nanoparticles had a greater effect on the surface hardness than cellulose nanowhiskers (353.50 ± 83.52 MPa and 321.36 ± 43.26 MPa, respectively). As for the elastic modulus, the addition of CS did not provide any improvement over both the bare and CNC-loaded pullulan coatings, whereas the coating including CNCs exhibited higher E values (p coatings were the best performing in terms of C properties, with an average indentation depth of 16.5 ± 1.85 nm under a load of ∼190 μN. These results are discussed in terms of local distribution gradients, surface chemistry of nanoparticles, and how nanoparticle

  6. Strategy BMT Al-Ittihad Using Matrix IE, Matrix SWOT 8K, Matrix SPACE and Matrix TWOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrizal Nofrizal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to formulate and select BMT Al-Ittihad Rumbai strategy to face the changing of business environment both from internal environment such as organization resources, finance, member and external business such as competitor, economy, politics and others. This research method used Analysis of EFAS, IFAS, IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix, SPACE Matrix and TWOS Matrix. our hope from this research it can assist BMT Al-Ittihad in formulating and selecting strategies for the sustainability of BMT Al-Ittihad in the future. The sample in this research is using purposive sampling technique that is the manager and leader of BMT Al-IttihadRumbaiPekanbaru. The result of this research shows that the position of BMT Al-Ittihad using IE Matrix, SWOT-8K Matrix and SPACE Matrix is in growth position, stabilization and aggressive. The choice of strategy after using TWOS Matrix is market penetration, market development, vertical integration, horizontal integration, and stabilization (careful.

  7. How to Study a Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  8. Quantum mechanics in matrix form

    CERN Document Server

    Ludyk, Günter

    2018-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to quantum mechanics with the matrix method. Heisenberg's matrix mechanics is described in detail. The fundamental equations are derived by algebraic methods using matrix calculus. Only a brief description of Schrödinger's wave mechanics is given (in most books exclusively treated), to show their equivalence to Heisenberg's matrix  method. In the first part the historical development of Quantum theory by Planck, Bohr and Sommerfeld is sketched, followed by the ideas and methods of Heisenberg, Born and Jordan. Then Pauli's spin and exclusion principles are treated. Pauli's exclusion principle leads to the structure of atoms. Finally, Dirac´s relativistic quantum mechanics is shortly presented. Matrices and matrix equations are today easy to handle when implementing numerical algorithms using standard software as MAPLE and Mathematica.

  9. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A; Evershed, Richard P; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P; Hirsch, Penny R; Goulding, Keith W T; Brookes, Philip C

    2015-12-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or 'extracellular polymeric substance' (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15 N labelled KNO 3 . We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15 N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15 N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15 N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15 N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification.

  10. Halloysite nanotubes loaded with peppermint essential oil as filler for functional biopolymer film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddeci, G; Cavallaro, G; Di Blasi, F; Lazzara, G; Massaro, M; Milioto, S; Parisi, F; Riela, S; Spinelli, G

    2016-11-05

    The purpose of this paper is to show how a functional bionanocomposite film with both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities was successfully prepared by the filling of a pectin matrix with modified Halloysite nanotubes (HNT) containing the essential peppermint oil (PO). Firstly, HNT surfaces were functionalized with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) molecules with the aim to enhance the affinity of the nanofiller towards PO, which was estimated by means of HPLC experiments. The HNT/CB[6] hybrid was characterized by several methods (thermogravimetry, FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy) highlighting the influence of the supramolecular interactions on the composition, thermal behavior and morphology of the filler. Then, a pectin+HNT/CB[6] biofilm was prepared by the use of the casting method under specific experimental conditions in order to favor the entrapment of the volatile PO into the nanocomposite structure. Water contact angle measurements, thermogravimetry and tensile tests evidenced the effects of the modified filler on the thermo-mechanical and wettability properties of pectin, which were correlated to the microscopic structure of the biocomposite film. In addition, PO release in food simulant solvent was investigated at different temperatures (4 and 25°C), whereas the antioxidant activity of the nanocomposite film was estimated using the DPPH method. Finally, we studied the in vitro antibacterial activity of the biofilm against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive), which were isolated by beef and cow milk, respectively. These experiments were carried out at specific temperatures (4, 37 and 65°C) that can be useful for a multi-step food conservation. This paper puts forwards an easy strategy to prepare a functional sustainable edible film with thermo-sensitive antioxidant/antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The generalized model of polypeptide chain describing the helix-coil transition in biopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamasakhlisov, E.S.; Badasyan, A.V.; Tsarukyan, A.V.; Grigoryan, A.V.; Morozov, V.F.

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we summarize some results of our theoretical investigations of helix-coil transition both in single-strand (polypeptides) and two-strand (polynucleotides) macromolecules. The Hamiltonian of the Generalized Model of Polypeptide Chain (GMPC) is introduced to describe the system in which the conformations are correlated over some dimensional range Δ (it equals 3 for polypeptide, because one H-bond fixes three pairs of rotation, for double strand DNA it equals to one chain rigidity because of impossibility of loop formation on the scale less than Δ). The Hamiltonian does not contain any parameter designed especially for helix-coil transition and uses pure molecular microscopic parameters (the energy of hydrogen bond formation, reduced partition function of repeated unit, the number of repeated units fixed by one hydrogen bond, the energies of interaction between the repeated units and the solvent molecules). To calculate averages we evaluate the partition function using the transfer-matrix approach. The GMPC allowed to describe the influence of a number of factors, affecting the transition, basing on a unified microscopic approach. Thus we obtained, that solvents change transition temperature and interval in different ways, depending on type of solvent and on energy of solvent- macromolecule interaction; stacking on the background of H-bonding increases stability and decreases cooperativity of melting. For heterogeneous DNA we could analytically derive well known formulae for transition temperature and interval. In the framework of GMPC we calculate and show the difference of two order parameters of helix-coil transition - the helicity degree, and the average fraction of repeated units in helical conformation. Given article has the aim to review the results obtained during twenty years in the context of GMPC. (author)

  12. Nano-cellulose biopolymer based nano-biofilm biomaterial using plant biomass: An innovative plant biomaterial dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif hossain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The nano-cellulose derived nano-biofilm keeps a magnificent role in medical, biomedical, bioengineering and pharmaceutical industries. Plant biomaterial is naturally organic and biodegradable. This study has been highlighted as one of the strategy introducing biomass based nano-bioplastic (nanobiofilm to solve dependency on petroleum and environment pollution because of non-degradable plastic. The data study was carried out to investigate the nano-biopolymer (nanocellulose based nano-biofilm data from corn leaf biomass coming after bioprocess technology without chemicals. Corn leaf biomass was used to produce biodegradable nano-bioplastic for medical and biomedical and other industrial uses. Data on water absorption, odor, pH, cellulose content, shape and firmness, color coating and tensile strength test have been exhibited under standardization of ASTM (American standard for testing and materials. Moreover, the chemical elements of nanobiofilm like K+, CO3−−, Cl−, Na+ showed standard data using the EN (166. Keywords: Nanocellulose, Nanobiofilm, Nanobioplastic, Biodegradable, Corn leaf

  13. Improving pH sensitivity by field-induced charge regulation in flexible biopolymer electrolyte gated oxide transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Gan, Lu; Liu, Yu; Gui, Weijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohang

    2017-10-01

    Electrical manipulation of charged ions in electrolyte-gated transistors is crucial for enhancing the electric-double-layer (EDL) gating effect, thereby improving their sensing abilities. Here, indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) based thin-film-transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on flexible plastic substrate. Acid doped chitosan-based biopolymer electrolyte is used as the gate dielectric, exhibiting an extremely high EDL capacitance. By regulating the dynamic EDL charging process with special gate potential profiles, the EDL gating effect of the chitosan-gated TFT is enhanced, and then resulting in higher pH sensitivities. An extremely high sensitivity of ∼57.8 mV/pH close to Nernst limit is achieved when the gate bias of the TFT sensor sweeps at a rate of 10 mV/s. Additionally, an enhanced sensitivity of 2630% in terms of current variation with pH range from 11 to 3 is realized when the device is operated in the ion depletion mode with a negative gate bias of -0.7 V. Robust ionic modulation is demonstrated in such chitosan-gated sensors. Efficiently driving the charged ions in the chitosan-gated IZO-TFT provides a new route for ultrasensitive, low voltage, and low-cost biochemical sensing technologies.

  14. Biopolymers from vegetable oils via catalyst- and solvent-free "click" chemistry: effects of cross-linking density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jian; Luo, Qiang; Wan, Xianmei; Petrović, Zoran S; Shah, Bipin K

    2012-01-09

    New monomers were prepared by introducing the azide groups in castor, canola, corn, soybean, and linseed oils. Polymerization of the azidated oils with alkynated soybean oil under thermal "click" chemistry conditions (without using a solvent or a catalyst) yielded fully cross-linked elastomers (1-5) of almost the same density (1.05 × 10(-3) kg/m(3)). The degree of cross-linking gradually increased from the castor-derived polymer (220 mol/m(3)) to the linseed-derived polymer (683 mol/m(3)). A systematic correlation between the degree of cross-linking and the thermal and mechanical properties was observed in these biopolymers. Tensile strength (0.62-3.39 MPa) and glass transition temperature (-5 to 16 °C) increased and the linear thermal expansion coefficient decreased in the series from the canola-derived polymer (2) to the linseed-derived polymer (5). The castor-derived polymer (1) that possesses an additional hydroxyl group per fatty acid chain behaved differently.

  15. Structural and ionic conductivity studies on proton conducting solid biopolymer electrolyte based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose incorporated DTAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N. H.; Bakar, N. Y.; Isa, M. I. N.

    2017-09-01

    Solid biopolymer electrolytes (SBEs) based on 2hydroxyethyl cellulose (2HEC) complexes with dodecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB) salt in various composition (wt. %) were successfully prepared by using solution casting technique. The ion - polymer interaction and structural studies have been reported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported with X - ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). FTIR spectral shows interaction of 2HEC with DTAB happen at peak 2914cm-1, 2848cm-1, 2353cm-1, 2328cm-1, 1720cm-1, 1437cm-1, 1344cm-1, 1198cm-1 1095cm-1 1051cm-1, 912cm-1 and 872cm-1. The interaction of complexes leads to an increase in number of ion jump into neighboring vacant sites until it reaches the highest conductivity at room temperature which is 2.80 x 10-5 Scm-1 for sample containing 9wt. % of DTAB. The temperature dependence of the SBEs system exhibits Arrhenius behavior and the XRD spectral analysis shows the higher salt loading the crystallinity of the SBEs which also increased.

  16. Characterization and singlet oxygen quenching capacity of spray-dried microcapsules of edible biopolymers containing antioxidant molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Adelia F; Mignone, Ricardo A; Montenegro, Mariana A; Mercadante, Adriana Z; Borsarelli, Claudio D

    2010-07-14

    Microcapsules of gum arabic or maltodextrin 20DE containing antioxidant molecules (AOx), for example, carotenoids and tocopherol derivatives, were prepared by the spray-drying technique. The properties of these microcapsules were evaluated by several techniques, such as dynamic light scattering, scanning electronic microscopy, and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy of microencapsulated pyrene. The quenching of photochemically generated singlet molecular oxygen ((1)O(2)) by the AOx in homogeneous solvents as well as in microcapsule solutions was evaluated using time-resolved phosphorescence detection of (1)O(2). The quenching rate constant of the process, k(Q)(AOx), was strongly dependent on the type of the AOx. These results are explained by compartmentalization effects of the AOx in the core of the microcapsules and the accessibility of (1)O(2). The contribution of the biopolymer as quencher of (1)O(2) was also investigated. The present results can be applied to the design of edible antioxidant microcapsules within the food and cosmetic industries.

  17. Sodium alginate: A promising biopolymer for corrosion protection of API X60 high strength carbon steel in saline medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obot, I B; Onyeachu, Ikenna B; Kumar, A Madhan

    2017-12-15

    Sodium alginate (SA), a polysaccharide biopolymer, has been studied as an effective inhibitor against the corrosion of API X60 steel in neutral 3.5% NaCl using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques (OCP, EIS and EFM). The inhibition efficiency of the SA increased with concentration but was lower at higher temperature (70°C). Electrochemical measurements showed that the SA shifted the steel corrosion potential to more positive value and reduced the kinetics of corrosion by forming an adsorbed layer which mitigated the steel surface wetting, based on contact angle measurement. SEM-EDAX was used to confirm the inhibition of SA on API X60 steel surfaces. The SA adsorbs on the steel surface through a physisorption mechanism using its carboxylate oxygen according to UV-vis and ATR-IR measurements, respectively. This phenomena result in decreased localized pitting corrosion of the API X60 steel in 3.5% NaCl solution. Theoretical results using quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations provide further atomic level insights into the interaction of SA with steel surface. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. T7 bacteriophage induced changes of gold nanoparticle morphology: biopolymer capped gold nanoparticles as versatile probes for sensitive plasmonic biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Palanisamy; Los, Marcin; Los, Joanna M; Niedziolka-Jonsson, Joanna

    2014-07-21

    The morphological changes of gold nanoparticles induced by T7 virus (bacteriophage) and the determination of its femtomolar concentration by a plasmonic method are presented. Carboxymethyl chitosan capped gold nanoparticles (CMC-AuNPs) are used as plasmonic probes and are synthesized by a simple one pot wet chemical method. HR-TEM images show that the spherical structure of the CMC-AuNPs is changed into chain-like nanostructures after the addition of T7 virus due to the strong coordination of CMC-AuNPs with T7. Since T7 capsids comprise a repeating motif of capsomers built from proteins that bind to the acid groups of chitosan, the conjugation of carboxymethyl chitosan-linked AuNPs with T7 virions enables colorimetric biosensing detection. The absorbance intensity (∼610 nm) increases in the concentration range of T7 from 2 × 10(-15) M to 2 × 10(-13) M and the detection limit is found to be 2 × 10(-15) M (2 fM). The present work demonstrates eco-friendly biopolymer stabilized AuNPs as potential nanomaterials for biosensing of viruses. Our method is very simple, low cost, selective and highly sensitive, and provides new insight into virus induced chain-like morphology of AuNPs.

  19. Purification and partial elucidation of the structure of an antioxidant carbohydrate biopolymer from the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans RK-02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodali, Vidya P; Perali, Ramu S; Sen, R

    2011-08-26

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) was isolated from Bacillus coagulans RK-02 and purified by size exclusion chromatography. The purified, homogeneous EPS had an average molecular weight of ∼3 × 10⁴ Da by comparison with FITC-labeled dextran standards. In vivo evaluations showed that, like other reported polysaccharides, this EPS displayed significant antioxidant activity. FTIR spectroscopy analysis showed the presence of hydroxy, carboxy, and α-glycosidic linkages and a mannose residue. GC analysis indicated that the EPS was a heteropolymer composed of glucose, mannose, galactose, glucosamine, and fucose as monomeric constituent units. Partial elucidation of the structure of the carbohydrate biopolymer based on GC-MS and NMR analysis showed the presence of two unique sets of tetrasaccharide repeating units that have 1→3 and 1→6 glycosidic linkages. This is also the first report of a Gram-positive bacterial polysaccharide with both fucose as a sugar monomer and 1→3 and 1→6 glycosidic linkages in the molecular backbone.

  20. Removal of pigments from aqueous solution by a calcium alginate-grape marc biopolymer: a kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Ameneiro, M; Vecino, X; Barbosa-Pereira, L; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B

    2014-01-30

    In this work, the potential use of a biopolymer based on grape marc entrapped in calcium alginate beads for the removal of pigments from an agro industrial effluent was evaluated. The parameters that affect the pigment adsorption such as pH (3.5-7.0), temperature (10-40°C) and initial pigment concentration (6.9-55.1mg/L) were studied by applying an incomplete factorial design. The dependent variables evaluated consisted of color effluent parameters from CIELAB and Tristimulus system, as well as the concentration of pigments in the wastewater after the adsorption treatment. The most significant independent variables tested were the pigments concentration followed by pH, whereas temperature had a negligible effect on the adsorption process. Moreover, at the optimal operational conditions (pH 3.5 and room temperature) kinetic studies were carried out by applying pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Chien-Clayton and intraparticle diffusion models, observing a good agreement between theoretical and experimental results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 25th anniversary article: organic photovoltaic modules and biopolymer supercapacitors for supply of renewable electricity: a perspective from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inganäs, Olle; Admassie, Shimelis

    2014-02-12

    The role of materials in civilization is well demonstrated over the centuries and millennia, as materials have come to serve as the classifier of stages of civilization. With the advent of materials science, this relation has become even more pronounced. The pivotal role of advanced materials in industrial economies has not yet been matched by the influence of advanced materials during the transition from agricultural to modern societies. The role of advanced materials in poverty eradication can be very large, in particular if new trajectories of social and economic development become possible. This is the topic of this essay, different in format from the traditional scientific review, as we try to encompass not only two infant technologies of solar energy conversion and storage by means of organic materials, but also the social conditions for introduction of the technologies. The development of organic-based photovoltaic energy conversion has been rapid, and promises to deliver new alternatives to well-established silicon photovoltaics. Our recent development of organic biopolymer composite electrodes opens avenues towards the use of renewable materials in the construction of wooden batteries or supercapacitors for charge storage. Combining these new elements may give different conditions for introduction of energy technology in areas now lacking electrical grids, but having sufficient solar energy inputs. These areas are found close to the equator, and include some of the poorest regions on earth. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Design and development of low cost polyurethane biopolymer based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A C W; Polo-Cambronell, B J; Provaggi, E; Ardila-Suárez, C; Ramirez-Caballero, G E; Baldovino-Medrano, V G; Kalaskar, D M

    2018-02-01

    In the current study, we present the synthesis of novel low cost bio-polyurethane compositions with variable mechanical properties based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications. A detailed investigation of the physicochemical properties of the polymer was carried out by using mechanical testing, ATR-FTIR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polymers were also tested in short term in-vitro cell culture with human mesenchymal stem cells to evaluate their biocompatibility for potential applications as biomaterial. FTIR analysis confirmed the synthesis of castor oil and glycerol based PU polymers. FTIR also showed that the addition of glycerol as co-polyol increases crosslinking within the polymer backbone hence enhancing the bulk mechanical properties of the polymer. XPS data showed that glycerol incorporation leads to an enrichment of oxidized organic species on the surface of the polymers. Preliminary investigation into in vitro biocompatibility showed that serum protein adsorption can be controlled by varying the glycerol content with polymer backbone. An alamar blue assay looking at the metabolic activity of the cells indicated that castor oil based PU and its variants containing glycerol are non-toxic to the cells. This study opens an avenue for using low cost bio-polyurethane based on castor oil and glycerol for biomedical applications. © 2017 The Authors Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Tumour eradication using synchronous thermal ablation and Hsp90 chemotherapy with protein engineered triblock biopolymer-geldanamycin conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yizhe; Youn, Pilju; Pysher, Theodore J; Scaife, Courtney L; Furgeson, Darin Y

    2014-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suffers high tumour recurrence rate after thermal ablation. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) induced post-ablation is critical for tumour survival and progression. A combination therapy of thermal ablation and polymer conjugated Hsp90 chemotherapy was designed and evaluated for complete tumour eradication of HCC. A thermo-responsive, elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-based tri-block biopolymer was developed and conjugated with a potent Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA). The anti-cancer efficacy of conjugates was evaluated in HCC cell cultures with and without hyperthermia (43 °C). The conjugates were also administered twice weekly in a murine HCC model as a single treatment or in combination with single electrocautery as the ablation method. ELP-GA conjugates displayed enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro and effective heat shock inhibition under hyperthermia. The conjugates alone significantly slowed the tumour growth without systemic toxicity. Four doses of thermo-responsive ELP-GA conjugates with concomitant simple electrocautery accomplished significant Hsp90 inhibition and sustained tumour suppression. Hsp90 inhibition plays a key role in preventing the recurrence of HCC, and the combination of ablation with targeted therapy holds great potential to improve prognosis and survival of HCC patients.

  4. Effect of Laccase-Mediated Biopolymer Grafting on Kraft Pulp Fibers for Enhancing Paper’s Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Ballinas-Casarrubias

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High-resistance paper was manufactured by laccase-grafting of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC and chitosan (CPX on Kraft pulp fiber. The reaction was mediated in the presence of laccase by one of the following polyphenols in the presence of air: gallic acid (GA, vanillic acid (VA and catechol (1,2–DHB. Enzyme was added at constant loading (24 kg ton−1, 1% pulp consistency, 0.005% CMC, pH = 6.3 ± 0.5 and 2 mM of mediator. CPX content was assessed at two levels (0% and 0.005%. Treated pulps were analyzed by different mechanical tests (ring crush, mullen, corrugating medium test (CMT flat crush of corrugating medium test and tension. An improvement in these parameters was obtained by biopolymer coupling and selected mediator. When using GA, three parameters increased more than 40%, while ring crush increased 120%. For the case of VA, properties were enhanced from 74% to 88% when CPX was added. For 1,2–DHB, there was not found a statistically significant difference between the results in the presence of CPX. Scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, FTIR and 13C NMR were used in all papers in order to evaluate grafting. Hence, it was possible to correlate polymerization with an improvement of paper’s mechanical properties.

  5. FtsZ rings and helices: physical mechanisms for the dynamic alignment of biopolymers in rod-shaped bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer-Friedrich, Elisabeth; Gov, Nir S; Friedrich, Benjamin M

    2012-01-01

    In many bacterial species, the protein FtsZ forms a cytoskeletal ring that marks the future division site and scaffolds the division machinery. In rod-shaped bacteria, most frequently membrane-attached FtsZ rings or ring fragments are reported and occasionally helices. By contrast, axial FtsZ clusters have never been reported. In this paper, we investigate theoretically how dynamic FtsZ aggregates align in rod-shaped bacteria. We study systematically different physical mechanisms that affect the alignment of FtsZ polymers using a computational model that relies on autocatalytic aggregation of FtsZ filaments at the membrane. Our study identifies a general tool kit of physical and geometrical mechanisms by which rod-shaped cells align biopolymer aggregates. Our analysis compares the relative impact of each mechanism on the circumferential alignment of FtsZ as observed in rod-shaped bacteria. We determine spontaneous curvature of FtsZ polymers and axial confinement of FtsZ on the membrane as the strongest factors. Including Min oscillations in our model, we find that these stabilize axial and helical clusters on short time scales, but promote the formation of an FtsZ ring at the cell middle at longer times. This effect could provide an explanation to the long standing puzzle of transiently observed oscillating FtsZ helices in Escherichia coli cells prior to cell division

  6. M-theoretic matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alba; Mariño, Marcos

    2015-02-01

    Some matrix models admit, on top of the usual 't Hooft expansion, an M-theory-like expansion, i.e. an expansion at large N but where the rest of the parameters are fixed, instead of scaling with N . These models, which we call M-theoretic matrix models, appear in the localization of Chern-Simons-matter theories, and also in two-dimensional statistical physics. Generically, their partition function receives non-perturbative corrections which are not captured by the 't Hooft expansion. In this paper, we discuss general aspects of these type of matrix integrals and we analyze in detail two different examples. The first one is the matrix model computing the partition function of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in three dimensions with one adjoint hypermultiplet and N f fundamentals, which has a conjectured M-theory dual, and which we call the N f matrix model. The second one, which we call the polymer matrix model, computes form factors of the 2d Ising model and is related to the physics of 2d polymers. In both cases we determine their exact planar limit. In the N f matrix model, the planar free energy reproduces the expected behavior of the M-theory dual. We also study their M-theory expansion by using Fermi gas techniques, and we find non-perturbative corrections to the 't Hooft expansion.

  7. Containment Code Validation Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yu-Shan; Mathew, P.M.; Glowa, Glenn; Dickson, Ray; Liang, Zhe; Leitch, Brian; Barber, Duncan; Vasic, Aleks; Bentaib, Ahmed; Journeau, Christophe; Malet, Jeanne; Studer, Etienne; Meynet, Nicolas; Piluso, Pascal; Gelain, Thomas; Michielsen, Nathalie; Peillon, Samuel; Porcheron, Emmanuel; Albiol, Thierry; Clement, Bernard; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Arndt, Siegfried; Weber, Gunter; Yanez, Jorge; Kotchourko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Mike; Sangiorgi, Marco; Fontanet, Joan; Herranz, Luis; Garcia De La Rua, Carmen; Santiago, Aleza Enciso; Andreani, Michele; Paladino, Domenico; Dreier, Joerg; Lee, Richard; Amri, Abdallah

    2014-01-01

    The Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) formed the CCVM (Containment Code Validation Matrix) task group in 2002. The objective of this group was to define a basic set of available experiments for code validation, covering the range of containment (ex-vessel) phenomena expected in the course of light and heavy water reactor design basis accidents and beyond design basis accidents/severe accidents. It was to consider phenomena relevant to pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR), pressurised water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) designs of Western origin as well as of Eastern European VVER types. This work would complement the two existing CSNI validation matrices for thermal hydraulic code validation (NEA/CSNI/R(1993)14) and In-vessel core degradation (NEA/CSNI/R(2001)21). The report initially provides a brief overview of the main features of a PWR, BWR, CANDU and VVER reactors. It also provides an overview of the ex-vessel corium retention (core catcher). It then provides a general overview of the accident progression for light water and heavy water reactors. The main focus is to capture most of the phenomena and safety systems employed in these reactor types and to highlight the differences. This CCVM contains a description of 127 phenomena, broken down into 6 categories: - Containment Thermal-hydraulics Phenomena; - Hydrogen Behaviour (Combustion, Mitigation and Generation) Phenomena; - Aerosol and Fission Product Behaviour Phenomena; - Iodine Chemistry Phenomena; - Core Melt Distribution and Behaviour in Containment Phenomena; - Systems Phenomena. A synopsis is provided for each phenomenon, including a description, references for further information, significance for DBA and SA/BDBA and a list of experiments that may be used for code validation. The report identified 213 experiments, broken down into the same six categories (as done for the phenomena). An experiment synopsis is provided for each test. Along with a test description

  8. The matrix of inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehlmann, Dietmar; Ohlmann, Odile M.; Danzebrink, Hans U.

    2005-04-01

    perform this exchange, as a matrix, understood as source, of new ideas.

  9. Matrix Converter in Hybrid Drives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lettl, Jiří; Flígl, S.

    -, č. 3 (2004), s. 77-80 ISSN 0204-3599 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : matrix converter * hybrid drive * electric power splitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  10. GoM Diet Matrix

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  11. Radiation resistant ceramic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Steiner, D.; Heinisch, H.L.; Newsome, G.A.; Kerch, H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are of interest for nuclear applications because of their high-temperature properties, corrosion resistance, fracture toughness relative to monolithic ceramics, and low neutron activation and after heat. Evaluations of the radiation resistance of commercially available SiC/SiC composites have revealed their promise for this application, but also the need for further development to achieve the desired performance. This paper summarizes the results of a workshop cosponsored by the Offices of Fusion Energy and Basic Energy Sciences of the US Department of Energy and Lockheed-Martin Corporation with forty attendees from national laboratories, universities and industry. A number of promising routes for optimizing the radiation stability of ceramic matrix composites were identified at this workshop. These routes included the newer, more stoichiometric fibers and alternate fiber/matrix interfaces and matrix processing routes. (orig.)

  12. The R-matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descouvemont, P; Baye, D

    2010-01-01

    The different facets of the R-matrix method are presented pedagogically in a general framework. Two variants have been developed over the years: (i) The 'calculable' R-matrix method is a calculational tool to derive scattering properties from the Schroedinger equation in a large variety of physical problems. It was developed rather independently in atomic and nuclear physics with too little mutual influence. (ii) The 'phenomenological' R-matrix method is a technique to parametrize various types of cross sections. It was mainly (or uniquely) used in nuclear physics. Both directions are explained by starting from the simple problem of scattering by a potential. They are illustrated by simple examples in nuclear and atomic physics. In addition to elastic scattering, the R-matrix formalism is applied to inelastic and radiative-capture reactions. We also present more recent and more ambitious applications of the theory in nuclear physics.

  13. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  14. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]....... As an application we demonstrate that certain multivariate disions, which are governed by the underlying Markov jump process generating a phasetype distribution, have a bilateral matrix-exponential distribution at the time of absorption, see also [4]....

  15. Matrix Effects in XRF Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandil, A.T.; Gabr, N.A.; El-Aryan, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research treats the matrix effect on XRF measurements. The problem is treated by preparing general oxide program, which contains many samples that represent all materials in cement factories, then by using T rail Lachance m ethod to correct errors of matrix effect. This work compares the effect of using lithium tetraborate or sodium tetraborate as a fluxing agent in terms of accuracy and economic cost

  16. Capacitance matrix method in TRAC and MELPROG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.; Dearing, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The capacitance matrix method has been used in the TRAC and MELPROG transient, thermal-hydraulic, safety-analysis computer programs to solve the multi-dimensional-vessel matrix equations. A full-matrix solver rather than a more efficient banded-matrix solver was used previously because of nonzero elements lying outside the matrix bandwidth. These outlying nonzero elements result from vessel external and internal pipe flow channels connecting non-adjacent cells in the multidimensional vessel component. The capacitance matrix method provides a more efficient solution algorithm by solving the banded portion of the vessel-matrix equation with a banded-matrix solver. The effect of the nonzero outlying elements on that solution is accounted for through matrix algebra and a lower order capacitance-matrix equation solution that modifies the banded-matrix solution to give the full-matrix solution. 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. Biopolymer augmentation of the lag screw in the treatment of femoral neck fractures - a biomechanical in-vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paech A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cut-out of the sliding screw is one of the most common complications in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures. The reasons for the cut-out are: a suboptimal position of the hip-screw in the femoral head, the type of fracture and poor bone quality. The aim of this study was to reproduce the cut-out event biomechanically and to evaluate the possible prevention of this event by the use of a biopolymer augmentation of the hip screw. Concerning the density and compression force of osteoporotic femoral bone polyurethane foam according to the terms of the Association for Standard Testing Material (ASTMF 1839-97 was used as test material. The polyurethane foam Lumoltan 200 with a compression force of 3.3 Mpa and a density of 0.192 g/cm3 was used to reproduce the osteoporotic bone of the femoral fragment (density 12 lbm/ft3. A cylinder of 50 mm of length and 50 mm of width was produced by a rotary splint raising procedure with planar contact. The axial load of the system was performed by a hydraulic force cylinder of a universal test machine type Zwick 1455, Ulm, Germany. The CCD-angle of the used TGN-System was preset at 130 degrees. The migration pattern of the hip screw in the polyurethane foam was measured and expressed as a curve of the distance in millimeter [mm] against the applied load in Newton [N] up to the cut-out point. During the tests the implants reached a critical changing point from stable to unstable with an increased load progression of steps of 50 Newton. This unstable point was characterized by an increased migration speed in millimeters and higher descending gradient in the migration curve. This peak of the migration curve served as an indicator for the change of the hip screw position in the simulated bone material. The applied load in the non-augmented implant showed that in this group for a density degree of 12 (0,192 g/cm3 the mean force at the failure point was 1431 Newton (± 52 Newton. In the augmented

  18. COMPARATIVE MACROSCOPIC STUDY OF OSTEOCHONDRAL DEFECTS PRODUCED IN FEMURS OF RABBITS REPAIRED WITH BIOPOLYMER GEL CANE SUGAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Paulo Cezar Vidal Carneiro; Dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; de Andrade Aguiar, José Lamartine; Filho, Nicodemus Pontes; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira; Costa, Mariana Lúcia Correia Ramos; de Albuquerque Olbertz, Clarissa Miranda Carneiro; de Souza Almeida, Tarciana Mendonça; da Silva Santos, Alessandro Henrique; da Silva, Joacil Carlos

    2011-01-01

    To study the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of osteochondral defects produced in the femoral condyles of rabbits and filled with sugar cane biopolymer gel (SCBG), after 90, 120 and 180 days, and in comparison with a control group. Sixteen adult New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 to 7 months, weighing between 2 and 2.5 kg and without locomotor system abnormalities were studied. In all the animals, a defect was made in the femoral condyles of the right and left knees, measuring 3.2 mm in diameter and 4 mm in depth, using a trephine. The animals were divided into two groups: study group formed by the right knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles received implants of SCBG; and control group formed by the left knees, in which the medial and lateral condyles were allowed to heal naturally. The knees were assessed 90, 120 and 180 days after the operation. After the animals had been sacrificed, the anatomical specimens were resected and placed in Bouin's solution. They were then photographed with a Nikon Coolpix 5400(®) coupled to a Nikon SM2800(®) stereoscopic loupe, to analyze the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing. The results were evaluated using the chi-square test. There were no significant differences in the macroscopic assessments of healing between the study and control groups. With regard to the surface, coloring, consistency, continuity and healing of the defects, the macroscopic appearance of the tissue repaired with SCBG was similar to that of the control group.

  19. Resistance to impact of cross-linked denture base biopolymer materials: effect of relining, glass flakes reinforcement and cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz Perez, Luciano Elias; Lucia Machado, Ana; Eduardo Vergani, Carlos; Andrade Zamperini, Camila; Cláudia Pavarina, Ana; Vicente Canevarolo, Sebastião

    2014-09-01

    The effect of reinforcement and cyclic loading on the resistance to impact (RI) of denture base biopolymer materials was evaluated using Charpy (C) and falling-weight (FW) impact tests. Bar-shaped (60×6×2mm(3)) and denture-shaped specimens (2mm) for the C and FD tests, respectively, were prepared with Lucitone 550 (L) and Vipi Wave (V) and relined (2mm) using the same material or the autopolymerizing relining resins Tokuyama Rebase II (T) and Ufi Gel Hard (U). Bulk specimens (60×6×4mm(3)) of all materials (L, V, T and U) were also prepared and tested. To evaluate the effect of reinforcement, glass flakes were added to the powder of the relining resins T and U (5% by weight). Half of bar-shaped (n=320) and half of the denture-shaped specimens (n=480) were subjected to cyclic loading (10,000 cycles) before the impact tests. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVAs (α=0.05) and revealed that the RI of L and V were comparable and higher than those of U and T. Compared to L and V, the RI was increased by relining with T and decreased by relining with U. When relining was made using the same material (L and V) the RI was maintained. Flexural cyclic loading and the incorporation of glass flakes into the resins T and U did not cause any significant alteration in the RI. A high correlation between results from C and FW tests was observed (r=0.8854). Relining may exert effects on the RI of L and V denture base resins, which vary according to the relining material used. The high correlation between C and FW, suggests that the Charpy test, using bar-shaped specimens, can be a simple and reliable method for evaluating factors that may influence the RI of denture base polymers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei; Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao

    2016-03-05

    A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0 ∼ 9.0, and the presence of PO4(3-) and SO4(2-) would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R(2)=0.997-0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R(2)=0.953-0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118 ∼ 147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EISPACK, Subroutines for Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Matrix Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbow, Burton S.; Cline, A.K.; Meyering, J.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EISPACK3 is a collection of 75 FORTRAN subroutines, both single- and double-precision, that compute the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of nine classes of matrices. The package can determine the Eigen-system of complex general, complex Hermitian, real general, real symmetric, real symmetric band, real symmetric tridiagonal, special real tridiagonal, generalized real, and generalized real symmetric matrices. In addition, there are two routines which use the singular value decomposition to solve certain least squares problem. The individual subroutines are - Identification/Description: BAKVEC: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by FIGI; BALANC: Balance a real general matrix; BALBAK: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by BALANC; BANDR: Reduce sym. band matrix to sym. tridiag. matrix; BANDV: Find some vectors of sym. band matrix; BISECT: Find some values of sym. tridiag. matrix; BQR: Find some values of sym. band matrix; CBABK2: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by CBAL; CBAL: Balance a complex general matrix; CDIV: Perform division of two complex quantities; CG: Driver subroutine for a complex general matrix; CH: Driver subroutine for a complex Hermitian matrix; CINVIT: Find some vectors of complex Hess. matrix; COMBAK: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by COMHES; COMHES: Reduce complex matrix to complex Hess. (elementary); COMLR: Find all values of complex Hess. matrix (LR); COMLR2: Find all values/vectors of cmplx Hess. matrix (LR); CCMQR: Find all values of complex Hessenberg matrix (QR); COMQR2: Find all values/vectors of cmplx Hess. matrix (QR); CORTB: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by CORTH; CORTH: Reduce complex matrix to complex Hess. (unitary); CSROOT: Find square root of complex quantity; ELMBAK: Back transform vectors of matrix formed by ELMHES; ELMHES: Reduce real matrix to real Hess. (elementary); ELTRAN: Accumulate transformations from ELMHES (for HQR2); EPSLON: Estimate unit roundoff

  2. The effect of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry instrumentation parameters on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization simulated size exclusion chromatography number-mass, average-weight and polydispersity values of dextran against corresponding values obtained by size exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, S; Giannakopulos, A E; Liu, J

    2017-12-01

    The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization simulated size exclusion chromatography (SECPC) average-number mass, weight average and polydispersity of dextran 1000 were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The instrument parameters were varied and the SECPC value determined via the Bruker XMASS software was compared to the value obtained from aqueous-phase size exclusion chromatography. The aqueous-phase size exclusion chromatography values for average-number mass, weight average and polydispersity were 1223 Da, 1500 Da and 1.23 (1010 Da, 1270 Da and 1.26 from manufacturer), whereas the SECPC value varied on the instrumental parameters. The factors that had the greatest effect on the average-number mass, weight average and polydispersity were: (most effect on SECPC value) laser attenuation > matrix-analyte molar concentration > matrix-analyte molar ratios > delay extraction time > solvent-system composition > detector delay (least effect on SECPC value). The oligosaccharide signal distribution as a function of laser attenuation indicate that two distinct regions exist in dextran 1000, where one corresponds to the higher mass oligosaccharides (hexasaccharide or greater), while another region corresponds to lower oligosaccharides (tetra-saccharide). This distribution depends upon the crystallization of the biopolymer and the efficiency of desorption/ionization, which yields the SECPC value. There was broad agreement between the SECPC values and size exclusion chromatography values for dextran, although the polydispersity indicated by SECPC was less than size exclusion chromatography (1.10 vs. 1.26). It can be shown that for narrow polydisperse biopolymers the instrumental conditions are less critical in the determination of average-number mass, weight average and polydispersity, although the SECPC Mn, and weight average values are often higher than the corresponding values

  3. Effects of pHs on properties of bio-nanocomposite based on tilapia skin gelatin and Cloisite Na+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Muralidharan; Benjakul, Soottawat; Prodpran, Thummanoon; Songtipya, Ponusa

    2015-04-01

    Effects of various pHs (4-8) of film forming suspensions (FFS) on the properties of nanocomposite film based on tilapia skin gelatin and hydrophilic nanoclay (Cloisite Na(+)) were investigated. Intercalated/exfoliated structure of nanocomposite films was revealed by WAXD analysis. Young's Modulus (YM) and tensile strength (TS) of nanocomposite films increased up to pH 6 (P<0.05). Nevertheless, the further increases in pH levels resulted in the decreases in both YM and TS (P<0.05). The highest water vapour barrier property of the film was observed when the pH of FFS was 6 (P<0.05). Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of nanocomposite films generally increased with increasing pH levels. Transparency of nanocomposite films was affected to some extent by pHs. Homogeneity and smoothness of film surface were obtained for nanocomposite films with pH 6 as confirmed by SEM micrographs. Thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses indicated that thermal stability of nanocomposite films varied with different pH levels. In general, mechanical and water vapour barrier properties of nanocomposite films were improved when FFS having pH 6 was used. Thus, the pH of FFS directly affected the properties of nanocomposite gelatin films incorporated with hydrophilic nanoclay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite reinforced with hardystonite as a novel bio-nanocomposite for tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Gheisari

    2015-04-01

    Results: According to XRD results, the sample milled for 10 h just indicated the hardystonite phase, while the sample milled for 5 h illustrate hardystonite phase along with several phases. Conclusion: In fact, our study indicated that hardystonite powder was composed of nano-crystalline structure, about 40 nm, can be prepared by mechanical activation to use as a new biomaterials for orthopedic applications.

  5. A survey of matrix theory and matrix inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Written for advanced undergraduate students, this highly regarded book presents an enormous amount of information in a concise and accessible format. Beginning with the assumption that the reader has never seen a matrix before, the authors go on to provide a survey of a substantial part of the field, including many areas of modern research interest.Part One of the book covers not only the standard ideas of matrix theory, but ones, as the authors state, ""that reflect our own prejudices,"" among them Kronecker products, compound and induced matrices, quadratic relations, permanents, incidence

  6. Cellulose nanocrystals/ZnO as a bifunctional reinforcing nanocomposite for poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend films: fabrication, characterization and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Susan; Ahmad, Mansor B; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Namvar, Farideh

    2014-06-18

    In this study, cellulose nanocrystals/zinc oxide (CNCs/ZnO) nanocomposites were dispersed as bifunctional nano-sized fillers into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (Cs) blend by a solvent casting method to prepare PVA/Cs/CNCs/ZnO bio-nanocomposites films. The morphology, thermal, mechanical and UV-vis absorption properties, as well antimicrobial effects of the bio-nanocomposite films were investigated. It demonstrated that CNCs/ZnO were compatible with PVA/Cs and dispersed homogeneously in the polymer blend matrix. CNCs/ZnO improved tensile strength and modulus of PVA/Cs significantly. Tensile strength and modulus of bio-nanocomposite films increased from 55.0 to 153.2 MPa and from 395 to 932 MPa, respectively with increasing nano-sized filler amount from 0 to 5.0 wt %. The thermal stability of PVA/Cs was also enhanced at 1.0 wt % CNCs/ZnO loading. UV light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO nanoparticles into a PVA/Cs matrix, signifying that these bio-nanocomposite films show good UV-shielding effects. Moreover, the biocomposites films showed antibacterial activity toward the bacterial species Salmonella choleraesuis and Staphylococcus aureus. The improved physical properties obtained by incorporating CNCs/ZnO can be useful in variety uses.

  7. QCD Matrix Elements + Parton Showers

    CERN Document Server

    Catani, S; Kühn, R; Webber, Bryan R

    2001-01-01

    We propose a method for combining QCD matrix elements and parton showers in Monte Carlo simulations of hadronic final states in $e^+e^-$ annihilation. The matrix element and parton shower domains are separated at some value $y_{ini}$ of the jet resolution, defined according to the $k_T$-clustering algorithm. The matrix elements are modified by Sudakov form factors and the parton showers are subjected to a veto procedure to cancel dependence on $y_{ini}$ to next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy. The method provides a leading-order description of hard multi-jet configurations together with jet fragmentation, while avoiding the most serious problems of double counting. We present first results of an approximate implementation using the event generator APACIC++.

  8. Lectures on matrix field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ydri, Badis

    2017-01-01

    These lecture notes provide a systematic introduction to matrix models of quantum field theories with non-commutative and fuzzy geometries. The book initially focuses on the matrix formulation of non-commutative and fuzzy spaces, followed by a description of the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. As an example, the phase structure of non-commutative phi-four theory is treated in great detail, with a separate chapter on the multitrace approach. The last chapter offers a general introduction to non-commutative gauge theories, while two appendices round out the text. Primarily written as a self-study guide for postgraduate students – with the aim of pedagogically introducing them to key analytical and numerical tools, as well as useful physical models in applications – these lecture notes will also benefit experienced researchers by providing a reference guide to the fundamentals of non-commutative field theory with an emphasis on matrix models and fuzzy geometries.

  9. Noncommutative spaces from matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lei

    Noncommutative (NC) spaces commonly arise as solutions to matrix model equations of motion. They are natural generalizations of the ordinary commutative spacetime. Such spaces may provide insights into physics close to the Planck scale, where quantum gravity becomes relevant. Although there has been much research in the literature, aspects of these NC spaces need further investigation. In this dissertation, we focus on properties of NC spaces in several different contexts. In particular, we study exact NC spaces which result from solutions to matrix model equations of motion. These spaces are associated with finite-dimensional Lie-algebras. More specifically, they are two-dimensional fuzzy spaces that arise from a three-dimensional Yang-Mills type matrix model, four-dimensional tensor-product fuzzy spaces from a tensorial matrix model, and Snyder algebra from a five-dimensional tensorial matrix model. In the first part of this dissertation, we study two-dimensional NC solutions to matrix equations of motion of extended IKKT-type matrix models in three-space-time dimensions. Perturbations around the NC solutions lead to NC field theories living on a two-dimensional space-time. The commutative limit of the solutions are smooth manifolds which can be associated with closed, open and static two-dimensional cosmologies. One particular solution is a Lorentzian fuzzy sphere, which leads to essentially a fuzzy sphere in the Minkowski space-time. In the commutative limit, this solution leads to an induced metric that does not have a fixed signature, and have a non-constant negative scalar curvature, along with singularities at two fixed latitudes. The singularities are absent in the matrix solution which provides a toy model for resolving the singularities of General relativity. We also discussed the two-dimensional fuzzy de Sitter space-time, which has irreducible representations of su(1,1) Lie-algebra in terms of principal, complementary and discrete series. Field

  10. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieburg, Mario

    2010-05-04

    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  11. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieburg, Mario

    2010-01-01

    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  12. Polychoric/Tetrachoric Matrix or Pearson Matrix? A methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez Lara, Sergio Alexis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of product-moment correlation of Pearson is common in most studies in factor analysis in psychology, but it is known that this statistic is only applicable when the variables related are in interval scale and normally distributed, and when are used in ordinal data may to produce a distorted correlation matrix . Thus is a suitable option using polychoric/tetrachoric matrices in item-level factor analysis when the items are in level measurement nominal or ordinal. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the KMO, Bartlett`s Test and Determinant of the Matrix, percentage of variance explained and factor loadings in depression trait scale of Depression Inventory Trait - State and the Neuroticism dimension of the short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Revised, regarding the use of matrices polychoric/tetrachoric matrices and Pearson. These instruments was analyzed with different extraction methods (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis, Unweighted Least Squares and Principal Components, keeping constant the rotation method Promin were analyzed. Were observed differences regarding sample adequacy measures, as well as with respect to the explained variance and the factor loadings, for solutions having as polychoric/tetrachoric matrix. So it can be concluded that the polychoric / tetrachoric matrix give better results than Pearson matrices when it comes to item-level factor analysis using different methods.

  13. Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, F.H.

    1999-01-01

    This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory

  14. On the Matrix (I + X)-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this note we consider the question under which conditions all entries of the matrix I-(I+X)-1 are nonnegative in case matrix X is a real positive definite matrix.Sufficient conditions are presented as well as some necessary conditions.One sufficient condition is that matrix X-1 is an inverse

  15. Matrix models of induced QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    I review recent works on the problem of inducing large-N QCD by matrix fields. In the first part of the talk I describe the matrix models which induce large-N QCD and present the results of studies of their phase structure by the standard lattice technology (in particular, by the mean field method). The second part is devoted to the exact solution of these models in the strong coupling region by means of the loop equations. I describe the solution of the Kazakov-Migdal model with the quadratic and logarithmic potentials as well as that of analogous fermionic models with the quadratic potential. (orig.)

  16. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol22_pp704-719.pdf

  17. The eWOM Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Jensen, J.S; Gyrd-Jones, Richard

    Consumers often share opinions and personal consumption experiences on web-based consumer opinion platforms. These e-Word-of-Mouth (eWOM) reviews are powerful as they can prompt other consumers to consider a company and its offerings, but they can also cause the opposite effect. This article......WOM Matrix - where the customers’ touch points are the strategic connection between analysis and implementation of eWOM issues. The eWOM Matrix serves as a management tool, visually assisting companies to explore about which touch-points their customers’ primarily construct negative or positive e...

  18. Towards Google matrix of brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelyansky, D.L., E-mail: dima@irsamc.ups-tlse.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); LPT - IRSAMC, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhirov, O.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-12

    We apply the approach of the Google matrix, used in computer science and World Wide Web, to description of properties of neuronal networks. The Google matrix G is constructed on the basis of neuronal network of a brain model discussed in PNAS 105 (2008) 3593. We show that the spectrum of eigenvalues of G has a gapless structure with long living relaxation modes. The PageRank of the network becomes delocalized for certain values of the Google damping factor {alpha}. The properties of other eigenstates are also analyzed. We discuss further parallels and similarities between the World Wide Web and neuronal networks.

  19. Towards Google matrix of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepelyansky, D.L.; Zhirov, O.V.

    2010-01-01

    We apply the approach of the Google matrix, used in computer science and World Wide Web, to description of properties of neuronal networks. The Google matrix G is constructed on the basis of neuronal network of a brain model discussed in PNAS 105 (2008) 3593. We show that the spectrum of eigenvalues of G has a gapless structure with long living relaxation modes. The PageRank of the network becomes delocalized for certain values of the Google damping factor α. The properties of other eigenstates are also analyzed. We discuss further parallels and similarities between the World Wide Web and neuronal networks.

  20. Matrix theory selected topics and useful results

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1989-01-01

    Matrices and operations on matrices ; determinants ; elementary operations on matrices (continued) ; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of normal matrices ; functions of a matrix ; positive definiteness, various polar forms of a matrix ; special matrices ; matrices with quaternion elements ; inequalities ; generalised inverse of a matrix ; domain of values of a matrix, location and dispersion of eigenvalues ; symmetric functions ; integration over matrix variables ; permanents of doubly stochastic matrices ; infinite matrices ; Alexander matrices, knot polynomials, torsion numbers.

  1. Adsorption of nitrate from aqueous solution by magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk and its chemical regeneration property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wen; Gao, Baoyu; Xu, Xing; Wang, Fang; Xue, Nan; Sun, Shenglei; Song, Wuchang; Jia, Ruibao

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Scheme of mechanism for HCl and NaCl regeneration of MAB-CS. - Highlights: • Magnetic amine-crosslinked bio-adsorbent was prepared for nitrate uptake. • The characters of adsorbent were determined by VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS. • This novel bio-adsorbent could achieve rapid separation from effluents. • Chemical regeneration of the saturated magnetic bio-adsorbent was conducted. • The adsorption followed the pseudo second order model and Langmuir model. - Abstract: A novel adsorbent of magnetic amine-crosslinked biopolymer based corn stalk (MAB-CS) was synthesized and used for nitrate removal from aqueous solution. The characters and adsorption mechanisms of this bio-adsorbent were determined by using VSM, TGA, XRD, SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XPS, respectively. The results revealed that the saturated magnetization of MAB-CS reached 6.25 emu/g. Meanwhile, the studies of various factors indicated that this novel magnetic bio-adsorbent performed well over a considerable wide pH range of 6.0∼9.0, and the presence of PO 4 3− and SO 4 2− would markedly decrease the nitrate removal efficiency. Furthermore, the nitrate adsorption by MAB-CS perfectly fitted the Langmuir isotherm model (R 2 = 0.997–0.999) and pseudo second order kinetic model (R 2 = 0.953–0.995). The calculated nitrate adsorption capacity of MAB-CS was 102.04 mg/g at 318 K by Langmuir model, and thermodynamic study showed that nitrate adsorption is an spontaneous endothermic process. The regeneration experiments indicated its merit of regeneration and stability with the recovery efficient of 118∼147%. By integrating the experimental results, it was found that the removal of nitrate was mainly via electrostatic attraction and ion exchange. And this novel bio-adsorbent prepared in this work could achieve effective removal of nitrate and rapid separation from effluents simultaneously.

  2. Matrix Treatment of Ray Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quon, W. Steve

    1996-01-01

    Describes a method to combine two learning experiences--optical physics and matrix mathematics--in a straightforward laboratory experiment that allows engineering/physics students to integrate a variety of learning insights and technical skills, including using lasers, studying refraction through thin lenses, applying concepts of matrix…

  3. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  4. A two-matrix alternative

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, 15 December (2013), s. 836-841 ISSN 1537-9582 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : two-matrix alternative * solution * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.514, year: 2013 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ela/ela-articles/articles/vol26_pp836-841.pdf

  5. Amorphous metal matrix composite ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barczy, P.; Szigeti, F.

    1998-01-01

    Composite ribbons with amorphous matrix and ceramic (SiC, WC, MoB) particles were produced by modified planar melt flow casting methods. Weldability, abrasive wear and wood sanding examinations were carried out in order to find optimal material and technology for elevated wear resistance and sanding durability. The correlation between structure and composite properties is discussed. (author)

  6. Extracellular matrix and wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Concept for Energy Security Matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Einari; Hamburg, Arvi; Härm, Mihkel; Leppiman, Ando; Ots, Märt

    2016-01-01

    The following paper presents a discussion of short- and long-term energy security assessment methods and indicators. The aim of the current paper is to describe diversity of approaches to energy security, to structure energy security indicators used by different institutions and papers, and to discuss several indicators that also play important role in the design of energy policy of a state. Based on this analysis the paper presents a novel Energy Security Matrix that structures relevant energy security indicators from the aspects of Technical Resilience and Vulnerability, Economic Dependence and Political Affectability for electricity, heat and transport fuel sectors. Earlier publications by different authors have presented energy security assessment methodologies that use publicly available indicators from different databases. Current paper challenges viability of some of these indicators and introduces new indicators that would deliver stronger energy security policy assessments. Energy Security Matrix and its indicators are based on experiences that the authors have gathered as high-level energy policymakers in Estonia, where all different aspects of energy security can be observed. - Highlights: •Energy security should be analysed in technical, economic and political terms; •Energy Security Matrix provides a framework for energy security analyses; •Applicability of Matrix is limited due to the lack of statistical data and sensitivity of output.

  8. The COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    COMPADRE contains demographic information on hundreds of plant species. The data in COMPADRE are in the form of matrix population models and our goal is to make these publicly available to facilitate their use for research and teaching purposes. COMPADRE is an open-access database. We only request...

  9. Unravelling the nuclear matrix proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Jimenez, Connie R

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear matrix (NM) model posits the presence of a protein/RNA scaffold that spans the mammalian nucleus. The NM proteins are involved in basic nuclear function and are a promising source of protein biomarkers for cancer. Importantly, the NM proteome is operationally defined as the proteins...

  10. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  11. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  12. Incorporation of zinc oxide to dispersions of biopolymers and release of the metallic ion in vitro; Incorporacao de oxido de zinco a dispersoes de biopolimeros e liberacao do ion metalico in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, Marina S.R.; Ferreira, Willian H.; Andrade, Cristina T., E-mail: marinarodriguesbarreto@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles, obtained from a commercial product, were dispersed in different biopolymers, to be added to piglet feeds. The resulting products, prepared with sodium alginate (SA), chitosan (CH) and low methoxyl pectin (LMP) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release of Zn{sup 2+} was investigated under simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of piglets, and analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA). The results showed that the structural factors, which have influence on the biopolymer/ZnO interactions, govern the behavior of Zn{sup 2+} release. (author)

  13. Ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 microcubes by biopolymer-assisted facile synthesis for high-performance pseudocapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra Sekhar, S.; Nagaraju, Goli; Yu, Jae Su

    2018-03-01

    Porous and ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 microcubes (MCs) were facilely synthesized via a biopolymer-assisted hydrothermal approach. Herein, chitosan was used as a natural biopolymer, which greatly controls the surface morphology and size of the prepared composite. The amino and hydroxyl group-functionalized chitosan engraves the outer surface of MCs during the hydrothermal process, which designs the interesting morphology of nanopath ways on the surface of MCs. When used as an electrode material for pseudocapacitors, the ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 MCs showed superior energy storage values compared to the material prepared without chitosan in aqueous electrolyte solution. Precisely, the prepared ant-cave structured MnCO3/Mn3O4 MCs exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 116.2 F/g at a current density of 0.7 A/g with an excellent cycling stability of 73.86% after 2000 cycles. Such facile and low-cost synthesis of pseudocapacitive materials with porous nanopaths is favorable for the fabrication of high-performance energy storage devices.

  14. Preparation of the polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel of biopolymers via a semi-dissolution acidification sol-gel transition method and its application in solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Chen, Yu; Yao, Ying; Tong, Zong-Rui; Li, Pu-Wang; Yang, Zi-Ming; Jin, Shao-Hua

    2018-02-01

    Hydrogels have drawn many attentions as the solid-state electrolytes in flexible solid-state supercapacitors (SCs) recently. Among them, the polyelectrolyte complex hydrogel (PECH) electrolytes of natural polymers are more competitive because of their environmentally friendly property and low cost. However, while mixing two biopolymer solutions with opposite charges, the strong electrostatic interactions between the cationic and anionic biopolymers may result in precipitates instead of hydrogels. Here we report a novel method, semi-dissolution acidification sol-gel transition (SD-A-SGT), for the preparation of the PECH of chitosan (CTS) and sodium alginate (SA), with the controllable sol-gel transition and uniform composition and successfully apply it as the hydrogel electrolyte of solid-state supercapacitors (SCs). The CTS-SA PECH exhibits an extremely high ionic conductivity of 0.051 S·cm-1 and reasonable mechanical properties with a tensile strength of 0.29 MPa and elongation at break of 109.5%. The solid-state SC fabricated with the CTS-SA PECH and conventional polyaniline (PANI) nanowire electrodes provided a high specific capacitance of 234.6 F·g-1 at 5 mV·s-1 and exhibited excellent cycling stability with 95.3% capacitance retention after 1000 cycles. Our work may pave a novel avenue to the preparation of biodegradable PECHs of full natural polymers, and promote the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices.

  15. Matrix-Free Preconditioning using Partial Matrix Estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cullum, J. K.; Tůma, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 4 (2006), s. 711-729 ISSN 0006-3835 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET400300415; GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : matrix-free algorithms * linear algebraic equations * large sparse matrices * preconditioned iterative methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.841, year: 2006

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases in fish biology and matrix turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Vuong, Tram T; Rønning, Sissel B; Kolset, Svein O

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases have important functions for tissue turnover in fish, with relevance both for the fish industry and molecular and cellular research on embryology, inflammation and tissue repair. These metalloproteinases have been studied in different fish types, subjected to both aquaculture and experimental conditions. This review highlights studies on these metalloproteinases in relation to both fish quality and health and further, the future importance of fish for basic research studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Omentin-1 prevents cartilage matrix destruction by regulating matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Liu, Baoyi; Zhao, Dewei; Wang, BenJie; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Li, Borui; Tian, Fengde

    2017-08-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a crucial role in the degradation of the extracellular matrix and pathological progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Omentin-1 is a newly identified anti-inflammatory adipokine. Little information regarding the protective effects of omentin-1 in OA has been reported before. In the current study, our results indicated that omentin-1 suppressed expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 induced by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) at both the mRNA and protein levels in human chondrocytes. Importantly, administration of omentin-1 abolished IL-1β-induced degradation of type II collagen (Col II) and aggrecan, the two major extracellular matrix components in articular cartilage, in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistically, omentin-1 ameliorated the expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) by blocking the JAK-2/STAT3 pathway. Our results indicate that omentin-1 may have a potential chondroprotective therapeutic capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The doubly negative matrix completion problem

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, C. Mendes; Torregrosa, Juan R.; Urbano, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    An $n\\times n$ matrix over the field of real numbers is a doubly negative matrix if it is symmetric, negative definite and entry-wise negative. In this paper, we are interested in the doubly negative matrix completion problem, that is when does a partial matrix have a doubly negative matrix completion. In general, we cannot guarantee the existence of such a completion. In this paper, we prove that every partial doubly negative matrix whose associated graph is a $p$-chorda...

  19. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nikuie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations are investigated.

  20. Transfer-matrix calculations of DNA polymer micromechanics under tension and torque constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Artem K; Winardhi, Ricksen S; Yan, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Recent development of single-molecule manipulation technologies has made it possible to exert constant force and torque on individual DNA biopolymers to probe their elastic characteristics and structural stability. It has been previously shown that depending on the nature of applied mechanical constraints, DNA can exist in several forms including B-, L-, and P-DNA. However, there is still a lack of understanding of how structural heterogeneity of DNA, which may naturally arise due to sequence-dependent DNA properties, protein binding, or DNA damage, influences local stability of the above DNA states. To provide a more complete and detailed description of the DNA mechanics, we developed a theoretical framework based on transfer-matrix calculations and demonstrated how it can be used to predict the DNA behavior upon application of a wide range of force and torque constraints. The resulting phase diagram shows DNA structural transitions that are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical studies. We further discuss how the constructed formalism can be extended to include local inhomogeneities in the DNA physical properties, thus making it possible to investigate the effect of DNA sequence as well as protein binding on DNA structural stability.

  1. Novel Polyurethane Matrix Systems Reveal a Particular Sustained Release Behavior Studied by Imaging and Computational Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiñez, María Dolores; Caraballo, Isidoro; Puchkov, Maxim; Kuentz, Martin

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to better understand the drug-release mechanism from sustained release matrices prepared with two new polyurethanes, using a novel in silico formulation tool based on 3-dimensional cellular automata. For this purpose, two polymers and theophylline as model drug were used to prepare binary matrix tablets. Each formulation was simulated in silico, and its release behavior was compared to the experimental drug release profiles. Furthermore, the polymer distributions in the tablets were imaged by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the changes produced by the tortuosity were quantified and verified using experimental data. The obtained results showed that the polymers exhibited a surprisingly high ability for controlling drug release at low excipient concentrations (only 10% w/w of excipient controlled the release of drug during almost 8 h). The mesoscopic in silico model helped to reveal how the novel biopolymers were controlling drug release. The mechanism was found to be a special geometrical arrangement of the excipient particles, creating an almost continuous barrier surrounding the drug in a very effective way, comparable to lipid or waxy excipients but with the advantages of a much higher compactability, stability, and absence of excipient polymorphism.

  2. The gravitational S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesized existence of an S-matrix for gravity, and some of its expected general properties. We first discuss basic questions regarding existence of such a matrix, including those of infrared divergences and description of asymptotic states. Distinct scattering behavior occurs in the Born, eikonal, and strong gravity regimes, and we describe aspects of both the partial wave and momentum space amplitudes, and their analytic properties, from these regimes. Classically the strong gravity region would be dominated by formation of black holes, and we assume its unitary quantum dynamics is described by corresponding resonances. Masslessness limits some powerful methods and results that apply to massive theories, though a continuation path implying crossing symmetry plausibly still exists. Physical properties of gravity suggest nonpolynomial amplitudes, although crossing and causality constrain (with modest assumptions) this nonpolynomial behavior, particularly requiring a polynomial bound in c...

  3. Matrix Factorization for Evolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a matrix factorization problem, that is, to find two factor matrices U and V such that R≈UT×V, where R is a matrix composed of the values of the objects O1,O2,…,On at consecutive time points T1,T2,…,Tt. We first present MAFED, a constrained optimization model for this problem, which straightforwardly performs factorization on R. Then based on the interplay of the data in U, V, and R, a probabilistic graphical model using the same optimization objects is constructed, in which structural dependencies of the data in these matrices are revealed. Finally, we present a fitting algorithm to solve the proposed MAFED model, which produces the desired factorization. Empirical studies on real-world datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art comparison algorithms.

  4. Random matrix improved subspace clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Couillet, Romain

    2017-03-06

    This article introduces a spectral method for statistical subspace clustering. The method is built upon standard kernel spectral clustering techniques, however carefully tuned by theoretical understanding arising from random matrix findings. We show in particular that our method provides high clustering performance while standard kernel choices provably fail. An application to user grouping based on vector channel observations in the context of massive MIMO wireless communication networks is provided.

  5. Coherence matrix of plasmonic beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We consider monochromatic electromagnetic beams of surface plasmon-polaritons created at interfaces between dielectric media and metals. We theoretically study non-coherent superpositions of elementary surface waves and discuss their spectral degree of polarization, Stokes parameters, and the for...... of the spectral coherence matrix. We compare the polarization properties of the surface plasmonspolaritons as three-dimensional and two-dimensional fields concluding that the latter is superior....

  6. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshiharu, KAWAMURA; Department of Physics, Shinshu University

    2003-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a 'quantum' generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  7. Matrix Models and String World Sheet Duality

    OpenAIRE

    de Alwis, S. P.

    1997-01-01

    The scaling limit used recently to derive matrix models, and a certain analyticity assumption, are invoked to argue that the agreement between some matrix model calculations and supergravity is a consequence of string world sheet duality.

  8. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamura, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a “quantum” generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  9. Glomerular extracellular matrix components and integrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, L. M.; de Melker, A. A.; Kramer, D.; Kuikman, I.; Chand, A.; Claessen, N.; Weening, J. J.; Sonnenberg, A.

    1998-01-01

    It has become apparent that extracellular matrix components and their cellular receptors, the integrins, are important regulators of glomerular development and function. In this rapidly evolving field we studied the production of extracellular matrix components and integrins by rat glomerular

  10. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics.......Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  11. A quenched c = 1 critical matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zongan; Rey, Soo-Jong.

    1990-12-01

    We study a variant of the Penner-Distler-Vafa model, proposed as a c = 1 quantum gravity: 'quenched' matrix model with logarithmic potential. The model is exactly soluble, and exhibits a two-cut branching as observed in multicritical unitary matrix models and multicut Hermitian matrix models. Using analytic continuation of the power in the conventional polynomial potential, we also show that both the Penner-Distler-Vafa model and our 'quenched' matrix model satisfy Virasoro algebra constraints

  12. Construction of covariance matrix for experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin; Zhang Jianhua

    1992-01-01

    For evaluators and experimenters, the information is complete only in the case when the covariance matrix is given. The covariance matrix of the indirectly measured data has been constructed and discussed. As an example, the covariance matrix of 23 Na(n, 2n) cross section is constructed. A reasonable result is obtained

  13. The Influence of the Different Levels of Crude Proteins in Feed Mixture for Pigs and Poultry and Biopolym Adition to Concentrate for Farm Building Microclimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohuslav Cermak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing level of protein at the concentrates for pigs and poultry allowed to solve duality o fair conditions at the farme buildings. By the fattening pigs increased on 0.032 kg daily gain weight and decreased on 0.45 kg feed consumption respectively. The addition of 400 g of Biopolym increased pigs daily gain and feed consumption was reduced. At the broiler chickens by the 2.92 % les of protein decreased a mortality of chickens about 1.8% in experiment group. The others results were the same as in control group of chickens. The levels of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were lover than maximum data from Czech norms (NH 3 max. 25 ppm and H2S max. 7-10 ppm at experiment and control groups.

  14. Chemical characterization of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains; Caracterizacao quimica de biopolimeros sintetizados por Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Angelita da S.; Vendruscolo, Claire T.; Furlan, Ligia [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Centro de Biotecnologia]. E-mail: angelita@ufpel.tche.br; claire@ufpel.tche.br; ligia@ufpel.tche.br; Galland, Griselda [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Qumica

    2001-07-01

    In this work we describe the characterisation of Xanthan biopolymers synthesized by two Xanthomonas campestris pv pruni strains, in aerobic fermentation. By chromatography on TLC we could notice the presence of Mannose monomer in higher proportion in the 82 strain with relation to the another ones. The viscosity results showed the temperature dependence. The 06 and 82 strains had their viscosity increased whereas for the 87 strain we could observe a reduction with temperature increasing. The {sup 13}C NMR spectrum of 87 strain showed the characteristic signals at approximately 92.8, 70.4 and 61.4 ppm, attributed to C1, C4 and C6 from glucose monomer, with higher intensity. (author)

  15. Preparation of Ca-alginate bio-polymer beads and investigation of their decorporation characteristics for 85Sr, 238U and 234Th by in vitro experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gok, C.; Gerstmann, U.; Hoellriegl, V.; Aytas, S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate whether Ca-alginate bio-polymer beads (CaABBs) can be used to reduce the bioavailability of radionuclides in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. The uptake of strontium, uranium and thorium from a simulated gastrointestinal system was studied by in vitro techniques using CaABBs. This agent was prepared from Na-alginate through cross-linking with divalent calcium ions according to the egg-box model. The effects of process variables such as pH of the gastrointestinal juice, incubation time and solid-to-solution ratio for the removal of radionuclides from the gastrointestinal juice were investigated. The results suggest that CaABBs are a potent material for reducing the bioavailability of radionuclides with a high uptake efficiency in the gastrointestinal tract.Copy; Author 2012. Published by Oxford Univ. Press. All rights reserved. (authors)

  16. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers; Estudo por RMN no dominio do tempo e condutividade em filmes biopolimericos de pectina de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Ritamara; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E., E-mail: cristal_br@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2013-07-01

    This communication presents results of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticised with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T{sub 2}). The two short T{sub 2} components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T{sub 2} can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T{sub 2} continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  17. Time domain NMR and conductivity study of apple pectin biopolymers; Estudo por RMN no dominio do tempo e condutividade em filmes biopolimericos de pectina de maca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Ritamara I.; Souto, Sergio; Tambelli, Caio E., E-mail: cristal_br@yahoo.com.br [Universidade de sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos

    2015-07-01

    This communication presents results of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance of continuous distributions of spin-spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}) and A.C. conductivity of apple pectin biopolymers plasticized with glycerol and containing acetic acid. The continuous distributions reveals up to three components of spin-spin relaxation times (T{sub 2}). The two short T{sub 2} components were associated with protons of pectin polymer chain and the longer T{sub 2} can be attributed with the protons of the glycerol. The conductivity values increase with glycerol concentration with maximum at 7.9 x 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} for sample with 3.0 g of glycerol at 83 deg C. The behavior of activation energy and T{sub 2} continuous distribution indicate an increase of proton mobility due the structural changes caused by glycerol addition. (author)

  18. Epitaxy of the bound water phase on hydrophilic surfaces of biopolymers as key mechanism of microwave radiation effects on living objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Denis B; Orlova, Ekaterina V; Neschislyaev, Valery A; Volkhin, Igor L; Izmestiev, Igor V; Lunegov, Igor V; Balandina, Alevtina V; Dianova, Dina G

    2017-06-01

    The research investigates the mechanism of microwave radiation effects on biological characteristics and structural-dynamic parameters of a sensor bioluminescence system. The research objects are a sterile growth medium (fish meal hydrolisate) and a bacterial culture. It has been established that irradiation causes changes of the growth medium spectral properties within the range of 200-350nm. Changes take place in the intensity and character of luminescence, as well as in relaxation parameters of nuclear magnetic resonance, growth characteristics of the bacterial culture, its cellular morphology and surface topology. The research results enabled us to establish the mechanisms of primary molecular processes that occur when the bacterial culture is exposed to microwave radiation. Transformation of the dynamic-structural state of adsorbed water phases on biopolymer surfaces has been found to be the key factor in the mechanism of microwave effects on living and water-containing objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hexagonal response matrix using symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A response matrix for use in core calculations for nuclear reactors with hexagonal fuel assemblies is presented. It is based on the incoming currents averaged over the half-surface of a hexagonal node by applying symmetry theory. The boundary conditions of the incoming currents on the half-surface of the node are expressed by a complete set of orthogonal vectors which are constructed from symmetrized functions. The expansion coefficients of the functions are determined by the boundary conditions of incoming currents. (author)

  20. Geometric phase from dielectric matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2005-10-01

    The dielectric property of the anisotropic optical medium is found by considering the polarized photon as two component spinor of spherical harmonics. The Geometric Phase of a polarized photon has been evaluated in two ways: the phase two-form of the dielectric matrix through a twist and the Pancharatnam phase (GP) by changing the angular momentum of the incident polarized photon over a closed triangular path on the extended Poincare sphere. The helicity in connection with the spin angular momentum of the chiral photon plays the key role in developing these phase holonomies. (author)