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Sample records for bio-inspired reconfigurable hardware

  1. eDNA: A Bio-Inspired Reconfigurable Hardware Cell Architecture Supporting Self-organisation and Self-healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of a biological inspired reconfigurable hardware cell architecture which supports self-organisation and self-healing. Two fundamental processes in biology, namely fertilization-to-birth and cell self-healing have inspired the development of this cell architecture...... to simulate our self-organisation and self-healing algorithms and the results obtained from this looks promising....

  2. AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses

  3. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  4. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  5. Designing Secure Systems on Reconfigurable Hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Huffmire, Ted; Brotherton, Brett; Callegari, Nick; Valamehr, Jonathan; White, Jeff; Kastner, Ryan; Sherwood, Ted

    2008-01-01

    The extremely high cost of custom ASIC fabrication makes FPGAs an attractive alternative for deployment of custom hardware. Embedded systems based on reconfigurable hardware integrate many functions onto a single device. Since embedded designers often have no choice but to use soft IP cores obtained from third parties, the cores operate at different trust levels, resulting in mixed trust designs. The goal of this project is to evaluate recently proposed security primitives for reconfigurab...

  6. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  7. Remote hardware-reconfigurable robotic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Estrada, Miguel; Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Maya-Rueda, Selene E.

    2001-10-01

    In this work, a camera with integrated image processing capabilities is discussed. The camera is based on an imager coupled to an FPGA device (Field Programmable Gate Array) which contains an architecture for real-time computer vision low-level processing. The architecture can be reprogrammed remotely for application specific purposes. The system is intended for rapid modification and adaptation for inspection and recognition applications, with the flexibility of hardware and software reprogrammability. FPGA reconfiguration allows the same ease of upgrade in hardware as a software upgrade process. The camera is composed of a digital imager coupled to an FPGA device, two memory banks, and a microcontroller. The microcontroller is used for communication tasks and FPGA programming. The system implements a software architecture to handle multiple FPGA architectures in the device, and the possibility to download a software/hardware object from the host computer into its internal context memory. System advantages are: small size, low power consumption, and a library of hardware/software functionalities that can be exchanged during run time. The system has been validated with an edge detection and a motion processing architecture, which will be presented in the paper. Applications targeted are in robotics, mobile robotics, and vision based quality control.

  8. Improving Reliability, Security, and Efficiency of Reconfigurable Hardware Systems (Habilitation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziener, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In this treatise,  my research on methods to improve efficiency, reliability, and security of reconfigurable hardware systems, i.e., FPGAs, through partial dynamic reconfiguration is outlined. The efficiency of reconfigurable systems can be improved by loading optimized data paths on-the-fly on an

  9. Reconfigurable Hardware for Compressing Hyperspectral Image Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranki, Nazeeh; Namkung, Jeffrey; Villapando, Carlos; Kiely, Aaron; Klimesh, Matthew; Xie, Hua

    2010-01-01

    High-speed, low-power, reconfigurable electronic hardware has been developed to implement ICER-3D, an algorithm for compressing hyperspectral-image data. The algorithm and parts thereof have been the topics of several NASA Tech Briefs articles, including Context Modeler for Wavelet Compression of Hyperspectral Images (NPO-43239) and ICER-3D Hyperspectral Image Compression Software (NPO-43238), which appear elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. As described in more detail in those articles, the algorithm includes three main subalgorithms: one for computing wavelet transforms, one for context modeling, and one for entropy encoding. For the purpose of designing the hardware, these subalgorithms are treated as modules to be implemented efficiently in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The design takes advantage of industry- standard, commercially available FPGAs. The implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex II pro architecture, which has embedded PowerPC processor cores with flexible on-chip bus architecture. It incorporates an efficient parallel and pipelined architecture to compress the three-dimensional image data. The design provides for internal buffering to minimize intensive input/output operations while making efficient use of offchip memory. The design is scalable in that the subalgorithms are implemented as independent hardware modules that can be combined in parallel to increase throughput. The on-chip processor manages the overall operation of the compression system, including execution of the top-level control functions as well as scheduling, initiating, and monitoring processes. The design prototype has been demonstrated to be capable of compressing hyperspectral data at a rate of 4.5 megasamples per second at a conservative clock frequency of 50 MHz, with a potential for substantially greater throughput at a higher clock frequency. The power consumption of the prototype is less than 6.5 W. The reconfigurability (by means of reprogramming) of

  10. Bio-Inspired Autonomous Communications Systems with Anomaly Detection Monitoring, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate BioComm, a bio-inspired autonomous communications system (ACS) aimed at dynamically reconfiguring and redeploying autonomous...

  11. Enabling Self-Organization in Embedded Systems with Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bobda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a methodology based on self-organization to manage resources in networked embedded systems based on reconfigurable hardware. Two points are detailed in this paper, the monitoring system used to analyse the system and the Local Marketplaces Global Symbiosis (LMGS concept defined for self-organization of dynamically reconfigurable nodes.

  12. Bio-inspired approach for intelligent unattended ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Pichler, Alexander; Perrot, Maxime; Voisin, Philippe; Moeglin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Improving the surveillance capacity over wide zones requires a set of smart battery-powered Unattended Ground Sensors capable of issuing an alarm to a decision-making center. Only high-level information has to be sent when a relevant suspicious situation occurs. In this paper we propose an innovative bio-inspired approach that mimics the human bi-modal vision mechanism and the parallel processing ability of the human brain. The designed prototype exploits two levels of analysis: a low-level panoramic motion analysis, the peripheral vision, and a high-level event-focused analysis, the foveal vision. By tracking moving objects and fusing multiple criteria (size, speed, trajectory, etc.), the peripheral vision module acts as a fast relevant event detector. The foveal vision module focuses on the detected events to extract more detailed features (texture, color, shape, etc.) in order to improve the recognition efficiency. The implemented recognition core is able to acquire human knowledge and to classify in real-time a huge amount of heterogeneous data thanks to its natively parallel hardware structure. This UGS prototype validates our system approach under laboratory tests. The peripheral analysis module demonstrates a low false alarm rate whereas the foveal vision correctly focuses on the detected events. A parallel FPGA implementation of the recognition core succeeds in fulfilling the embedded application requirements. These results are paving the way of future reconfigurable virtual field agents. By locally processing the data and sending only high-level information, their energy requirements and electromagnetic signature are optimized. Moreover, the embedded Artificial Intelligence core enables these bio-inspired systems to recognize and learn new significant events. By duplicating human expertise in potentially hazardous places, our miniature visual event detector will allow early warning and contribute to better human decision making.

  13. Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Mathew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Larchev, Gregory; Bellows, Peter; Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO) project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. These tools leverage an established FPGA design environment and focus primarily on space effects mitigation and power optimization. The project is creating software to automatically test and evaluate the single-event-upsets (SEUs) sensitivities of an FPGA design and insert mitigation techniques. Extensions into the tool suite will also allow evolvable algorithm techniques to reconfigure around single-event-latchup (SEL) events. In the power domain, tools are being created for dynamic power visualiization and optimization. Thus, this technology seeks to enable the use of Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit, via an integrated design tool-suite aiming to reduce risk, cost, and design time of multimission reconfigurable space processors using SRAM-based FPGAs.

  14. Hardware/software virtualization for the reconfigurable multicore platform.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferger, M.; Al Kadi, M.; Hübner, M.; Koedam, M.L.P.J.; Sinha, S.S.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Marchesan Almeida, Gabriel; Rodrigo Azambuja, J.; Becker, Juergen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the Flex Tiles approach for the virtualization of hardware and software for a reconfigurable multicore architecture. The approach enables the virtualization of a dynamic tile-based hardware architecture consisting of processing tiles connected via a network-on-chip and a

  15. Facilitating preemptive hardware system design using partial reconfiguration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondo Gazzano, Julio; Rincon, Fernando; Vaderrama, Carlos; Villanueva, Felix; Caba, Julian; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In FPGA-based control system design, partial reconfiguration is especially well suited to implement preemptive systems. In real-time systems, the deadline for critical task can compel the preemption of noncritical one. Besides, an asynchronous event can demand immediate attention and, then, force launching a reconfiguration process for high-priority task implementation. If the asynchronous event is previously scheduled, an explicit activation of the reconfiguration process is performed. If the event cannot be previously programmed, such as in dynamically scheduled systems, an implicit activation to the reconfiguration process is demanded. This paper provides a hardware-based approach to explicit and implicit activation of the partial reconfiguration process in dynamically reconfigurable SoCs and includes all the necessary tasks to cope with this issue. Furthermore, the reconfiguration service introduced in this work allows remote invocation of the reconfiguration process and then the remote integration of off-chip components. A model that offers component location transparency is also presented to enhance and facilitate system integration.

  16. Static Scheduling of Periodic Hardware Tasks with Precedence and Deadline Constraints on Reconfigurable Hardware Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikbel Belaid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Task graph scheduling for reconfigurable hardware devices can be defined as finding a schedule for a set of periodic tasks with precedence, dependence, and deadline constraints as well as their optimal allocations on the available heterogeneous hardware resources. This paper proposes a new methodology comprising three main stages. Using these three main stages, dynamic partial reconfiguration and mixed integer programming, pipelined scheduling and efficient placement are achieved and enable parallel computing of the task graph on the reconfigurable devices by optimizing placement/scheduling quality. Experiments on an application of heterogeneous hardware tasks demonstrate an improvement of resource utilization of 12.45% of the available reconfigurable resources corresponding to a resource gain of 17.3% compared to a static design. The configuration overhead is reduced to 2% of the total running time. Due to pipelined scheduling, the task graph spanning is minimized by 4% compared to sequential execution of the graph.

  17. Towards Shop Floor Hardware Reconfiguration for Industrial Collaborative Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper; Madsen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a roadmap for hardware reconfiguration of industrial collaborative robots. As a flexible resource, the collaborative robot will often need transitioning to a new task. Our goal is, that this transitioning should be done by the shop floor operators, not highly specialized...

  18. Compressive Sensing Based Bio-Inspired Shape Feature Detection CMOS Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A CMOS imager integrated circuit using compressive sensing and bio-inspired detection is presented which integrates novel functions and algorithms within a novel hardware architecture enabling efficient on-chip implementation.

  19. Trustworthy reconfigurable systems enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Feller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    ?Thomas Feller sheds some light on trust anchor architectures fortrustworthy reconfigurable systems. He is presenting novel concepts enhancing the security capabilities of reconfigurable hardware.Almost invisible to the user, many computer systems are embedded into everyday artifacts, such as cars, ATMs, and pacemakers. The significant growth of this market segment within the recent years enforced a rethinking with respect to the security properties and the trustworthiness of these systems. The trustworthiness of a system in general equates to the integrity of its system components. Hardware-b

  20. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  1. Reconfigurable Signal Processing and Hardware Architecture for Broadband Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ying-Chang

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a broadband wireless transceiver which can be reconfigured to any type of cyclic-prefix (CP -based communication systems, including orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM, single-carrier cyclic-prefix (SCCP system, multicarrier (MC code-division multiple access (MC-CDMA, MC direct-sequence CDMA (MC-DS-CDMA, CP-based CDMA (CP-CDMA, and CP-based direct-sequence CDMA (CP-DS-CDMA. A hardware platform is proposed and the reusable common blocks in such a transceiver are identified. The emphasis is on the equalizer design for mobile receivers. It is found that after block despreading operation, MC-DS-CDMA and CP-DS-CDMA have the same equalization blocks as OFDM and SCCP systems, respectively, therefore hardware and software sharing is possible for these systems. An attempt has also been made to map the functional reconfigurable transceiver onto the proposed hardware platform. The different functional entities which will be required to perform the reconfiguration and realize the transceiver are explained.

  2. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  3. An Overview of Reconfigurable Hardware in Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyin Fu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the realm of embedded systems has expanded to include a wide variety of products, ranging from digital cameras, to sensor networks, to medical imaging systems. Consequently, engineers strive to create ever smaller and faster products, many of which have stringent power requirements. Coupled with increasing pressure to decrease costs and time-to-market, the design constraints of embedded systems pose a serious challenge to embedded systems designers. Reconfigurable hardware can provide a flexible and efficient platform for satisfying the area, performance, cost, and power requirements of many embedded systems. This article presents an overview of reconfigurable computing in embedded systems, in terms of benefits it can provide, how it has already been used, design issues, and hurdles that have slowed its adoption.

  4. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  5. Desenvolvimento de hardware reconfigurável de criptografia assimétrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Souza Martins Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o resultado parcial do desenvolvimento de uma interface de hardware reconfigurável para criptografia assimétrica que permite a troca segura de dados. Hardwares reconfiguráveis permitem o desenvolvimento deste tipo de dispositivo com segurança e flexibilidade e possibilitam a mudança de características no projeto com baixo custo e de forma rápida.Palavras-chave: Criptografia. Hardware. ElGamal. FPGA. Segurança. Development of an asymmetric cryptography reconfigurable harwadre ABSTRACTThis paper presents some conclusions and choices about the development of an asymmetric cryptography reconfigurable hardware interface to allow a safe data communication. Reconfigurable hardwares allows the development of this kind of device with safety and flexibility, and offer the possibility to change some features with low cost and in a fast way.Keywords: Cryptography. Hardware. ElGamal. FPGAs. Security.

  6. Simple Approach For Induction Motor Control Using Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József VÁSÁRHELYI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with rotor-field-oriented vector control structures for the induction motor drives fed by the so-called tandem frequency converter. It is composed of two different types of DC-link converters connected in parallel arrangement. The larger-power one has current-source character and is operating synchronized in time and in amplitude with the stator currents. The other one has voltage-source character and it is the actuator of the motor control system. The drive is able to run also with partial-failed tandem converter, if the control strategy corresponds to the actual operating mode. A reconfigurable hardware implemented in configurable logic cells ensures the changing of the vector-control structure. The proposed control schemes were tested by simulation based on Matlab-Simulink model.

  7. Wireless synapses in bio-inspired neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin

    2009-05-01

    Wireless (virtual) synapses represent a novel approach to bio-inspired neural networks that follow the infrastructure of the biological brain, except that biological (physical) synapses are replaced by virtual ones based on cellular telephony modeling. Such synapses are of two types: intracluster synapses are based on IR wireless ones, while intercluster synapses are based on RF wireless ones. Such synapses have three unique features, atypical of conventional artificial ones: very high parallelism (close to that of the human brain), very high reconfigurability (easy to kill and to create), and very high plasticity (easy to modify or upgrade). In this paper we analyze the general concept of wireless synapses with special emphasis on RF wireless synapses. Also, biological mammalian (vertebrate) neural models are discussed for comparison, and a novel neural lensing effect is discussed in detail.

  8. A Framework for Hardware-Accelerated Services Using Partially Reconfigurable SoCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHIDON, O. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current trend towards ?Everything as a Service? fosters a new approach on reconfigurable hardware resources. This innovative, service-oriented approach has the potential of bringing a series of benefits for both reconfigurable and distributed computing fields by favoring a hardware-based acceleration of web services and increasing service performance. This paper proposes a framework for accelerating web services by offloading the compute-intensive tasks to reconfigurable System-on-Chip (SoC devices, as integrated IP (Intellectual Property cores. The framework provides a scalable, dynamic management of the tasks and hardware processing cores, based on dynamic partial reconfiguration of the SoC. We have enhanced security of the entire system by making use of the built-in detection features of the hardware device and also by implementing active counter-measures that protect the sensitive data.

  9. SABRE: a bio-inspired fault-tolerant electronic architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, P; Samie, M; Dragffy, G; Pipe, A G; Liu, Y; Tempesti, G; Timmis, J; Tyrrell, A M

    2013-01-01

    As electronic devices become increasingly complex, ensuring their reliable, fault-free operation is becoming correspondingly more challenging. It can be observed that, in spite of their complexity, biological systems are highly reliable and fault tolerant. Hence, we are motivated to take inspiration for biological systems in the design of electronic ones. In SABRE (self-healing cellular architectures for biologically inspired highly reliable electronic systems), we have designed a bio-inspired fault-tolerant hierarchical architecture for this purpose. As in biology, the foundation for the whole system is cellular in nature, with each cell able to detect faults in its operation and trigger intra-cellular or extra-cellular repair as required. At the next level in the hierarchy, arrays of cells are configured and controlled as function units in a transport triggered architecture (TTA), which is able to perform partial-dynamic reconfiguration to rectify problems that cannot be solved at the cellular level. Each TTA is, in turn, part of a larger multi-processor system which employs coarser grain reconfiguration to tolerate faults that cause a processor to fail. In this paper, we describe the details of operation of each layer of the SABRE hierarchy, and how these layers interact to provide a high systemic level of fault tolerance. (paper)

  10. Outline of a Hardware Reconfiguration Framework for Modular Industrial Mobile Manipulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper; Bøgh, Simon; Madsen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents concepts and ideas of a hard- ware reconfiguration framework for modular industrial mobile manipulators. Mobile manipulators pose a highly flexible pro- duction resource due to their ability to autonomously navigate between workstations. However, due to this high flexibility new...... approaches to the operation of the robots are needed. Reconfig- uring the robot to a new task should be carried out by shop floor operators and, thus, be both quick and intuitive. Late research has already proposed a method for intuitive robot programming. However, this relies on a predetermined hardware...... configuration. Finding a single multi-purpose hardware configuration suited to all tasks is considered unrealistic. As a result, the need for reconfiguration of the hardware is inevitable. In this paper an outline of a framework for making hardware reconfiguration quick and intuitive is presented. Two main...

  11. Fine-grain reconfigurable platform: FPGA hardware design and software toolset development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, I; Kalenteridis, V; Vassiliadis, N; Pournara, H; Siozios, K; Koutroumpezis, G; Tatas, K; Nikolaidis, S; Siskos, S; Soudris, D J; Thanailakis, A

    2005-01-01

    A complete system for the implementation of digital logic in a fine-grain reconfigurable platform is introduced. The system is composed of two parts. The fine-grain reconfigurable hardware platform (FPGA) on which the logic is implemented and the set of CAD tools for mapping logic to the FPGA platform. A novel energy-efficient FPGA architecture is presented (CLB, interconnect network, configuration hardware) and simulated in STM 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Concerning the tool flow, each tool can operate as a standalone program as well as part of a complete design framework, composed by existing and new tools

  12. Fine-grain reconfigurable platform: FPGA hardware design and software toolset development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, I [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kalenteridis, V [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Vassiliadis, N [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pournara, H [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Siozios, K [VLSI Design and Testing Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Koutroumpezis, G [VLSI Design and Testing Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Tatas, K [VLSI Design and Testing Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Nikolaidis, S [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Siskos, S [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece); Soudris, D J [VLSI Design and Testing Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Thanailakis, A [Electronics and Computers Div., Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54006 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2005-01-01

    A complete system for the implementation of digital logic in a fine-grain reconfigurable platform is introduced. The system is composed of two parts. The fine-grain reconfigurable hardware platform (FPGA) on which the logic is implemented and the set of CAD tools for mapping logic to the FPGA platform. A novel energy-efficient FPGA architecture is presented (CLB, interconnect network, configuration hardware) and simulated in STM 0.18 {mu}m CMOS technology. Concerning the tool flow, each tool can operate as a standalone program as well as part of a complete design framework, composed by existing and new tools.

  13. On-chip visual perception of motion: a bio-inspired connectionist model on FPGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Huitzil, César; Girau, Bernard; Castellanos-Sánchez, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Visual motion provides useful information to understand the dynamics of a scene to allow intelligent systems interact with their environment. Motion computation is usually restricted by real time requirements that need the design and implementation of specific hardware architectures. In this paper, the design of hardware architecture for a bio-inspired neural model for motion estimation is presented. The motion estimation is based on a strongly localized bio-inspired connectionist model with a particular adaptation of spatio-temporal Gabor-like filtering. The architecture is constituted by three main modules that perform spatial, temporal, and excitatory-inhibitory connectionist processing. The biomimetic architecture is modeled, simulated and validated in VHDL. The synthesis results on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device show the potential achievement of real-time performance at an affordable silicon area.

  14. Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Marcos, Vanesa; Leigh, David A

    2018-02-26

    The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines-which by and large function as switches-and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform more sophisticated tasks than is possible with any individual switch. Should we try to make molecular machines of greater complexity by trying to mimic machines from the macroscopic world or instead apply unfamiliar (and no doubt have to discover or invent currently unknown) mechanisms utilized by biological machines? Here we try to answer that question by exploring some of the advances made to date using bio-inspired machine mechanisms.

  15. Security challenges and opportunities in adaptive and reconfigurable hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Costan, Victor Marius; Devadas, Srinivas

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel approach to building hardware support for providing strong security guarantees for computations running in the cloud (shared hardware in massive data centers), while maintaining the high performance and low cost that make cloud computing attractive in the first place. We propose augmenting regular cloud servers with a Trusted Computation Base (TCB) that can securely perform high-performance computations. Our TCB achieves cost savings by spreading functionality across two pa...

  16. A Dynamic Reconfigurable Hardware/Software Architecture for Object Tracking in Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Bobda

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a feature tracker on an embedded reconfigurable hardware system. Contrary to other works, the focus here is on the efficient hardware/software partitioning of the feature tracker algorithm, a viable data flow management, as well as an efficient use of memory and processor features. The implementation is done on a Xilinx Spartan 3 evaluation board and the results provided show the superiority of our implementation compared to the other works.

  17. A Dynamic Reconfigurable Hardware/Software Architecture for Object Tracking in Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlbauer Felix

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a feature tracker on an embedded reconfigurable hardware system. Contrary to other works, the focus here is on the efficient hardware/software partitioning of the feature tracker algorithm, a viable data flow management, as well as an efficient use of memory and processor features. The implementation is done on a Xilinx Spartan 3 evaluation board and the results provided show the superiority of our implementation compared to the other works.

  18. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  19. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  20. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    must also minimize resource usage due to limitations on the amount of processing , memory and power onboard a node. BioAIR assumes the availability of...subsequent maintenance of tentacles, each node will take one of the following roles: “ orphan ”, “free”, “tip”, “backbone” or “extra”. The BioAIR...algorithm dictates that when a node is disconnected from the tentacle or origin it is an orphan , and as such it will change its target to the nearest

  1. High-performance reconfigurable hardware architecture for restricted Boltzmann machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Daniel Le; Chow, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Despite the popularity and success of neural networks in research, the number of resulting commercial or industrial applications has been limited. A primary cause for this lack of adoption is that neural networks are usually implemented as software running on general-purpose processors. Hence, a hardware implementation that can exploit the inherent parallelism in neural networks is desired. This paper investigates how the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), which is a popular type of neural network, can be mapped to a high-performance hardware architecture on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) platforms. The proposed modular framework is designed to reduce the time complexity of the computations through heavily customized hardware engines. A method to partition large RBMs into smaller congruent components is also presented, allowing the distribution of one RBM across multiple FPGA resources. The framework is tested on a platform of four Xilinx Virtex II-Pro XC2VP70 FPGAs running at 100 MHz through a variety of different configurations. The maximum performance was obtained by instantiating an RBM of 256 × 256 nodes distributed across four FPGAs, which resulted in a computational speed of 3.13 billion connection-updates-per-second and a speedup of 145-fold over an optimized C program running on a 2.8-GHz Intel processor.

  2. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  3. Reconfigurable ATCA hardware for plasma control and data acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.B., E-mail: bernardo@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Batista, A.J.N.; Correia, M.; Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Goncalves, B.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    The IST/EURATOM Association is developing a new generation of control and data acquisition hardware for fusion experiments based on the ATCA architecture. This emerging open standard offers a significantly higher data throughput over a reliable High Availability (HA) mechanical and electrical platform. One of this ATCA boards has 32 galvanically isolated ADC channels (18 bit) each mounted on a swappable plug-in card, 8 DAC channels (16 bit), 8 digital I/O channels and embeds a high performance XILINX Virtex 4 family field programmable gate array (FPGA). The specific modular and configurable hardware design enables adaptable utilization of the board in dissimilar applications. The first configuration, specially developed for tokamak plasma Vertical Stabilization, consists of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) controller that is capable of feedback loops faster than 1 ms using a multitude of input signals fed from different boards communicating through the Aurora{sup TM} point-to-point protocol. Massive parallel algorithms can be implemented on the FPGA either with programmed digital logic, using a HDL hardware description language, or within its internal silicon PowerPC{sup TM} running a full fledged real-time operating system. The second board configuration is dedicated for transient recording of the entire 32 channels at 2 MSamples/s to the on-board 512 MB DDR2 memory. Signal data retrieval is accelerated by a DMA-driven PCI Express{sup TM} x1 Interface to the ATCA system controller, providing an overall throughput in excess of 100 MB/s. This paper illustrates these developments and discusses possible configurations for foreseen applications.

  4. Software-Controlled Dynamically Swappable Hardware Design in Partially Reconfigurable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chun-Hsian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose two basic wrapper designs and an enhanced wrapper design for arbitrary digital hardware circuit designs such that they can be enhanced with the capability for dynamic swapping controlled by software. A hardware design with either of the proposed wrappers can thus be swapped out of the partially reconfigurable logic at runtime in some intermediate state of computation and then swapped in when required to continue from that state. The context data is saved to a buffer in the wrapper at interruptible states, and then the wrapper takes care of saving the hardware context to communication memory through a peripheral bus, and later restoring the hardware context after the design is swapped in. The overheads of the hardware standardization and the wrapper in terms of additional reconfigurable logic resources and the time for context switching are small and generally acceptable. With the capability for dynamic swapping, high priority hardware tasks can interrupt low-priority tasks in real-time embedded systems so that the utilization of hardware space per unit time is increased.

  5. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  6. Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

    2012-04-01

    Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

  7. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  8. A Message-Passing Hardware/Software Cosimulation Environment for Reconfigurable Computing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Saldaña

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance reconfigurable computers (HPRCs provide a mix of standard processors and FPGAs to collectively accelerate applications. This introduces new design challenges, such as the need for portable programming models across HPRCs and system-level verification tools. To address the need for cosimulating a complete heterogeneous application using both software and hardware in an HPRC, we have created a tool called the Message-passing Simulation Framework (MSF. We have used it to simulate and develop an interface enabling an MPI-based approach to exchange data between X86 processors and hardware engines inside FPGAs. The MSF can also be used as an application development tool that enables multiple FPGAs in simulation to exchange messages amongst themselves and with X86 processors. As an example, we simulate a LINPACK benchmark hardware core using an Intel-FSB-Xilinx-FPGA platform to quickly prototype the hardware, to test the communications. and to verify the benchmark results.

  9. Intrinsic Hardware Evolution for the Design and Reconfiguration of Analog Speed Controllers for a DC Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney, David A.; Ferguson, Michael I.

    2003-01-01

    Evolvable hardware provides the capability to evolve analog circuits to produce amplifier and filter functions. Conventional analog controller designs employ these same functions. Analog controllers for the control of the shaft speed of a DC motor are evolved on an evolvable hardware platform utilizing a second generation Field Programmable Transistor Array (FPTA2). The performance of an evolved controller is compared to that of a conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller. It is shown that hardware evolution is able to create a compact design that provides good performance, while using considerably less functional electronic components than the conventional design. Additionally, the use of hardware evolution to provide fault tolerance by reconfiguring the design is explored. Experimental results are presented showing that significant recovery of capability can be made in the face of damaging induced faults.

  10. Radiation Mitigation and Power Optimization Design Tools for Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Matthew; Graham, Paul; Wirthlin, Michael; Wang, Li; Larchev, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Hardware in Orbit (RHinO)project is focused on creating a set of design tools that facilitate and automate design techniques for reconfigurable computing in space, using SRAM-based field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) technology. In the second year of the project, design tools that leverage an established FPGA design environment have been created to visualize and analyze an FPGA circuit for radiation weaknesses and power inefficiencies. For radiation, a single event Upset (SEU) emulator, persistence analysis tool, and a half-latch removal tool for Xilinx/Virtex-II devices have been created. Research is underway on a persistence mitigation tool and multiple bit upsets (MBU) studies. For power, synthesis level dynamic power visualization and analysis tools have been completed. Power optimization tools are under development and preliminary test results are positive.

  11. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  12. Efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture for accurately computing success probability and data complexity of linear attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Kavun, Elif Bilge; Tischhauser, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    An accurate estimation of the success probability and data complexity of linear cryptanalysis is a fundamental question in symmetric cryptography. In this paper, we propose an efficient reconfigurable hardware architecture to compute the success probability and data complexity of Matsui's Algorithm...... block lengths ensures that any empirical observations are not due to differences in statistical behavior for artificially small block lengths. Rather surprisingly, we observed in previous experiments a significant deviation between the theory and practice for Matsui's Algorithm 2 for larger block sizes...

  13. A Hardware Accelerator for Fault Simulation Utilizing a Reconfigurable Array Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Kang

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce cost and to achieve high speed a new hardware accelerator for fault simulation has been designed. The architecture of the new accelerator is based on a reconfigurabl mesh type processing element (PE array. Circuit elements at the same topological level are simulated concurrently, as in a pipelined process. A new parallel simulation algorithm expands all of the gates to two input gates in order to limit the number of faults to two at each gate, so that the faults can be distributed uniformly throughout the PE array. The PE array reconfiguration operation provides a simulation speed advantage by maximizing the use of each PE cell.

  14. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  15. Exploring Creativity in the Bio-Inspired Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggakara, K.; Aksdal, T.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the of field bio-inspired design has been driven by the acknowledgement that inspiration from nature can serve as a valuable source of innovation. As an emerging approach, there has been a focus on building a principled methodology to address the challenges that arise...

  16. 3D Printing of Bio-inspired surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez Ribó, Macarena; Islam, Aminul

    The ability of the gecko to scurry across smooth or rough surfaces, regardless of inclination (vertical or even upside down), has been traced to the multiscale hierarchical structures of the gecko toe [1 - 3]. Considering all the strategies to manufacture bio-inspired surfaces, the most common is...

  17. Bio Inspired Algorithms in Single and Multiobjective Reliability Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Burtschy, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Non-traditional search and optimization methods based on natural phenomena have been proposed recently in order to avoid local or unstable behavior when run towards an optimum state. This paper describes the principles of bio inspired algorithms and reports on Migration Algorithms and Bees...

  18. Self-sufficiency of an autonomous reconfigurable modular robotic organism

    CERN Document Server

    Qadir, Raja Humza

    2015-01-01

    This book describes how the principle of self-sufficiency can be applied to a reconfigurable modular robotic organism. It shows the design considerations for a novel REPLICATOR robotic platform, both hardware and software, featuring the behavioral characteristics of social insect colonies. Following a comprehensive overview of some of the bio-inspired techniques already available, and of the state-of-the-art in re-configurable modular robotic systems, the book presents a novel power management system with fault-tolerant energy sharing, as well as its implementation in the REPLICATOR robotic modules. In addition, the book discusses, for the first time, the concept of “artificial energy homeostasis” in the context of a modular robotic organism, and shows its verification on a custom-designed simulation framework in different dynamic power distribution and fault tolerance scenarios. This book offers an ideal reference guide for both hardware engineers and software developers involved in the design and implem...

  19. Constrained VPH+: a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired crawling robot with customized ultrasonic scanning sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Akshay; Elara, Mohan Rajesh; Elangovan, Karthikeyan

    This paper aims to develop a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired, reconfigurable crawling robot. A detailed description of the robotic platform is first provided, and the suitability for deployment of each of the current state-of-the-art local path planners is analyzed after an extensive literature review. The Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram algorithm is described and reformulated to better fit the requirements of the platform. The algorithm is deployed on the robotic platform in crawling configuration and favorably compared with other state-of-the-art local path planning algorithms.

  20. Bio-inspired optical rotation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, David C.; Shoemaker, Patrick A.; Brinkworth, Russell S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditional approaches to calculating self-motion from visual information in artificial devices have generally relied on object identification and/or correlation of image sections between successive frames. Such calculations are computationally expensive and real-time digital implementation requires powerful processors. In contrast flies arrive at essentially the same outcome, the estimation of self-motion, in a much smaller package using vastly less power. Despite the potential advantages and a few notable successes, few neuromorphic analog VLSI devices based on biological vision have been employed in practical applications to date. This paper describes a hardware implementation in aVLSI of our recently developed adaptive model for motion detection. The chip integrates motion over a linear array of local motion processors to give a single voltage output. Although the device lacks on-chip photodetectors, it includes bias circuits to use currents from external photodiodes, and we have integrated it with a ring-array of 40 photodiodes to form a visual rotation sensor. The ring configuration reduces pattern noise and combined with the pixel-wise adaptive characteristic of the underlying circuitry, permits a robust output that is proportional to image rotational velocity over a large range of speeds, and is largely independent of either mean luminance or the spatial structure of the image viewed. In principle, such devices could be used as an element of a velocity-based servo to replace or augment inertial guidance systems in applications such as mUAVs.

  1. Distance-Ranked Fault Identification of Reconfigurable Hardware Bitstreams via Functional Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Imran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distance-Ranked Fault Identification (DRFI is a dynamic reconfiguration technique which employs runtime inputs to conduct online functional testing of fielded FPGA logic and interconnect resources without test vectors. At design time, a diverse set of functionally identical bitstream configurations are created which utilize alternate hardware resources in the FPGA fabric. An ordering is imposed on the configuration pool as updated by the PageRank indexing precedence. The configurations which utilize permanently damaged resources and hence manifest discrepant outputs, receive lower rank are thus less preferred for instantiation on the FPGA. Results indicate accurate identification of fault-free configurations in a pool of pregenerated bitstreams with a low number of reconfigurations and input evaluations. For MCNC benchmark circuits, the observed reduction in input evaluations is up to 75% when comparing the DRFI technique to unguided evaluation. The DRFI diagnosis method is seen to isolate all 14 healthy configurations from a pool of 100 pregenerated configurations, and thereby offering a 100% isolation accuracy provided the fault-free configurations exist in the design pool. When a complete recovery is not feasible, graceful degradation may be realized which is demonstrated by the PSNR improvement of images processed in a video encoder case study.

  2. Reconfiguration of NASA GRC's Vacuum Facility 6 for Testing of Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Peter Y.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Yim, John T.; Haag, Thomas W.; Mackey, Jonathan A.; McVetta, Michael S.; Sorrelle, Luke T.; Tomsik, Thomas M.; Gilligan, Ryan P.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) 12.5 kW Hall thruster has been the subject of extensive technology maturation in preparation for development into a flight propulsion system. The HERMeS thruster is being developed and tested at NASA GRC and NASA JPL through support of the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) and is intended to be used as the electric propulsion system on the Power and Propulsion Element (PPE) of the recently announced Deep Space Gateway (DSG). The Advanced Electric Propulsion System (AEPS) contract was awarded to Aerojet-Rocketdyne to develop the HERMeS system into a flight system for use by NASA. To address the hardware test needs of the AEPS project, NASA GRC launched an effort to reconfigure Vacuum Facility 6 (VF-6) for high-power electric propulsion testing including upgrades and reconfigurations necessary to conduct performance, plasma plume, and system level integration testing. Results of the verification and validation testing with HERMeS Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU)-1 and TDU-3 Hall thrusters are also included.

  3. Hardware And Software Architectures For Reconfigurable Time-Critical Control Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Piłat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most popular configuration of the controlled laboratory test-rigs is the personalcomputer (PC equipped with the I/O board. The dedicated software components allowsto conduct a wide range of user-defined tasks. The typical configuration functionality canbe customized by PC hardware components and their programmable reconfiguration. Thenext step in the automatic control system design is the embedded solution. Usually, thedesign process of the embedded control system is supported by the high-level software. Thededicated programming tools support multitasking property of the microcontroller by selectionof different sampling frequencies of algorithm blocks. In this case the multi-layer andmultitasking control strategy can be realized on the chip. The proposed solutions implementrapid prototyping approach. The available toolkits and device drivers integrate system-leveldesign environment and the real-time application software, transferring the functionality ofMATLAB/Simulink programs to PCs or microcontrolers application environment.

  4. Creating a Bio-Inspired Solution to Prevent Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reher, R.; Martinez, A.; Cola, J.; Frost, D.

    2016-12-01

    Through the study of geophysical sciences, lessons can be developed which allow for the introduction of bio-inspired design and art concepts to K-5 elementary students. Students are placed into an engineering mindset in which they must apply the concepts of bio-geotechnics to observe how we can use nature to prevent and abate erosion. Problems are staged for students using realistic engineering scenarios such as erosion prevention through biomimicry and the study of anchorage characteristics of root structures in regard to stability of soil. Specifically, a lesson is introduced where students research, learn, and present information about bio-inspired designs to understand these concepts. They lean how plant roots differ in size and shape to stabilize soil. In addition, students perform a series of hands-on experiments which demonstrate how bio-cements and roots can slow erosion.

  5. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  6. Nature as an engineer: one simple concept of a bio-inspired functional artificial muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, S; Haeufle, D F B; Günther, M; Blickhan, R

    2012-01-01

    The biological muscle is a powerful, flexible and versatile actuator. Its intrinsic characteristics determine the way how movements are generated and controlled. Robotic and prosthetic applications expect to profit from relying on bio-inspired actuators which exhibit natural (muscle-like) characteristics. As of today, when constructing a technical actuator, it is not possible to copy the exact molecular structure of a biological muscle. Alternatively, the question may be put how its characteristics can be realized with known mechanical components. Recently, a mechanical construct for an artificial muscle was proposed, which exhibits hyperbolic force–velocity characteristics. In this paper, we promote the constructing concept which is made by substantiating the mechanical design of biological muscle by a simple model, proving the feasibility of its real-world implementation, and checking their output both for mutual consistency and agreement with biological measurements. In particular, the relations of force, enthalpy rate and mechanical efficiency versus contraction velocity of both the construct’s technical implementation and its numerical model were determined in quick-release experiments. All model predictions for these relations and the hardware results are now in good agreement with the biological literature. We conclude that the construct represents a mechanical concept of natural actuation, which is suitable for laying down some useful suggestions when designing bio-inspired actuators. (paper)

  7. Nature as an engineer: one simple concept of a bio-inspired functional artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, S; Haeufle, D F B; Blickhan, R; Günther, M

    2012-09-01

    The biological muscle is a powerful, flexible and versatile actuator. Its intrinsic characteristics determine the way how movements are generated and controlled. Robotic and prosthetic applications expect to profit from relying on bio-inspired actuators which exhibit natural (muscle-like) characteristics. As of today, when constructing a technical actuator, it is not possible to copy the exact molecular structure of a biological muscle. Alternatively, the question may be put how its characteristics can be realized with known mechanical components. Recently, a mechanical construct for an artificial muscle was proposed, which exhibits hyperbolic force-velocity characteristics. In this paper, we promote the constructing concept which is made by substantiating the mechanical design of biological muscle by a simple model, proving the feasibility of its real-world implementation, and checking their output both for mutual consistency and agreement with biological measurements. In particular, the relations of force, enthalpy rate and mechanical efficiency versus contraction velocity of both the construct's technical implementation and its numerical model were determined in quick-release experiments. All model predictions for these relations and the hardware results are now in good agreement with the biological literature. We conclude that the construct represents a mechanical concept of natural actuation, which is suitable for laying down some useful suggestions when designing bio-inspired actuators.

  8. Material requirements for bio-inspired sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter; Lloyd, Peter; Salmond, David; Kusterbeck, Anne

    2008-10-01

    The aim of developing bio-inspired sensing systems is to try and emulate the amazing sensitivity and specificity observed in the natural world. These capabilities have evolved, often for specific tasks, which provide the organism with an advantage in its fight to survive and prosper. Capabilities cover a wide range of sensing functions including vision, temperature, hearing, touch, taste and smell. For some functions, the capabilities of natural systems are still greater than that achieved by traditional engineering solutions; a good example being a dog's sense of smell. Furthermore, attempting to emulate aspects of biological optics, processing and guidance may lead to more simple and effective devices. A bio-inspired sensing system is much more than the sensory mechanism. A system will need to collect samples, especially if pathogens or chemicals are of interest. Other functions could include the provision of power, surfaces and receptors, structure, locomotion and control. In fact it is possible to conceive of a complete bio-inspired system concept which is likely to be radically different from more conventional approaches. This concept will be described and individual component technologies considered.

  9. RAIN: A Bio-Inspired Communication and Data Storage Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Matteo; Rasmussen, Steen

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the results and perspectives from a companion article, where we presented and evaluated an alternative architecture for data storage in distributed networks. We name the bio-inspired architecture RAIN, and it offers file storage service that, in contrast with current centralized cloud storage, has privacy by design, is open source, is more secure, is scalable, is more sustainable, has community ownership, is inexpensive, and is potentially faster, more efficient, and more reliable. We propose that a RAIN-style architecture could form the backbone of the Internet of Things that likely will integrate multiple current and future infrastructures ranging from online services and cryptocurrency to parts of government administration.

  10. Herramienta para programar un controlador lógico programable basado en hardware reconfigurable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Moreno Vega

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} El presente trabajo se basa en el desarrollo de una herramienta que permita programar un controlador lógico programable (PLC basado en hardware reconfigurable. El desarrollo de la aplicación está  sustentado por una de las metodologías ágiles descrita por XP, utilizando las técnicas de modelación establecidas por el Lenguaje Unificado de Modelado (UML y haciendo uso de una potente herramienta de programación y diseño de interfaces gráficas como es Qt. La programación del PLC se realiza mediante el lenguaje de escalera, atendiendo la norma IEC 61131-3.

  11. EAP artificial muscle actuators for bio-inspired intelligent social robotics (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, David F.

    2017-04-01

    Bio-inspired intelligent robots are coming of age in both research and industry, propelling market growth for robots and A.I. However, conventional motors limit bio-inspired robotics. EAP actuators and sensors could improve the simplicity, compliance, physical scaling, and offer bio-inspired advantages in robotic locomotion, grasping and manipulation, and social expressions. For EAP actuators to realize their transformative potential, further innovations are needed: the actuators must be robust, fast, powerful, manufacturable, and affordable. This presentation surveys progress, opportunities, and challenges in the author's latest work in social robots and EAP actuators, and proposes a roadmap for EAP actuators in bio-inspired intelligent robotics.

  12. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  13. Bio-Inspired Cyber Security for Smart Grid Deployments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinnon, Archibald D.; Thompson, Seth R.; Doroshchuk, Ruslan A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2013-05-01

    mart grid technologies are transforming the electric power grid into a grid with bi-directional flows of both power and information. Operating millions of new smart meters and smart appliances will significantly impact electric distribution systems resulting in greater efficiency. However, the scale of the grid and the new types of information transmitted will potentially introduce several security risks that cannot be addressed by traditional, centralized security techniques. We propose a new bio-inspired cyber security approach. Social insects, such as ants and bees, have developed complex-adaptive systems that emerge from the collective application of simple, light-weight behaviors. The Digital Ants framework is a bio-inspired framework that uses mobile light-weight agents. Sensors within the framework use digital pheromones to communicate with each other and to alert each other of possible cyber security issues. All communication and coordination is both localized and decentralized thereby allowing the framework to scale across the large numbers of devices that will exist in the smart grid. Furthermore, the sensors are light-weight and therefore suitable for implementation on devices with limited computational resources. This paper will provide a brief overview of the Digital Ants framework and then present results from test bed-based demonstrations that show that Digital Ants can identify a cyber attack scenario against smart meter deployments.

  14. Introducing Students to Bio-Inspiration and Biomimetic Design: A Workshop Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santulli, Carlo; Langella, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bio-inspired approach to design has gained considerable interest between designers, engineers and end-users. However, there are difficulties in introducing bio-inspiration concepts in the university curriculum in that they involve multi-disciplinary work, which can only possibly be successfully delivered by a team with integrated…

  15. Optimal Design of a Bio-Inspired Anthropocentric Shoulder Rehabilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired anthropocentric 7-DOF wearable robotic arm for the purpose of stroke rehabilitation. The proposed arm rehabilitator synergistically utilizes the human arm structure with non-invasive kinematically under-deterministic cable-driven mechanisms to form a completely deterministic structure. It offers the advantages of being lightweight and having high dexterity. Adopting an anthropocentric design concept also allows it to conform to the human anatomical structure. The focus of this paper is on the analysis and design of the 3-DOF-shoulder module, called the shoulder rehabilitator. The design methodology is divided into three main steps: (1 performance evaluation of the cable-driven shoulder rehabilitator, (2 performance requirements of the shoulder joint based on its physiological characteristics and (3 design optimization of the shoulder rehabilitator based on shoulder joint physiological limitations. The aim is to determine a suitable configuration for the development of a shoulder rehabilitator prototype.

  16. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  17. Bio-Inspired Asynchronous Pixel Event Tricolor Vision Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenero-Bardallo, Juan Antonio; Bryn, D H; Hafliger, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    This article investigates the potential of the first ever prototype of a vision sensor that combines tricolor stacked photo diodes with the bio-inspired asynchronous pixel event communication protocol known as Address Event Representation (AER). The stacked photo diodes are implemented in a 22 × 22 pixel array in a standard STM 90 nm CMOS process. Dynamic range is larger than 60 dB and pixels fill factor is 28%. The pixels employ either simple pulse frequency modulation (PFM) or a Time-to-First-Spike (TFS) mode. A heuristic linear combination of the chip's inherent pseudo colors serves to approximate RGB color representation. Furthermore, the sensor outputs can be processed to represent the radiation in the near infrared (NIR) band without employing external filters, and to color-encode direction of motion due to an asymmetry in the update rates of the different diode layers.

  18. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    of animals and human arms approaching to a fixed or moving target for grasping or capturing. The autonomous flight control was also implemented through a PID controller. Autonomous flight performance was proved through simulation in SimMechanics. Finally, the prototyping of our designs were conducted in different generations of our bio-inspired UAV perching system, which include the leg prototype, gripper prototype, and system prototype. Both the machined prototype and 3D printed prototype were tried. The performance of these prototypes was tested through experiments.

  19. Bio-inspired Autonomic Structures: a middleware for Telecommunications Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzalini, Antonio; Minerva, Roberto; Moiso, Corrado

    Today, people are making use of several devices for communications, for accessing multi-media content services, for data/information retrieving, for processing, computing, etc.: examples are laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, digital cameras, mp3 players, smart cards and smart appliances. One of the most attracting service scenarios for future Telecommunications and Internet is the one where people will be able to browse any object in the environment they live: communications, sensing and processing of data and services will be highly pervasive. In this vision, people, machines, artifacts and the surrounding space will create a kind of computational environment and, at the same time, the interfaces to the network resources. A challenging technological issue will be interconnection and management of heterogeneous systems and a huge amount of small devices tied together in networks of networks. Moreover, future network and service infrastructures should be able to provide Users and Application Developers (at different levels, e.g., residential Users but also SMEs, LEs, ASPs/Web2.0 Service roviders, ISPs, Content Providers, etc.) with the most appropriate "environment" according to their context and specific needs. Operators must be ready to manage such level of complication enabling their latforms with technological advanced allowing network and services self-supervision and self-adaptation capabilities. Autonomic software solutions, enhanced with innovative bio-inspired mechanisms and algorithms, are promising areas of long term research to face such challenges. This chapter proposes a bio-inspired autonomic middleware capable of leveraging the assets of the underlying network infrastructure whilst, at the same time, supporting the development of future Telecommunications and Internet Ecosystems.

  20. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G.; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel; Bennett, John W.; Ellis, Amanda V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Natural zeolites were modified with bio-inspired polydopamine. • A 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity was observed. • Atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis gave corroborative results. • Neutron activation analysis was used to provide accurate information on 30+ elements. • Approximately 90% of the adsorbed copper could be recovered by 0.1 M HCl treatment. - Abstract: Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2–5.5), PDA treatment time (3–24 h), contact time (0 to 24 h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500 mg dm −3 ) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93 mg g −1 for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58 mg g −1 for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01 M or 0.1 M) of either acid or base

  1. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia); Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia); Bennett, John W. [Centre for Nuclear Applications, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: Amanda.Ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Natural zeolites were modified with bio-inspired polydopamine. • A 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity was observed. • Atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis gave corroborative results. • Neutron activation analysis was used to provide accurate information on 30+ elements. • Approximately 90% of the adsorbed copper could be recovered by 0.1 M HCl treatment. - Abstract: Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2–5.5), PDA treatment time (3–24 h), contact time (0 to 24 h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500 mg dm{sup −3}) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93 mg g{sup −1} for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58 mg g{sup −1} for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01 M or 0.1 M) of either acid or base.

  2. HoneyComb: An Application-Driven Online Adaptive Reconfigurable Hardware Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the introduction of the first reconfigurable devices in 1985 the field of reconfigurable computing developed a broad variety of architectures from fine-grained to coarse-grained types. However, the main disadvantages of the reconfigurable approaches, the costs in area, and power consumption, are still present. This contribution presents a solution for application-driven adaptation of our reconfigurable architecture at register transfer level (RTL to reduce the resource requirements and power consumption while keeping the flexibility and performance for a predefined set of applications. Furthermore, implemented runtime adaptive features like online routing and configuration sequencing will be presented and discussed. A presentation of the prototype chip of this architecture designed in 90 nm standard cell technology manufactured by TSMC will conclude this contribution.

  3. Methodology for Designing and Developing a New Ultra-Wideband Antenna Based on Bio-Inspired Optimization Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    on Bio -Inspired Optimization Techniques by Canh Ly, Nghia Tran, and Ozlem Kilic Approved for public release; distribution is...Research Laboratory Methodology for Designing and Developing a New Ultra-Wideband Antenna Based on Bio -Inspired Optimization Techniques by...SUBTITLE Methodology for Designing and Developing a New Ultra-Wideband Antenna Based on Bio -Inspired Optimization Techniques 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  4. Bio-inspired online variable recruitment control of fluidic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    This paper details the creation of a hybrid variable recruitment control scheme for fluidic artificial muscle (FAM) actuators with an emphasis on maximizing system efficiency and switching control performance. Variable recruitment is the process of altering a system’s active number of actuators, allowing operation in distinct force regimes. Previously, FAM variable recruitment was only quantified with offline, manual valve switching; this study addresses the creation and characterization of novel, on-line FAM switching control algorithms. The bio-inspired algorithms are implemented in conjunction with a PID and model-based controller, and applied to a simulated plant model. Variable recruitment transition effects and chatter rejection are explored via a sensitivity analysis, allowing a system designer to weigh tradeoffs in actuator modeling, algorithm choice, and necessary hardware. Variable recruitment is further developed through simulation of a robotic arm tracking a variety of spline position inputs, requiring several levels of actuator recruitment. Switching controller performance is quantified and compared with baseline systems lacking variable recruitment. The work extends current variable recruitment knowledge by creating novel online variable recruitment control schemes, and exploring how online actuator recruitment affects system efficiency and control performance. Key topics associated with implementing a variable recruitment scheme, including the effects of modeling inaccuracies, hardware considerations, and switching transition concerns are also addressed.

  5. A Compact VLSI System for Bio-Inspired Visual Motion Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Cong; Luo, Gang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a bio-inspired visual motion estimation algorithm based on motion energy, along with its compact very-large-scale integration (VLSI) architecture using low-cost embedded systems. The algorithm mimics motion perception functions of retina, V1, and MT neurons in a primate visual system. It involves operations of ternary edge extraction, spatiotemporal filtering, motion energy extraction, and velocity integration. Moreover, we propose the concept of confidence map to indicate the reliability of estimation results on each probing location. Our algorithm involves only additions and multiplications during runtime, which is suitable for low-cost hardware implementation. The proposed VLSI architecture employs multiple (frame, pixel, and operation) levels of pipeline and massively parallel processing arrays to boost the system performance. The array unit circuits are optimized to minimize hardware resource consumption. We have prototyped the proposed architecture on a low-cost field-programmable gate array platform (Zynq 7020) running at 53-MHz clock frequency. It achieved 30-frame/s real-time performance for velocity estimation on 160 × 120 probing locations. A comprehensive evaluation experiment showed that the estimated velocity by our prototype has relatively small errors (average endpoint error < 0.5 pixel and angular error < 10°) for most motion cases.

  6. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  7. Projeto e desenvolvimento de um hardware reconfigurável de criptografia para a transmissão segura de dados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Souza Martins Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho serão mostradas algumas conclusões prévias e escolhas realizadas para o desenvolvimento de uma interface de criptografia simétrica, utilizando hardware reconfigurável para a transmissão segura de dados. Os dispositivos reconfiguráveis permitem o desenvolvimento deste hardware de maneira segura e com uma grande flexibilidade, além da possibilidade de realizar algumas alterações com um mínimo de custo e tempo adicionais. Até o momento foram desenvolvidos os modelos para a implementação. O próximo passo será iniciar o desenvolvimento do hardware, que utilizará linguagens de descrição de hardware e Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs.Palavras-chave: Segurança. FPGA. PSoC. 3DES. VHDL. Design and development of an cryptography reconfigurable hardware for secure data trasmissionABSTRACTThis paper presents some conclusions and choices about the development of a symmetric cryptography reconfigurable hardware interface to allow a safe data communication. Reconfigurable hardwares allow the development of this kind of device with safety and flexibility, and offer the possibility to change some features with low cost and in a fast way. So far, the hardware models and functionalities were developed. The next step is to start the hardware implementation, which will use hardware description languages and FPGAs.Keywords: Security. FPGA. PSoC. 3DES. VHDL.

  8. Biomimetic and bio-inspired uses of mollusc shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J P; Wang, Y; Backeljau, T; Chapelle, G

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and ocean acidification are likely to have a profound effect on marine molluscs, which are of great ecological and economic importance. One process particularly sensitive to climate change is the formation of biominerals in mollusc shells. Fundamental research is broadening our understanding of the biomineralization process, as well as providing more informed predictions on the effects of climate change on marine molluscs. Such studies are important in their own right, but their value also extends to applied sciences. Biominerals, organic/inorganic hybrid materials with many remarkable physical and chemical properties, have been studied for decades, and the possibilities for future improved use of such materials for society are widely recognised. This article highlights the potential use of our understanding of the shell biomineralization process in novel bio-inspired and biomimetic applications. It also highlights the potential for the valorisation of shells produced as a by-product of the aquaculture industry. Studying shells and the formation of biominerals will inspire novel functional hybrid materials. It may also provide sustainable, ecologically- and economically-viable solutions to some of the problems created by current human resource exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bio-inspired materials engineering using polysaccharide based biotemplates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollfrank, C.

    2007-01-01

    Nano-structured materials with a controlled microstructure and tailored properties at a scale below 100 nm are of interest for applications in micro-mechanical, sensor and biomedical devices. In contrast to top-down manufacturing processes the formation of solid matter structures in nature is templated and directed by biomacromolecules such as polysaccharides and polypeptides. A promising biomimetic route for the directed deposition of ceramic materials is the application of anisotropically structured biomacromolecules as patterned templates. The polysaccharides exhibit a hierarchical multi scale order as well as self-assembly properties. The bio-inspired deposition and formation of ceramic phases on biomolecular polysaccharide templates was investigated. The polysaccharides were used at various structural levels from the molecular scale up to three-dimensional parts in the millimetre range. The versatility of polysaccharide shaping capabilities was explored using dissolved polysaccharide molecules as well as thin films for the or simultaneous or successive formation of inorganic mineral phases. Microalgae with a spherical appearance of 5 micro-m were applied in mineralisation studies. The extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) layers on the microalgae were used as biotemplates for manufacturing of functional ceramics. The obtained results on the mineralisation of inorganic phases on polysaccharides are adapted for novel biomimetic routes used in the fabrication for functional and biomedical ceramics. (author)

  10. Engineered bio-inspired coating for reduction of flow separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Hamed, Ali M.; Gorumlu, Serdar; Doosttalab, Ali; Aksak, Burak; Chamorro, Leonardo P.; Castillo, Luciano

    2017-11-01

    Flow control using passive strategies has received notable attention in the last decades as a way to increase mixing and reduce skin drag, among others. Here, we present a bio-inspired coating, composed by uniformly distributed pillars with diverging tips, that is able to reduce the recirculation region in highly separated flows. This is demonstrated with laboratory experiments in a refractive index-matching flume at Reynolds number Reθ 1200 . The flow over an expanding channel following a S835 wing section was characterized with the coating and with smooth walls. High-resolution, wall-normal particle image velocimetry show a significant reduction of the reversed flow with the coating, where the region with reverse flow was reduced by 60 % . The performance of the micro-scale coating is surprising since the size of the fibers are nearly coincident with the viscous length scale (k+ 1). Additionally, the flow control properties of the surface do not depend on hydrophobicity, giving the coating the capability to work in both air and water media.

  11. A bio-inspired memory model for structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong

    2009-04-01

    Long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) systems need intelligent management of the monitoring data. By analogy with the way the human brain processes memories, we present a bio-inspired memory model (BIMM) that does not require prior knowledge of the structure parameters. The model contains three time-domain areas: a sensory memory area, a short-term memory area and a long-term memory area. First, the initial parameters of the structural state are specified to establish safety criteria. Then the large amount of monitoring data that falls within the safety limits is filtered while the data outside the safety limits are captured instantly in the sensory memory area. Second, disturbance signals are distinguished from danger signals in the short-term memory area. Finally, the stable data of the structural balance state are preserved in the long-term memory area. A strategy for priority scheduling via fuzzy c-means for the proposed model is then introduced. An experiment on bridge tower deformation demonstrates that the proposed model can be applied for real-time acquisition, limited-space storage and intelligent mining of the monitoring data in a long-term SHM system.

  12. A bio-inspired memory model for structural health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) systems need intelligent management of the monitoring data. By analogy with the way the human brain processes memories, we present a bio-inspired memory model (BIMM) that does not require prior knowledge of the structure parameters. The model contains three time-domain areas: a sensory memory area, a short-term memory area and a long-term memory area. First, the initial parameters of the structural state are specified to establish safety criteria. Then the large amount of monitoring data that falls within the safety limits is filtered while the data outside the safety limits are captured instantly in the sensory memory area. Second, disturbance signals are distinguished from danger signals in the short-term memory area. Finally, the stable data of the structural balance state are preserved in the long-term memory area. A strategy for priority scheduling via fuzzy c-means for the proposed model is then introduced. An experiment on bridge tower deformation demonstrates that the proposed model can be applied for real-time acquisition, limited-space storage and intelligent mining of the monitoring data in a long-term SHM system

  13. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  14. Bio-inspired color sketch for eco-friendly printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2012-01-01

    Saving of toner/ink consumption is an important task in modern printing devices. It has a positive ecological and social impact. We propose technique for converting print-job pictures to a recognizable and pleasant color sketches. Drawing a "pencil sketch" from a photo relates to a special area in image processing and computer graphics - non-photorealistic rendering. We describe a new approach for automatic sketch generation which allows to create well-recognizable sketches and to preserve partly colors of the initial picture. Our sketches contain significantly less color dots then initial images and this helps to save toner/ink. Our bio-inspired approach is based on sophisticated edge detection technique for a mask creation and multiplication of source image with increased contrast by this mask. To construct the mask we use DoG edge detection, which is a result of blending of initial image with its blurred copy through the alpha-channel, which is created from Saliency Map according to Pre-attentive Human Vision model. Measurement of percentage of saved toner and user study proves effectiveness of proposed technique for toner saving in eco-friendly printing mode.

  15. A tracked robot with novel bio-inspired passive "legs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Jing, Xingjian

    2017-01-01

    For track-based robots, an important aspect is the suppression design, which determines the trafficability and comfort of the whole system. The trafficability limits the robot's working capability, and the riding comfort limits the robot's working effectiveness, especially with some sensitive instruments mounted on or operated. To these aims, a track-based robot equipped with a novel passive bio-inspired suspension is designed and studied systematically in this paper. Animal or insects have very special leg or limb structures which are good for motion control and adaptable to different environments. Inspired by this, a new track-based robot is designed with novel "legs" for connecting the loading wheels to the robot body. Each leg is designed with passive structures and can achieve very high loading capacity but low dynamic stiffness such that the robot can move on rough ground similar to a multi-leg animal or insect. Therefore, the trafficability and riding comfort can be significantly improved without losing loading capacity. The new track-based robot can be well applied to various engineering tasks for providing a stable moving platform of high mobility, better trafficability and excellent loading capacity.

  16. A bio-inspired electrocommunication system for small underwater robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Liu, Jindong; Xie, Guangming; Wen, Li; Zhang, Jianwei

    2017-03-29

    Weakly electric fishes (Gymnotid and Mormyrid) use an electric field to communicate efficiently (termed electrocommunication) in the turbid waters of confined spaces where other communication modalities fail. Inspired by this biological phenomenon, we design an artificial electrocommunication system for small underwater robots and explore the capabilities of such an underwater robotic communication system. An analytical model for electrocommunication is derived to predict the effect of the key parameters such as electrode distance and emitter current of the system on the communication performance. According to this model, a low-dissipation, and small-sized electrocommunication system is proposed and integrated into a small robotic fish. We characterize the communication performance of the robot in still water, flowing water, water with obstacles and natural water conditions. The results show that underwater robots are able to communicate electrically at a speed of around 1 k baud within about 3 m with a low power consumption (less than 1 W). In addition, we demonstrate that two leader-follower robots successfully achieve motion synchronization through electrocommunication in the three-dimensional underwater space, indicating that this bio-inspired electrocommunication system is a promising setup for the interaction of small underwater robots.

  17. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  18. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  19. Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially...

  20. 7th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Pramod; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Nagar, Atulya

    2013-01-01

    The book is a collection of high quality peer reviewed research papers presented in Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing (BIC-TA 2012) held at ABV-IIITM Gwalior, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of "Computational Intelligence". The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of nature/bio-inspired computing and presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of novel computational techniques.

  1. Bio-Inspired Design Approach Analysis: A Case Study of Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Imani

    2017-01-01

    Antoni Gaudi and Santiago Calatrava have reputation for designing bio-inspired creative and technical buildings. Even though they have followed different independent approaches towards design, the source of bio-inspiration seems to be common. Taking a closer look at their projects reveals that Calatrava has been influenced by Gaudi in terms of interpreting nature and applying natural principles into the design process. This research firstly discusses the dialogue between Biomimicry and archit...

  2. Bio-inspired aquatic robotics by untethered piezohydroelastic actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cen, L; Erturk, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates fish-like aquatic robotics using flexible bimorphs made of macro-fiber composite (MFC) piezoelectric laminates for carangiform locomotion. In addition to noiseless and efficient actuation over a range of frequencies, geometric scalability, and simple design, bimorph propulsors made of MFCs offer a balance between the actuation force and velocity response for performance enhancement in bio-inspired swimming. The experimental component of the presented work focuses on the characterization of an elastically constrained MFC bimorph propulsor for thrust generation in quiescent water as well as the development of a robotic fish prototype combining a microcontroller and a printed-circuit-board amplifier to generate high actuation voltage for untethered locomotion. From the theoretical standpoint, a distributed-parameter electroelastic model including the hydrodynamic effects and actuator dynamics is coupled with the elongated-body theory for predicting the mean thrust in quiescent water. In-air and underwater experiments are performed to verify the incorporation of hydrodynamic effects in the linear actuation regime. For electroelastically nonlinear actuation levels, experimentally obtained underwater vibration response is coupled with the elongated-body theory to predict the thrust output. The measured mean thrust levels in quiescent water (on the order of ∼10 mN) compare favorably with thrust levels of biological fish. An untethered robotic fish prototype that employs a single bimorph fin (caudal fin) for straight swimming and turning motions is developed and tested in free locomotion. A swimming speed of 0.3 body-length/second (7.5 cm s −1 swimming speed for 24.3 cm body length) is achieved at 5 Hz for a non-optimized main body-propulsor bimorph combination under a moderate actuation voltage level. (paper)

  3. Three-Dimensional-Printing of Bio-Inspired Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Gu, Grace; Su, Isabelle; Sharma, Shruti; Voros, Jamie L.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2016-01-01

    Optimized for millions of years, natural materials often outperform synthetic materials due to their hierarchical structures and multifunctional abilities. They usually feature a complex architecture that consists of simple building blocks. Indeed, many natural materials such as bone, nacre, hair, and spider silk, have outstanding material properties, making them applicable to engineering applications that may require both mechanical resilience and environmental compatibility. However, such natural materials are very difficult to harvest in bulk, and may be toxic in the way they occur naturally, and therefore, it is critical to use alternative methods to fabricate materials that have material functions similar to material function as their natural counterparts for large-scale applications. Recent progress in additive manufacturing, especially the ability to print multiple materials at upper micrometer resolution, has given researchers an excellent instrument to design and reconstruct natural-inspired materials. The most advanced 3D-printer can now be used to manufacture samples to emulate their geometry and material composition with high fidelity. Its capabilities, in combination with computational modeling, have provided us even more opportunities for designing, optimizing, and testing the function of composite materials, in order to achieve composites of high mechanical resilience and reliability. In this review article, we focus on the advanced material properties of several multifunctional biological materials and discuss how the advanced 3D-printing techniques can be used to mimic their architectures and functions. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of 3D-printing, suggest possible future developments, and discuss applications using bio-inspired materials as a tool in bioengineering and other fields. PMID:26747791

  4. Three-Dimensional-Printing of Bio-Inspired Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang Gu, Grace; Su, Isabelle; Sharma, Shruti; Voros, Jamie L; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2016-02-01

    Optimized for millions of years, natural materials often outperform synthetic materials due to their hierarchical structures and multifunctional abilities. They usually feature a complex architecture that consists of simple building blocks. Indeed, many natural materials such as bone, nacre, hair, and spider silk, have outstanding material properties, making them applicable to engineering applications that may require both mechanical resilience and environmental compatibility. However, such natural materials are very difficult to harvest in bulk, and may be toxic in the way they occur naturally, and therefore, it is critical to use alternative methods to fabricate materials that have material functions similar to material function as their natural counterparts for large-scale applications. Recent progress in additive manufacturing, especially the ability to print multiple materials at upper micrometer resolution, has given researchers an excellent instrument to design and reconstruct natural-inspired materials. The most advanced 3D-printer can now be used to manufacture samples to emulate their geometry and material composition with high fidelity. Its capabilities, in combination with computational modeling, have provided us even more opportunities for designing, optimizing, and testing the function of composite materials, in order to achieve composites of high mechanical resilience and reliability. In this review article, we focus on the advanced material properties of several multifunctional biological materials and discuss how the advanced 3D-printing techniques can be used to mimic their architectures and functions. Lastly, we discuss the limitations of 3D-printing, suggest possible future developments, and discuss applications using bio-inspired materials as a tool in bioengineering and other fields.

  5. Programming time-multiplexed reconfigurable hardware using a scalable neuromorphic compiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, Kirill; Srinivasa, Narayan; Cruz-Albrecht, Jose M; Cho, Youngkwan; Nogin, Aleksey

    2012-06-01

    Scalability and connectivity are two key challenges in designing neuromorphic hardware that can match biological levels. In this paper, we describe a neuromorphic system architecture design that addresses an approach to meet these challenges using traditional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) hardware. A key requirement in realizing such neural architectures in hardware is the ability to automatically configure the hardware to emulate any neural architecture or model. The focus for this paper is to describe the details of such a programmable front-end. This programmable front-end is composed of a neuromorphic compiler and a digital memory, and is designed based on the concept of synaptic time-multiplexing (STM). The neuromorphic compiler automatically translates any given neural architecture to hardware switch states and these states are stored in digital memory to enable desired neural architectures. STM enables our proposed architecture to address scalability and connectivity using traditional CMOS hardware. We describe the details of the proposed design and the programmable front-end, and provide examples to illustrate its capabilities. We also provide perspectives for future extensions and potential applications.

  6. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  7. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I

    CERN Document Server

    Zoppi, Matteo; Kong, Xianwen

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots I provides a selection of key papers presented in The Second ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR 2012) held on 9th -11th  July 2012 in Tianjin, China. This ongoing series of conferences will be covered in this ongoing collection of books.   A total of seventy-eight papers are divided into seven parts to cover the topology, kinematics and design of reconfigurable mechanisms with the reconfiguration theory, analysis and synthesis, and present the current research and development in the field of reconfigurable mechanisms including reconfigurable parallel mechanisms. In this aspect, the recent study and development of reconfigurable robots are further presented with the analysis and design and with their control and development. The bio-inspired mechanisms and subsequent reconfiguration are explored in the challenging fields of rehabilitation and minimally invasive surgery. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and ...

  8. A distributed, hardware reconfigurable and packet switched real-time control and data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, A.J.N.; Combo, A.; Sousa, J.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2002-01-01

    The architecture of a synchronized event-based control and data acquisition system that aims to improve significantly the performance of actual systems is presented. The design explores recent developments in data transport, signal processing and system synchronization. Data transport between the acquisition, processing and storing devices and at backplane level will be performed by InfiniBand, a low latency packet switched network standard. Data processing algorithms will be performed in a mixture of digital signal processors and reconfigurable field programmable gate arrays. Both devices will be programmed from a descriptive high-level mathematical language. Acquisition synchronization, data stamping and event management will be performed through a specialized low latency synchronous optical network for the time critical signals

  9. Bio-inspired Edible Superhydrophobic Interface for Reducing Residual Liquid Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Bi, Jingran; Wang, Siqi; Zhang, Tan; Xu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Haitao; Cheng, Shasha; Zhu, Bei-Wei; Tan, Mingqian

    2018-03-07

    Significant wastage of residual liquid food, such as milk, yogurt, and honey, in food containers has attracted great attention. In this work, a bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface was fabricated using U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved and edible honeycomb wax, arabic gum, and gelatin by a simple and low-cost method. The bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface showed multiscale structures, which were similar to that of a lotus leaf surface. This bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface displayed high contact angles for a variety of liquid foods, and the residue of liquid foods could be effectively reduced using the bio-inspired interface. To improve the adhesive force of the superhydrophobic interface, a flexible edible elastic film was fabricated between the interface and substrate material. After repeated folding and flushing for a long time, the interface still maintained excellent superhydrophobic property. The bio-inspired edible superhydrophobic interface showed good biocompatibility, which may have potential applications as a functional packaging interface material.

  10. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Henry T Y; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J; Hansma, Paul K

    2010-01-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force–displacement–velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators

  11. Bio-inspired passive actuator simulating an abalone shell mechanism for structural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henry T. Y.; Lin, Chun-Hung; Bridges, Daniel; Randall, Connor J.; Hansma, Paul K.

    2010-10-01

    An energy dispersion mechanism called 'sacrificial bonds and hidden length', which is found in some biological systems, such as abalone shells and bones, is the inspiration for new strategies for structural control. Sacrificial bonds and hidden length can substantially increase the stiffness and enhance energy dissipation in the constituent molecules of abalone shells and bone. Having been inspired by the usefulness and effectiveness of such a mechanism, which has evolved over millions of years and countless cycles of evolutions, the authors employ the conceptual underpinnings of this mechanism to develop a bio-inspired passive actuator. This paper presents a fundamental method for optimally designing such bio-inspired passive actuators for structural control. To optimize the bio-inspired passive actuator, a simple method utilizing the force-displacement-velocity (FDV) plots based on LQR control is proposed. A linear regression approach is adopted in this research to find the initial values of the desired parameters for the bio-inspired passive actuator. The illustrative examples, conducted by numerical simulation with experimental validation, suggest that the bio-inspired passive actuator based on sacrificial bonds and hidden length may be comparable in performance to state-of-the-art semi-active actuators.

  12. Erosion resistance of pipe bends with bio-inspired internal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengchun; Matar, Omar

    2013-11-01

    Guided by the structure of a shell surface, a bio-inspired surface is proposed to enhance the erosion resistance of pipe bends carrying crude-oil and sand in the turbulent flow regime. A comparison of the erosion rate between a smooth bend and the bio-inspired one is carried out using numerical simulations: large eddy simulations are used to simulate turbulence, and these are coupled to a discrete element method for the solid particles. The results indicate that the bio-inspired surface can control effectively the liquid-solid flow near the wall, and decrease the particle-wall force. This, then, leads to a reduction in the erosion rate brought about by the sand transported by the crude-oil in the pipe bend. The China Scholarship Council is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Re-configurable ATCA Hardware for Plasma Control and Data Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, B.; Batista, A.; Correia, M.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2009-07-01

    The IST/EURATOM Association is developing a new generation of control and data acquisition hardware for fusion experiments based on the ATCA architecture. This emerging open standard offers a significantly higher data throughput over a reliable High Availability (HA) mechanical and electrical platform. One of this ATCA boards, has 32 galvanic isolated ADC channels (18 bit) each mounted on a exchangeable plug-in card, 8 DAC channels (16 bit), 8 digital I/O channels and embeds a high performance XILINX Virtex 4 family field programmable gate array (FPGA). The specific modular hardware design enables adaptable utilization of the board in dissimilar applications. The first configuration, specially developed for tokamak plasma Vertical Stabilization, consists of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) controller that is capable of feedback loops faster than 1 ms, using a multitude of input signals fed from different boards communicating through the Aurora point-to-point protocol. Massive parallel algorithms can be implemented inside the FPGA either with programmed digital logic, using a HDL hardware description language, or inside the two included silicon PowerPCs running a full fledged real-time operating system. The second board configuration is dedicated for transient recording of the entire 32 channels at 2 MSamples/s to the built-in 512 MBDDR2 memory. Signal data retrieval is accelerated by a DMA-driven PCI Express-x1 Interface to the ATCA system controller providing an overall throughput in excess of 250 MB/s. This paper illustrates these developments and discusses possible configurations for foreseen applications. (authors)

  14. Bio-inspired polymeric patterns with enhanced wear durability for microsystem applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Siyuan, L.; Satyanarayana, N.; Kustandi, T.S.; Sinha, Sujeet K.

    2011-01-01

    At micro/nano-scale, friction force dominates at the interface between bodies moving in relative motion and severely affects their smooth operation. This effect limits the performance of microsystem devices such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In addition, friction force also leads to material removal or wear and thereby reduces the durability i.e. the useful operating life of the devices. In this work, we fabricated bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications. Inspired by the surface features on lotus leaves namely, the protuberances and wax, SU-8 polymeric films spin-coated on silicon wafers were topographically and chemically modified. For topographical modification, micro-scale patterns were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and for chemical modification, the micro-patterns were coated with perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Tribological investigation of the bio-inspired patterns revealed that the friction coefficients reduced significantly and the wear durability increased by several orders. In order to enhance the wear durability much further, the micro-patterns were exposed to argon/oxygen plasma and were subsequently coated with the perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Bio-inspired patterns with enhanced wear durability, such as the ones investigated in the current work, have potential tribological applications in MEMS/Bio-MEMS actuator-based devices. Highlights: →Bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications in microsystems. →Novel surface modification for the patterns to enhance tribological properties. →Patterns show low friction properties and extremely high wear durability.

  15. Interactive Learning Environment for Bio-Inspired Optimization Algorithms for UAV Path Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haibin; Li, Pei; Shi, Yuhui; Zhang, Xiangyin; Sun, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of BOLE, a MATLAB-based interactive learning environment, that facilitates the process of learning bio-inspired optimization algorithms, and that is dedicated exclusively to unmanned aerial vehicle path planning. As a complement to conventional teaching methods, BOLE is designed to help students consolidate the…

  16. Bio-inspired fuel cells for miniaturized body-area-networks applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Wei; Gao, Lu; Danilov, Dmitri; Pop, V.; Notten, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The improvement in quality of modern health-care is closely related to the need for medical autonomous systems that enable people to ‘carry’ their personal wireless Body-Area-Network (BAN). Bio-inspired fuel cells (BFC) are a promising approach of energy harvesting to achieve autonomy and

  17. Crickets as bio-inspiration for MEMS-based flow-sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Droogendijk, H.; Dagamseh, A.M.K.; Jaganatharaja, R.K.; Casas, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    MEMS offers exciting possibilities for the fabrication of bio-inspired mechanosensors. Over the last few years, we have been working on cricket- inspired hair-sensor arrays for spatio-temporal flow-field observations (i.e. flow camera) and source localisation. Whereas making flow-sensors as energy

  18. Reconfigurable network processing platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kachris, C.

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents our investigation on how to efficiently exploit reconfigurable hardware to design flexible, high performance, and power efficient network devices capable to adapt to varying processing requirements of network applications and traffic. The proposed reconfigurable network

  19. Real-time object tracking based on scale-invariant features employing bio-inspired hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Shinsuke; Okuno, Hirotsugu; Ishii, Kazuo; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    We developed a vision sensor system that performs a scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) in real time. To apply the SIFT algorithm efficiently, we focus on a two-fold process performed by the visual system: whole-image parallel filtering and frequency-band parallel processing. The vision sensor system comprises an active pixel sensor, a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS)-based resistive network, a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), and a digital computer. We employed the MOS-based resistive network for instantaneous spatial filtering and a configurable filter size. The FPGA is used to pipeline process the frequency-band signals. The proposed system was evaluated by tracking the feature points detected on an object in a video. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio-Inspired Neural Model for Learning Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan; Duong, Vu; Suri, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network mathematical model that, relative to prior such models, places greater emphasis on some of the temporal aspects of real neural physical processes, has been proposed as a basis for massively parallel, distributed algorithms that learn dynamic models of possibly complex external processes by means of learning rules that are local in space and time. The algorithms could be made to perform such functions as recognition and prediction of words in speech and of objects depicted in video images. The approach embodied in this model is said to be "hardware-friendly" in the following sense: The algorithms would be amenable to execution by special-purpose computers implemented as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits that would operate at relatively high speeds and low power demands.

  1. Bio-inspired spiking neural network for nonlinear systems control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Javier; Cabrera, Juan A; Castillo, Juan J; Velasco, Juan M

    2018-08-01

    Spiking neural networks (SNN) are the third generation of artificial neural networks. SNN are the closest approximation to biological neural networks. SNNs make use of temporal spike trains to command inputs and outputs, allowing a faster and more complex computation. As demonstrated by biological organisms, they are a potentially good approach to designing controllers for highly nonlinear dynamic systems in which the performance of controllers developed by conventional techniques is not satisfactory or difficult to implement. SNN-based controllers exploit their ability for online learning and self-adaptation to evolve when transferred from simulations to the real world. SNN's inherent binary and temporary way of information codification facilitates their hardware implementation compared to analog neurons. Biological neural networks often require a lower number of neurons compared to other controllers based on artificial neural networks. In this work, these neuronal systems are imitated to perform the control of non-linear dynamic systems. For this purpose, a control structure based on spiking neural networks has been designed. Particular attention has been paid to optimizing the structure and size of the neural network. The proposed structure is able to control dynamic systems with a reduced number of neurons and connections. A supervised learning process using evolutionary algorithms has been carried out to perform controller training. The efficiency of the proposed network has been verified in two examples of dynamic systems control. Simulations show that the proposed control based on SNN exhibits superior performance compared to other approaches based on Neural Networks and SNNs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2009-01-01

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  3. 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Krömer, Pavel; Pant, Millie; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    This Volume contains the papers presented during the 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications IBICA 2015 which was held in Kochi, India during December 16-18, 2015. The 51 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The 6th International Conference IBICA 2015 has been organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues in the growing research field of Bio-inspired Computing which is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  4. Bio-inspired evaporation through plasmonic film of nanoparticles at the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhui; Liu, Yanming; Tao, Peng; Shen, Qingchen; Yi, Nan; Zhang, Fangyu; Liu, Quanlong; Song, Chengyi; Zhang, Di; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2014-08-27

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles self-assembled at the air-water interface to produce an evaporative surface with local control inspired by skins and plant leaves. Fast and efficient evaporation is realized due to the instant and localized plasmonic heating at the evaporative surface. The bio-inspired evaporation process provides an alternative promising approach for evaporation, and has potential applications in sterilization, distillation, and heat transfer. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zheng; Du, Ruxu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum ro...

  6. Bio-Inspired Interaction Control of Robotic Machines for Motor Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Zollo, Loredana; Formica, Domenico; Guglielmelli, Eugenio

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter basic criteria for the design and implementation of interaction control of robotic machines for motor therapy have been briefly introduced and two bio-inspired compliance control laws developed by the authors to address requirements coming from this specific application field have been presented. The two control laws are named the coactivation-based compliance control in the joint space and the torque-dependent compliance control in the joint space, respectively. They try to o...

  7. Optic flow estimation on trajectories generated by bio-inspired closed-loop flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Patrick A; Hyslop, Andrew M; Humbert, J Sean

    2011-05-01

    We generated panoramic imagery by simulating a fly-like robot carrying an imaging sensor, moving in free flight through a virtual arena bounded by walls, and containing obstructions. Flight was conducted under closed-loop control by a bio-inspired algorithm for visual guidance with feedback signals corresponding to the true optic flow that would be induced on an imager (computed by known kinematics and position of the robot relative to the environment). The robot had dynamics representative of a housefly-sized organism, although simplified to two-degree-of-freedom flight to generate uniaxial (azimuthal) optic flow on the retina in the plane of travel. Surfaces in the environment contained images of natural and man-made scenes that were captured by the moving sensor. Two bio-inspired motion detection algorithms and two computational optic flow estimation algorithms were applied to sequences of image data, and their performance as optic flow estimators was evaluated by estimating the mutual information between outputs and true optic flow in an equatorial section of the visual field. Mutual information for individual estimators at particular locations within the visual field was surprisingly low (less than 1 bit in all cases) and considerably poorer for the bio-inspired algorithms that the man-made computational algorithms. However, mutual information between weighted sums of these signals and comparable sums of the true optic flow showed significant increases for the bio-inspired algorithms, whereas such improvement did not occur for the computational algorithms. Such summation is representative of the spatial integration performed by wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the third optic ganglia of flies.

  8. A Wireless Fatigue Monitoring System Utilizing a Bio-Inspired Tree Ring Data Tracking Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Shi; Li, Xuan; Xie, Zhaohui; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is propo...

  9. An FEA study on impact resistance of bio-inspired CAD models

    OpenAIRE

    Page, T; Thorsteinsson, G

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of biomimetic methods in the design of armour systems. It focusses on biological structures found in nature that feature both rigid and flexible armours, analysing their structures and determining which are the most widely successful. A study was conducted on three bio-inspired structures built in Creo Parametric and tested using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software to determine which structure had the best impact resistance. The study was con...

  10. Prediction of Software Reliability using Bio Inspired Soft Computing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwaker, Chander; Tomar, Pradeep; Poonia, Ramesh C; Singh, Vijander

    2018-04-10

    techniques and assessment of soft computing techniques to predict reliability. The parameter considered while estimating and prediction of reliability are also discussed. This study can be used in estimation and prediction of the reliability of various instruments used in the medical system, software engineering, computer engineering and mechanical engineering also. These concepts can be applied to both software and hardware, to predict the reliability using CBSE.

  11. A Bio-Inspired QoS-Oriented Handover Model in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bio-inspired model for making handover decision in heterogeneous wireless networks. It is based on an extended attractor selection model, which is biologically inspired by the self-adaptability and robustness of cellular response to the changes in dynamic environments. The goal of the proposed model is to guarantee multiple terminals’ satisfaction by meeting the QoS requirements of those terminals’ applications, and this model also attempts to ensure the fairness of network resources allocation, in the meanwhile, to enable the QoS-oriented handover decision adaptive to dynamic wireless environments. Some numerical simulations are preformed to validate our proposed bio-inspired model in terms of adaptive attractor selection in different noisy environments. And the results of some other simulations prove that the proposed handover scheme can adapt terminals’ network selection to the varying wireless environment and benefits the QoS of multiple terminal applications simultaneously and automatically. Furthermore, the comparative analysis also shows that the bio-inspired model outperforms the utility function based handover decision scheme in terms of ensuring a better QoS satisfaction and a better fairness of network resources allocation in dynamic heterogeneous wireless networks.

  12. Bio-Inspired Sustainability Assessment for Building Product Development—Concept and Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Horn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological advancement culminating in a globalized economy has brought tremendous improvements for mankind in manifold respects but comes at the cost of alienation from nature. Human activities nowadays are unsustainable and cause severe damage especially in terms of global depletion and destabilization of natural systems but also harm its own social resources. In this paper, a sustainability assessment method is developed based on a bio-inspired sustainability framework that has been developed in the project TRR 141-C01 “The biomimetic promise.” It is aims at regaining the advantages of societal embeddedness in its environment through biological inspiration. The method is developed using a structured approach including requirement specification, description of the inventory models on bio-inspiration and sustainability assessment, creation of a bio-inspired sustainability assessment model and its validation. It is defined as an accompanying assessment for decision support, using a six-fold two-dimensional structure of social, economic and environmental functions and burdens. The method is applied and validated in 6 projects of TRR 141 and its applicability is exemplarily shown by the assessment of “Bio-flexi”, a biobased and biodegradable natural fiber reinforced plastic composite for indoor cladding applications. Based on the findings of the application the assessment method itself is proposed to be advanced towards an adaptive structure and a consequent outlook is provided.

  13. Strong Quantum Confinement Effects and Chiral Excitons in Bio-Inspired ZnO–Amino Acid Cocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb; Lamers, Marlene; Baumann, Verena; Dey, Priyanka; Blanch, Adam J.; Polishchuk, Iryna; Kong, Xiang-Tian; Levy, Davide; Urban, Alexander S.; Govorov, Alexander O.; Pokroy, Boaz; Rodrí guez-Ferná ndez, Jessica; Feldmann, Jochen

    2018-01-01

    of amino acid potential barriers within the ZnO crystal lattice. Overall, our findings indicate that biomolecule cocrystallization can be used as a truly bio-inspired means to induce chiral quantum confinement effects in quasi-bulk semiconductors.

  14. Bio-inspired UAV routing, source localization, and acoustic signature classification for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Pham, Tien

    2011-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the Army Research Laboratory* is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data. A fast and accurate method has been developed to localize an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs. This technique uses a bio-inspired algorithm based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. A unique acoustic event classification algorithm was also developed based on using swarm optimization. Additional studies addressed the problem of routing multiple UAVs, optimally placing sensors in the field and locating the source of gunfire at helicopters. A field test was conducted in November of 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that a system controlled by bio-inspired software algorithms can autonomously detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In nine independent test runs of a UAV, the system autonomously located the position of an explosion nine times with an average accuracy of 3 meters. The time required to perform source localization using the UAV was on the order of a few minutes based on UAV flight times. In June 2011, additional field tests of the system will be performed and will include multiple acoustic events, optimal sensor placement based on acoustic phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA

  15. A bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable adhesive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Leming; Yi, Sijia; Wang, Yongzhong; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin; Zhang, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the strong adhesive produced by English ivy, this paper proposes an in situ synthesis approach for fabricating tunable nanoparticle enhanced adhesives. Special attention was given to tunable features of the adhesive produced by the biological process. Parameters that may be used to tune properties of the adhesive will be proposed. To illustrate and validate the proposed approach, an experimental platform was presented for fabricating tunable chitosan adhesive enhanced by Au nanoparticles synthesized in situ. This study contributes to a bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable nanocomposite adhesives by mimicking the natural biological processes of ivy adhesive synthesis. (paper)

  16. Autonomic networking-on-chip bio-inspired specification, development, and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Cong-Vinh, Phan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in ""BioChipNets"" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent re

  17. A bio-inspired high-authority actuator for shape morphing structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Sofla, Aarash Y. N.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    2003-08-01

    Lightweight structures capable of changing their shape on demand are of interest for a number of applications, including aerospace, power generation, and undersea vehicles. This paper describes a bio-inspired cellular metal vertebrate structure which relies on shape memory alloy (SMA) faces to achieve fully reversing shape change. The resulting vertebrate actuators can be combined with flexible face sheets to create a load-bearing, shape morphing panel. Performance of the vertebrate actuator in terms of maximum curvature and moment is analyzed and discussed. A recently constructed, prototype shape morphing airfoil is used to illustrate the concept.

  18. Bio-inspiring cyber security and cloud services trends and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Awad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent research in cyber security, and reports how organizations can gain competitive advantages by applying the different security techniques in real-world scenarios. The volume provides reviews of cutting–edge technologies, algorithms, applications and insights for bio-inspiring cyber security-based systems. The book will be a valuable companion and comprehensive reference for both postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who are taking a course in cyber security. The volume is organized in self-contained chapters to provide greatest reading flexibility.  

  19. Facile creation of bio-inspired superhydrophobic Ce-based metallic glass surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Li, Zhou; Wang, Weihua; Jiang, Lei

    2011-12-01

    A bio-inspired synthesis strategy was conducted to fabricate superhydrophobic Ce-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) surfaces with self-cleaning properties. Micro-nanoscale hierarchical structures were first constructed on BMG surfaces and then modified with the low surface energy coating. Surface structures, surface chemical compositions, and wettability were characterized by combining scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. Research indicated that both surface multiscale structures and the low surface free energy coating result in the final formation of superhydrophobicity.

  20. A Review on Development and Applications of Bio-Inspired Superhydrophobic Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ishaq; Kan, Chi-wai

    2016-01-01

    Bio-inspired engineering has been envisioned in a wide array of applications. All living bodies on Earth, including animals and plants, have well organized functional systems developed by nature. These naturally designed functional systems inspire scientists and engineers worldwide to mimic the system for practical applications by human beings. Researchers in the academic world and industries have been trying, for hundreds of years, to demonstrate how these natural phenomena could be translated into the real world to save lives, money and time. One of the most fascinating natural phenomena is the resistance of living bodies to contamination by dust and other pollutants, thus termed as self-cleaning phenomenon. This phenomenon has been observed in many plants, animals and insects and is termed as the Lotus Effect. With advancement in research and technology, attention has been given to the exploration of the underlying mechanisms of water repellency and self-cleaning. As a result, various concepts have been developed including Young’s equation, and Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories. The more we unravel this process, the more we get access to its implications and applications. A similar pursuit is emphasized in this review to explain the fundamental principles, mechanisms, past experimental approaches and ongoing research in the development of bio-inspired superhydrophobic textiles. PMID:28774012

  1. Three-dimensional trajectory tracking for underactuated AUVs with bio-inspired velocity regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to address the motion parameter skip problem associated with three-dimensional trajectory tracking of an underactuated Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV using backstepping-based control, due to the unsmoothness of tracking trajectory. Through kinematics concepts, a three-dimensional dynamic velocity regulation controller is derived. This controller makes use of the surge and angular velocity errors with bio-inspired models and backstepping techniques. It overcomes the frequently occurring problem of parameter skip at inflection point existing in backstepping tracking control method and increases system robustness. Moreover, the proposed method can effectively avoid the singularity problem in backstepping control of virtual velocity error. The control system is proved to be uniformly ultimately bounded using Lyapunov stability theory. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the developed controller, which can realize accurate three-dimensional trajectory tracking for an underactuated AUV with constant external disturbances. Keywords: Dynamic velocity regulation, Bio-inspired model, Backstepping, Underactuated AUV, Three-dimensional trajectory tracking

  2. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  3. A Review on Development and Applications of Bio-Inspired Superhydrophobic Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaq Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bio-inspired engineering has been envisioned in a wide array of applications. All living bodies on Earth, including animals and plants, have well organized functional systems developed by nature. These naturally designed functional systems inspire scientists and engineers worldwide to mimic the system for practical applications by human beings. Researchers in the academic world and industries have been trying, for hundreds of years, to demonstrate how these natural phenomena could be translated into the real world to save lives, money and time. One of the most fascinating natural phenomena is the resistance of living bodies to contamination by dust and other pollutants, thus termed as self-cleaning phenomenon. This phenomenon has been observed in many plants, animals and insects and is termed as the Lotus Effect. With advancement in research and technology, attention has been given to the exploration of the underlying mechanisms of water repellency and self-cleaning. As a result, various concepts have been developed including Young’s equation, and Wenzel and Cassie–Baxter theories. The more we unravel this process, the more we get access to its implications and applications. A similar pursuit is emphasized in this review to explain the fundamental principles, mechanisms, past experimental approaches and ongoing research in the development of bio-inspired superhydrophobic textiles.

  4. Energy evaluation of a bio-inspired gait modulation method for quadrupedal locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yasuhiro; Fukino, Kota; Habu, Yasushi; Mori, Yoshikazu

    2015-08-04

    We have proposed a bio-inspired gait modulation method, by means of which a simulated quadruped model can successfully perform smooth, autonomous gait transitions from a walk to a trot to a gallop, as observed in animals. The model is equipped with a rhythm generator called a central pattern generator (CPG) for each leg. The lateral neighbouring CPGs are mutually and inhibitorily coupled, and the CPG network is hardwired to produce a trot. Adding only the simple feedback of body tilt to each CPG, which was based on input from the postural reflex, led to the emergence of un-programmed walking and galloping at low and high speeds, respectively. Although this autonomous gait transition was a consequence of postural adaptation, it coincidentally also resulted in the minimization of energy consumption, as observed in real animals. In simulations at a variety of constant speeds the energy cost was lower for walking at low speeds and for galloping at high speeds than it was for trotting. Moreover, each gait transition occurred at the optimal speed, such that the model minimised its energy consumption. Thus, gait transitions in simulations that included the bio-inspired gait modulation method were similar to those observed in animals, even from the perspective of energy consumption. This method should therefore be a preferred choice for motion generation and control in biomimetic quadrupedal locomotion.

  5. Performance Characteristics of Bio-Inspired Metal Nanostructures as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattered (SERS) Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I; Kravchenko, Ivan; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A

    2016-09-01

    The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas. The work presented here describes the nanofabrication process for a series of 40 µm × 40 µm bio-inspired arrays classified as asymmetric fractals (sunflower seeds and romanesco broccoli), bilaterally symmetric (acacia leaves and honeycombs), and radially symmetric (such as orchids and lily flowers) using electron beam lithography. In addition, analytical capabilities were evaluated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The substrate characterization and SERS performance of the developed substrates as the strategies to assess the design performance are presented and discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Reconfigurable Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Joao MP

    2011-01-01

    As the complexity of modern embedded systems increases, it becomes less practical to design monolithic processing platforms. As a result, reconfigurable computing is being adopted widely for more flexible design. Reconfigurable Computers offer the spatial parallelism and fine-grained customizability of application-specific circuits with the postfabrication programmability of software. To make the most of this unique combination of performance and flexibility, designers need to be aware of both hardware and software issues. FPGA users must think not only about the gates needed to perform a comp

  7. Multiple Decoupled CPGs with Local Sensory Feedback for Adaptive Locomotion Behaviors of Bio-inspired Walking Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    , and their interactions during body and leg movements through the environment. Based on this concept, we present here an artificial bio-inspired walking system. Its intralimb coordination is formed by multiple decoupled CPGs while its interlimb coordination is attained by the interactions between body dynamics...... and the environment through local sensory feedback of each leg. Simulation results show that this bio-inspired approach generates self-organizing emergent locomotion allowing the robot to adaptively form regular patterns, to stably walk while pushing an object with its front legs or performing multiple stepping...

  8. A bio-inspired methodology of identifying influential nodes in complex networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Gao

    Full Text Available How to identify influential nodes is a key issue in complex networks. The degree centrality is simple, but is incapable to reflect the global characteristics of networks. Betweenness centrality and closeness centrality do not consider the location of nodes in the networks, and semi-local centrality, leaderRank and pageRank approaches can be only applied in unweighted networks. In this paper, a bio-inspired centrality measure model is proposed, which combines the Physarum centrality with the K-shell index obtained by K-shell decomposition analysis, to identify influential nodes in weighted networks. Then, we use the Susceptible-Infected (SI model to evaluate the performance. Examples and applications are given to demonstrate the adaptivity and efficiency of the proposed method. In addition, the results are compared with existing methods.

  9. Design and development of bio-inspired framework for reservoir operation optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asvini, M. Sakthi; Amudha, T.

    2017-12-01

    Frameworks for optimal reservoir operation play an important role in the management of water resources and delivery of economic benefits. Effective utilization and conservation of water from reservoirs helps to manage water deficit periods. The main challenge in reservoir optimization is to design operating rules that can be used to inform real-time decisions on reservoir release. We develop a bio-inspired framework for the optimization of reservoir release to satisfy the diverse needs of various stakeholders. In this work, single-objective optimization and multiobjective optimization problems are formulated using an algorithm known as "strawberry optimization" and tested with actual reservoir data. Results indicate that well planned reservoir operations lead to efficient deployment of the reservoir water with the help of optimal release patterns.

  10. Bio-Inspired Energy-Aware Protocol Design for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, Gian Paolo; Anggraeni, Puri Novelti; Wardana, Satya Ardhy

    2011-01-01

    In this work, bio-inspired cooperation rules are applied to wireless communication networks. The main goal is to derive cooperative behaviour rules to improve the energy consumption of each mobile device. A medium access control (MAC) protocol particularly designed for peer-to-peer communication...... be achieved by this architecture using game theoretic approaches. As an extension, this work explores the impact of the MAC protocol on the power saving capabilities. This result shows that standard MAC mechanisms are not optimised for the considered cooperative setup. A new MAC protocol is proposed...... among cooperative wireless mobile devices is described. The work is based on a novel communication architecture, where a group of mobile devices are connected both to a cellular base station and among them using short-range communication links. A prior work has investigated the energy saving that can...

  11. Flow around an autonomous underwater vehicle with bio-inspired coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Scott; Montoya-Segnini, Jose; Bocanegra Evans, Humberto; Curet, Oscar; Gorumlu, Serdar; Aksak, Burak; Kazemi, Amirkhosro; Chamorro, Leonardo; Castillo, Luciano

    2017-11-01

    Flow separation plays a major factor in the form drag of a moving object. In particular, suppressing or reducing flow separation is critical in the energy expenditure of autonomous underwater vehicles. Previous research suggests that bio-inspired micro-fibrillar structures are capable of reducing the boundary layer separation in a turbulent flow. Here, we present laboratory measurements using PIV near the wall and in the wake of two submersible vessel models; one had a coating composed of ordered fibers, and the other had smooth walls. Flow characterization with planar PIV included the presence or absence of a tail fin at multiple angles of attack of the vessels. Preliminary results reveal changes of the flow in the wake of the vessel with coating resulting in lower or similar velocity deficit in the wake compared to the smooth vessel.

  12. Multi-Locomotion Robotic Systems New Concepts of Bio-inspired Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Aoyama, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as...

  13. Design and development of a bio-inspired, under-actuated soft gripper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Taimoor; Manti, Mariangela; Passetti, Giovanni; d'Elia, Nicolò; Cianchetti, Matteo; Laschi, Cecilia

    2015-08-01

    The development of robotic devices able to perform manipulation tasks mimicking the human hand has been assessed on large scale. This work stands in the challenging scenario where soft materials are combined with bio-inspired design in order to develop soft grippers with improved grasping and holding capabilities. We are going to show a low-cost, under-actuated and adaptable soft gripper, highlighting the design and the manufacturing process. In particular, a critical analysis is made among three versions of the gripper with same design and actuation mechanism, but based on different materials. A novel actuation principle has been implemented in both cases, in order to reduce the encumbrance of the entire system and improve its aesthetics. Grasping and holding capabilities have been tested for each device, with target objects varying in shape, size and material. Results highlight synergy between the geometry and the intrinsic properties of the soft material, showing the way to novel design principles for soft grippers.

  14. INVESTIGATING PECTORAL SHAPES AND LOCOMOTIVE STRATEGIES FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGNING BIO-INSPIRED ROBOTIC FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. MAINONG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance analysis of a conceptual bio-inspired robotic fish design, which is based on the morphology similar to the boxfish (Ostracion melagris. The robotic fish prototype is driven by three micro servos; two on the pectoral fins, and one on the caudal fin. Two electronic rapid prototyping boards were employed; one for the movement of robotic fish, and one for the force sensors measurements. The robotic fish were built using fused deposition modeling (FDM, more popularly known as the 3D printing method. Several designs of pectoral fins (rectangular, triangular and quarter-ellipse with unchanging the value of aspect ratio (AR employed to measure the performance of the prototype robotic fish in terms of hydrodynamics, thrust and maneuvering characteristics. The analysis of the unmanned robotic system performance is made experimentally and the results show that the proposed bioinspired robotic prototype opens up the possibility of design optimization research for future work.

  15. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle......-like front legs based on biological investigation. As a result, each leg consists of three main segments which were built using 3D printing. The segments were combined with in total four active DOFs in order to mimic locomotion and object manipulation of the beetle. Kinematics analysis of the leg was also...... performed to identify its workspace as well as to design its trajectory. To this end, the study contributes not only novel multifunctional robotic legs but also the methodology of the bio-inspired leg design....

  16. 8th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Linqiang; Fang, Xianwen

    2013-01-01

    International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA) is one of the flagship conferences on Bio-Computing, bringing together the world’s leading scientists from different areas of Natural Computing. Since 2006, the conferences have taken place at Wuhan (2006), Zhengzhou (2007), Adelaide (2008), Beijing (2009), Liverpool & Changsha (2010), Malaysia (2011) and India (2012). Following the successes of previous events, the 8th conference is organized and hosted by Anhui University of Science and Technology in China. This conference aims to provide a high-level international forum that researchers with different backgrounds and who are working in the related areas can use to present their latest results and exchange ideas. Additionally, the growing trend in Emergent Systems has resulted in the inclusion of two other closely related fields in the BIC-TA 2013 event, namely Complex Systems and Computational Neuroscience. These proceedings are intended for researchers in the fiel...

  17. Bio-inspired synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic particles; Sintese e caracterizacao bioinspirada de particulas superparamagneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vinicius F., E-mail: vfc_mg@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Inovacao em Materiais Biofuncionais Avancados

    2012-08-15

    This paper discusses the bio-inspired synthesis of type YFeAl ferrites encapsulated into polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD) generation 3. The structure and morphological properties of the system YFeAl/PGLD was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties were studied through the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles encapsulated in dendrimers PGLD G3 at the cell membrane was studied against mammalian cell line CHO.K1 measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by the cell damage. Microscopy TEM and XRD analysis indicate that spherical nanoparticles were obtained highly crystalline and monodisperse with size 20 nm

  18. A survey on bio inspired meta heuristic based clustering protocols for wireless sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, A.; Nandakumar, S.

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that utilizing a mobile sink to harvest and carry data from a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) can improve network operational efficiency as well as maintain uniform energy consumption by the sensor nodes in the network. Due to Sink mobility, the path between two sensor nodes continuously changes and this has a profound effect on the operational longevity of the network and a need arises for a protocol which utilizes minimal resources in maintaining routes between the mobile sink and the sensor nodes. Swarm Intelligence based techniques inspired by the foraging behavior of ants, termites and honey bees can be artificially simulated and utilized to solve real wireless network problems. The author presents a brief survey on various bio inspired swarm intelligence based protocols used in routing data in wireless sensor networks while outlining their general principle and operation.

  19. Hydrogels from Amorphous Calcium Carbonate and Polyacrylic Acid: Bio-Inspired Materials for "Mineral Plastics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengtong; Mao, Li-Bo; Lei, Zhouyue; Yu, Shu-Hong; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-09-19

    Given increasing environmental issues due to the large usage of non-biodegradable plastics based on petroleum, new plastic materials, which are economic, environmentally friendly, and recyclable are in high demand. One feasible strategy is the bio-inspired synthesis of mineral-based hybrid materials. Herein we report a facile route for an amorphous CaCO3 (ACC)-based hydrogel consisting of very small ACC nanoparticles physically cross-linked by poly(acrylic acid). The hydrogel is shapeable, stretchable, and self-healable. Upon drying, the hydrogel forms free-standing, rigid, and transparent objects with remarkable mechanical performance. By swelling in water, the material can completely recover the initial hydrogel state. As a matrix, thermochromism can also be easily introduced. The present hybrid hydrogel may represent a new class of plastic materials, the "mineral plastics". © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Dynamic analysis of a bio-inspired climbing robot using ADAMS-Simulink co-simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Dikshit, H.; Majumder, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Maity, A.

    2018-04-01

    Climbing robot has been an area of interest since the demand of inspection of pipeline, nuclear power plant, and various big structure is growing up rapidly. This paper represents the development of a bio-inspired modular robot which mimics inchworm locomotion during climbing. In the present paper, the climbing motion is achieved only on a flat vertical plane by magnetic adhesion principle. The robot is modelled as a 4-link planar mechanism with three revolute joints actuated by DC servo motors. Sinusoidal gait pattern is used to approximate the motion of an inchworm. The dynamics of the robot is presented by using ADAMS/MATLAB co-simulation methodology. The simulation result gives the maximum value of joint torque during one complete cycle of motion. This torque value is used for the selection of servo motor specifications required to build the prototype.

  1. A bio-inspired approach for the reduction of left ventricular workload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niema M Pahlevan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of optimization criteria in the design and development of mammalians cardiovascular systems. Similarities in mammalian arterial wave reflection suggest there are certain design criteria for the optimization of arterial wave dynamics. Inspired by these natural optimization criteria, we investigated the feasibility of optimizing the aortic waves by modifying wave reflection sites. A hydraulic model that has physical and dynamical properties similar to a human aorta and left ventricle was used for a series of in-vitro experiments. The results indicate that placing an artificial reflection site (a ring at a specific location along the aorta may create a constructive wave dynamic that could reduce LV pulsatile workload. This simple bio-inspired approach may have important implications for the future of treatment strategies for diseased aorta.

  2. Tunable band gaps in bio-inspired periodic composites with nacre-like microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2014-08-01

    Periodic composite materials have many promising applications due to their unique ability to control the propagation of waves. Here, we report the existence and frequency tunability of complete elastic wave band gaps in bio-inspired periodic composites with nacre-like, brick-and-mortar microstructure. Numerical results show that complete band gaps in these periodic composites derive from local resonances or Bragg scattering, depending on the lattice angle and the volume fraction of each phase in the composites. The investigation of elastic wave propagation in finite periodic composites validates the simulated complete band gaps and further reveals the mechanisms leading to complete band gaps. Moreover, our results indicate that the topological arrangement of the mineral platelets and changes of material properties can be utilized to tune the evolution of complete band gaps. Our finding provides new opportunities to design mechanically robust periodic composite materials for wave absorption under hostile environments, such as for deep water applications.

  3. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-07-07

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.

  4. Parallel Processing and Bio-inspired Computing for Biomedical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image Registration (IR is an optimization problem computing optimal parameters of a geometric transform used to overlay one or more source images to a given model by maximizing a similarity measure. In this paper the use of bio-inspired optimization algorithms in image registration is analyzed. Results obtained by means of three different algorithms are compared: Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA. Depending on the images type, the registration may be: area based, which is slow but more precise, and features based, which is faster. In this paper a feature based approach based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT is proposed. Finally, results obtained using sequential and parallel implementations on multi-core systems for area based and features based image registration are compared.

  5. Catalytic Water Oxidation by a Bio-inspired Nickel Complex with Redox Active Ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Bruner, Charlie O.

    2017-01-01

    The oxidation of water to dioxygen is important in natural photosynthesis. One of nature’s strategies for managing such multi-electron transfer reactions is to employ redox active metal-organic cofactor arrays. One prototype example is the copper-tyrosinate active site found in galactose oxidase. In this work, we have implemented such a strategy to develop a bio-inspired nickel-phenolate complex capable of catalyzing the oxidation of water to O2 electrochemically at neutral pH with a modest overpotential. The employment of the redox-active ligand turned out to be a useful strategy to avoid the formation of high-valent nickel intermediates while a reasonable turnover rate (0.15 s−1) is retained. PMID:29099176

  6. Catalytic Water Oxidation by a Bio-inspired Nickel Complex with a Redox-Active Ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Bruner, Charlie O

    2017-11-20

    The oxidation of water (H 2 O) to dioxygen (O 2 ) is important in natural photosynthesis. One of nature's strategies for managing such multi-electron transfer reactions is to employ redox-active metal-organic cofactor arrays. One prototype example is the copper tyrosinate active site found in galactose oxidase. In this work, we have implemented such a strategy to develop a bio-inspired nickel phenolate complex capable of catalyzing the oxidation of H 2 O to O 2 electrochemically at neutral pH with a modest overpotential. Employment of the redox-active ligand turned out to be a useful strategy to avoid the formation of high-valent nickel intermediates while a reasonable turnover rate (0.15 s -1 ) is retained.

  7. Image sensor system with bio-inspired efficient coding and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Hirotsugu; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2012-08-01

    We designed and implemented an image sensor system equipped with three bio-inspired coding and adaptation strategies: logarithmic transform, local average subtraction, and feedback gain control. The system comprises a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), a resistive network, and active pixel sensors (APS), whose light intensity-voltage characteristics are controllable. The system employs multiple time-varying reset voltage signals for APS in order to realize multiple logarithmic intensity-voltage characteristics, which are controlled so that the entropy of the output image is maximized. The system also employs local average subtraction and gain control in order to obtain images with an appropriate contrast. The local average is calculated by the resistive network instantaneously. The designed system was successfully used to obtain appropriate images of objects that were subjected to large changes in illumination.

  8. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA-based wireless mesh network (WMN with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  9. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Sung Joon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  10. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilization of resources with effecting performance of services being delivered to end users. In this work, a bio-inspired resource allocation approach is proposed with the aim to improve utilization and hence the energy efficiency of the cloud infrastructure. The proposed approach makes use of Cuckoo search for power and performance aware allocation of resources to the services hired by the end users. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim. The simulation results have shown approximately 12% saving in energy consumption.

  11. Microneedle, bio-microneedle and bio-inspired microneedle: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojun; Wu, Chengwei

    2017-04-10

    Microneedles (MNs) are micro-scale needles used for drug delivery and other targets. Micro-scale size endows them with many advantages over hypodermic needles, including painlessness, minimal invasiveness and convenient operation, but it may also lead to risk of mechanical failures, which should be prevented in the clinical applications of MNs. The objective of this review is mainly to introduce studies on the mechanics problems with respect to MNs. Firstly, the basic knowledge of MNs is introduced in brief, so that readers can understand the basic characteristics of MNs. Secondly, researches on inserting behavior and mechanical performances of MNs are discussed. Thirdly, literatures on the drug delivery and the pain resulted from the insertion of MNs are overviewed. Finally, some bio-microneedles and bio-inspired MNs are introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Formation Control for Water-Jet USV Based on Bio-Inspired Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming-yu; Wang, Duan-song; Wang, Cheng-long

    2018-03-01

    The formation control problem for underactuated unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) is addressed by a distributed strategy based on virtual leader strategy. The control system takes account of disturbance induced by external environment. With the coordinate transformation, the advantage of the proposed scheme is that the control point can be any point of the ship instead of the center of gravity. By introducing bio-inspired model, the formation control problem is addressed with backstepping method. This avoids complicated computation, simplifies the control law, and smoothes the input signals. The system uniform ultimate boundness is proven by Lyapunov stability theory with Young inequality. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness and robust of the proposed controller.

  13. Role of cellulose functionality in bio-inspired synthesis of nano bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Santhiya, Deenan

    2017-06-01

    In search of abundant cheaper natural polymer for bio-inspired bioactive glass nanoparticles synthesis, cellulose and its derivatives have been considered as a template. Different templates explored in the present studies are pure cellulose, methyl cellulose and amine grafted cellulose. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time of the considered templates, pure cellulose and amine grafted cellulose results in in situ nano particulate composite formation while interestingly methyl cellulose proves to be an excellent sacrificial template for the synthesis of uniform bioglass nanoparticles of diameter in the range of 55nm. Further, viscoelastic measurements were carried out using dynamic mechanical analyzer. Herein, an attempt has been made to establish structure-mechanical relationship based on the templates. Moreover, in vitro bioactivity is also observed to be affected by the nature of the template molecule used for the synthesis of bioactive glass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Bio-Inspired Approach to Alarm Malware Attacks in Mobile Handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Taejin; Park, Taejoon

    With proliferation of smart handsets capable of mobile Internet, the severity of malware attacks targeting such handsets is rapidly increasing, thereby requiring effective countermeasure for them. However, existing signature-based solutions are not suitable for resource-poor handsets due to the excessive run-time overhead of matching against ever-increasing malware pattern database as well as the limitation of detecting well-known malware only. To overcome these drawbacks, we present a bio-inspired approach to discriminate malware (non-self) from normal programs (self) by replicating the processes of biological immune system. Our proposed approach achieves superior performance in terms of detecting 83.7% of new malware or their variants and scalable storage requirement that grows very slowly with inclusion of new malware, making it attractive for use with mobile handsets.

  15. Fusion of nacre, mussel, and lotus leaf: bio-inspired graphene composite paper with multifunctional integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Da; Yang, Qinglin; Guo, Lin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self-cleaning, anti-corrosion, and remarkable mechanical properties underwater.Multifunctional integration is an inherent characteristic for biological materials with multiscale structures. Learning from nature is an effective approach for scientists and engineers to construct multifunctional materials. In nature, mollusks (abalone), mussels, and the lotus have evolved different and optimized solutions to survive. Here, bio-inspired multifunctional graphene composite paper was fabricated in situ through the fusion of the different biological solutions from nacre (brick-and-mortar structure), mussel adhesive protein (adhesive property and reducing character), and the lotus leaf (self-cleaning effect). Owing to the special properties (self-polymerization, reduction, and adhesion), dopamine could be simultaneously used as a reducing agent for graphene oxide and as an adhesive, similar to the mortar in nacre, to crosslink the adjacent graphene. The resultant nacre-like graphene paper exhibited stable superhydrophobicity, self

  16. A bio-inspired glucose controller based on pancreatic β-cell physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pau; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick; Johnston, Desmond G; Toumazou, Christofer

    2012-05-01

    Control algorithms for closed-loop insulin delivery in type 1 diabetes have been mainly based on control engineering or artificial intelligence techniques. These, however, are not based on the physiology of the pancreas but seek to implement engineering solutions to biology. Developments in mathematical models of the β-cell physiology of the pancreas have described the glucose-induced insulin release from pancreatic β cells at a molecular level. This has facilitated development of a new class of bio-inspired glucose control algorithms that replicate the functionality of the biological pancreas. However, technologies for sensing glucose levels and delivering insulin use the subcutaneous route, which is nonphysiological and introduces some challenges. In this article, a novel glucose controller is presented as part of a bio-inspired artificial pancreas. A mathematical model of β-cell physiology was used as the core of the proposed controller. In order to deal with delays and lack of accuracy introduced by the subcutaneous route, insulin feedback and a gain scheduling strategy were employed. A United States Food and Drug Administration-accepted type 1 diabetes mellitus virtual population was used to validate the presented controller. Premeal and postmeal mean ± standard deviation blood glucose levels for the adult and adolescent populations were well within the target range set for the controller [(70, 180) mg/dl], with a percent time in range of 92.8 ± 7.3% for the adults and 83.5 ± 14% for the adolescents. This article shows for the first time very good glucose control in a virtual population with type 1 diabetes mellitus using a controller based on a subcellular β-cell model. © 2012 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Direct numerical simulations of drag reduction in turbulent channel flow over bio-inspired herringbone riblet-texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, H.O.G.; Westerweel, J.; Breugem, W.P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of drag reducing surface textures is a promising passive method to reduce fuel consumption. Probably most wellknown is the utilisation of shark-skin inspired ridges or riblets parallel to the mean flow. They can reduce drag up to 10%. Recently another bio-inspired texture based on bird

  18. Bio-inspired iron and manganese complexes derived from mixed N,O ligands for the oxidation of olefins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moelands, M.A.H.

    2014-01-01

    This Thesis describes the synthesis and structural analysis of bio-inspired iron and manganese complexes used for the catalytic oxidation of olefin substrates. The development of catalytic systems for oxidation chemistry that are based on first row transition metals and that apply a green oxidant

  19. Bio-inspired nano-photodiode for Low Light, High Resolution and crosstalk-free CMOS image sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal; Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel N.; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Evoy, S.; Cui, Bo

    2011-01-01

    photodiode morphology. The proposed bio-inspired nanorod photodiode puts the depletion region length on the path of the incident photon instead of on its width, as the case is with the planar photodiodes. The depletion region has a revolving volume

  20. Application of quercetin and its bio-inspired nanoparticles as anti-adhesive agents against Bacillus subtilis attachment to surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raie, Diana S., E-mail: raiediana@yahoo.com [Process Design and Development Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Mhatre, Eisha [Terrestrial Biofilms Group, Institute of Microbiology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU), Jena (Germany); Thiele, Matthias [Nanobiophotonic Department, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (IPHT), Jena (Germany); Labena, A. [Process Design and Development Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Ghannam, Gamal [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Farahat, Laila A. [Process Design and Development Department, Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute (EPRI), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Youssef, Tareq [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences (NILES), Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Fritzsche, Wolfgang [Nanobiophotonic Department, Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (IPHT), Jena (Germany); Kovács, Ákos T., E-mail: akos-tibor.kovacs@uni-jena.de [Terrestrial Biofilms Group, Institute of Microbiology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena (FSU), Jena (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was directed to reveal the repulsive effect of coated glass slides by quercetin and its bio-inspired titanium oxide and tungsten oxide nanoparticles on physical surface attachment of Bacillus subtilis as an ab-initio step of biofilm formation. Nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using sol–gel and acid precipitation methods for titanium oxide and tungsten oxide, respectively (in the absence or presence of quercetin). The anti-adhesive impact of the coated-slides was tested through the physical attachment of B. subtilis after 24 h using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Here, quercetin was presented as a bio-route for the synthesis of tungsten mixed oxides nano-plates at room temperature. In addition, quercetin had an impact on zeta potential and adsorption capacity of both bio-inspired amorphous titanium oxide and tungsten oxide nano-plates. Interestingly, our experiments indicated a contrary effect of quercetin as an anti-adhesive agent than previously reported. However, its bio-inspired metal oxide proved their repulsive efficiency. In addition, quercetin-mediated nano-tungsten and quercetin-mediated amorphous titanium showed anti-adhesive activity against B. subtilis biofilm. - Highlights: • Novel quercetin-mediated nanoparticles were tested for anti-adhesion against attachment of cells forming biofilms. • Quercetin showed a low-grade of protection level against bacterial attachment. • Bio-inspired nano-anatase showed a lower efficiency than amorphous titanium. • Thermally treated bio-inspired nano-tungsten gets an improved anti-adhesive activity.

  1. Introduction to Reconfigurable Supercomputing

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Rosenberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This book covers technologies, applications, tools, languages, procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of reconfigurable supercomputing using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The target audience is the community of users of High Performance Computers (HPe who may benefit from porting their applications into a reconfigurable environment. As such, this book is intended to guide the HPC user through the many algorithmic considerations, hardware alternatives, usability issues, programming languages, and design tools that need to be understood before embarking on the creation of reconfigur

  2. 3rd IEEE/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, Xianwen; Dai, Jian; ReMAR 2015; Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the most recent advances in the research and applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. It collects 93 independently reviewed papers presented at the Third ASME/IFToMM International Conference on Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots (ReMAR 2015) held in Beijing, China, 20-22 July 2015. The conference papers are organized into seven parts to cover the reconfiguration theory, topology, kinematics and design of reconfigurable mechanisms including reconfigurable parallel mechanisms. The most recent results on reconfigurable robots are presented including their analysis, design, simulation and control. Bio-inspired mechanisms are also explored in the challenging fields of rehabilitation and minimally invasive surgery. This book further addresses deployable mechanisms and origami-inspired mechanisms and showcases a wide range of successful applications of reconfigurable mechanisms and robots. Advances in Reconfigurable Mechanisms and Robots II should be of interest for researchers, eng...

  3. Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhruv, Akash V.

    Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed

  4. Biomimicry as an approach for bio-inspired structure with the aid of compu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheb Sabry Aziz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomimicry is the study of emulating and mimicking nature, where it has been used by designers to help in solving human problems. From centuries ago designers and architects looked at nature as a huge source of inspiration. Biomimicry argues that nature is the best, most influencing and the guaranteed source of innovation for the designers as a result of nature’s 3.85 billion years of evolution, as it holds a gigantic experience of solving problems of the environment and its inhabitants. The biomimicry emerging field deals with new technologies honed from bio-inspired engineering at the micro and macro scale levels. Architects have been searching for answers from nature to their complex questions about different kinds of structures, and they have mimicked a lot of forms from nature to create better and more efficient structures for different architectural purposes. Without computers these complex ways and forms of structures couldn’t been mimicked and thus using computers had risen the way of mimicking and taking inspiration from nature because it is considered a very sophisticated and accurate tool for simulation and computing, as a result designers can imitate different nature’s models in spite of its complexity.

  5. Design of a bio-inspired pneumatic artificial muscle with self-contained sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin, Onder; Pol, Nishant; Valle, Luis; Yong-Lae Park

    2016-08-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are one of the most famous linear actuators in bio-inspired robotics. They can generate relatively high linear force considering their form factors and weights. Furthermore, PAMs are inexpensive compared with traditional electromagnetic actuators (e.g. DC motors) and also inherently light and compliant. In robotics applications, however, they typically require external sensing mechanisms due to their nonlinear behaviors, which may make the entire mechanical system bulky and complicated, limiting their use in simple systems. This study presents the design and fabrication of a low-cost McKibben-type PAM with a self-contained displacement and force sensing capability that does not require any external sensing elements. The proposed PAM can detect axial contraction force and displacement at the same time. In this study, the design of a traditional McKibben muscle was modified to include an inductive coil surrounding the muscle fibers. Then, a thin, soft silicone layer was coated outside of the muscle to protect and hold the sensing coil on the actuator. This novel design measures coil inductance change to determine the contraction force and the displacement. The process can be applied to a variety of existing McKibben actuator designs without significantly changing the rigidity of the actuator while minimizing the device's footprint.

  6. Bio-inspired multistructured conical copper wires for highly efficient liquid manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianbin; Meng, Qingan; Chen, Ming; Liu, Huan; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-23

    Animal hairs are typical structured conical fibers ubiquitous in natural system that enable the manipulation of low viscosity liquid in a well-controlled manner, which serves as the fundamental structure in Chinese brush for ink delivery in a controllable manner. Here, drawing inspiration from these structure, we developed a dynamic electrochemical method that enables fabricating the anisotropic multiscale structured conical copper wire (SCCW) with controllable conicity and surface morphology. The as-prepared SCCW exhibits a unique ability for manipulating liquid with significantly high efficiency, and over 428 times greater than its own volume of liquid could be therefore operated. We propose that the boundary condition of the dynamic liquid balance behavior on conical fibers, namely, steady holding of liquid droplet at the tip region of the SCCW, makes it an excellent fibrous medium to manipulate liquid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the titling angle of the SCCW can also affect its efficiency of liquid manipulation by virtue of its mechanical rigidity, which is hardly realized by flexible natural hairs. We envision that the bio-inspired SCCW could give inspiration in designing materials and devices to manipulate liquid in a more controllable way and with high efficiency.

  7. Morphological self stabilization of locomotion gaits: illustration on a few examples from bio-inspired locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallereau, Christine; Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu; Mauny, Johan; Aoustin, Yannick

    2017-06-20

    To a large extent, robotics locomotion can be viewed as cyclic motions, named gaits. Due to the high complexity of the locomotion dynamics, to find the control laws that ensure an expected gait and its stability with respect to external perturbations, is a challenging issue for feedback control. To address this issue, a promising way is to take inspiration from animals that intensively exploit the interactions of the passive degrees of freedom of their body with their physical surroundings, to outsource the high-level exteroceptive feedback control to low-level proprioceptive ones. In this case, passive interactions can ensure most of the expected control goals. In this article, we propose a methodological framework to study the role of morphology in the design of locomotion gaits and their stability. This framework ranges from modelling to control aspects, and is illustrated through three examples from bio-inspired locomotion: a three-dimensional micro air vehicle in hovering flight, a pendular planar climber and a bipedal planar walker. In these three cases, we will see how simple considerations based on the morphology of the body can ensure the existence of passive stable gaits without requiring any high-level control.

  8. Natural and bio-inspired underwater adhesives: Current progress and new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mengkui; Ren, Susu; Wei, Shicao; Sun, Chengjun; Zhong, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Many marine organisms harness diverse protein molecules as underwater adhesives to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Natural underwater adhesion phenomena thus provide inspiration for engineering adhesive materials that can perform in water or high-moisture settings for biomedical and industrial applications. Here we review examples of biological adhesives to show the molecular features of natural adhesives and discuss how such knowledge serves as a heuristic guideline for the rational design of biologically inspired underwater adhesives. In view of future bio-inspired research, we propose several potential opportunities, either in improving upon current L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-based and coacervates-enabled adhesives with new features or engineering conceptually new types of adhesives that recapitulate important characteristics of biological adhesives. We underline the importance of viewing natural adhesives as dynamic materials, which owe their outstanding performance to the cellular coordination of protein expression, delivery, deposition, assembly, and curing of corresponding components with spatiotemporal control. We envision that the emerging synthetic biology techniques will provide great opportunities for advancing both fundamental and application aspects of underwater adhesives.

  9. Vibro-Perception of Optical Bio-Inspired Fiber-Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhang, Sheng; Lu, Guo-Wei; Sunami, Yuta

    2018-05-12

    In this research, based on the principle of optical interferometry, the Mach-Zehnder and Optical Phase-locked Loop (OPLL) vibro-perception systems of bio-inspired fiber-skin are designed to mimic the tactile perception of human skin. The fiber-skin is made of the optical fiber embedded in the silicone elastomer. The optical fiber is an instinctive and alternative sensor for tactile perception with high sensitivity and reliability, also low cost and susceptibility to the magnetic interference. The silicone elastomer serves as a substrate with high flexibility and biocompatibility, and the optical fiber core serves as the vibro-perception sensor to detect physical motions like tapping and sliding. According to the experimental results, the designed optical fiber-skin demonstrates the ability to detect the physical motions like tapping and sliding in both the Mach-Zehnder and OPLL vibro-perception systems. For direct contact condition, the OPLL vibro-perception system shows better performance compared with the Mach-Zehnder vibro-perception system. However, the Mach-Zehnder vibro-perception system is preferable to the OPLL system in the indirect contact experiment. In summary, the fiber-skin is validated to have light touch character and excellent repeatability, which is highly-suitable for skin-mimic sensing.

  10. A Wireless Fatigue Monitoring System Utilizing a Bio-Inspired Tree Ring Data Tracking Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Bai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is proposed. The general framework, methodology, and verification of this intelligent system are discussed in details. The rain-flow counting (RFC method is adopted as the core algorithm which quantifies fatigue damages, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP is introduced as the core module for data collection and analysis. Laboratory test results based on strain gauges and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF sensors have shown that the developed intelligent system can provide a reliable quick feedback and early warning of fatigue failure. With the merits of low cost, high accuracy and great reliability, the developed wireless fatigue sensing system can be further applied to mechanical engineering, civil infrastructures, transportation systems, aerospace engineering, etc.

  11. Mechanical properties of a bio-inspired robotic knifefish with an undulatory propulsor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curet, Oscar M; Patankar, Neelesh A; MacIver, Malcolm A; Lauder, George V

    2011-01-01

    South American electric knifefish are a leading model system within neurobiology. Recent efforts have focused on understanding their biomechanics and relating this to their neural processing strategies. Knifefish swim by means of an undulatory fin that runs most of the length of their body, affixed to the belly. Propelling themselves with this fin enables them to keep their body relatively straight while swimming, enabling straightforward robotic implementation with a rigid hull. In this study, we examined the basic properties of undulatory swimming through use of a robot that was similar in some key respects to the knifefish. As we varied critical fin kinematic variables such as frequency, amplitude, and wavelength of sinusoidal traveling waves, we measured the force generated by the robot when it swam against a stationary sensor, and its velocity while swimming freely within a flow tunnel system. Our results show that there is an optimal operational region in the fin's kinematic parameter space. The optimal actuation parameters found for the robotic knifefish are similar to previously observed parameters for the black ghost knifefish, Apteronotus albifrons. Finally, we used our experimental results to show how the force generated by the robotic fin can be decomposed into thrust and drag terms. Our findings are useful for future bio-inspired underwater vehicles as well as for understanding the mechanics of knifefish swimming.

  12. Bio-Inspired Supramolecular Chemistry Provides Highly Concentrated Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first observation, through X-ray diffraction, of noncovalent uracil–uracil (U–U dimeric π-stacking interactions in carbon nanotube (CNT–based supramolecular assemblies. The directionally oriented morphology determined using atomic force microscopy revealed highly organized behavior through π-stacking of U moieties in a U-functionalized CNT derivative (CNT–U. We developed a dispersion system to investigate the bio-inspired interactions between an adenine (A-terminated poly(3-adeninehexyl thiophene (PAT and CNT–U. These hybrid CNT–U/PAT materials interacted through π-stacking and multiple hydrogen bonding between the U moieties of CNT–U and the A moieties of PAT. Most importantly, the U···A multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between CNT–U and PAT enhanced the dispersion of CNT–U in a high-polarity solvent (DMSO. The morphology of these hybrids, determined using transmission electron microscopy, featured grape-like PAT bundles wrapped around the CNT–U surface; this tight connection was responsible for the enhanced dispersion of CNT–U in DMSO.

  13. Design and Dynamics Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Intermittent Hopping Robot for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Bai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A small, bio-inspired and minimally actuated intermittent hopping robot for planetary surface exploration is proposed in this paper. The robot uses a combined-geared six-bar linkage/spring mechanism, which has a possible rich trajectory and metamorphic characteristics and, due to this, the robot is able to recharge, lock/release and jump by using just a micro-power motor as the actuator. Since the robotic system has a closed-chain structure and employs underactuated redundant motion, the constrained multi-body dynamics are derived with time-varying driving parameters and ground unilateral constraint both taken into consideration. In addition, the established dynamics equations, mixed of higher order differential and algebraic expressions, are solved by the immediate integration algorithm. A prototype is implemented and experiments are carried out. The results show that the robot, using a micro-power motor as the actuator and solar cells as the power supply, can achieve a biomimetic multi-body hopping stance and a nonlinearly increasing driving force. Typically, the robot can jump a horizontal distance of about 1 m and a vertical height of about 0.3 m, with its trunk and foot moving stably during takeoff. In addition, the computational and experimental results are consistent as regards the hopping performance of the robot, which suggests that the proposed dynamics model and its solution have general applicability to motion prediction and the performance analysis of intermittent hopping robots.

  14. Data-Foraging-Oriented Reconnaissance Based on Bio-Inspired Indirect Communication for Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Castañeda Cisneros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, aerial vehicles have allowed exploring scenarios with harsh conditions. These can conduct reconnaissance tasks in areas that change periodically and have a high spatial and temporal resolution. The objective of a reconnaissance task is to survey an area and retrieve strategic information. The aerial vehicles, however, have inherent constraints in terms of energy and transmission range due to their mobility. Despite these constraints, the Data Foraging problem requires the aerial vehicles to exchange information about profitable data sources. In Data Foraging, establishing a single path is not viable because of dynamic conditions of the environment. Thus, reconnaissance must be focused on periodically searching profitable environmental data sources, as some animals perform foraging. In this work, a data-foraging-oriented reconnaissance algorithm based on bio-inspired indirect communication for aerial vehicles is presented. The approach establishes several paths that overlap to identify valuable data sources. Inspired by the stigmergy principle, the aerial vehicles indirectly communicate through artificial pheromones. The aerial vehicles traverse the environment using a heuristic algorithm that uses the artificial pheromones as feedback. The solution is formally defined and mathematically evaluated. In addition, we show the viability of the algorithm by simulations which have been tested through various statistical hypothesis.

  15. A compact bio-inspired visible/NIR imager for image-guided surgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengkui; Garcia, Missael; Edmiston, Chris; York, Timothy; Marinov, Radoslav; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Akers, Walter J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Liang, Rongguang; Pepino, Marta; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the visual system of the morpho butterfly, we have designed, fabricated, tested and clinically translated an ultra-sensitive, light weight and compact imaging sensor capable of simultaneously capturing near infrared (NIR) and visible spectrum information. The visual system of the morpho butterfly combines photosensitive cells with spectral filters at the receptor level. The spectral filters are realized by alternating layers of high and low dielectric constant, such as air and cytoplasm. We have successfully mimicked this concept by integrating pixelated spectral filters, realized by alternating silicon dioxide and silicon nitrate layers, with an array of CCD detectors. There are four different types of pixelated spectral filters in the imaging plane: red, green, blue and NIR. The high optical density (OD) of all spectral filters (OD>4) allow for efficient rejections of photons from unwanted bands. The single imaging chip weighs 20 grams with form factor of 5mm by 5mm. The imaging camera is integrated with a goggle display system. A tumor targeted agent, LS301, is used to identify all spontaneous tumors in a transgenic PyMT murine model of breast cancer. The imaging system achieved sensitivity of 98% and selectivity of 95%. We also used our imaging sensor to locate sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer using indocyanine green tracer. The surgeon was able to identify 100% of SLNs when using our bio-inspired imaging system, compared to 93% when using information from the lymphotropic dye and 96% when using information from the radioactive tracer.

  16. Bio-inspired composites with functionally graded platelets exhibit enhanced stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapse, Sanjay; S, Anup

    2017-11-09

    Unidirectional composites inspired from biological materials such as nacre, are composed of stiff platelets arranged in a staggered manner within a soft matrix. Elaborate analyses have been conducted on the aforementioned composites and they are found to have excellent mechanical properties like stiffness, strength and fracture toughness. The superior properties exhibited by these composites have been proved to be the result of its unique structure. An emerging development in the field of composite structures is Functionally Graded Composites(FGC), whose properties vary spatially and possess enhanced thermo-mechanical properties. In this paper, the platelets are functionally graded with its Young's Modulus varying parabolically along the length. Two different models - namely, Tension Shear Chain Model and Minimisation of Complementary Energy Model have been employed to obtain the stiffness of the overall composite analytically. The effect of various parameters that define the composite model such as overlapping length between any two neighbouring platelets, different gradation parameters and platelet aspect ratio on the overall mechanical properties have been studied. Composites with functionally graded platelets are found to possess enhanced stiffness (upto 14% higher) for certain values of these parameters. The obtained solutions have been validated using Finite Element Analysis. Bio-inspired composites with functionally graded platelets can be engineered for structural applications, such as in automobile, aerospace and aircraft industry, where stiffness plays a crucial role. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  17. Natural and bio-inspired underwater adhesives: Current progress and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengkui Cui

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many marine organisms harness diverse protein molecules as underwater adhesives to achieve strong and robust interfacial adhesion under dynamic and turbulent environments. Natural underwater adhesion phenomena thus provide inspiration for engineering adhesive materials that can perform in water or high-moisture settings for biomedical and industrial applications. Here we review examples of biological adhesives to show the molecular features of natural adhesives and discuss how such knowledge serves as a heuristic guideline for the rational design of biologically inspired underwater adhesives. In view of future bio-inspired research, we propose several potential opportunities, either in improving upon current L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine-based and coacervates-enabled adhesives with new features or engineering conceptually new types of adhesives that recapitulate important characteristics of biological adhesives. We underline the importance of viewing natural adhesives as dynamic materials, which owe their outstanding performance to the cellular coordination of protein expression, delivery, deposition, assembly, and curing of corresponding components with spatiotemporal control. We envision that the emerging synthetic biology techniques will provide great opportunities for advancing both fundamental and application aspects of underwater adhesives.

  18. Atomistic simulation on the plastic deformation and fracture of bio-inspired graphene/Ni nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Wang, Dandan; Lu, Zixing; Hu, Wenjun

    2016-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the plastic deformation and fracture behaviors of bio-inspired graphene/metal nanocomposites, which have a "brick-and-mortar" nanostructure, consisting of hard graphene single-layers embedded in a soft Ni matrix. The plastic deformation mechanisms of the nanocomposites were analyzed as well as their effects on the mechanical properties with various geometrical variations. It was found that the strength and ductility of the metal matrix can be highly enhanced with the addition of the staggered graphene layers, and the plastic deformation can be attributed to the interfacial sliding, dislocation nucleation, and cracks' combination. The strength of the nanocomposites strongly depends on the length scale of the nanostructure and the interlayer distance as well. In addition, slip at the interface releases the stress in graphene layers, leading to the stress distribution on the graphene more uniform. The present results are expected to contribute to the design of the nanolayered graphene/metal composites with high performance.

  19. Computational Design of Multi-component Bio-Inspired Bilayer Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Koufos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our investigation is motivated by the need to design bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties for use in a range of applications, such as targeted drug delivery, sensing and imaging. We draw inspiration from biological cell membranes and focus on their principal constituents. In this paper, we present our results on the role of molecular architecture on the interfacial, structural and dynamical properties of bio-inspired membranes. We focus on four lipid architectures with variations in the head group shape and the hydrocarbon tail length. Each lipid species is composed of a hydrophilic head group and two hydrophobic tails. In addition, we study a model of the Cholesterol molecule to understand the interfacial properties of a bilayer membrane composed of rigid, single-tail molecular species. We demonstrate the properties of the bilayer membranes to be determined by the molecular architecture and rigidity of the constituent species. Finally, we demonstrate the formation of a stable mixed bilayer membrane composed of Cholesterol and one of the phospholipid species. Our approach can be adopted to design multi-component bilayer membranes with tunable interfacial and mechanical properties. We use a Molecular Dynamics-based mesoscopic simulation technique called Dissipative Particle Dynamics that resolves the molecular details of the components through soft-sphere coarse-grained models and reproduces the hydrodynamic behavior of the system over extended time scales.

  20. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-shan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  1. Research on one Bio-inspired Jumping Locomotion Robot for Search and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunwen Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jumping locomotion is much more effective than other locomotion means in order to tackle the unstructured and complex environment in research and rescue. Here, a bio-inspired jumping robot with a closed-chain mechanism is proposed to achieve the power amplification during taking-off. Through actuating one variable transmission mechanism to change the transmission ratio, the jumping robot reveals biological characteristics in the phase of posture adjustment when adjusting the height and distance of one jump. The kinematics and dynamics of the simplified jumping mechanism model in one jumping cycle sequence are analysed. A compliant contact model considering nonlinear damping is investigated for jumping performance under different terrain characteristics. The numerical simulation algorithm with regard to solving the dynamical equation is described and simulation results are discussed. Finally, one primary prototype and experiment are described. The experimental results show the distance of jumping in the horizontal direction increases with the increasing gear ratio, while the height of jumping decreases in reverse. The jumping robot can enhance the capability to adapt to unknown cluttered environments, such as those encountered in research and rescue, using this strategy.

  2. Bio-inspired patterned networks (BIPS) for development of wearable/disposable biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamore, E. S.; Convertino, M.; Hondred, John; Das, Suprem; Claussen, J. C.; Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel approach for fabricating point of care (POC) wearable electrochemical biosensors based on 3D patterning of bionanocomposite networks. To create Bio-Inspired Patterned network (BIPS) electrodes, we first generate fractal network in silico models that optimize transport of network fluxes according to an energy function. Network patterns are then inkjet printed onto flexible substrate using conductive graphene ink. We then deposit fractal nanometal structures onto the graphene to create a 3D nanocomposite network. Finally, we biofunctionalize the surface with biorecognition agents using covalent bonding. In this paper, BIPS are used to develop high efficiency, low cost biosensors for measuring glucose as a proof of concept. Our results on the fundamental performance of BIPS sensors show that the biomimetic nanostructures significantly enhance biosensor sensitivity, accuracy, response time, limit of detection, and hysteresis compared to conventional POC non fractal electrodes (serpentine, interdigitated, and screen printed electrodes). BIPs, in particular Apollonian patterned BIPS, represent a new generation of POC biosensors based on nanoscale and microscale fractal networks that significantly improve electrical connectivity, leading to enhanced sensor performance.

  3. A bio-inspired swarm robot coordination algorithm for multiple target searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Gan, Jing; Desai, Sachi

    2008-04-01

    The coordination of a multi-robot system searching for multi targets is challenging under dynamic environment since the multi-robot system demands group coherence (agents need to have the incentive to work together faithfully) and group competence (agents need to know how to work together well). In our previous proposed bio-inspired coordination method, Local Interaction through Virtual Stigmergy (LIVS), one problem is the considerable randomness of the robot movement during coordination, which may lead to more power consumption and longer searching time. To address these issues, an adaptive LIVS (ALIVS) method is proposed in this paper, which not only considers the travel cost and target weight, but also predicting the target/robot ratio and potential robot redundancy with respect to the detected targets. Furthermore, a dynamic weight adjustment is also applied to improve the searching performance. This new method a truly distributed method where each robot makes its own decision based on its local sensing information and the information from its neighbors. Basically, each robot only communicates with its neighbors through a virtual stigmergy mechanism and makes its local movement decision based on a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. The proposed ALIVS algorithm has been implemented on the embodied robot simulator, Player/Stage, in a searching target. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness in a power-efficient manner with the real-world constraints.

  4. Fabrication of bio-inspired nitinol alloy surface with tunable anisotropic wetting and high adhesive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan L; Zhao, Yue C; Yang, Cheng J; Wang, Fu J; Liu, Xian P; Jing, Xiu B

    2018-10-01

    In this paper, micro/nano-scale structures were fabricated on nitinol alloy (NiTi) to realize tunable anisotropic wetting and high adhesive capability. Laser texturing and silanization process are utilized to change the morphological and chemical properties of substrates. It is noted that these treated substrates exhibit the joint characteristics of anisotropic wetting and high adhesive capability. In order to investigate the influences of laser-texturing and silanization processes on NiTi, these surfaces were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), a white light confocal microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and goniometer. The relationship between water volume and anisotropic wetting was also established. From the experimental testing, we can obtain the following conclusions: (1) the anisotropic wetting characterized by the difference between the water contact angles (WCAs) in the vertical and parallel directions ranges from 0° to 20.3°, which is far more than the value of natural rice leaves. (2) the water sliding angles (WSAs) kept stable at 180°, successfully mimicking the adhesive ability of rose petals. (3) the silanization process could strengthen the hydrophobicity but weaken anisotropic wetting. These bio-inspired NiTi surfaces have a tremendous potential applications such as microfluidic devices, bio-mimetic materials fabrication and lab on chip. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bio-inspired hydrophobic modification of cellulose nanocrystals with castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Qianqian; Liu, Chengguo; Hu, Yun; Jia, Puyou; Hu, Lihong; Zhou, Yonghong

    2018-07-01

    This work presents an efficient and environmentally friendly approach to generate hydrophobic cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using thiol-containing castor oil (CO-SH) as a renewable hydrophobe with the assist of bio-inspired dopamine at room temperature. The modification process included the formation of the polydopamine (PDA) buffer layer on CNC surfaces and the Michael addition reaction between the catechol moieties of PDA coating and thiol groups of CO-SH. The morphology, crystalline structure, surface chemistry, thermal stability and hydrophobicity of the modified CNC were charactered by TEM, XRD, FT-IR, solid-state 13 C NMR, XPS, TGA and contact angle analysis. The modified CNC preserved cellulose crystallinity, displayed higher thermal stability than unmodified CNC, and was highly hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 95.6°. The simplicity and versatility of the surface modification strategy inspired by adhesive protein of mussel may promote rapid development of hydrophobic bio-based nanomaterials for various applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio-inspired wire-driven multi-section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots' structure and the continuum robots' actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire-driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  7. B-iTRS: A Bio-Inspired Trusted Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In WSNs, routing algorithms need to handle dynamical changes of network topology, extra overhead, energy saving, and other requirements. Therefore, routing in WSNs is an extremely interesting and challenging issue. In this paper, we present a novel bio-inspired trusted routing scheme (B-iTRS based on ant colony optimization (ACO and Physarum autonomic optimization (PAO. For trust assessment, B-iTRS monitors neighbors’ behavior in real time, receives feedback from Sink, and then assesses neighbors’ trusts based on the acquired information. For routing scheme, each node finds routes to the Sink based on ACO and PAO. In the process of path finding, B-iTRS senses the load and trust value of each node and then calculates the link load and link trust of the found routes to support the route selection. Moreover, B-iTRS also assesses the route based on PAO to maintain the route table. Simulation results show how B-iTRS can achieve the effective performance compared to existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  8. Bio-Inspired Vision-Based Leader-Follower Formation Flying in the Presence of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oyekan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flocking starlings at dusk are known for the mesmerizing and intricate shapes they generate, as well as how fluid these shapes change. They seem to do this effortlessly. Real-life vision-based flocking has not been achieved in micro-UAVs (micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to date. Towards this goal, we make three contributions in this paper: (i we used a computational approach to develop a bio-inspired architecture for vision-based Leader-Follower formation flying on two micro-UAVs. We believe that the minimal computational cost of the resulting algorithm makes it suitable for object detection and tracking during high-speed flocking; (ii we show that provided delays in the control loop of a micro-UAV are below a critical value, Kalman filter-based estimation algorithms are not required to achieve Leader-Follower formation flying; (iii unlike previous approaches, we do not use external observers, such as GPS signals or synchronized communication with flock members. These three contributions could be useful in achieving vision-based flocking in GPS-denied environments on computationally-limited agents.

  9. Novel bio-inspired smart control for hazard mitigation of civil structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeesock; Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new bio-inspired controller is proposed for vibration mitigation of smart structures subjected to ground disturbances (i.e. earthquakes). The control system is developed through the integration of a brain emotional learning (BEL) algorithm with a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller and a semiactive inversion (Inv) algorithm. The BEL algorithm is based on the neurologically inspired computational model of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm, a seismically excited building structure equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated. The performance of the proposed hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm is compared with that of passive, PID, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and BEL control systems. In the simulation, the robustness of the hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm in the presence of modeling uncertainties as well as external disturbances is investigated. It is shown that the proposed hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm is effective in improving the dynamic responses of seismically excited building structure–MR damper systems

  10. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Junliang; Yu, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts. (topical review)

  11. A wireless fatigue monitoring system utilizing a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi; Li, Xuan; Xie, Zhaohui; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

    2014-03-05

    Fatigue, a hot scientific research topic for centuries, can trigger sudden failure of critical structures such as aircraft and railway systems, resulting in enormous casualties as well as economic losses. The fatigue life of certain structures is intrinsically random and few monitoring techniques are capable of tracking the full life-cycle fatigue damage. In this paper, a novel in-situ wireless real-time fatigue monitoring system using a bio-inspired tree ring data tracking technique is proposed. The general framework, methodology, and verification of this intelligent system are discussed in details. The rain-flow counting (RFC) method is adopted as the core algorithm which quantifies fatigue damages, and Digital Signal Processing (DSP) is introduced as the core module for data collection and analysis. Laboratory test results based on strain gauges and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors have shown that the developed intelligent system can provide a reliable quick feedback and early warning of fatigue failure. With the merits of low cost, high accuracy and great reliability, the developed wireless fatigue sensing system can be further applied to mechanical engineering, civil infrastructures, transportation systems, aerospace engineering, etc.

  12. Bio-inspired adaptive feedback error learning architecture for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive control architecture based on an accurate regression method called Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and on a bio-inspired module, such as a cerebellar-like engine. This hybrid architecture takes full advantage of the machine learning module (LWPR kernel) to abstract an optimized representation of the sensorimotor space while the cerebellar component integrates this to generate corrective terms in the framework of a control task. Furthermore, we illustrate how the use of a simple adaptive error feedback term allows to use the proposed architecture even in the absence of an accurate analytic reference model. The presented approach achieves an accurate control with low gain corrective terms (for compliant control schemes). We evaluate the contribution of the different components of the proposed scheme comparing the obtained performance with alternative approaches. Then, we show that the presented architecture can be used for accurate manipulation of different objects when their physical properties are not directly known by the controller. We evaluate how the scheme scales for simulated plants of high Degrees of Freedom (7-DOFs).

  13. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-Shan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  14. Design and Characterization of a Novel Bio-inspired Hair Flow Sensor Based on Resonant Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Yang, B.; Wang, Q. H.; Lu, C. F.; Hu, D.

    2018-03-01

    Flow sensors inspired by the natural hair sensing mechanism have great prospect in the research of micro-autonomous system and technology (MAST) for the three-dimensional structure characteristics with high spatial and quality utilization. A novel bio-inspired hair flow sensor (BHFS) based on resonant sensing with a unique asymmetric design is presented in this paper. A hair transducer and a signal detector which is constituted of a two-stage micro-leverage mechanism and two symmetrical resonators (double ended tuning fork, DETF) are adopted to realize the high sensitivity to air flow. The sensitivity of the proposed BHFS is improved significantly than the published ones due to the high sensitivity of resonators and the higher amplification factor possessed by the two-stage micro-leverage mechanism. The standard deep dry silicon on glass (DDSOG) process is chosen to fabricate the proposed BHFS. The experiment result demonstrates that the fabricated BHFS has a mechanical sensitivity of 5.26 Hz/(m/s)2 at a resonant frequency of 22 kHz with the hair height of 6 mm.

  15. Medical Image Registration by means of a Bio-Inspired Optimization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariton Costin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging mainly treats and processes missing, ambiguous, complementary, redundant and distorted data. Biomedical image registration is the process of geometric overlaying or alignment of two or more 2D/3D images of the same scene, taken at different time slots, from different angles, and/or by different acquisition systems. In medical practice, it is becoming increasingly important in diagnosis, treatment planning, functional studies, computer-guided therapies, and in biomedical research. Technically, image registration implies a complex optimization of different parameters, performed at local or/and global levels. Local optimization methods frequently fail because functions of the involved metrics with respect to transformation parameters are generally nonconvex and irregular. Therefore, global methods are often required, at least at the beginning of the procedure. In this paper, a new evolutionary and bio-inspired approach -- bacterial foraging optimization -- is adapted for single-slice to 3-D PET and CT multimodal image registration. Preliminary results of optimizing the normalized mutual information similarity metric validated the efficacy of the proposed method by using a freely available medical image database.

  16. Working principle of bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Joshi, Keyur; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Recently, bio-inspired shape memory alloy composite (BISMAC) actuators have been shown to mimic the deformation characteristics of natural jellyfish medusa. In this study, a constant cross-section BISMAC actuator was characterized in terms of bending deflection and force in conjunction with microscopy to understand its deformation mechanism. The actuator showed bending deflection of 111% with respect to the active length along with a blocking force of 0.061 N. The resulting energy density of the composite actuator was 4929 J m −3 at an input voltage and current level of 12 V and 0.7 A, respectively. For a dry-state actuator, this performance is extremely high and represents an optimum combination of force and deflection. Experiments reveal that BISMAC's performance is related to the moment induced from tip attachment of the shape memory alloy (SMA) rather than to friction within the composite structure. A physics-based model of BISMAC structure is presented which shows that the actuator is highly sensitive to the distance between the SMA wire and the incompressible component. While SMA has both stress and strain limitations, the limiting factor in BISMAC actuators is dependent on separation distance. The limiting factor in BISMAC's suitability for mimicking the performance of medusa was experimentally found to be related to the maximum 4% strain of the SMA and not its force generation. (fast track communication)

  17. Interactions of Bio-Inspired Membranes with Peptides and Peptide-Mimetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sebastiano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Via Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD and implicit solvent coarse-grained (CG Molecular Dynamics (MD we examine the interaction of an amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE and its synthetic counterpart with a bio-inspired membrane. We use the DPD technique to investigate the interaction of peptide-mimetic nanoparticles, or nanopins, with a three-component membrane. The CG MD approach is used to investigate the interaction of a cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE with single-component membrane. We observe the spontaneous binding and subsequent insertion of peptide and nanopin in the membrane by using CG MD and DPD approaches, respectively. In addition, we find that the insertion of peptide and nanopins is mainly driven by the favorable enthalpic interactions between the hydrophobic components of the peptide, or nanopin, and the membrane. Our study provides insights into the mechanism underlying the interactions of amphiphilic peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a membrane. The result of this study can be used to guide the functional integration of peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a cell membrane.

  18. Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Maria Oddo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad.

  19. Integration of bio-inspired, control-based visual and olfactory data for the detection of an elusive target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Nghi; Le, Duong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integration technique using a bio-inspired, control-based visual and olfactory receptor system to search for elusive targets in practical environments where the targets cannot be seen obviously by either sensory data. Bio-inspired Visual System is based on a modeling of extended visual pathway which consists of saccadic eye movements and visual pathway (vertebrate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex) to enable powerful target detections of noisy, partial, incomplete visual data. Olfactory receptor algorithm, namely spatial invariant independent component analysis, that was developed based on data of old factory receptor-electronic nose (enose) of Caltech, is adopted to enable the odorant target detection in an unknown environment. The integration of two systems is a vital approach and sets up a cornerstone for effective and low-cost of miniaturized UAVs or fly robots for future DOD and NASA missions, as well as for security systems in Internet of Things environments.

  20. Locomotion Dynamics for Bio-inspired Robots with Soft Appendages: Application to Flapping Flight and Passive Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu; Morsli, Ferhat; Morel, Yannick

    2017-08-01

    In animal locomotion, either in fish or flying insects, the use of flexible terminal organs or appendages greatly improves the performance of locomotion (thrust and lift). In this article, we propose a general unified framework for modeling and simulating the (bio-inspired) locomotion of robots using soft organs. The proposed approach is based on the model of Mobile Multibody Systems (MMS). The distributed flexibilities are modeled according to two major approaches: the Floating Frame Approach (FFA) and the Geometrically Exact Approach (GEA). Encompassing these two approaches in the Newton-Euler modeling formalism of robotics, this article proposes a unique modeling framework suited to the fast numerical integration of the dynamics of a MMS in both the FFA and the GEA. This general framework is applied on two illustrative examples drawn from bio-inspired locomotion: the passive swimming in von Karman Vortex Street, and the hovering flight with flexible flapping wings.

  1. Biotemplating of Luffa cylindrica sponges to self-supporting hierarchical zeolite macrostructures for bio-inspired structured catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zampieri, Alessandro; Mabande, Godwin T.P.; Selvam, Thangaraj; Schwieger, Wilhelm; Rudolph, Alexander; Hermann, Ralph; Sieber, Heino; Greil, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Biomorphic self-supporting MFI-type zeolite frameworks with hierarchical porosity and complex architecture were prepared using a 2-step (in-situ seeding and secondary crystal growth) hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of a biological template (Luffa sponge), employed as a macroscale sacrificial structure builder. The bio-inspired zeolitic replica inherited the complex spongy morphology and the intricate open-porous architecture of the biotemplate. Moreover, it exhibited reasonable mechanical stability in order to study the applicability of the biomorphic catalyst in a technical catalytic process. A bio-inspired catalytic reactor utilising the self-supporting ZSM-5 scaffold in monolithic configuration was developed in order to test the catalytic performance of the material

  2. A bio-inspired N-doped porous carbon electrocatalyst with hierarchical superstructure for efficient oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yue-E.; Yan, Jiajie; Ouyang, Yue; Lu, Hengyi; Lai, Feili; Wu, Yue; Liu, Tianxi

    2018-06-01

    The bio-inspired hierarchical "grape cluster" superstructure provides an effective integration of one-dimensional carbon nanofibers (CNF) with isolated carbonaceous nanoparticles into three-dimensional (3D) conductive frameworks for efficient electron and mass transfer. Herein, a 3D N-doped porous carbon electrocatalyst consisting of carbon nanofibers with grape-like N-doped hollow carbon particles (CNF@NC) has been prepared through a simple electrospinning strategy combined with in-situ growth and carbonization processes. Such a bio-inspired hierarchically organized conductive network largely facilitates both the mass diffusion and electron transfer during the oxygen reduction reactions (ORR). Therefore, the metal-free CNF@NC catalyst demonstrates superior catalytic activity with an absolute four-electron transfer mechanism, strong methanol tolerance and good long-term stability towards ORR in alkaline media.

  3. A highly efficient sharp-interface immersed boundary method with adaptive mesh refinement for bio-inspired flow simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaolong; Dong, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Developing a high-fidelity, high-efficiency numerical method for bio-inspired flow problems with flow-structure interaction is important for understanding related physics and developing many bio-inspired technologies. To simulate a fast-swimming big fish with multiple finlets or fish schooling, we need fine grids and/or a big computational domain, which are big challenges for 3-D simulations. In current work, based on the 3-D finite-difference sharp-interface immersed boundary method for incompressible flows (Mittal et al., JCP 2008), we developed an octree-like Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique to enhance the computational ability and increase the computational efficiency. The AMR is coupled with a multigrid acceleration technique and a MPI +OpenMP hybrid parallelization. In this work, different AMR layers are treated separately and the synchronization is performed in the buffer regions and iterations are performed for the convergence of solution. Each big region is calculated by a MPI process which then uses multiple OpenMP threads for further acceleration, so that the communication cost is reduced. With these acceleration techniques, various canonical and bio-inspired flow problems with complex boundaries can be simulated accurately and efficiently. This work is supported by the MURI Grant Number N00014-14-1-0533 and NSF Grant CBET-1605434.

  4. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A; Tanaka, Y

    2011-01-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s −1 , operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10 5 or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4–3.0 g and a wingspan of 10–12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  5. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  6. A bio-inspired asynchronous skin system for crack detection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, Nathan; Kuntz, Alan; Brubaker, Cole; Amos, Stephanie; Gao, Wei; Gupta, Gautum; Mohite, Aditya; Farrar, Charles; Mascareñas, David

    2014-01-01

    In many applications of structural health monitoring (SHM) it is imperative or advantageous to have large sensor arrays in order to properly sense the state of health of the structure. Typically these sensor networks are implemented by placing a large number of sensors over a structure and running individual cables from each sensor back to a central measurement station. Data is then collected from each sensor on the network at a constant sampling rate regardless of the current timescales at which events are acting on the structure. These conventional SHM sensor networks have a number of shortfalls. They tend to have a large number of cables that can represent a single point of failure for each sensor as well as add significant weight and installation costs. The constant sampling rate associated with each sensor very quickly leads to large amounts of data that must be analyzed, stored, and possibly transmitted to a remote user. This leads to increased demands on power consumption, bandwidth, and size. It also taxes our current techniques for managing large amounts of data. For the last decade the goal of the SHM community has been to endow structures with the functionality of a biological nervous system. Despite this goal the community has predominantly ignored the biological nervous system as inspiration for building structural nervous systems, choosing instead to focus on experimental mechanics and simulation techniques. In this work we explore the use of a novel, bio-inspired, SHM skin. This skin makes use of distributed computing and asynchronous communication techniques to alleviate the scale of the data management challenge as well as reduce power. The system also periodically sends a ‘heat beat’ signal to provide state-of-health updates. This conductive skin was implemented using conductive ink resistors as well as with graphene-oxide capacitors. (paper)

  7. Feasibility Study of a Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Pau; El Sharkawy, Mohamed; Pesl, Peter; Jugnee, Narvada; Thomson, Hazel; Pavitt, Darrell; Toumazou, Christofer; Johnston, Desmond; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study assesses proof of concept and safety of a novel bio-inspired artificial pancreas (BiAP) system in adults with type 1 diabetes during fasting, overnight, and postprandial conditions. In contrast to existing glucose controllers in artificial pancreas systems, the BiAP uses a control algorithm based on a mathematical model of β-cell physiology. The algorithm is implemented on a miniature silicon microchip within a portable hand-held device that interfaces the components of the artificial pancreas. Materials and Methods: In this nonrandomized open-label study each subject attended for a 6-h fasting study followed by a 13-h overnight and post-breakfast study on a separate occasion. During both study sessions the BiAP system was used, and microboluses of insulin were recommended every 5 min by the control algorithm according to subcutaneous sensor glucose levels. The primary outcome was percentage time spent in the glucose target range (3.9–10.0 mmol/L). Results: Twenty subjects (55% male; mean [SD] age, 44 [10] years; duration of diabetes, 22 [12] years; glycosylated hemoglobin, 7.4% [0.7%] [57 (7) mmol/mol]; body mass index, 25 [4] kg/m2) participated in the fasting study, and the median (interquartile range) percentage time in target range was 98.0% (90.8–100.0%). Seventeen of these subjects then participated in the overnight/postprandial study, where 70.7% (63.9–77.4%) of time was spent in the target range and, reassuringly, 0.0% (0.0–2.3%) of time was spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L). Conclusions: The BiAP achieves safe glycemic control during fasting, overnight, and postprandial conditions. PMID:24801544

  8. Post-capture vibration suppression of spacecraft via a bio-inspired isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Honghua; Jing, Xingjian; Wang, Yu; Yue, Xiaokui; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by the smooth motions of a running kangaroo, a bio-inspired quadrilateral shape (BIQS) structure is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a free-floating spacecraft subject to periodic or impulsive forces, which may be encountered during on-orbit servicing missions. In particular, the BIQS structure is installed between the satellite platform and the capture mechanism. The dynamical model of the BIQS isolation system, i.e. a BIQS structure connecting the platform and the capture mechanism at each side, is established by Lagrange's equations to simulate the post-capture dynamical responses. The BIQS system suffering an impulsive force is dealt with by means of a modified version of Lagrange's equations. Furthermore, the classical harmonic balance method is used to solve the nonlinear dynamical system subject to periodic forces, while for the case under impulsive forces the numerical integration method is adopted. Due to the weightless environment in space, the present BIQS system is essentially an under-constrained dynamical system with one of its natural frequencies being identical to zero. The effects of system parameters, such as the number of layers in BIQS, stiffness, assembly angle, rod length, damping coefficient, masses of satellite platform and capture mechanism, on the isolation performance of the present system are thoroughly investigated. In addition, comparisons between the isolation performances of the presently proposed BIQS isolator and the conventional spring-mass-damper (SMD) isolator are conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the present isolator. Numerical simulations show that the BIQS system has a much better performance than the SMD system under either periodic or impulsive forces. Overall, the present BIQS isolator offers a highly efficient passive way for vibration suppressions of free-floating spacecraft.

  9. HyperCell: A Bio-inspired Design Framework for Real-time Interactive Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Rey Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This pioneering research focuses on Biomimetic Interactive Architecture using “Computation”, “Embodiment”, and “Biology” to generate an intimate embodied convergence to propose a novel rule-based design framework for creating organic architectures composed of swarm-based intelligent components. Furthermore, the research boldly claims that Interactive Architecture should emerge as the next truly Organic Architecture. As the world and society are dynamically changing, especially in this digital era, the research dares to challenge the Utilitas, Firmitas, and Venustas of the traditional architectural Weltanschauung, and rejects them by adopting the novel notion that architecture should be dynamic, fluid, and interactive. This project reflects a trajectory from the 1960’s with the advent of the avant-garde architectural design group, Archigram, and its numerous intriguing and pioneering visionary projects. Archigram’s non-standard, mobile, and interactive projects profoundly influenced a new generation of architects to explore the connection between technology and their architectural projects. This research continues this trend of exploring novel design thinking and the framework of Interactive Architecture by discovering the interrelationship amongst three major topics: “Computation”, “Embodiment”, and “Biology”. The project aims to elucidate pioneering research combining these three topics in one discourse: “Bio-inspired digital architectural design”. These three major topics will be introduced in this Summary.   “Computation”, is any type of calculation that includes both arithmetical and nonarithmetical steps and follows a well-defined model understood and described as, for example, an algorithm. But, in this research, refers to the use of data storage, parametric design application, and physical computing for developing informed architectural designs. “Form” has always been the most critical focus in

  10. Electrochemical construction of a bio-inspired micro/nano-textured structure with cell-sized microhole arrays on biomedical titanium to enhance bioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Jianhe; Song, Ran; Huang, Qiaoling; Yang, Yun; Lin, Longxiang; Zhang, Yanmei; Jiang, Pinliang; Duan, Hongping; Dong, Xiang; Lin, Changjian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The bio-inspired structure mimicked mulit-level structures of natural bone. • Ordered cell-sized microhole arrays were employed as microscale structure. • High surface roughness and superhydrophilicity were achieved on the titanium surface. • The bio-inspired titanium surface showed superior ability of biomineralization. • Cell responses were enhanced on the bio-inspired micro/nano-texutred surface. - Abstract: Biomimetic surface design of medical implants is vitally crucial to improve cellular responses and the integration of tissue onto materials. In this study, a novel hierarchical cell-sized microhole array combined with a nano-network structure was fabricated on a medical titanium surface to mimic multi-level bone structure. A three-step procedure was developed as follows: 1) electrochemical self-organization of etching on titanium substrate to create highly ordered cell-sized microhole arrays, 2) suitable dual acid etching to increase the roughness of the microholes, and then 3) electrochemical anodization in a NaOH electrolyte to construct a nano-network porous titania layer on the above micro-roughened surface. The bio-inspired micro/nano-textured structure presented the enhanced wettability and superhydrophilicity. The ability of in vitro biomineralization and corrosion resistance of the bio-inspired micro/nano-textured structure were enhanced after annealing treatment. More importantly, the bio-inspired micro/nano-textured structure on the titanium surface possessed a favourable interfacial environment to enhance attachment and proliferation of human osteoblast-like MG63 cells. All of the results demonstrated that such a bio-inspired surface of micro/nano-textured porous TiO 2 is a most promising candidate for the next generation of titanium implants

  11. Parameter estimation with bio-inspired meta-heuristic optimization: modeling the dynamics of endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkova Katerina

    2011-10-01

    convergence. These results hold for both real and artificial data, for all observability scenarios considered, and for all amounts of noise added to the artificial data. In sum, the meta-heuristic methods considered are suitable for estimating the parameters in the ODE model of the dynamics of endocytosis under a range of conditions: With the model and conditions being representative of parameter estimation tasks in ODE models of biochemical systems, our results clearly highlight the promise of bio-inspired meta-heuristic methods for parameter estimation in dynamic system models within system biology.

  12. Parameter estimation with bio-inspired meta-heuristic optimization: modeling the dynamics of endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkova, Katerina; Korošec, Peter; Silc, Jurij; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Džeroski, Sašo

    2011-10-11

    artificial data, for all observability scenarios considered, and for all amounts of noise added to the artificial data. In sum, the meta-heuristic methods considered are suitable for estimating the parameters in the ODE model of the dynamics of endocytosis under a range of conditions: With the model and conditions being representative of parameter estimation tasks in ODE models of biochemical systems, our results clearly highlight the promise of bio-inspired meta-heuristic methods for parameter estimation in dynamic system models within system biology.

  13. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  14. An IPMC-enabled bio-inspired bending/twisting fin for underwater applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmre, Viljar; Pugal, David; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang J; Hubbard, Joel J; Fleming, Maxwell; Leang, Kam K

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) actuator-based bio-inspired active fin capable of bending and twisting motion. It is pointed out that IPMC strip actuators are used in the simple cantilever configuration to create simple bending (flapping-like) motion for propulsion in underwater autonomous systems. However, the resulting motion is a simple 1D bending and performance is rather limited. To enable more complex deformation, such as the flapping (pitch and heaving) motion of real pectoral and caudal fish fins, a new approach which involves molding or integrating IPMC actuators into a soft boot material to create an active control surface (called a ‘fin’) is presented. The fin can be used to realize complex deformation depending on the orientation and placement of the actuators. In contrast to previously created IPMCs with patterned electrodes for the same purpose, the proposed design avoids (1) the more expensive process of electroless plating platinum all throughout the surface of the actuator and (2) the need for specially patterning the electrodes. Therefore, standard shaped IPMC actuators such as those with rectangular dimensions with varying thicknesses can be used. One unique advantage of the proposed structural design is that custom shaped fins and control surfaces can be easily created without special materials processing. The molding process is cost effective and does not require functionalizing or ‘activating’ the boot material similar to creating IPMCs. For a prototype fin (90 mm wide × 60 mm long × 1.5 mm thick), the measured maximum tip displacement was approximately 44 mm and the twist angle of the fin exceeded 10°. Lift and drag measurements in water where the prototype fin with an airfoil profile was dragged through water at a velocity of 21 cm s −1 showed that the lift and drag forces can be affected by controlling the IPMCs embedded into the fin structure

  15. An IPMC-enabled bio-inspired bending/twisting fin for underwater applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmre, Viljar; Hubbard, Joel J.; Fleming, Maxwell; Pugal, David; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Kwang J.; Leang, Kam K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the design, fabrication, and characterization of an ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator-based bio-inspired active fin capable of bending and twisting motion. It is pointed out that IPMC strip actuators are used in the simple cantilever configuration to create simple bending (flapping-like) motion for propulsion in underwater autonomous systems. However, the resulting motion is a simple 1D bending and performance is rather limited. To enable more complex deformation, such as the flapping (pitch and heaving) motion of real pectoral and caudal fish fins, a new approach which involves molding or integrating IPMC actuators into a soft boot material to create an active control surface (called a ‘fin’) is presented. The fin can be used to realize complex deformation depending on the orientation and placement of the actuators. In contrast to previously created IPMCs with patterned electrodes for the same purpose, the proposed design avoids (1) the more expensive process of electroless plating platinum all throughout the surface of the actuator and (2) the need for specially patterning the electrodes. Therefore, standard shaped IPMC actuators such as those with rectangular dimensions with varying thicknesses can be used. One unique advantage of the proposed structural design is that custom shaped fins and control surfaces can be easily created without special materials processing. The molding process is cost effective and does not require functionalizing or ‘activating’ the boot material similar to creating IPMCs. For a prototype fin (90 mm wide × 60 mm long × 1.5 mm thick), the measured maximum tip displacement was approximately 44 mm and the twist angle of the fin exceeded 10°. Lift and drag measurements in water where the prototype fin with an airfoil profile was dragged through water at a velocity of 21 cm s-1 showed that the lift and drag forces can be affected by controlling the IPMCs embedded into the fin structure. These

  16. A Review of Natural Joint Systems and Numerical Investigation of Bio-Inspired GFRP-to-Steel Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos I. Avgoulas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There are a great variety of joint types used in nature which can inspire engineering joints. In order to design such biomimetic joints, it is at first important to understand how biological joints work. A comprehensive literature review, considering natural joints from a mechanical point of view, was undertaken. This was used to develop a taxonomy based on the different methods/functions that nature successfully uses to attach dissimilar tissues. One of the key methods that nature uses to join dissimilar materials is a transitional zone of stiffness at the insertion site. This method was used to propose bio-inspired solutions with a transitional zone of stiffness at the joint site for several glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP to steel adhesively bonded joint configurations. The transition zone was used to reduce the material stiffness mismatch of the joint parts. A numerical finite element model was used to identify the optimum variation in material stiffness that minimises potential failure of the joint. The best bio-inspired joints showed a 118% increase of joint strength compared to the standard joints.

  17. Operant Conditioning: A Minimal Components Requirement in Artificial Spiking Neurons Designed for Bio-Inspired Robot’s Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André eCyr

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the operant conditioning (OC learning process within a basic bio-inspired robot controller paradigm, using an artificial spiking neural network (ASNN with minimal component count as artificial brain. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes that are learned from the consequences of previous actions, using progressive prediction adjustment triggered by reinforcers. In a robotics context, virtual and physical robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown environments with no supervision. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple ASNN can efficiently realise many OC scenarios. The elementary learning kernel that we describe relies on a few critical neurons, synaptic links and the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP as learning rules. Using four tasks of incremental complexity, our experimental results show that such minimal neural component set may be sufficient to implement many OC procedures. Hence, with the described bio-inspired module, OC can be implemented in a wide range of robot controllers, including those with limited computational resources.

  18. Control of Flow Structure on Non-Slender Delta Wing: Bio-inspired Edge Modifications, Passive Bleeding, and Pulsed Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mehmet Metin; Celik, Alper; Cetin, Cenk

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, different flow control approaches including bio-inspired edge modifications, passive bleeding, and pulsed blowing are introduced and applied for the flow over non-slender delta wing. Experiments are conducted in a low speed wind tunnel for a 45 degree swept delta wing using qualitative and quantitative measurement techniques including laser illuminated smoke visualization, particle image velocimety (PIV), and surface pressure measurements. For the bio-inspired edge modifications, the edges of the wing are modified to dolphin fluke geometry. In addition, the concept of flexion ratio, a ratio depending on the flexible length of animal propulsors such as wings, is introduced. For passive bleeding, directing the free stream air from the pressure side of the planform to the suction side of the wing is applied. For pulsed blowing, periodic air injection through the leading edge of the wing is performed in a square waveform with 25% duty cycle at different excitation frequencies and compared with the steady and no blowing cases. The results indicate that each control approach is quite effective in terms of altering the overall flow structure on the planform. However, the success level, considering the elimination of stall or delaying the vortex breakdown, depends on the parameters in each method.

  19. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  20. One-pot Synthesis of Bio-inspired Layered Materials of 3D Graphene Network/Calcium Carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing; FU Zhengyi; YAO Bin; PING Hang; YU Hongjian; ZHANG Fan; ZHANG Jinyong; WANG Yucheng; WANG Hao; WANG Weimin

    2017-01-01

    A bio-inspired layered material of reduced graphene oxide (RGOs) and calcium carbonate was synthesized via a one-pot strategy in DMF/H2O mixed solvent. The experimental results show that the product is a layered material of wrinkled RGOs networks and micron-sized calcium carbonate particles with uniform granular diameter and homogeneous morphology, which are distributed between the layered gallery of the graphene scaffold. The polymorph and the morphology of the in-situ produced calcium carbonate particles can be manipulated by simply changing the temperature scheme. Besides, the graphene oxide was reduced to a certain extent, and the hierarchical wrinkles were generated in the RGOs layer by the in-situ formation of the calcium carbonate particles. This work provides a facile and controllable strategy for synthesizing layered material of RGOs and carbonates, and also presents a platform for making three-dimensional porous wrinkled RGOs networks.

  1. Extensive Investigations on Bio-Inspired Trust and Reputation Model over Hops Coefficient Factor in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Verma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization requires a substantial consideration for a trust and reputation model to be deployed within a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the evaluation, our attention is focused on the effect of hops coefficient factor estimation on WSN with bio-inspired trust and reputation model (BTRM. We present the state-of-the-art system level evaluation of accuracy and path length of sensor node operations for their current and average scenarios. Additionally, we emphasized over the energy consumption evaluation for static, dynamic and oscillatory modes of BTRM-WSN model. The performance of the hops coefficient factor for our proposed framework is evaluated via analytic bounds and numerical simulations.

  2. A two-dimensional iterative panel method and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Christopher J.; Dhruv, Akash; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has created a continuous demand for improved flight capabilities and range of use. During the last decade, engineers have turned to bio-inspiration for new and innovative flow control methods for gust alleviation, maneuverability, and stability improvement using morphing aircraft wings. The bio-inspired wing design considered in this study mimics the flow manipulation techniques performed by birds to extend the operating envelope of UAVs through the installation of an array of feather-like panels across the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces while replacing the trailing edge flap. Each flap has the ability to deflect into both the airfoil and the inbound airflow using hinge points with a single degree-of-freedom, situated at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the chord. The installation of the surface flaps offers configurations that enable advantageous maneuvers while alleviating gust disturbances. Due to the number of possible permutations available for the flap configurations, an iterative constant-strength doublet/source panel method has been developed with an integrated boundary layer model to calculate the pressure distribution and viscous drag over the wing's surface. As a result, the lift, drag and moment coefficients for each airfoil configuration can be calculated. The flight coefficients of this numerical method are validated using experimental data from a low speed suction wind tunnel operating at a Reynolds Number 300,000. This method enables the aerodynamic assessment of a morphing wing profile to be performed accurately and efficiently in comparison to Computational Fluid Dynamics methods and experiments as discussed herein.

  3. Bio-inspired motion detection in an FPGA-based smart camera module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, T; Roechter, F; Moeller, R; Lindemann, J P

    2009-01-01

    Flying insects, despite their relatively coarse vision and tiny nervous system, are capable of carrying out elegant and fast aerial manoeuvres. Studies of the fly visual system have shown that this is accomplished by the integration of signals from a large number of elementary motion detectors (EMDs) in just a few global flow detector cells. We developed an FPGA-based smart camera module with more than 10 000 single EMDs, which is closely modelled after insect motion-detection circuits with respect to overall architecture, resolution and inter-receptor spacing. Input to the EMD array is provided by a CMOS camera with a high frame rate. Designed as an adaptable solution for different engineering applications and as a testbed for biological models, the EMD detector type and parameters such as the EMD time constants, the motion-detection directions and the angle between correlated receptors are reconfigurable online. This allows a flexible and simultaneous detection of complex motion fields such as translation, rotation and looming, such that various tasks, e.g., obstacle avoidance, height/distance control or speed regulation can be performed by the same compact device

  4. Bio-inspired multi-mode optic flow sensors for micro air vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seokjun; Choi, Jaehyuk; Cho, Jihyun; Yoon, Euisik

    2013-06-01

    Monitoring wide-field surrounding information is essential for vision-based autonomous navigation in micro-air-vehicles (MAV). Our image-cube (iCube) module, which consists of multiple sensors that are facing different angles in 3-D space, can be applied to the wide-field of view optic flows estimation (μ-Compound eyes) and to attitude control (μ- Ocelli) in the Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology (MAST) platforms. In this paper, we report an analog/digital (A/D) mixed-mode optic-flow sensor, which generates both optic flows and normal images in different modes for μ- Compound eyes and μ-Ocelli applications. The sensor employs a time-stamp based optic flow algorithm which is modified from the conventional EMD (Elementary Motion Detector) algorithm to give an optimum partitioning of hardware blocks in analog and digital domains as well as adequate allocation of pixel-level, column-parallel, and chip-level signal processing. Temporal filtering, which may require huge hardware resources if implemented in digital domain, is remained in a pixel-level analog processing unit. The rest of the blocks, including feature detection and timestamp latching, are implemented using digital circuits in a column-parallel processing unit. Finally, time-stamp information is decoded into velocity from look-up tables, multiplications, and simple subtraction circuits in a chip-level processing unit, thus significantly reducing core digital processing power consumption. In the normal image mode, the sensor generates 8-b digital images using single slope ADCs in the column unit. In the optic flow mode, the sensor estimates 8-b 1-D optic flows from the integrated mixed-mode algorithm core and 2-D optic flows with an external timestamp processing, respectively.

  5. Time-recovering PCI-AER interface for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Vicente, R.; Linares-Barranco, A.; Cascado, D.; Vicente, S.; Jimenez, G.; Civit, A.

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) inject a sequence of events at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for testing and debugging complex AER systems. This paper presents a PCI to AER interface, that dispatches a sequence of events received from the PCI bus with embedded timing information to establish when each event will be delivered. A set of specialized states machines has been introduced to recovery the possible time delays introduced by the asynchronous AER bus. On the input channel, the interface capture events assigning a timestamp and delivers them through the PCI bus to MATLAB applications. It has been implemented in real time hardware using VHDL and it has been tested in a PCI-AER board, developed by authors, that includes a Spartan II 200 FPGA. The demonstration hardware is currently capable to send and receive events at a peak rate of 8,3 Mev/sec, and a typical rate of 1 Mev/sec.

  6. A novel angle computation and calibration algorithm of bio-inspired sky-light polarization navigation sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Zhiwen; Hu, Xiaoping; Lian, Junxiang; Zhang, Lilian; Cao, Juliang; Wang, Yujie; Ma, Tao

    2014-09-15

    Navigation plays a vital role in our daily life. As traditional and commonly used navigation technologies, Inertial Navigation System (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can provide accurate location information, but suffer from the accumulative error of inertial sensors and cannot be used in a satellite denied environment. The remarkable navigation ability of animals shows that the pattern of the polarization sky can be used for navigation. A bio-inspired POLarization Navigation Sensor (POLNS) is constructed to detect the polarization of skylight. Contrary to the previous approach, we utilize all the outputs of POLNS to compute input polarization angle, based on Least Squares, which provides optimal angle estimation. In addition, a new sensor calibration algorithm is presented, in which the installation angle errors and sensor biases are taken into consideration. Derivation and implementation of our calibration algorithm are discussed in detail. To evaluate the performance of our algorithms, simulation and real data test are done to compare our algorithms with several exiting algorithms. Comparison results indicate that our algorithms are superior to the others and are more feasible and effective in practice.

  7. In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy Studies on Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Biogenic and Bio-Inspired Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Through billions of years of evolution, nature has been able to create highly sophisticated and ordered structures in living systems, including cells, cellular components and viruses. The formation of these structures involves nucleation and self-assembly, which are fundamental physical processes associated with the formation of any ordered structure. It is important to understand how biogenic materials self-assemble into functional and highly ordered structures in order to determine the mechanisms of biological systems, as well as design and produce new classes of materials which are inspired by nature but equipped with better physiochemical properties for our purposes. An ideal tool for the study of nucleation and self-assembly is in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM, which has been widely used in this field and further developed for different applications in recent years. The main aim of this work is to review the latest contributions that have been reported on studies of nucleation and self-assembly of biogenic and bio-inspired materials using in situ AFM. We will address this topic by introducing the background of AFM, and discussing recent in situ AFM studies on nucleation and self-assembly of soft biogenic, soft bioinspired and hard materials.

  8. A Bio-Inspired Model-Based Approach for Context-Aware Post-WIMP Tele-Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor López-Jaquero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tele-rehabilitation is one of the main domains where Information and Communication Technologies (ICT have been proven useful to move healthcare from care centers to patients’ home. Moreover, patients, especially those carrying out a physical therapy, cannot use a traditional Window, Icon, Menu, Pointer (WIMP system, but they need to interact in a natural way, that is, there is a need to move from WIMP systems to Post-WIMP ones. Moreover, tele-rehabilitation systems should be developed following the context-aware approach, so that they are able to adapt to the patients’ context to provide them with usable and effective therapies. In this work a model-based approach is presented to assist stakeholders in the development of context-aware Post-WIMP tele-rehabilitation systems. It entails three different models: (i a task model for designing the rehabilitation tasks; (ii a context model to facilitate the adaptation of these tasks to the context; and (iii a bio-inspired presentation model to specify thoroughly how such tasks should be performed by the patients. Our proposal overcomes one of the limitations of the model-based approach for the development of context-aware systems supporting the specification of non-functional requirements. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate how this proposal can be put into practice to design a real world rehabilitation task.

  9. Obstacle traversal and self-righting of bio-inspired robots reveal the physics of multi-modal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    Most animals move in nature in a variety of locomotor modes. For example, to traverse obstacles like dense vegetation, cockroaches can climb over, push across, reorient their bodies to maneuver through slits, or even transition among these modes forming diverse locomotor pathways; if flipped over, they can also self-right using wings or legs to generate body pitch or roll. By contrast, most locomotion studies have focused on a single mode such as running, walking, or jumping, and robots are still far from capable of life-like, robust, multi-modal locomotion in the real world. Here, we present two recent studies using bio-inspired robots, together with new locomotion energy landscapes derived from locomotor-environment interaction physics, to begin to understand the physics of multi-modal locomotion. (1) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired legged robot traversing grass-like beam obstacles reveals that, with a terradynamically ``streamlined'' rounded body like that of the insect, robot traversal becomes more probable by accessing locomotor pathways that overcome lower potential energy barriers. (2) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired self-righting robot further suggests that body vibrations are crucial for exploring locomotion energy landscapes and reaching lower barrier pathways. Finally, we posit that our new framework of locomotion energy landscapes holds promise to better understand and predict multi-modal biological and robotic movement.

  10. Bio-inspired micro-nano structured surface with structural color and anisotropic wettability on Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Shuyi; Niu, Shichao; Cao, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have prepared a biomimetic hydrophobic surface on copper substrate by one-step femtosecond laser technique. • The hydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphology and chemical component on surface. • The hydrophobic surfaces exhibit different structural colors and a anisotropic wettability. - Abstract: Inspired by the unique creatures in the nature, the femtosecond laser technology has been usually used to fabricate the periodic microstructures due to its advantages of rapidness, simplicity, ease of large-area fabrication, and simultaneously offering dual micro/nano-scale structures simply via one-step process for a wide variety of materials. By changing the experimental conditions, multi-functional surfaces which possess superhydrophobicity and structural colors could be achieved on copper substrate. In addition, the apparent contact angle can reach 144.3° without any further modification, which also exhibits the anisotropic wettability. Moreover, it can be inferred that higher laser fluence can lead to a larger CA within a certain range. At the same time, due to the change of laser processing parameters, the obtained surfaces present different structural colors. This study may expand the applications of bio-inspired functional materials because multiple colors and hydrophobicity are both important features in the real life and industrial applications, such as display, decoration, and anti-counterfeiting technology etc.

  11. Bio-inspired nano-photodiode for Low Light, High Resolution and crosstalk-free CMOS image sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-05-01

    Previous attempts have been devoted to mimic biological vision intelligence at the architectural system level. In this paper, a novel imitation of biological visual system intelligence is suggested, at the device level with the introduction of novel photodiode morphology. The proposed bio-inspired nanorod photodiode puts the depletion region length on the path of the incident photon instead of on its width, as the case is with the planar photodiodes. The depletion region has a revolving volume to increase the photodiode responsivity, and thus its photosensitivity. In addition, it can virtually boost the pixel fill factor (FF) above the 100% classical limit due to decoupling of its vertical sensing area from its limited planar circuitry area. Furthermore, the suggested nanorod photodiode photosensitivity is analytically proven to be higher than that of the planar photodiode. We also show semi-empirically that the responsivity of the suggested device varies linearly with its height; this important feature has been confirmed using Sentaurus simulation. The proposed nano-photorod is believed to meet the increasingly stringent High-Resolution-Low-Light (HRLL) detection requirements of the camera-phone and biomedical imaging markets. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl-/SO42- separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl-/SO42- permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  13. An Advanced Bio-Inspired PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) and ECG Pattern Recognition System for Medical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundo, Francesco; Conoci, Sabrina; Ortis, Alessandro; Battiato, Sebastiano

    2018-01-30

    Physiological signals are widely used to perform medical assessment for monitoring an extensive range of pathologies, usually related to cardio-vascular diseases. Among these, both PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (PPG) and Electrocardiography (ECG) signals are those more employed. PPG signals are an emerging non-invasive measurement technique used to study blood volume pulsations through the detection and analysis of the back-scattered optical radiation coming from the skin. ECG is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin. In the present paper we propose a physiological ECG/PPG "combo" pipeline using an innovative bio-inspired nonlinear system based on a reaction-diffusion mathematical model, implemented by means of the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) methodology, to filter PPG signal by assigning a recognition score to the waveforms in the time series. The resulting "clean" PPG signal exempts from distortion and artifacts is used to validate for diagnostic purpose an EGC signal simultaneously detected for a same patient. The multisite combo PPG-ECG system proposed in this work overpasses the limitations of the state of the art in this field providing a reliable system for assessing the above-mentioned physiological parameters and their monitoring over time for robust medical assessment. The proposed system has been validated and the results confirmed the robustness of the proposed approach.

  14. Strong Quantum Confinement Effects and Chiral Excitons in Bio-Inspired ZnO–Amino Acid Cocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb

    2018-02-20

    Elucidating the underlying principles behind band gap engineering is paramount for the successful implementation of semiconductors in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been shown that the band gap of a wide and direct band gap semiconductor, such as ZnO, can be modified upon cocrystallization with amino acids, with the role of the biomolecules remaining unclear. Here, by probing and modeling the light-emitting properties of ZnO-amino acid cocrystals, we identify the amino acids\\' role on this band gap modulation and demonstrate their effective chirality transfer to the interband excitations in ZnO. Our 3D quantum model suggests that the strong band edge emission blue-shift in the cocrystals can be explained by a quasi-periodic distribution of amino acid potential barriers within the ZnO crystal lattice. Overall, our findings indicate that biomolecule cocrystallization can be used as a truly bio-inspired means to induce chiral quantum confinement effects in quasi-bulk semiconductors.

  15. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-01-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl−/SO42− separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl−/SO42− permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later. PMID:27853255

  16. Bio-inspired piezoelectric linear motor driven by a single-phase harmonic wave with an asymmetric stator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiaosheng; Miao, Enming; Wu, Bingxuan; Chen, Weikang; Lei, Xiujun; He, Liangguo

    2017-07-01

    A novel, bio-inspired, single-phase driven piezoelectric linear motor (PLM) using an asymmetric stator was designed, fabricated, and tested to avoid mode degeneracy and to simplify the drive mechanism of a piezoelectric motor. A piezoelectric transducer composed of two piezoelectric stacks and a displacement amplifier was used as the driving element of the PLM. Two simple and specially designed claws performed elliptical motion. A numerical simulation was performed to design the stator and determine the feasibility of the design mechanism of the PLM. Moreover, an experimental setup was built to validate the working principles, as well as to evaluate the performance, of the PLM. The prototype motor outputs a no-load speed of 233.7 mm/s at a voltage of 180 V p-p and a maximum thrust force of 2.3 N under a preload of 10 N. This study verified the feasibility of the proposed design and provided a method to simplify the driving harmonic signal and structure of PLMs.

  17. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature’s far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings’ 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs.

  18. Enhancing thermal reliability of fiber-optic sensors for bio-inspired applications at ultra-high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Donghoon; Kim, Heon-Young; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of bio-(inspired) sensors has led to an improvement in modern healthcare and human–robot systems in recent years. Higher levels of reliability and better flexibility, essential features of these sensors, are very much required in many application fields (e.g. applications at ultra-high temperatures). Fiber-optic sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in particular, are being widely studied as suitable sensors for improved structural health monitoring (SHM) due to their many merits. To enhance the thermal reliability of FBG sensors, thermal sensitivity, generally expressed as α f + ξ f and considered a constant, should be investigated more precisely. For this purpose, the governing equation of FBG sensors is modified using differential derivatives between the wavelength shift and the temperature change in this study. Through a thermal test ranging from RT to 900 °C, the thermal sensitivity of FBG sensors is successfully examined and this guarantees thermal reliability of FBG sensors at ultra-high temperatures. In detail, α f + ξ f has a non-linear dependence on temperature and varies from 6.0 × 10 −6  °C −1 (20 °C) to 10.6 × 10 −6  °C −1 (650 °C). Also, FBGs should be carefully used for applications at ultra-high temperatures due to signal disappearance near 900 °C. (paper)

  19. Enhancing thermal reliability of fiber-optic sensors for bio-inspired applications at ultra-high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghoon; Kim, Heon-Young; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    The rapid growth of bio-(inspired) sensors has led to an improvement in modern healthcare and human-robot systems in recent years. Higher levels of reliability and better flexibility, essential features of these sensors, are very much required in many application fields (e.g. applications at ultra-high temperatures). Fiber-optic sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in particular, are being widely studied as suitable sensors for improved structural health monitoring (SHM) due to their many merits. To enhance the thermal reliability of FBG sensors, thermal sensitivity, generally expressed as αf + ξf and considered a constant, should be investigated more precisely. For this purpose, the governing equation of FBG sensors is modified using differential derivatives between the wavelength shift and the temperature change in this study. Through a thermal test ranging from RT to 900 °C, the thermal sensitivity of FBG sensors is successfully examined and this guarantees thermal reliability of FBG sensors at ultra-high temperatures. In detail, αf + ξf has a non-linear dependence on temperature and varies from 6.0 × 10-6 °C-1 (20 °C) to 10.6 × 10-6 °C-1 (650 °C). Also, FBGs should be carefully used for applications at ultra-high temperatures due to signal disappearance near 900 °C.

  20. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-28

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature's far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings' 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs.

  1. Righting and turning in mid-air using appendage inertia: reptile tails, analytical models and bio-inspired robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusufi, A; Full, R J; Kawano, D T; Libby, T

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the falling cat, lizards can right themselves in mid-air by a swing of their large tails in one direction causing the body to rotate in the other. Here, we developed a new three-dimensional analytical model to investigate the effectiveness of tails as inertial appendages that change body orientation. We anchored our model using the morphological parameters of the flat-tailed house gecko Hemidactylus platyurus. The degree of roll in air righting and the amount of yaw in mid-air turning directly measured in house geckos matched the model's results. Our model predicted an increase in body roll and turning as tails increase in length relative to the body. Tails that swung from a near orthogonal plane relative to the body (i.e. 0-30 0 from vertical) were the most effective at generating body roll, whereas tails operating at steeper angles (i.e. 45-60 0 ) produced only half the rotation. To further test our analytical model's predictions, we built a bio-inspired robot prototype. The robot reinforced how effective attitude control can be attained with simple movements of an inertial appendage.

  2. Righting and turning in mid-air using appendage inertia: reptile tails, analytical models and bio-inspired robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusufi, A; Full, R J [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Kawano, D T [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1740 (United States); Libby, T, E-mail: ardianj@berkeley.ed [Center for Interdisciplinary Bio-inspiration in Education and Research, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Unlike the falling cat, lizards can right themselves in mid-air by a swing of their large tails in one direction causing the body to rotate in the other. Here, we developed a new three-dimensional analytical model to investigate the effectiveness of tails as inertial appendages that change body orientation. We anchored our model using the morphological parameters of the flat-tailed house gecko Hemidactylus platyurus. The degree of roll in air righting and the amount of yaw in mid-air turning directly measured in house geckos matched the model's results. Our model predicted an increase in body roll and turning as tails increase in length relative to the body. Tails that swung from a near orthogonal plane relative to the body (i.e. 0-30{sup 0} from vertical) were the most effective at generating body roll, whereas tails operating at steeper angles (i.e. 45-60{sup 0}) produced only half the rotation. To further test our analytical model's predictions, we built a bio-inspired robot prototype. The robot reinforced how effective attitude control can be attained with simple movements of an inertial appendage.

  3. Fabricating bio-inspired micro/nano-particles by polydopamine coating and surface interactions with blood platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Qiang, E-mail: shiqiang@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Hou, Jianwen; Gao, Jian; Li, Chunming; Jin, Jing; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The particles or particle aggregations activate the blood platelets and provide the physical adhesive sites for platelets adhesion. - Highlights: • Particles with varied sizes and surface properties were fabricated by facile polydopamine (PDA) coating on polystyrene microsphere. • The direct interaction between PDA particles and blood platelets was qualitatively investigated. • The knowledge on platelet–particle interactions provided the basic principle to select biocompatible micro/nano-particles in biomedical field. - Abstract: Although bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) micro/nano-particles show great promise for biomedical applications, the knowledge on the interactions between micro/nano-particles and platelets is still lacking. Here, we fabricate PDA-coated micro/nano-particles and investigate the platelet–particle surface interactions. Our strategy takes the advantage of facile PDA coating on polystyrene (PS) microsphere to fabricate particles with varied sizes and surface properties, and the chemical reactivity of PDA layers to immobilize fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin to manipulate platelet activation and adhesion. We demonstrate that PS particles activate the platelets in the size-dependent manner, but PDA nanoparticles have slight effect on platelet activation; PS particles promote platelet adhesion while PDA particles reduce platelet adhesion on the patterned surface; Particles interact with platelets through activating the glycoprotein integrin receptor of platelets and providing physical sites for initial platelet adhesion. Our work sheds new light on the interaction between platelets and particles, which provides the basic principle to select biocompatible micro/nano-particles in biomedical field.

  4. Bio-inspired micro-nano structured surface with structural color and anisotropic wettability on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Li, Shuyi; Niu, Shichao [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Cao, Xiaowen [Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • We have prepared a biomimetic hydrophobic surface on copper substrate by one-step femtosecond laser technique. • The hydrophobicity mechanism relies on morphology and chemical component on surface. • The hydrophobic surfaces exhibit different structural colors and a anisotropic wettability. - Abstract: Inspired by the unique creatures in the nature, the femtosecond laser technology has been usually used to fabricate the periodic microstructures due to its advantages of rapidness, simplicity, ease of large-area fabrication, and simultaneously offering dual micro/nano-scale structures simply via one-step process for a wide variety of materials. By changing the experimental conditions, multi-functional surfaces which possess superhydrophobicity and structural colors could be achieved on copper substrate. In addition, the apparent contact angle can reach 144.3° without any further modification, which also exhibits the anisotropic wettability. Moreover, it can be inferred that higher laser fluence can lead to a larger CA within a certain range. At the same time, due to the change of laser processing parameters, the obtained surfaces present different structural colors. This study may expand the applications of bio-inspired functional materials because multiple colors and hydrophobicity are both important features in the real life and industrial applications, such as display, decoration, and anti-counterfeiting technology etc.

  5. Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Bio-Inspired Nickel Catalyst and Its Integration in Hybrid Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, Solène [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Lalaoui, Noémie [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Dutta, Arnab [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Current address: Chemistry Department, IIT Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382355 India; Nedellec, Yannig [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Cosnier, Serge [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Shaw, Wendy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Artero, Vincent [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Le Goff, Alan [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France

    2017-01-12

    A biomimetic nickel bis-diphosphine complex incorporating the amino-acid arginine in the outer coordination sphere, was immobilized on modified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through electrostatic interactions. The sur-face-confined catalyst is characterized by a reversible 2-electron/2-proton redox process at potentials close to the equibrium potential of the H+/H2 couple. Consequently, the functionalized redox nanomaterial exhibits reversible electrocatalytic activity for the H2/2H+ interconversion over a broad range of pH. This system exhibits catalytic bias, analogous to hydrogenases, resulting in high turnover frequencies at low overpotentials for electrocatalytic H2 oxida-tion between pH 0 and 7. This allowed integrating such bio-inspired nanomaterial together with a multicopper oxi-dase at the cathode side in a hybrid bioinspired/enzymatic hydrogen fuel cell. This device delivers ~2 mW cm–2 with an open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V at room temperature and pH 5, which sets a new efficiency record for a bio-related hydrogen fuel cell with base metal catalysts.

  6. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using watermelon rinds and their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ch.; Gangadhara, S.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2016-08-01

    Novel and bio-inspired magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using watermelon rinds (WR) which are nontoxic and biodegradable. Watermelon rind extract was used as a solvent and capping and reducing agent in the synthesis. The Fe3o4 MNPs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques (VSM). XRD studies revealed a high degree of crystalline and monophasic Fe nanoparticles of face-centered cubic stricture. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process in an excellent candidate for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles that is simple, easy to execute, pollutant free and inexpensive. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of highly stable and small-sized iron nanoparticles with a narrow distribution from 2 to 20 nm is reported. Also, the MNPs present in higher saturation magnetization (Ms) of 14.2 emu/g demonstrate tremendous magnetic response behavior. However, the synthesized iron nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for the preparation of biologically interesting 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives in high yields. These results exhibited that the synthesized Fe3O4 MNPs could be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

  7. Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Bio-Inspired Nickel Catalyst and Its Integration in Hybrid Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, Solène; Lalaoui, Noémie; Dutta, Arnab; Nedellec, Yannig; Cosnier, Serge; Shaw, Wendy J; Artero, Vincent; Le Goff, Alan

    2017-02-06

    A biomimetic nickel bis-diphosphine complex incorporating the amino acid arginine in the outer coordination sphere was immobilized on modified carbon nanotubes (CNTs) through electrostatic interactions. The functionalized redox nanomaterial exhibits reversible electrocatalytic activity for the H 2 /2 H + interconversion from pH 0 to 9, with catalytic preference for H 2 oxidation at all pH values. The high activity of the complex over a wide pH range allows us to integrate this bio-inspired nanomaterial either in an enzymatic fuel cell together with a multicopper oxidase at the cathode, or in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) using Pt/C at the cathode. The Ni-based PEMFC reaches 14 mW cm -2 , only six-times-less as compared to full-Pt conventional PEMFC. The Pt-free enzyme-based fuel cell delivers ≈2 mW cm -2 , a new efficiency record for a hydrogen biofuel cell with base metal catalysts. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Experimental study of surface pattern effects on the propulsive performance and wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Justin; Kumar, Rajeev; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    Force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the propulsive performance and wake structure of rigid, bio-inspired trapezoidal pitching panels. In the literature, it has been demonstrated that quantities such as thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency are affected by changes in the surface characteristics of a pitching panel or foil. More specifically, the variation of surface pattern produces significant changes in wake structure and dynamics, especially in the distribution of vorticity in the wake. Force measurements and PIV data were collected for multiple surface patterns chosen to mimic fish surface morphology over a Strouhal number range of 0.17 to 0.56. Performance quantities are compared with the three-dimensional vortex wake structure for both the patterned and smooth panels to determine the nature and magnitude of surface pattern effects in terms of thrust produced, drag reduced, and wake vortices reshaped and reorganized. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0418.

  9. Accelerating artificial intelligence with reconfigurable computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieszewski, Radoslaw

    Reconfigurable computing is emerging as an important area of research in computer architectures and software systems. Many algorithms can be greatly accelerated by placing the computationally intense portions of an algorithm into reconfigurable hardware. Reconfigurable computing combines many benefits of both software and ASIC implementations. Like software, the mapped circuit is flexible, and can be changed over the lifetime of the system. Similar to an ASIC, reconfigurable systems provide a method to map circuits into hardware. Reconfigurable systems therefore have the potential to achieve far greater performance than software as a result of bypassing the fetch-decode-execute operations of traditional processors, and possibly exploiting a greater level of parallelism. Such a field, where there is many different algorithms which can be accelerated, is an artificial intelligence. This paper presents example hardware implementations of Artificial Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Expert Systems.

  10. Bio-inspired particle separator design based on the food retention mechanism by suspension-feeding fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tien-Chieh; Piedrahita, Raul H; Cheer, Angela

    2012-01-01

    A new particle separator is designed using a crossflow filtration mechanism inspired by suspension-feeding fish in this study. To construct the model of the bio-inspired particle separator, computational fluid dynamics techniques are used, and parameters related to separator shape, fluid flow and particle properties that might affect the performance in removing particles from the flow, are varied and tested. The goal is to induce a flow rotation which enhances the separation of particles from the flow, reduce the particle-laden flow that exits via a collection zone at the lower/posterior end of the separator, while at the same time increase the concentration of particles in that flow. Based on preliminary particle removal efficiency tests, an exiting flow through the collection zone of about 8% of the influent flow rate is selected for all the performance tests of the separator including trials with particles carried by air flow instead of water. Under this condition, the simulation results yield similar particle removal efficiencies in water and air but with different particle properties. Particle removal efficiencies (percentage of influent particles that exit through the collection zone) were determined for particles ranging in size from 1 to 1500 µm with a density between 1000 and 1150 kg m −3 in water and 2 and 19 mm and 68 and 2150 kg m −3 in air. As an example, removal efficiencies are 66% and 64% for 707 µm diameter particles with a density of 1040 kg m −3 in water and for 2 mm particles with a density of 68 kg m −3 in air, respectively. No significant performance difference is found by geometrically scaling the inlet diameter of the separator up or down in the range from 2.5 to 10 cm. (paper)

  11. Bio-inspired hybrid microelectrodes: a hybrid solution to improve long-term performance of chronic intracortical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Faveri, Sara; Maggiolini, Emma; Miele, Ermanno; De Angelis, Francesco; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    The use of implants that allow chronic electrical stimulation and recording in the brain of human patients is currently limited by a series of events that cause the deterioration over time of both the electrode surface and the surrounding tissue. The main reason of failure is the tissue inflammatory reaction that eventually causes neuronal loss and glial encapsulation, resulting in a progressive increase of the electrode-electrolyte impedance. Here, we describe a new method to create bio-inspired electrodes to mimic the mechanical properties and biological composition of the host tissue. This combination has a great potential to increase the implant lifetime by reducing tissue reaction and improving electrical coupling. Our method implies coating the electrode with reprogrammed neural or glial cells encapsulated within a hydrogel layer. We chose fibrin as a hydrogel and primary hippocampal neurons or astrocytes from rat brain as cellular layer. We demonstrate that fibrin coating is highly biocompatible, forms uniform coatings of controllable thickness, does not alter the electrochemical properties of the microelectrode and allows good quality recordings. Moreover, it reduces the amount of host reactive astrocytes - over time - compared to a bare wire and is fully reabsorbed by the surrounding tissue within 7 days after implantation, avoiding the common problem of hydrogels swelling. Both astrocytes and neurons could be successfully grown onto the electrode surface within the fibrin hydrogel without altering the electrochemical properties of the microelectrode. This bio-hybrid device has therefore a good potential to improve the electrical integration at the neuron-electrode interface and support the long-term success of neural prostheses.

  12. Bio-inspired hybrid microelectrodes. A hybrid solution to improve long-term performance of chronic intracortical implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eDe Faveri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of implants that allow chronic electrical stimulation and recording in the brain of human patients is currently limited by a series of events that cause the deterioration over time of both the electrode surface and the surrounding tissue. The main reason of failure is the tissue inflammatory reaction that eventually causes neuronal loss and glial encapsulation, resulting in a progressive increase of the electrode-electrolyte impedance. Here, we describe a new method to create bio-inspired electrodes to mimic the mechanical properties and biological composition of the host tissue. This combination has a great potential to increase the implant lifetime by reducing tissue reaction and improving electrical coupling. Our method implies coating the electrode with reprogrammed neural or glial cells encapsulated within a hydrogel layer. We chose fibrin as a hydrogel and primary hippocampal neurons or astrocytes from rat brain as cellular layer. We demonstrate that fibrin coating is highly biocompatible, forms uniform coatings of controllable thickness, does not alter the electrochemical properties of the microelectrode and allows good quality recordings. Moreover, it reduces the amount of host reactive astrocytes - over time - compared to a bare wire and is fully reabsorbed by the surrounding tissue within 7 days after implantation, avoiding the common problem of hydrogels swelling. Both astrocytes and neurons could be successfully grown onto the electrode surface within the fibrin hydrogel without altering the electrochemical properties of the microelectrode. This bio-hybrid device has therefore a good potential to improve the electrical integration at the neuron-electrode interface and support the long-term success of neural prostheses.

  13. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eHernandez Bennetts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators or algorithms that control the behaviour of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odour plume. In particular the task of tracking an odour plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behaviour of moths, dungbeetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro drone in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is at the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behaviour of animals, can be usefully translated into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically-inspired algorithms.

  14. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms.

  15. Flow Interactions of Two- and Three-Dimensional Networked Bio-Inspired Control Elements in an In-Line Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2018-04-19

    -dimensions. These results can aid in the design of networked bio-inspired control elements that through integrated sensing can synchronize to three-dimensional flow interactions. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Improvement to the pattern of control rods of the equilibrium cycle of 18 months for the CLV using bio-inspired algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are carried out studies with some bio-inspired optimization techniques to improve the performance of the fuel cycles of the boiling water reactors of the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV). In the present work two bio-inspired techniques were applied with the purpose of improving the performance of a balance cycle of 18 months developed for the CLV: genetic algorithms (AG) and systems based on ants colonies (SCH). The design of the reference cycle it represents in several aspects an optimal cycle proposed starting from the experience of several operation decades with the boiling water reactors (BWR initials for Boiling Water Reactor) in the world. To try to improve their performance is beforehand a difficult challenge and it puts on test the feasibility of the optimization methods in the reloads design. The study of the bio-inspired techniques was centered exclusively on the obtaining of the control rod patterns (PBC) trying to overcome the capacity factor reached in the design of the reference cycle. It was fixed the cycle length such that the decrease of the coast down period would represent an increase of the capacity factor of the cycle; so that, it diminishes the annual cost associated with the capital cost of the plant. As consequence of the study, was found that the algorithm based on the ants colonies reaches to diminish the coast down period in five and half days respect to the original balance cycle, what represents an annual saving of $US 74,000. Since the original cycle was optimized, the above-mentioned, shows the ability of the SCH for the optimization of the cycle design. With the AG it was reach to approach to the original balance cycle with a coast down period greater in seven days estimating an annual penalization of $US 130,000. (Author)

  17. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  18. Quality-of-service sensitivity to bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods for intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc multimedia sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2012-06-01

    In the author's previous work, a cross-layer protocol approach to wireless sensor network (WSN) intrusion detection an identification is created with multiple bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods applied to the functions of the protocol layers, a single method to each layer, to improve the intrusion-detection performance of the protocol over that of one method applied to only a single layer's functions. The WSN cross-layer protocol design embeds GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layer, respectively. The construct neglects to assess the net effect of the combined bioinspired methods on the quality-of-service (QoS) performance for "normal" data streams, that is, streams without intrusions. Analytic expressions of throughput, delay, and jitter, coupled with simulation results for WSNs free of intrusion attacks, are the basis for sensitivity analyses of QoS metrics for normal traffic to the bio-inspired methods.

  19. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    fossil fuels to biofuels. In many ways biomass is a unique renewable resource. It can be stored and transported relatively easily in contrast to renewable options such as wind and solar, which create intermittent electrical power that requires immediate consumption and a connection to the grid. This thesis presents two different models for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks. This work compares the performance and solutions obtained by two types of metaheuristic approaches; genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. Compared to rigorous mathematical optimization methods or iterative algorithms, metaheuristics do not guarantee that a global optimal solution can be found on some class of problems. Problems with similar characteristics to the one presented in this thesis have been previously solved using linear programming, integer programming and mixed integer programming methods. However, depending on the type of problem, these mathematical or complete methods might need exponential computation time in the worst-case. This often leads to computation times too high for practical purposes. Therefore, this thesis develops two types of metaheuristic approaches for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system considering multiple types of feedstocks and shows that metaheuristics are highly suitable to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems such as the one addressed in this research work.

  20. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjah, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

  1. Discrete wavelet transform on dynamically reconfigurable hardware.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walters, K.H.G.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Gerez, Sabih H.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing amount of data produced in satellites poses a problem for the limited data rate of its downlink. This discrepancy is solved by introducing more and more processing power on-board to compress data to a satisfiable rate. Currently, this processing power is often provided by

  2. Hardware implementation of stochastic spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Josep L; Canals, Vincent; Morro, Antoni; Oliver, Antoni

    2012-08-01

    Spiking Neural Networks, the last generation of Artificial Neural Networks, are characterized by its bio-inspired nature and by a higher computational capacity with respect to other neural models. In real biological neurons, stochastic processes represent an important mechanism of neural behavior and are responsible of its special arithmetic capabilities. In this work we present a simple hardware implementation of spiking neurons that considers this probabilistic nature. The advantage of the proposed implementation is that it is fully digital and therefore can be massively implemented in Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The high computational capabilities of the proposed model are demonstrated by the study of both feed-forward and recurrent networks that are able to implement high-speed signal filtering and to solve complex systems of linear equations.

  3. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical magnetic nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini seed extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswarlu, Sada; Natesh Kumar, B.; Prasad, C.H.; Venkateswarlu, P.; Jyothi, N.V.V., E-mail: nvvjyothi01@gmail.com

    2014-09-15

    A novel and bio-inspired Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} spherical magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs) were synthesized using Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) seed extract, which is a non-toxic ecofriendly fruit waste material. S. cumini seed extract acts as a green solvent, reducing and capping agent in which sodium acetate acts as electrostatic stabilizing agent. The green synthesized nanoparticles were characterized with the help of various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), FTIR spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption and desorption analysis techniques. The XRD study divulged that the synthesized SMNPs have inverse spinel cubic structure. The hysteresis loop of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles shows an excellent ferromagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization value of 13.6 emu/g.

  4. Light and colour as analytical detection tools: a journey into the periodic table using polyamines to bio-inspired systems as chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Carlos; Capelo, José Luis; Mejuto, Juan Carlos; Oliveira, Elisabete; Santos, Hugo M; Pedras, Bruno; Nuñez, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This critical review describes some developments on the chemistry of fluorescent and colorimetric molecular probes or chemosensors, based on polyamines and associated compounds having oxygen and/or sulfur as donor atoms. The reported systems are essentially based on some selected published work in this field in the last five years, and in the work developed by the authors from 2000 onwards. Some interesting properties beyond sensing molecules, ions or/and cations by fluorescence, colorimetry as well as by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry can arise from these systems. A short brief on different examples activated by PET (photoinduced electron transfer), ICT (internal charge transfer) and EET (electronic energy transfer) phenomena will be provided. Finally the introduction of bio-inspired compounds derived from emissive amino acid or short peptide systems and nanoparticle devices to detect metal ions will be reviewed (202 references).

  5. An FPGA-based reconfigurable DDC algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, B.; Kasprowicz, G.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes implementation of reconfigurable digital down converter in an FPGA structure. System is designed to work with quadrature signals. One of the main criteria of the project was to provied wide range of reconfiguration in order to fulfill various application rage. Potential applications include: software defined radio receiver, passive noise radars and measurement data compression. This document contains general system overview, short description of hardware used in the project and gateware implementation.

  6. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  7. Loop overhead reduction techniques for coarse grained reconfigurable architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vadivel, K.; Wijtvliet, M.; Jordans, R.; Corporaal, H.

    2017-01-01

    Due to their flexibility and high performance, Coarse Grained Reconfigurable Array (CGRA) are a topic of increasing research interest. However, CGRAs also have the potential to achieve very high energy efficiency in comparison to other reconfigurable architectures when hardware optimizations are

  8. Characterization of anthocyanin based dye-sensitized organic solar cells (DSSC) and modifications based on bio-inspired ion mobility improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyin, Jose Amador

    The worldwide electrical energy consumption will increase from currently 10 terawatts to 30 terawatts by 2050. To decrease the current atmospheric CO2 would require our civilization to develop a 20 terawatts non-greenhouse emitting (renewable) electrical power generation capability. Solar photovoltaic electric power generation is thought to be a major component of proposed renewable energy-based economy. One approach to less costly, easily manufactured solar cells is the Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) introduced by Greatzel and others. This dissertation describes the work focused on improving the performance of DSSC type solar cells. In particular parameters affecting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on anthocyanin pigments extracted from California blackberries (Rubus ursinus) and bio-inspired modifications were analyzed and solar cell designs optimized. Using off-the-shelf materials DSSC were constructed and tested using a custom made solar spectrum simulator and photoelectric property characterization. This equipment facilitated the taking of automated I-V curve plots and the experimental determination of parameters such as open circuit voltage (V OC), short circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF), etc. This equipment was used to probe the effect of various modifications such as changes in the annealing time and composition of the of the electrode counter-electrode. Solar cell optimization schemes included novel schemes such as solar spectrum manipulation to increase the percentage of the solar spectrum capable of generating power in the DSSC. Solar manipulation included light scattering and photon upconversion. Techniques examined here focused on affordable materials such as silica nanoparticles embedded inside a TiO2 matrix. Such materials were examined for controlled scattering of visible light and optimize light trapping within the matrix as well as a means to achieve photon up-energy-conversion using the Raman effect in silica nano-particles (due

  9. Advances in neuromorphic hardware exploiting emerging nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book covers all major aspects of cutting-edge research in the field of neuromorphic hardware engineering involving emerging nanoscale devices. Special emphasis is given to leading works in hybrid low-power CMOS-Nanodevice design. The book offers readers a bidirectional (top-down and bottom-up) perspective on designing efficient bio-inspired hardware. At the nanodevice level, it focuses on various flavors of emerging resistive memory (RRAM) technology. At the algorithm level, it addresses optimized implementations of supervised and stochastic learning paradigms such as: spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP), long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), extreme learning machines (ELM) and early adoptions of restricted Boltzmann machines (RBM) to name a few. The contributions discuss system-level power/energy/parasitic trade-offs, and complex real-world applications. The book is suited for both advanced researchers and students interested in the field.

  10. Program Execution on Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiva Prasad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the two observations that diverse applications perform better on different multicore architectures, and that different phases of an application may have vastly different resource requirements, Pal et al. proposed a novel reconfigurable hardware approach for executing multithreaded programs. Instead of mapping a concurrent program to a fixed architecture, the architecture adaptively reconfigures itself to meet the application's concurrency and communication requirements, yielding significant improvements in performance. Based on our earlier abstract operational framework for multicore execution with hierarchical memory structures, we describe execution of multithreaded programs on reconfigurable architectures that support a variety of clustered configurations. Such reconfiguration may not preserve the semantics of programs due to the possible introduction of race conditions arising from concurrent accesses to shared memory by threads running on the different cores. We present an intuitive partial ordering notion on the cluster configurations, and show that the semantics of multithreaded programs is always preserved for reconfigurations "upward" in that ordering, whereas semantics preservation for arbitrary reconfigurations can be guaranteed for well-synchronised programs. We further show that a simple approximate notion of efficiency of execution on the different configurations can be obtained using the notion of amortised bisimulations, and extend it to dynamic reconfiguration.

  11. The Difference Se Makes: A Bio-Inspired Dppf-Supported Nickel Selenolate Complex Boosts Dihydrogen Evolution with High Oxygen Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhong-Hua; Tao, Yun-Wen; He, Quan-Feng; Wu, Qiao-Yu; Cheng, Li-Ping; Wei, Zhan-Hua; Wu, Ji-Huai; Lin, Jin-Qing; Sun, Di; Zhang, Qi-Chun; Tian, Dan; Luo, Geng-Geng

    2018-06-12

    Inspired by the metal active sites of [NiFeSe]-hydrogenases, a dppf-supported nickel(II) selenolate complex (dppf=1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) shows high catalytic activity for electrochemical proton reduction with a remarkable enzyme-like H 2 evolution turnover frequency (TOF) of 7838 s -1 under an Ar atmosphere, which markedly surpasses the activity of a dppf-supported nickel(II) thiolate analogue with a low TOF of 600 s -1 . A combined study of electrochemical experiments and DFT calculations shed light on the catalytic process, suggesting that selenium atom as a bio-inspired proton relay plays a key role in proton exchange and enhancing catalytic activity of H 2 production. For the first time, this type of Ni selenolate-containing electrocatalyst displays a high degree of O 2 and H 2 tolerance. Our results should encourage the development of the design of highly efficient oxygen-tolerant Ni selenolate molecular catalysts. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Laser-Sintered Constructs with Bio-inspired Porosity and Surface Micro/Nano-Roughness Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales. 2D solid disks and low, medium and high porosity (LP, MP, and HP) 3D constructs based on a human trabecular bone template were laser sintered from Ti-6Al-4V powder and further processed to have micro- and nanoscale roughness. hMSCs exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation and local factor production on all 3D porous constructs compared to 2D surfaces, which was sustained for 9 days without use of exogenous factors. hMSCs cultured for 8 weeks on MP constructs in osteogenic medium (OM), OM supplemented with BMP2 or collagen-coated MP constructs in OM exhibited bone-like extracellular matrix mineralization. Use of bio-inspired porosity for the 3D architecture of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs beyond surface roughness alone. This study suggests that a 3D architecture may enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants in vivo.

  13. Bio-inspired CO2 reduction by a rhenium tricarbonyl bipyridine-based catalyst appended to amino acids and peptidic platforms: incorporating proton relays and hydrogen-bonding functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabolla, S A; Machan, C W; Yin, J; Dellamary, E A; Sahu, S; Gianneschi, N C; Gilson, M K; Tezcan, F A; Kubiak, C P

    2017-06-02

    Herein, we report a new approach to bio-inspired catalyst design. The molecular catalyst employed in these studies is based on the robust and selective Re(bpy)(CO) 3 Cl-type (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) homogeneous catalysts, which have been extensively studied for their ability to reduce CO 2 electrochemically or photochemically in the presence of a photosensitizer. These catalysts can be highly active photocatalysts in their own right. In this work, the bipyridine ligand was modified with amino acids and synthetic peptides. These results build on earlier findings wherein the bipyridine ligand was functionalized with amide groups to promote dimer formation and CO 2 reduction by an alternate bimolecular mechanism at lower overpotential (ca. 250 mV) than the more commonly observed unimolecular process. The bio-inspired catalysts were designed to allow for the incorporation of proton relays to support reduction of CO 2 to CO and H 2 O. The coupling of amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine led to the formation of two structurally similar Re catalyst/peptide catalysts for comparison of proton transport during catalysis. This article reports the synthesis and characterization of novel catalyst/peptide hybrids by molecular dynamics (MD simulations of structural dynamics), NMR studies of solution phase structures, and electrochemical studies to measure the activities of new bio-inspired catalysts in the reduction of CO 2.

  14. Easy Reconfiguration of Modular Industrial Collaborative Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Casper

    2016-01-01

    the production staff collaborating to perform common tasks. This change of environment imposes a much more dynamic lifecycle for the robot which consequently requires new ways of interacting. This thesis investigates how the changeover to a new task on a collaborative robot can be performed by the shop floor...... operators already working alongside the robot. To effectively perform this changeover, the operator must both reconfigure the hardware of the robot and reprogram the robot to match the new task. To enable shop floor operators to quickly and intuitively program the robot, this thesis proposes the use...... of parametric, task-related robot skills with a manual parameterization method. Reconfiguring the hardware entails adding, removing, or modifying some of the robot’s components. This thesis investigate how software configurator tools can aid the operator in selecting appropriate hardware modules, and how agent...

  15. Lightweight mechanical amplifiers for rolled dielectric elastomer actuators and their integration with bio-inspired wing flappers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Gih-Keong; Lim, Hoong-Ta; Teo, Jing-Ying; Chin, Yao-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are attractive for use in bio-inspired flapping-wing robots because they have high work density (specific energy) and can produce a large actuation strain. Although the active membrane of a dielectric elastomer is lightweight, the support structure that pre-tensions the elastomeric membrane is massive and it lowers the overall work density. If the DEA is to be used successfully to drive flapping-wing robots, its support structure must be as lightweight as possible. In this work, we designed, analysed, and developed a lightweight shell using a cross-ply laminate of carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) to pre-strain a rolled DEA. The CFRP shell was shown to weigh 24.3% of the total mass for the whole DEA assembly, while providing up to 35.0% axial pre-strain to a rolled DEA (BJB-5005 silicone rubber). This DEA assembly using the CFRP shell achieved 30.9% of the theoretical work density for a BJB-TC5005 membrane at 33.5 MV m −1 . In comparison, spring rolls with a massive spring core were reported with overall work density merely 10–20% of the maximum value. Furthermore, this CFRP shell can amplify an axial DEA stroke into a larger transverse shell deformation. With these deformation characteristics, this CFRP shell and a rolled DEA were successfully integrated with an insect-inspired thoracic mechanism and they were shown to be feasible to drive it for a flapping wing. (paper)

  16. Bio-inspired control of joint torque and knee stiffness in a robotic lower limb exoskeleton using a central pattern generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrade, Stefan O; Nager, Yannik; Wu, Amy R; Gassert, Roger; Ijspeert, Auke

    2017-07-01

    Robotic lower limb exoskeletons are becoming increasingly popular in therapy and recreational use. However, most exoskeletons are still rather limited in their locomotion speed and the activities of daily live they can perform. Furthermore, they typically do not allow for a dynamic adaptation to the environment, as they are often controlled with predefined reference trajectories. Inspired by human leg stiffness modulation during walking, variable stiffness actuators increase flexibility without the need for more complex controllers. Actuation with adaptable stiffness is inspired by the human leg stiffness modulation during walking. However, this actuation principle also introduces the stiffness setpoint as an additional degree of freedom that needs to be coordinated with the joint trajectories. As a potential solution to this issue a bio-inspired controller based on a central pattern generator (CPG) is presented in this work. It generates coordinated joint torques and knee stiffness modulations to produce flexible and dynamic gait patterns for an exoskeleton with variable knee stiffness actuation. The CPG controller is evaluated and optimized in simulation using a model of the exoskeleton. The CPG controller produced stable and smooth gait for walking speeds from 0.4 m/s up to 1.57 m/s with a torso stabilizing force that simulated the use of crutches, which are commonly needed by exoskeleton users. Through the CPG, the knee stiffness intrinsically adapted to the frequency and phase of the gait, when the speed was changed. Additionally, it adjusted to changes in the environment in the form of uneven terrain by reacting to ground contact forces. This could allow future exoskeletons to be more adaptive to various environments, thus making ambulation more robust.

  17. On the synthesis of a bio-inspired dual-cellular fluidic flexible matrix composite adaptive structure based on a non-dimensional dynamics model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K W

    2013-01-01

    A recent study investigated the dynamic characteristics of an adaptive structure concept featuring dual fluidic flexible matrix composite (F 2 MC) cells inspired by the configuration of plant cells and cell walls. This novel bio-inspired system consists of two F 2 MC cells with different fiber angles connected through internal fluid circuits. It was discovered that the dual F 2 MC cellular structure can be characterized as a two degree of freedom damped mass–spring oscillator, and can be utilized as a vibration absorber or an enhanced actuator under different operation conditions. These results demonstrated that the concept is promising and further investigations are needed to develop methodologies for synthesizing future multi-cellular F 2 MC structural systems. While interesting, the previous study focused on specific case studies and analysis. That is, the outcome did not provide insight that could be generalized, or tools for synthesizing a multiple F 2 MC cellular structure. This paper attempts to address this important issue by developing a non-dimensional dynamic model, which reveals good physical insights as well as identifying crucial constitutive parameters for F 2 MC cellular design. Working with these parameters, rather than physical variables, can greatly simplify the mathematics involved in the study. A synthesis tool is then developed for the dual-cellular structure, and it is found that for each set of achievable target poles and zero, there exist multiple F 2 MC cellular designs, forming a design space. The presented physical insights and synthesis tool for the dual-cellular structure will be the building blocks for future investigation on cellular structures with a larger number of cells. (paper)

  18. Effect of pre-tension on the peeling behavior of a bio-inspired nano-film and a hierarchical adhesive structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhilong; Chen, Shaohua

    2012-10-01

    Inspired by the reversible adhesion behaviors of geckos, the effects of pre-tension in a bio-inspired nano-film and a hierarchical structure on adhesion are studied theoretically. In the case with a uniformly distributing pre-tension in a spatula-like nano-film under peeling, a closed-form solution to a critical peeling angle is derived, below or above which the peel-off force is enhanced or reduced, respectively, compared with the case without pre-tension. The effects of a non-uniformly distributing pre-tension on adhesion are further investigated for both a spatula-like nano-film and a hierarchical structure-like gecko's seta. Compared with the case without pre-tension, the pre-tension, no matter uniform or non-uniform, can increase the adhesion force not only for the spatula-like nano-film but also for the hierarchical structure at a small peeling angle, while decrease it at a relatively large peeling angle. Furthermore, if the pre-tension is large enough, the effective adhesion energy of a hierarchical structure tends to vanish at a critical peeling angle, which results in spontaneous detachment of the hierarchical structure from the substrate. The present theoretical predictions can not only give some explanations on the existing experimental observation that gecko's seta always detaches at a specific angle and no apparent adhesion force can be detected above the critical angle but also provide a deep understanding for the reversible adhesion mechanism of geckos and be helpful to the design of biomimetic reversible adhesives.

  19. Characterization and prediction of the backscattered form function of an immersed cylindrical shell using hybrid fuzzy clustering and bio-inspired algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agounad, Said; Aassif, El Houcein; Khandouch, Younes; Maze, Gérard; Décultot, Dominique

    2018-02-01

    The acoustic scattering of a plane wave by an elastic cylindrical shell is studied. A new approach is developed to predict the form function of an immersed cylindrical shell of the radius ratio b/a ('b' is the inner radius and 'a' is the outer radius). The prediction of the backscattered form function is investigated by a combined approach between fuzzy clustering algorithms and bio-inspired algorithms. Four famous fuzzy clustering algorithms: the fuzzy c-means (FCM), the Gustafson-Kessel algorithm (GK), the fuzzy c-regression model (FCRM) and the Gath-Geva algorithm (GG) are combined with particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm. The symmetric and antisymmetric circumferential waves A, S 0 , A 1 , S 1 and S 2 are investigated in a reduced frequency (k 1 a) range extends over 0.1

  20. Multilevel Simulation of Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Picard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a general system-level simulation and testing methodology for reconfigurable System-on-Chips, starting from behavioral specifications of system activities to multilevel simulations of accelerated tasks running on the reconfigurable circuit. The system is based on a common objectoriented environment that offers valuable debugging and probing facilities as well as integrated testing features. Our system brings these benefits to the hardware simulation, while enforcing validation through characterization tests and interoperability through on-demand mainstream tools connections. This framework has been partially developed in the scope of the EU Morpheus project and is used to validate our contribution to the spatial design task.

  1. Portable reconfigurable detection and assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattman, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapidly changing geopolitical issues throughout the world have made the ability to effectively respond to political, military, terrorist and peace-keeping requirements increasingly important. Recent Middle East events indicate a continuing escalation in these activities. These activities are defining the requirements for a rapidly deployable, portable, real-time detection and assessment operational security system that is reconfigurable to site specific threats. This paper describes such a system Mobile Operational Detection and Assessment system (MODAS); a commercially-off-the shelf (COTS) integrated and reconfigurable hardware/software system solution for the ever-changing geopolitical security issues of the Nineties

  2. Highly Reconfigurable Beamformer Stimulus Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaviļina E.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a highly reconfigurable beamformer stimulus generator of radar antenna array, which includes three main blocks: settings of antenna array, settings of objects (signal sources and a beamforming simulator. Following from the configuration of antenna array and object settings, different stimulus can be generated as the input signal for a beamformer. This stimulus generator is developed under a greater concept with two utterly independent paths where one is the stimulus generator and the other is the hardware beamformer. Both paths can be complemented in final and in intermediate steps as well to check and improve system performance. This way the technology development process is promoted by making each of the future hardware steps more substantive. Stimulus generator configuration capabilities and test results are presented proving the application of the stimulus generator for FPGA based beamforming unit development and tuning as an alternative to an actual antenna system.

  3. Highly Reconfigurable Beamformer Stimulus Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaviļina, E.; Gaigals, G.

    2018-02-01

    The present paper proposes a highly reconfigurable beamformer stimulus generator of radar antenna array, which includes three main blocks: settings of antenna array, settings of objects (signal sources) and a beamforming simulator. Following from the configuration of antenna array and object settings, different stimulus can be generated as the input signal for a beamformer. This stimulus generator is developed under a greater concept with two utterly independent paths where one is the stimulus generator and the other is the hardware beamformer. Both paths can be complemented in final and in intermediate steps as well to check and improve system performance. This way the technology development process is promoted by making each of the future hardware steps more substantive. Stimulus generator configuration capabilities and test results are presented proving the application of the stimulus generator for FPGA based beamforming unit development and tuning as an alternative to an actual antenna system.

  4. Proof-Carrying Hardware: Concept and Prototype Tool Flow for Online Verification

    OpenAIRE

    Drzevitzky, Stephanie; Kastens, Uwe; Platzner, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Dynamically reconfigurable hardware combines hardware performance with software-like flexibility and finds increasing use in networked systems. The capability to load hardware modules at runtime provides these systems with an unparalleled degree of adaptivity but at the same time poses new challenges for security and safety. In this paper, we elaborate on the presentation of proof carrying hardware (PCH) as a novel approach to reconfigurable system security. PCH takes ...

  5. Hardware for dynamic quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Colm A; Johnson, Blake R; Ristè, Diego; Donovan, Brian; Ohki, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    We describe the hardware, gateware, and software developed at Raytheon BBN Technologies for dynamic quantum information processing experiments on superconducting qubits. In dynamic experiments, real-time qubit state information is fed back or fed forward within a fraction of the qubits' coherence time to dynamically change the implemented sequence. The hardware presented here covers both control and readout of superconducting qubits. For readout, we created a custom signal processing gateware and software stack on commercial hardware to convert pulses in a heterodyne receiver into qubit state assignments with minimal latency, alongside data taking capability. For control, we developed custom hardware with gateware and software for pulse sequencing and steering information distribution that is capable of arbitrary control flow in a fraction of superconducting qubit coherence times. Both readout and control platforms make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays to enable tailored qubit control systems in a reconfigurable fabric suitable for iterative development.

  6. Bio-inspired dental fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhle, Hans; Bunk, Oliver; Buser, Stefan; Krastl, Gabriel; Zitzmann, Nicola U.; Ilgenstein, Bernd; Beckmann, Felix; Pfeiffer, Franz; Weiger, Roland; Müller, Bert

    2009-08-01

    Human teeth are anisotropic composites. Dentin as the core material of the tooth consists of nanometer-sized calcium phosphate crystallites embedded in collagen fiber networks. It shows its anisotropy on the micrometer scale by its well-oriented microtubules. The detailed three-dimensional nanostructure of the hard tissues namely dentin and enamel, however, is not understood, although numerous studies on the anisotropic mechanical properties have been performed and evaluated to explain the tooth function including the enamel-dentin junction acting as effective crack barrier. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with a spatial resolution in the 10 μm range allows determining the size and orientation of the constituents on the nanometer scale with reasonable precision. So far, only some dental materials, i.e. the fiber reinforced posts exhibit anisotropic properties related to the micrometer-size glass fibers. Dental fillings, composed of nanostructures oriented similar to the natural hard tissues of teeth, however, do not exist at all. The current X-ray-based investigations of extracted human teeth provide evidence for oriented micro- and nanostructures in dentin and enamel. These fundamental quantitative findings result in profound knowledge to develop biologically inspired dental fillings with superior resistance to thermal and mechanical shocks.

  7. Bio-Inspired Controllable Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    pad of the tarsus – which act as a sort of hydraulic suspension. The lamellae contain rows of thin slender fibers , called setae, approximately 130 µm...in length and 20 µm in diameter (Hildebrand, 1988), Fig.1. The terminus of each seta branches into thousands of smaller fibers , or spatular stalks...ADHESION TESTING The structures were characterized (Northen et al., 2008) using a home-built adhesion test apparatus ( Basalt - II) with C. Greiner

  8. A bio-inspired zinc finger analogue anchored in 2D hexagonal meso-porous silica for room temperature CO_2 activation via a hydrogeno-carbonate route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doghri, Hanene; Baranova, Elena A.; Albela, Belen; Bonneviot, Laurent; Mongia Said-Zina

    2017-01-01

    Bio-inspired diethylenetriamine-zinc(II) complexes were anchored into the nano-pores of hexagonal meso-porous MCM41-like silicas targeting a carbamate free and low temperature CO_2 recycling process. A step-by-step approach was adopted to perform an in situ synthesis in order to mimic the zinc finger of carbonic anhydrases, the fastest family of enzymes. In the presence of a surface-masking pattern of TMA"+ ions, some silanol groups were capped using grafted trimethylsilyl functions, TMSgr, (gr for grafted). After removing the masking ions, a tridentate diethylenetriamine ligand was anchored using diethylenetriamine propyl-trimethoxysilane. The so-called DETA_a_n ligands (an for anchored) were partially mono-protonated using either cyclohexane or isopropanol as a solvent. Nonetheless, up to two thirds of them were metallated by Zn(II) ions, leading to the targeted anchored zinc finger mimic [Zn(DETAan)L]+(L = Cl or OH). CO_2 is then adsorbed at room temperature and in humid ambient air by the formation of an intermediate hydrogeno-carbonate-zinc complex. Specific IR signatures at 1330 and 1400 cm"-"1 together with characteristic C 1s and Zn 2p3/2 XPS binding energies at 286.4 and 1024.6 eV advocate for a rather symmetrical bidentate [η"2-CO_3] structural unit in the anchored complex [Zn(DETA_a_n)(η"2-HCO_3"*)]"+, where the Zn(II) ion is most likely penta-coordinated. The internal pH value varied by less than 0.5 depending on the metal reacting with the DETA_a_n ligand and its ability to generate HCO_3"-, due to the buffering effect of surface silanol and amino groups according to the level of protonation of the DETA moieties measured from the N 1s XPS spectra. In contrast to nitrate ions, chloride ions were found to inhibit the formation of hydrogeno-carbonate. (authors)

  9. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  10. Generalized reconfigurable memristive dynamical system (MDS) for neuromorphic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavandpour, Mohammad; Soleimani, Hamid; Linares-Barranco, Bernabé; Abbott, Derek; Chua, Leon O

    2015-01-01

    This study firstly presents (i) a novel general cellular mapping scheme for two dimensional neuromorphic dynamical systems such as bio-inspired neuron models, and (ii) an efficient mixed analog-digital circuit, which can be conveniently implemented on a hybrid memristor-crossbar/CMOS platform, for hardware implementation of the scheme. This approach employs 4n memristors and no switch for implementing an n-cell system in comparison with 2n (2) memristors and 2n switches of a Cellular Memristive Dynamical System (CMDS). Moreover, this approach allows for dynamical variables with both analog and one-hot digital values opening a wide range of choices for interconnections and networking schemes. Dynamical response analyses show that this circuit exhibits various responses based on the underlying bifurcation scenarios which determine the main characteristics of the neuromorphic dynamical systems. Due to high programmability of the circuit, it can be applied to a variety of learning systems, real-time applications, and analytically indescribable dynamical systems. We simulate the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN), Adaptive Exponential (AdEx) integrate and fire, and Izhikevich neuron models on our platform, and investigate the dynamical behaviors of these circuits as case studies. Moreover, error analysis shows that our approach is suitably accurate. We also develop a simple hardware prototype for experimental demonstration of our approach.

  11. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  12. Can Real-Time Systems Benefit from Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Kristensen, Andreas Toftegaard; Schoeberl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In real-time systems, a solution where hardware accelerators are used to implement computationally intensive tasks can be easier to analyze, in terms of worst-case execution time (WCET), than a pure software solution. However, when using FPGAs, the amount and the complexity of the hardware...... hardware accelerators in real-time systems and presents an experimental analysis of the trade-offs between hardware utilization and WCET increase due to the reconfiguration time overhead of DPR. We also investigate the trade-off between the use of multiple specialized accelerators combined with DPR instead...

  13. Reconfiguration of distribution nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre Bayona, Gerardo; Angarita Marquez, Jorge Luis

    2000-01-01

    Starting of the location of the reconfiguration problem inside the context of the operation of distribution nets, of the quality indicators definition and of the presentation of the alternatives more used for reduction of technical losses, they are related diverse reconfiguration methodologies proposed in the technical literature, pointing out their three principals limitations; also are presents the results of lost obtained starting from simulation works carried out in distribution circuits of the ESSA ESP, which permitting to postulate the reconfiguration of nets like an excellent alternative to reduce technical losses

  14. Aplicación de las técnicas de hardware reconfigurable en un sistema digital de control dinámico. Aplicación práctica Parte II; Application of Programmable Hardware Techniques of Digital Control System Development. Workable Application. Second Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arce López

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la aplicación práctica del diseño electrónico en el desarrollo de un sistema de control dinámicode un servomotor lo cual es una novedad científico-técnica en el campo de la energética y en la defensanacional. En el trabajo se expone la funcionalidad y estructura del hardware programable, así como losresultados parciales de la simulación. This paper describes the design of a dynamic control system for servomotor making use of new electronicdevelopment techniques, and represents a novelty on energetic field and national defence. Also describesstructure and functionality of programmable hardware, and partial results of simulation.

  15. On-Line Testing and Reconfiguration of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for Fault-Tolerant (FT) Applications in Adaptive Computing Systems (ACS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramovici, Miron

    2002-01-01

    Adaptive computing systems (ACS) rely on reconfigurable hardware to adapt the system operation to changes in the external environment, and to extend mission capability by implementing new functions on the same hardware platform...

  16. Fault Diagnosis of a Reconfigurable Crawling–Rolling Robot Based on Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Elangovan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As robots begin to perform jobs autonomously, with minimal or no human intervention, a new challenge arises: robots also need to autonomously detect errors and recover from faults. In this paper, we present a Support Vector Machine (SVM-based fault diagnosis system for a bio-inspired reconfigurable robot named Scorpio. The diagnosis system needs to detect and classify faults while Scorpio uses its crawling and rolling locomotion modes. Specifically, we classify between faulty and non-faulty conditions by analyzing onboard Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensor data. The data capture nine different locomotion gaits, which include rolling and crawling modes, at three different speeds. Statistical methods are applied to extract features and to reduce the dimensionality of original IMU sensor data features. These statistical features were given as inputs for training and testing. Additionally, the c-Support Vector Classification (c-SVC and nu-SVC models of SVM, and their fault classification accuracies, were compared. The results show that the proposed SVM approach can be used to autonomously diagnose locomotion gait faults while the reconfigurable robot is in operation.

  17. Reconfigurable Sensor Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A reconfigurable sensor monitoring system includes software tunable filters, each of which is programmable to condition one type of analog signal. A processor coupled to the software tunable filters receives each type of analog signal so-conditioned.

  18. Créer de nouveaux écosystèmes durables par des méthodes bio-inspirées : le cas des toits verts extensifs en région méditerranéenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUTOIT, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Outre l’aspect esthétique, de nombreuses études ont confirmé l’intérêt des toitures végétales dans une perspective de restauration ou de protection de la biodiversité et de l'environnement en milieu urbain. Leur mise en place exige toutefois quelques recommandations quant aux matériaux et techniques utilisés, qui doivent notamment s'inspirer des habitats naturels écologiquement proches. Les objectifs des travaux présentés ici sont d'élaborer et de tester de nouvelles techniques bio-inspirées pour la création de toits verts extensifs en climat méditerranéen sans reccours à l'irrigation permanente.

  19. Architecture design of reconfigurable accelerators for demanding apllications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozwiak, L.; Jan, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on mastering the architecture development of reconfigurable hardware accelerators for highly demanding applications. It presents the results of our analysis of the main issues that have to be addressed when designing accelerators for demanding applications, when using as an

  20. Reconfigurable support vector machine classifier with approximate computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leussen, M.J.; Huisken, J.; Wang, L.; Jiao, H.; De Gyvez, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) is one of the most popular machine learning algorithms. An energy-efficient SVM classifier is proposed in this paper, where approximate computing is utilized to reduce energy consumption and silicon area. A hardware architecture with reconfigurable kernels and

  1. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...... language, where each cell is adapted to communicate with one or more other cells in the system, and where the system further comprises a converter program adapted to convert keywords from the DNA language to a binary DNA code; where the self-organisation comprises that the DNA code is transmitted to one...... or more of the cells, and each of the one or more cells is adapted to determine its function in the system; where if a fault occurs in a first cell and the first cell ceases to perform its function, self-maintenance is performed by that the system transmits information to the cells that the first cell has...

  2. Reconfigurable computing the theory and practice of FPGA-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Hauck, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Reconfigurable Computing marks a revolutionary and hot topic that bridges the gap between the separate worlds of hardware and software design- the key feature of reconfigurable computing is its groundbreaking ability to perform computations in hardware to increase performance while retaining the flexibility of a software solution. Reconfigurable computers serve as affordable, fast, and accurate tools for developing designs ranging from single chip architectures to multi-chip and embedded systems. Scott Hauck and Andre DeHon have assembled a group of the key experts in the fields of both hardwa

  3. Hardware malware

    CERN Document Server

    Krieg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In our digital world, integrated circuits are present in nearly every moment of our daily life. Even when using the coffee machine in the morning, or driving our car to work, we interact with integrated circuits. The increasing spread of information technology in virtually all areas of life in the industrialized world offers a broad range of attack vectors. So far, mainly software-based attacks have been considered and investigated, while hardware-based attacks have attracted comparatively little interest. The design and production process of integrated circuits is mostly decentralized due to

  4. Design Flow Instantiation for Run-Time Reconfigurable Systems: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Qu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconfigurable system is a promising alternative to deliver both flexibility and performance at the same time. New reconfigurable technologies and technology-dependent tools have been developed, but a complete overview of the whole design flow for run-time reconfigurable systems is missing. In this work, we present a design flow instantiation for such systems using a real-life application. The design flow is roughly divided into two parts: system level and implementation. At system level, our supports for hardware resource estimation and performance evaluation are applied. At implementation level, technology-dependent tools are used to realize the run-time reconfiguration. The design case is part of a WCDMA decoder on a commercially available reconfigurable platform. The results show that using run-time reconfiguration can save over 40% area when compared to a functionally equivalent fixed system and achieve 30 times speedup in processing time when compared to a functionally equivalent pure software design.

  5. Architecturally Reconfigurable Development of Mobile Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan

    2005-01-01

    . Mobile game domain variants could be handled uniformly and traced across all kinds of software assets. The architecture and configuration mechanism in our approach make optimizations that built into meta-components propagated to all product line members. We show this approach with an industrial Role-Playing-Game......Mobile game development must face the problem of multiple hardware and software platforms, which will bring large number of variants. To cut the development and maintenance efforts, in this paper, we present an architecturally reconfigurable software product line approach to develop mobile games...

  6. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  7. Hardware Accelerated Sequence Alignment with Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    in a timely manner. Known methods to accelerate alignment on reconfigurable hardware only address sequence comparison, limit the sequence length, or exhibit memory and I/O bottlenecks. A space-efficient, global sequence alignment algorithm and architecture is presented that accelerates the forward scan and traceback in hardware without memory and I/O limitations. With 256 processing elements in FPGA technology, a performance gain over 300 times that of a desktop computer is demonstrated on sequence lengths of 16000. For greater performance, the architecture is scalable to more processing elements.

  8. Architecture for dynamically reconfigurable real-time lossless compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alison J.; Audsley, Neil C.

    2004-05-01

    Image compression is a computationally intensive task, which can be undertaken most efficiently by dedicated hardware. If a portable device is to carry out real-time compression on a variety of image types, then it may be useful to reconfigure the circuitry dynamically. Using commercial off-the shelf (COTS) chips, reconfiguration is usually implemented by a complete re-load from memory, but it is also possible to perform a partial reconfiguration. This work studies the use of programmable hardware devices to implement the lossless JPEG compression algorithm in real-time on a stream of independent image frames. The data rate is faster than can be compressed serially in hardware by a single processor, so the operation is split amongst several processors. These are implemented as programmable circuits, together with necessary buffering of input and output data. The timing of input and output, bearing in mind the different, and context-dependent amounts of data due to Huffman coding, is analyzed using storage-timing graphs. Because there may be differing parameters from one frame to the next, several different configurations are prepared and stored, ready to load as required. The scheduling of these reconfigurations, and the distribution/recombination of data streams is studied, giving an analysis of the real-time performance.

  9. RTOS acceleration in an MPSoC with reconfigurable hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaykov, P.G.; Kuzmanov, G.; Molnos, A.M.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of improving the performance of real-time embedded Multiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC). Such MPSoCs often execute applications composed of multiple tasks. The tasks on each processor are scheduled by a Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) instance. To improve

  10. Run-Time Scalable Hardware for Reconfigurable Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Otero Marnotes, Andres

    2014-01-01

    La optimización de parámetros tales como el consumo de potencia, la cantidad de recursos lógicos empleados o la ocupación de memoria ha sido siempre una de las preocupaciones principales a la hora de diseñar sistemas embebidos. Esto es debido a que se trata de sistemas dotados de una cantidad de recursos limitados, y que han sido tradicionalmente empleados para un propósito específico, que permanece invariable a lo largo de toda la vida útil del sistema. Sin embargo, el uso de sistemas embebi...

  11. Wireless multimedia sensor networks on reconfigurable hardware information reduction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ang, Li-minn; Chew, Li Wern; Yeong, Lee Seng; Chia, Wai Chong

    2013-01-01

    Traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) capture scalar data such as temperature, vibration, pressure, or humidity. Motivated by the success of WSNs and also with the emergence of new technology in the form of low-cost image sensors, researchers have proposed combining image and audio sensors with WSNs to form wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs).

  12. Hardware-Enabled Security Through On-Chip Reconfigurable Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    level language (SystemC) instead of in RTL such as Verilog and VHDL . To evaluate our approach, we implemented a set of monitors including soft...techniques can be implemented after chip fabrication. The study showed that such programmable architectures can indeed support a broad range of run- time...accelerators where security techniques can be implemented after chip fabrication. The study showed that such programmable architectures can indeed support a

  13. Ultra-Low-Power Design and Hardware Security Using Emerging Technologies for Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiann-Shiun Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review article for Internet of Things (IoT applications, important low-power design techniques for digital and mixed-signal analog–digital converter (ADC circuits are presented. Emerging low voltage logic devices and non-volatile memories (NVMs beyond CMOS are illustrated. In addition, energy-constrained hardware security issues are reviewed. Specifically, light-weight encryption-based correlational power analysis, successive approximation register (SAR ADC security using tunnel field effect transistors (FETs, logic obfuscation using silicon nanowire FETs, and all-spin logic devices are highlighted. Furthermore, a novel ultra-low power design using bio-inspired neuromorphic computing and spiking neural network security are discussed.

  14. Reconfigurable Mobile Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Jaap

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses reconfigurability issues in lowpower hand-held multimedia systems, with particular emphasis on energy conservation. We claim that a radical new approach has to be taken in order to fulfill the requirements - in terms of processing power and energy consumption - of future mobile

  15. Reconfigurable layout problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, G.; Heragu, S.S.; Heragu, S.S.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the reconfigurable layout problem, which differs from traditional, robust and dynamic layout problems mainly in two aspects: first, it assumes that production data are available only for the current and upcoming production period. Second, it considers queuing performance

  16. Performance/price estimates for cortex-scale hardware: a design space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad S; Hammerstrom, Dan

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we revisit the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is useful for understanding and investigating the performance/price and other trade-offs related to the hardware design space. Moreover, it is perhaps the most important aspect of a hardware design space exploration. Such a design space exploration is a necessary part of the study of hardware architectures for large-scale computational models for intelligent computing, including AI, Bayesian, bio-inspired and neural models. A methodical exploration is needed to identify potentially interesting regions in the design space, and to assess the relative performance/price points of these implementations. As an example, in this paper we investigate the performance/price of (digital and mixed-signal) CMOS and hypothetical CMOL (nanogrid) technology based hardware implementations of human cortex-scale spiking neural systems. Through this analysis, and the resulting performance/price points, we demonstrate, in general, the importance of virtualization, and of doing these kinds of design space explorations. The specific results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology such as CMOL is a promising candidate to implement very large-scale spiking neural systems, providing a more efficient utilization of the density and storage benefits of emerging nano-scale technologies. In general, we believe that the study of such hypothetical designs/architectures will guide the neuromorphic hardware community towards building large-scale systems, and help guide research trends in intelligent computing, and computer engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Derivation of the stress-strain behavior of the constituents of bio-inspired layered TiO2/PE-nanocomposites by inverse modeling based on FE-simulations of nanoindentation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, G; Schäfer, I; Burghard, Z; Bill, J; Schmauder, S; Weber, U; Galler, D

    2013-03-01

    Owing to the apparent simple morphology and peculiar properties, nacre, an iridescent layer, coating of the inner part of mollusk shells, has attracted considerable attention of biologists, material scientists and engineers. The basic structural motif in nacre is the assembly of oriented plate-like aragonite crystals with a 'brick' (CaCO3 crystals) and 'mortar' (macromolecular components like proteins) organization. Many scientific researchers recognize that such structures are associated with the excellent mechanical properties of nacre and biomimetic strategies have been proposed to produce new layered nanocomposites. During the past years, increasing efforts have been devoted towards exploiting nacre's structural design principle in the synthesis of novel nanocomposites. However, the direct transfer of nacre's architecture to an artificial inorganic material has not been achieved yet. In the present contribution we report on laminated architecture, composed of the inorganic oxide (TiO2) and organic polyelectrolyte (PE) layers which fulfill this task. To get a better insight and understanding concerning the mechanical behaviour of bio-inspired layered materials consisting of oxide ceramics and organic layers, the elastic-plastic properties of titanium dioxide and organic polyelectrolyte phase are determined via FE-modelling of the nanoindentation process. With the use of inverse modeling and based on numerical models which are applied on the microscopic scale, the material properties of the constituents are derived.

  18. Reconfiguring Maternity Care?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Nis

    This dissertation constitutes a reflection on two initiatives seeking to reconfigure maternity care. One initiative sought to digitalise maternity records and included a pilot run of an electronic maternity record in a Danish county. The other consisted of a collaboration between a maternity ward...... at a hospital and a group of researchers which included me. Both initiatives involved numerous seemingly different interests that were held together and related to reconfiguring maternity care. None of the initiatives can unequivocally be labelled a success, as neither managed to change maternity care, at least...... experimental designs are constructed. The consequences and the politics of the proposed changes are engaged with in laboratory manner through collaborative development of the designs and through exposing them to members of field of maternity care...

  19. A Hardware Framework for on-Chip FPGA Acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomuscio, Andrea; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a new framework to dynamically load hardware accelerators on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors, we load on-the-fly the specific processor in the FPGA, and we transfer the execution from the CPU to the FPGA-based accele......In this work, we present a new framework to dynamically load hardware accelerators on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors, we load on-the-fly the specific processor in the FPGA, and we transfer the execution from the CPU to the FPGA......-based accelerator. Results show that significant speed-up can be obtained by the proposed acceleration framework on system-on-chips where reconfigurable fabric is placed next to the CPUs. The speed-up is due to both the intrinsic acceleration in the application-specific processors, and to the increased parallelism....

  20. A Controller for Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration in FPGA-Based Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2017-01-01

    -source DPR controller specially developed for hard real-time systems and prototyped in connection with the open-source multi-core platform for real-time applications T-CREST. The controller enables a processor to perform reconfiguration in a time-predictable manner and supports different operating modes......In real-time systems, the use of hardware accelerators can lead to a worst-case execution-time speed-up, to a simplification of its analysis, and to a reduction of its pessimism. When using FPGA technology, dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR) can be used to minimize the area, by only loading....... The paper also presents a software tool for bitstream conversion, compression, and for reconfiguration time analysis. The DPR controller is evaluated in terms of hardware cost, operating frequency, speed, and bitstream compression ratio vs. reconfiguration time trade-off. A simple application example...

  1. Designing Dual-functionalized Gels for Self-reconfiguration and Autonomous Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.

    2015-04-01

    Human motion is enabled by the concerted expansion and contraction of interconnected muscles that are powered by inherent biochemical reactions. One of the challenges in the field of biomimicry is eliciting this form of motion from purely synthetic materials, which typically do not generate internalized reactions to drive mechanical action. Moreover, for practical applications, this bio-inspired motion must be readily controllable. Herein, we develop a computational model to design a new class of polymer gels where structural reconfigurations and internalized reactions are intimately linked to produce autonomous motion, which can be directed with light. These gels contain both spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores and the ruthenium catalysts that drive the oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. Importantly, both the SP moieties and the BZ reaction are photosensitive. When these dual-functionalized gels are exposed to non-uniform illumination, the localized contraction of the gel (due to the SP moieties) in the presence of traveling chemical waves (due to the BZ reaction) leads to new forms of spontaneous, self-sustained movement, which cannot be achieved by either of the mono-functionalized networks.

  2. An adaptive cryptographic accelerator for network storage security on dynamically reconfigurable platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Jing-Ning; Feng, Dan; Tong, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Existing security solutions in network storage environment perform poorly because cryptographic operations (encryption and decryption) implemented in software can dramatically reduce system performance. In this paper we propose a cryptographic hardware accelerator on dynamically reconfigurable platform for the security of high performance network storage system. We employ a dynamic reconfigurable platform based on a FPGA to implement a PowerPCbased embedded system, which executes cryptographic algorithms. To reduce the reconfiguration latency, we apply prefetch scheduling. Moreover, the processing elements could be dynamically configured to support different cryptographic algorithms according to the request received by the accelerator. In the experiment, we have implemented AES (Rijndael) and 3DES cryptographic algorithms in the reconfigurable accelerator. Our proposed reconfigurable cryptographic accelerator could dramatically increase the performance comparing with the traditional software-based network storage systems.

  3. MFTF supervisory control and diagnostics system hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butner, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostics System (SCDS) for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a multiprocessor minicomputer system designed so that for most single-point failures, the hardware may be quickly reconfigured to provide continued operation of the experiment. The system is made up of nine Perkin-Elmer computers - a mixture of 8/32's and 7/32's. Each computer has ports on a shared memory system consisting of two independent shared memory modules. Each processor can signal other processors through hardware external to the shared memory. The system communicates with the Local Control and Instrumentation System, which consists of approximately 65 microprocessors. Each of the six system processors has facilities for communicating with a group of microprocessors; the groups consist of from four to 24 microprocessors. There are hardware switches so that if an SCDS processor communicating with a group of microprocessors fails, another SCDS processor takes over the communication

  4. Development of reconfigurable analog and digital circuits for plasma diagnostics measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Sharma, Atish; Raval, Tushar

    2009-01-01

    In long pulse discharge tokamak, a large number of diagnostic channels are being used to understand the complex behavior of plasma. Different diagnostics demand different types of analog and digital processing for plasma parameters measurement. This leads to variable requirements of signal processing for diagnostic measurement. For such types of requirements, we have developed hardware with reconfigurable electronic devices, which provide flexible solution for rapid development of measurement system. Here the analog processing is achieved by Field Programmable Analog Array (FPAA) integrated circuit while reconfigurable digital devices (CPLD/FPGA) achieve digital processing. FPAA's provide an ideal integrated platform for implementing low to medium complexity analog signal processing. With dynamic reconfigurability, the functionality of the FPAA can be reconfigured in-system by the designer or on the fly by a microprocessor. This feature is quite useful to manipulate the tuning or the construction of any part of the analog circuit without interrupting operation of the FPAA, thus maintaining system integrity. The hardware operation control logic circuits are configured in the reconfigurable digital devices (CPLD/FPGA) to control proper hardware functioning. These reconfigurable devices provide the design flexibility and save the component space on the board. It also provides the flexibility for various setting through software. The circuit controlling commands are either issued by computer/processor or generated by circuit itself. (author)

  5. Reconfigurable network systems and software-defined networking

    OpenAIRE

    Zilberman, N.; Watts, P. M.; Rotsos, C.; Moore, A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Modern high-speed networks have evolved from relatively static networks to highly adaptive networks facilitating dynamic reconfiguration. This evolution has influenced all levels of network design and management, introducing increased programmability and configuration flexibility. This influence has extended from the lowest level of physical hardware interfaces to the highest level of network management by software. A key representative of this evolution is the emergence of software-defined n...

  6. Heterogeneous reconfigurable processors for real-time baseband processing from algorithm to architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chenxin; Öwall, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on domain-specific heterogeneous reconfigurable architectures, demonstrating for readers a computing platform which is flexible enough to support multiple standards, multiple modes, and multiple algorithms. The content is multi-disciplinary, covering areas of wireless communication, computing architecture, and circuit design. The platform described provides real-time processing capability with reasonable implementation cost, achieving balanced trade-offs among flexibility, performance, and hardware costs. The authors discuss efficient design methods for wireless communication processing platforms, from both an algorithm and architecture design perspective. Coverage also includes computing platforms for different wireless technologies and standards, including MIMO, OFDM, Massive MIMO, DVB, WLAN, LTE/LTE-A, and 5G. •Discusses reconfigurable architectures, including hardware building blocks such as processing elements, memory sub-systems, Network-on-Chip (NoC), and dynamic hardware reconfigur...

  7. Reconfigurable vision system for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Recently, a growing community of researchers has used reconfigurable systems to solve computationally intensive problems. Reconfigurability provides optimized processors for systems on chip designs, and makes easy to import technology to a new system through reusable modules. The main objective of this work is the investigation of a reconfigurable computer system targeted for computer vision and real-time applications. The system is intended to circumvent the inherent computational load of most window-based computer vision algorithms. It aims to build a system for such tasks by providing an FPGA-based hardware architecture for task specific vision applications with enough processing power, using the minimum amount of hardware resources as possible, and a mechanism for building systems using this architecture. Regarding the software part of the system, a library of pre-designed and general-purpose modules that implement common window-based computer vision operations is being investigated. A common generic interface is established for these modules in order to define hardware/software components. These components can be interconnected to develop more complex applications, providing an efficient mechanism for transferring image and result data among modules. Some preliminary results are presented and discussed.

  8. Repetition or Reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristina Vaarst

    , the cognitive quality of knowledge held by individual professionals is the key microfoundation for project level performance. This paper empirically tests effects of project participants with and without knowledge diversity for project level performance for projects aiming for varying degrees of repetition...... and reconfiguration. The results indicate that project performance benefits form contributions from individuals holding diverse knowledge only when projects aim for high differentiation levels. This positive association is not just moderated, it may even be reversed in the case of professionals participating in low...

  9. Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries (HLL) Technology for Audio Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, A.; Lomuscio, A.; Nunzio, L. Di

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we apply hardware acceleration to embedded systems running audio applications. We present a new framework, Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Libraries or HLL, to dynamically load hardware libraries on reconfigurable platforms (FPGAs). Provided a library of application-specific processors......, we load on-the-fly the specific processor in the FPGA, and we transfer the execution from the CPU to the FPGA-based accelerator. The proposed architecture provides excellent flexibility with respect to the different audio applications implemented, high quality audio, and an energy efficient solution....

  10. Reconfigurable Integrated Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Soref

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated optics today is based upon chips of Si and InP. The future of this chip industry is probably contained in the thrust towards optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs and photonic integrated circuits (PICs manufactured in a high-volume foundry. We believe that reconfigurable OEICs and PICs, known as ROEICs and RPICs, constitute the ultimate embodiment of integrated photonics. This paper shows that any ROEIC-on-a-chip can be decomposed into photonic modules, some of them fixed and some of them changeable in function. Reconfiguration is provided by electrical control signals to the electro-optical building blocks. We illustrate these modules in detail and discuss 3D ROEIC chips for the highest-performance signal processing. We present examples of our module theory for RPIC optical lattice filters already constructed, and we propose new ROEICs for directed optical logic, large-scale matrix switching, and 2D beamsteering of a phased-array microwave antenna. In general, large-scale-integrated ROEICs will enable significant applications in computing, quantum computing, communications, learning, imaging, telepresence, sensing, RF/microwave photonics, information storage, cryptography, and data mining.

  11. Reconfigurable multiport EPON repeater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayuki; Inohara, Ryo; Agata, Akira; Horiuchi, Yukio

    2009-11-01

    An extended reach EPON repeater is one of the solutions to effectively expand FTTH service areas. In this paper, we propose a reconfigurable multi-port EPON repeater for effective accommodation of multiple ODNs with a single OLT line card. The proposed repeater, which has multi-ports in both OLT and ODN sides, consists of TRs, BTRs with the CDR function and a reconfigurable electrical matrix switch, can accommodate multiple ODNs to a single OLT line card by controlling the connection of the matrix switch. Although conventional EPON repeaters require full OLT line cards to accommodate subscribers from the initial installation stage, the proposed repeater can dramatically reduce the number of required line cards especially when the number of subscribers is less than a half of the maximum registerable users per OLT. Numerical calculation results show that the extended reach EPON system with the proposed EPON repeater can save 17.5% of the initial installation cost compared with a conventional repeater, and can be less expensive than conventional systems up to the maximum subscribers especially when the percentage of ODNs in lightly-populated areas is higher.

  12. The Impact of Flight Hardware Scavenging on Space Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    For a given fixed launch vehicle capacity the logistics payload delivered to the moon may be only roughly 20 percent of the payload delivered to the International Space Station (ISS). This is compounded by the much lower flight frequency to the moon and thus low availability of spares for maintenance. This implies that lunar hardware is much more scarce and more costly per kilogram than ISS and thus there is much more incentive to preserve hardware. The Constellation Lunar Surface System (LSS) program is considering ways of utilizing hardware scavenged from vehicles including the Altair lunar lander. In general, the hardware will have only had a matter of hours of operation yet there may be years of operational life remaining. By scavenging this hardware the program, in effect, is treating vehicle hardware as part of the payload. Flight hardware may provide logistics spares for system maintenance and reduce the overall logistics footprint. This hardware has a wide array of potential applications including expanding the power infrastructure, and exploiting in-situ resources. Scavenging can also be seen as a way of recovering the value of, literally, billions of dollars worth of hardware that would normally be discarded. Scavenging flight hardware adds operational complexity and steps must be taken to augment the crew s capability with robotics, capabilities embedded in flight hardware itself, and external processes. New embedded technologies are needed to make hardware more serviceable and scavengable. Process technologies are needed to extract hardware, evaluate hardware, reconfigure or repair hardware, and reintegrate it into new applications. This paper also illustrates how scavenging can be used to drive down the cost of the overall program by exploiting the intrinsic value of otherwise discarded flight hardware.

  13. Reconfigurable assembly work station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yhu-Tin; Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick

    2017-11-14

    A reconfigurable autonomous workstation includes a multi-faced superstructure including a horizontally-arranged frame section supported on a plurality of posts. The posts form a plurality of vertical faces arranged between adjacent pairs of the posts, the faces including first and second faces and a power distribution and position reference face. A controllable robotic arm suspends from the rectangular frame section, and a work table fixedly couples to the power distribution and position reference face. A plurality of conveyor tables are fixedly coupled to the work table including a first conveyor table through the first face and a second conveyor table through the second face. A vision system monitors the work table and each of the conveyor tables. A programmable controller monitors signal inputs from the vision system to identify and determine orientation of the component on the first conveyor table and control the robotic arm to execute an assembly task.

  14. NASA's Bio-Inspired Acoustic Absorber Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Transportation noise pollutes our worlds cities, suburbs, parks, and wilderness areas. NASAs fundamental research in aviation acoustics is helping to find innovative solutions to this multifaceted problem. NASA is learning from nature to develop the next generation of quiet aircraft.The number of road vehicles and airplanes has roughly tripled since the 1960s. Transportation noise is audible in nearly all the counties across the US. Noise can damage your hearing, raise your heart rate and blood pressure, disrupt your sleep, and make communication difficult. Noise pollution threatens wildlife when it prevents animals from hearing prey, predators, and mates. Noise regulations help drive industry to develop quieter aircraft. Noise standards for aircraft have been developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization and adopted by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The US National Park Service is working with the Federal Aviation Administration to try to balance the demand for access to the parks and wilderness areas with preservation of the natural soundscape. NASA is helping by conceptualizing quieter, more efficient aircraft of the future and performing the fundamental research to make these concepts a reality someday. Recently, NASA has developed synthetic structures that can absorb sound well over a wide frequency range, and particularly below 1000 Hz, and which mimic the acoustic performance of bundles of natural reeds. We are adapting these structures to control noise on aircraft, and spacecraft. This technology might be used in many other industrial or architectural applications where acoustic absorbers have tight constraints on weight and thickness, and may be exposed to high temperatures or liquids. Information about this technology is being made available through reports and presentations available through the NASA Technical Report Server, http:ntrs.nasa.gov. Organizations who would like to collaborate with NASA or commercialize NASAs technology are encouraged to contact the NASA Glenn Technology Transfer Office, https:technology.grc.nasa.gov. The NASA Glenn Office of Education https:www.nasa.govcentersglenneducationindex.html and the NASA Glenn Virtual Interchange for Nature-Inspired Exploration https:www.grc.nasa.govvine are also helping to make research like this accessible to the public and students of all ages.

  15. Bio-Inspired Flexible Cellular Actuating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    S. Hong, “Robust adaptive boundary control of a flexible marine riser with vessel dynamics,” Automatica, vol. 47, pp. 722–732, 2011. [22] D. H...conditionally accepted. [6] W. He, S. S. Ge, B. V. E. How, Y. S. Choo, and K. S. Hong, “Robust adaptive boundary control of a flexible marine riser ... flexible robotic actuators, often represented by a distributed parameter system or a partial differential equation. We establish a model-guided

  16. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  17. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  18. Bio-inspired reversible underwater adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhua; Wu, Yang; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Manman; Chen, Xuan; Liu, Minjie; Fan, Jun; Liu, Junqiu; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Zuankai

    2017-12-20

    The design of smart surfaces with switchable adhesive properties in a wet environment has remained a challenge in adhesion science and materials engineering. Despite intense demands in various industrial applications and exciting progress in mimicking the remarkable wet adhesion through the delicate control of catechol chemistry, polyelectrolyte complex, and supramolecular architectures, the full recapitulation of nature's dynamic function is limited. Here, we show a facile approach to synthesize bioinspired adhesive, which entails the reversible, tunable, and fast regulation of the wet adhesion on diverse surfaces. The smart wet adhesive takes advantage of the host-guest molecular interaction and the adhesive nature of catechol chemistry, as well as the responsive polymer, allowing for screening and activation of the interfacial interaction simply by a local temperature trigger in an on-demand manner. Our work opens up an avenue for the rational design of bioinspired adhesives with performances even beyond nature.

  19. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bio-inspired organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai; Troshin, Pavel A.; Schwabegger, Günther; Bodea, Marius; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Fergus, Jeffrey W.; Razumov, Vladimir; Bauer, Siegfried; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2010-08-01

    Two major concerns in the world nowadays are the plastic consumption and waste. Because to the economic growth and the incessant demand of plastics in developing countries, plastics consumption is projected to increase by a factor of two to three during the actual decade1. As an intuitive example, the amount of municipal solid waste (estimated per person per year) averages ~440 kg for China, ~550 kg for the European Union and ~790 kg for the United States, with almost 50% of the waste being electronic products and plastics1,2. Green technology based on biodegradable/compostable materials is perceived as an ultimate goal for solving waste problems. Currently there are numerous efforts for producing compostable plastic materials for applications in daily life products, such as plastic bags and disposable dishware. When such low-end products are fabricated with compostable materials, electronics included in such goods should be also based on materials that are easily compostable.

  1. Bio-Inspired Polymer Membrane Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To generate polyethersulfone membranes with a biocatalytically active surface, pancreatin was covalently immobilized. Pancreatin is a mixture of digestive enzymes such as protease, lipase, and amylase. The resulting membranes exhibit self-cleaning properties after “switching on” the respective enzyme by adjusting pH and temperature. Thus, the membrane surface can actively degrade a fouling layer on its surface and regain initial permeability. Fouling tests with solutions of protein, oil, and mixtures of both, were performed, and the membrane’s ability to self-clean the fouled surface was characterized. Membrane characterization was conducted by investigation of the immobilized enzyme concentration, enzyme activity, water permeation flux, fouling tests, porosimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to accurately model biological systems at the molecular and cellular level. The project's impact encompasses applications to biofuels, to novel sensors and to materials with broad use for energy or threat reduction. The broad, interdisciplinary approach of CNLS offers the unparalleled strength of combining science backgrounds and expertise -a unique and important asset in attacking the complex science of biological organisms. This approach also allows crossfertilization, with concepts and techniques transferring across field boundaries.

  3. A bio-inspired spatial patterning circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai-Yuan; Joe, Danial J; Shealy, James B; Land, Bruce R; Shen, Xiling

    2014-01-01

    Lateral Inhibition (LI) is a widely conserved patterning mechanism in biological systems across species. Distinct from better-known Turing patterns, LI depend on cell-cell contact rather than diffusion. We built an in silico genetic circuit model to analyze the dynamic properties of LI. The model revealed that LI amplifies differences between neighboring cells to push them into opposite states, hence forming stable 2-D patterns. Inspired by this insight, we designed and implemented an electronic circuit that recapitulates LI patterning dynamics. This biomimetic system serve as a physical model to elucidate the design principle of generating robust patterning through spatial feedback, regardless of the underlying devices being biological or electrical.

  4. Bio-inspired materials for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, A.; Firmino, A.; Sentanin, F.; Sabadini, R. C.; Jimenez, D. E. Q.; Jayme, C. C.; Mindroiu, M.; Zgarian, R. G.; Tihan, G. T.; Rau, I.; Silva, M. M.; Nogueira, A. F.; Kanicki, J.; Kajzar, F.

    2015-10-01

    Natural macromolecules are very promising row materials to be used in modern technology including security and defense. They are abundant in nature, easy to extract and possess biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. These materials can be modified throughout chemical or physical processes, and can be doped with lithium and rare earth salts, ionic liquids, organic and inorganic acids. In this communication samples of DNA and modified DNA were doped with Prussian Blue (PB), poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), europium and erbium triflate and organic dyes such as Nile Blue (NB), Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and Disperse Orange 3 (DO3). The colored or colorless membranes were characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements, and they were applied in electrochromic devices (ECDs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). ECDs change the color under applied potential, so they can modulate the intensity of transmitted light of 15 to 35%. As the electrochromic materials, WO3 or Prussian blue (PB), are usually blue colored, the color change is from transparent to blue. DNA, and the complexes: DNA-CTMA, DNA-DODA and DNAPEDOT: PSS were also investigated as either hole carrier material (HTM) or polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The DNA-based samples as HTM in small DSSCs revealed a solar energy conversion efficiency of 0.56%. Polymer electrolytes of DNA-CTMA and DNA-DODA, both with 10 wt% of LiI/I2, applied in small DSSC, exhibited the efficiencies of 0.18 and 0.66%, respectively. The obtained results show that natural macromolecules-based membranes are not only environmentally friendly but are also promising materials to be investigated for several electrochemical devices. However, to obtain better performances more research is still needed.

  5. Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Doppler shift resulting from their own flight.35 They can also determine azimuth and elevation using binaural processing. Detection of wires is a...responses. The problem is that trained intelligence or military persons, psychopathic or antisocial subjects, and others can effectively beat the polygraph

  6. Reconfiguration in Mobile Multimedia Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Bos, M.; Smit, L.T.; Heysters, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamically reconfigurable systems offer the potential for realising efficient systems as well as providing adaptability to changing system requirements. Such systems are suitable for future mobile multimedia systems that have limited battery resources, must handle diverse data types, and must

  7. Terrain Adaptive Reconfiguration of Mobility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an algorithm (and software) to automatically adapt a reconfigurable robot to different types of terrains for improved mobility, that compared to SOA:...

  8. Dynamic Reconfiguration in Planetary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    In taking into account the ways in which material and social realms are constitutively entangled within organizations, it is rhetorically tempting to say that technologies and social structures reconfigure each other. But what does it mean to reconfigure? How does one "figure" the other and how do...... we fully embrace a mutually constitutive relationship when examining fluid relations? This paper delves into these questions by exploring how physical, social, material, technological, and organizational arrangements dynamically reconfigure each other in the duration of organizational practice. Using...... be gained by focusing attention on the dynamic reconfigurations between social and material realms. In so doing, we call attention to the ways in which current sociomaterial perspectives have difficulty articulating the shifting, figural, asymmetric and dynamic negotiations between people, social structures...

  9. Una propuesta para el diagnóstico de fallos en sistemas industriales mediante el uso de estrategias bioinspiradas A proposal to fault diagnosis in industrial systems using bio-inspired strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídice Camps Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study on the application of bio-inspired strategies for optimization to Fault Diagnosis in industrial systems is presented. The principal aim is to establish a basis for the development of new and viable model-based Fault Diagnosis Methods which improve some difficulties that the current methods cannot avoid. These difficulties are related mainly with fault sensitivity and robustness to external disturbances. In this study, there have been considered the Differential Evolution and the Ant Colony Optimization algorithms. This application is illustrated using simulated data of the Two tanks system benchmark. In order to analyze the advantages of these algorithms to obtain a diagnosis which needs to be sensitive to faults and robust to external disturbances, some experiments with incipient faults and noisy data have been simulated. The results indicate that the proposed approach, basically the combination of the two algorithms, characterizes a promising methodology for Fault Diagnosis.En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la aplicación de estrategias bioinspiradas para la optimización al diagnóstico de fallos en sistemas industriales. El objetivo principal es establecer una base para el desarrollo de nuevos y viables métodos de diagnóstico de fallos basados en modelos que permitan mejorar las dificultades de los métodos actuales. Estas dificultades están relacionadas, fundamentalmente, con la sensibilidad ante la presencia de fallos y la robustez ante perturbaciones externas. En el estudio se consideraron los algoritmos Evolución Diferencial y Optimización por Colonia de Hormigas. La efectividad de la propuesta es analizada mediante experimentos con el conocido problema de prueba de los dos tanques. Los experimentos consideraron presencia de ruido en la información y fallos incipientes de manera que fuera posible analizar las ventajas de la propuesta en cuanto a diagnóstico robusto y sensible. Los resultados

  10. Secure computing on reconfigurable systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes Chaves, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes a Secure Computing Module (SCM) for reconfigurable computing systems. SC provides a protected and reliable computational environment, where data security and protection against malicious attacks to the system is assured. SC is strongly based on encryption algorithms and on the attestation of the executed functions. The use of SC on reconfigurable devices has the advantage of being highly adaptable to the application and the user requirements, while providing high performa...

  11. Introduction to Hardware Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yier Jin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hardware security has become a hot topic recently with more and more researchers from related research domains joining this area. However, the understanding of hardware security is often mixed with cybersecurity and cryptography, especially cryptographic hardware. For the same reason, the research scope of hardware security has never been clearly defined. To help researchers who have recently joined in this area better understand the challenges and tasks within the hardware security domain and to help both academia and industry investigate countermeasures and solutions to solve hardware security problems, we will introduce the key concepts of hardware security as well as its relations to related research topics in this survey paper. Emerging hardware security topics will also be clearly depicted through which the future trend will be elaborated, making this survey paper a good reference for the continuing research efforts in this area.

  12. Reconfiguration in FPGA-Based Multi-Core Platforms for Hard Real-Time Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Schoeberl, Martin; Sparsø, Jens

    2016-01-01

    -case execution-time of tasks of an application that determines the systems ability to respond in time. To support this focus, the platform must provide service guarantees for both communication and computation resources. In addition, many hard real-time applications have multiple modes of operation, and each......In general-purpose computing multi-core platforms, hardware accelerators and reconfiguration are means to improve performance; i.e., the average-case execution time of a software application. In hard real-time systems, such average-case speed-up is not in itself relevant - it is the worst...... mode has specific requirements. An interesting perspective on reconfigurable computing is to exploit run-time reconfiguration to support mode changes. In this paper we explore approaches to reconfiguration of communication and computation resources in the T-CREST hard real-time multi-core platform...

  13. Improvement to the pattern of control rods of the equilibrium cycle of 18 months for the CLV using bio-inspired algorithms; Mejora del patron de barras de control del ciclo de equilibrio de 18 meses para la CLV empleando algoritmos bio-inspirados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are carried out studies with some bio-inspired optimization techniques to improve the performance of the fuel cycles of the boiling water reactors of the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV). In the present work two bio-inspired techniques were applied with the purpose of improving the performance of a balance cycle of 18 months developed for the CLV: genetic algorithms (AG) and systems based on ants colonies (SCH). The design of the reference cycle it represents in several aspects an optimal cycle proposed starting from the experience of several operation decades with the boiling water reactors (BWR initials for Boiling Water Reactor) in the world. To try to improve their performance is beforehand a difficult challenge and it puts on test the feasibility of the optimization methods in the reloads design. The study of the bio-inspired techniques was centered exclusively on the obtaining of the control rod patterns (PBC) trying to overcome the capacity factor reached in the design of the reference cycle. It was fixed the cycle length such that the decrease of the coast down period would represent an increase of the capacity factor of the cycle; so that, it diminishes the annual cost associated with the capital cost of the plant. As consequence of the study, was found that the algorithm based on the ants colonies reaches to diminish the coast down period in five and half days respect to the original balance cycle, what represents an annual saving of $US 74,000. Since the original cycle was optimized, the above-mentioned, shows the ability of the SCH for the optimization of the cycle design. With the AG it was reach to approach to the original balance cycle with a coast down period greater in seven days estimating an annual penalization of $US 130,000. (Author)

  14. An OFDM receiver implemented on the coarse-grain reconfigurable Montium processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, G.K.; Heysters, P.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Future mobile terminals become multimode communication systems. In order to handle different standards, we propose to perform baseband processing in heterogeneous reconfigurable hardware. OFDM is one of the techniques that exists in multimode communication systems. As an example, we present the

  15. Reconfigurable topological photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Desnavi, Sameerah; Walasik, Wiktor; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2018-02-01

    Topological insulators are materials that conduct on the surface and insulate in their interior due to non-trivial topology of the band structure. The edge states on the interface between topological (non-trivial) and conventional (trivial) insulators are topologically protected from scattering due to structural defects and disorders. Recently, it was shown that photonic crystals (PCs) can serve as a platform for realizing a scatter-free propagation of light waves. In conventional PCs, imperfections, structural disorders, and surface roughness lead to significant losses. The breakthrough in overcoming these problems is likely to come from the synergy of the topological PCs and silicon-based photonics technology that enables high integration density, lossless propagation, and immunity to fabrication imperfections. For many applications, reconfigurability and capability to control the propagation of these non-trivial photonic edge states is essential. One way to facilitate such dynamic control is to use liquid crystals (LCs), which allow to modify the refractive index with external electric field. Here, we demonstrate dynamic control of topological edge states by modifying the refractive index of a LC background medium. Background index is changed depending on the orientation of a LC, while preserving the topology of the system. This results in a change of the spectral position of the photonic bandgap and the topological edge states. The proposed concept might be implemented using conventional semiconductor technology, and can be used for robust energy transport in integrated photonic devices, all-optical circuity, and optical communication systems.

  16. Selectively Fortifying Reconfigurable Computing Device to Achieve Higher Error Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of 10 nm CMOS devices and “exotic” nanodevices, the location and occurrence time of hardware defects and design faults become increasingly unpredictable, therefore posing severe challenges to existing techniques for error-resilient computing because most of them statically assign hardware redundancy and do not account for the error tolerance inherently existing in many mission-critical applications. This work proposes a novel approach to selectively fortifying a target reconfigurable computing device in order to achieve hardware-efficient error resilience for a specific target application. We intend to demonstrate that such error resilience can be significantly improved with effective hardware support. The major contributions of this work include (1 the development of a complete methodology to perform sensitivity and criticality analysis of hardware redundancy, (2 a novel problem formulation and an efficient heuristic methodology to selectively allocate hardware redundancy among a target design’s key components in order to maximize its overall error resilience, and (3 an academic prototype of SFC computing device that illustrates a 4 times improvement of error resilience for a H.264 encoder implemented with an FPGA device.

  17. Design and Control of Compliant Tensegrity Robots Through Simulation and Hardware Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, Ken; Despraz, Jeremie; Iscen, Atil; Sabelhaus, Andrew P.; Bruce, Jonathan; Schrauwen, Benjamin; Sunspiral, Vytas

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the role of tensegrity structures in biological systems and their application to robotics, the Dynamic Tensegrity Robotics Lab at NASA Ames Research Center has developed and validated two different software environments for the analysis, simulation, and design of tensegrity robots. These tools, along with new control methodologies and the modular hardware components developed to validate them, are presented as a system for the design of actuated tensegrity structures. As evidenced from their appearance in many biological systems, tensegrity ("tensile-integrity") structures have unique physical properties which make them ideal for interaction with uncertain environments. Yet these characteristics, such as variable structural compliance, and global multi-path load distribution through the tension network, make design and control of bio-inspired tensegrity robots extremely challenging. This work presents the progress in using these two tools in tackling the design and control challenges. The results of this analysis includes multiple novel control approaches for mobility and terrain interaction of spherical tensegrity structures. The current hardware prototype of a six-bar tensegrity, code-named ReCTeR, is presented in the context of this validation.

  18. Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ananda; Kreit, Eric; Liu, Yuguang; Heikenfeld, Jason; Papautsky, Ian

    2012-02-21

    Lab-on-a-chip systems rely on several microfluidic paradigms. The first uses a fixed layout of continuous microfluidic channels. Such lab-on-a-chip systems are almost always application specific and far from a true "laboratory." The second involves electrowetting droplet movement (digital microfluidics), and allows two-dimensional computer control of fluidic transport and mixing. The merging of the two paradigms in the form of programmable electrowetting channels takes advantage of both the "continuous" functionality of rigid channels based on which a large number of applications have been developed to date and the "programmable" functionality of digital microfluidics that permits electrical control of on-chip functions. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time programmable formation of virtual microfluidic channels and their continuous operation with pressure driven flows using an electrowetting platform. Experimental, theoretical, and numerical analyses of virtual channel formation with biologically relevant electrolyte solutions and electrically-programmable reconfiguration are presented. We demonstrate that the "wall-less" virtual channels can be formed reliably and rapidly, with propagation rates of 3.5-3.8 mm s(-1). Pressure driven transport in these virtual channels at flow rates up to 100 μL min(-1) is achievable without distortion of the channel shape. We further demonstrate that these virtual channels can be switched on-demand between multiple inputs and outputs. Ultimately, we envision a platform that would provide rapid prototyping of microfluidic concepts and would be capable of a vast library of functions and benefitting applications from clinical diagnostics in resource-limited environments to rapid system prototyping to high throughput pharmaceutical applications.

  19. Mobile Autonomous Reconfigurable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavliuk N.A.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study is a multifunctional modular robot able to assemble independently in a given configuration and responsively change it in the process of operation depending on the current task. In this work we aim at developing and examining unified modules for a modular robot, which can both perform autonomous movement and form a complex structure by connecting to other modules. The existing solutions in the field of modular robotics were reviewed and classified by power supply, the ways of interconnection, the ways of movement and the possibility of independent movement of separate modules. Basing on the analysis of the shortcomings of existing analogues, we have developed a module of mobile autonomous reconfigurable system, including a base unit, a set of magneto-mechanical connectors and two motor wheels. The basic kinematic scheme of the modular robot, the features of a single module, as well as the modular structure formed by an array of similar modules were described. Two schemes for placing sets of magneto-mechanical connectors in the basic module have been proposed. We described the principle of operation of a magneto-mechanical connector based on redirection of the magnetic flux of a permanent magnet. This solution simplifies the system for controlling a mechanism of connection with other modules, increases energy efficiency and a battery life of the module. Since the energy is required only at the moment of switching the operating modes of the connector, there is no need to power constantly the connector mechanism to maintain the coupling mode.

  20. Open Hardware Business Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  1. Open Hardware Business Models

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  2. An Interface for a Decentralized 2D Reconfiguration on Xilinx Virtex-FPGAs for Organic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schuck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial and dynamic online reconfiguration of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs is a promising approach to design high adaptive systems with lower power consumption, higher task specific performance, and even build-in fault tolerance. Different techniques and tool flows have been successfully developed. One of them, the two-dimensional partial reconfiguration, based on the Readback-Modify-Writeback method implemented on Xilinx Virtex devices, makes them ideally suited to be used as a hardware platform in future organic computing systems, where a highly adaptive hardware is necessary. In turn, decentralisation, the key property of an organic computing system, is in contradiction with the central nature of the FPGAs configuration port. Therefore, this paper presents an approach that connects the single ICAP port to a network on chip (NoC to provide access for all clients of the network. Through this a virtual decentralisation of the ICAP is achieved. Further true 2-dimensional partial reconfiguration is raised to a higher level of abstraction through a lightweight Readback-Modify-Writeback hardware module with different configuration and addressing modes. Results show that configuration data as well as reconfiguration times could be significantly reduced.

  3. A Taxonomy of Reconfigurable Single-/Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Runtime adaptivity of hardware in processor architectures is a novel trend, which is under investigation in a variety of research labs all over the world. The runtime exchange of modules, implemented on a reconfigurable hardware, affects the instruction flow (e.g., in reconfigurable instruction set processors or the data flow, which has a strong impact on the performance of an application. Furthermore, the choice of a certain processor architecture related to the class of target applications is a crucial point in application development. A simple example is the domain of high-performance computing applications found in meteorology or high-energy physics, where vector processors are the optimal choice. A classification scheme for computer systems was provided in 1966 by Flynn where single/multiple data and instruction streams were combined to four types of architectures. This classification is now used as a foundation for an extended classification scheme including runtime adaptivity as further degree of freedom for processor architecture design. The developed scheme is validated by a multiprocessor system implemented on reconfigurable hardware as well as by a classification of existing static and reconfigurable processor systems.

  4. Dynamic Reconfiguration in Mobile Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Glesner, Manfred; Zipf, Peter; Smit, L.T.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Heysters, P.M.; Renovell, Michel; Rosien, M.A.J.

    Dynamically reconfigurable systems have the potential of realising efficient systems as well as providing adaptability to changing system requirements. Such systems are suitable for future mobile multimedia systems that have limited battery resources, must handle diverse data types, and must operate

  5. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  6. Optimal energy management strategy for self-reconfigurable batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchhima, Nejmeddine; Schnierle, Marc; Schulte, Sascha; Birke, Kai Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy management strategy for multi-cell high voltage batteries where the current through each cell can be controlled, called self-reconfigurable batteries. An optimized control strategy further enhances the energy efficiency gained by the hardware architecture of those batteries. Currently, achieving cell equalization by using the active balancing circuits is considered as the best way to optimize the energy efficiency of the battery pack. This study demonstrates that optimizing the energy efficiency of self-reconfigurable batteries is no more strongly correlated to the cell balancing. According to the features of this novel battery architecture, the energy management strategy is formulated as nonlinear dynamic optimization problem. To solve this optimal control, an optimization algorithm that generates the optimal discharge policy for a given driving cycle is developed based on dynamic programming and code vectorization. The simulation results show that the designed energy management strategy maximizes the system efficiency across the battery lifetime over conventional approaches. Furthermore, the present energy management strategy can be implemented online due to the reduced complexity of the optimization algorithm. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency of self-reconfigurable batteries is maximized. • The energy management strategy for the battery is formulated as optimal control problem. • Developing an optimization algorithm using dynamic programming techniques and code vectorization. • Simulation studies are conducted to validate the proposed optimal strategy.

  7. Reconfigurable fault tolerant avionics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, M. M.; Asami, K.; Cho, Mengu

    This paper presents the design of a reconfigurable avionics system based on modern Static Random Access Memory (SRAM)-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to be used in future generations of nano satellites. A major concern in satellite systems and especially nano satellites is to build robust systems with low-power consumption profiles. The system is designed to be flexible by providing the capability of reconfiguring itself based on its orbital position. As Single Event Upsets (SEU) do not have the same severity and intensity in all orbital locations, having the maximum at the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and the polar cusps, the system does not have to be fully protected all the time in its orbit. An acceptable level of protection against high-energy cosmic rays and charged particles roaming in space is provided within the majority of the orbit through software fault tolerance. Check pointing and roll back, besides control flow assertions, is used for that level of protection. In the minority part of the orbit where severe SEUs are expected to exist, a reconfiguration for the system FPGA is initiated where the processor systems are triplicated and protection through Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) with feedback is provided. This technique of reconfiguring the system as per the level of the threat expected from SEU-induced faults helps in reducing the average dynamic power consumption of the system to one-third of its maximum. This technique can be viewed as a smart protection through system reconfiguration. The system is built on the commercial version of the (XC5VLX50) Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA on bulk silicon with 324 IO. Simulations of orbit SEU rates were carried out using the SPENVIS web-based software package.

  8. Learning hardware using multiple-valued logic - Part 2: Cube calculus and architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perkowski, M.A.; Foote, D.; Chen, Qihong; Al-Rabadi, A.; Jozwiak, L.

    2002-01-01

    For Part 1 see ibid. vol.22, no.3 (2002). A massively parallel reconfigurable processor speeds up the logic operators performed in the learning hardware. The approach uses combinatorial synthesis methods developed within the framework of the logic synthesis approach in digital-circuit-design

  9. Hardware/Software Co-design Applied to Reed-Solomon Decoding for the DMB Standard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A.C.; Lammertink, M.G.J.; Rovers, K.C.; Slagman, J.; Wellink, A.M.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of Reed- Solomon decoding for battery-powered wireless devices. The scope of this paper is constrained by the Digital Media Broadcasting (DMB). The most critical element of the Reed-Solomon algorithm is implemented on two different reconfigurable hardware

  10. Open Hardware at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Knowledge Transfer Group

    2015-01-01

    CERN is actively making its knowledge and technology available for the benefit of society and does so through a variety of different mechanisms. Open hardware has in recent years established itself as a very effective way for CERN to make electronics designs and in particular printed circuit board layouts, accessible to anyone, while also facilitating collaboration and design re-use. It is creating an impact on many levels, from companies producing and selling products based on hardware designed at CERN, to new projects being released under the CERN Open Hardware Licence. Today the open hardware community includes large research institutes, universities, individual enthusiasts and companies. Many of the companies are actively involved in the entire process from design to production, delivering services and consultancy and even making their own products available under open licences.

  11. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  12. Hardware protection through obfuscation

    CERN Document Server

    Bhunia, Swarup; Tehranipoor, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to various threats faced during design and fabrication by today’s integrated circuits (ICs) and systems. The authors discuss key issues, including illegal manufacturing of ICs or “IC Overproduction,” insertion of malicious circuits, referred as “Hardware Trojans”, which cause in-field chip/system malfunction, and reverse engineering and piracy of hardware intellectual property (IP). The authors provide a timely discussion of these threats, along with techniques for IC protection based on hardware obfuscation, which makes reverse-engineering an IC design infeasible for adversaries and untrusted parties with any reasonable amount of resources. This exhaustive study includes a review of the hardware obfuscation methods developed at each level of abstraction (RTL, gate, and layout) for conventional IC manufacturing, new forms of obfuscation for emerging integration strategies (split manufacturing, 2.5D ICs, and 3D ICs), and on-chip infrastructure needed for secure exchange o...

  13. ZEUS hardware control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-12-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users.

  14. ZEUS hardware control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loveless, R.; Erhard, P.; Ficenec, J.; Gather, K.; Heath, G.; Iacovacci, M.; Kehres, J.; Mobayyen, M.; Notz, D.; Orr, R.; Sephton, A.; Stroili, R.; Tokushuku, K.; Vogel, W.; Whitmore, J.; Wiggers, L.

    1989-01-01

    The ZEUS collaboration is building a system to monitor, control and document the hardware of the ZEUS detector. This system is based on a network of VAX computers and microprocessors connected via ethernet. The database for the hardware values will be ADAMO tables; the ethernet connection will be DECNET, TCP/IP, or RPC. Most of the documentation will also be kept in ADAMO tables for easy access by users. (orig.)

  15. Nested Reconfigurable Robots: Theory, Design, and Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Tan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rather than the conventional classification method, we propose to divide modular and reconfigurable robots into intra-, inter-, and nested reconfigurations. We suggest designing the robot with nested reconfigurability, which utilizes individual robots with intra-reconfigurability capable of combining with other homogeneous/heterogeneous robots (inter-reconfigurability. The objective of this approach is to generate more complex morphologies for performing specific tasks that are far from the capabilities of a single module or to respond to programmable assembly requirements. In this paper, we discuss the theory, concept, and initial mechanical design of Hinged-Tetro, a self-reconfigurable module conceived for the study of nested reconfiguration. Hinged-Tetro is a mobile robot that uses the principle of hinged dissection of polyominoes to transform itself into any of the seven one-sided tetrominoes in a straightforward way. The robot can also combine with other modules for shaping complex structures or giving rise to a robot with new capabilities. Finally, the validation experiments verify the nested reconfigurability of Hinged-Tetro. Extensive tests and analyses of intra-reconfiguration are provided in terms of energy and time consumptions. Experiments using two robots validate the inter-reconfigur ability of the proposed module.

  16. A Design Method for Fault Reconfiguration and Fault-Tolerant Control of a Servo Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing He

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A design scheme that integrates fault reconfiguration and fault-tolerant position control is proposed for a nonlinear servo system with friction. Analysis of the non-linear friction torque and fault in the system is used to guide design of a sliding mode position controller. A sliding mode observer is designed to achieve fault reconfiguration based on the equivalence principle. Thus, active fault-tolerant position control of the system can be realized. A real-time simulation experiment is performed on a hardware-in-loop simulation platform. The results show that the system reconfigures well for both incipient and abrupt faults. Under the fault-tolerant control mechanism, the output signal for the system position can rapidly track given values without being influenced by faults.

  17. Reconfigurable intelligent sensors for health monitoring: a case study of pulse oximeter sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, E; Milenkovic, A; Basham, S; Clark, D; Kelley, D

    2004-01-01

    Design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight, ultra low-power, intelligent sensors capable of customization and seamless integration into a body area network for health monitoring applications presents one of the most challenging tasks for system designers. To answer this challenge we propose a reconfigurable intelligent sensor platform featuring a low-power microcontroller, a low-power programmable logic device, a communication interface, and a signal conditioning circuit. The proposed solution promises a cost-effective, flexible platform that allows easy customization, run-time reconfiguration, and energy-efficient computation and communication. The development of a common platform for multiple physical sensors and a repository of both software procedures and soft intellectual property cores for hardware acceleration will increase reuse and alleviate costs of transition to a new generation of sensors. As a case study, we present an implementation of a reconfigurable pulse oximeter sensor.

  18. Reconfigurable engineered motile semiconductor microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohiri, Ugonna; Shields, C Wyatt; Han, Koohee; Tyler, Talmage; Velev, Orlin D; Jokerst, Nan

    2018-05-03

    Locally energized particles form the basis for emerging classes of active matter. The design of active particles has led to their controlled locomotion and assembly. The next generation of particles should demonstrate robust control over their active assembly, disassembly, and reconfiguration. Here we introduce a class of semiconductor microparticles that can be comprehensively designed (in size, shape, electric polarizability, and patterned coatings) using standard microfabrication tools. These custom silicon particles draw energy from external electric fields to actively propel, while interacting hydrodynamically, and sequentially assemble and disassemble on demand. We show that a number of electrokinetic effects, such as dielectrophoresis, induced charge electrophoresis, and diode propulsion, can selectively power the microparticle motions and interactions. The ability to achieve on-demand locomotion, tractable fluid flows, synchronized motility, and reversible assembly using engineered silicon microparticles may enable advanced applications that include remotely powered microsensors, artificial muscles, reconfigurable neural networks and computational systems.

  19. Design of reconfigurable logic controllers

    CERN Document Server

    Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the original concepts and modern techniques for specification, synthesis, optimisation and implementation of parallel logical control devices. It deals with essential problems of reconfigurable control systems like dependability, modularity and portability. Reconfigurable systems require a wider variety of design and verification options than the application-specific integrated circuits. The book presents a comprehensive selection of possible design techniques. The diversity of the modelling approaches covers Petri nets, state machines and activity diagrams. The preferences of the presented optimization and synthesis methods are not limited to increasing of the efficiency of resource use. One of the biggest advantages of the presented methods is the platform independence, the FPGA devices and single board computers are some of the examples of possible platforms. These issues and problems are illustrated with practical cases of complete control systems. If you expect a new look at the recon...

  20. Silicon Processors Using Organically Reconfigurable Techniques (SPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0132 SILICON PROCESSORS USING ORGANICALLY RECONFIGURABLE TECHNIQUES ( SPORT ) Dennis Prather UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Final Report 05...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Silicon Processes for Organically Reconfigurable Techniques ( SPORT ) 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0363 5c...Contract: Silicon Processes for Organically Reconfigurable Techniques ( SPORT ) Contract #: FA9550-10-1-0363 Reporting Period: 1 July 2010 – 31 December

  1. Reconfigurable metamaterials for terahertz wave manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammed R.; Cakmakyapan, Semih; Jarrahi, Mona

    2017-09-01

    Reconfigurable metamaterials have emerged as promising platforms for manipulating the spectral and spatial properties of terahertz waves without being limited by the characteristics of naturally existing materials. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of various types of reconfigurable metamaterials that are utilized to manipulate the intensity, phase, polarization, and propagation direction of terahertz waves. We discuss various reconfiguration mechanisms based on optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical stimuli while using semiconductors, superconductors, phase-change materials, graphene, and electromechanical structures. The advantages and disadvantages of different reconfigurable metamaterial designs in terms of modulation efficiency, modulation bandwidth, modulation speed, and system complexity are discussed in detail.

  2. MEMS-Reconfigurable Metamaterials and Antenna Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Debogovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews some of our contributions to reconfigurable metamaterials, where dynamic control is enabled by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. First, we show reconfigurable composite right-/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs having state of the art phase velocity variation and loss, thereby enabling efficient reconfigurable phase shifters and leaky-wave antennas (LWA. Second, we present very low loss metasurface designs with reconfigurable reflection properties, applicable in reflectarrays and partially reflective surface (PRS antennas. All the presented devices have been fabricated and experimentally validated. They operate in X- and Ku-bands.

  3. Run-Time HW/SW Scheduling of Data Flow Applications on Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Fakhreddine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient dynamic and run-time Hardware/Software scheduling approach. This scheduling heuristic consists in mapping online the different tasks of a highly dynamic application in such a way that the total execution time is minimized. We consider soft real-time data flow graph oriented applications for which the execution time is function of the input data nature. The target architecture is composed of two processors connected to a dynamically reconfigurable hardware accelerator. Our approach takes advantage of the reconfiguration property of the considered architecture to adapt the treatment to the system dynamics. We compare our heuristic with another similar approach. We present the results of our scheduling method on several image processing applications. Our experiments include simulation and synthesis results on a Virtex V-based platform. These results show a better performance against existing methods.

  4. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  5. A Framework for Dynamically-Loaded Hardware Library (HLL) in FPGA Acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Di Carlo, Leonardo; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Hardware acceleration is often used to address the need for speed and computing power in embedded systems. FPGAs always represented a good solution for HW acceleration and, recently, new SoC platforms extended the flexibility of the FPGAs by combining on a single chip both high-performance CPUs...... and FPGA fabric. The aim of this work is the implementation of hardware accelerators for these new SoCs. The innovative feature of these accelerators is the on-the-fly reconfiguration of the hardware to dynamically adapt the accelerator’s functionalities to the current CPU workload. The realization...... of the accelerators preliminarily requires also the profiling of both the SW (ARM CPU + NEON Units) and HW (FPGA) performance, an evaluation of the partial reconfiguration times and the development of an applicationspecific IP-cores library. This paper focuses on the profiling aspect of both the SW and HW...

  6. Computer hardware fault administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  7. Hardware and Software Integration in Project Development of Automated Controller System Using LABVIEW FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Khairulezwan Abd Manan; Mohd Sabri Minhat; Izhar Abu Hussin

    2014-01-01

    The Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is a semiconductor device that can be programmed after manufacturing. Instead of being restricted to any predetermined hardware function, an FPGA allows user to program product features and functions, adapt to new standards, and reconfigure hardware for specific applications even after the product has been installed in the field, hence the name field-programmable. This project developed a control system using LabVIEW FPGA. LabVIEW FPGA is easier where it is programmed by using drag and drop icon. Then it will be integrated with the hardware input and output. (author)

  8. Integrated conception of hardware/software mixed systems used in nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Ailton F.; Sorel, Yves; Akil, Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Hardware/software codesign carries out the design of systems composed by a hardware portion, with specific components, and a software portion, with microprocessor based architecture. This paper describes the Algorithm Architecture Adequation (AAA) design methodology - originally oriented to programmable multicomponent architectures, its extension to reconfigurable circuits and its application to design and development of nuclear instrumentation systems composed by programmable and configurable circuits. AAA methodology uses an unified model to describe algorithm, architecture and implementation, based on graph theory. The great advantage of AAA methodology is the utilization of a same model from the specification to the implementation of hardware/software systems, reducing the complexity and design time. (author)

  9. Synchronization of faulty processors in coarse-grained TMR protected partially reconfigurable FPGA designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, U.; Gomez-Cornejo, J.; Astarloa, A.; Bidarte, U.; Ser, J. Del

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of FPGA technology in numerous application fields is a fact. Single Event Effects (SEE) are a critical factor for the reliability of FPGA based systems. For this reason, a number of researches have been studying fault tolerance techniques to harden different elements of FPGA designs. Using Partial Reconfiguration (PR) in conjunction with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) is an emerging approach in recent publications dealing with the implementation of fault tolerant processors on SRAM-based FPGAs. While these works pay great attention to the repair of erroneous instances by means of reconfiguration, the essential step of synchronizing the repaired processors is insufficiently addressed. In this context, this paper poses four different synchronization approaches for soft core processors, which balance differently the trade-off between synchronization speed and hardware overhead. All approaches are assessed in practice by synchronizing TMR protected PicoBlaze processors implemented on a Virtex-5 FPGA. Nevertheless all methods are of a general nature and can be applied for different processor architectures in a straightforward fashion. - Highlights: • Four different synchronization methods for faulty processors are proposed. • The methods balance between synchronization speed and hardware overhead. • They can be applied to TMR-protected reconfigurable FPGA designs. • The proposed schemes are implemented and tested in real hardware.

  10. The VMTG Hardware Description

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, B

    1998-01-01

    The document describes the hardware features of the CERN Master Timing Generator. This board is the common platform for the transmission of General Timing Machine required by the CERN accelerators. In addition, the paper shows the various jumper options to customise the card which is compliant to the VMEbus standard.

  11. The LASS hardware processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    The problems of data analysis with hardware processors are reviewed and a description is given of a programmable processor. This processor, the 168/E, has been designed for use in the LASS multi-processor system; it has an execution speed comparable to the IBM 370/168 and uses the subset of IBM 370 instructions appropriate to the LASS analysis task. (Auth.)

  12. CERN Neutrino Platform Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    My summer research was broadly in CERN's neutrino platform hardware efforts. This project had two main components: detector assembly and data analysis work for ICARUS. Specifically, I worked on assembly for the ProtoDUNE project and monitored the safety of ICARUS as it was transported to Fermilab by analyzing the accelerometer data from its move.

  13. RRFC hardware operation manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhold, M.E.; Hsue, S.T.; Menlove, H.O.; Walton, G.

    1996-05-01

    The Research Reactor Fuel Counter (RRFC) system was developed to assay the 235 U content in spent Material Test Reactor (MTR) type fuel elements underwater in a spent fuel pool. RRFC assays the 235 U content using active neutron coincidence counting and also incorporates an ion chamber for gross gamma-ray measurements. This manual describes RRFC hardware, including detectors, electronics, and performance characteristics

  14. Modeling and Design of Fault-Tolerant and Self-Adaptive Reconfigurable Networked Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Teich

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive, avionic, or body-area networks are systems that consist of several communicating control units specialized for certain purposes. Typically, different constraints regarding fault tolerance, availability and also flexibility are imposed on these systems. In this article, we will present a novel framework for increasing fault tolerance and flexibility by solving the problem of hardware/software codesign online. Based on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs in combination with CPUs, we allow migrating tasks implemented in hardware or software from one node to another. Moreover, if not enough hardware/software resources are available, the migration of functionality from hardware to software or vice versa is provided. Supporting such flexibility through services integrated in a distributed operating system for networked embedded systems is a substantial step towards self-adaptive systems. Beside the formal definition of methods and concepts, we describe in detail a first implementation of a reconfigurable networked embedded system running automotive applications.

  15. Reconfigurable antenna using plasma reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Taufik; Ahmad, Khairol Amali; Din, Muhammad Faiz Md; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the feasibility study and design of plasma implementation in industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) communication band. A reflector antenna with rounded shaped is proposed to collimate beam in particular direction radiated by a quarter wave antenna operating at 2.4GHz. The simulations result has shown that by using plasma as the reflector elements, the gain, directivity and radiation patterns are identical with metal elements with only small different in the broadside direction. The versatility of the antenna is achievable by introducing electrical reconfigurable option to change the beam pattern.

  16. Reconfiguration de visualisations du CRDI

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    Dans chaque reconfiguration, j'ai essayé de demeu- rer raisonnablement fidèle à l'original. Par exemple, la taille globale des éléments sta- tiques n'a pas changé. Dans trois des quatre cas, j'ai conservé la typographie et la palette de couleurs de l'original. En outre, j'ai supposé que la visualisation (l'image) était destinée à.

  17. No-hardware-signature cybersecurity-crypto-module: a resilient cyber defense agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, A. R. M.; Zaghloul, Y. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present an optical cybersecurity-crypto-module as a resilient cyber defense agent. It has no hardware signature since it is bitstream reconfigurable, where single hardware architecture functions as any selected device of all possible ones of the same number of inputs. For a two-input digital device, a 4-digit bitstream of 0s and 1s determines which device, of a total of 16 devices, the hardware performs as. Accordingly, the hardware itself is not physically reconfigured, but its performance is. Such a defense agent allows the attack to take place, rendering it harmless. On the other hand, if the system is already infected with malware sending out information, the defense agent allows the information to go out, rendering it meaningless. The hardware architecture is immune to side attacks since such an attack would reveal information on the attack itself and not on the hardware. This cyber defense agent can be used to secure a point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, a whole network, and/or a single entity in the cyberspace. Therefore, ensuring trust between cyber resources. It can provide secure communication in an insecure network. We provide the hardware design and explain how it works. Scalability of the design is briefly discussed. (Protected by United States Patents No.: US 8,004,734; US 8,325,404; and other National Patents worldwide.)

  18. Implementing Workflow Reconfiguration in WS-BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzara, Manuel; Dragoni, Nicola; Zhou, Mu

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of dynamic reconfiguration by means of a workflow-based case study used for discussion. We state the requirements on a system implementing the workflow and its reconfiguration, and we describe the system’s design in BPMN. WS-BPEL, a language that would not natu......This paper investigates the problem of dynamic reconfiguration by means of a workflow-based case study used for discussion. We state the requirements on a system implementing the workflow and its reconfiguration, and we describe the system’s design in BPMN. WS-BPEL, a language that would...... not naturally support dynamic change, is used as a target for implementation. The WS-BPEL recovery framework is here exploited to implement the reconfiguration using principles derived from previous research in process algebra and two mappings from BPMN to WS-BPEL are presented, one automatic and only mostly...

  19. Importance analysis for reconfigurable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Shubin; Levitin, Gregory; Dui, Hongyan; Sun, Shudong

    2014-01-01

    Importance measures are used in reliability engineering to rank the system components according to their contributions to proper functioning of the entire system and to find the most effective ways of reliability enhancement. Traditionally, the importance measures do not consider the possible change of system structure with the improvement of specific component reliability. However, if a component's reliability changes, the optimal system structure/configuration may also change and the importance of the corresponding component will depend on the chosen structure. When the most promising component reliability improvement is determined, the component importance should be taken into account with respect to the possible structure changes. This paper studies the component reliability importance indices with respect to the changes of the optimal component sequencing. This importance measure indicates the critical components in providing the system reliability enhancement by both enhancing the component's reliability and reconfiguring the system. Examples of linear consecutive-k-out-of-n: F and G systems are considered to demonstrate the change of the component Birnbaum importance with the optimal system reconfiguration. The results show that the change of the importance index corresponds to the change of the system optimal configuration and the importance index can change not monotonically with the variation of the component reliability

  20. Transformational electronics are now reconfiguring

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-22

    Current developments on enhancing our smart living experience are leveraging the increased interest for novel systems that can be compatible with foldable, wrinkled, wavy and complex geometries and surfaces, and thus become truly ubiquitous and easy to deploy. Therefore, relying on innovative structural designs we have been able to reconfigure the physical form of various materials, to achieve remarkable mechanical flexibility and stretchability, which provides us with the perfect platform to develop enhanced electronic systems for application in entertainment, healthcare, fitness and wellness, military and manufacturing industry. Based on these novel structural designs we have developed a siliconbased network of hexagonal islands connected through double-spiral springs, forming an ultra-stretchable (~1000%) array for full compliance to highly asymmetric shapes and surfaces, as well as a serpentine design used to show an ultrastretchable (~800%) and flexible, spatially reconfigurable, mobile, metallic thin film copper (Cu)-based, body-integrated and non-invasive thermal heater with wireless controlling capability, reusability, heating-adaptability and affordability due to low-cost complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-compatible integration. © (2015) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  1. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R

    2005-01-01

    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists

  2. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  3. Hardware characteristic and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Dong Hyeon

    1990-03-01

    The contents of this book are system board on memory, performance, system timer system click and specification, coprocessor such as programing interface and hardware interface, power supply on input and output, protection for DC output, Power Good signal, explanation on 84 keyboard and 101/102 keyboard,BIOS system, 80286 instruction set and 80287 coprocessor, characters, keystrokes and colors, communication and compatibility of IBM personal computer on application direction, multitasking and code for distinction of system.

  4. Dynamic multi-channel TMS with reconfigurable coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruoli; Jansen, Ben H; Sheth, Bhavin R; Chen, Ji

    2013-05-01

    Investigations of the causal involvement of particular brain areas and interconnections in behavior require an external stimulation system with reasonable spatio-temporal resolution. Current transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technology is limited to stimulating a single brain area once in a given trial. Here, we present a feasibility study for a novel TMS system based on multi-channel reconfigurable coils. With this hardware, researchers will be able to stimulate multiple brain sites in any temporal order in a trial. The system employs a wire-mesh coil, constructed using x- and y-directional wires. By varying the current direction and/or strength on each wire, we can configure the proposed mesh-wire coil into a standard loop coil and figure-eight coil of varying size. This provides maximum flexibility to the experimenter in that the location and extent of stimulation on the brain surface can be modified depending on experimental requirement. Moreover, one can dynamically and automatically modify the site(s) of stimulation several times within the span of seconds. By pre-storing various sequences of excitation patterns inside a control unit, one can explore the effect of dynamic TMS on behavior, in associative learning, and as rehabilitative therapy. Here, we present a computer simulation and bench experiments that show the feasibility of the dynamically-reconfigurable coil.

  5. Deep Trek Re-configurable Processor for Data Acquisition (RPDA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Ohme; Michael Johnson

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative research agreement between Honeywell and U.S. Department of Energy to develop a high-temperature Re-configurable Processor for Data Acquisition (RPDA). The RPDA development has incorporated multiple high-temperature (225C) electronic components within a compact co-fired ceramic Multi-Chip-Module (MCM) package. This assembly is suitable for use in down-hole oil and gas applications. The RPDA module is programmable to support a wide range of functionality. Specifically this project has demonstrated functional integrity of the RPDA package and internal components, as well as functional integrity of the RPDA configured to operate as a Multi-Channel Data Acquisition Controller. This report reviews the design considerations, electrical hardware design, MCM package design, considerations for manufacturing assembly, test and screening, and results from prototype assembly and characterization testing.

  6. 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Riometer for Heliospheric Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a new three-dimensional embedded reconfigurable Riometer for performing remote sensing of planetary magnetospheres. The system couples the in situ measurements of probe or orbiter magnetospheric space missions. The new prototype features a multi-frequency mode that allows measurements at frequencies, where heliospheric physics events' signatures are distinct on the ionized planetary plasma. For our planet similar measurements are meaningful for frequencies below 55 MHz. Observation frequencies above 55 MHz yield to direct measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background intensity. The system acts as a prototyping platform for subsequent space exploration phased-array imaging experiments, due to its high-intensity scientific processing capabilities. The performance improvement over existing systems in operation is in the range of 80%, due to the state-of-the-art hardware and scientific processing used.

  7. A Reconfigurable Logic Cell Based on a Simple Dynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new scheme to achieve a dynamic logic gate which can be adjusted flexibly to obtain different logic functions by adjusting specific parameters of a dynamical system. Based on graphical tools and the threshold mechanism, the distribution of different logic gates is studied, and a transformation method between different logics is given. Analyzing the performance of the dynamical system in the presence of noise, we discover that it is resistant to system noise. Moreover, we find some part of the system can be considered as a leaky integrator which has been already widely applied in engineering. Finally, we provide a proof-of-principle hardware implementation of the proposed scheme to illustrate its effectiveness. With the proposed scheme in hand, it is convenient to build the flexible, robust, and general purpose computing devices such as various network coding routers, communication encoders or decoders, and reconfigurable computer chips.

  8. Roles and Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvinge, Nicolai; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Christensen, David Johan

    2007-01-01

    A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape......., significantly simplifying the task of programming self-reconfigurable robots. Our language fully supports programming the ATRON self-reconfigurable robot, and has been used to implement several controllers running both on the physical modules and in simulation.......A self-reconfigurable robot is a robotic device that can change its own shape. Self-reconfigurable robots are commonly built from multiple identical modules that can manipulate each other to change the shape of the robot. The robot can also perform tasks such as locomotion without changing shape....... Programming a modular, self-reconfigurable robot is however a complicated task: the robot is essentially a real-time, distributed embedded system, where control and communication paths often are tightly coupled to the current physical configuration of the robot. To facilitate the task of programming modular...

  9. Organizational Reconfiguration and Strategic Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    this, firms need a high degree of architectural knowledge, which is typically gained through learning by doing. We therefore argue that firms with more offshoring experience are more likely to include organizational objectives in their offshoring strategies. We develop and find support......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the organizational reconfiguration of offshoring on firms’ strategies. A consequence of offshoring is the need to reintegrate the geographically relocated organizational activities into a coherent organizational architecture. In order to do...... for this hypothesis using a mixed-method approach based on a qualitative case study and comprehensive data from the Offshoring Research Network. These findings contribute to research on the organizational design and architecture of offshoring and the dynamics of organizational architectures....

  10. A wideband software reconfigurable modem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, J. H., Jr.; Vickers, H.

    A wideband modem is described which provides signal processing capability for four Lx-band signals employing QPSK, MSK and PPM waveforms and employs a software reconfigurable architecture for maximum system flexibility and graceful degradation. The current processor uses a 2901 and two 8086 microprocessors per channel and performs acquisition, tracking, and data demodulation for JITDS, GPS, IFF and TACAN systems. The next generation processor will be implemented using a VHSIC chip set employing a programmable complex array vector processor module, a GP computer module, customized gate array modules, and a digital array correlator. This integrated processor has application to a wide number of diverse system waveforms, and will bring the benefits of VHSIC technology insertion into avionic antijam communications systems.

  11. Design of reconfigurable antennas using graph models

    CERN Document Server

    Costantine, Joseph; Christodoulou, Christos G; Christodoulou, Christos G

    2013-01-01

    This lecture discusses the use of graph models to represent reconfigurable antennas. The rise of antennas that adapt to their environment and change their operation based on the user's request hasn't been met with clear design guidelines. There is a need to propose some rules for the optimization of any reconfigurable antenna design and performance. Since reconfigurable antennas are seen as a collection of self-organizing parts, graph models can be introduced to relate each possible topology to a corresponding electromagnetic performance in terms of achieving a characteristic frequency of oper

  12. Reconfigurable radio systems network architectures and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Iacobucci, Maria Stella

    2013-01-01

    This timely book provides a standards-based view of the development, evolution, techniques and potential future scenarios for the deployment of reconfigurable radio systems.  After an introduction to radiomobile and radio systems deployed in the access network, the book describes cognitive radio concepts and capabilities, which are the basis for reconfigurable radio systems.  The self-organizing network features introduced in 3GPP standards are discussed and IEEE 802.22, the first standard based on cognitive radio, is described. Then the ETSI reconfigurable radio systems functional ar

  13. COMPUTER HARDWARE MARKING

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe de protection des biens

    2000-01-01

    As part of the campaign to protect CERN property and for insurance reasons, all computer hardware belonging to the Organization must be marked with the words 'PROPRIETE CERN'.IT Division has recently introduced a new marking system that is both economical and easy to use. From now on all desktop hardware (PCs, Macintoshes, printers) issued by IT Division with a value equal to or exceeding 500 CHF will be marked using this new system.For equipment that is already installed but not yet marked, including UNIX workstations and X terminals, IT Division's Desktop Support Service offers the following services free of charge:Equipment-marking wherever the Service is called out to perform other work (please submit all work requests to the IT Helpdesk on 78888 or helpdesk@cern.ch; for unavoidable operational reasons, the Desktop Support Service will only respond to marking requests when these coincide with requests for other work such as repairs, system upgrades, etc.);Training of personnel designated by Division Leade...

  14. Elements of Autonomous Self-Reconfigurable Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan

    In this thesis, we study several central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular robots. Unlike conventional robots such robots are: i) Modular, since robots are assembled from numerous robotic modules. ii) Reconfigurable, since the modules can be combined in a variety of ways. iii) Self......-reconfigurable, since the modules themselves are able to change how they are combined. iv) Autonomous, since robots control themselves without human guidance. Such robots are attractive to study since they in theory have several desirable characteristics, such as versatility, reliability and cheapness. In practice...... however, it is challenging to realize such characteristics since state-of-the-art systems and solutions suffer from several inherent technical and theoretical problems and limitations. In this thesis, we address these challenges by exploring four central elements of autonomous self-reconfigurable modular...

  15. Reconfigurable antennas radiations using plasma Faraday cage

    OpenAIRE

    Barro , Oumar Alassane; Himdi , Mohamed; Lafond , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This letter presents a new reconfigurable plasma antenna associated with a Faraday cage. The Faraday cage is realized using a fluorescent lamp. A patch antenna with a broadside radiation pattern or a monopole antenna with an end-fire radiation pattern , operating at 2.45 GHz, is placed inside Faraday cage. The performance of the reconfigurable system is observed in terms of input reflection coefficient, gain and radiation pattern via simulation and measurement. It is s...

  16. Foundations of hardware IP protection

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Lionel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the design of security-hardened, hardware intellectual property (IP). Readers will learn how IP can be threatened, as well as protected, by using means such as hardware obfuscation/camouflaging, watermarking, fingerprinting (PUF), functional locking, remote activation, hidden transmission of data, hardware Trojan detection, protection against hardware Trojan, use of secure element, ultra-lightweight cryptography, and digital rights management. This book serves as a single-source reference to design space exploration of hardware security and IP protection. · Provides readers with a comprehensive overview of hardware intellectual property (IP) security, describing threat models and presenting means of protection, from integrated circuit layout to digital rights management of IP; · Enables readers to transpose techniques fundamental to digital rights management (DRM) to the realm of hardware IP security; · Introduce designers to the concept of salutar...

  17. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  18. Hardware Design Considerations for Edge-Accelerated Stereo Correspondence Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Ttofis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereo correspondence is a popular algorithm for the extraction of depth information from a pair of rectified 2D images. Hence, it has been used in many computer vision applications that require knowledge about depth. However, stereo correspondence is a computationally intensive algorithm and requires high-end hardware resources in order to achieve real-time processing speed in embedded computer vision systems. This paper presents an overview of the use of edge information as a means to accelerate hardware implementations of stereo correspondence algorithms. The presented approach restricts the stereo correspondence algorithm only to the edges of the input images rather than to all image points, thus resulting in a considerable reduction of the search space. The paper highlights the benefits of the edge-directed approach by applying it to two stereo correspondence algorithms: an SAD-based fixed-support algorithm and a more complex adaptive support weight algorithm. Furthermore, we present design considerations about the implementation of these algorithms on reconfigurable hardware and also discuss issues related to the memory structures needed, the amount of parallelism that can be exploited, the organization of the processing blocks, and so forth. The two architectures (fixed-support based versus adaptive-support weight based are compared in terms of processing speed, disparity map accuracy, and hardware overheads, when both are implemented on a Virtex-5 FPGA platform.

  19. Autonomous distributed self-organizing and self-healing hardware architecture - The eDNA concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan; Keymeulen, Didier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of the autonomous distributed self-organizing and self-healing electronic DNA (eDNA) hardware architecture (patent pending). In its current prototype state, the eDNA architecture is capable of responding to multiple injected faults by autonomously reconfiguring...... itself to accommodate the fault and keep the application running. This paper will also disclose advanced features currently available in the simulation model only. These features are future work and will soon be implemented in hardware. Finally we will describe step-by-step how an application...

  20. Classification of Reconfiguration Resources and Lead Time for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ing. Erik Puik; Daniël Telgen; Leo van Moergestel; Darek Ceglarek

    2014-01-01

    From the article: Manufacturing technology can improve the turnover of a company if it enables fast market introduction for volume production. Reconfigurable equipment is developed to meet the growing demand for more agile production. Modular reconfiguration, defined as changing the structure of

  1. Implementing EW Receivers Based on Large Point Reconfigured FFT on FPGA Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents design and implementation of digital receiver based on large point fast Fourier transform (FFT suitable for electronic warfare (EW applications. When implementing the FFT algorithm on field-programmable gate array (FPGA platforms, the primary goal is to maximize throughput and minimize area. This algorithm adopts two-dimension, parallel and pipeline stream mode and implements the reconfiguration of FFT's points. Moreover, a double-sequence-separation FFT algorithm has been implemented in order to achieve faster real time processing in broadband digital receivers. The performance of the hardware implementation on the FPGA platforms of broadband digital receivers has been analyzed in depth. It reaches the requirement of high-speed digital signal processing, and reveals the designing this kind of digital signal processing systems on FPGA platforms. Keywords: digital receivers, field programmable gate array (FPGA, fast Fourier transform (FFT, large point reconfigured, signal processing system.

  2. Practical, redundant, failure-tolerant, self-reconfiguring embedded system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarer, Paul R.; Hayward, David R.; Amai, Wendy A.

    2006-10-03

    This invention relates to system architectures, specifically failure-tolerant and self-reconfiguring embedded system architectures. The invention provides both a method and architecture for redundancy. There can be redundancy in both software and hardware for multiple levels of redundancy. The invention provides a self-reconfiguring architecture for activating redundant modules whenever other modules fail. The architecture comprises: a communication backbone connected to two or more processors and software modules running on each of the processors. Each software module runs on one processor and resides on one or more of the other processors to be available as a backup module in the event of failure. Each module and backup module reports its status over the communication backbone. If a primary module does not report, its backup module takes over its function. If the primary module becomes available again, the backup module returns to its backup status.

  3. A Reconfigurable Design and Architecture of the Ethernet and HomePNA3.0 MAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilydermany, M.; Hosseinghadiry, M.

    In this paper a reconfigurable architecture for Ethernet and HomePNA MAC is presented. By using this new architecture, Ethernet and HomePNA reconfigurable network card can be produced. This architecture has been implemented using VHDL language and after that synthesized on a chip. The differences between HomePNA (synchronized and unsynchronized mode) and Ethernet in collision detection mechanism and priority access to media have caused the need to separate architectures for Ethernet and HomePNA, but by using similarities of them, both the Ethernet and the HomePNA can be implemented in a single chip with a little extra hardware. The number of logical elements of the proposed architecture is increased by 19% in compare to when only an Ethernet MAC is implemented

  4. Neural dynamics in reconfigurable silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A; Ramakrishnan, S; Petre, C; Koziol, S; Brink, S; Hasler, P E

    2010-10-01

    A neuromorphic analog chip is presented that is capable of implementing massively parallel neural computations while retaining the programmability of digital systems. We show measurements from neurons with Hopf bifurcations and integrate and fire neurons, excitatory and inhibitory synapses, passive dendrite cables, coupled spiking neurons, and central pattern generators implemented on the chip. This chip provides a platform for not only simulating detailed neuron dynamics but also uses the same to interface with actual cells in applications such as a dynamic clamp. There are 28 computational analog blocks (CAB), each consisting of ion channels with tunable parameters, synapses, winner-take-all elements, current sources, transconductance amplifiers, and capacitors. There are four other CABs which have programmable bias generators. The programmability is achieved using floating gate transistors with on-chip programming control. The switch matrix for interconnecting the components in CABs also consists of floating-gate transistors. Emphasis is placed on replicating the detailed dynamics of computational neural models. Massive computational area efficiency is obtained by using the reconfigurable interconnect as synaptic weights, resulting in more than 50 000 possible 9-b accurate synapses in 9 mm(2).

  5. Hardware Support for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....

  6. HARDWARE TROJAN IDENTIFICATION AND DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Moein; Fayez Gebali; T. Aaron Gulliver; Abdulrahman Alkandari

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The majority of techniques developed to detect hardware trojans are based on specific attributes. Further, the ad hoc approaches employed to design methods for trojan detection are largely ineffective. Hardware trojans have a number of attributes which can be used to systematically develop detection techniques. Based on this concept, a detailed examination of current trojan detection techniques and the characteristics of existing hardware trojans is presented. This is used to dev...

  7. Hardware assisted hypervisor introspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiangyong; Yang, Yuexiang; Tang, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce hypervisor introspection, an out-of-box way to monitor the execution of hypervisors. Similar to virtual machine introspection which has been proposed to protect virtual machines in an out-of-box way over the past decade, hypervisor introspection can be used to protect hypervisors which are the basis of cloud security. Virtual machine introspection tools are usually deployed either in hypervisor or in privileged virtual machines, which might also be compromised. By utilizing hardware support including nested virtualization, EPT protection and #BP, we are able to monitor all hypercalls belongs to the virtual machines of one hypervisor, include that of privileged virtual machine and even when the hypervisor is compromised. What's more, hypercall injection method is used to simulate hypercall-based attacks and evaluate the performance of our method. Experiment results show that our method can effectively detect hypercall-based attacks with some performance cost. Lastly, we discuss our furture approaches of reducing the performance cost and preventing the compromised hypervisor from detecting the existence of our introspector, in addition with some new scenarios to apply our hypervisor introspection system.

  8. LHCb: Hardware Data Injector

    CERN Multimedia

    Delord, V; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger and Data Acquisition system selects about 2 kHz of events out of the 1 MHz of events, which have been selected previously by the first-level hardware trigger. The selected events are consolidated into files and then sent to permanent storage for subsequent analysis on the Grid. The goal of the upgrade of the LHCb readout is to lift the limitation to 1 MHz. This means speeding up the DAQ to 40 MHz. Such a DAQ system will certainly employ 10 Gigabit or technologies and might also need new networking protocols: a customized TCP or proprietary solutions. A test module is being presented, which integrates in the existing LHCb infrastructure. It is a 10-Gigabit traffic generator, flexible enough to generate LHCb's raw data packets using dummy data or simulated data. These data are seen as real data coming from sub-detectors by the DAQ. The implementation is based on an FPGA using 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface. This module is integrated in the experiment control system. The architecture, ...

  9. Reconfiguring Urban Sustainability Transitions, Analysing Multiplicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Hodson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cities, and the networked infrastructures that sustain urban life, are seen as crucial sites for creating more sustainable futures. Yet, although there are many plans, the realisation of sustainable urban infrastructures on the ground is uneven. To develop better ways of understanding why this is the case, the paper makes a conceptual contribution by engaging with current understanding of urban sustainability transitions, using urban sustainable mobility as a reference point. It extends these insights to argue that urban transitions are not about technological or social innovation per se, but about how multiple innovations are experimented with, combined and reconfigured in existing urban contexts and how such processes are governed. There are potentially many ways in which urban sustainable mobility can be reconfigured contextually. Innovation is in the particular form of reconfiguration rather than individual technologies. To make analytical sense of this multiplicity, a preliminary framework is developed that offers the potential to think about urban transitions as contextual and reconfigurational. We argue that there is a need to embrace multiplicity and to understand its relationships to forms of reconfiguration, through empirical exploration and further theoretical and conceptual development. The preliminary framework is a contribution to doing so and we set out future directions for research.

  10. FY1995 evolvable hardware chip; 1995 nendo shinkasuru hardware chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This project aims at the development of 'Evolvable Hardware' (EHW) which can adapt its hardware structure to the environment to attain better hardware performance, under the control of genetic algorithms. EHW is a key technology to explore the new application area requiring real-time performance and on-line adaptation. 1. Development of EHW-LSI for function level hardware evolution, which includes 15 DSPs in one chip. 2. Application of the EHW to the practical industrial applications such as data compression, ATM control, digital mobile communication. 3. Two patents : (1) the architecture and the processing method for programmable EHW-LSI. (2) The method of data compression for loss-less data, using EHW. 4. The first international conference for evolvable hardware was held by authors: Intl. Conf. on Evolvable Systems (ICES96). It was determined at ICES96 that ICES will be held every two years between Japan and Europe. So the new society has been established by us. (NEDO)

  11. Towards Reconfigurable, Separable and Hard Real-Time Hybrid Simulation and Test Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartier, F.; Delatte, B.; Joubert, M.

    2009-05-01

    Formation flight needs several new technologies, new disciplines, new approaches and above all, more concurrent engineering by more players. One of the problems to be addressed are more complex simulation and test systems that are easy to re-configure to include parts of the target hardware and that can provide sufficient power to handle simulation cores that are requiring one to two orders of magnitude more processing power than the current technology provides. Critical technologies that are already addressed by CNES and Spacebel are study model reuse and simulator reconfigurability (Basiles), model portability (SMP2) and the federation of several simulators using HLA. Two more critical issues are addressed in ongoing R&D work by CNES and Spacebel and are covered by this paper and concern the time engineering and management. The first issue concerns separability (characterisation, identification and handling of separable subsystems) and the consequences on practical systems. Experiments on the Pleiades operational simulator have shown that adding precise simulation of instruments such as Doris and the Star Tracker can be added without significantly impacting overall performance. Improved time analysis leads to better system understanding and testability. The second issue concerns architectures for distributed hybrid simulators systems that provide hard real-time capabilities and can react with a relative time precision and jitter that is in the 10 to 50 µsecond range using mainstream PC's and mainstream Operating Systems. This opens a way to make smaller economic hardware test systems that can be reconfigured to make large hardware test systems without restarting development. Although such systems were considered next to impossible till now, distributed hard real-time systems are getting in reach when modern but mainstream electronics are used and when processor cores can be isolated and reserved for real-time cores. This requires a complete rethinking of the

  12. A Hardware/Software Design Environment for Reconfigurable Communication Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision of Space Exploration will require advancements in communication systems to maintain flexibility and adaptability to changing needs and requirements....

  13. A Hardware/Software Design Environment for Reconfigurable Communication Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision of Space Exploration will require advancements in communication systems to maintain flexibility and adaptability to changing needs and requirements....

  14. Multi-standard adaptive wireless communication receivers: adaptive applications mapped on heterogeneous dynamically reconfigurable hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauwerda, G.K.

    2008-01-01

    Today the world is overwhelmed with portable devices like handheld computers, mobile telephones and portable navigation systems. These devices will eventually be integrated into multi-functional devices that can perform all kinds of functions in one single system. Ultimately, portable devices will

  15. Reconfiguring Cooperative Work by Visualizing EPR on Large Projected Screens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    Simonsen, J. (2006): Reconfiguring Cooperative Work by Visualizing EPR on Large Projected Screens, Paper presented at the PDC 2006 workshop on: Reconfiguring Healthcare: Issues in Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Healthcare Environments. Participatory Design Conference, Trento, Italy, August...

  16. Modular reconfigurable machine tools: design, control and evaluation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) paradigm encapsulates methodologies that enable manufacturing systems to cope effectively with market and product changes. This research presents the design and evaluation of modular reconfigurable...

  17. Distribution grid reconfiguration reduces power losses and helps integrate renewables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueken, Colleen; Carvalho, Pedro M.S.; Apt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A reconfigurable network can change its topology by opening and closing switches on power lines. We use real wind, solar, load, and cost data and a model of a reconfigurable distribution grid to show that reconfiguration allows a grid operator to reduce operational losses as well as to accept more intermittent renewable generation than a static configuration can. Net present value analysis of automated switch technology shows that the return on investment is negative for this test network when considering only loss reduction, but that the investment is attractive under certain conditions when reconfiguration is used to minimize curtailment. - Highlights: ► Reconfiguration may reduce losses in grids with solar or wind distributed generation. ► Reconfigurable networks can accept more solar or wind DG than static ones. ► Using reconfiguration for loss reduction would not create a positive ROI. ► Using reconfiguration to reduce curtailment usually would create a positive ROI.

  18. Secure coupling of hardware components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Joosten, H.J.M.; Knobbe, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    A method and a system for securing communication between at least a first and a second hardware components of a mobile device is described. The method includes establishing a first shared secret between the first and the second hardware components during an initialization of the mobile device and,

  19. 3D Reconfigurable NoC Multiprocessor Portable Sounder for Plasmaspheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    The paper describes the development of a prototype imaging sounder for studying the irregularities of the ionospheric plasma. Cutting edge three-dimensional reconfigurable logic has been implemented allowing highly-intensive scientific calculations to be performed in hardware. The new parallel processing algorithms implemented offer a significant amount of performance improvement in the range of 80% compared to existing digital sounder implementations. The current system configuration is taking into consideration the modern scientific needs for portability during scientific campaigns. The prototype acts as a digital signal processing experimentation platform for future larger-scale digital sounder instrumentations for measuring complex planetary plasmaspheric environments.

  20. Impact of reconfiguration period and photovoltaic penetration on distribution grid reconfiguration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chittur Ramaswamy, Parvathy; Deconinck, Geert; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    of reconfiguration and its impact on network losses in the context of time-varying load. Though reconfiguring a network reduces the losses, this paper calls for a comparison of number of switching vs. the loss reduction in order to decide the period of reconfiguration. This paper considers also the impact of varying...... photovoltaic (PV) penetration on the resulting optimal configuration. It validates the method of using a parameter namely minimum loss reduction parameter to avoid tedious computational efforts in finding the optimal configuration when an infinitesimal change in PV penetration occurs....

  1. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  2. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  3. From stretchable to reconfigurable inorganic electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nassar, Joanna M.

    2016-05-06

    Today’s state-of-the-art electronics are high performing, energy efficient, multi-functional and cost effective. However, they are also typically rigid and brittle. With the emergence of the Internet of Everything, electronic applications are expanding into previously unexplored areas, like healthcare, smart wearable artifacts, and robotics. One major challenge is the physical asymmetry of target application surfaces, which often cause mechanical stretching, contracting, twisting and other deformations to the application. In this review paper, we explore materials, processes, mechanics and devices that enable physically stretchable and reconfigurable electronics. While the concept of stretchable electronics is commonly used in practice, the notion of physically reconfigurable electronics is still in its infancy. Because organic materials are commonly naturally stretchable and physically deformable, we predominantly focus on electronics made from inorganic materials that have the capacity for physical stretching and reconfiguration while retaining their intended attributes. We emphasize how applications of electronics dictate theory to integration strategy for stretchable and reconfigurable inorganic electronics.

  4. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  5. Wideband Monolithic Tile for Reconfigurable Phased Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    interference and jamming. Previous reconfigurable architectures [1] were limited in bandwidth and performance by the use of discrete SMT components with...Settings Figure 7 shows the feed point and segment activation with control settings optimized for Gain, Horizontal Polarization, Steered at Phi = 15°, 6

  6. Control Reconfigurability of Bilinear Hydraulic Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the methods within the framework of the plug and play process control and particularly fault tolerant control is to establish control techniques which guarantee a certain performance through control reconfiguration at the occurrence of the faults or changes. These methods cannot ...

  7. Efficient Modelling Methodology for Reconfigurable Underwater Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikkel Cornelius; Blanke, Mogens; Schjølberg, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the challenge of applying reconfigurable robots in an underwater environment. The main result presented is the development of a model for a system comprised of N, possibly heterogeneous, robots dynamically connected to each other and moving with 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF). Th...

  8. Multimode Communication Protocols Enabling Reconfigurable Radios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlemann Lars

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the realization and application of a generic protocol stack for reconfigurable wireless communication systems. This focus extends the field of software-defined radios which usually concentrates on the physical layer. The generic protocol stack comprises common protocol functionality and behavior which are extended through specific parts of the targeted radio access technology. This paper considers parameterizable modules of basic protocol functions residing in the data link layer of the ISO/OSI model. System-specific functionality of the protocol software is realized through adequate parameterization and composition of the generic modules. The generic protocol stack allows an efficient realization of reconfigurable protocol software and enables a completely reconfigurable wireless communication system. It is a first step from side-by-side realized, preinstalled modes in a terminal towards a dynamic reconfigurable anymode terminal. The presented modules of the generic protocol stack can also be regarded as a toolbox for the accelerated and cost-efficient development of future communication protocols.

  9. Reconfigurability of behavioural specifications for manufacturing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Klaus Werner

    2017-12-01

    Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS) support flexibility in the product variety and the configuration of the manufacturing system itself in order to enable quick adjustments to new products and production requirements. As a consequence, an essential feature of RMS is their ability to rapidly modify the control strategy during run-time. In this paper, the particular problem of changing the specified operation of a RMS, whose logical behaviour is modelled as a finite state automaton, is addressed. The notion of reconfigurability of specifications (RoS) is introduced and it is shown that the stated reconfiguration problem can be formulated as a controlled language convergence problem. In addition, algorithms for the verification of RoS and the construction of a reconfiguration supervisor are proposed. The supervisor is realised in a modular way which facilitates the extension by new configurations. Finally, it is shown that a supremal nonblocking and controllable strict subautomaton of the plant automaton that fulfils RoS exists in case RoS is violated for the plant automaton itself and an algorithm for the computation of this strict subautomaton is presented. The developed concepts and results are illustrated by a manufacturing cell example.

  10. Electrically Reconfigurable Liquid Crystalline Mirrors (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    focus on dynamic reconfiguration of the reflection band gap of polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (PSCLCs). Recent research has reported the...public release: distribution unlimited. © 2018 AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING...MONITORING AGENCY ACRONYM(S) Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH

  11. Sustainable Modular Adaptive Redundancy Technique Emphasizing Partial Reconfiguration for Reduced Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Al-Haddad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As reconfigurable devices' capacities and the complexity of applications that use them increase, the need for self-reliance of deployed systems becomes increasingly prominent. Organic computing paradigms have been proposed for fault-tolerant systems because they promote behaviors that allow complex digital systems to adapt and survive in demanding environments. In this paper, we develop a sustainable modular adaptive redundancy technique (SMART composed of a two-layered organic system. The hardware layer is implemented on a Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA to provide self-repair using a novel approach called reconfigurable adaptive redundancy system (RARS. The software layer supervises the organic activities on the FPGA and extends the self-healing capabilities through application-independent, intrinsic, and evolutionary repair techniques that leverage the benefits of dynamic partial reconfiguration (PR. SMART was evaluated using a Sobel edge-detection application and was shown to tolerate stressful sequences of injected transient and permanent faults while reducing dynamic power consumption by 30% compared to conventional triple modular redundancy (TMR techniques, with nominal impact on the fault-tolerance capabilities. Moreover, PR is employed to keep the system on line while under repair and also to reduce repair time. Experiments have shown a 27.48% decrease in repair time when PR is employed compared to the full bitstream configuration case.

  12. Concurrent Calculations on Reconfigurable Logic Devices Applied to the Analysis of Video Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio R. Geninatti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation on FPGA devices of an algorithm for computing similarities between neighboring frames in a video sequence using luminance information. By taking advantage of the well-known flexibility of Reconfigurable Logic Devices, we have designed a hardware implementation of the algorithm used in video segmentation and indexing. The experimental results show the tradeoff between concurrent sequential resources and the functional blocks needed to achieve maximum operational speed while achieving minimum silicon area usage. To evaluate system efficiency, we compare the performance of the hardware solution to that of calculations done via software using general-purpose processors with and without an SIMD instruction set.

  13. NDAS Hardware Translation Layer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaretian, Ryan N.; Holladay, Wendy T.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Data Acquisition System (NDAS) project is aimed to replace all DAS software for NASA s Rocket Testing Facilities. There must be a software-hardware translation layer so the software can properly talk to the hardware. Since the hardware from each test stand varies, drivers for each stand have to be made. These drivers will act more like plugins for the software. If the software is being used in E3, then the software should point to the E3 driver package. If the software is being used at B2, then the software should point to the B2 driver package. The driver packages should also be filled with hardware drivers that are universal to the DAS system. For example, since A1, A2, and B2 all use the Preston 8300AU signal conditioners, then the driver for those three stands should be the same and updated collectively.

  14. Trainable hardware for dynamical computing using error backpropagation through physical media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Michiel; Burm, Michaël; Van Vaerenbergh, Thomas; Dambre, Joni; Bienstman, Peter

    2015-03-24

    Neural networks are currently implemented on digital Von Neumann machines, which do not fully leverage their intrinsic parallelism. We demonstrate how to use a novel class of reconfigurable dynamical systems for analogue information processing, mitigating this problem. Our generic hardware platform for dynamic, analogue computing consists of a reciprocal linear dynamical system with nonlinear feedback. Thanks to reciprocity, a ubiquitous property of many physical phenomena like the propagation of light and sound, the error backpropagation-a crucial step for tuning such systems towards a specific task-can happen in hardware. This can potentially speed up the optimization process significantly, offering important benefits for the scalability of neuro-inspired hardware. In this paper, we show, using one experimentally validated and one conceptual example, that such systems may provide a straightforward mechanism for constructing highly scalable, fully dynamical analogue computers.

  15. Efficient Hardware Implementation For Fingerprint Image Enhancement Using Anisotropic Gaussian Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq Mahmood; Bailey, Donald G; Khan, Mohammad A U; Kong, Yinan

    2017-05-01

    A real-time image filtering technique is proposed which could result in faster implementation for fingerprint image enhancement. One major hurdle associated with fingerprint filtering techniques is the expensive nature of their hardware implementations. To circumvent this, a modified anisotropic Gaussian filter is efficiently adopted in hardware by decomposing the filter into two orthogonal Gaussians and an oriented line Gaussian. An architecture is developed for dynamically controlling the orientation of the line Gaussian filter. To further improve the performance of the filter, the input image is homogenized by a local image normalization. In the proposed structure, for a middle-range reconfigurable FPGA, both parallel compute-intensive and real-time demands were achieved. We manage to efficiently speed up the image-processing time and improve the resource utilization of the FPGA. Test results show an improved speed for its hardware architecture while maintaining reasonable enhancement benchmarks.

  16. Novel Approaches for Bio-inspired Mechano-Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present novel approaches for building tactile- array sensors for use in robotic grippers inspired from biology. We start by describing the sense of touch for humans and we continue by propos- ing dierent methods to build sensors that mimic this behaviour. For the static tactile...

  17. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaodong; Bi Shusheng

    2012-01-01

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  18. A bio-inspired hair- based acceleration sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.

    Crickets use so-called clavate hairs to sense (gravitational) acceleration to obtain information on their orientation. Inspired by this clavate hair system, a one-axis biomimetic accelerometer has been developed and fabricated using surface micromachining and SU- 8 lithography. Measu- rements show

  19. Force generation of bio-inspired hover kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenheede, R.B.R.; Bernal, L.P.; Morrison, C.L.; Humbert, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the aerodynamics of an elliptical flap plate wing in pitch-plunge motion. Several wing motion kinematics are derived from the kinematics of the Agrius Convolvuli (hawk moth) in hover. The experiments are conducted at a Reynolds number of 4,

  20. Bio-Inspired Space Environment-Resistant Polymer Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use of inorganic nanoparticles which have been recently explored for therapeutic purposes in the treatment of oxidative stress disorder, cancer and heart diseases...

  1. Investigation of a Bio-Inspired Liner Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2017-01-01

    Four samples of natural reeds, Phragmites australis, were tested in the NASA Langley and Glenn Normal Incidence Impedance Tubes in order to experimentally determine the acoustic absorption coefficients as a function of frequency from 400 to 3000 Hz. Six samples that mimicked the geometry of the assemblies of natural reeds were also designed and additively manufactured from ASA thermoplastic and tested. Results indicate that structures can be manufactured of synthetic materials that mimic the geometry and the low frequency acoustic absorption of natural reeds. This accomplishment demonstrates that a new class of structures can now be considered for a wide range of industrial products that need thin, lightweight, broadband acoustic absorption effective at frequencies below 1000 Hz. Aircraft engine acoustic liners and aircraft cabin acoustic liners, in particular, are two aviation applications that might benefit from further development of this concept.

  2. Bio-inspired ciliary force sensor for robotic platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ribeiro, Pedro

    2017-01-20

    The detection of small forces is of great interest in any robotic application that involves interaction with the environment (e.g., objects manipulation, physical human-robot interaction, minimally invasive surgery), since it allows the robot to detect the contacts early on and to act accordingly. In this letter, we present a sensor design inspired by the ciliary structure frequently found in nature, consisting of an array of permanently magnetized cylinders (cilia) patterned over a giant magnetoresistance sensor (GMR). When these cylinders are deformed in shape due to applied forces, the stray magnetic field variation will change the GMR sensor resistivity, thus enabling the electrical measurement of the applied force. In this letter, we present two 3 mm × 3 mm prototypes composed of an array of five cilia with 1 mm of height and 120 and 200 μm of diameter for each prototype. A minimum force of 333 μN was measured. A simulation model for determining the magnetized cylinders average stray magnetic field is also presented.

  3. Tribology of bio-inspired nanowrinkled films on ultrasoft substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Juergen M; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Lukasz; Teichert, Christian; Hartmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum) with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis). The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue): Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high and the initial friction coefficient of the film against the sliding counterpart low, e.g. found for DLC.

  4. BioMAV : Bio-inspired intelligence for autonomous flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerke, P.K.; Langevoort, J.; Lagarde, S.; Bax, L.; Grootswagers, T.; Drenth, R.J.; Slieker, V.; Vuurpijl, L.; Haselager, P.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.; Van Otterlo, M.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to research on biologically inspired micro air vehicles in two ways: (i) it explores a novel repertoire of behavioral modules which can be controlled through ?nite state machines (FSM) and (ii) elementary movement detectors (EMD) are combined with a center/surround edge

  5. Vorticella: A Protozoan for Bio-Inspired Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjin Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for microscale engineering systems. Vorticella has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk. The oral cilia beat periodically, generating a water flow that translates food particles toward the animal at speeds in the order of 0.1–1 mm/s. The ciliary flow of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement and theoretical modeling, and tested for flow control and mixing in microfluidic systems. The spasmoneme contracts in a few milliseconds, coiling the stalk and moving the zooid at 15–90 mm/s. Because the spasmoneme generates tension in the order of 10–100 nN, powered by calcium ion binding, it serves as a model system for biomimetic actuators in microscale engineering systems. The spasmonemal contraction of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement of its dynamics and energetics, and both live and extracted Vorticellae have been tested for moving microscale objects. We describe past work to elucidate the contraction mechanism of the spasmoneme, recognizing that past and continuing efforts will increase the possibilities of using the spasmoneme as a microscale actuator as well as leading towards bioinspired actuators mimicking the spasmoneme.

  6. Bio-inspired wooden actuators for large scale applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rüggeberg

    Full Text Available Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules.

  7. TRIBOLOGY OF BIO-INSPIRED NANOWRINKLED FILMS ON ULTRASOFT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue: Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high and the initial friction coefficient of the film against the sliding counterpart low, e.g. found for DLC.

  8. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  9. Bio-inspired wooden actuators for large scale applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüggeberg, Markus; Burgert, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules.

  10. Colloidal-based additive manufacturing of bio-inspired composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studart, Andre R.

    Composite materials in nature exhibit heterogeneous architectures that are tuned to fulfill the functional demands of the surrounding environment. Examples range from the cellulose-based organic structure of plants to highly mineralized collagen-based skeletal parts like bone and teeth. Because they are often utilized to combine opposing properties such as strength and low-density or stiffness and wear resistance, the heterogeneous architecture of natural materials can potentially address several of the technical limitations of artificial homogeneous composites. However, current man-made manufacturing technologies do not allow for the level of composition and fiber orientation control found in natural heterogeneous systems. In this talk, I will present two additive manufacturing technologies recently developed in our group to build composites with exquisite architectures only rivaled by structures made by living organisms in nature. Since the proposed techniques utilize colloidal suspensions as feedstock, understanding the physics underlying the stability, assembly and rheology of the printing inks is key to predict and control the architecture of manufactured parts. Our results will show that additive manufacturing routes offer a new exciting pathway for the fabrication of biologically-inspired composite materials with unprecedented architectures and functionalities.

  11. Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-08-04

    An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.

  12. Bio-inspired approach to multistage image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timchenko, Leonid I.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Kokryatskaya, Natalia I.; Poplavska, Anna A.; Kobylyanska, Iryna M.; Burdenyuk, Iryna I.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Uvaysova, Svetlana; Orazbekov, Zhassulan; Kashaganova, Gulzhan

    2017-08-01

    Multistage integration of visual information in the brain allows people to respond quickly to most significant stimuli while preserving the ability to recognize small details in the image. Implementation of this principle in technical systems can lead to more efficient processing procedures. The multistage approach to image processing, described in this paper, comprises main types of cortical multistage convergence. One of these types occurs within each visual pathway and the other between the pathways. This approach maps input images into a flexible hierarchy which reflects the complexity of the image data. The procedures of temporal image decomposition and hierarchy formation are described in mathematical terms. The multistage system highlights spatial regularities, which are passed through a number of transformational levels to generate a coded representation of the image which encapsulates, in a computer manner, structure on different hierarchical levels in the image. At each processing stage a single output result is computed to allow a very quick response from the system. The result is represented as an activity pattern, which can be compared with previously computed patterns on the basis of the closest match.

  13. Bio-inspired ciliary force sensor for robotic platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen; Franco, Fernando; Cardoso, Susana; Bernardino, Alexandre; Schmitz, Alexander; Santos-Victor, Jose; Jamone, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The detection of small forces is of great interest in any robotic application that involves interaction with the environment (e.g., objects manipulation, physical human-robot interaction, minimally invasive surgery), since it allows the robot to detect the contacts early on and to act accordingly. In this letter, we present a sensor design inspired by the ciliary structure frequently found in nature, consisting of an array of permanently magnetized cylinders (cilia) patterned over a giant magnetoresistance sensor (GMR). When these cylinders are deformed in shape due to applied forces, the stray magnetic field variation will change the GMR sensor resistivity, thus enabling the electrical measurement of the applied force. In this letter, we present two 3 mm × 3 mm prototypes composed of an array of five cilia with 1 mm of height and 120 and 200 μm of diameter for each prototype. A minimum force of 333 μN was measured. A simulation model for determining the magnetized cylinders average stray magnetic field is also presented.

  14. Demonstrations of bio-inspired perching landing gear for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Mindy; Michael, Duncan M.; Pflueger, Jeffery B.; Sethi, Manik S.; Shimazu, Kelli N.; Anthony, Tatiana M.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2016-04-01

    Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and performance of two concepts of biologically-inspired landing-gear systems that enable bird-sized, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) to land, perch, and take-off from branchlike structures and/or ledges. The first concept follows the anatomy of birds that can grasp ahold of a branch and perch as tendons in their legs are tensioned. This design involves a gravity-activated, cable-driven, underactuated, graspingfoot mechanism. As the UAV lands, its weight collapses a four-bar linkage pulling a cable which curls two opposing, multi-segmented feet to grasp the landing target. Each foot is a single, compliant mechanism fabricated by simultaneouly 3D-printing a flexible thermo-plastic and a stiffer ABS plastic. The design is optimized to grasp structures over a range of shapes and sizes. Quasi-static and flight tests of this landing gear affixed to RC rotorcraft (24 cm to 550 cm in diameter) demonstrate that the aircraft can land, perch, and take-off from a tree branch, rectangular wood board, PVC pipe, metal hand rail, chair armrest, and in addition, a stone wall ledge. Stability tests show that perching is maintained under base and wind disturbances. The second design concept, inspired by roosting bats, is a two-material, 3D-printed hooking mechanism that enables the UAV to stably suspend itself from a wire or small-diameter branch. The design balances structural stiffness for support and flexibility for the perching process. A flight-test demonstrates the attaching and dis-engaging of a small, RC quadcopter from a suspended line.

  15. Bio-Inspired Distributed Decision Algorithms for Anomaly Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Generation Services (ETG) 3. Replay of Traffic Traces (RTT) BTG creates “ norm ” traffic background with pre-specified distribution, BTG takes in a...a cap on the IP counter to offset this artificial effect. For this reason, we also evaluated the dependence of DIAMoND performance on the IP counter... cap . 3.3.2.10 Performance Evaluation Metrics. Given the local anomaly detector is based on TCP session negotiation protocols, it is natural to

  16. Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Gabriel A.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Amy; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Wheeler, David Roger

    2011-09-01

    There is national interest in the development of sophisticated materials that can automatically detect and respond to chemical and biological threats without the need for human intervention. In living systems, cell membranes perform such functions on a routine basis, detecting threats, communicating with the cell, and triggering automatic responses such as the opening and closing of ion channels. The purpose of this project was to learn how to replicate simple threat detection and response functions within artificial membrane systems. The original goals toward developing 'smart skin' assemblies included: (1) synthesizing functionalized nanoparticles to produce electrochemically responsive systems within a lipid bilayer host matrices, (2) calculating the energetics of nanoparticle-lipid interactions and pore formation, and (3) determining the mechanism of insertion of nanoparticles in lipid bilayers via imaging and electrochemistry. There are a few reports of the use of programmable materials to open and close pores in rigid hosts such as mesoporous materials using either heat or light activation. However, none of these materials can regulate themselves in response to the detection of threats. The strategies we investigated in this project involve learning how to use programmable nanomaterials to automatically eliminate open channels within a lipid bilayer host when 'threats' are detected. We generated and characterized functionalized nanoparticles that can be used to create synthetic pores through the membrane and investigated methods of eliminating the pores either through electrochemistry, change in pH, etc. We also focused on characterizing the behavior of functionalized gold NPs in different lipid membranes and lipid vesicles and coupled these results to modeling efforts designed to gain an understanding of the interaction of nanoparticles within lipid assemblies.

  17. Bio-inspired smart sensors for a hexapod robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    EMICAB (Embodied Motion Intelligence for Cognitive, Autonomous Robots) is an EU founded project where a consortium of 4 Universities is working together to integrate smart body mechanics and sensors with intelligent planning and motor behavior in order to make a holistic approach to artificial...

  18. Bio-inspired step-climbing in a hexapod robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Ya-Cheng; Yu, Wei-Shun; Huang, Ke-Jung; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the observation that the cockroach changes from a tripod gait to a different gait for climbing high steps, we report on the design and implementation of a novel, fully autonomous step-climbing maneuver, which enables a RHex-style hexapod robot to reliably climb a step up to 230% higher than the length of its leg. Similar to the climbing strategy most used by cockroaches, the proposed maneuver is composed of two stages. The first stage is the ‘rearing stage,’ inclining the body so the front side of the body is raised and it is easier for the front legs to catch the top of the step, followed by the ‘rising stage,’ maneuvering the body's center of mass to the top of the step. Two infrared range sensors are installed on the front of the robot to detect the presence of the step and its orientation relative to the robot's heading, so that the robot can perform automatic gait transition, from walking to step-climbing, as well as correct its initial tilt approaching posture. An inclinometer is utilized to measure body inclination and to compute step height, thus enabling the robot to adjust its gait automatically, in real time, and to climb steps of different heights and depths successfully. The algorithm is applicable for the robot to climb various rectangular obstacles, including a narrow bar, a bar and a step (i.e. a bar of infinite width). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated experimentally, and the comparison of climbing strategies and climbing behaviors in biological and robotic systems is discussed. (paper)

  19. Bio-Inspired Human-Level Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-25

    memory with DNA self-assembly. We showed that wet DNA computing can implement weighted-sum operations which are fundamental to perform pattern...artificial and real datasets as well as demonstrate preliminary wet experimental results using gel electrophoresis. In our classification results...according to the annealing temperature schedules. This shows how controlling the hybridization schedule influences both the positive definiteness

  20. Robot fish bio-inspired fishlike underwater robots

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Alvarado, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive coverage on robot fish including design, modeling and optimization, control, autonomous control and applications. It gathers contributions by the leading researchers in the area. Readers will find the book very useful for designing and building robot fish, not only in theory but also in practice. Moreover, the book discusses various important issues for future research and development, including design methodology, control methodology, and autonomous control strategy. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of robotics, ocean engineering and related areas.