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Sample records for bio-bio region chile

  1. The relation between Puelche wind and the occurrence of forest fires in Bio Bio region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of the relation between Puelche wind and forest fires in the Bio Bio Region, Chile. To establish a relationship between Puelche wind and forest fire generation, different data analysis methods and statistics test were applied. The relation between the total number of fires in the season and the days with Puelche wind were not statistically significant. When analyzing daily averages of fires produced with and without Puelche wind for each season, the highest daily fire occurrence values were found when there is Puelche wind, indicating that this event produces a strong effect on the daily occurrence of fires since these increased by 90% in comparison to the days without Puelche wind. The results of the difference between the number of fires with and without Puelche wind with respect to the average number of total fires indicate that the days with Puelche wind surpass both the total and the average values for days without Puelche wind, confirming the strong effect that a Puelche wind day has on forest fires. The greatest number of fires produced with Puelche wind occurs in the Province of Concepcion. This Province is the most affected by Puelche wind conditions despite having the smallest surface area for the region studied. Still, it is the most populous province of the region and has the greatest surface area with forests and plantations with respect to its size. Consequently, Puelche wind is a factor that increases the occurrence of forest fires and favors their propagation.

  2. ESTRUCTURA DE LA MACROFAUNA EN AMBIENTES OXICOS DE BAHIA COLIUMO, REGION DEL BIO-BIO, CHILE CENTRAL STRUCTURE OF MACROFAUNA IN OXIC ENVIRONMENTAL OFF BAY COLIUMO, BIO-BIO REGION, CENTRAL CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Neira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la densidad, biomasa, diversidad y riqueza de especies de la macrofauna bentónica (³500 mm en ambientes óxicos (> 0.5 ml L-1 en Bahía Coliumo (36º32`S, 72º57`W, Chile central. En un transecto de cinco estaciones, entre 3,6 y 22,5 m de profundidad, fueron recolectadas muestras de sedimento con una draga tipo Van veen de 0,051 m², a bordo de la embarcación científica L/C Kay-Kay. A partir de las muestras de sedimento se determinó, el porcentaje de materia orgánica total, el tamaño de grano, densidad y biomasa de la macrofauna. Adicionalmente, se tomaron muestras de agua para el análisis de oxígeno disuelto de fondo, temperatura y salinidad. Las densidades de la macrofauna total fluctuaron entre 1111 y 11183 ind m-2. En tanto, los valores de biomasa alcanzaron 9,9 y 252,86 g m-2. Del total de la macrofauna 29 especies fueron identificadas. Los valores más altos de diversidad (3,23 coinciden con los valores más bajos de dominancia y uniformidad. Los parámetros de diversidad no mostraron una relación lineal con la profundidad. Los poliquetos fueron el grupo dominante (51,8%, seguido de los crustáceos (41% y moluscos (6,8%. Adicionalmente, a través del análisis BIOENV, se observó que el porcentaje de arena y el contenido de materia orgánica fueron los principales factores ambientales que regulan la estructura de la macrofauna de Bahía Coliumo.The density, biomass, diversity and species richness of macrofaunal benthic (³500 mm in oxic environment (> 0.5 ml L-1 off Bay Coliumo (36º32`S, 72º57`W, Chile were analyzed. One transect of five stations between 3.6 and 22.5 m of depth were collected samples of sediments with a dredged Van veen of 0.051 m²a board R/V Kay-Kay in August (winter of 2004. From sediment sample the organic matter percent, size of grain, density and biomass of the macrofauna were determined. Additionally, were taken water column samples for analyses of dissolved oxygen of bottom, temperature and

  3. Civic education and political participation among youth at Universidad del Bio- Bio, Chile

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    Cristian Orellana Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of this paper are the product of a broader research on political participation. The expressions of young university students are there analyzed about civic education received at school related to political participation. Three focus groups were held with freshmen at Universidad del Bio-Bio, Chile. The results show that the vision of young people about the formation received is rather critical. On the one hand, the need for civic education is identified as that which allows to address the complexity of political activity. Secondly, it is found that school education does not respond to this need, since it is qualified as poor and biased. For students, education must play a politicizing role, providing inputs to influence social change.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE LOS ESTABLECIMIENTOS EDUCATIVOS INCORPORADOS AL SISTEMA NACIONAL DE CERTIFICACIÓN AMBIENTAL DE LA PROVINCIA DE BIO BIO (CHILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Eduardo Burgos Peredo; F. Javier Perales Palacios; José Gutiérrez Pérez

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio pretende evaluar la calidad e impacto del programa de implementación de la Educación Ambiental (EA) en las Escuelas incorporadas al Sistema Nacional de Certificación Ambiental (SNCAE) en la provincia de Bio Bio (Chile) en comparación a aquellas que no están incorporadas a esta certificación. A lo largo de este estudio se lleva a cabo una descripción del programa en sus diferentes fases, así como una valoración de sus implicaciones y capacidad para promover cambios soste...

  5. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  6. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  7. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Yamil Alul González

    2010-01-01

    The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters) in prioritized...

  8. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Yamil Alul González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters in prioritized economic sectors by the own region. These PMC are leaded by private actors in each sector.

  9. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    In 1985, Chile's population stood at 12 million, with an annual growth rate of 1.7%. 1984's infant mortality rate was 20/1000 live births and life expectancy was 67 years. The literacy rate was 94%. Of the work force of 3,841,000 in 1985, 15.9% were engaged in agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 31.3% were employed in industry and commerce; 38.6% were in the service sector; 8.7% worked in mining; and 4.4% were employed in construction. Chile's military junta is scheduled to be replaced by an elected legislature in 1990. The GDP was US $19.2 billion in 1984, with an annual real growth rate of 6.3%, and per capita GDP stood at US$1590. Inflation averages 23%. Industry comprises 21% of the GDP. Longterm prospects for the Chilean economy are influenced by a high debt service ratio, very low domestic savings and investment, the prospect of little or no increase in copper prices, and continuing problems in the domestic financial sector. In 1985-88, under the International Monetary Fund macroeconomic program, Chile will strive for moderate economic growth while managing its external debt servicing burden. PMID:12178144

  10. The shallow-water chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora of Caldera, Region of Atacama, northern Chile

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    Juan Francisco Araya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Molluscan species of the northern littoral of Chile have been sparsely studied. This work reviews for the first time the diversity of polyplacophoran molluscs around the port of Caldera, in the Region of Atacama (26°45’49”S; 70°45’17”W to 27°20’23”S; 70°56’46”W, northern Chile. Eleven species were found in this study: Acanthopleura echinata (Barnes, 1824; Callistochiton pulchellus (Gray, 1828; Calloplax vivipara (Plate, 1899, Chaetopleura peruviana (Lamarck, 1819; Chiton cumingsii Frembly, 1827; Chiton granosus Frembly, 1827; Chiton magnificus Deshayes, 1827; Enoplochiton niger (Barnes, 1824, Radsia barnesii (Gray, 1828, Tonicia atrata (G. B. Sowerby II, 1840 and Tonicia chilensis (Frembly, 1827. All of the species occurring in the area have distributions in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, from Ecuador to central Chile, and three of them are species endemic to the Chilean coasts (Calloplax vivipara, Radsia barnesii, and Tonicia atrata. This diversity of species is comparable to that of better surveyed faunas of central and southern Chile or Patagonia. Of the eleven species recorded, the geographic distribution records for Callistochiton pulchellus, Radsia barnesii and Tonicia atrata are extended, and Calloplax vivipara is found alive again after 40 years, filling a gap in its known distribution. Illustrations of living specimens in their habitat, distribution records and a taxonomic key for all the studied taxa are also provided.

  11. Mineralogy of the Panulcillo skarn copper deposit, Coquimbo Region, Chile

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    Asahiko Sugaki

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Panulcillo skarn copper deposit developed in an Early Cretaceous (Valanginian volcano-sedimentary sequence intruded by a Cretaceous diorite. The exoskarn zone of the deposit is composed of garnet skarn comprising grandite garnet (Ad12.9-47.4 and phlogopite with lesser amounts of diopside (Di89.6-91.6, clintonite, pargasitic hornblende, actinolite, pumpellyite, chlorite, quartz and calcite, exhibiting characteristic Mg-Al-rich assemblages. The principal ores consist of chalcopyrite, monoclinic pyrrhotite, sphalerite, pyrite, and magnetite with small amounts of galena, and locally secondary marcasite, hematite and covellite, generally filling interstices of the garnet skarn. Chalcopyrite shows characteristic polysynthetic twinning, normally including fine star-like crystals of sphalerite as exsolution products. Sphalerite contains 14.4 - 22.5 mol% FeS and 1.6 - 9.2 mol% MnS, and is associated intimately with chalcopyrite. It is highly likely that such Fe-rich sphalerite has coexisted primarily with hexagonal pyrrhotite under low-sulfidation conditions at higher temperatures than 275 - 254°C, below which monoclinic pyrrhotite is stableMineralogía del yacimiento cuprífero tipo skarn de Panulcillo, Región de Coquimbo, Chile. El yacimiento tipo skarn de cobre de Panulcillo se desarrolló en una secuencia volcano-sedimentaria de edad cretácica inferior (Valanginiana, la que es intruida por un cuerpo cretácico de composición diorítica. La zona del exoskarn característicamente presenta una asociación mineralógica rica en Mg y Al, y corresponde a un skarn de granate compuesto por granate tipo ugrandita (Ad12.9-47.4 y flogopita con candidades menores de diópsido (Di89.6-91.6, clintonita, hornblenda pargasítica, actinolita, pumpellita, clorita, cuarzo y calcita. Los minerales metálicos consisten mayoritariamente en calcopirita, pirrotina monoclínica, esfalerita, pirita, y magnetita con menos galena, localmente marcasita, hematita y

  12. Critical pathways of change in fruit export regions at desert margin (Chile)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter

    The purpose is to elucidate how critical pathways function in a fruit export region at the desert margin in Chile. The region was investigated at the system level as an open land system with managed fruit plantations in a geographically complex valley. Data collection procedures included total...... field surveys, semi-structured interviews, and library investigations. The main result is that no single variable could explain the pathways. Pathways were found to be explained by the functioning of the regional dynamic system. Pathways were found to vary in type, cause, relation and space-time. Global...

  13. Analysis of the dynamic of underground water in Agua Verde, Quebrada de Taltal, region of Antofagasta, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extreme aridity and geological situation in northern. Chile requires an exhaustive investigation on water resources for supporting rational usage. The Direccion General de Aguas and Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear have performed studies in arid zones in northern Chile using isotopic and hydrochemical tools. In Quebrada de Taltal's basin, located in one of the must arid arid zones of Chile (Segunda Region de Antofagasta), was studies groundwater dynamics and recharge process from a geochemical approach in terms of water quality, temperature and isotopic composition (2H, 18O, 3H, 14C). The recharge generated above 3000 m a.s.t has a slow dynamics and involve little flow (author)

  14. Effective pipeline integrity management in the Magallanes region of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinas, E; Munoz, A. [Empresa Nacional del Petroleo, Punta Arenas (Chile); Wilde, A.; Healy, J. [MACAW Engineering Ltd., Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Bakayeva, M. [ROSEN Europe, Oldenzaal (Netherlands)

    2010-07-01

    The pipelines of the Magallanes region are operated by Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP), a Chilean government company. Most of these pipelines were constructed in the 1960s and 1970s and are over 30 years of age. A pipeline integrity management program was initiated in the 1990s. Its first phase consisted in data gathering and high-level risk assessment. In-line inspections were then performed in the pipelines that were considered to be most at risk. Each inspection was followed with an integrity assessment designed to identify features that would require further investigation or repair. This included a pipeline-specific risk assessment, a defect assessment, and an estimation of corrosion growth rates. Most inspections were performed with MFL technology; a case study is shown where a pipeline was inspected three times with the same technology (in 2002, 2006 and 2009). The major threat in the Magallanes region is external corrosion, while some other risks such as third-party activities or ground instability are low.

  15. Segmentation of Seismicity in the Mejillones Region, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummerow, Joern; Bloch, Wasja; Salazar, Pablo; Wigger, Peter; Shapiro, Serge A.

    2016-04-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula constitutes a widely accepted seismic barrier which separates two major segments of the Andean subduction zone. There is no evidence that past earthquake ruptures have traversed the barrier. We recently deployed a dense seismic monitoring system on Mejillones to study the local structure and seismicity distribution in greater detail. Between June 2013 and October 2015 we detected about 3000 micro seismic events with magnitudes down to Ml = 0.5 and determined P- and S- arrival times. Precise event location was performed using a regionally updated velocity model and waveform similarity- based improved arrival time picks. This provides a detailed seismicity image of the Mejillones region. Despite clear evidence for young active faults on Mejillones, upper crustal seismicity is only minor. Earthquakes along the interface occur continuously from 25 to 40km depth. Activity is also observed within the oceanic crust and is particularly high on the near-vertical rupture fault of a Mw6.8 intra-slab earthquake which followed only weeks after the 2007 Mw7.7 Tocopilla earthquake. Slab-related seismicity partly correlates with the coastline and is higher offshore. We also observe a North-South segmentation with a high level of seismicity at the northern and southern borders of the Mejillones Peninsula and less seismicity in its central part, both onshore and offshore.

  16. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Francisco Araya; Ricardo Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recor...

  17. Miocene-Quaternary structural evolution of the Uyuni-Atacama region, Andes of Chile and Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Tibaldi, A.; Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca; Corazzato, C.; Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca; Rovida, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia

    2008-01-01

    We describe the Miocene-Quaternary geological-structural evolution of the region between the Salar de Uyuni and de Atacama, Andes of Chile and Bolivia. We recognised four main tectonic events based on fold geometry, fault kinematics and stratigraphic data. The oldest event, of Miocene age, is characterized by folding and reverse faulting of the sedimentary successions with an E-W direction of shortening in the northern part of the studied area and a WNW-ESE shortening in the southern part. Th...

  18. Recent crustal deformation in the Antofagasta region (northern Chile) and the subduction process

    OpenAIRE

    Delouis, B.; Philip, H.; Dorbath, Louis; Cisternas, A.

    1998-01-01

    New neotectonic observations, along with a detailed aerial photograph analysis, allow a new interpretation of the recent tectonic behaviour of the outer forearc in northern Chile between 22.5°S and 24.5°S (Antofagasta region). Both the Coastal Cordillera and the Mejillones Peninsula are under E-W extension. Normal faults dipping east with an almost N-S orientation are predominant. Large-scale Neogene to Recent deformation is characterized by vertical uplift and subsidence related to normal fa...

  19. Memoria histórica vivida y transmitida en torno a los terremotos de 1939-1960 en los habitantes del Gran Concepción – Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Andrés Concha Ramírez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo forma parte de una investigación mayor dirigida por Stefano Cavalli y Christian Lalive d`Epinay en el marco de la red internacional CEVI (Cambios y eventos en el transcurso de la vida. Una sección del estudio refiere a la importancia y selectividad otorgada a acontecimientos y procesos socio-históricos vividos y transmitidos. Se han encuestado 623 individuos de cinco grupos de edad pertenecientes a comunas del Gran Concepción (Chile. Desde los datos han surgido antecedentes relevantes en relación a los terremotos de 1939 en Chillán y 1960 en Valdivia y Concepción que serán analizados en este artículo. El tema resulta particularmente sensible en el tiempo presente, dadas las consecuencias vividas por una reciente catástrofe ocurrida el 27 de Febrero de 2010 en la región del Bio Bio. Palabras claves: Terremotos en Chile, Memoria Histórica, Memoria Colectiva___________________________Abstract:The article is part of a major research o survey lead by Stefano Cavalli y Christián Lalive d`Epinay in the framework of the international network CEVI (Changes and events life course. A section of the research refers to the importance and selectivity granted to events and processes socio-historical processes lived and transmitted. Were surveyed 623 individuals of five age groups belonging to the communes of the big Concepcion (Chile. From the data has been emerged relevant background in relation with earthquakes of 1939 in Chillán and 1960 Valdivia and Concepción that which will be to be analyzed in this article. The topic is particularly sensitive in the present tense, because the consequences experienced by a recent catastrophe occurred on February 27, 2010 in the region of Bio Bio.Keywords: Earthquake in Chile, historical memory, collective memory.

  20. Airglow and magnetic field disturbances over Brazilian region during Chile tsunami (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Klausner, V; Candido, C M N; Abalde, J R; Fagundes, P R; Kherani, E A

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present first report on disturbances over Brazilian atmosphere on 16--17 September, 2015 following the Chile tsunami occurrence. Using all-sky imager and magnetometer located at 2330 km away from the epicenter, the presence of disturbances is noted 1--3 hours after the tsunami beginning time and during time which seismic tremor was also felt in the region. We argue that their presence towards continent at 2000-3000 km away from the epicenter offers another example of similar atmospheric response as those observed during Tohoku-Oki tsunami, 2011. This similarity and their appearance during seismic tremor over the region classify them to be of tsunamigenic and/or seismogenic nature.

  1. [Enteroparasitoses in the V Region, Chile. A study of rural school children from Santo Domingo, 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, P; Muñoz, N; Carabelli, M; Subercaseaux, B; Tardío, M T; Villalón, L; Herrera, G

    1990-01-01

    The results of a new enteroparasitological survey carried out by the authors are analyzed with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the situation of these infections in the V Region, Chile. In 1987 the children of five rural schools of Santo Domingo were studied by means of the modified Telemann method, the Ziehl-Neelsen stain and seried Graham test. The parasites more frequently found were: E. vermicularis (50.4%) and G. lamblia (10.8%). No E. histolytica was found in these children. The most frequent commensal was E. nana (21.9%). Cryptosporidium sp. presented a low frequency (0.9%), a figure that in these asymptomatic subjects is in accordance with that found in outpatients with chronic diarrhea in Valparaíso, V Region. PMID:1726862

  2. Hantavirus en roedores de la Octava Región de Chile Hantavirus in rodents of the VIII Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS ORTIZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available La Octava Región de Chile corresponde a la segunda región con el mayor número de casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH. Por tal motivo se realizó un estudio para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos contra hantavirus en roedores y su distribución local en la Octava Región. El estudio comprendió las cuatro provincias de la región y consideró once sitios de muestreo. Se capturaron siete especies de roedores, Abrothrix olivaceus fue la más abundante seguida de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. De los 300 roedores analizados, cinco ejemplares (1,66 % resultaron ser positivos a hantavirus y correspondieron a tres especies de sigmodontinos: a saber, Loxodontomys micropus, que corresponde al único registro de este tipo para la especie en Chile, Abrotrix longipilis y Oligoryzomys longicaudatusThe Eight Region has the second highest number of cases of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS in humans for Chile. A study was performed to identify the number of rodents serologically positive to hantavirus and their local distribution in this region. To achieve this goal, we sampled eleven sites in the four provinces of the region. Seven rodents species were collected, with Abrothrix olivaceus presenting the largest number of captures followed by Oligoryzomys longicaudatus. Of the 300 rodents analyzed, five (1.66 % were sero-positives to hantavirus and belonged to three different sigmodontine species: Abrothrix longipilis, O. longicaudatus, and Loxodontomys micropus. No previous records of seropositive L. micropus existed.

  3. University Support in the Development of Regional Entrepreneurial Activity: An Exploratory Study from Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical literature has explored the potential benefits of the interaction between universities and entrepreneurs and there is some empirical evidence that supports the positive impact of entrepreneurship education in the subsequent propensity to become an entrepreneur. The purpose of this paper is study if higher education for entrepreneurship is reflected in entrepreneurship activities at the regional level. Replicating the methodology used by Coduras, Urban, Rojas and Martínez (2008 in Spain, we compare, in an exploratory way, the experience in Chile using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM. The main results indicate that there is low interaction between entrepreneurs and universities and there is not enough impact to significantly affect entrepreneurial activity. Moreover, entrepreneurship education does not increase intentions to be an entrepreneur.

  4. [Cryptosporidiosis in the V Region Chile. III. Study of malnourished patients, 1985-1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, P; Tardío, M T; Carabelli, M; Villalón, L

    1989-01-01

    Frequency of infection by Cryptosporidium sp. in 1,039 faecal smears stained by Ziehl-Neelsen, obtained from undernourished patients of a Nutritional Recovery Center and an ambulatory undernourished center from the Fifth Region, Chile, were studied. All underwent a coproparasitological examination by the modified Telemann method. Thirty eight (3.7%) patients infected by the parasite were detected, with an overall frequency of 8.5% among patients of the Nutritional Recovery Center and 1.9% among the ambulatory patients; this difference was statistically significant. The highest percentage of positive results were detected among the younger milk feeding infants. Also the percentage of difference among these and the older milk feeding infants (3.7%) was statistically significant. Association of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia lamblia was observed in 6 ambulatory patients (2.3%). PMID:2517015

  5. The agropecuarian sector in Los Lagos region, and the paradigm "Chile power food": challenges for a national agrarian policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ríos Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The restructuring of the economic model in Chile in the mid- seventies hit all productive fields and the agropecuarian sector was no exception. Thus started the beginning of the "Agricultural export Age" that fostered productive guidelines with clear competitive advantages in international markets. The Chilean agricultural paradigm has been characterized by functioning on the basis of low wages, availability of labor and favorable exchange rate. In 2006, under this scenario, the public policy called "Chile Power Food 2020" was implemented, which seeks to reinforce the above formula. This initiative considers growth strategies which make bimodal agrarian structure, present in the country, invisible. To the above an added aggravating factor is that territories (such as Los Lagos Region in southern Chile with traditional productive orientations (specifically cattle have clearly vulnerable positions, especially in those producer groups which are characterized by different rationales to run business

  6. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples

  7. Application of PIXE to the characterization of vitreous dacites from archaeolgical sites in the Atacama region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.R.; Cancino, S. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Miranda, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile)], E-mail: pjmirand@gmail.com; Dinator, M.I. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Las Palmeras 3425, Nunoa, Santiago 1 (Chile); Seelenfreund, A. [Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano, Condell 343, Providencia, Santiago (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    Geochemical characterization studies using PIXE were carried out on 21 vitreous dacite artifacts from early formative archaeological sites in the Atacama region, in northern Chile, and on 13 samples taken from two potential volcanic sources located within the region. Performing statistical analyses it was possible to obtain elemental concentration patterns for the archaeological samples of this material and match some of these artifacts with the geological source samples.

  8. A review of the non-bulimulid terrestrial Mollusca from the Region of Atacama, northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Araya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial mollusca are sparsely studied in Chile and, for the first time, a formal record of the diversity of land snails in northern Chile is reported. Coastal and desertic areas in the Region of Atacama, in the border of the Atacama desert and the Pacific Ocean, were surveyed with the aim to describe the presence and distribution of this poorly known fauna. Of the fourteen species recorded, the geographic distribution records for nine species are extended, and some taxa are recorded for the first time since their original descriptions. All, except one, of the fourteen terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile; they are all terrestrial species, most of them have a restricted geographic distribution, and none of them is currently protected by law. The results reveal that the region of Atacama has one of the most diverse terrestrial snail biodiversity in Chile, ranking only after the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. Distribution records of all the studied species and a taxonomic key are also provided.

  9. Linfoadenitis Caseosa (LAC en ovinos en la XI Región, Chile Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep at the XI Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Tadich

    2005-01-01

    positivos a C. Pseudotu-berculosis, se concluye que la enfermedad linfoadenitis caseosa se encuentra presente en la XI Región, ChileThe aim of this study was to determine the presence of Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA in sheep of the XI Region, Chile. The survey was carried out at the INDUCAR abattoir of Coyhaique, XI Region, Chile, during August and November 2002. A total of 1,397 sheep of different categories (lambs, hogget, ewes, wether and rams from different sources and ages were examined. Age was estimated based on dental chronometry. Hot carcasses were examined by visual inspection and all the lymph nodes were palpated. The lungs, liver and kidney were also examined. The lymph nodes and organs with CLA - like lesions were removed and material from the periphery of the abscess was collected with sterile swabs, sotred in Stuart transport medium and sent to the Institute of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences at the University Austral of Chile. Half lymph nodes samples were also sent weekly for culture. Positive cultures to Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were only obtained from lesions in adult animals. From 105 samples cultured, 81 were positive. The prevalence of CLA in the adult animals was 11.6% and decreased to 5.8% when the whole examined population was considered. The frequency of presentation of CLA increased with the age of the animals. The lymph nodes more frequently affected were the superficial lymph nodes (54.3%. Individually, the most commonly affected lymph nodes were the mediastinal (35.1%, followed by the prescapular nodes (30.8%. In relationship to the origin of the affected animal, most were from the Ñirehuao and Río Cisnes sheep farms and the Balmaceda and El Claro sectors (81.5%. Based in our findings of macroscopic lesions in the affected lymph nodes and lung and their positive cultures to C. pseudotuberculosis, it can be concluded that the disease Caseous Lymphadenitis is present in the XI Region of Chile.

  10. Bacterial Diversity within the Extreme Arid Atacama Desert Soils of the Yungay Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, S. A.; Lester, E. D.; Shafaat, H. S.; Obenhuber, D. C.; Ponce, A.

    2006-12-01

    Surface and subsurface soil samples analyzed for this study were collected from the hyper-arid Yungay region of the Atacama Desert, Chile. This is the first report of microbial diversity from DNA extracted directly from these extremely desiccated soils. Our data shows that 94% of the 16S rRNA genes cloned from these soils belong to the Actinobacteria phylum. A 24-hour time course series showed a diurnal water activity (aw) cycle that peaked at 0.52 in the early predawn hours, and ranged from 0.08 0.01 during the day. All measured water activity values were below the level required for microbial growth or enzyme activity. Total organic carbon (TOC) levels in this region were just above the limits of detection and ranged from 220 660 μg/g of soil. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) levels indicated cellular biomass ranging from 2 ×105 to 7 ×106 cell equivalents per gram of soil. The culturable counts were low with most samples showing no growth on standard plates of R2A medium; the highest single count was 47 colony forming units (CFU) per gram.

  11. Biogenic volatile organic compounds from the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tropospheric ozone is a secondary pollutant whose primary sources are volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. The national standard is exceeded on a third of summer days in some areas of the Chilean Metropolitan Region (MR). This study reports normalized springtime experimental emissions factors (EF) for biogenic volatile organic compounds from tree species corresponding to approximately 31% of urban trees in the MR. A Photochemical Ozone Creation Index (POCI) was calculated using Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential of quantified terpenes. Ten species, natives and exotics, were analysed using static enclosure technique. Terpene quantification was performed using GC-FID, thermal desorption, cryogenic concentration and automatic injection. Observed EF and POCI values for terpenes from exotic species were 78 times greater than native values; within the same family, exotic EF and POCI values were 28 and 26 times greater than natives. These results support reforestation with native species for improved urban pollution management. -- First experimental determination of the emission factors of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the urban forest of the Metropolitan Region, Chile

  12. El desequilibrio informativo en Chile: discriminación de la noticia regional en la prensa nacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lic. Patricia Stambuk Mayorga

    1999-01-01

    La prensa nacional, escrita y audiovisual, refleja a través de sus contenidos noticiosos una acentuada discriminación hacia las noticias de las 12 regiones del país, centralizando su atención en la región metropolitana, correspondiente a la capital de Chile. Y cuando las incluye, privilegia temáticas que suelen no vincularse con su desarrollo social, cultural, político o económico.

  13. Discourse Coalitions in the Controversy around the HydroAysen Project in the Patagonia Region of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mar¨ªa Eugenia Merino; Mar¨ªa Elena Bello

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the discourse coalitions that became evident during the conflict around the HydroAysen hydroelectric megaproject in the Patagonia region of Chile. We explore three nodal concepts around which the coalitions were constructed and the argumentative and rhetoric strategies used. The analysis, inspired by a socio constructivist approach and based on Hajer¡¯s argumentative method (2005), studies 40 discourse allocutions from relevant leaders and social actors publically availabl...

  14. Evaluating the regional influence of Santiago de Chile on air quality and meteorology during VOCALS-REX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Molina, L. T.; Spak, S.; Campos, T.; Mc Naughton, C.; Clarke, A.; Gallardo, L.

    2009-04-01

    The VOCALS campaign was carried out in Chile during October-November 2008, gathering hundreds of scientists from all over the world with the objective to study stratocumulus decks in the East South Pacific, off the coast of Chile and Peru. Surface and airborne platforms measured multiple chemical and meteorological parameters, with support from chemical weather forecast models. Anthropogenic influence on meteorology and climate was evidenced due to in situ measurements, and satellite observations, as was expected from the large point sources of sulfur due to smelters and power plants in the region. However certain conditions benefited long range transport from central Chile, which made the Santiago plume clearly discernible (high ozone, organic aerosol, low CO) as sampled by the NSF C-130 almost 2000 km north of the city. This research will highlight how model products can provide guidance on the sources of the air masses sampled during the campaign, and how the Santiago plume influences regional air quality and meteorology (focusing on effective cloud radii and brightness temperature differences satellite measurements). Ultimately the research shows that the campaign's objective of contrasting cloud properties between pristine and anthropogenically influenced airmasses provided a unique opportunity to isolate the signal of a large emerging South American megacity from remote regions of the East South Pacific.

  15. Miocene-Quaternary structural evolution of the Uyuni-Atacama region, Andes of Chile and Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Corazzato, C.; Rovida, A.

    2009-06-01

    We describe the Miocene-Quaternary geological-structural evolution of the region between the Salar de Uyuni and de Atacama, Andes of Chile and Bolivia. We recognized four main tectonic events based on fold geometry, fault kinematics and stratigraphic data. The oldest event, of Miocene age, is characterized by folding and reverse faulting of the sedimentary successions with an E-W direction of shortening in the northern part of the studied area and a WNW-ESE shortening in the southern part. The following two events, of Pliocene age, are characterized by lower shortening amounts; they occurred first by reverse faulting with a NW-SE-trending greatest principal stress ( σ1, computed with striated fault planes) and a vertical least principal stress ( σ3), followed by pervasive strike-slip faulting with the same NW-SE-trending σ1 and a horizontal NE-SW σ3. The fourth event, dating to the late Pliocene-Quaternary is characterized by normal faulting: the σ3 still trends NE-SW, whereas the intermediate principal stress σ2 exchanged with σ1. Volcanism accompanied both the contractional, transcurrent and extensional tectonic phases. The Mio-Pliocene compression appears directly linked to a rapid convergence and an apparently important coupling between the continental and oceanic plates. The E-W to WNW-ESE direction of shortening of the Miocene structures and the NW-SE σ1 of the Pliocene structures seem to be more linked to an intra-Andean re-orientation of structures following the WNW-directed absolute motion of the South-American Plate. The extensional deformations can be interpreted as related to gravity forces affecting the highest parts of the volcanic belt in a sort of asymmetrical (SW-ward) collapse of the belt.

  16. Legal disputes as a proxy for regional conflicts over water rights in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Godoy-Faúndez, Alex; Lillo, Mario; Alvez, Amaya; Delgado, Verónica; Gonzalo-Martín, Consuelo; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Costumero, Roberto; García-Pedrero, Ángel

    2016-04-01

    Water demand and climate variability increases competition and tension between water users -agricultural, industrial, mining, hydropower- and local communities. Since 1981, the Water Code has regulated water allocation through private individual property rights, fostering markets as the distribution mechanism among users. When legal conflicts occur between parties, it is the responsibility of the courts to settle the conflict. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to apply a geographical approach by mapping water conflicts using legal disputes reaching the higher courts as a proxy for conflict intensity and second, to explain the diversity of water disputes and how they vary regionally. We built a representative database with a sample of 1000 legal records corresponding to decisions issued by the Supreme Court and 17 courts of appeal throughout the country from 1981 to 2014. For geo-tagging, all records were transformed to plain text and analyzed to find words matching the entries of a geographical thesaurus, allowing records to be linked to geographical locations. The geo-tagging algorithm is capable of automatically populating a searchable database. Several maps were constructed using a color scale to visualize conflict intensity. Legal disputes represent different types of conflicts among water users, such as competition between agriculture and hydropower. Processed data allowed the identification of the regional variation of conflicts. The spatial pattern for the intensity of conflicts related to specific sections of the Water Code is explained in terms of the main geographical, climatic and productive characteristics of Chile. Geo-tagging legal records shows a strong potential to understand and define regional variation of water conflicts. However, data availability would become a barrier if measures to improve data management were not taken. Regarding the institutional framework, the same regulations for water management rules are applied throughout the

  17. Association between disease occurrence and fertility of dairy cows in three geographic regions of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Melendez, P; Paudyal, S; Krauss, R; Arias, F; Lopez, H; Luco, A; Vergara, C F

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to analyze the association between disease occurrence during early lactation and reproductive performance and survival of dairy cows in high-producing herds, under different management practices in three geographic regions of Chile. Data included 30,757 lactation records of cows calving from January 2013 to June 2014 in three different locations: Central (C) area (n = 6198 cows in eight herds), Central-South (CS) area(n = 17,234 cows in 12 herds), and South (S) area (n = 7325 cows in six herds). Data were analyzed using logistic regression and ANOVA, considering cow as the experimental unit. Covariables offered to the models included parity number, season of calving, cow and herd relative milk yield, geographic location, and management system. Average milk yield (305 ME) per cow were 12,091, 11,783, and 6852 kg for C, CS, and S regions, respectively. Time from calving to first service and time to conception were consistently greater for cows with at least one disease event within 50 days in milk (DIM), for cows that were reported lame, or for cows that had mastitis or metritis. The odds (95% confidence interval) of pregnancy at 150 DIM (P150) and the odds of survival until 150 DIM (S150) for cows that had at least one disease event within 50 DIM were 0.84 (0.79-0.91) times the odds of pregnancy and 0.25 (0.22-0.28) times the odds of survival for healthy cows. The odds of P150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 1.56 (1.36-1.80) and 1.16 (1.04-1.30) times the odds of P150 for cows in the S area. The odds of S150 for cows located in the C and CS areas were 0.48 (0.37-0.62) and 0.54 (0.42-0.67) times the odds of S150 for cows in the S area. These data suggested that cow health status and geographic location are significantly associated with reproductive performance and survival in this population of Chilean dairy cows. PMID:27059394

  18. EVALUACIÓN DE LA CALIDAD DE LOS ESTABLECIMIENTOS EDUCATIVOS INCORPORADOS AL SISTEMA NACIONAL DE CERTIFICACIÓN AMBIENTAL DE LA PROVINCIA DE BIO BIO (CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Eduardo Burgos Peredo

    2010-01-01

    incorporadas a esta certificación. A lo largo de este estudio se lleva a cabo una descripción del programa en sus diferentes fases, así como una valoración de sus implicaciones y capacidad para promover cambios sostenibles en los centros con repercusión en el territorio, en las personas y en las organizaciones del entorno. Las hipótesis de la investigación se refieren a plantear que la EA se ha incorporado eficientemente al quehacer educativo pedagógico, con participación relevante en la concreción del Proyecto Educativo Institucional (PEI y consolidando la generación de redes asociativas para la gestión ambiental local. Tras el proceso de investigación basado en el método de encuesta fueron refutadas la generalidad de las hipótesis planteadas.

  19. Regional ceramic production and distribution systems during the late intermediate ceramic period in central Chile based on NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research focused on the pre-Hispanic ceramic production and distribution systems of the Maipo region in central Chile by means of determining the concentration of the chemical elements in pottery of the Aconcagua culture (900-1450 A.D.) with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Pottery fragments from eight archaeological sites and natural clays from the study region were included. The differences in chemical composition between subsets of the sample (sites, paste group and ceramic type) were interpreted as indicators of resource and ceramic production locations as well as the imprint of the geological background. These results contributed to the understanding of the Aconcagua ceramic assemblage and helped to test some hypotheses about the Aconcagua social organization. (author)

  20. Soil to crops transfer of radiocaesium and -strontium in different allophanic soils from the Lake Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium and -strontium from soil to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla), sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) was studied in two different allophanic soils (Umbric Andosol and Dystric Fluvisol) characteristic of the Lake Region, an important agricultural region situated in central-south Chile. The TFs for both radionuclides were generally within the ranges in the literature. Cs TFs showed no effect of 'ageing'. There was a pronounced decrease of TFs in sequential harvests of chard during the course of the season by a factor of 3-4 for Cs and 4-8 for Sr. With all crops application of fertilizer containing 90 kg ha-1 of K reduced all Cs TFs. Application of fertilizer containing 100 kg ha-1 of Ca did not affect Sr TFs. (author)

  1. TWO NEW SUBSPECIES OF TROPAEOLUM (TROPAEOLACEAE) FROM THE IV REGION (COQUIMBO), CHILE DOS NUEVAS SUBESPECIES DE TROPAEOLUM (TROPAEOLACEAE) DE LA IV REGION (COQUIMBO) DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, John M; Ana R. Flores

    2000-01-01

    Two new subspecies of Tropaeolum hookerianum Barn. are described. Apart from T. hookerianum subsp. austropurpureum presented here, only one other Andean-Pacific temperate Tropaeolum, T. azureum Bert. ex Colla, has blue to purple flowers. The second taxon, T. hookerianum subsp. pilosum, is distinguished by pilose pedicels, a feature unique among Andean-Pacific temperate species. Both novelties are Chilean endemics restricted to the IV Region (Coquimbo), as also is the nominate subspecies. All ...

  2. Age and origin of Southern Patagonian flood basalts, Chile Chico region (46°45'S)

    OpenAIRE

    Petford, N.; Cheadle, M.; Barreiro, B.

    1996-01-01

    De nouvelle données chimiques et radiométriques de la région de Chile Chico, à l'intérieur de l'actuelle lacune de volcanisme, sont présentées pour une coupe détaillée à travers une séquence inférieure de basaltes des plateaux constitués de tholéites à olivine et hyperstène normatif. Des âges 40Ar/39Ar de 51,7 plus ou moins 0,7 à 51,8 plus ou moins 0,9 impliquent une période d'éruption d'environ 0,1 Ma et confirment la similarité d'âge de ces roches avec les basaltes voisins d'Argentine. Les ...

  3. Viabilidad económica de la producción de espárrago en la Región del Maule, Chile Economic viability of asparagus production in the Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán L Andrade

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de viabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L. en Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos fueron tomados de los registros históricos de un predio localizado en la zona de Linares, Región del Maule, Chile. Los indicadores de viabilidad calculados fueron el valor actual neto (VAN, tasa interna de retorno (TIR, índice de valor actual neto (IVAN, razón beneficio-costo (RBC, y período de recuperación del capital (PRC. Los indicadores de eficiencia económica fueron el costo medio total (CMET, margen unitario ponderado (MUP y la rentabilidad sobre capital (RSC. Como unidad de análisis se consideró una hectárea. Para productores con tierra, los resultados obtenidos en la situación estándar fueron: Ch$1,52 millones (VAN, 12,1% (TIR, 0,3 (IVAN, 1,1 (RBC y 10 años (PRC. Para la etapa de producción se proyectó un CMET mínimo de Ch $317,8 kg-1, un MUP máximo de Ch$407 kg-1 y una RSC de 20,3%. La principal conclusión es que el cultivo de espárrago en la región del Maule, en Chile, es viable para los productores con tierra.Viability and economic efficiency indicators for asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. production in Chile were evaluated. Technical parameters were obtained from an historical farm located in Linares area, Maule Region, Chile. Viability was assessed by means of net present value (VAN, internal rate of return (TIR, net present value index (IVAN, cost-benefit ratio (RBC, and investment recovery period (PRC. Economic efficiency was assessed through production average cost (CMET, weighted unit margin (MUP, and return on equity (RSC. The analysis was based upon one hectare. Results for producers who own their land were US$ 2,529 ha-1 (VAN, 12.14% (TIR, 0.25 (IVAN, and 1.1 (RBC. The minimum CMET was estimated at US$ 0.53 kg-1 the maximum MUP at US$ 0.68 kg-1, and RSC until 20.3%. The main conclusion is that asparagus production in the

  4. Desalination as Groundwater Conservation: The Cost of Protecting Cultural and Environmental Resources in Chile's Region II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E. C.; Cristi, O.; Libecap, G. D.

    2012-12-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence that groundwater overdraft is occurring worldwide. Economists argue that the cause of this overdraft is the open-access nature of the resource, which results in a "tragedy of the commons." Sustainable water management requires that some institution control the resource to limit this overdraft by reducing water extraction. This reduction creates scarcity and requires a method of rationing. The economically efficient outcome occurs when the lowest value uses of water are eliminated. This allocation, though, may have undesirable social consequences, such as the loss of small-scale farming, and political ramifications that make such an allocation unpopular to implement. This paper explores the economic cost of leaving water in low-value uses. The policy we explore is a moratorium on voluntary water sales to mining firms to protect the groundwater resource in northern Chile. This policy has accelerated the use of expensive desalinated water, whose cost is primarily driven by its heavy use of carbon-based electricity. Chile has a strong system of water property rights that economists argue ration water in a way that leads to the efficient allocation through water markets. This paper first explores the potential inefficiency of a water market when groundwater and surface water are linked, as well as when different users vary in their intensity of use. This theoretical background provides a framework for determining the economically efficient allocation of water and the losses associated with the moratorium in northern Chile. The policy does protect some environmental and cultural public goods, which potentially offset some or all of this cost. We provide a perspective on the magnitude of these public goods but do not attempt to value them explicitly. Instead, we demonstrate what their value must be so that the moratorium policy has a cost-to-benefit ratio of one. While the estimate of lost income from inefficiency is the main focus

  5. TWO NEW SUBSPECIES OF TROPAEOLUM (TROPAEOLACEAE FROM THE IV REGION (COQUIMBO, CHILE DOS NUEVAS SUBESPECIES DE TROPAEOLUM (TROPAEOLACEAE DE LA IV REGION (COQUIMBO DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Watson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new subspecies of Tropaeolum hookerianum Barn. are described. Apart from T. hookerianum subsp. austropurpureum presented here, only one other Andean-Pacific temperate Tropaeolum, T. azureum Bert. ex Colla, has blue to purple flowers. The second taxon, T. hookerianum subsp. pilosum, is distinguished by pilose pedicels, a feature unique among Andean-Pacific temperate species. Both novelties are Chilean endemics restricted to the IV Region (Coquimbo, as also is the nominate subspecies. All three are allopatric, and considered together extend the species' range to the north, to the south and to the east. Their characters and interrelationships pose implications for Tropaeolum evolution which are likely to be of interest to exponents of phylogenetics (cladistics, phenetics (taxometrics and other disciplines. Descriptions and a key are provided, and aspects of morphology, ecology and distribution discussedSe describen dos subespecies nuevas de Tropaeolum hookerianum Barn. Además de T. hookerianum subsp. austropurpureum J. M. Watson & A.R. Flores presentado aquí, sólo otro Tropaeolum de la zona templada andino-pacífica, T. azureum Bert. ex Colla, tiene flores de color que va de azul a morado. El segundo nuevo taxon, T. hookerianum subsp. pilosum J.M. Watson & A.R. Flores, se distingue por sus pedicelos pilosos, un caracter único entre las especies templadas del sector andino-pacífico. Ambos nuevos taxones son endémicos chilenos y están restringidos a la IV Región (Coquimbo, igual que la subespecie típica. Los tres son alopátricos y en total extienden el rango de la especie hacia el norte, el sur y el este. Sus caracteres e interrelaciones se hallan involucrados en la evolución del género, que parece ser de interés a los exponentes de la filogenética (cladística, la fenética (taxometría y otras disciplinas. Se provee de descripciones, una clave y se discute aspectos de su morfología, ecología y distribución.

  6. Brotes epizoóticos de triquinosis en dos criadores de cerdos de la Región Metropolitana, Chile. Epizootic outbreaks of trichinosis in two pig farms from the Metropolitan Region, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Burgos; Marcelo Ulloa; Pedro Acuña; Julio Ojeda; José Rolando Silva; Oscar Ibáñez; Hugo Schenone

    1999-01-01

    In Chile swine trichinosis has presented a progressive decreasing in the last two decades of XX century. T. Spiralis pig infection descended from an average of 0.683 per 1000 in 1980-1984 to 0.315 in 1985-1989 andto 0.115 in 1990-1996. In the particular case of Metropolitan Region this decreasing has been more marked: from an average of 0.058 per 1000 in 1990-1994to 0.003 in 1995-1999. Between the end of June 1999 and middle January 2000 in MetropolitanRegion abattoirs T. spiralis was detecte...

  7. FIJACION DE AMONIO EN SEIS SUELOS DE LA VIII REGION DE CHILE Ammonium fixation in six Chilean soils from the VIII Region of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Longeri S.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el contenido de NH4+ nativo fijado y las capacidades de fijación inducida y total de 36 muestras superficiales (0-25 cm de suelos pertenecientes a 6 series de la VIII Región: Diguillín (Andisol, Santa Bárbara (Andisol, Collipulli (Alfisol, San Carlos (Alfisol, Cauquenes (Alfisol, Quella (Vertisol. El NH4+ nativo fijado fluctuó entre 0 y 41 mg kg-1 N, con valores promedios de 1,1 a 2,5 en las series alofánicas (Andisoles y de 5,9 a 15,9 en las series no alofánicas. La capacidad de fijación inducida varió entre 0,1 y 73 mg N kg-1, con valores promedio de 1,6 a 2,3 en las series alofánicas y de 17,5 a 37,6 en las series no alofánicas, mientras que la capacidad total de fijación varió entre 0,3 y 81 mg N kg-1, con valores promedio de 3,4 a 4,1 y de 23,4 a 47,0 en el primer y segundo grupo de series, respectivamente. La fijación de NH4+ se asoció principalmente al contenido de los cationes de intercambio que expanden la red de las arcillas. Los suelos que contienen arcillas 2:1 o feldespatos fijaron más NH4+ que los otros suelos.The purpose of this study was to determine the fixed native NH4+ and the artificial and total fixing capacities in 36 superficial (0-25 cm soil samples from six soil series of the VIII Region: Diguillín (Andisol, Santa Bárbara (Andisol, Collipulli (Ultisol, San Carlos (Alfisol, Cauquenes (Alfisol and Quella (Vertisol. The fixed native NH4+ ranged from 0 to 41.2 mg N kg-1, with 1.1 to 2.5 as mean values in the allophanic series (Andisols and 5.9 to 15.9 in the non-allophanic series. The artificial fixation capacity varied between 0.1 and 72.8 mg N kg-1 with 1.6 to 2.3 as mean values in the allophanic series, and 17.5 to 37.6 in the non-allophanic series, while the total fixing capacity varied from 0.3 to 80.9 mg N kg-1 with 3.4 to 4.1 and 23.4 to 47.0 as mean values in the first and second soil groups, respectively. Ammonium fixation mainly correlated with the

  8. Issues of affinity: exploring population structure in the Middle and Regional Developments Periods of San Pedro de Atacama, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rouff, Christina; Knudson, Kelly J; Hubbe, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The Middle Period (AD 400-1000) in northern Chile's Atacama oases is characterized by an increase in social complexity and regional interaction, much of which was organized around the power and impact of the Tiwanaku polity. Despite the strong cultural influence of Tiwanaku and numerous other groups evident in interactions with Atacameños, the role of immigration into the oases during this period is unclear. While archaeological and bioarchaeological research in the region has shown no evidence that clearly indicates large groups of foreign immigrants, the contemporary increase in interregional exchange networks connecting the oases to other parts of the Andes suggests residential mobility and the possibility that movement of people both into and out of the oases accompanied these foreign influences. Here, we analyze biodistance through cranial non-metric traits in a skeletal sample from prehistoric San Pedro de Atacama to elucidate the extent of foreign influence in the oases and discuss its implications. We analyzed 715 individuals from the Middle Period (AD 400-1000) and later Regional Developments Period (AD 1000-1450), and found greater phenotypic differences between Middle Period cemeteries than among cemeteries in the subsequent period. We argue that this greater diversity extends beyond the relationship between the oases and the renowned Tiwanaku polity and reflects the role of the oases and its different ayllus as a node and way station for the Middle Period's myriad interregional networks. PMID:24104607

  9. Assessment of conceptual model uncertainty for the regional aquifer Pampa del Tamarugal – North Chile

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    R. Rojas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we assess the uncertainty in modelling the groundwater flow for the Pampa del Tamarugal Aquifer (PTA – North Chile using a novel and fully integrated multi-model approach aimed at explicitly accounting for uncertainties arising from the definition of alternative conceptual models. The approach integrates the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE and Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA methods. For each member of an ensemble M of potential conceptualizations, model weights used in BMA for multi-model aggregation are obtained from GLUE-based likelihood values. These model weights are based on model performance, thus, reflecting how well a conceptualization reproduces an observed dataset D. GLUE-based cumulative predictive distributions for each member of M are then aggregated obtaining predictive distributions accounting for conceptual model uncertainties. For the PTA we propose an ensemble of eight alternative conceptualizations covering all major features of groundwater flow models independently developed in past studies and including two recharge mechanisms which have been source of debate for several years. Results showed that accounting for heterogeneities in the hydraulic conductivity field (a reduced the uncertainty in the estimations of parameters and state variables, and (b increased the corresponding model weights used for multi-model aggregation. This was more noticeable when the hydraulic conductivity field was conditioned on available hydraulic conductivity measurements. Contribution of conceptual model uncertainty to the predictive uncertainty varied between 6% and 64% for ground water head estimations and between 16% and 79% for ground water flow estimations. These results clearly illustrate the relevance of conceptual model uncertainty.

  10. Epidemiología de la hidatidosis humana en la IX Región de la Araucanía, Chile.: 1991-1998 Epidemiology of human hydatidosis in the IX Region of la Araucania, Chile 1991-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Félix Aliaga; Carlos Oberg

    2000-01-01

    In the region of la Araucania, located in the south of Chile (3724'-3934' South lat.), the economy is based in cattle raising and agriculture. The cases of human hydatidosis, mortality and notification registered in la Araucania 1991-1998 are reviewed. The rate for hydatid disease is 38.5 per 100,000 population. Liver (47.1%) and lung (40.7%) were the most affected viscera. Days in hospital, 11-20 the 56.1%. Disease in female is 51.1%. The mortality rate is 0.8 per 100,000, the most frecuentl...

  11. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in rural and urban communities from Los Rios Region, Chile

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    Claudia Munoz-Zanzi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent protozoan infection with a complex lifecycle and wide profile of risk factors. The impact of congenital infection is well documented; however, there is increasing evidence of a much broader range of potential health outcomes and the need to improve our understanding of the transmission patterns and infection sources in the overall population. This study examined the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in distinct community types from a highly endemic area of Chile. Methods: A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in households from urban slums, rural villages, and farms which included collection of blood samples, as well as data on sociodemographic, behavioral, and spatial variables. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Avidity index was obtained for IgG-positive samples. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to identify associations with relevant risk factors. Results: Crude seroprevalence was 55.9% (95% CI: 52.6–59.1% with no difference by community type. Results are indicative of early exposure to the parasite, including 40% of 13- to 17-year olds who were already seropositive. Sociodemographic factors associated with seropositivity included age, occupations, and income. However, sex modified the effect of occupation as well as of income. Practices associated with increased seropositivity were consumption of sheep and locally produced vegetables as well as cleaning household barns or sheds. Boiling water for household use was a protective factor. Living on a sloped terrain without vegetation was a protective factor, while living in an area with high flow accumulation index was a risk factor. Conclusions: Seroprevalence of infection was high in both rural and urban slum communities with unique risk factor profiles for each community type. Findings highlight the role of the household and the community environment as influential factors in the

  12. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in rural and urban communities from Los Rios Region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Campbell, Christopher; Berg, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent protozoan infection with a complex lifecycle and wide profile of risk factors. The impact of congenital infection is well documented; however, there is increasing evidence of a much broader range of potential health outcomes and the need to improve our understanding of the transmission patterns and infection sources in the overall population. This study examined the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in distinct community types from a highly endemic area of Chile. Methods A cross-sectional serosurvey was carried out in households from urban slums, rural villages, and farms which included collection of blood samples, as well as data on sociodemographic, behavioral, and spatial variables. Blood samples were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies. Avidity index was obtained for IgG-positive samples. Mixed-effects regression modeling was used to identify associations with relevant risk factors. Results Crude seroprevalence was 55.9% (95% CI: 52.6–59.1%) with no difference by community type. Results are indicative of early exposure to the parasite, including 40% of 13- to 17-year olds who were already seropositive. Sociodemographic factors associated with seropositivity included age, occupations, and income. However, sex modified the effect of occupation as well as of income. Practices associated with increased seropositivity were consumption of sheep and locally produced vegetables as well as cleaning household barns or sheds. Boiling water for household use was a protective factor. Living on a sloped terrain without vegetation was a protective factor, while living in an area with high flow accumulation index was a risk factor. Conclusions Seroprevalence of infection was high in both rural and urban slum communities with unique risk factor profiles for each community type. Findings highlight the role of the household and the community environment as influential factors in the epidemiology of the infection

  13. Exotic plant invasions to the mediterranean region of Chile: causes, history and impacts Invasión de plantas exóticas en la región mediterránea de Chile: causas, historia e impactos

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    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the literature on patterns, causes, processes and impacts of exotic plants, primarily in the mediterranean region of Chile, considering three major non-independent drivers of the invasion process: (a Availability of exotic species propagules, (b attributes of the local communities in which exotic species establish and through which they will eventually spread out, and (c attributes of exotic species that either facilitate or constraint their spread into new sites. Regarding availability of propagules, central Chile matorral presents the communities with the greatest incidence of naturalized herbs, followed by the sclerophyllous forest and the espinal scrubland in the coastal range. In contrast, north-central communities have lower numbers and proportions of naturalized species of herbs in their seed banks. Availability and persistence of naturalized herbs do not differ between aboveground vegetation and seed bank. Regarding attributes of local communities associated with the establishment and the spread of exotics, grazing regime and land use emerge as the most prominent causes that render them more prone to invasion by exotics. Evidence on the effect of the fire regime is contradictory and native species richness does not seem to be an important factor. Regarding attributes of exotic species, results suggest that naturalized annuals germinate within a wide temperature range, are highly resistant to cold and dry conditions, and show some degree of physiological dormancy. Additionally, naturalized annuals are highly tolerant to poor soils, but are generally intolerant to shade. These general attributes have largely determined the invasion process in the mediterranean region of Chile. Historical data indicate that an important number of exotic species were intentionally introduced, and that the spread of exotic is uncontrolled. It has been demonstrated that arrival time of exotics is of great relevance to understand present day spread of

  14. APPROACH TO BREEDING SITE SELECTION OF KELP GULL (LARUS DOMINICANUS LICHTENSTEIN 1823) IN AN URBAN AREA FROM COQUIMBO REGION (CHILE) AND A NEW NESTING SUBSTRATE

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Villavicencio, C.

    2014-01-01

    An approach to the nest site selection of Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus) in an urban area and a new nesting substrate is recorded. Data were collected between November 2012 and December 2013 in an urban area of the Coquimbo Region (Chile). The selection of sites was modeled with a logistic regression using two variables (distance to the nearest nest and distance closest to the sea) and selecting random points within the study area. 13 nests built mainly of thatch were recorded. ...

  15. Repeated mass strandings of Miocene marine mammals from Atacama Region of Chile point to sudden death at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyenson, Nicholas D; Gutstein, Carolina S; Parham, James F; Le Roux, Jacobus P; Chavarría, Catalina Carreño; Little, Holly; Metallo, Adam; Rossi, Vincent; Valenzuela-Toro, Ana M; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge; Santelli, Cara M; Rogers, David Rubilar; Cozzuol, Mario A; Suárez, Mario E

    2014-04-22

    Marine mammal mass strandings have occurred for millions of years, but their origins defy singular explanations. Beyond human causes, mass strandings have been attributed to herding behaviour, large-scale oceanographic fronts and harmful algal blooms (HABs). Because algal toxins cause organ failure in marine mammals, HABs are the most common mass stranding agent with broad geographical and widespread taxonomic impact. Toxin-mediated mortalities in marine food webs have the potential to occur over geological timescales, but direct evidence for their antiquity has been lacking. Here, we describe an unusually dense accumulation of fossil marine vertebrates from Cerro Ballena, a Late Miocene locality in Atacama Region of Chile, preserving over 40 skeletons of rorqual whales, sperm whales, seals, aquatic sloths, walrus-whales and predatory bony fish. Marine mammal skeletons are distributed in four discrete horizons at the site, representing a recurring accumulation mechanism. Taphonomic analysis points to strong spatial focusing with a rapid death mechanism at sea, before being buried on a barrier-protected supratidal flat. In modern settings, HABs are the only known natural cause for such repeated, multispecies accumulations. This proposed agent suggests that upwelling zones elsewhere in the world should preserve fossil marine vertebrate accumulations in similar modes and densities. PMID:24573855

  16. A study of SO2 emissions and ground surface displacements at Lastarria volcano, Antofagasta Region, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewcun, Lucie G.

    Lastarria volcano (Chile) is located at the North-West margin of the 'Lazufre' ground inflation signal (37x45 km2), constantly uplifting at a rate of ˜2.5 cm/year since 1996 (Pritchard and Simons 2002; Froger et al. 2007). The Lastarria volcano has the double interest to be superimposed on a second, smaller-scale inflation signal and to be the only degassing area of the Lazufre signal. In this project, we compared daily SO2 burdens recorded by AURA's OMI mission for 2005-2010 with Ground Surface Displacements (GSD) calculated from the Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) images for 2003-2010. We found a constant maximum displacement rate of 2.44 cm/year for the period 2003-2007 and 0.80- 0.95 cm/year for the period 2007-2010. Total SO 2 emitted is 67.0 kT for the period 2005-2010, but detection of weak SO2 degassing signals in the Andes remains challenging owing to increased noise in the South Atlantic radiation Anomaly region.

  17. Precipitations in the II region Antofagasta-Chile and their negative impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research has the purpose to acknowledge a diagnosis in relation to rainfalls motivated by the action of a frontal system and its negative impacts in the second Region-Antofagasta taken place on Tuesday 18 of June In 1991. The study looks at the synoptic situation that prevails in the Region, historical rainfalls period 1904-1991, floods caused by the effect of rain, the atmospheric situation that has affected the region on days June 17 and 18, lessons, education and propositions, in order to diminish in the future the negative impacts, human danger, technology-housing-located in the zones of high risks

  18. Spatial and temporal constraints on regional-scale groundwater flow in the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayne, Richard S.; Pollyea, Ryan M.; Dodd, Justin P.; Olson, Elizabeth J.; Swanson, Susan K.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin (Atacama Desert, northern Chile) are the sole source of water for the coastal city of Iquique and the economically important mining industry. Despite this, the regional groundwater system remains poorly understood. Although it is widely accepted that aquifer recharge originates as precipitation in the Altiplano and Andean Cordillera to the east, there remains debate on whether recharge is driven primarily by near-surface groundwater flow in response to periodic flood events or by basal groundwater flux through deep-seated basin fractures. In addressing this debate, the present study quantifies spatial and temporal variability in regional-scale groundwater flow paths at 20.5°S latitude by combining a two-dimensional model of groundwater and heat flow with field observations and δ18O isotope values in surface water and groundwater. Results suggest that both previously proposed aquifer recharge mechanisms are likely influencing aquifers within the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin; however, each mechanism is operating on different spatial and temporal scales. Storm-driven flood events in the Altiplano readily transmit groundwater to the eastern Pampa del Tamarugal Basin through near-surface groundwater flow on short time scales, e.g., 100-101 years, but these effects are likely isolated to aquifers in the eastern third of the basin. In addition, this study illustrates a physical mechanism for groundwater originating in the eastern highlands to recharge aquifers and salars in the western Pampa del Tamarugal Basin over timescales of 104-105 years.

  19. The surface energy balance of the Guanaco and Toro 1 glaciers in the Norte Chico region, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Shelley; Mölg, Thomas; Nicholson, Lindsey; Kinnard, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    The ablation of the cold, arid, high-altitude glaciers of the Norte Chico region in Chile remains poorly constrained at present. The development of ablation features such as penitentes indicate that sublimation processes are prevalent, but equally the presence of ponds and cryoconite holes in the near-surface ice indicate that melt can also play a role in the ablation of these glaciers. In this paper we used meteorological data collected from the surfaces of the Guanaco and Toro 1 glaciers between October 2008 and July 2009 to determine the conditions that control the energy balance and the resulting mass loss by surface ablation. We investigate the diurnal and seasonal energy exchanges on each glacier to evaluate whether the processes on each are equivalent, before calculating the ratio of sublimation to melt on each. We found that melt was more important on Guanaco Glacier than on Toro 1 Glacier, and that the seasonal peak of ablation occurred on Guanaco Glacier between December and late January, whereas the ablation peak on Toro 1 Glacier between February and March. This ablation offset is probably related to differences in the terrain surrounding each climate station, such that on Guanaco Glacier, the surrounding terrain is planar, whereas on Toro 1 Glacier, whilst the immediate area around the climate station was free of penitentes for much of the modelled time, penitentes grew around the station, changing the roughness length, and hence the importance of sublimation. This study showed that the development of penitentes during an ablation season changes the importance of energy balance terms, and hence the types of ablation experienced on a glacier. In future we hope to be able to model ablation from penitente-covered regions more accurately, and to develop a distributed energy balance model for use on glaciers where penitentes exist.

  20. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM10 and PM2.5 measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM10 and PM2.5 were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO3− and SO4=), atomic absorption (Na+, K+) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM2.5 fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM10 fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM10 is 50 μg/m3 and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m3. For the PM2.5 fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3 μg/m3 and a peak daily

  1. [Demography and fishery of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinidae) in south-austral Chile region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Patricio M

    2005-12-01

    In the Magellan Region of southern Chile (52 degrees 20'S - 55 degrees 30'S), the edible urchin Loxechinus albus is collected by 1200 artisanal fishermen, of whom 450 are divers. About 360 small fishing boats and 54 transport vessels carry the fresh product to 16 processing plants. Landings of about 27 000 tons were recorded between January and December 1995. Test diameters of urchins harvested monthly were measured for a total of 119 239 specimens, and 36 406 specimens were individually weighed; sex determination was carried out on 2 314 specimens. Field data indicate that the harvest was about 6.6 x 106 dozen urchins (this is a measuring method employed by fishermen in the region), with an extractive effort of 14 753 diver/days. The fisheries yield ranged from an annual minimum of 235 DUDD (dozen urchins per diver/day) to a maximum of 660 DUDD. In overall terms, the lowest average yields were between January and April (415-427 DUDD), and the highest yields between May and December (456-510 DUDD). Mean sizes increased from June to November and decreased from December to June. Size frequency of males and females were polymodal, with the most relevant modes at 72-84 mm in males, and at 79-88 mm in the females. The percentage of individuals below the minimum legal size (70 mm) did not exceed 4.9% for males and 3.6% for females. The size-weight records fit a power model which suggested that this species has a negative allometric growth (b = 2.007). Regarding weight, urchins in the size range from 80.0 to 84.9 mm were those with the maximum contribution to the regional landings. The highest values recorded for the utilized condition factor were: Average Condition Factor (ACF) = May to July, and November; Isometric (or Cubic) Condition Factor (ICF) = July; and Allometric Condition Factor (ACF) = June. Spawning occurred mainly between August and September, and ended by the end of October. Exploitation of this species represents one of the main sources of employment for

  2. AISLAMIENTO DE BACTERIAS RESISTENTES A ARSENICO DESDE MUESTRAS DE ROCAS VOLCANICAS DE LA QUEBRADA CAMARONES, REGION PARINACOTA: CHILE ISOLATION OF ARSENIC RESISTANCE BACTERIA FROM VOLCANIC ROCKS OF QUEBRADA CAMARONES, PARINACOTA REGION: CHILE

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    Víctor Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El arsénico se encuentra en estado natural en rocas, suelo, agua, aire y es liberado al ambiente mediante fenómenos naturales tales como erupciones volcánicas, erosión de las rocas e incendios forestales, donde los microorganismos son esenciales para el ecosistema por su participación en diferentes procesos naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue aislar bacterias resistentes a arsénico, desde muestras de rocas provenientes de la Quebrada Camarones, región Parinacota, Chile. Las rocas fueron cultivadas en un medio mineral adicionado con arsenito (500 ug/ml durante 7 días a temperatura ambiente y con agitación. Las cepas fueron aisladas en diferentes medios e identificadas mediante el sistema Rapid™NF plus. La capacidad de oxidar arsénico fue realizada mediante el ensayo cualitativo con nitrato de plata y la detección de genes aox, mediante RT-PCR. La reducción de arsénico fue evaluada mediante la amplificación de los genes ars por PCR. Se aislaron bacilos Gram negativos, no fermentadores, identificados como Pseudomonas alcaligenes y Wautersia solanacearum todas ellas capaces de tolerar concentraciones igual o mayor a 8 mM de As(III. Los análisis mediante RT-PCR demuestran la presencia de genes aox, que codifica para una enzima oxidante que cataliza la oxidación de As(III a As(V. La capacidad de oxidar arsenito de las cepas aisladas, favorecería la colonización de otras especies no tolerantes a arsénico importantes en los ciclos biogeoquímicos.Arsenic is naturally present in rocks, soil, water, and air, being released to the environment by natural processes such as volcanic eruptions, and erosion rock. Microorganisms are known to play an important role in the Arsenic natural cycle. The aim of this work was isolate arsenic resistant bacteria to volcanic rocks, from Quebrada Camarones, Parinacota Region, Chile. Rocks were cultured in an arsenite conditioned mineral broth (500 ug/mL over 7 days at ambient temperature, under

  3. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in human scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile (composed by pregnant women, nurse women and prescholar children residing in fisheries distributed within the coastal zone of this region), whose diet should include fish and shellfish as main food components, and to evaluate the degree of mercury contamination of this population by comparison with a control population. 6 refs, 2 tabs

  4. Current knowledge on biotechnological interesting seaweeds from the Magellan Region, Chile

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    Andrés Mansilla

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a compilation of data from investigations made with marine benthic algae from the Magellan Region that have biotechnological utilization in human consumption or medicine or as a source of phycolloids or food supplements or animal feed. The most important Rhodophyta species are: Ahnfeltia plicata (Hudson E.M. Fries for agarose production, Gigartina skottsbergii Setchell & N.L.Gardner for carrageenan production, and Callophyllis variegata (Bory de Saint-Vincent Kützing for human consumption. The most important Heterokontophyta species are: Macrocystis pyrifera (L. C. Agardh, and Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot for human consumption, alginate production, and as biofertilizer for agricultural crops. M. pyrifera is also used as a food supplement for salmon, chickens, quails, sheep and bovines and for biofuel production.

  5. Bacterial Composition and Quantitation in the Yungay Region of the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Lauren; Conley, Catharine A.; Ishkhanova, Galina; Kovacs, Gregory; Jordan, Jeanne; Cullings, Ken; Gomez-Silva, Benito; McKay, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Voyager would have produced similar negative results if tested in the Yungay region (Navarro-Gonzales et al, 2003). However, the number of bacteria present per gr'am in the Yungay sands is not well-established, being below the detection limit of culture methods. For the past several years, this group has been analyzing Yungay sands by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), both in the lab and in the field, to establish protocols for counting bacteria. We use primers that detect a broad range of bacterial taxa, including both proteobacteria and firmicutes. Optimization of DNA extraction and qPCR analysis is critical for accurate counts. Comparison of qPCR results with PhosphoLipid Fatty Acid (PLFA)-analysis and other counting methods indicates that there are detectable bacteria in sand obtained from the upper few centimeters of the desert surface.

  6. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-05-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?-9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900-13,800 and 12,700-9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  7. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  8. Latencia y banco de semillas en plantas de la región mediterránea de Chile central Seed bank and dormancy in plants of the Mediterranean region of central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Los bancos de semillas en las regiones mediterráneas presentan rasgos particulares que los distinguen de bancos de otras regiones del mundo. El banco de semillas es concentración de propágulos viables enterrados en el suelo por períodos variables de tiempo. Los bancos de semillas del matorral de Chile central son principalmente transitorios y funcionalmente semejantes a los bancos presentes en otros ecosistemas mediterráneos no perturbados por fuego, a excepción de Australia. El banco transitorio es aquel formado por semillas que permanecen viables en los horizontes superiores del suelo por no más de 1 año después de la dispersión. En el matorral de Chile central, en los horizontes superiores del suelo, se encuentra una de las densidades de semillas de hierbas más altas de las regiones mediterráneas. Una gran proporción de esta reserva está constituida por semillas sin latencia, fácilmente germinables, especialmente pastos anuales que germinan en otoño. Con respecto a los mecanismos de latencia de las semillas del banco transitorio responsables del almacenamiento de las semillas en el suelo, nuestra revisión bibliográfica reveló los siguientes principales síndromes de germinación: (1 especies con semillas que deben ser estratificadas en frío debido a la presencia de latencia fisiológica (principalmente hierbas introducidas; (2 especies con semillas que deben ser escarificadas con ácidos o procedimientos mecánicos debido a la presencia de latencia física (principalmente especies leñosas nativas; (3 especies con latencia fisiológica que necesitan de estratificación cálida para activar la germinación (hierbas nativas e introducidas. Estos síndromes provocan que la época de germinación en Chile central esté situada entre otoño e inicio de la primavera. Además, no hay referencias sobre la presencia de algún síndrome esporádico de germinación para los componentes de un banco de semillas permanente. Proponemos

  9. Período de oviposición de Gasterophilus nasalis y G. intestinalis en equinos: VIII Región, Chile Egg laying period of Gasterophilus nasalis and G. intestinalis on horses: 8th Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sievers

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el período de oviposición de Gasterophilus nasalis y su relación con las condiciones climáticas locales se realizó, cada dos semanas, el conteo de los huevos colocados en los pelos de la región submaxilar de 10 caballos Hackney en un predio de la VIII Región, Chile, desde noviembre del 2002 a mayo del 2003 (37°, 03', S.; 72°, 33' O.. Los caballos se mantuvieron a potrero sin tratamientos antiparasitarios. Después de cada conteo se extrajeron algunos huevos para ser analizados en el laboratorio y luego se procedió a teñir los restantes con una solución de azul de metileno con el fin de poder determinar los nuevos huevos depositados en la próxima fecha de observación. G. nasalis inició la oviposición en la región intermandibular de los caballos a fines de noviembre de 2002. Las posturas máximas de 853 y 945 huevos durante dos semanas se registraron en los 10 caballos a mediados de diciembre de 2002 y a mediados de enero de 2003 respectivamente. Luego se mantuvo la postura en alrededor de 300 huevos cada dos semanas, hasta inicios de abril y concluyó en mayo de 2003. El período de oviposición coincidió con temperaturas medias superiores a los 15°C; las precipitaciones influyeron negativamente sobre la postura de huevos. A inicios de marzo de 2003 se registró sorpresivamente la oviposición de huevos de G. intestinalis en las regiones preesternal, del encuentro, costo-esternal, inguinal y los miembros de los caballos. El número de huevos aumentó en forma constante hasta mediados de abril, superando los 2000 huevos en dos semanas en los 10 caballos. Por la ubicación de la postura de los huevos y su particular morfología se confirma la presencia de G. intestinalis en Chile. No se pudo determinar el momento en que concluye su oviposición ni la relación con las condiciones climáticas. Se concluye que G. nasalis comienza la oviposición a fines de noviembre y dura hasta inicios de mayo

  10. The mosses (Bryophyta) of Capitán Prat Province, Aisén Region, southern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The bryophytes of Capitán Prat province have remained one of the least explored in Chile. The eventual construction of several dams on the rivers Baker and Pascua required prospection of all groups of organisms including bryophytes, work that was facilitated by the recent construction of vehicular roads that now offer easy access to previously almost unaccessible locations. The results of intense bryophyte collecting during the austral summer of 2007 are here presented. A total of 260 moss ta...

  11. Diversity of Quinoa in a Biogeographical Island: a Review of Constraints and Potential from Arid to Temperate Regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier BAZILE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chile, isolated by a hyper-arid desert in the north, the Andes Range to the east and the Pacific and Antarctic waters (west and south, has a highly endemic flora. This hotspot of biodiversity is in danger not only due to increasing desertification, but also because human activities can diminish agrobiodiversity. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is an Andean species producing highly nutritious grains, which almost disappeared from Chile during the Spanish colonization. Today less than 300 small-scale and highly isolated farmers still grow it as a rain-fed crop. This review describes the biogeographical-social context of quinoa in Chile, and its high genetic diversity as a product of a long domestication process, resulting in numerous local landraces whose conservation and use for breeding improved varieties is of paramount importance. We suggest the term “lighthouse crop” to emphasize its contribution to small scale ecological and bio diverse agriculture, particularly in stressful environments, to promote a healthier nutrition and more equitable markets in the world. Furthermore this crop and its exceptional nutritional properties were invoked by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO to promote its use worldwide, and to declare 2013 the International Year of Quinoa.

  12. Escalas de producción en economías mineras: El caso de Chile en su dimensión regional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Rivera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Una proporción importante de la producción de cobre en Chile está geográficamente concentrada en dos regiones: Antofagasta y Atacama. A pesar de la evolución positiva del precio del cobre, el ingreso promedio de estas localidades ha presentado variaciones. Así, durante periodos de incrementos en el precio del cobre el ingreso promedio de Atacama ha aumentado, mientras que lo mismo no ha ocurrido en Antofagasta· Este trabajo analiza esta diferencia a partir del rol de las escalas de producción en el sector minero. Utilizando un análisis de sensibilidad para un modelo insumo-producto desagregado, se calculan encadenamientos y multiplicadores por escalas de producción a nivel regional. Esta estrategia permite identificar y cuantificar el impacto de cada escala de producción, confirmando efectos heterogéneos de la minería sobre la producción e ingreso local, aspectos que adquieren especial relevancia al analizarse la política minera actual en Chile.

  13. Evaluation of the hydrogeological interconnection between the Salar de Maricunga and the Piedra Pomez basins, Atacama Region, Chile; An isotope and geochemical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater is the main water source for the mining industry in the Altiplano of northern Chile. Groundwater also plays a significant role as a water source for lagoons, wetlands and salares, which are important ecosystems for animal life and vegetation communities that exist in this arid region. The rational use and protection of the groundwater resource requires a good understanding of the aquifer systems. One of the key components in the assessment of water resources in Northern Chile, is the hydrogeological interconnection between basins. During the last three years, as part of a major hydrogeological project, Sernageomin has been working in the Altiplano of the Atacama region (Iriarte et al., 1998; Iriarte, 1999; Venegas et al., 2000; Santibanez, in prep.). This study included the evaluation of the geometry and groundwater potential of the aquifers and the chemical characterization of the surface and groundwater. Part of this study has focused on the Salar de Maricunga and the Campo de Piedra Pomez basins, due to an increasing demand for groundwater resources in this area by the mining industry. This paper discusses the use of isotope and geochemical tools that were used to evaluate the hydrogeological interconnection between the Salar de Maricunga and the Piedra Pomez basins. The geological and hydrogeological framework of this work is discussed in detail by Iriarte (1999) (au)

  14. Epidemiología de la hidatidosis humana en la IX Región de la Araucanía, Chile.: 1991-1998 Epidemiology of human hydatidosis in the IX Region of la Araucania, Chile 1991-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Aliaga

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In the region of la Araucania, located in the south of Chile (3724'-3934' South lat., the economy is based in cattle raising and agriculture. The cases of human hydatidosis, mortality and notification registered in la Araucania 1991-1998 are reviewed. The rate for hydatid disease is 38.5 per 100,000 population. Liver (47.1% and lung (40.7% were the most affected viscera. Days in hospital, 11-20 the 56.1%. Disease in female is 51.1%. The mortality rate is 0.8 per 100,000, the most frecuently affected county is Imperial. The age group 15-44 years is the most affected. The notification rate is 8.74 per 100,000 populaion. The rate for hydatid disease is higher than the rate of notification, then necessarily there exist a subnotification. We think that it is necessary to investigate the serological prevalence of hydatidosis in the population of the IX Region Araucania.

  15. River runoff and regional climate of a small glaciated catchment area in the Andes in southernmost Patagonia, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Moritz, M.; Kilian, R.

    2003-04-01

    The river runoff from a small partly glaciated catchment area in southernmost Patagonian Andes in Chile is measured to analyse the influence of regional precipitation and climate dependent glacier ablation on runoff. The first data from March to September 2002 were compared to climate data recorded at an automatic weather station in the area. The poster presents the first detailed hydrometeorological investigation from this part of the Andes. The investigation area is located at 53°S in southernmost South America exactly east of the main divide of the mountain range of the Andes at 72.5°W. The catchment area of about 15 km2 comprises parts of the Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap reaching up to 1500 m asl, and the outlet glacier Glaciar Lengua which ends at a proglacial lake at 100 m asl. The Gran Campo Nevado Ice Cap is the major ice mass between the Southern Patagonian Ice field in the north and the Strait of Magallan to the South. Climate in the area is characterised by whole-year round cool and super-humid conditions with a mean annual air temperature of 5,6°C at sea level and an annual precipitation sum of approximately 7,000 mm. The Río Lengua itself meets approximately 3.5 km downstreams from the proglacial lake into the fjord system of Canal Garjado which is a branch of Seno Skyring. A continuous hourly record of water levels in the river was obtained from two digital water depth sensors. Runoff was calibrated against river level by measuring runoff at different times with the tracer method of salt dilution and with velocity measurements employing a hydrometric vane. Mean runoff was computed to about 3 m3/s with peak flows exceeding 10 m3/s. Ablation on the glacier was estimated using the degree-day method with a degree-day factor that has been calibrated previously using data from a temporal energy balance weather station on Glacíar Lengua. The correlation between runoff and air temperature and precipitation returned significant correlation coefficients of rt

  16. Poverty determinants of acute respiratory infections among Mapuche indigenous peoples in Chile's Ninth Region of Araucania, using GIS and spatial statistics to identify health disparities

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    Rojas Flavio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research concerns Araucanía, often called the Ninth Region, the poorest region of Chile where inequalities are most extreme. Araucanía hasn't enjoyed the economic success Chile achieved when the country returned to democracy in 1990. The Ninth Region also has the largest ethnic Mapuche population, located in rural areas and attached to small agricultural properties. Written and oral histories of diseases have been the most frequently used methods to explore the links between an ancestral population's perception of health conditions and their deprived environments. With census data and hospital records, it is now possible to incorporate statistical data about the links between poverty and disease among ethnic communities and compare results with non-Mapuche population. Data sources Hospital discharge records from Health Services North N = 24,126 patients, year 2003, and 7 hospitals, Health Services South (N = 81,780 patients and 25 hospitals; CAS-2/Family records (N = 527,539 individuals, 439 neighborhoods, 32 Comunas. Methods Given the over-dispersion of data and the clustered nature of observations, we used the global Moran's I and General G Gettis-Ord procedures to test spatial dependence. These tests confirmed the clusters of disease and the need to use spatial regression within a General Linear Mixed Model perspective. Results Health outcomes indicate significantly higher morbidity rates for the Mapuche compared to non-Mapuche in both age groups Mapuches than non-Mapuches for the entire Ninth Region and for all age groups. Mortality caused by respiratory infections is higher among Mapuches than non-Mapuches in all age-groups. A major finding is the link between poverty and respiratory infections. Conclusion Poverty is significantly associated with respiratory infections in the population of Chile's Ninth Region. High deprivation areas are associated with poverty, and poverty is a predictor of respiratory infections

  17. La Calidad de las Aguas en los Ríos Cautín e Imperial, IX Región-Chile Water Quality in the Cautín and Imperial Rivers, IX Region-Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Rivera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue establecer la calidad descriptiva de agua de los ríos Cautín e Imperial que conforman la cuenca hidrográfica del río Imperial ubicada en la IX Región de la Araucanía-Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando diez estaciones de muestreo. Los resultados muestran que las aguas de estos ríos no presentan problemas fisicoquímicos, de acuerdo a las normas chilenas oficiales. En la parte microbiológica se encontró un recuento alto de bacterias coliformes totales en algunas estaciones de muestreo, lo cual les da el carácter de no aptas para actividades con contacto directo y para el riego de verduras y frutas que se desarrollan a ras de suelo. Se puede predecir que una disminución del caudal de los ríos en el estiaje, provocará la mayor modificación del ecosistema, situación que se hace más crítica por la falta de un plan de manejo integral adecuadoThe objective of this work was to establish the descriptive water quality of the Cautín and Imperial rivers which form the Imperial River hydrographic basin in the IX Region of Araucanía, Chile. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluations were made at ten sampling stations. Physicochemical parameters measured in these rivers did not exceed the legally established Chilean water criteria. Microbiological testing showed high counts of coliform bacteria at some stations, exceeding water quality criteria for use in direct contact activities as well as for watering fruits and vegetables that develop at ground level. It can be predicted that reductions in river flow volume during dry periods will produce further modifications in this environment, which at present is not regulated by an appropriate integral management plan

  18. Analysis of the contribution and efficiency of the Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca, 33º S in protecting the regional vascular plant flora (Metropolitan and Fifth regions of Chile Análisis de la contribución y eficiencia del Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca, 33º S, en la protección de la flora vascular regional (regiones Metropolitana y Quinta de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARY T. K ARROYO

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca (SN Yerba Loca, Metropolitan Region (MR, 33º S, Chile is analyzed for its conservation value and efficiency in protecting native vascular plants in a regional context. The reserve's flora of 500 species and subtaxa was evaluated for species richness, endemism, range size and marginally distributed taxa, using species-area analysis, and tendencies in the floras of the MR (1.434 species and subtaxa and MR-Fifth regions (1,841 species and subtaxa to set the regional pattern. The reserve (0.7 % of MR land area and 0.3 % MR-Fifth land area contains 34 % of the MR and 27% of the MR-Fifth floras, and around 16-17 % of the mediterranean-climate area (regions IV-VIII flora of central Chile. Veech's Relative Richness Index (RRI revealed that SN Yerba Loca houses exaggerated richness in relation to its land area (28 % more species than expected from the regional model. However, endemism rates (35 % Continental Chile endemics, 22 % Mediterranean endemics, 3% MR-Vth endemics are statistically lower than in the MR (44 %, 29 %, 9 % and the MR-Vth (48 %, 31 %, 11 % floras, and SN Yerba Loca houses proportionately fewer MR endemics (2 % than the MR (6 %. Compared with the regional floras, the reserve contains statistically fewer marginally distributed species, and range size (median = five administrative regions is significantly larger. The reserve's outstanding species richness compensates for its low endemism rates bringing the absolute number of endemics to 92 % of the regional expectation. Corresponding values for marginally distributed species are 81 % (northern limits, 63% (southern limits and for median and shorter range taxa, 100 %. It is concluded that SN Yerba Loca is a highly efficient reserve from the point of view of vascular plant conservation, and represents an excellent conservation choice. SN Yerba Loca and MN El Morado (a second state protected area in the MR, conservatively, house 39 % of the native

  19. Regional Review of Economic Instruments for Solid Waste Management in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Regional Situation and Case Studies about the Private Participation in Santiago and Recycling in La Reina Municipality, Chile: Executive Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Ducci; Mauricio Arredondo; Alvaro Fisher

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a brief summary of the economic instruments in use for solid waste management in the region and to present two case studies of such use in Chile. These case studies refer to the industrial organization for the collection and disposal of residential solid waste in the city of Santiago and the development of a collection and recycling scheme in the Municipality of La Reina, in Santiago. This document presents, as a frame of reference based on the avail...

  20. Genotipos de aislados de campo de Brucella abortus de distintas regiones geográficas de Chile Genotypes of Brucella abortus field isolates from different geographical regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mancilla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La brucelosis bovina es una enfermedad zoonótica, endémica de alto impacto económico. La identificación genética de las cepas prevalentes de Brucella abortus, el patógeno, es clave para establecer estrategias epidemiológicas de control de la enfermedad. La secuencia de inserción IS711 ha sido utilizada como un marcador genético para diferenciar entre especies de Brucella, miembros de una misma especie y dentro de un mismo biovar. Hemos analizado los perfiles de IS711-RFLP de 46 aislados de B. abortus, recolectados durante el periodo 1997-2005, provenientes de 16 áreas geográficas diferentes de Chile. Todos los aislados fueron previamente identificados como B. abortus biovar 1, utilizando las técnicas convencionales. De estos, el 87% compartieron el mismo perfil de IS711-RFLP, mientras que el 8,7% correspondió al patrón de la cepa vacuna RB51. En este trabajo se informa el hallazgo de dos cepas indistinguibles por PCR AMOS con perfiles nuevos de IS711-RFLP, no reportados previamente.Bovine brucellosis is an endemic, zoonotic disease of high economic impact. The genetic identification of the prevalent Brucella abortus strains, the pathogen, is key to pursue further epidemiological strategies for disease control. The insertion sequence IS711 has been used as genetic marker to differentiate among Brucella species, members of the same specie and within the same biovar. We have analyzed the IS711-RFLP pattern for 46 B. abortus isolates, collected during the period of 1997-2005 from 16 different geographical areas of Chile. All isolates were previously identified by conventional techniques as B. abortus biovar 1. Of these, 87% sharedthesame IS711 DNA profile, while an 8.7 % corresponded to the pattern of RB51 vaccine strain. We report the finding of two new strains, not differentiated by AMOS PCR, which showed unreported patterns of IS711-RFLP.

  1. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  2. Acceptance of Transgenic Milk in La Araucania Region,Chile Aceptación de leche transgénica en la Región de la Araucanía Chile

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    Berta Schnettler M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high level of concern caused by genetically modified foods (GMF in developed countries, the relevance of this variable in decision-making about the purchase of fluid milk among consumers in Temuco (La Araucanía Region, Chile was determined. By means of a personal survey of 400 people and using conjoint analysis, it was determined that the presence of genetic modifications in food was more important (44.7% than brand (29.5% and price (25.5% in the decision-making process. By cluster analysis three segments were identified; the largest group (46.5% gave similar relevance to food production and brand, preferring genetically modified milk. For the second group (41.5%, the presence or absence of genetic modification was the most important variable in the purchase, with a strong rejection of milk produced by genetic manipulation and preference for non-transgenic milk. The minority segment (12.0% placed a higher value on price. These three segments prefer national brand milk, reject the product with private brands and react positively to lower prices. The most sensitive segment to genetic food manipulation had a higher proportion of people under 35 years of age and with no children. It is concluded that the absence of genetic manipulation in food is a desirable condition, mainly for young consumers of La Araucanía Region.Considerando el debate generado por los alimentos genéticamente modificados (GMF en los países desarrollados, se determinó la importancia de esta variable en la decisión de compra de leche fluida en consumidores de Temuco (Región de La Araucanía, Chile y la existencia de diferentes segmentos de mercado, mediante una encuesta personal a 400 personas. Utilizando análisis conjunto se determinó, en general, que la presencia de modificación genética en el alimento fue más importante (44,7% que la marca (29,5% y el precio (25,5% en la decisión de compra. Mediante análisis cluster se distinguieron tres segmentos

  3. Viabilidad económica de la producción de espárrago en la Región del Maule, Chile Economic viability of asparagus production in the Maule Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Germán L Andrade; Tristán M Ibáñez

    2006-01-01

    En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de viabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de espárrago (Asparagus officinalis L.) en Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos fueron tomados de los registros históricos de un predio localizado en la zona de Linares, Región del Maule, Chile. Los indicadores de viabilidad calculados fueron el valor actual neto (VAN), tasa interna de retorno (TIR), índice de valor actual neto (IVAN), razón beneficio-costo (RBC), y período de recuperación del ...

  4. Zooplankton Responses to Low-Oxygen Condition upon a Shallow Oxygen Minimum Zone in the Upwelling Region off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, P.; Escribano, R.

    2015-12-01

    A shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) is a critical component in the coastal upwelling ecosystem off Chile. This OMZ causes oxygen-deficient water entering the photic layer and affecting plankton communities having low tolerance to hypoxia. Variable, and usually species-dependent, responses of zooplankton to hypoxia condition can be found. Most dominant species avoid hypoxia by restricting their vertical distribution, while others can temporarily enter and even spent part of their life cycle within the OMZ. Whatever the case, low-oxygen conditions appear to affect virtually all vital rates of zooplankton, such as mortality, fecundity, development and growth and metabolism, and early developmental stages seem more sensitive, with significant consequences for population and community dynamics. For most study cases, these effects are negative at individual and population levels. Observations and predictions upon increasing upwelling intensity over the last 20-30 years indicate a gradual shoaling of the OMZ, and so that an expected enhancement of these negative effects of hypoxia on the zooplankton community. Unknown processes of adaptation and community-structure adjustments are expected to take place with uncertain consequences for the food web of this highly productive eastern boundary current ecosystem.

  5. Geology of the hills in the region of the City of Santiago de Chile: New isotopic constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geological, geochronological and geochemical data demonstrate that the area where the city of Santiago de Chile is established used to be a huge volcanic field. At present, it is possible to distinguish in the area at least three volcanic cycles, which are geographically superimposed and deeply eroded. The first is Oligocene in age, the second Lower to Middle Miocene and the third is Middle to Upper Miocene. The Oligocene cycle is represented by volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks of the Provincia-San Ramon-Abanico and Conchali belts, and welded tuffs of the San Cristobal and Renca hills. The Lower to Middle Miocene cycle consists of subvolcanic rocks, mostly of basaltic to basaltic-andesite composition, characterized by the presence of clino- and orthopyroxene. The Middle to Upper Miocene cycle is composed predominantly of amphibole-bearing subvolcanic rocks of dacitic composition. The latter are found at the Manquehue hill, which limits the northern part of the city, and the hills at the Rinconada de Conchali. In this communication, we present new Sr-, Nd- and Pb- isotope data obtained from two subvolcanic samples of basaltic composition collected from the San Cristobal hill and at the Santa Lucia hill (Lower to Middle Miocene) and one amphibole-bearing subvolcanic sample of dacitic composition from the Manquehue hill (Middle to Upper Miocene) (au)

  6. ANÁLISIS DE EFICIENCIA Y RENTABILIDAD ECONÓMICA EN DOS LECHERÍAS DE LA REGIÓN DEL MAULE, CHILE Efficiency analysis and economic feasibility in two dairies of Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Lobos A.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron indicadores de eficiencia y rentabilidad económica de la producción de leche en dos predios de riego ubicados en la zona de Linares (35º51’ lat. Sur y 71º35’ long. Oeste, Región del Maule, Chile. Para la evaluación económica de los predios, se estimó la tasa de descuento utilizando el Modelo de Valorización de Activos de Capital (CAPM y el Costo de Capital Promedio Ponderado (Weighted Average Cost of Capital, WACC. Se usaron los indicadores tradicionales de rentabilidad: valor actual neto (VAN, tasa interna de retorno (TIR, índice de valor actual neto (IVAN y período de recuperación de la inversión (PRI. La producción por vaca ordeña alcanzó a 5.141 y 7.355 L, mientras que la producción por hectárea fue de 9.122 y 8.528 L, para el Caso 1 y 2, respectivamente. La rentabilidad sobre el capital invertido se estimó en 10 (Caso 1 y 8,7% (Caso 2. El margen bruto por vaca masa, en pesos de marzo de 2000, fue de $279.963 y $207.653, mientras que la utilidad por hectárea fue de $337.653 y $237.042, para el Caso 1 y 2, respectivamente. El rango obtenido para la TIR fue entre 11,5 y 14,8% en el Caso 1 y entre 14,6 y 20% en el Caso 2. Considerando que el VAN es positivo y la TIR es mayor que la tasa de descuento en ambas explotaciones y para todos los escenarios de precio de venta de la leche, se concluye que la producción es rentable en los dos predios bajo el actual tamaño del plantel lechero.Indicators of efficiency and economic feasibility in two irrigated farms located in the Linares area (35º51’ S. lat. and 71º35’ W. long., Maule Region, Chile, were estimated. The farms are associated to PROLECHE S.A., an enterprise formed with financial support of the Development Corporation of Production (CORFO for associative administration. For economic evaluation the discount rate was estimated based on Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM and the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC. Economic feasibility was

  7. Situación socioeconómica de las áreas de manejo en la región de Coquimbo, Chile The socioeconomic situation in managed areas of the Coquimbo region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Zúñiga

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio define y desarrolla un conjunto de indicadores que permite medir la situación socioeconómica de las comunidades de pescadores artesanales que operan el régimen de Áreas de Manejo y Explotación de Recursos Bentónicos (AMERB en la región de Coquimbo (Chile. Los resultados del estudio señalan que el desempeño socioeconómico de estas AMERB medido mediante indicador sintético global es regular. También, que las AMERB en una escala de 0 a 1 muestran un resultado más favorable en el aspecto institucional (0,54, seguido por el aspecto social (0,49 y finalmente por el aspecto económico (0,30. Así, el desarrollo institucional y la situación social son actualmente "buenos" a diferencia de la situación económica que es actualmente "regular o mala". A nivel global, la situación socioeconómica de las organizaciones de Peñuelas-A, Río Limarí, Apolillado, Ñagué y Totoral es "buena", mientras que para las demás organizaciones es regular o mala. Respecto a las causas del desempeño socioeconómico de las AMERB, el estudio señala que el componente más relevante es económico. En efecto, el ingreso per capita aparece altamente correlacionado con el éxito, seguido por la antigüedad de la AMERB, y el que ésta pertenezca a una zona de influencia urbana. Finalmente, las especies objetivo no son determinantes en el éxito socioeconómico, y contrario a lo que se podría suponer, las AMERB que disponen del recurso loco (Concholepas concholepas obtienen en promedio un peor resultado comparado con las organizaciones que explotan otras especies.The present study defines and develops a set of indicators able to measure the socioeconomic situation of artisanal fishing communities operating under a regime of Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (AMERB, in Spanish in the Coquimbo region (Chile. The results of the study indicate that the socioeconomic performance of the AMERBs, as measured with a global

  8. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of honey bee viruses in the Biobío Region of Chile and their association with other honey bee pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rodríguez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Different episodes of mortalities of honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies have been associated with the presence of honey bee pathogens. Since the Biobío Region has among the highest number of apiaries in Chile, the aim of the present study was to identify viruses in the Region affecting honey bees, evaluate their relation to other pathogens, and conduct a phylogenetic analysis. Pupae and adult bees were collected from 60 apiaries of Apis mellifera L. in the Biobío Region over 2 yr. RNA viruses were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR, and Acarapis woodi, Nosema spp., and Varroa destructor via PCR. Three viruses were detected: Acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV, Black queen cell virus (BQCV and Deformed wing virus (DWV in 2%, 10%, and 42% of the apiaries, respectively. No statistical correlation was observed between the presence of the different viruses, V. destructor, A. woodi, and the two Nosema species, and the bee development stages. One year after the first sampling, DWV and BQCV were detected mainly in foraging adult bee samples. Three percent of the apiaries were infected with N. apis and 18% with N. ceranae, 5% were positive for V. destructor, while A. woodi was not detected. PCR products were sequenced and compared to the Genbank database. Chilean sequences of ABPV, BQCV, and DWV showed high percentages of similarity to other isolates in South America.

  9. Tuberculosis en grupos de riesgo en la Región Metropolitana: 2008 Tuberculosis in risk groups within Region Metropolitana, Chile, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN GARCÍA C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se han identificado diversos factores de riesgo de enfermar de tuberculosis. Este artículo estima la importancia de los grupos de riesgo asociados a tuberculosis dentro de la Región Metropolitana de Chile en 2008. La tasa de incidencia de tuberculosis para la Región Metropolitana fue de 14,19 por cien mil habitantes, siendo mayor en las personas con VIH (380,5, en personas en situación de calle (218,7, reos (213,4, contactos de pacientes con tuberculosis (104,5, en extranjeros (37,5 y en adultos mayores (32,8. Todos ellos con asociación significativa y odds ratio entre 29 (VIH y 2,6 (adultos mayores. A pesar de ser pocos casos, el riesgo de enfermar de tuberculosis en personas con VIH, personas en situación de calle, reos y extranjeros es elevado en comparación con el resto de la población. También con un riesgo elevado se encuentran los adultos mayores, que representan el 18,8% de las personas con tuberculosis en la región.Several risk factors have been identified of becoming ill of tuberculosis. This article estimates the importance of risk groups associated with tuberculosis within the Metropolitan Region of Chile in 2008. The incidence rate of tuberculosis for the Metropolitan Region was 14.19 per 100.000 inhabitants, being much higher in people with HIV (380,5, in homeless people (218. 7, in convicts (213.4, contacts of tuberculosis patients (104.5 , foreigners (37.5 and in elderly people (32.8. All of these risk groups have a significant association with tuberculosis and their odds ratios ranged from 29 (HIV to 2.6 (elderly people. In spite of being few cases, the risk of becoming ill of tuberculosis in people belonging to risk groups such as HIV, homeless, convicts and foreigners is higher in comparison with the rest of the population. The elderly people also have a risk higher than the rest of population, representing 18.8% of the tuberculosis cases in the region.

  10. Epidemiology of canine distemper and canine parvovirus in domestic dogs in urban and rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Surot, D; Cortés, M; Marambio, V; Valenzuela, C; Vallverdu, A; Ward, M P

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether the seroprevalence of canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) in domestic dogs is higher in urban versus rural areas of the Araucanía region in Chile and risk factors for exposure, a serosurvey and questionnaire survey at three, urban-rural paired sites was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Overall, 1161 households were interviewed of which 71% were located in urban areas. A total of 501 blood samples were analysed. The overall CDV and CPV seroprevalences were 61% (CI 90%: 58-70%) and 47% (CI 90%: 40-49%), and 89% (CI 90%: 85-92%) and 72% (CI 90%: 68-76%) in urban and rural areas, respectively. The higher seroprevalence in domestic dogs in urban areas suggests that urban domestic dogs might be a maintenance host for both CDV and CPV in this region. Due to the presence of endangered wild canids populations in areas close to these domestic populations, surveillance and control of these pathogens in urban dog populations is needed a priority. PMID:26013417

  11. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile, the group studied included pregnant women (PW), nursing women (NW) and preschool children residing in fishing villages distributed within the coastal zone of this region, the diets of the test group included fish and shellfish as main food components. The degree of Hg contamination of this population was compared to a control population (''core programme''). The methylmercury-to-total mercury ratio (Me-Hg/Hg-T) levels in scalp hair enabled interpretation of the results with respect to the degree of contamination by Hg, and the dietary habits of the sample donors of each fishing village under study. Furthermore, Se levels in scalp hair of the populations with relatively high Hg content were to be investigated for possible correlation with Me-Hg levels (''supplementary programme''). 5 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  12. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

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    Nelson R Rivera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a lo que ocurre con las estaciones 3, 4 y 5 que muestran los efectos de los afluentes: planta lácteos, curtiembre y aguas servidas respectivamente. Los resultados de la parte microbiológica señalan que las aguas de ninguna de las estaciones del río pueden emplearse como fuente de abastecimiento para consumo humano por estar sobre los límites fijados por la norma chilena (NCh 409, 1984. Se presentan limitaciones en sus comunidades así como para su uso en regadío, y recreación con contacto directo.The water quality in the upper and medium zone of Traiguén river in the Araucanía region was studied in the present work. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured at six sample stations in a zone that goes from close to the origin of the river to the limits of the city of Victoria with Traiguén. The influence of the Victoria town on the water quality of Traiguen river generates as consequence low values of studied parameters that were reported in sampling stations 1 and 2 located in the surrounding of Victoria town. A different situation was reported in stations 3, 4 and 5, that show the effects of waste dispose by milky industries, leather industries and waste water respectively. The results of microbiological parameters denoted that the water of all sampled stations can not be used for human use because the parameters are upper than regulations. Also, limitations were denoted in their ecological parameters, and for their

  13. Near-field tsunami forecast system based on near real-time seismic moment tensor estimation in the regions of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inazu, Daisuke; Pulido, Nelson; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Saito, Tatsuhiko; Senda, Jouji; Kumagai, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a near-field tsunami forecast system based on an automatic centroid moment tensor (CMT) estimation using regional broadband seismic observation networks in the regions of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Chile. The automatic procedure of the CMT estimation has been implemented to estimate tsunamigenic earthquakes. A tsunami propagation simulation model is used for the forecast and hindcast. A rectangular fault model based on the estimated CMT is employed to represent the initial condition of tsunami height. The forecast system considers uncertainties due to two possible fault planes and two possible scaling laws and thus shows four possible scenarios with these associated uncertainties for each estimated CMT. The system requires approximately 15 min to estimate the CMT after the occurrence of an earthquake and approximately another 15 min to make the tsunami forecast results including the maximum tsunami height and its arrival time at the epicentral region and near-field coasts available. The retrospectively forecasted tsunamis were evaluated by the deep-sea pressure and tide gauge observations, for the past eight tsunamis ( M w 7.5-8.6) that occurred throughout the regional seismic networks. The forecasts ranged from half to double the amplitudes of the deep-sea pressure observations and ranged mostly within the same order of magnitude as the maximum heights of the tide gauge observations. It was found that the forecast uncertainties increased for greater earthquakes (e.g., M w > 8) because the tsunami source was no longer approximated as a point source for such earthquakes. The forecast results for the coasts nearest to the epicenter should be carefully used because the coasts often experience the highest tsunamis with the shortest arrival time (e.g., <30 min).

  14. Interpreting discrepancies between discharge and precipitation in high-altitude area of Chile's Norte Chico region (26-32°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Vincent; Falvey, Mark; Rabatel, Antoine; Praderio, Estelle; López, David

    2009-02-01

    The water resources of high-altitude areas of Chile's semiarid Norte Chico region (26-32°S) are studied using surface hydrological observations (from 59 rain gauges and 38 hydrological stations), remotely sensed data, and output from atmospheric prediction models. At high elevations, the observed discharge is very high in comparison with precipitation. Runoff coefficients exceed 100% in many of the highest watersheds. A glacier inventory performed with aerial photographs and ASTER images was combined with information from past studies, suggesting that glacier retreat could contribute between 5% and 10% of the discharge at 3000 m in the most glacierized catchment of the region. Snow extent was studied using MOD10A2 data. Results show that snow is present during 4 months at above 3000 m, suggesting that snow processes are crucial. The mean annual sublimation (˜80 mm a-1 at 4000 m) was estimated from the regional circulation model (WRF) and data from past studies. Finally, spatial distribution of precipitation was derived from available surface data and the global forecast system (GFS) atmospheric prediction model. Results suggest that annual precipitation is three to five times higher near the peak of the Andes than in the lowlands to the west. The GFS model suggests that daily precipitation rates in the mountains are similar to those in the coastal region, but precipitation events are more frequent and tend to last longer. Underestimation of summer precipitation may also explain part of the excess in discharge. Simple calculations show that consideration of GFS precipitation distributions, sublimation, and glacier melt leads to a better hydrological balance.

  15. PAUTAS DE INTEGRACIÓN REGIONAL, MIGRACIÓN, MOVILIDAD Y REDES SOCIALES EN LOS PUEBLOS INDÍGENAS DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Gundermann Kröll

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza en el presente trabajo la importancia de las relaciones que en tres pueblos indígenas de Chile sostienen los integrantes rurales y urbanos de comunidades, como consecuencia de las migraciones y el aumento de la movilidad espacial que provoca una más activa participación en mercados de fuerza de trabajo y economías regionales. La vigencia e importancia de esas redes sociales permite definirlas como de translocalización. Se describen y contextualizan esas relaciones estableciendo las pautas de integración regional que los pueblos indígenas han construido en la época moderna. Además de la revisión de los antecedentes publicados, se presenta información empírica proveniente del estudio de tres comunidades indígenas, una aymara, otra atacameña, ambas en el extremo norte del país, y una tercera mapuche de la Araucanía.This paper analyzes the importance of the relations that the rural and urban community members undergo in three Chilean indigenous peoples as a result of migrations and the spatial mobility provoked by a more active participation in the regional work force and economic markets. The validity and importance of these social networks permits their definition as translocalization. These relations are described and contextualized establishing the regional integration models that the indigenous peoples have constructed in modern times. As well as a review of previous publications, empirical evidence is presented which comes from the study of three indigenous communities: one Aymara and another Atacaman, both from the extreme north of the country, and the third, Mapuche from the Araucana region.

  16. Journal Publication in Chile, Colombia, and Venezuela: University Responses to Global, Regional, and National Pressures and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Jorge Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Background. This project was motivated by the impressive growth that scholarly/scientific journals in Latin America have shown in recent decades. That advance is attributed to global, regional, and national pressures and trends, as well as a response to obstacles that scholars/researchers from the region face to be published in prestigious…

  17. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Viviana Bravo; Sergio Palma; Nelson Silva

    2011-01-01

    Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29) and Scyphozoa (1), where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fo...

  18. Inventory of Ammonia Emissions from Livestock Production in Los Lagos and Los Ríos Regions, Chile Inventario de Emisiones de Amoníaco de la Producción Pecuaria de las Regiones de Los Lagos y de Los Ríos, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Martínez-Lagos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first inventory of ammonia emissions from livestock production in Los Lagos and Los Ríos Regions of Chile. The inventory was focused in this area because is where cattle production is concentrated. This study aimed to quantify the amount of N losses due to ammonia volatilization from livestock production in these regions of the country, and to provide its spatial representation identifying their main sources. Calculations have been carried out for 1997 and 2007, and also projections to 2017 and 2027 were obtained. Calculated emissions were 6097 and 6206 t NH3-N for 1997 and 2007, respectively. Major sources of NH3-N emissions were cattle accounting for more than 85%, followed by horses and pigs. Farm management practices as grazing, housing, manure storage and land spreading of manure accounted for 87%, 9%, 3%, and 2%, respectively, of total annual emissions. Projections suggest that emissions could increase up to 6344 and 6516 t NH3-N for 2017 and 2027, respectively. Emissions are much lower than those reported for developed European countries. However, intensification of cattle production systems may lead to an increase of ammonia emissions which could impact the temperate forest of Southern Chile characterized by low nutrient fluxes.Este artículo presenta el primer inventario de emisiones de amoníaco de la producción pecuaria de las Regiones de Los Lagos y Los Ríos de Chile, porque esta área concentra la producción chilena de ganado bovino. Este estudio tuvo como objetivos cuantificar las pérdidas de N por volatilización de amoníaco emitidas desde la producción animal en estas regiones del país, y proveer su representación espacial identificando las principales fuentes de emisión. Los cálculos fueron realizados para 1997 y 2007; y desde el año base se proyectaron emisiones para los años 2017 y 2027. Las emisiones calculadas fueron 6097 y 6206 t NH3-N para 1997 y 2007, respectivamente. Las principales

  19. Seasonal variation of the radiocaesium transfer soil-to-Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) in allophanic soils from the Lake Region, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from soil-to-Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) was studied in two different characteristic allophanic soils (umbric andosol and dystric fluvisol) of the Lake Region, an important agricultural region situated in central-south Chile. To investigate especially the time dependence and the effect of K-fertilisation on the TF, field experiments were conducted. Plots of 7.6 m2 were labelled with 100 kBq 134Cs m-2 at Santa Rosa Experiment Station close to the city of Valdivia characterised by a temperate climate and high precipitation rates. The variation in time of the radiocaesium TF soil-to-Swiss chard was observed during two consecutive years after soil contamination by sequential harvests and radiocaesium analyses of the plants. The TFs showed no significant ageing effect, but a pronounced seasonal decrease with effective half-lives of about 140 and 160 days for the umbric andosol without and with K-fertilisation, respectively, and of 50 and 60 days for the dystric fluvisol without and with K-fertilisation, respectively. The effect of K-fertilisation on the absolute values of the TF was determined by the ratio between the median TF values obtained for corresponding dates without and with use of K-fertiliser. A ratio of TFwithoutKTFwithK=1.8 for the umbric andosol and TFwithoutK TFwithK=2.9 for the dystric fluvisol was obtained, indicating a reduction of the TF by applying 90 kg K ha-1. The maximal values of the TF to chard predicted by the equation characterising the seasonal decrease of the TF at the beginning of the harvest periods are 0.19 for the umbric andosol and 0.11 for the dystric fluvisol, both values for soil treated with common K-fertilisation

  20. Source apportionment of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in a desert region in northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorquera, Héctor, E-mail: jorquera@ing.puc.cl; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-02-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup =}), atomic absorption (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM{sub 2.5} fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM{sub 10} fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM{sub 10} is 50 μg/m{sup 3} and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m{sup 3}. For the

  1. Planificación urbana-regional y paisaje: impronta de los planes 1960-1994 para Santiago de Chile. / Urban-regional planning and landscape: his mark on the plans for Santiago de Chile 1960-1994.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes, M. Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en el potencial paisajístico del espacio intersticial público incorporado en los planes de ordenamiento territorial para la Región e Intercomuna de Santiago, aprobados técnicamente en 1958 y oficialmente desde 1960, dando la capacidad de soporte fundamental para la transformación de la ciudad tradicional de Santiago en una Metrópoli. / This reflection is referred to the landscaping potential of the interceding public space incorporated into the territorial regulatory plans for the Region and for inter-local authority coordination. These were technically approved in 1958 and officially in 1960, giving the capacity for a fundamental support for the transformation of the traditional city of Santiago into a metropolis.

  2. MEDIR, AMOJONAR, REPARTIR: TERRITORIALIDADES Y PRÁCTICAS DEMARCATORIAS EN EL CAMINO INCAICO DE ATACAMA (II REGIÓN, CHILE) MEASURING, POSTING, ALLOCATION: TERRITORIALITY AND DEMARCATION PRACTICES ALONG THE ATACAMA INKA ROAD (II REGION, CHILE)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Sanhueza Tohá

    2004-01-01

    A partir del registro arqueológico de los caminos incaicos de la antigua región de Atacama (II Región, Chile), se desarrolla un análisis etnohistórico interpretativo de los denominados hitos, mojones o topus, identificados como un rasgo característico de la vialidad estatal. Desde los antecedentes aportados por la literatura colonial y los vocabularios indígenas, se incursiona en los contenidos semánticos asociados a este tipo de estructuras, estableciendo que estos aparentes señalizadores de...

  3. INCIDENCIA DE INSECTOS Y ÁCAROS PLAGAS EN PEPINO DULCE (Solanum muricatum Ait.) CULTIVADO EN LA IV REGIÓN, CHILE Insect and mite pest incidence on sweet pepinos (Solanum muricatum Ait.) cultivated in the IV Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Larraín S

    2002-01-01

    Entre octubre de 1995 y marzo de 1997, se estudiaron las plagas de pepino dulce (Solanum muricatum Ait.) y sus efectos, en la localidad de Cerrillos de Tamaya (30° lat. Sur; 71°16 long. Oeste) Ovalle, IV Región, Chile. Se utilizaron seis parcelas plantadas con diferencia de dos meses entre sí. En estas plantas se observaron las distintas plagas que infestaron el cultivo. Adicionalmente se evaluaron acaricidas e insecticidas para el control de arañita bimaculada Tetranychus urticae (Koch) y ch...

  4. Changes of somatotype in high school students, V region, Chile: 1985-2010 Desplazamiento del somatotipo de estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria, V región, Chile: 1985-2010

    OpenAIRE

    P. Lizana Arce; A. Almagiâ Flores; C. Simpson Lelievre; D. Ivanovic Marincovic; O. Binvignat Gutiérrez; F. Berral de la Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the trend of high school students from Valparaíso Chile by means of an anthropometrical somatotype. Material and methods: two samples of students during the years 1984-1985 (86 men and 71 women) and 2009-2010 (77 men and 86 women) between 15 and 18 years of age have been studied. Somatotype was estimated by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Results: significant differences were found in all the variables of the somatotype during the periods studied (p < 0.01), ex...

  5. Trade and Integration Sector Note: Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Mesquita Moreira

    2006-01-01

    This Trade and Integration Sector Note addresses a few different factors for trade in Chile: export diversification, trade and regional disparities, preferential agreements, trade and transport costs. The final section looks beyond the conventional tariff and non tariff-barriers to trade, and focuses on the role of transport costs. Given Chile's low tariff and non-tariff barriers and its network of trade agreements, the reduction of non-conventional trade costs are bound to offer the best ret...

  6. Uplifted ophiolitic rocks on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile: implications for the closure history of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and the tectonic evolution of the Beagle Channel region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, W. D.

    1994-04-01

    A succession of mafic rocks that includes gabbro, sheeted dikes and deformed pillow basalts has been mapped in detail on Isla Gordon, southernmost Chile and is identified as an upper ophiolitic complex representing the uplifted floor of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Rocas Verdes marginal basin. The complex was uplifted, deformed, and regionally metamorphosed prior to the intrusion of an undeformed 90 Ma granodiorite that cuts the complex. The complex appears para-autochthonous, is gently tilted to the northeast and is internally sheared by near-vertical foliation zones. No evidence for obduction was observed although the base of the complex is not exposed. The ophiolitic rocks have been regionally metamorphosed to mid-upper greenschist levels. Isla Gordon is bounded by the northwest and southwest arms of the Beagle Channel, two important structural boundaries in the southernmost Andes that are interpreted to have accommodated north-side-up and left-lateral displacements. Directly north of Isla Gordon is the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex that exposes the highest grade metamorphic rocks in the Andes south of Peru. On the north coast of Isla Gordon a volcaniclastic turbidite sequence that is interpreted to have been deposited above the mafic floor is metamorphosed to lower greenschist levels in strong metamorphic contrast to amphibolite-grade othogneisses exposed in Cordillera Darwin only 2 km away across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel. The profound metamorphic break across the northwest arm of the Beagle Channel and the regional northeast tilt of the ophiolitic complex are consistent with the previously proposed hypothesis that Isla Gordon represents the upper plate to an extensional fault that accommodated tectonic unroofing of Cordillera Darwin. However, limited structural evidence for extension was identified in this study to support the model and further work is needed to determine the relative importance of contractional, extensional and

  7. Reconstructing glacier mass balances in the Central Andes of Chile and Argentina using local and regional hydro-climatic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Masiokas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great number and variety of glaciers in southern South America, in situ glacier mass balance records are extremely scarce and glacier–climate relationships are still poorly understood in this region. Here we use the longest (> 35 years and most complete in situ mass balance record, available for glaciar Echaurren Norte in the Andes at ~34° S, to develop a minimal glacier surface mass balance model that relies on nearby monthly precipitation and air temperature data as forcing. This basic model is able to explain 78 % of the variance in the annual glacier mass balance record over the 1978–2013 calibration period. An attribution assessment indicates that precipitation variability constitutes the most important forcing modulating annual glacier mass balances at this site. A regionally-averaged series of mean annual streamflow records from both sides of the Andes is then used to estimate, through simple linear regression, this glacier's annual mass balance variations since 1909. The reconstruction model captures 68 % of the observed glacier mass balance variability and shows three periods of sustained positive mass balances embedded in an overall negative trend totaling almost −42 m w.eq. over the past 105 years. The three periods of sustained positive mass balances (centered in the 1920s–1930s, in the 1980s and in the first decade of the 21st century coincide with several documented glacier advances in this region. Similar trends observed in other shorter glacier mass balance series suggest the glaciar Echaurren Norte reconstruction is representative of larger-scale conditions and could be useful for more detailed glaciological, hydrological and climatological assessments in this portion of the Andes.

  8. Resistencia bacteriana en cepas patógenas aisladas de mastitis en vacas lecheras de la V Región, Región Metropolitana y Xª Región, Chile Bacterial resistance of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cows in the Vth Region, Metropolitan Region and Xth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B SAN MARTIN

    2002-01-01

    , siendo recomendable que la adquisición de estos fármacos se realice a través de receta veterinaria, instaurando además programas permanentes de monitoreo de resistencia bacteriana en nuestro paísAntimicrobial chemotherapy in human and veterinary medicine is one of the most important therapeutic tool against pathogenic agents causing infectious diseases; nevertheless, the development of multiple resistant strains during the last years has been reported. Some of the measures adopted to control this problem have been the veterinary prescription of antimicrobials for animal use, the permanent rotation of drugs, and the implementation of continuous monitoring programs for bacterial resistance. In the present paper the sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria isolated from dairy cows suffering mastitis in different regions of Chile against antimicrobials most frequently used in dairy herds is reported. The Plate Dilution Method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC were used to evaluate the bacterial resistance of each isolated strain. A total of 449 bacterial strains were isolated from 963 aseptically collected milk samples in the 5th and Metropolitan Regions of Chile, E. coli being the most frequent mastitis pathogen recovered. In the 10th Region, however, S. aureus was the main pathogen among 1012 bacterial strains isolated from 2000 milk samples. S. aureus, Streptococcus spp and coagulase-negative Staphilococcus (CNS were shown to be highly resistant to amoxicilin, ampicillin, penicillin, streptomycin and lincomicyn. Resistance to cloxacilin of S. aureus strains isolated in the 5th-Metropolitan and 10th Regions were 6.2% and 3.7% respectively. On the other hand, a high rate of sensitivity was observed in E. coli with resistance values below 25%. According to these results it is possible to conclude that the mastitis pathogens present in the geographical regions under study are resistant to more than one antimicrobial drug and, therefore, usage of these drugs under

  9. Seasonal and vertical distribution of medusae in Aysén region, southern Chile Distribución estacional y vertical de medusas en la región de Aysén, sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Bravo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Medusae collected in winter and spring 2007 were analyzed in a longitudinal transect made between the Boca de Guafo and Elefantes Fjord, southern Chile. A total of 30 species were identified, Hydromedusae (29 and Scyphozoa (1, where Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda and Chrysaora plocamia represent new records for the area. A significant increase in the jellyfish abundance was higher in spring than in winter (fourteen times higher, with 68% of common species in both seasons. The specific diversity was slightly higher in winter (3.4 bits than spring (3.2 bits, the species richness instead was higher in spring than in winter, with a mean of 5 and 12 species, respectively. The vertical distribution showed the presence of surface (H. borealis, deep (A. apicata, C. peregrina and R. velatum and wide bathymetric distribution (B. muscoides and B. muscus species. Results from the area were compared with previous results (2002-2003 thus proving that most species identified are common in southern Chilean fjords and channels.Se analizaron las medusas colectadas en invierno y primavera de 2007, en una transecta longitudinal efectuada entre la boca del Guafo y fiordo Elefantes, sur de Chile. Se identificó un total de 30 especies, Hydromedusae (29 y Scyphozoa (1, de las cuales Bougainvillia macloviana, Hybocodon chilensis, Hydractinia tenuis, Laodicea pulcra, L. undulada, Modeeria rotunda y Chrysaora plocamia constituyen nuevos registros para esta área. Se determinó un fuerte incremento en la abundancia de medusas en primavera respecto a invierno y (14 veces mayor, con un 68% de especies comunes en ambas estaciones. La diversidad específica fue levemente mayor en invierno (3.4 bits que primavera (3.2 bits, en cambio la riqueza de especies fue mayor en primavera que en invierno, con una media de 5 y 12 especies, respectivamente. La distribución vertical mostró en ambas

  10. La vertebración territorial en regiones de alta especialización: Valle Central de Chile. Alcances para el desarrollo de zonas rezagadas en torno a los recursos naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBERTO GARCÍA-HUIDOBRO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos de reestructuración económica y la apertura de los mercados han generado múltiples y variadas consecuencias sobre nuestros territorios. Quizás para Chile, como para otros países latinoamericanos, uno de los más importantes procesos a nivel regional es el desarrollo de espacios altamente especializados o regiones-commodities. Distintos trabajos académicos señalan que interiormente, en conjunto con áreas de gran competitividad, se están generando áreas rezagadas o alejadas de los dinamismos económicos. Por lo tanto: ¿ En qué ha derivado su modelo de vertebración territorial y su sistema de centros poblados ? ¿Cuáles son las características de estas áreas rezagadas ? Y por ende, ¿cuáles son los desafíos a los cuales se enfrentan? El Valle Central de Chile es una de estas áreas donde se evidencia dicha especialización. Por tanto, analizaremos la estructura física territorial en las que han derivado estas regiones y el papel que cumplen sus centros poblados en los nuevos escenarios. A partir de la caracterización de su vertebración territorial avanzaremos hacia la definición de sus zonas menos favorecidas, e intentaremos generar algunas hipótesis que respondan a sus desafíos y requerimientos futuros.Economic restructuring processes and market opening have generated multiple and varied consequences in our territories. Perhaps for Chile, as with other Latin American countries, one of the most important processes at the regional level is the development of highly specialized spaces or commodity-regions. Different academic work indicates that within these spaces, as well as areas of high competitiveness, there are also backward areas with limited economic dynamism. Consequently: What has happened to the model of a territorial spine and system of population center? What are the characteristics of these backward areas? In addition, what are the challenges to be faced? Chile's Central Valley is one of the areas

  11. La Calidad de las Aguas en el Curso Superior y Medio del Río Traiguén: IX Región-Chile Superior and Medium Water Quality in Traiguén River: IX Region-Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson R Rivera; Francisco Encina; Rodrigo Palma; Patricia Mejias

    2009-01-01

    En este trabajo se establece la calidad de agua del curso superior y medio del río Traiguén ubicado en la IX Región de la Araucanía en Chile. La caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica se efectuó fijando seis estaciones de muestreo, desde un lugar cercano a la naciente del río hasta el límite comunal de la ciudad de Victoria con Traiguén. Los valores mas bajos en los parámetros evaluados, los presentan las aguas de las estaciones 1 y 2 ubicadas fuera del límite urbano, contrariamente a...

  12. Productivity and Persistence of Yellow Serradela (Ornithopus compressus L. and Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L. in the Mediterranean Climate Region of Central Chile Productividad y Persistencia de Serradela Amarilla (Ornithopus compressus L. y Biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L. en la Región Climática Mediterránea de Chile Central

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    Alejandro del Pozo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The production and sustainability of non-irrigated pastures in the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile is currently limited by the low diversity of valuable species and cultivars of annual forage legumes, able to persist in zones with highly variable annual rainfall, and low fertility or poorly drained soils. In this work, DM production, seed yield, hardseededness and pasture persistence were evaluated for cultivars of yellow serradella (Ornithopus compressus L. and biserrula (Biserrula pelecinus L., in field experiments conducted in the subhumid portion of the Mediterranean climate region of Chile. Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and sub clover (Trifolium subterraneum L. were used as a reference plants. A remarkable DM production and seed yield were observed in biserrula (cvs. Mor96 and Casbah, and in some cultivars of yellow serradella (e.g. Madeira, Santorini; biserrula produced by far the largest number of seeds per m². As was expected for species that produce very high levels of hard-seeds, the regeneration of biserrula and serradella was low in second growing season, but plant density and productivity were high in the third growing season. The use of biserrula and serradela in monoculture or in mixture with other annual legumes, either in pasture-crop rotation or permanent pasture, would contribute to the improvement of the prevailing productive systems in the Mediterranean climate region of central Chile.La producción y la sostenibilidad de las praderas de secano en la región de clima mediterráneo de Chile central están actualmente limitadas por la baja diversidad de especies valiosas y cultivares de leguminosas forrajeras anuales, capaces de persistir en zonas con precipitaciones anuales sumamente variables, y suelos de baja fertilidad o de mal drenaje. En este trabajo se evaluó la producción de fitomasa, producción de semilla, dureza seminal y la persistencia de cultivares de serradela amarilla (Ornithopus

  13. Changes of somatotype in high school students, V region, Chile: 1985-2010 Desplazamiento del somatotipo de estudiantes de enseñanza secundaria, V región, Chile: 1985-2010

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    P. Lizana Arce

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the trend of high school students from Valparaíso Chile by means of an anthropometrical somatotype. Material and methods: two samples of students during the years 1984-1985 (86 men and 71 women and 2009-2010 (77 men and 86 women between 15 and 18 years of age have been studied. Somatotype was estimated by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Results: significant differences were found in all the variables of the somatotype during the periods studied (p Objetivo: Determinar la tendencia de una población de estudiantes de educación secundaria de Valparaíso, Chile a través del somatotipo. Material y métodos: Se han estudiado dos muestras de estudiantes durante los períodos 1984-1985 (hombres 86 y mujeres 71 y 2009-2010 (hombres 77 y mujeres 86 de 15 a 18 años. Se registraron los datos antropométricos para evaluar el somatotipo antropométrico de Heath-Carter. Resultados: Para todas las variables del somatotipo de Heath-Carter se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los períodos estudiados (p < 0,01 excepto para talla (p = 0,176 y diámetro humeral (p = 0,067 en mujeres, para los componentes endomorfo, mesomorfo y ectomorfo también se registran diferencias significativas (p < 0,01. En hombres, se registran diferencias significativas para todas las variables (p < 0,01 con excepción de peso (p = 0,156, perímetro de pierna (p=906 y perímetro de brazo en contracción (p = 0,284. También se observan diferencias significativas en los componentes endomorfo (p < 0,01, ectomorfo (p < 0,01 y mesomorfo (p < 0,05. La población de mujeres del periodo 1984-1985 se clasifica como endomorfo-mesomorfo 4,2-4,7-2,1 y cambia a un perfil endo-mesomórfico 6,6-4,1-1,3 en el 2009-2010. En los hombres en el periodo 1984-1985 se clasifica como mesomorfismo balaceado 2,7-4,8-3,1 y cambia a un endomorfo-mesomorfo 3,8-4,3-2,5 en el periodo 2009-2010. Conclusiones: El somatotipo de la población de adolescentes de Valpara

  14. Caracterización trófica del placóforo intermareal Enoplochiton niger en el norte de Chile: variación ambiental y patrones dietarios a nivel local y region Trophic characterization of the intertidal placophoran Enoplochiton niger in northern Chile: environmental variation and dietary patterns at local and regional levels

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    ALVARO G SANHUEZA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El rol e impacto de los herbívoros en la trama trófica de comunidades intermareales rocosas podría ser más diverso y complejo de lo considerado hasta ahora, particularmente en el caso de consumidores de mayor tamaño y abundancia como el molusco placóforo Enoplochiton niger. Esta especie es uno de los pastoreadores de mayor tamaño (hasta 20 cm e importancia ecológica en las costas rocosas del norte de Chile, pero también una de las especies menos conocidas en términos tróficos. Este trabajo presenta una evaluación de los patrones dietarios de E. niger en cuatro comunidades del norte de Chile, distribuidas en 1.000 km de costa y muestreadas estacionalmente entre invierno 2004 y otoño 2006. Además se analizó la relación de su dieta con factores biológicos y físicos, incluyendo el efecto potencial del evento El Niño 2004-2005 ocurrido durante el período de estudio. A nivel regional, el espectro dietario de E. niger abarcó un total de 98 recursos (60 ítemes algales y 38 ítemes invertebrados, y los ítemes más importantes fueron organismos sésiles con formas de crecimiento incrustante o en capa. E. niger mostró una gran amplitud de nicho tanto a nivel regional como local (rango: 20,7-28,0; índice de Levins, con una riqueza dietaria a nivel individual independiente del tamaño corporal. Tanto el número de ítemes dietarios consumidos por individuo como la composición taxonómica de la dieta no mostraron diferencias significativas entre comunidades, pero variaron significativamente entre el período asociado al evento El Niño y el período posterior. No hubo ninguna relación clara entre los patrones dietarios de E. niger y los niveles contrastantes de intensidad de surgencia entre las comunidades estudiadas. Los resultados muestran que E. niger es un consumidor generalista y polífago, y un potencial omnívoro, el cual podría tener un alto impacto sobre los patrones de ocupación de espacio en la comunidad intermareal

  15. ESPACIOS ECOLÓGICO-CULTURALES EN UN TERRITORIO MAPUCHE DE LA REGIÓN DE LA ARAUCANÍA EN CHILE ECOLOGIC-CULTURAL SPACES OF A MAPUCHE TERRITORY IN THE ARAUCANIA REGION-CHILE

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    Zoia Neira Ceballos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudio cualitativo, basado en la metodología de investigación acción participativa, que examina las categorías y significados que los Mapuche de Boroa-Filu-Lawen en Chile poseen de los espacios ecológicos de su territorio. Sus objetivos son identificar y caracterizar los espacios ecológicos Mapuche y determinar su importancia cultural o religiosa. La información la proporcionan 14 habitantes Mapuche, a través de entrevistas grupales e individuales, y visitas de reconocimiento en terreno. Los resultados señalan la presencia de 14 espacios ecológico-culturales, significativos por su interrelación entre elementos culturales, vegetación predominante, relación con el agua y ubicación topográfica. La concepción de espacio trasciende a sus características ecológicas; implica la presencia de seres y fuerzas espirituales que le otorgan su sentido cultural y le confieren poderes espirituales o medicinales. Desde una perspectiva biofísica, los espacios descritos de mayor frecuencia e importancia son los relacionados con el agua, porque proporciona la humedad suficiente para el desarrollo de especies vegetales culturalmente significativas, en su uso medicinal o ceremonial. El conocimiento tradicional Mapuche sobre los espacios ecológicos es fundamental tanto para la preservación de la cultura propia como para diseñar programas de conservación territorialmente pertinentes.This is a qualitative study based on a participative action investigation that examines categories and meanings of Mapuche ecological and cultural spaces, in Boroa-Filulawen, Chile. The objectives are identification of ecological spaces and their cultural importance. Data were collected during 14 in depth interviews with Mapuche informants during field visits. The results indicate 14 cultural-ecological spaces of special meaning to the Mapuche. These spaces were valued because of their close relationship with Mapuche cultural cosmogony, landscape, vegetation, rivers

  16. Ecological theory and values in the determination of conservation goals: examples from temperate regions of Germany, United States of America, and Chile Teoría ecológica y valores en la definición de objetivos de conservación: ejemplos de regiones templadas de Alemania, Estados Unidos de América y Chile

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    Kurt Jax

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of conservation goals is a complex task, which involves both ecological sciences and social values. A brief history of conservation strategies in Germany (protection of cultural landscapes, United States (wilderness ideal, and southern Chile (preservation paradigm and the more recent interest in ecotourism illustrates a broad range of conservation goals. To encompass such an array of conservation dimensions and goals, the ecosystem approach adopted by the Conference of the Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity represents a good approach. However, to become effective, this kind of approach requires clarifying and agreeing upon basic concepts, such as ecosystem. To serve that purpose, we present a scheme that considers the selected phenomena, internal relationship, and the component resolution to define an ecosystem. We conclude that: (1 conservation traditions encompass interests in the preservation of both natural and cultural heritages, which also appear as mutually dependent dimensions. Hence, nature and humans are brought together as much in the goals as in the processes of conservation. (2 In the context of current global change, it is impossible to completely "isolate" protected areas from direct or indirect human influences. In addition, the current view of nature points out that biotas and ecosystems will change over time, even in protected areas. Hence, in order to preserve species or habitats it is not enough to isolate protected areas, but it often requires active management and conservation actions. The two former conclusions suggest the need to revise the conservation approach that has been undertaken in the southern region of Chile, because (a local people have been systematically excluded from protected areas, and (b these areas lack personnel and facilities to conduct appropriate conservation and/or management programs. (3 Our analyses of the views of nature and conservation goals in different regions

  17. 'Extra-regional' strike-slip fault systems in Chile and Alaska: the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream vs. Beck's Buttress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, T. F.; Scholl, D. W.; Fitzgerald, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    The ~2000 km long Denali Fault System (DFS) of Alaska is an example of an extra-regional strike-slip fault system that terminates in a zone of widely-distributed deformation. The ~1200 km long Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ) of Patagonia (southern Chile) is another. Both systems are active, having undergone large-magnitude seismic rupture is 2002 (DFS) and 2007 (LOFZ). Both systems appear to be long-lived: the DFS juxtaposes terranes that docked in at least early Tertiary time, whilst the central LOFZ appears to also record early Tertiary or Mesozoic deformation. Both fault systems comprise a relatively well-defined central zone where individual fault traces can be identified from topographic features or zones of deformed rock. In both cases the proximal and distal traces are much more diffuse tributary and distributary systems of individual, branching fault traces. However, since their inception the DFS and LOFZ have followed very different evolutionary paths. Copious Alaskan paleomagnetic data are consistent with vertical axis small block rotation, long-distance latitudinal translation, and a recently-postulated tectonic extrusion towards a distributary of subordinate faults that branch outward towards the Aleution subduction zone (the North Pacific Rim orogenic Stream; see Redfield et al., 2007). Paleomagnetic data from the LOFZ region are consistent with small block rotation but preclude statistically-significant latitudinal transport. Limited field data from the southernmost LOFZ suggest that high-angle normal and reverse faults dominate over oblique to strike-slip structures. Rather than the high-angle oblique 'slivering regime' of the southeasternmost DFS, the initiation of the LOFZ appears to occur across a 50 to 100 km wide zone of brittly-deformed granitic and gneissic rock characterized by bulk compression and vertical pathways of exhumation. In both cases, relative plate motions are consistent with the hypothetical style, and degree, of offset, leading

  18. Hantavirus Public Health Outreach Effectiveness in Three Populations: An Overview of Northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile

    OpenAIRE

    McConnell, Marjorie S.

    2014-01-01

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chil...

  19. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  20. Dinámica poblacional en rebaños que participan en el programa de erradicación de la brucelosis bovina en la Décima Región de Chile Population dynamic in herds participating of the bovine brucellosis eradication program in the X Region of Chile

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    C Rosenfeld

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio es determinar los factores de riesgo poblacionales que afectan a los rebaños bovinos de la X Región de Chile para obtener la condición de predio libre de brucelosis. Se diseñó un estudio de casos y controles pareado de acuerdo al tamaño del rebaño, realizándose análisis estadísticos univariados y multivariados, así como test epidemiológicos. Los mejores resultados en el programa de control y erradicación se logran con rebaños que presentan una prevalencia inicial menor al 17% y que eliminan inmediatamente los animales positivos.The aim of this study was to determine the population risk factors affecting bovine herds in the X Region of Chile in order to obtain a brucellosis free status. A matched case-control study was designed according to the size of the herd and univariate and multivariate statistical tests were applied as well as epidemiological tests. The best results obtained from the control and eradication program were achieved by herds presenting less than 17% of the initial prevalence levels and in which positive animals were immediately eliminated from the herd.

  1. Estudio del comportamiento serológico de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App en planteles porcinos comerciales de la zona central de Chile Serological behaviour study of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App in commercial swine herds from the central region of Chile

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    D Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile se ha realizado sólo un estudio en Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App. Este trabajo pretende determinar la duración de la inmunidad materna, la edad de seroconversión y la prevalencia aparente y verdadera en 7 planteles de cerdos comerciales. Se obtuvieron 60 muestras por plantel, divididas en 10 muestras de suero, de animales de 4, 6, 10, 14,18 y 21 semanas de edad, y analizadas a través de un kit ELISA® comercial. De las 420 muestras se detectaron 134 positivas, de las cuales 112 correspondían a cerdos menores de 10 semanas y sólo 22 provenían de animales mayores de 10 semanas, que seroconvirtieron probablemente debido a una infección de campo. La caída de la inmunidad materna fue alrededor de la 10ª semana de edad. En cuanto a la seroconversión, se observó que a partir de la 18* semana comenzaron a aparecer los animales con anticuerpos circulantes propios. Dos de los siete planteles no seroconvirtieron. Además, dos presentaron una seroconversión igual o superior al 50% a las 18 semanas. La seroprevalencia aparente de App fue de 10,48%, mientras que prevalencia verdadera, mediante dos métodos estadísticos, fue de 9,6% (IC: 7,6% y 11,7% y 10,67% respectivamente. En este trabajo se encontró que la prevalencia es similar a la observada en EE.UU., debido presumiblemente al sistema de producción y a los serotipos que están presentes en ambos países. Por otro lado, si bien la mayoría de los planteles seroconvierten luego de la caída de la inmunidad materna, se observaron diferentes patrones serológicos entre ellos.In Chile, there was only one existing study on App. This study was designed to determine the maternal immunity duration, the age of seroconversion and the apparent and true prevalence in animals from 7 swine commercial herds. 60 samples were taken per herd and divided into 10 serum samples from animals of 4, 6,10,14,18and21 weeks of age, which were analyzed by ELISA®. Out of the 420 samples, 134 were

  2. Fundacion Chile Incubator : Chile Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Foundation Chile was created in 1976 as a nonprofit governed jointly by the Chilean government and a large American conglomerate. It proactively introduces technology innovations and develops companies in target industries including agribusiness, marine resources, forestry, environment and chemical metrology, human capital, and information and communication technologies. Among its successe...

  3. Risk factors for bulk milk somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts in smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, G; Green, L E; Guzmán, D; Esparza, H; Tadich, N

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the principal management factors that influenced bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) of smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile. One hundred and fifty smallholder milk producers were selected randomly from 42 milk collection centres (MCCs). In April and May of 2002, all farms were visited and a detailed interview questionnaire on dairy-cow management related to milk quality was conducted. In addition, the BMSCC and TBC results from the previous 2 months' fortnightly tests were obtained from the MCCs. The mean BMSCC and TBC were used as the dependent variables in the analyses and were normalised by a natural-logarithm transformation (LN). All independent management variables were categorised into binary outcomes and present (=1) was compared with absent (=0). Biserial correlations were calculated between the LNBMSCC or LNTBC and the management factors of the smallholder farms. Management factors with correlations with P0.05) factors. A random MCC effect was included in the models to investigate the importance of clustering of herds within MCC. In the null model for mean LNTBC, the random effect of MCCs was highly significant. It was explained by: milk collected once a day or less compared with collection twice a day, not cleaning the bucket after milking mastitic cows versus cleaning the bucket and cooling milk in a vat of water versus not cooling milk or using ice or a bulk tank to cool milk. Other factors that increased the LNTBC were a waiting yard with a soil or gravel floor versus concrete, use of plastic buckets for milking instead of metal, not feeding California mastitis test (CMT)-positive milk to calves and cows of dual-purpose breed. The final model explained 35% of the variance. The model predicted that a herd that complied with all the management practices had a mean predicted TBC of 105 colony forming units (cfu)/ml, whereas a herd that did not comply with any of these management factors had

  4. Low prevalence of Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in a healthy population from the central-south region of Chile Baixa prevalência do Fator V Leiden e da mutação da protrombina G20210A em uma população sã da região centro-sul do Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Palomo; Fabian Segovia; Daniela Parra; Marcelo Alarcón; Edgardo Rojas

    2009-01-01

    Thrombosis is a result of the interaction between predisposing genetic polymorphisms and acquired risk factors. The two prothrombotic polymorphisms which are most frequently associated with thrombosis are factor V (FV) Leiden and the prothrombin (PT) G20210A mutation. The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence of both factors in the central-south region of Chile. Determination of the frequency was carried out by means of a genetic analysis of 1200 healthy, non-native individ...

  5. Mid-cretaceous crustal shortening: evidence from a regional-scale ductile shear zone in the Coastal Range of central Chile (32° S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Gloria

    2004-11-01

    In the Coastal Range of central Chile, widespread Early Cretaceous volcanism associated with extensional volcanosedimetary intra- or back-arc basins and subsequent basin closures, uplift, and increased erosion/exhumation rates during the mid-Cretaceous suggests a major change from a mainly extensional tectonic regime to a relatively contractional regime and resultant crustal shortening. The author documents the contractional Silla del Gobernador shear zone (SGSZ), which developed at the western boundary of the Coastal Range in central Chile (32° S). This structure corresponds to a high-strain ductile and cataclastic shear zone that developed under low-grade (greenschist facies) metamorphic and fluid-present conditions, which indicates EW-NWW crustal shortening in a compressional (transpressional) regime. UVLAMP 40Ar/ 39Ar laserprobe dating of neoformed white mica during mylonitic deformation suggests a maximum age for the reverse ductile shearing of 109±11 Ma. An inverse isochron age of 97.8±1.5 Ma from biotite samples of a mylonitized granodiorite suggests the minimum age of deformation. These ages constrain the ductile deformation age to approximately 100 Ma (mid-Cretaceous), coeval with high exhumation/erosion rates that appear to represent uplift of the Coastal Range. The uplift and crustal shortening of the Coastal Range of central Chile has been associated with high spreading rates from the SE Pacific and southern Atlantic convergence during a change from an extensional regime developed during the Early Cretaceous to a more compressional regime that started during the mid-Cretaceous. In this sense, the SGSZ records this tectonic regime change.

  6. Range expansion of Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae in Patagonian Chile, and first record of Hantavirus in the region Ampliación del rango de distribución de Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la Patagonia de Chile y primer registro de Hantavirus en la región

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN BELMAR-LUCERO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, 20 species of Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae are recognized in the Neotropical region, most of them distinguished by their karyotypes, which fluctuates between 46-70 chromosomes. Two species are currently recognized in Chile, Oligoryzomys longicaudatus (Bennet, 1832; "colilargo" or the long-tailed pygmy rice rat; 2n = 56, which ranges from 27° to approximately 51° S, and O. magellanicus (Bennet, 1836; Magellanic pygmy rice rat; 2n = 54, south of 51° S in the Patagonian region of Chile and Argentina. As part of an ongoing research on the southern Patagonia of Chile, we report the results of small mammal samplings in six localities. We karyotyped 28 specimens and we also sequenced the hypervariable mtDNA region I in 22 individuals, aligning these sequences with an under development phylogeny of O. longicaudatus. We also evaluated the serology and viral charge in all captured specimens to detect the presence of antibodies to Andes virus (ANDV through Strip Immunoblot Assay (SIA, and of viral genome by RT-PCR. The results consistently showed that the karyotype of southern Patagonia specimens was 2n = 56, equal to that of O. longicaudatus, and that individuals from this area do not differentiate phylogenetically from those of the northern range of distribution. In addition, the serology showed the presence of antibodies IgG anti-ANDV and of viral genome in heart, kidney, spleen, and lungs of a single specimen of Oligoryzomys from the locality of Fuerte Bulnes in the Magallanes region. We conclude that all specimens trapped south of 51° S correspond to Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, thus expanding the distribution of this specie! from 51° to at least 55° S. The results also extended the disiribution of the Andes strain of Hantavirus to southernmost Patagonia.Actualmente se reconocen 20 especies de Oligoryzomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae en la región Neotropical, la mayoría de ellas distinguidas por sus cariotipos, los que fluct

  7. Tuberculosis en grupos de riesgo en la Región Metropolitana: 2008 Tuberculosis in risk groups within Region Metropolitana, Chile, 2008

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTIAN GARCÍA C

    2010-01-01

    Se han identificado diversos factores de riesgo de enfermar de tuberculosis. Este artículo estima la importancia de los grupos de riesgo asociados a tuberculosis dentro de la Región Metropolitana de Chile en 2008. La tasa de incidencia de tuberculosis para la Región Metropolitana fue de 14,19 por cien mil habitantes, siendo mayor en las personas con VIH (380,5), en personas en situación de calle (218,7), reos (213,4), contactos de pacientes con tuberculosis (104,5), en extranjeros (37,5) y en...

  8. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Gentina; Fernando Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first...

  9. Marine Energy in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Levy

    2012-01-01

    This is the first issue of a new series dedicated to deliver concise information on energy innovation published by the Energy Innovation Center at the IDB. This issue offers a primer on the potential for marine energy in Chile. The ocean is increasingly recognized as a viable source of renewable energy, and Chile, with its long coastline, powerful waves and tidal currents, has captured the attention of marine energy proponents. While harvesting this source of energy would increase sustainabil...

  10. Income Inequality in Chile: 1990-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Hourton

    2012-01-01

    The entrance of Chile to the Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development, as the first South American country and second after Mexico in Latin America, sets a landmark in the development path that since the beginning of the 1990s decade has seemed to lead this country to a privileged position in the region. Given the reforms taken by the military regime in the 1980s, Chile is one of the most market-oriented countries in Latin America, with Free Trade Agreements and Economical Pa...

  11. Muestreo predial pequeño para predecir una infección activa por virus diarrea viral bovina (VDVB en planteles lecheros de la Xª Región de Chile A small herd sample to predict an active infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in dairy herds of X Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. REINHARDT

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea viral bovina está distribuida mundialmente y la mayoría del ganado es seropositivo, aunque la seroprevalencia varía entre predios y grupos de edad. Los animales con infección persistente son los transmisores más eficientes, pasan desapercibidos y son la fuente más importante para la perpetuación de la infección. Este trabajo entrega los resultados del análisis serológico de una muestra predial de 10 animales entre 6 y 12 meses de edad de 44 predios lecheros de la X Región de Chile. Se constató que en 35 planteles (79.5% existiría infección activa con virus diarrea viral bovina, pues al menos 6 de los 10 sueros estudiados presentaron anticuerpos. De esta manera, mediante una muestra pequeña de animales jóvenes es posible predecir, con certeza, la presencia de infección activa en los plantelesBovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV has a worldwide distribution and most cattle are seropositive, although the prevalence may vary among herds and among different age groups. Persistently infected (PI animals are the most efficient transmitters of infection often remaining unnoticed in the herds thus, becoming the most important source to perpetuate the infection. In each of the 44 dairy herds studied from X Region, Chile, ten young stock aged 6 _ 12 months were tested for antibodies against BVDV. In 35 dairy herds (79.5% BVDV active infection was predicted because at least 6 over ten sera were antibody carriers. Thus, based on few blood samples, herds with PI animals and herds without PI animals could be distinguished with a high degree of accuracy

  12. Electricity exchange and the valuation of transnational transmission access: A case study of intra-regional integration of the electric industries of Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Beverly Ann

    The interconnection of neighboring electricity networks provides opportunities for the realization of synergies between electricity systems. Examples of the synergies to be realized are the rationalized management of the electricity networks whose fuel source domination differs, and the exploitation of non-coincident system peak demands. These factors allow technology diversity in the satisfaction of electricity demand, the coordination of planning and maintenance schedules between the networks by exploiting the cost differences in the pool of generation assets and the load configuration differences in the neighboring locations. The interconnection decision studied in this dissertation focused on the electricity networks of Argentina and Chile whose electricity systems operate in isolation at the current time. The cooperative game-theoretic framework was applied in the analysis of the decision facing the two countries and the net surplus to be derived from interconnection was evaluated. Measurement of the net gains from interconnection used in this study were reflected in changes in generating costs under the assumption that demand is fixed under all scenarios. With the demand for electricity assumed perfectly inelastic, passive or aggressive bidding strategies were considered under the scenarios for the generators in the two countries. The interconnection decision was modeled using a linear power flow model which utilizes linear programming techniques to reflect dispatch procedures based on generation bids. Results of the study indicate that the current interconnection project between Argentina and Chile will not result in positive net surplus under a variety of scenarios. Only under significantly reduced interconnection cost will the venture prove attractive. Possible sharing mechanisms were also explored in the research and a symmetric distribution of the net surplus to be derived under the reduced interconnection cost scenario was recommended to preserve equity

  13. Ages and geochemistry of Mesozoic-Eocene back-arc volcanic rocks in the Aysén region of the Patagonian Andes, Chile

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    Miguel A. Parada

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen new radiometric ages (fourteen 40Ar-39Ar, four K-Ar, combined with previously published ages, confirm the existence of three main extensional back-arc volcanic events, previously defined by stratigraphic relationships, in Chilean Patagonia (Aysén region. These three events developed during the Middle Jurassic -Early Cretaceous (160-130 Ma. Cretaceous (114-75 Ma, and Eocene (55-46 Ma. Based on distinct geochemical data and Sr-Nd isotopic characteristics of the back-arc volcanic rocks collected north and south of 46°30'S, two Mesozoic-Eocene magmatic domains are recognized: Northern Magmatic Domain (NMD and Southern Magmatic Domain (SMD. Most analyzed basalts and intermediate volcanic rocks of the NMD have alkaline affinities and depleted to slightly depleted Sr-Nd isotopic values similar to those derived from an asthenosphere-dominated source. The SMD mafic volcanic rocks have a subalkaline character and more enriched Sr-Nd isotopic signatures, comparable to those derived from a lithospheric source. The felsic volcanic rocks of the SMD have lower eNd values and slightly higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the NMD felsic rocks, suggesting a larger crustal contribution in the magma sources. The geochemical and isotopic distinction between NMD and SMD felsic rocks could be influenced by the presence of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks as basement of the volcanic rocks of the SMD. Moreover, the compositional distinction between basalts of both domains may correspond to differences in magnitude of extension, the NMD being the one where the extension would have been greater and, consequently, the lithosphere thinnerEdades y geoquímica de las rocas volcánicas del trasarco del Mesozoico-Eoceno en la región de Aysén de los Andes patagónicos, Chile. Diez y ocho nuevas edades radiométricas (catorce 40Ar-39Ar, cuatro K-Ar junto con las ya publicadas confirman la existencia de tres eventos volcánicos (previamente definidos por relaciones

  14. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  15. Copper Bioleaching in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gentina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has a great tradition of producing and exporting copper. Over the last several decades, it has become the first producer on an international level. Its copper reserves are also the most important on the planet. However, after years of mineral exploitation, the ease of extracting copper oxides and ore copper content has diminished. To keep the production level high, the introduction of new technologies has become necessary. One that has been successful is bioleaching. Chile had the first commercial operation in the world exclusively via bioleaching copper sulfides. Nowadays, all bioleaching operations run in the country contribute to an estimated 10% of total copper production. This article presents antecedents that have contributed to the development of copper bioleaching in Chile.

  16. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes) en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel González-Acuña; Carolina Silva; Marta Soto; Sergei Mironov; Lucila Moreno; González-Gómez, Paulina L.; Hasan Badrul; Mike Kinsella

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes) were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile). Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp.) and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis). The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites r...

  17. Evaluación epidemiológica de las técnicas de ELISA y electroinmunotransferencia en el diagnóstico de la hidatidosis ovina en la XI Región de Chile EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT TECH- NIQUES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SHEEP HYDATID DISEASE IN THE XI REGION OF CHILE

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    DANILO VARGAS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de optimizar el diagnóstico de la hidatidosis ovina en la XI Región de Chile, y contribuir a los estudios seroepide-miológicos de esta enfermedad, se estanda-rizaron y evaluaron técnica y epidemioló-gicamente ELISA y E.I.T. como pruebas de tamiz y referencia, respectivamente. Un extracto crudo de proteínas obtenidas de líquido hidatídico proveniente de quistes ovinos hepáticos fue usado como antígeno para ELISA y una fracción de antígeno B enriquecido se utilizó para E.I.T. La estandarización de ambas técnicas fue realizada con sueros ovinos positivos y negativos confirmados por inspección macroscópica en mataderos y examen histopatológico. La evaluación fue realizada en 95 muestras de sueros: 54 con hidatidosis confirmada, 11 ovinos con otras etiologías y 30 sueros de animales aparentemente sanos. ELISA y E.I.T. presentaron un 83,3% y 97,6% de sensibilidad y un 75,6% y 100% de especificidad, respectivamente. Obteniéndose Valores Predictivos, tanto Positivo (VPP como Negativo (VPN aplicables a la prevalencia Regional.With the purpose of optimising the diagnosis of sheep hydatidosis in the XI Region of Chile and contributing to the sero-epidemiological study of this disease, ELISA and Electroimmuno Transfer (E.I.T. were standarizated and evaluated technical and epidemiologicaly as a screening and reference tests, respectively. A raw extract of proteins taken from hydatid fluid of hepatic ovine cysts was used as antigen for ELISA and a fraction of enriched antigen B was used for E.I.T. The standarization of both tecniques was performed with positive and negative sera from sheeps confirmed by macroscopical inspection in slaugtherhouses and histopatology examination. The evaluation was done in 95 sera samples: 54 with confirmed hydatidosis, 11 sheeps with other ethiologies and 30 sera from apparently healthy animals. ELISA and E.I.T. presented a 83.3% and 97.6% of sensitivity, 75.6% and 100% of specificity

  18. Análisis operacional de dos flotas industriales en la pesquería de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi, región centro-sur de Chile Operational analysis of two industrial fleet in the Chilean hake (Merluccius gayi gayi fishery in the southern-central region of Chile

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    Catterina Sobenes V.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la actividad de dos flotas industriales (empresa A y empresa B que operan sobre la pesquería de merluza común en la región centro-sur de Chile. Para ello, se utilizó información histórica de la operación de la flota pesquera entre 1998 y 2002. Se evaluaron las zonas de pesca o caladeros según indicadores de efectividad, costo unitario, rentabilidad y utilidad. Las embarcaciones se seleccionaron acorde a indicadores de eficiencia operacional. Estos resultados fueron contrastados con los caladeros visitados y las embarcaciones utilizadas por las empresas, durante el período de estudio. La zona de pesca más adecuada, se determinó según los índices de eficiencia para 13 caladeros de la región centro-sur de Chile. Se observa que ambas empresas han seleccionado adecuadamente los caladeros Tomé al oeste (caladero 9, Tomé al este (caladero 8 y al sur de Punta Lavapié (caladero 10, que tienen los mejores índices de eficiencia. Respecto a la selección de la embarcación más adecuada, se efectuó un análisis de jerarquización de las embarcaciones, por cada empresa, mediante el análisis de anomalías de indicadores de eficiencia. Ambas empresas seleccionaron aquellas embarcaciones que obtuvieron los mejores indicadores de eficiencia. Para el caladero 9 el estudio propone que la empresa A opere con el pesquero de alta mar PAMa3 y la empresa B con el PAMb4. Sin embargo, en el caladero 10, la empresa A debe utilizar el PAMa5 y no el PAMa3 utilizado históricamente, y la empresa B debe continuar operando con el PAMb1 y PAMb2 como lo ha hecho durante el periodo analizadoThis work aims at analysing the operation of two industrial fishing fleets (company A and company B which works on the Chilean hake (Meluccis gayi gayi fishery in the southern-central region of Chile. For this reason, it was used the historical information of the fleet operation from the southern-central region from 1998 to 2002. The

  19. Prevalencia de hallazgo de huevos de Toxocara canis en plazas de la Región Metropolitana de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile Prevalence of Toxocara canis eggs in squares of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Salinas

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to stablish the current prevalence by eggs of Toxocara canis, 110 squares of five zones of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago city were examined by a flotation in saturated zinc solution modified method. Samples were taken from different kinds of soil in the four seasons of the year and they were preserved under anaerobic conditions over 2 years. 18,2% of samples resulted positive to Toxocara canis eggs and 26.4% were positive to nematodes larvae. No viable eggs were found. Western zone is the most contaminated of the city and autumn is the season in which we obtained higher recovery of eggs. Silty clay sample soil seems to be better than sandy soils on maintenance of studied eggs.

  20. Infrastructure Concessions in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Lobo, Andrés; Hinojosa, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    To increase investment in infrastructure, in the early 1990s Chiles government introduced private capital into the transport infrastructure sector, covering roads and highways, bridges, tunnels, and airports. The chosen mechanism: a concession scheme through which private firms would finance and build a given project and then operate the infrastructure for a set of number of years, recover...

  1. The Geology of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Lluís; Calafat, A.; Gimeno, D.; Liesa, M.; Proenza, J.; Sàbat, F.; Sáez, Alberto; Santanach, Pere

    2008-01-01

    6 páginas.-- Book review of "The Geology of Chile", by Teresa Moreno and Wes Gibbons (eds.) (2007). Geological Society. London (United Kingdom). 414 pages, 286 figures including maps, charts and pictures; 27, 5 x 21 cm, ISBN 978-1- 86239-219-9 (hardback) and ISBN 978-1-86239-220-5 (softback).

  2. Chile's Madam President

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After becoming the first female to win a presidential election in the socially conservative country, Chilean President-elect Michelle Bachelet created history again when unveiling a cabinet that was absolutely gender-balanced on January 30. Following similar breakthroughs of women politicians in Liberia and Germany, what happened in Chile is considered another case of women gaining power worldwide.

  3. Occurrence of arsenic species in algae and freshwater plants of an extreme arid region in northern Chile, the Loa River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Albert; Márquez, Anna; López-Sánchez, José Fermín; Rubio, Roser; Barbero, Mercedes; Stegen, Susana; Queirolo, Fabrizio; Díaz-Palma, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study reports data on arsenic speciation in two green algae species (Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.) and in five aquatic plants (Azolla sp., Myriophyllum aquaticum, Phylloscirpus cf. desserticola, Potamogeton pectinatus, Ruppia filifolia and Zannichellia palustris) from the Loa River Basin in the Atacama Desert (northern Chile). Arsenic content was measured by Mass spectrometry coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP-MS), after acidic digestion. Liquid chromatography coupled to ICP-MS was used for arsenic speciation, using both anionic and cationic chromatographic exchange systems. Inorganic arsenic compounds were the main arsenic species measured in all samples. The main arsenic species in the extracts of freshwater algae and plants were arsenite and arsenate, whereas glycerol-arsenosugar (gly-sug), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and methylarsonic acid (MA) were present only as minor constituents. Of the samples studied, algae species accumulated more arsenic than aquatic plants. Total arsenic content ranged from 182 to 11100 and from 20 to 248 mg As kg(-1) (d.w.) in algae and freshwater plants, respectively. In comparison with As concentration in water samples, there was hyper-accumulation (>0.1% d.w.) in Cladophora sp. PMID:22981629

  4. Rhizosphere Pseudomonas sp. strains reduce occurrence of pre- and post-emergence damping-off in chile and tomato in Central Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Wray, Victor; Johri, Bhavdish N

    2007-04-01

    Based on in vitro screening for PGP and anti-mycelial activity against three zoosporic pathogenic oomycetes, Pythium aphanidermatum 123, P. aphanidermatum 4746, and Phytophthora nicotianae 4747, seven bacterial isolates were selected for field trials on tomato and chile to test for plant growth promotion under natural and artificial disease-infested field sites in both winter and wet seasons. The effectiveness of isolates in the field trials correlated with the in vitro antagonism screening data. Pseudomonas sp. FQP PB-3, FQA PB-3 and GRP(3) showed substantial beneficial effects on plant growth promotion and lowered considerably the incidence of pre- and post-emergence damping-off in both the crops under various disease scenarios. For example, seed bacterization with these bacterial strains reduced pre-emergence-damping off by ca. 60-70% in the two natural sites, with and without histories of fungicide use in the winter season, and to a lesser extent, ca. 20-40%, in the warmer wet (high humidity; 85-92%) season. The suppression efficacy for post-emergence damping-off was less compared to pre-emergence damping-off although still significant (P > 0.05). Our data unambiguously show that screening of a large number of bacterial pool identifies promising isolates that show beneficial effects on all stages of plant growth in natural oomycete-infested regimes. PMID:17160408

  5. Checklist, diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Leonardo D; Lara, Enrique; Mitchell, Edward A D

    2015-10-01

    Bringing together more than 170 years of data, this study represents the first attempt to construct a species checklist and analyze the diversity and distribution of testate amoebae in Chile, a country that encompasses the southwestern region of South America, countless islands and part of the Antarctic. In Chile, known diversity includes 416 testate amoeba taxa (64 genera, 352 infrageneric taxa), 24 of which are here reported for the first time. Species-accumulation plots show that in Chile, the number of testate amoeba species reported has been continually increasing since the mid-19th century without leveling off. Testate amoebae have been recorded in 37 different habitats, though they are more diverse in peatlands and rainforest soils. Only 11% of species are widespread in continental Chile, while the remaining 89% of the species exhibit medium or short latitudinal distribution ranges. Also, species composition of insular Chile and the Chilean Antarctic territory is a depauperated subset of that found in continental Chile. Nearly, the 10% of the species reported here are endemic to Chile and many of them are distributed only within the so-called Chilean biodiversity hotspot (ca. 25° S-47° S). These findings are here thoroughly discussed in a biogeographical and evolutionary context. PMID:26340665

  6. Actividad de glutation peroxidasa (GSH-Px en sangre de bovinos a pastoreo de la IX Región, Chile y su relación con la concentración de selenio en el forraje* Glutathion peroxidase activity (GSH-Px in grazing dairy cattle in the south of Chile (IXth Region and their relation with selenium contents in the forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. WITTWER

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de determinar la actividad sanguínea de glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px; E.C. 1.11.1.9 en bovinos lecheros de la IX Región de la Araucanía (38º LS y 71º LO, Chile, y establecer su eventual asociación con el contenido de Se en el forraje, durante el otoño y la primavera de 1999 se tomaron muestras de forraje de las praderas y de sangre en grupos de vacas en inicio de lactancia y vaquillas en 12 predios lecheros. Se midió la concentración de Se en el forraje empleando la técnica de espectroscopía de plasma acoplado inductivamente con detector de masas (ICP-MS y la actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px mediante una técnica cinética compuesta NADPH-dependiente. La concentración de Se del forraje fue 0.03±0.02 ppm, donde un 83% presentó valores deficitarios (0.05. Se encontró un 20% de los grupos analizados con valores deficitarios (The content of selenium (Se in forage samples and the blood activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px; EC 1.11.1.9 of groups of lactating cows and heifers were evaluated between autumn and spring of 1999 in 12 dairy herds from IXth Region (38º S and 71º W of Chile. Se-concentration was determined in forage samples by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS. The activity of GSH-Px was determined through a kinetic technique NADPH-dependant. Mean, standard deviation and range were obtained, and the groups were compared by ANOVA test and the values compared to reference values. The content of Se in forage samples was 0.03±0.02 ppm, the range was between 0.05. Heifers showed a lower activity for GSH-Px than cows in both periods (p<0.05. Twenty percent of the animals showed a low activity of GSH-Px (below 60 U/g Hb, meaning a Se deficiency in the animals. There was a relation between the content of Se in forage and the blood activity of GSH-Px in heifers (r= 0.74; p<0.05. Accordingly, the content of Se in most of the forage produced in the dairy cattle area from the IXth Region

  7. Helicobacter pylori vacA s1a and s1b alleles from clinical isolates from different regions of Chile show a distinct geographic distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Díaz; A Kirberg; E Hebel; J Fierro; R Bravo; F Siegel; G Leon; G Klapp; A Venegas; A Valdivia; P Martínez; JL Palacios; P Harris; J Novales; E Garrido; D Valderrama; C Shilling

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish the most common vacA alleles in Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) strains isolated from Chilean patients and its relationship with gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcers.METHODS: Two hundred and forty five H pylori clinical isolates were obtained from 79 biopsies from Chilean infected patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. An average of 2-3 strains per patient was isolated and the vacA genotype was analyzed by PCR and 3% agarose electrophoresis. Some genotypes were checked by DNA sequencing.RESULTS: The most prevalent vacA genotype inChilean patients was s1b m1 (76%), followed by s1a m1 (21%). In contrast, the s2 m2 genotype was scarcely represented (3%).The s1b m1 genotype was found most frequently linked to gastropathies (P<0.05) rather than ulcers. Ulcers were found more commonly in male and older patients. Curiously, patients living in cities located North and far South of Santiago, the capital and largest Chilean city, carried almost exclusively strains with the s1b m1 genotype. In contrast, patients from Santiago and cities located South of Santiago carried strains with either one or both s1a m1 and s1b m1 genotypes.Regarding the s2 m2 genotype, comparison with GenBank sequences revealed that Chilean s2 sequence was identical to those of Australian, American, and Colombian strains but quite different from those of Alaska and India.CONCLUSION: Differences in geographic distribution of the s and m vaccA alleles in Chile and a relationship of s1b m1 genotype with gastritis were found. Sequence data in part support a hispanic origin for the vacA genotype.Asymmetric distribution of genotypes s1b m1 and s2 m2recedes H Pyloristrain distribution in Spain and Portugal.

  8. COMPORTAMIENTO DE ALGUNOS CÍTRICOS SOBRE DIFERENTES PORTAINJERTOS, EN SU TERCERA TEMPORADA DE CRECIMIENTO, QUILLÓN VIII REGIÓN, CHILE Behavior of some citric fruit on different rootstocks, in their third growing season, Quillón, VIII Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Paul Joublan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción y calidad de frutos de un cultivar de mandarino (Citrus reticulata Blanco, tres de naranjo (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck y dos de limonero (Citrus limon L. Burmann sobre diferentes portainjertos en una zona fría, Quillón, Chile, en su tercera temporada de crecimiento. Hubo una moderada influencia de los portainjertos sobre la calidad de fruto, pero no en producción. Así Troyer indujo una menor calidad en mandarino Clementina que Carrizo y Citrumelo, sin embargo, no fue significativo debido a la escasa producción por árbol en esta temporada. En naranjos Newhall, el patrón Rubidoux provocó una mayor producción que Troyer y Carrizo, este último indujo un mayor contenido de sólidos solubles. Salustiana sobre Carrizo alcanzó un mayor contenido de jugo y grosor de pericarpio, pero con menor producción que Troyer. Carrizo y Rubidoux no influyeron sobre la calidad en naranjo cv. Valencia. Citrumelo indujo una mayor producción que Flying Dragon en limonero cv. Limoneira 8A, esto debido a que este último patrón presenta un menor tamaño de árbol debido a su carácter enanizante. El cultivar de limonero Génova injertado sobre Macrophylla se vio seriamente afectado por heladas, siendo el único tratamiento con este problema.Fruit yield and quality were evaluated on one mandarin cultivar (Citrus reticulata Blanco, three orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck cultivars and two lemon (Citrus limon L. Burmann cultivars on different rootstocks in a cold region (Quillón, Chile in their third season of growth. There was a moderate influence of rootstocks on fruit quality, but not on yield. Thus, Troyer induced lower fruit quality in mandarin cv. Clementina than Carrizo and Citrumelo, nevertheless, it was not significant due to the scarce production per tree in this season. In orange cv. Newhall, Rubidoux induced higher yield than Troyer and Carrizo, the latter induced a higher soluble solid content. Salustiana on Carrizo

  9. Effect of Feeding Distillery Dried Grains to Lactating Cows on Farms in the Southern Dairy Region of Chile Efecto de la Alimentación con Granos Secos de Destilería en Vacas en Lactancia de la Región Lechera del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Shaver

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted on five farms to determine the effect of feeding distillery dried grains (DDGS on milk production in the southern dairy region of Chile. The trial was repeated on each farm during winter (July and August; primarily silage-based rations and spring (November and December; pasture-based rations. Only for one farm could the treatments be applied concurrently by feeding different iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixes to randomly assigned cows in the milking parlor with data analyzed as a randomized complete block design. Milk yield tended (P Para medir el efecto de la suplementación con granos secos de destilería (DDGS en producción de leche se realizó un ensayo en cinco lecherías del sur de Chile. Se tuvo una fase invernal (julio-agosto, basada en ensilajes, una primaveral (noviembre-diciembre, basada en praderas. En una lechería se aplicó un tratamiento simultáneo, alimentando las vacas durante la ordeña con diferentes mezclas de concentrados isoproteicos asignados aleatoriamente. Se analizaron resultados utilizando un diseño de bloques completos al azar, donde las vacas fueron la unidad experimental. La producción de leche tendió a ser mayor 1,9 kg d-1 en invierno, 1,8 kg d-1 en primavera (P < 0,07, en vacas alimentadas con DDGS (2,0 kg vaca-1d-1. En invierno, el porcentaje de proteína en las vacas suplementadas con DDGS fue mayor en 73 g d-1 (P < 0,02. El contenido de grasa fue (P < 0,01 menor en 0,26 unidades porcentuales en las vacas alimentadas con DDGS durante la primavera, sin embargo, la producción total de grasa no se afectó por el tratamiento. En las lecherías que no se utilizó el tratamiento simultáneo, las vacas se asignaron al azar en invierno y primavera, a una secuencia de 1 mes de alimentación con concentrados isoproteicos Control-DDGS o DDGS-Control. Los datos fueron analizados con un diseño cruzado en el cual la lechería fue la unidad experimental. En invierno, con la suplementaci

  10. Abundancia Estacional de Insectos Vectores de Virosis en dos Ecosistemas de Pimiento (Capsicum annum L. de la Región de Coquimbo, Chile Seasonal abundance of insect vectors of viruses in two green pepper (Capsicum annum L. ecosystems of the Coquimbo Region , Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Quiroz E.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available La fluctuación estacional de insectos vectores de virus asociados a pimientos (Capsicum annum L. se estudió durante dos temporadas en Cerrillos de Tamaya (Limarí (30°29’ lat. Sur; 71°16’ long. Oeste y Pan de Azúcar (Elqui (29°55’ lat. Sur; 71°14’ long. Oeste, dos localidades representativas del área productora de pimiento de la Región de Coquimbo, Chile. La actividad máxima de vuelo de pulgones en ambas temporadas y localidades se produjo en primavera (agosto-noviembre. Myzus persicae Sulzer y Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas fueron las únicas especies de pulgones que colonizaron plantas de pimiento. La colonización de las plantas por estos pulgones coincidió con la época de capturas máximas en las trampas Moericke. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande fue la especie predominante de trips asociada al cultivo de pimiento; sus poblaciones máximas en flores de pimiento se concentraron entre diciembre y enero. Las poblaciones tanto de pulgones como de trips variaron significativamente entre localidades y temporadas. Estas diferencias fueron probablemente causadas por hospederos alternativos adyacentes a los cultivos de pimiento y por efectos de la temperatura, y en el caso de los pulgones, también por enemigos naturales.The seasonal fluctuation of insect vectors of viruses associated with green peppers (Capsicum annum L. was studied for two seasons in two representative green pepper growing locations in the Coquimbo Region of Chile: Cerrillos de Tamaya (Limarí (30°29’ S lat; 71°16’ W long and Pan de Azúcar (Elqui (29°55’ S lat; 71°14’ W long. The flight activity of aphids peaked in the Spring (August-November. Myzus persicae Sulzer and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas were the only aphid species that colonized green pepper plants. Colonization time of the aphids was coincident with the period of maximum captures in the Moericke traps. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande was the main thrips species associated with

  11. VARIACION ESTACIONAL DE LA FLORA Y VEGETACION EN LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA COMUNA DE PUTRE (I REGION DE TARAPACA, CHILE) DURANTE EL PERIODO 2002-2003 SEASONAL FLORISTIC AND VEGETATIONAL CHANGE IN THE PRE-ANDEAN MOUNTAIN IN PUTRE COUNTY (I REGION OF TARAPACA, CHILE), DURING 2002 AND 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra E Muñoz; Cristián Bonacic

    2006-01-01

    La precordillera de la I Región de Chile (18º 15´S _ 69º 33´W) es una franja que recibe efectos tanto del adyacente desierto ubicado hacia el poniente a menor altitud, como del Altiplano, el piso superior con el cual limita hacia el oriente. La vegetación en el área presenta, en consecuencia, una variación altitudinal, donde la precordillera se ubica en el segundo de cuatro pisos denominado comúnmente tolar o estepa arbustiva pre-altiplánica (sensu Gajardo). En esta zona 10 parcelas fueron mu...

  12. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaldo Charrier; Marcelo Farías; Víctor Maksaev

    2009-01-01

    La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental tam...

  13. ESO and Chile: 10 Years of Productive Scientific Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    ceremony, along with ambassadors in Chile of ESO members States, and representatives of the Chilean government and the scientific community. To review the impact of the numerous projects financed over the last decade, ESO presented the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe", based on the reports of the beneficiaries of the ESO-Chile fund. Since the beginning, the ESO-Chile fund has granted over 2.5 million euros to finance post-doc and astronomy professors for main Chilean universities, development of research infrastructure, organisation of scientific congresses, workshops for science teachers, and astronomy outreach programmes for the public. In addition to the 400,000 euros given annually by ESO to the ESO-Chile Joint Committee, around 550,000 euros are granted every year to finance regional collaboration programmes, fellowships for students in Chilean universities, and the development of radio astronomy through the ALMA-Chile Committee. In total, apart form the 10 percent of the observing time at all ESO telescopes, ESO contributes annually with 950,000 euros for the promotion of astronomy and scientific culture in Chile. The growth of astronomy and related sciences in Chile in the last years has been outstanding. According to a study by the Chilean Academy of Science in 2005, the number of astronomers has doubled over the last 20 years and there has been an 8-fold increase in the number of scientific publications. It is gratifying to see that 100 percent of the observing time granted by international observatories in Chile is actually used by the national community. The same study stated that astronomy could be the first scientific discipline in Chile with the standards of a developed country, with additional benefits in terms of technological improvement and growth of human resources. The English edition of the book "10 Years Exploring the Universe" is available here. The Spanish edition can be downloaded here.

  14. Unmarried cohabitation among deprived families in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm Santelices, Alejandra Margarita

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that unmarried cohabitation is increasing in Chile. It is less clear what unmarried cohabitation is and why is it rising. In Latin America cohabitation is common among low income groups, and has been described as a surrogate marriage for the disadvantaged. Cohabitation in the region entails conventional gender roles and having children. It has been explained by colonial dominance, poverty, kinship, and machismo. The evidence amassed here indicates that although in practice cohabit...

  15. Spent Fuel in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The government has made a complete and serious study of many different aspects and possible road maps for nuclear electric power with strong emphasis on safety and energy independence. In the study, the chapter of SFM has not been a relevant issue at this early stage due to the fact that it has been left for later implementation stage. This paper deals with the options Chile might consider in managing its Spent Fuel taking into account foreign experience and factors related to safety, economics, public acceptance and possible novel approaches in spent fuel treatment. The country’s distinctiveness and past experience in this area taking into account that Chile has two research reactors which will have an influence in the design of the Spent Fuel option. (author)

  16. Waste management in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main radioactive waste management issues to be faced by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) are discussed herein. Research reactor spent fuel management is the most outstanding challenge at the beginning of the 21st century. Interim storage appears to be the most promising alternative, allowing fuel safekeeping until a definitive step is taken. The situation regarding radioactive waste resulting from radioisotope applications in Chile will not undergo considerable change in the near future. Low and intermediate level radioactive waste management is being safely performed followed by interim storage of conditioned wastes. The strategy in the radioactive waste management plan, to be described as well, is meant to ensure the safe storage of radioactive wastes produced in Chile. (author)

  17. COMPARACIÓN ENTRE DOS TÉCNICAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO PARA DIARREA VIRAL BOVINA (DVB EN 50 PREDIOS DE LA X REGIÓN, CHILE: SERONEUTRALIZACIÓN Y ENZIMOINMUNOENSAYO INDIRECTO (ELISA-I* Comparison of two diagnostic techniques to bovine viral diarrhea disease (BVD in 50 dairy herds from the Xth Region, Chile: Seroneutralization test and indirect immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G REINHARDT

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea/Mucosal disease (BVD/MD is a highly spread virosis worldwide and has a great impact in bovine reproduction and production. In Chile, the disease has been reported with over 60% of prevalence and it demands adecuate diagnostic methods. Curently the official serologic diagnostic test in Chile is the serum neutralization test (SNT, this method detects the presence of antibodies against the BVD virus and it is considered to have good specificity and sensitivity, althought, it presents some disadvantages in its interpretation and in its execution. The aim of this investigation was to compare de SNT as gold standard, with a commercial immunosorbent assay (ELISA, in terms of specificity and sensitivity in the detection of antibodies against BVD antigens. A set of 500 bovine sera drawn from 50 milk herds from the Xth Region of Chile were analized. The results showed that the SNT detected 278 serum samples as positives and the ELISA detected 347 serum samples as positives, these represents for ELISA test a relative sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 57%, respectively. Statistically significant differences of the serodiagnosis obtained in both tests were established through the McNemar test (<0.05, and a median concordance between them through the Kappa test. When the SNT titers were related with the optical densities (OD of ELISA, a positive association was detected between this values. It was concluded that ELISA provides good results in comparison with SNT, having the former a higher number of detections because its dignostic higher sensitivity. Therefore, ELISA is an appropiate diagnostic method for large populations of cattle

  18. Análisis de las concentraciones de azufre en agua, alimento y gas sulfúrico ruminal de rebaños bovinos de carne de las regiones de La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos de Chile Determination of sulphur contents in water, forage and ruminal hydrogen sulphide concentrations in beef cattle herds from La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos regions of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El azufre es un macroelemento esencial en rumiantes. Niveles elevados de azufre y sulfatos consumidos por rumiantes a través de las plantas, agua y otros alimentos pueden reducir el apetito y la tasa de crecimiento en los animales, afectar la absorción de otros elementos y causar afecciones respiratorias y/o neurológicas. El propósito de este estudio fue medir los niveles de azufre en la dieta, analizando las praderas (3 muestras por predio y el agua (1 muestra por predio en 45 predios dedicados a la producción de carne, de las regiones de La Araucanía, Los Ríos y Los Lagos de Chile durante los períodos de primavera 2008 y verano 2009. Adicionalmente, se obtuvieron muestras de gas ruminal de 5 animales por predio, muestreándose un total de 225 animales por período. Posteriormente, se analizaron las diferencias en las concentraciones de azufre en agua y pradera y H2S en gas ruminal de los predios provenientes de las zonas de la costa, depresión intermedia y precordillera. Los resultados obtenidos indican que las concentraciones promedios de azufre en la pradera fueron de 1.482 ± 592 ppm y de 1.472,1 ± 448 ppm en el periodo primavera y verano respectivamente, no evidenciándose diferencias significativas. La concentración de azufre en agua fue de 1,12 ± 0,1 y 1,14 ± 0,09 ppm durante el período de primavera y de verano, respectivamente. Los resultados de los análisis por región y zona geográfica (costa, depresión intermedia y precordillera no mostraron diferencias significativas. La concentración de H2S en gas ruminal en los animales en estudio fueron de 273,1 ± 187,5 y de 245,4 ± 180 ppm en primavera y en verano, respectivamente. El análisis de correlación entre variables indicó una asociación positiva entre los niveles de azufre en alimento y H2S en gas ruminal para el período de primavera y verano. El consumo promedio total de azufre estimado considerando las fuentes de pradera y agua en 45 predios durante ambos per

  19. InSAR observations of localized deformation of volcanic deposits apparently triggered by regional earthquakes: Examples from Hawai`i and Lascar volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, J.; Poland, M. P.; Pritchard, M. E.; Calder, E. S.; Whelley, P.; Pavez, A.

    2009-12-01

    We document that large earthquakes (e.g., Mw > 6.7) can induce surface deformation on volcanic deposits (lava and pyroclastic flows) using satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data. The observed deformation may provide clues to the material properties of the deposits or the subsurface, and to the intensity of ground shaking. InSAR data spanning 1993 to 2009 show long-term subsidence of the pyroclastic flow deposit from the 19-20 April 1993 eruption of Lascar volcano in northern Chile. We constructed 39 InSAR interferograms using data obtained from the JERS-1 (L-band), ERS-1 and -2 (C-band), and Envisat (C-band) radar satellites spanning the time intervals 1993-1994, 1995-2001, and 2003-2009, respectively. We remove topographic effects with the 3 m/pixel DEM of Pavez et al., (2005). Time periods of individual interferograms range from one month to four years. Rates of subsidence were highest immediately after emplacement and have decreased with time, a general trend that is consistent with a model of a rapidly de-aerating deposit followed by gradual sedimentary compaction. Over the time period covered by the available data, subsidence rates are seen to show two sudden, isolated increases that are concurrent with the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake (Mw 8.1) and the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake (Mw 7.7). The centers of both earthquakes are about 280 km from Lascar. In the two-month interferogram spanning the 1995 earthquake, the subsidence rate is ~2.4 cm/yr (extrapolating the 2 months to an entire year), an increase from the ~1.1 cm/yr subsidence rate observed from 1993 to 1994. Likewise, concurrent with the 2007 earthquake, a deformation pattern with a subsidence rate of ~2.3 cm/yr (again extrapolated to the entire year) is seen to reappear after 7 years of little to no deformation of the deposit (~0.2 cm/yr). This phenomenon suggests that shaking helps to accelerate/intensify the compaction by aiding grain reorientation into a more densely packed

  20. Poliquetos bentónicos submareales de fondos blandos de la región de Aysén, Chile: Clado Phyllodocida (Annelida, Polychaeta Benthic subtidal polychaetes on soft bottoms of the Aysén region of Chile: Clade Phyllodocida (Annelida, Polychaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rozbaczylo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados del análisis taxonómico de los poliquetos bentónicos submareales del clado Phyllodocida obtenidos durante los cruceros de investigación Cimar-7 y Cimar-8 Fiordos. Se incluye sinonimia, distribución, observaciones morfológicas e ilustraciones de cada especie. Las muestras fueron obtenidas en la región de Aysén, Pacífico suroriental frente a Chile, en fondos de limo-arcilla, mediante una rastra Agassiz entre 20 y 444 m de profundidad. Se recolectó un total de 119 ejemplares de poliquetos del clado Phyllodocida pertenecientes a 15 especies agrupadas en 12 géneros y seis familias. Adicionalmente, se encontró en las muestras un trozo de un ejemplar de la familia Syllidae, el que fue incluido solamente como información de registro taxonómico. Se determinó un total de siete especies de Polynoidae (46,7% de abundancia en las muestras, cuatro especies de Nereididae (26,7%, y una de Aphroditidae, Glyceridae, Nephtyidae y Sigalionidae (6,7%, respectivamente. Durante el crucero Cimar-7, se recolectó un total de 67 ejemplares de poliquetos, destacándose el Sigalionidae, Leanira quatrefagesi (Kinberg con una abundancia del 29,9%. En el crucero Cimar-8, se recolectaron 52 poliquetos, destacándose nuevamente Leanira quatrefagesi con un 42,3%, seguido del Polynoidae Harmothoe spinosa (Kinberg con un 40,4%. Estos hallazgos permiten aumentar a 66 las especies de poliquetos bentónicos submareales registrados en la región de AysénResults from a taxonomic analysis of benthic polychaetes of the clade Phyllodocida, obtained during the Cimar-7 and Cimar-8 Fjords research cruises are presented. Synonymy, distribution, morphological remarks, and illustrations for each species are included. The samples were obtained in the region of Aysén, on the southern coast of Chile, from silt-clay bottoms using an Agassiz trawl between 20 and 444 m depth. A total of 119 specimens of polychaetes from the clade Phyllodocida were

  1. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help......-Seeking Behavior of the Urban Poor Chapter 5: Spatial Organization and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 6: Conclusion...

  2. Zahraniční politika Chile v rámci regionu Latinské Ameriky

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovičová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the foreign policy of Chile in the Latin America region. The main attention is paid to bilateral relations with neighbouring countries and Chile's involvement in regional integration groupings. The work is divided into four chapters. In the first chapter is defined the term foreign policy. In the second chapter, these findings are applied to the Chilean reality. Chile is therefore described in terms of size, political system, economic development, and geographic location...

  3. Estudio seroepidemilógico de la hidatidosis humana en la Comuna de San Juan de la Costa, Osorno, X Región, Chile, 2000 Seroepidemiological study of human hydatidosis in San Juan de la Costa County, Osorno, X Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Gloria Zamorano; CONTRERAS María del C.; Patricia Salinas; Claudio Silva; Verónica Catalán; María de los Angeles Bahamonde

    2001-01-01

    San Juan de la Costa County (40º 45' South lat., 73º 19' West long.) is located in the Osorno province, South of Chile. Its population is 11,445. The basic economic activities are agriculture,cattle raising, fishery, timber production and manufacture of wood and coal. According to official reports, the incidence of human hydatidosis in Chile and Osorno province, in 1999, was 1.8 and 12.5 per 100,000 respectively. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of the epidemiology of human hydati...

  4. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  5. Chile: Transantiago recargado Chile: Transantiago Reloaded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODRIGO MARDONES Z

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El 2007 fue el segundo año del gobierno de Michelle Bachelet. Se trató de un año sin elecciones; con un buen desempeño económico, a pesar de una inflación creciente en los últimos meses; y marcado por la discusión sobre escándalos de corrupción. Sin embargo, lo que más afectó al Gobierno fue la desastrosa puesta en marcha de la reforma al sistema de transporte público de la capital: Transantiago. Este puso un velo sobre los importantes avances en materias previsionales y educacionales, cuestionando no sólo la capacidad ejecutiva del Gobierno, sino que profundizando un flanco de indisciplina al interior de la coalición oficialista (Concertación; síntoma de su desgaste después de 17 años ocupando la Presidencia de Chile.The year 2007 was the second in Michelle Bachelet’s presidencial term. It was a year free of elections, exhibiting a fairly good economic performance, despite the high rate of inflation shown during the last months. Public discussion on corruption escandals was frequent; however, the most important issue was the disestrous beginning of the reform on the public transportation system of the country’s capital: Transantiago. This has placed a veil over the important achievements on the pension system and education, questioning not only the government’s capacity, but also opening and edge of indiscipline within the ruling coalition (Concertación, which is a symtom of its erosion after 17 years in the presidential office.

  6. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chiles Valley. 9.154... Chiles Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chiles Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Chiles...

  7. Susceptibilidad a Insecticidas y Actividad Enzimática de Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae Proveniente de Tres Huertos de la Región del Maule, Chile Insecticide Susceptibility and Enzymatic Activity of Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae from Three Apple Orchards of Maule Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Reyes

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Cydia pomonella L., la principal plaga de pomáceas y nogales en Chile, ha sido controlada casi exclusivamente con aplicaciones de insecticidas organofosforados. Sin embargo, durante las últimas temporadas se han observado crecientes niveles de frutos dañados a cosecha. Dado que esta plaga ha desarrollado resistencia a insecticidas en varios países, se evaluó la susceptibilidad a dosis diagnóstico de azinfos metil y tebufenozide de larvas diapausantes provenientes de tres huertos de manzano de la Región del Maule y una cepa susceptible de referencia (S; además de la actividad de enzimas detoxificadoras en adultos emergidos de las mismas Tanto la actividad de oxidasas de función múltiple (OFM como de glutation-S-transferasas (GST se evaluó a través de fluorimetría, mientras la de esterasas (EST se determinó por absorbancia. La mortalidad larvaria frente a azinfos metil fue significativamente menor para Molina y Teno (30 y 85,4%, respectivamente que para la cepa S (95,3%. Para tebufenozide la mortalidad larvaria fue significativamente menor en Molina (35,31% que en la cepa S (88,6%. La actividad de GST fue significativamente mayor en dos de los tres huertos analizados (Teno = 13.679 unidades de fluorescencia insecto-1 y Molina =13.096 unidades de fluorescencia insecto-1. Similarmente, la actividad de OFM fue significativamente mayor en los mismos huertos, con valores 25,08 y 17,95 picogramos (pg de 7OH insecto-1 min.-1 para Molina y Teno, respectivamente. La cepa S presentó una actividad de EST significativamente mayor que la de las otras poblaciones, la cual parece no estar relacionada con la menor susceptibilidad a los insecticidas evaluados.Cydia pomonella L., the major pest of pome fruits and walnuts in Chile, has been controlled almost exclusively with applications of organophosphates insecticides. However, during the last few seasons, increasing levels of fruit damage at harvest have been observed. Given that this insect has

  8. Presencia de huevos de parásitos con potencial zoonótico en parques y plazas públicas de la ciudad de Temuco, Región de La Araucanía, Chile Presence of parasite eggs with zoonotic potential in parks and public squares of the city of Temuco, Araucanía Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WA Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas infecciones parasitarias del perro pueden ser transmitidas al hombre, lo cual constituye un riesgo para la salud pública a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue detectar la presencia de huevos de parásitos en muestras del suelo en 87 parques y plazas públicas distribuidas en seis sectores de la ciudad de Temuco localizada entre los 37° 24’ y 39° 34’ lat. Sur, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Se tomaron 193 muestras de suelo, obteniendo 70 muestras positivas (36,3% mediante el método Fonrouge modificado. En el 48,3% de los parques se encontraron huevos de los géneros Toxocara sp. (12,4%, Taenia sp. (11,4% y huevos de Trichuris sp. (4,7%. También se identificó un conjunto de huevos tipo estrongílido correspondiente a un 9,3%, no pudiendo determinar si se trataba de helmintos parásitos o de vida libre. Además, el 2,8% de las muestras presentó poliparasitismo. Según el test exacto de Fisher, no hubo asociación estadística entre el tipo de superficie de los parques y la contaminación presente, tampoco se detectaron diferencias para riesgo de contagio entre los sectores estudiados. Los resultados permiten concluir que los parques y plazas públicas de Temuco están contaminados con huevos de parásitos asociados principalmente a perros, lo que es potencialmente riesgoso para la salud humana.Many parasitic infections can be transmitted from dog to man, which constitutes a risk to public health worldwide. The aim of this study was to report any presence of parasite eggs in soil samples from 87 parks and public places in 6 areas of the city of Temuco, located between 37° 24’ and 39° 34’; latitude South, Region of Araucania, Chile. 193 three soil samples were collected, and 70 positive samples (36.3% were obtained by using the modified method of Fonrouge. In 48.3% of the parks, the eggs found corresponded to the genders Toxocara sp. (12.4%, Taenia sp. (11.4% and eggs of Trichuris sp. (4.7%. Also, a set of eggs

  9. Biological parameters of the burrowing crayfish, Parastacus pugnax (Poeppig, 1835, in Tiuquilemu, Bío-Bío Region, Chile Parámetros biológicos del camarón excavador, Parastacus pugnax (Poeppig, 1835en Tiuquilemu, Región del Bío-Bío, Chile

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    Mauricio A Ibarra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the biological parameters of the burrowing crayfish (Parastacus pugnax, we fenced in 900 m² of a humid, low-lying sector in Tiuquilemu, Bío-Bío Region, Chile. Monthly samples were taken from August 2007 to August 2008, and 3,512 specimens were caught. Records were made of their carapace length (CL, total weight (TW, sex, and number of eggs (for females. The monthly size-structures showed few juveniles between 20 and 30 mm CL in nearly all months. P. pugnax was found to carry eggs from mid-spring through late autumn; size at first maturity for females was 38.1 mm CL; and fecundity varied between three and 45 eggs per female. In terms of the global sexual proportion, males were predominant in 11 of the 12 months, although the ratio was as expected (1:1. We estimated the parameters of the growth curve using modal progression analysis, obtaining CL∞, K, and t0 values of 55.3 mm, 0.23 mm year-1, and -0.58 years, respectively. The length-weight relationship was calculated separately for males and females, and no significant differences were found between sexes. The common parameters defining the potential function of a = 0.00052 and b = 2.98 (P Para determinar parámetros biológicos del camarón excavador (Parastacus pugnax, se cercó un área de 900 m² de un sector de vega en Tiuquilemu, Región del Bío-Bío Chile. En dicho lugar se efectuaron muestreos mensuales entre agosto de 2007 y agosto de 2008. A un total de 3.512 especímenes se les registró la longitud cefalotorácica (CL, peso total (TW, sexo y en hembras se determinó el número total de huevos. Se construyeron las estructuras de longitudes mensuales con escasa representación de juveniles entre 20 y 30 mm de CL, en casi la mayoría de los meses. Se determinó que el período de incubación en P. pugnax se extiende entre mediados de primavera y finales de otoño, la longitud de primera madurez en las hembras se calculó en 38,1 mm de CL y la fecundidad vari

  10. Estimación del comportamiento productivo y parámetros genéticos de características predestete en bovinos de carne (Bos taurus y sus cruzas, VIII Región, Chile Estimation of pre-weaning productive performance and genetic parameters in beef cattle (Bos taurus and crosses, VIII Region of Chile

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    E G Cienfuegos-Rivas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el comportamiento productivo al nacimiento y destete de los terneros hijos de toros Angus, Hereford y Polled Hereford con vacas Clavel, Hereford, Holstein, Polled Hereford e Híbridas (cruzas de Holstein con combinaciones de Hereford en un rebaño bovino de carne en la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región de Chile. Los animales fueron clasificados de acuerdo a sus características fenotípicas. El comportamiento productivo se evaluó analizando 1.119 registros productivos, desde 1999 al 2000, para las variables peso al nacimiento (PN, N=1.119, peso al destete ajustado (PD205, N=660 y ganancia predestete (GDP, N=660 utilizando el método de mínimos cuadrados para determinar el efecto de la raza del toro (GRT, la raza de la vaca (GRV, el grupo contemporáneo (GC y edad de la vaca (EDV como covariable sobre las variables PN, PD205 y GDP. Los parámetros genéticos y ambientales fueron estimados usando un modelo animal con la metodología MTDFREML, empleándose análisis univariados y bivariados para la estimación de los componentes de varianza. El efecto de GRT y GC fue significativo (PThe objective was to determine the productive performance in body weight change from birth until weaning, of calves sired by Angus, Hereford and Polled Hereford with Clavel, Hereford, Holstein, Polled Hereford, and Hybrid (different Holstein and Hereford combinations cows in a beef cattle herd in the dry area of the Ñuble, province of the VIII Region in Chile. The sires and cows were classified according to their phenotypic characteristics. The productive performance was evaluated by analyzing 1,119 production records from year 1990 to 2000 for the variables: birth weight (PN, N=1,119, adjusted weaning weight (PD205, N=660 and preweaning daily gain (GDP; N=660 using the least squares method to determine the effects of breed group of the sire (GRT, breed group of the dam (GRV, and contemporary groups (GC, with age of dam

  11. Indicadores de Rentabilidad y Eficiencia Económica de la Producción de Manzanas cv. Gala en la Región del Maule, Chile Profitability and Economic Efficiency Indicators of cv. Gala Apple Production in Maule Region, Chile

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    Germán Lobos A

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de rentabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de manzanas (Malus domestica L. cv. Gala para una explotación localizada en la zona de Linares (35º51’ lat. Sur, 71º35’ long. Oeste, Región del Maule, Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos de la plantación fueron tomados de los registros históricos de diferentes predios durante las temporadas agrícolas 1994-1995 a 2003-2004. Para la valorización de las inversiones en plantación y los costos de producción se utilizaron los precios de la temporada 2003-2004. A partir del Modelo de Valoración de Activos de Capital (CAPM se calculó el costo promedio ponderado del capital (WACC, el cual fue estimado en 8,71% anual. Los indicadores de rentabilidad calculados fueron el valor actual neto (VAN, tasa interna de retorno (TIR, índice de valor actual neto (IVAN y la razón beneficio-costo (RBC, mientras que los indicadores de eficiencia económica fueron el costo medio total (CMET, margen unitario (MU y la rentabilidad sobre capital (RSC. Como unidad de análisis se consideró una hectárea. Para la situación estándar los resultados obtenidos fueron: $5,41 millones VAN, 12,1% TIR, 0,43 IVAN, y 1,51 RBC. Para la etapa de producción se proyectó un CMET mínimo de $52,3 kg-1, un MU máximo de $91,9 kg-1 y una RSC de hasta 23,6%. La principal conclusión sugiere que, desde el punto de vista económico, el cultivo es rentable para los productores de manzanas cv. Gala.Profitability and economic efficiency indicators of apple (Malus domestica L. cv. Gala production of a farm located in the Linares area (35º51’ S lat, 71º35’ W long, Maule Region, Chile, were estimated. Technical parameters of the orchard were obtained from historical farm records for different premises from the 1994-1995 to 2003-2004 agricultural seasons. For the valuation of the investment in the orchard and production costs, the prices for the 2003-2004 season were

  12. ESTIMACIÓN DE COSTOS MEDIOS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE EN TRES PREDIOS DE LA REGIÓN DEL MAULE, CHILE. ESTUDIO DE CASOS Estimate of Average Production Costs for Three Dairies of Maule Region, Chile: A Case Study

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    Germán Lobos A.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron costos medios mensuales para el año 1998 de la producción de leche en tres lecherías ubicadas en la provincia de Linares (35º51’ lat. S. y 71º35’ long. O., Región del Maule, Chile. Las explotaciones lecheras están asociadas a la empresa PROLECHE S.A., formada con apoyo financiero de la Corporación de Fomento de la Producción (CORFO para la gestión asociativa. La tasa de descuento relevante fue estimada utilizando el Modelo de Valorización de Activos de Capital (CAPM y el Costo Promedio Ponderado del Capital (WACC. El costo medio total por litro de leche fue calculado sumando el costo medio del capital y el costo medio de la operación. Los principales resultados indican que el costo medio total fluctúa entre 0,276 y 0,619 para el predio 1, entre 0,171 y 0,282 para el predio 2, y entre 0,160 y 0,316 para el predio 3. Los menores costos medios totales se presentaron en los meses de primavera y verano debido a la mayor producción de leche y disponibilidad de forraje de menor costo. Los predios 2 y 3 se ubican en un rango de costos medios totales anuales intermedios, mientras que el valor para el predio 1 es muy superior en relación a los valores reportados por la literatura.Monthly average costs of milk production were estimated for 1998 in three dairies located in Linares province, (35º51’ S lat. and 71º35’ W long, Maule Region, Chile. The farms were associated with PROLECHE S.A., formed with the financial support of the Production Development Corporation (CORFO for associative administration. The relevant discount rate was estimated based on a Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM and Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC. The total average cost per liter of milk was calculated adding average cost of capital and average operating cost. The principal results indicate that the total average cost fluctuates between US$0.276 and US$0.619 for farm 1, between US$0.171 and US$0.282 for farm 2 and between US$0.160 and US

  13. Micro-negocios asociativos campesinos: análisis económico de un sistema de producción ovina, Región del Maule, Chile Undertaking associative small holding business: economic analysis of the sheep production system, Maule region, Chile

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    Germán Lobos Andrade

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la rentabilidad económica de un sistema de producción ovina para un grupo de 20 productores agropecuarios, cuyos predios se encuentran localizados en la zona de secano interior de la provincia de Linares, Región del Maule, Chile. El trabajo en terreno se realizó durante el periodo noviembre del 2002 a junio 2003, el cual permitió caracterizar a los productores en cuatro grupos homogéneos entre sí, en función del número de cabezas del rebaño ovino. Para estimar la rentabilidad económica del sistema propuesto, bajo distintos escenarios de precios de venta, se usó el Valor Actual Neto (VAN, la Tasa Interna de Retorno (TIR y el Índice de Valor Actual Neto (IVAN. El valor promedio del rebaño ovino fue estimado entre 0,26 a $ 1,45 millones y el valor promedio de la tierra entre 6,3 y $ 12,8 millones, dependiendo del tamaño del predio agrícola (hectáreas. Para el escenario normal de precios, se obtuvo un VAN (10,8% de $ 4,12 millones, la TIR se estimó en 14,5% y el IVAN en 0,37. La principal conclusión sugiere que el emprendimiento asociativo a micro-escala puede contribuir a mejorar las condiciones de vida de los pequeños productores.The aim of this research was to assess the economic profitability of a associative sheep husbandry business system for 20 agricultural small holdings, located in the inner unirrigated Linares area, in the Maule region, Chile. Data from the period of November 2002 until June 2003 were recollected, for characterizing the producers in four quite homogeneous sub-groups, according to the size of their herd. Profitability for a proposal system, under different price scenarios, was assessed by means of traditional indicators: Net Present Value (VAN, Internal Rate of Return (TIR and Net Present Value Index (IVAN. The average value of the sheep herd was estimated from 0.26 to $ 1.45 millions and the average value of land from 6.3 to $ 12.8 millions, depending on

  14. Optimización de la Fertilización Nitrogenada para Trigo de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento en Andisoles de la Región de La Araucanía, Chile Optimization of Nitrogen Fertilization for High-Yielding Potential Wheat on Andisols at the Araucania Region, Chile

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    Ricardo Campillo R

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available El uso de altas dosis de N para obtener los potenciales de rendimiento de los cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. actualmente disponibles en el mercado, requiere un manejo cuidadoso y eficiente de la parcialización de este nutriente para minimizar sus pérdidas y mejorar la eficiencia de uso del N (EUN. En un suelo serie Vilcún de la familia de los Pachic Melanudands (Andisol de la Región de la Araucanía, Chile, se estudió el efecto de un rango de dosis anuales crecientes de N sobre el cv. Dollinco-INIA, trigo alternativo de alto potencial de rendimiento, con el fin de establecer las dosis de N que optimizan su productividad y calidad de grano. En un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones se evaluaron cinco dosis anuales de N como Nitromag o CAN 27 (0, 150, 200, 250 y 300 kg ha-1 durante dos temporadas sucesivas, en un suelo sometido a rotaciones intensivas de cultivos anuales. Los resultados indicaron efectos significativos (P ≤ 0,01 de la dosis de N sobre la productividad y calidad del grano cosechado. Las dosis óptimas económicas (DOE anuales de N fluctuaron entre 239 y 253 kg ha-1 en siembras de trigo de invierno. Las EUN fertilizante (kg grano producido kg-1 N fueron altas (38,4 y 40,3 y fluctuaron en rangos similares. Los resultados confirman el mayor requerimiento de N del cv. Dollinco-INIA para expresar su potencial de rendimiento de granoThe use of high N doses to enhance the expression of the yield potential in currently marketed wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars requires a careful and efficient fractionating of the total amount in order to minimize nutrient losses and improve nitrogen use efficiency (EUN. The effect of a range of annual N doses on the performance of high-yielding cv. Dollinco-INIA was studied in a Vilcún series soil of the Pachic Melanudans (Andisol in the Araucanía Region, Chile. The objective was to determine doses that optimize productivity and grain quality. Five annual N

  15. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

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    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  16. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  17. Baseline element composition of foliose and fruticose lichens along the steep climatic gradient of SW Patagonia (Aisén Region, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaci, Fabrizio; Fantozzi, Federica; Figueroa, Ricardo; Parra, Oscar; Bargagli, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Samples of foliose (Nephroma antarcticum) and fruticose (Usnea sp.) lichens were collected across a steep climatic and vegetation gradient in a remote, almost pristine region of SW Chilean Patagonia. Concentrations of major and trace elements in lichens from the rainforest were among the lowest ever reported worldwide for foliose and fruticose lichens and can be considered background levels for the region. The two lichen growth forms showed different elemental compositions mainly due to the greater capacity of foliose thalli to intercept elements from windborne and canopy-leached particles. The patterns of spatial variation in the chemical composition of lichens were effectively explained by statistical methods and reflected the different availability of wet and dry deposition along the steep climatic gradient. Baseline values established for N. antarcticum samples growing in temperate Nothofagus forests were therefore distinct from those of samples growing in more open, drier habitats. The fruticose Usnea sp. showed a higher affinity for atmophile Hg, low concentrations of lithophilic elements, and the same baseline composition whether from temperate forests or from dry, barren environments. The provided background and baseline values against which variations can be measured will be useful in the early detection of local or regional climatic and environmental change, especially in view of the planned construction of hydropower dams under the recently approved HidroAysén Project. PMID:22790117

  18. Estudio Preliminar del Material Particulado de Fuentes Estacionarias: Aplicación al Sistema de Compensación de Emisiones en la Región Metropolitana, Chile Preliminary Study of Particulate Matter from Stationary Sources: Application to an Emission Compensation System at the Metropolitan Region, Chile

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    Margarita Préndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Las estrategias contenidas en el Plan de Prevención y Descontaminación Atmosférica para la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, incluyen un sistema de compensación de emisiones que afecta a toda nueva fuente emisora que inicie operaciones en la región y a toda expansión de fuentes existentes. El sistema de compensación de emisiones se aplica tradicionalmente a las emisiones másicas. Bajo la hipótesis de que el daño a la salud ocasionado por el material particulado depende de su tamaño y de los elementos químicos que contenga, se realiza una caracterización física y química de emisiones proveniente de diferentes tipos de fuentes en Santiago, con el propósito de determinar si la aplicación de esta medida es apropiada. Los resultados muestran notables diferencias en la composición química de las emisiones desde distintos tipos de fuentes, lo que indica que la aplicación del sistema no es apropiada como herramienta para el mejoramiento de la calidad del aire de la ciudad.The strategies contained in the Atmospheric Prevention and Decontamination Plan for the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, include a pollutant emission compensation system involving all new stationary sources initiating operations in the region as well as all existing sources and expansions. The emission compensation system is currently applied on the basis of total mass emissions. Under the hypothesis that damage to health from particulate matter exposure depends strongly on particulate size and chemical elements, a physical-chemical characterisation study of emissions from different types of stationary sources in Santiago was carried out for the purpose of determining the appropriateness of this environmental management tool. Results showed notable differences in elemental composition from different source types, leading to the conclusion that the application of the current emission compensation system is not appropriate for improving the quality of the air

  19. The Unexpected Awakening of Chaitén Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, Simon A.; Pallister, John S.; Lara, Luis; Ewert, John W.; Watt, Sebastian; Prata, Alfred J.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Villarosa, Gustavo

    2009-06-01

    On 2 May 2008, a large eruption began unexpectedly at the inconspicuous Chaitén volcano in Chile's southern volcanic zone. Ash columns abruptly jetted from the volcano into the stratosphere, followed by lava dome effusion and continuous low-altitude ash plumes [Lara, 2009]. Apocalyptic photographs of eruption plumes suffused with lightning were circulated globally. Effects of the eruption were extensive. Floods and lahars inundated the town of Chaitén, and its 4625 residents were evacuated. Widespread ashfall and drifting ash clouds closed regional airports and cancelled hundreds of domestic flights in Argentina and Chile and numerous international flights [Guffanti et al., 2008]. Ash heavily affected the aquaculture industry in the nearby Gulf of Corcovado, curtailed ecotourism, and closed regional nature preserves. To better prepare for future eruptions, the Chilean government has boosted support for monitoring and hazard mitigation at Chaitén and at 42 other highly hazardous, active volcanoes in Chile.

  20. Genetic variation within three populations of Phycella australis (Phil. Ravenna from Biobío Region, Chile, evaluated using ISSR markers

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    Cristian Flores

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phycella australis (Phil. Ravenna is a Chilean plant with high ornamental potential; however, the intensive extraction as a cut flower might be detrimental for the conservational state by ignoring the state of genetic variation. The objective of this investigation was to assess genetic variability within and between three populations of P. australis in the Biobío Region using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR markers. The evaluated areas correspond to three locations in the province of Concepción, Biobío Region: Desembocadura (36°48' S, 73°10' W, Santa Juana (36°58' S, 72°58' W, and Lipinhue (37°00' S, 72°58' W. Six ISSR primers were used obtaining 51 fragments, from which 72.5% were polymorphic. From the three evaluated sites Santa Juana showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci (76.47%. From this variability, 83% belong to within population variability and only 17% belong to variability between populations. The dendrogram generated using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA method, grouped Lipinhue and Santa Juana sites together, which agrees with the geographic locations. This investigation proved that P. australis has high genetic variability despite the exploitation for economic purposes.

  1. Towards a landscape ecosophy. Interpreting how the Villarrica-Pucón urban system inhabitants in the Araucanía region of Chile perceive and relate with the dynamics of Landscape

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    Gonzalo Salazar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a reaction to the complex global crisis, the notion of ecological urbanism has emerged in order to understand and attend the inaccuracy between the urban system and the environment of which it is a part. This article suggests that the form we perceive the city-nature relation deeply determines the praxis of urbanism arguing that the problem of ecological urbanism is essentially epistemological and ethical. Accordingly, the article introduces the concept of “landscape ecosophy” through which not only is possible to understand the indivisible connection of perception and socio-ecological practices, but also help us to reconnect the praxis of urbanism with a relational epistemology and landscape. The article empirically seeks to interpret how the Villarrica and Pucón urban system inhabitants in the Araucanía Region of Chile perceive and relate with the mountain and lacustrine landscapes in their daily practices of inhabitation. To achieve this, an ethnographic methodology is used. The discussion central line is represented by the question, ‘So close, but so far?’, as in spite of the fact that both cities are deeply connected to the landscape, their socio-cultural constructions are defined by the notions of disconnection and a lack of awareness. On the other hand, in a sort of circular causality, the article also identifies how certain urban initiatives may not only imply a reconnection between the urban system and the landscape of which it is a part, but also contribute to trigger the emergence of deeper landscape ecosophies.

  2. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Felmer

    2009-01-01

    of the OIE List, including foot and mouth disease and classical swine fever. However, several infectious diseases are known to remain among herds, which produce a major effect in production due to losses by abortion, decrease of fertility and what it is more important, some of them represent barriers for export and constitute a risk of zoonosis for the population. In this work, a monitoring system based on the analysis of bulk milk antibodies by means of ELISA test, was implemented to study the epidemiology and distribution of 4 of the main bovine diseases that currently affect the IX Region of Chile (brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, IBR and BVD. The system allowed the surveillance of 279 dairies, which represented 43% of the dairies registered in IX the Region, and included 19,635 milking cows (14%. With this system, a high prevalence for leukaemia (59%, IBR (76% and BVD (96% could be established, whereas it was confirmed that brucellosis is restricted to a few dairies (5%. The surveillance system coupled to the satellite geographic information analysis, allowed to establish the space distribution of these diseases in the different communes of the Region, demonstrating to be an excellent and low cost support tool for the monitoring of the diseases in the herd, which guarantees the possibility of establishing this platform in the Region and its feasibility to project it at national level.

  3. Leucothoe kawesqari, a new amphipod from Bernardo O’Higgins National Park (Chile), with remarks on the genus in the Magellan Region (Crustacea, Peracarida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquete, Patricia; Aldea, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the genus Leucothoe has been reported repeatedly in the Magellan Region, the citations in the Channels and Fjords Ecoregion were either unidentified or attributed to the previously considered cosmopolitan Leucothoe spinicarpa. In this work, Leucothoe kawesqari sp. n. is described, which can be distinguished from other species of the genus in the Southern Ocean by having eyes present, epimeral plates with no setae, anterior coxae not acutely produced or excavate, coxa 5 slightly bilobed, accessory flagellum present, mandibular palp article 3 shorter than ½ article 2, pereopods 5–7 basis expanded, ovoid, posterior margin weakly crenulate and telson apex irregularly truncated. The new species was found in hard substrates, both unvegetated and with macroalgae, mainly in kelp forest of Macrocystis pyrifera. PMID:26798246

  4. ASPECTOS LESIONALES MICROSCÓPICOS EN HÍGADOS DE SALMONÍDEOS, PROVENIENTES DE CENTROS DE CULTIVO DE LA Xª A XIIª REGIÓN DE CHILE (1988-1998. MICROSCOPIC LESIONS IN SALMONIDS' LIVERS COMING FROM FARM FISH IN THE TENTH TO TWELFTH REGION OF CHILE (1988-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. CUBILLOS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue determinar los tipos de lesiones microscópicas en hígados de salmonídeos provenientes de centros de cultivo de la Xª a XIIª Región de Chile en el período 1988-1998. Se seleccionaron cortes histológicos de muestras hepáticas correspondientes a 160 salmones coho (O. kisutch, 92 salmones del Atlántico (S. salar, 13 salmones chinook (O. tschawytscha y 90 truchas arcoiris (O. mykiss. Dichas muestras fueron obtenidas aleatoriamente a fin de determinar la localización de las lesiones en el parénquima, de acuerdo a la teoría de Rappaport (1973. \tAl relacionar los trastornos hepáticos (del crecimiento, circulatorios, degenerativos, inflamatorios y necróticos con su localización en el parénquima, llamó la atención que la mayoría de ellos presentaron localización difusa, acompañada en algunos casos de una segunda localización (periportal, mediozonal o centrolobulillar. En el caso de infiltrado linfoblástico, la localización de las células fue predominantemente periportalThe purpose of this report is to determine the kinds of microscopic lesions present in livers of salmonids grown in fish farms in the Tenth to Twelfth Region, from 1988 until 1998. Selected histological samples corresponding to 160 coho salmons (O. kisutch, 92 Atlantic salmons (S. salar, 13 chinook salmons (O. tschawytscha and 90 rainbow trouts (O. mykiss were observed in order to determine the localization of injuries in the liver parenchyma in the Animal Pathology Institute of the Veterinary Science Faculty. The kinds of pathologies found were classified in relation to their localisation in liver tissue according to the theory of Rappaport (1973 about the microcirculatory hepatic unit. The results of this research indicate that from the total amount of liver samples, the parenchyma localisation of the lesions, when connected to liver disorders (of growth, circulatory, infectious, degenerative, inflammatory and necrotic were

  5. Detección de bovinos portadores e inmunotolerantes al virus de la diarrea viral bovina en predios lecheros de la Región Metropolitana de Chile Identification of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in persistently infected immunotolerant cows in herds of the Region Metropolitana, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CELEDON

    1998-01-01

    <8. BVDV was isolated twice from 42 cows out of 238 (18% IPI. 22/34 herds had IPI animals (65%. There were differences in the frequency of isolations (p0.05 in age averages between IPI and non IPI cows. It is concluded that isolations of BVDV were high and that there is a high frequency of IPI cows in dairy herds from the Region Metropolitanain Chile, suspected of carrying IPI animals

  6. Dual origins of epigenetic hydrothermal Ba and Pb-Zn deposits in the Chanarcillo group, Atacama Region, Chile: An example in the Quebrada Galena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Lower Cretaceous Chanarcillo Group, in the Atacama Region, structurally-controlled vein, disseminated and stratiform base metal mineralization is mainly associated with the intrusive and metasomatic activity of the Cretaceous magmatic arc (Chilean Iron Belt). A distinct group of epigenetic base metal stratiform deposits, involving moderate temperature fluids in part associated with hydrocarbons, is best explained by basinal-scale processes (Cisternas et al., 1999; Lieben et al., 1999). In this study, a dual origin, with more or less prominent involvement of Cretaceous magmatism, has been evidenced for carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn±Ag and Ba deposits and occurrences in the Chanarcillo Group. In the Quebrada Galena (28o05'S, 70o30'W) the presence, within a few kilometers, of such different Ba and Pb-Zn ore occurrence types provides an opportunity to study the relative timing and the possible genetic links between the different mineralizing processes. With this purpose, we firstly describe two deposits with the most contrasting characteristics, the Maria Cristina Zn-Pb-(Ba) skarn deposit, and the Mamina stratiform barite deposit. In a second step, Ba and Pb-Zn deposits and occurrences with intermediate characteristics could help to unravel the relations between these oreforming systems. Fluid inclusions microthermometry, and sulfur and strontium isotopes are used to provide further insight into the nature of ore-forming fluids and source of ore-forming elements, and 40Ar/39Ar dating to constrain the age of the Zn-Pb skarn mineralization (au)

  7. Bioremediation of contaminated mixtures of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil by aerated in-vessel composting in the Atacama Region (Chile)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since early 1900s, with the beginning of mining operations and especially in the last decade, small, although repetitive spills of fuel oil had occurred frequently in the Chilean mining desert industry during reparation and maintenance of machinery, as well as casual accidents. Normally, soils and sawdust had been used as cheap readily available sorbent materials of spills of fuel oil, consisting of complex mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Chilean legislation considers these fuel oil contaminated mixtures of soil and sawdust as hazardous wastes, and thus they must be contained. It remains unknown whether it would be feasible to clean-up Chilean desert soils with high salinity and metal content, historically polluted with different commercial fuel oil, and contained during years. Thus, this study evaluated the feasibility of aerated in-vessel composting at a laboratory scale as a bioremediation technology to clean-up contaminated desert mining soils (fuel concentration > 50,000 mg kg-1) and sawdust (fuel concentration > 225,000 mg kg-1) in the Atacama Region. The composting reactors were operated using five soil to sawdust ratios (S:SD, 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, 0:1, on a dry weight basis) under mesophilic temperatures (30-40 deg. C), constant moisture content (MC, 50%) and continuous aeration (16 l min-1) during 56 days. Fuel oil concentration and physico-chemical changes in the composting reactors were monitored following standard procedures. The highest (59%) and the lowest (35%) contaminant removals were observed in the contaminated sawdust and contaminated soil reactors after 56 days of treatment, respectively. The S:SD ratio, time of treatment and interaction between both factors had a significant effect (p < 0.050) on the contaminant removal. The results of this research indicate that bioremediation of an aged contaminated mixture of desert mining soil and sawdust with fuel oil is feasible. This study recommends a S:SD ratio 1:3 and a correct

  8. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D González-Acuña

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866 por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909 parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región, Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932 and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866, are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909 parasiting alpacas in the General Lagos area (I Region is also confirmed. The importance of this situation is discussed in the present report.

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  10. How Young Teachers Experience Their Professional Work in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Beatrice; Aylwin, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a qualitative study of 15 neophyte teachers in Chile who were part of a survey of 242 teachers in two geographical regions of the country. They were studied on the basis of questionnaires, interviews, observations and focus groups, all of which served to examine their teaching contexts and working conditions, how…

  11. Estudio seroepidemilógico de la hidatidosis humana en la Comuna de San Juan de la Costa, Osorno, X Región, Chile, 2000 Seroepidemiological study of human hydatidosis in San Juan de la Costa County, Osorno, X Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gloria Zamorano

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available San Juan de la Costa County (40º 45' South lat., 73º 19' West long. is located in the Osorno province, South of Chile. Its population is 11,445. The basic economic activities are agriculture,cattle raising, fishery, timber production and manufacture of wood and coal. According to official reports, the incidence of human hydatidosis in Chile and Osorno province, in 1999, was 1.8 and 12.5 per 100,000 respectively. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of the epidemiology of human hydatidosis, an indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT and ELISA IgG for hydatidosis were performed to 533 randomized people. Three (0.56% resulted positive. Parallelly, a socio-epidemiological survey on hydatidosis was carried out: the majority of people had some basic knowledge about some aspects of hydatidosis transmission. Some considerations on the corresponding prophylatic measures are mentioned.

  12. Predation of the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1824) by the American kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, in an urban sector of Santiago city, Metropolitan region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Annia Rodríguez-San Pedro; Juan Luis Allendes

    2015-01-01

    The American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is a raptor widely distributed in America. Throughout its geographic distribution, the American kestrel feeds on a variety of animal taxa, including bats. In Chile, however, there are no reports of American kestrel feeding on bats. This note reports the first known record of predation by the American kestrel on the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

  13. Consumer Perception of Animal Welfare and Livestock Production in the Araucania Region , Chile Percepción de los Consumidores sobre el Bienestar Animal y la Producción Ganadera en Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler M; Ricardo Vidal M; Roberto Silva F; Lisette Vallejos C; Néstor Sepúlveda B

    2008-01-01

    Given the importance of animal welfare (AW) in developed countries, a survey was carried out among 384 consumers in Temuco, Chile, to establish their knowledge and perceptions about animals handling during production, to detect preferences for meat produced under AW principles, their willingness to pay a higher price for this and to distinguish different consumer segments. Approximately 60% of people surveyed knew about livestock management practices, half of them considered that these practi...

  14. Macrophytes assemblages in mountain lakes of Huerquehue National Park (39°S, Araucanía Region, Chile) Ensambles de macrófitas en lagos de montaña del Parque Nacional Huerquehue (39°S, Región de la Araucanía, Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Hauenstein; Fabiola Barriga; Patricio de los Ríos-Escalante

    2011-01-01

    The lakes studied (Tinquilco, Verde, Toro, Chico) are located in the Huerquehue National Park (39°08'S, 71°40'W), Chile. An inventory of the aquatic and riparian species was performed between December 2005 and March 2006. A null model analysis was done to determine the existence of regulatory factors of species associations, and the Jaccard index was applied to determine floristic similarities. Seventy-five species were identified. The greatest number (54) and highest percentage of introduced...

  15. Reflections on a study of Intercultural Education and Participation in Mapuche Communities in the IX Region of La Araucania, Chile Reflexiones a partir de un estudio sobre Educación Intercultural y Participación en Comunidades Mapuche en la Novena Región de La Araucanía, Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Williamson; Jill Pinkney Pastrana; Patricia Gómez

    2005-01-01

    This analysis focuses on a specific dimension of the "indigenous question" in Chile: that of social participation in educational processes, specifically within the context of the current national education reform. Beginning with new understandings based on the work of the Proyecto de Investigación & Desarrollo, Gestión Participativa en Educación-Kelluwün, this paper analyzes the possibilities and limits of participation, considering the partic...

  16. Panorama de las bibliotecas de museo de la Región Metropolitana de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Funes Neira, Catherine; Carrillo Reyes, Andrea; Herrera Soriano, Daniela; Heredia Farías, Constanza

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory study on the situation of the 16 museum libraries of the Metropolitan Region of Chile which comprehends aspects as management, staff, users, technology infrastructure, collections, products and services, networking,promotion, website and future projects.

  17. The ecology of Chagas disease in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, C J; Apt, W; Miles, M A

    1982-01-01

    Chagas disease probably affects over half a million people in Chile, principally in rural communities in the fertile valleys of the arid 'norte chico' region, north of Santiago. The main domestic vector is Triatoma infestans, but Triatoma spinolai, although mainly in rocky sylvatic and peridomestic ecotopes, also invades houses. Since the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century, and particularly during the last 100 years, the endemic region has suffered an ecological breakdown, largely due to excessive timbering and over-grazing, which has led to a denuded landscape with severe loss of agricultural productivity. This breakdown, combined with uneconomically sized farms and poor marketing, exacerbates the poverty of the rural communities. As in other similar areas of Latin America, the combination of poverty and poor education discourages improvements in housing which would reduce the risk of vector-transmitted Chagas disease. This paper reviews the historical and ecological background of the endemic region of Chile, both as a basis for further work, and as a point of comparison with other endemic areas. The review attempts to show how the current status of Chagas disease is likely to be maintained through its association with poor quality housing, poverty and ecological degradation, drawing parallels with other endemic++ areas and suggesting ways by which the ecological damage might be reversed. PMID:6821391

  18. Low prevalence of Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in a healthy population from the central-south region of Chile Baixa prevalência do Fator V Leiden e da mutação da protrombina G20210A em uma população sã da região centro-sul do Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Palomo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis is a result of the interaction between predisposing genetic polymorphisms and acquired risk factors. The two prothrombotic polymorphisms which are most frequently associated with thrombosis are factor V (FV Leiden and the prothrombin (PT G20210A mutation. The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence of both factors in the central-south region of Chile. Determination of the frequency was carried out by means of a genetic analysis of 1200 healthy, non-native individuals. The mutation of FV Leiden was found in 1.25% of the population and the PT G20210A mutation in 1.33%. None of the individuals were homozygosis or had both polymorphisms. The prevalences of FV Leiden and the PT G20210A mutation are less common in the healthy population.A trombose pode ser o resultado da interação de polimorfismo genético e fatores de riscos adquiridos. Os polimosfirmos protrombóticos mais frequentes são fator V (FV Leiden e a mutação da protrombina (PT G20210A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a prevalência de ambos os polimorfismos na região centro-sul do Chile. Foram realizadas análises genéticas (PCR RFLP de 1.200 pessoas saudáveis, não nativas da região. Foram encontrados 1,25% de mutação do Fator V Leiden e 1,33% da mutação da protrombina G20210A. Não foi detectada homozigose em ambos os polimorfismos. A prevalência de FV Leiden e da mutação G20210A é baixa na população estudada.

  19. Respuesta serológica y tiempo de saneamiento en rebaños bovinos con brucelosis vacunados con Cepa 19 o Cepa RB-51; Xª Región, Chile Serologic response and time to eradication in herds with brucellosis vaccinated with strain 19 or strain RB-51; 10th Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAMIREZ

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se comparó la respuesta serológica y el tiempo de saneamiento en rebaños bovinos con brucelosis, vacunados con vacuna Cepa 19 o Cepa RB-51. Se estudiaron los registros serológicos de 79 rebaños de la provincia de Valdivia, Xª región de Chile. Los rebaños se habian incorporado al Programa de Erradicacion de Brucelosis Bovina entre 1996 y 1999, y al momento de este estudio se encontraban bajo la condicion de "rebaño saneado". Veintiséis rebaños, con 540 vacas y una seroprevalencia inicial de 14.1%, fueron vacunados con la vacuna Cepa 19 y 53 rebaños, con 1104 vacas y una seroprevalencia inicial de 7.6%, recibieron Cepa RB-51. Periódicamente se colectaron muestras de suero sanguíneo y se examinaron para anticuerpos de Brucella spp. usando las pruebas de Rosa de Bengala y Fijacion de Complemento. Se evaluaron las seroprevalencias, el tiempo de saneamiento y los intervalos de tiempo dentro de éste, el número de exámenes y el lapso de tiempo entre los exámenes. Sesenta y seis de 369, vacas, previamente negativas vacunadas con Cepa 19, seroconvirtieron, pero ninguna de las 917 vacas vacunadas con RB-51 seroconvirtió. El tiempo de saneamiento para los rebaños vacunados con Cepa 19 fluctuó desde 304 a 1025 días (mediana 481 días, y para los rebaños vacunados con Cepa RB-51 desde 140 a 753 días (mediana 401 días; p = 0.003. El tamaño del rebaño, las políticas de reemplazo, el tipo de asistencia veterinaria y la severidad de los signos clínicos de brucelosis no afectaron los lapsos de tiempo. Los rebaños con Cepa 19 fueron muestreados en promedio 4.4 veces y los rebaños con Cepa RB-51 fueron muestreados solo 3.4 veces (p The serologic response to brucellosis vaccination and the time to eradication of brucellosis from herds were compared in dairy cattle vaccinated with either vaccine strains 19 or RB-51. Serologic records from 79 herds from the Province of Valdivia, 10th region of Chile, were evaluated. Herds had been

  20. Late Holocene vegetation dynamics and lake geochemistry at Laguna Miranda, XI Region, Chile Dinámica vegetaciónal y geoquímica lacustre del Holoceno tardío en Laguna Miranda, XI Región, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. HABERLE

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Palynological and geochemical analysis of late Holocene lake sediments and dendrochronological analysis of Pilgerodendron in a volcanically active region of southern Chile reveal the long-term impact of a series of tephra fall events and tectonic activity on lake sedimentation and local vegetation. An upper 0,75 m core overlaps with a 4,35 m long Livingstone piston core to give a 4,60 m long sediment record, extending back to 4800 yr BP. Geochemical data shows the shift from allogenic dominance to authigenic and biogenic dominance as waterlogged soils developed within the catchment. This is presumed to have occurred under the influence of continued addition of nutrients to the catchment from tephra deposition and the associated high sedimentation rates. The palynological record from this site is dominated by Nothofagus dombeyi-type and Filicales. The most prominent changes in the pollen record, however, are the gradual decline in Podocarpus nubigena pollen throughout the last 4800 yr; the appearance and increase of Gramineae pollen during the past 2100 yr; and the rapid increase in the pollen of Pilgerodendron uviferum within the past 300-400 yr. Pilgerodendron tree-ring analysis and the pollen results over the last 400 years show that the most recent expansion of Pilgerodendron at the northern and eastern margins of this site is a response to either, periodic tectonic induced watertable changes, or is part of a long-term trend in gymnosperm growth around a shallowing lake margin. The decline of shade-intolerant trees such as Weinmannia and Podocarpus within a Nothofagus-rich forest community towards an increased presence of Pilgerodendron and Gramineae (likely Chusquea bamboo, that began over 2100 yr BP, may have been due as much to autogenic processes such as a change in the disturbance regime resulting in the development of waterlogged soils, rather than to an episode of climate change. It is important to recognise the potential effects of

  1. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  2. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    HECTOR ALCAINO; TEXIA GORMAN

    1999-01-01

    PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  3. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen; Danyang

    2005-01-01

      Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.……

  4. China and Chile Signing Free Trade Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Danyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mr. Bo Xilai, Minister of Commerce of China, and Mr.Walker, Foreign Minister of Chile, signed the China-Chile FTA on behalf of their respective government on November 18, 2005. Chinese President Hu Jintao and Chile President Lagos attended the signing ceremony, according to a press release on the website of Network Center of MOFCOM.

  5. PARASITOS DE LOS ANIMALES DOMESTICOS EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR ALCAINO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available PARASITES OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS IN CHILE An up-to-date list of the parasites that have been identified in horses, cattle, sheep, goats, llamas, alpacas, pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, chickens and pigeons in Chile, according to the studies performed at the University of Chile and other Universities and Institutes.

  6. Biodiversidad del complejo de artrópodos asociados al follaje de la vegetación del norte de Chile, II región Biodiversity of the canopy arthropods associated to vegetation of the north of Chile, II region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO SAIZ

    2000-12-01

    establece el siguiente gradiente decreciente: DL, TM, TA y DI, concordante con la riqueza de especies vegetales. Como grupo, Homoptera es el que se distribuye sobre una mayor diversidad de especies vegetales en las zonas analizadas. Secundariamente puede considerarse a Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Psocoptera y Thysanoptera. Dentro del contexto total de especies vegetales muestreadas, destacan por la riqueza específica de artrópodos: Nolana divaricata, Baccharis petiolata, Heliotropium taltalense, Nicotiana solanifolia, Atriplex atacamensis, Fabiana densa, Baccharis incarum, Nolana crassulifolia, Haplopappus rigidus, Cortaderia atacamensis, Eremocharis fruticosa, Atriplex leuca. En cuanto a daño por fitofagia se encontró un total de 25 especies afectadas por defoliación, minado o formación de cecidias, siendo la más relevante esta última. La fitofagia por succión, la más importante del conjunto se infirió por la alta presencia y abundancia de insectos que funcionalmente corresponden a esta categoría (Homoptera, Hemiptera, Thysanoptera, los que están presentes en todas las zonas ecológicas y en especial en DL y TMThe complex formed by phytophagous insects, their host plants and their predators is one of the most important component of ecosystems biodiversity. In this work the role of this complex on the biodiversity of the arid region of Chile was studied. It is postulated that a higher biodiversiyty of phytophagous insects would be associated to more favorable climatic conditions, higher host plant diversity, and higher nitrogen, ash and water content of the vegetation. Also, a higher biodiversity of predators and parasitoids will be sustained by a higher phytophagous insect biodiversity. The study was conducted in the II Region of Chile through an altitudinal transect crossing the following bioclimatic zones from the coast (0 m of altitude to the Andes (4,000 m of altitude: Coastal Desert (or Desierto Litoral, DL, Continental Desert (or Desierto Interior, DI, Pre

  7. Unconfined Aquifer Permeability near hand-dug Wells in the Coastal and Interior dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region, Chile Permeabilidad de Acuíferos No-Confinados cerca de Pozos Norias en el Secano Costero e Interior, Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Rupp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the dryland of the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins Region in Chile, most farmers rely on wide and shallow hand-dug wells as their primary source of water during the dry summer. Few of these wells have sufficient yield for more than domestic use (human consumption, livestock, and irrigation of a subsistence garden. To more accurately assess available groundwater resources, saturated hydraulic conductivity (K of aquifers in the eight counties that comprise this region’s dryland was estimated using evacuation and recovery tests in 353 hand-dug wells. K followed a log-normal distribution and ranged over nearly five orders of magnitude. County median K varied by a factor of 5 and a slight increasing K trend in the southward direction. In one northern county, less than 4% of the sites had K > 4 m d-1. In the t two southernmost counties, approximately one-quarter of the K values exceeded 4 m d-1. This is approximately the minimum K required for a typical well (1 m diameter and 3 m depth below the water table to yield 1 L s-1 of water, which is roughly the yield required to irrigate 1 ha. Aquifers located where parent material was predominantly intrusive granite had slightly higher and statistically significant K than those formed predominantly of metamorphic and sedimentary rock. A semi-variogram of K provided weak evidence of a characteristic length scale of approximately 4 km.La mayoría de los agricultores del secano de la Región del Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins depende de pozos noria, constituyendo su principal fuente de agua durante el verano. Pocos pozos tienen rendimiento suficiente para un uso mayor que el doméstico (consumo humano, ganadería y riego. A fin de evaluar con mayor precisión los recursos hídricos subterráneos disponibles, mediante pruebas de bombeo-recuperación se estimó la conductividad hidráulica saturada (K de los acuíferos en 353 pozos distribuidos en ocho comunas del área. K siguió una

  8. Predation of the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis (I. Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1824 by the American kestrel Falco sparverius Linnaeus, 1758, in an urban sector of Santiago city, Metropolitan region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annia Rodríguez-San Pedro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The American kestrel (Falco sparverius is a raptor widely distributed in America. Throughout its geographic distribution, the American kestrel feeds on a variety of animal taxa, including bats. In Chile, however, there are no reports of American kestrel feeding on bats. This note reports the first known record of predation by the American kestrel on the free-tailed bat Tadarida brasiliensis.

  9. The Ordovician Quebrada Grande Formation, Cordón de Lila (Antofagasta Region, northern Chile): stratigraphicand paleogeographic significance La Formación QuebradaGrande, del Ordovícico, Cordón de Lila (Región de Antofagasta, norte de Chile): significado estratigráfico y paleogeográfico

    OpenAIRE

    Javier González; Hans Niemeyer; Juan L. Benedetto; Edsel D Brussa

    2007-01-01

    The Cordón de Lila is located immediately to the south of the Salar de Atacama, in northern Chile. The geology of the Cordón de Lila is characterized by extensive outcrops of Early Paleozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (Cordón de Lila Igneous and Sedimentary Complex; CISL) that form the 'Arco magmático occidental' (AMO) which is intruded by a multiple suite of Middle Ordovician to Lower Silurian granitoids. In this contribution we report the results of a sedimentological and paleontologica...

  10. Variabilidad Espacial de la Mineralización de Nitrógeno en un Suelo Volcánico de la Provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región, Chile Spatial Variability of Nitrogen Mineralization in a Volcanic Soil of Ñuble Province, VIII Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ortega B; Rogelio Mardonez O.

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la variabilidad espacial de la mineralización de N en un suelo volcánico, correspondiente a una mezcla de las series Bulnes y Arrayán (Typic Distrandept) de la provincia de Ñuble, Chile, para determinar el potencial del manejo sitio-específico de N, desde el punto de vista del suministro de N del suelo. Muestras de suelo intactas, georeferenciadas con un receptor de sistemas de posición global (GPS) con señal diferencial (DGPS), contenidas en tubos de p...

  11. Percepción de la motivación de los directivos intermedios en tres hospitales de la Región del Maule, Chile Motivation perception measurement of intermediate directors in three complex hospitals of the Region of the Maule, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla; María Carolina del Río-Rivero; Germán Enrique Lobos-Andrade; Patricia Isabel Villarreal-Navarrete

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: En este trabajo se diseña un cuestionario y se cuantifican las percepciones de motivación-desmotivación de los jefes intermedios de tres hospitales de la Región del Maule, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El trabajo de campo se realizó entre septiembre y octubre de 2006, se aplicó un cuestionario con 57 afirmaciones de medición de actitudes que se calificó de acuerdo con una escala tipo Likert de cinco puntos. La población objeto de la investigación fue de 125 profesionales bajo cuya supe...

  12. "Oasis de neblina" en los cerros costeros del sur de Iquique, región de Tarapacá, Chile, durante el evento El Niño 1997-1998 Fog oases during the El Niño Southern Oscillation 1997-1998, in the coastal hills south of Iquique, Tarapacá region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    MÉLICA MUÑOZ-SCHICK; RAQUEL PINTO; ALDO MESA; ANDRÉS MOREIRA-MUÑOZ

    2001-01-01

    Se describe la flora de cuatro sitios de "oasis de neblina" del desierto costero del Norte de Chile, entre Iquique y la desembocadura del río Loa, muestreados entre los meses de octubre de 1997 y enero de 1998. No existían muestreos anteriores en tres de los sitios: Alto Patache, Punta Lobos y Alto Chipana. Se registraron en esta ocasión 72 especies de plantas vasculares, lo que amplía notablemente el conocimiento florístico de este sector, que poseía a la fecha apenas una veintena de especie...

  13. Una nueva especie de Ithome Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae: Chrysopeleiinae del norte de Chile A new species of Ithome Chambers (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae: Chrysopeleiinae from northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HECTOR A VARGAS

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción del adulto, larva y pupa de Ithome tiaynai Vargas sp. n. Las larvas antófagas viven asociadas a Acacia macracantha Willd. (Fabaceae. La distribución de esta especie comprende los valles costeros de Azapa y Chaca, Primera Región de Chile. Ithome tiaynai es la primera especie descrita desde Chile para este géneroDescriptions of the adult, larva and pupa of Ithome tiaynai Vargas sp. n. are presented. The anthophagous larvae are associated with Acacia macracantha Willd (Fabaceae. The distribution of this species includes the coastal valleys of Azapa and Chaca, First Region of Chile. Ithome tiaynai is the first species described from Chile for this genus.

  14. Forest mapping with satellite in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, A. [SSC Satellitbild (Sweden)

    1995-12-31

    Chile has about 9.1 million ha of forest land, among which 7.6 million ha are native forest and 1.5 million ha are plantations of exotic species. The number of plantations is constantly growing due to the important role these areas play in the national economy. Pino Radiata (Pinus radiata) is found in most of the plantations while the remaining parts are dominated by Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp.) The governmental Instituto Forestal (INFOR) in Santiago de Chile, is monitoring the rapid changes in these areas through frequent inventories. As an inventory of this type takes about six years to complete in all areas (one region per year), it is of great importance to find quicker ways to cover these areas. The native forest has in recent years been the subject of debate, not only for economic reasons, but also as a result of ecological pressure for conservation. Where to conserve, where to put restrictions and where to allow forestry are the big issues. Against this background it is necessary to evaluate different data sources that can give information about the present forest situation and provide the means to monitor the changes. The aim of the project was to evaluate whether satellite imagery could fulfill INFOR`s demand for forestry information, and to investigate the kind of data source and methodology to apply when using satellite data

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Acuña, Daniel; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2005-01-01

    The tick species recorded from Chile can be listed under the following headings: (1) endemic or established: Argas keiransi Estrada-Peña, Venzal and Gonzalez-Acuña, A. neghmei Kohls and Hoogstraal; Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin; Otobius megnini (Dugès); Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann; A. tigrinum Koch; Ixodes auritulus Neumann; I. chilensis Kohls; I. cornuae Arthur, I. sigelos Keirans, Clifford and Corwin; I. stilesi Neumann; I. uriae White; Rhipicephalus sanguineus Koch. (2) Probably established or endemic: Argas miniatus Koch; Ornithodoros spheniscus Hoogstraal, Wassef, Hays and Keirans; Ixodes abrocomae Lahille; I. neuquenensis Ringuelet; I. pararicinus Keirans and Clifford. (3) Doubtfully established: Argas reflexus Fabricius; Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville). (4) Exotic: Amblyomma argentinae Neumann; A. latum Koch, Rhipicephalus (= Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). (5) Erroneously identified as present in Chile: Amblyomma americanum (Linnaeus); A. maculatum Koch; A. varium Koch; Ixodes conepati Cooley and Kohls; I. frontalis (Panzer); I. ricinus (Linnaeus); Margaropus winthemi Karsch. (6) Nomina nuda: Argas reticulatus Gervais; Amblyomma inflatum Neumann; Ixodes lagotis Gervais. Hosts and localities (including new records) are presented. Argas neghmei, O. amblus, O. megnini, I. uriae and R. sanguineus may cause severe injury to their hosts, including humans. The Chilean Ixodes fauna is unique to the Neotropical Zoogeographic Region, and additional research is needed in order to understand the biological importance of these species. PMID:15777007

  16. The biomethane potential in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the last decade natural gas gained considerable importance in Chile. The contribution of natural gas within the energy system will increase in the future by predicted 3.6% annually until the year 2015. Due to limited resources within its own country, the energy system of Chile depends on natural gas imports preferential from Argentina. Therefore, the aim of several stakeholders from policy and industry is to reduce the share of imported primary energy within the overall energy system. In order to reach this goal, the use of domestic resources and particularly the utilisation of biomass as one of the most important renewable sources of energy in Chile could play an important role. Against this background, the goal of this paper is the analysis of the technical potentials of biomethane as a substitute for natural gas. For the production of biomethane the anaerobic or bio-chemical (i.e. Biogas) as well as the thermo-chemical conversion pathways (i.e. Bio-SNG) are considered. The results of this analysis show that biomass converted to biomethane is a promising energy provision option for Chile and it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  17. Corporate Governance Country Assessment : Chile

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Chile's equity market is fairly large and successful. The market capitalization of the 249 listed firms represented 89 percent of GDP at year-end, 2001. Corporate ownership is concentrated and pyramid structures are common. Business groups/conglomerates are the predominant corporate form. Institutional investors, especially pension funds, are active equity investors. The Securities Market ...

  18. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  19. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Eulenfeld [Richter; Günter Asch; Rainer Kind

    2011-01-01

    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such ear...

  20. Indicator based sustainability analysis of future energy situation of Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzer, Volker; Quintero, Adriana; Vargas, Luis; Paredes, Gonzalo; Simon, Sonja; Nienhaus, Kristina; Kopfmüller, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Up to now, the Chilean Energy system has fulfilled the energy needs of Santiago de Chile considerably well. However, development trends of the current system impose significant future risks on the energy system. A detailed sustainability analysis of the energy sector of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago de Chile was conducted, using selected energy indicators and a distance-to-target approach. Risks for the sustainable development of the energy sector are detected, such...

  1. SELECCIÓN DE PORTFOLIOS DE ROTACIONES CULTURALES ECONOMICAMENTE OPTIMOS PARA LA PRECORDILLERA ANDINA DE LA VIII REGIÓN Selection of portfolios of economically optimal crop rotations for the Andean Foothills of the VIIIth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge González U.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Los agricultores seleccionan alternativas productivas bajo riesgo de acuerdo a consideraciones agronómicas y económicas. Este estudio se basó en información económica histórica generada en un estudio de largo plazo (1980-1996 del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, de rotaciones de secano para la precordillera andina de la VIII Región. Se cuantificaron, seleccionaron y analizaron portfolios económicamente óptimos de dichas rotaciones, según su margen neto real y desviación estándar, aplicando los conceptos de la teoría de selección de portfolios ó análisis esperanza-varianza (Análisis E-V y relaciones con los procesos de decisión de los agricultores en un contexto de riesgo. El estudio se realizó para agricultores con distintas aversión al riesgo y superficie predial, utilizando programación cuadrática computacional. El margen neto esperado de los portfolios óptimos varió de $ 170.000 ha-1 a $ 211.000 ha-1, incrementándose cuanto menor es el predio y la aversión al riesgo. Se determinó que los portfolios óptimos económicos incluyeron básicamente las rotaciones trigo-avena, trigo-pradera sembrada (3 años y trigo-pradera natural (2 años-avena. Cuando la superficie predial y la aversión al riesgo aumentan, la rotación trigo-avena disminuye su participación, y las rotaciones ganaderas la incrementan fuertemente. Basándose en el Análisis E-V, fue factible seleccionar portfolios económicamente óptimos relativamente estables y coherentes con propuestas de desarrollo para la zonaFarmers select productive alternatives under risk in accordance with agronomic and economic considerations. This study was based on historical economic information generated in a long-term study (1980-1996 of the National Agricultural Research Institute of rotations in dry land areas in the Andean foothills, VIII Region, Chile. Optimum economic portfolios were quantified, selected and analyzed according to their Net Real Margin

  2. Azufre Elemental como Corrector del pH y la Fertilidad de Alfunos Suelos de la III y IV Región de Chile Elemental Sulphur as pH and Soil Fertility Amendment for Some Chileans Soils of Regions III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sierra B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En los suelos de la zona norte de Chile existen suelos con carbonatos, situación que influye sobre la disponibilidad de nutrientes para los cultivos. En el presente experimento se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio, el efecto de la aplicación de azufre elemental sobre el pH, conductividad eléctrica y micronutrientes en seis suelos de la III y IV Región, Chile. El azufre se aplicó en dosis de 500 y 1000 mg S° kg-1, y el suelo se incubó por períodos de 60 y 120 días a 80% de su capacidad de campo a 25°C. El experimento se estableció con un diseño de tratamientos completamente al azar con arreglo factorial, donde los factores fueron: suelo, dosis de azufre elemental y tiempo de incubación. Los recipientes en incubación se distribuyeron de acuerdo a un diseño completamente al azar. Las características de los suelos que más influyeron sobre la magnitud del efecto acidificante del azufre elemental fueron los contenidos de CaCO3, materia orgánica y arena. Las reducciones de pH significativas se presentaron en los suelos con una menor capacidad tampón, como consecuencia del menor contenido de CaCO3 y materia orgánica. La conductividad eléctrica se incrementó por la aplicación del azufre elemental, debido al aumento de sales solubles en el suelo. Los niveles de los micronutrientes Fe, Mn y Cu se incrementaron en los suelos cuyos pH disminuyeron significativamente, siendo el Mn el más influenciado por la acidificación. Esta información es de utilidad para establecer programas de aplicación de enmiendas en suelos calcáreos de la zona norte de ChileSoils containing calcite are common in Northern Chile, and this condition decreases the availability of nutrients for plants. The effect of the application of elemental sulphur (S° was evaluated on soil pH, electrical conductivity and the available micronutrients content in six soils of the III and IV Regions of Chile. This was applied in doses of 500 and 1000 mg S° kg-1 and the

  3. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental tam...

  4. Actividad de glutation peroxidasa (GSH-Px) en sangre de bovinos a pastoreo de la IX Región, Chile y su relación con la concentración de selenio en el forraje* Glutathion peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) in grazing dairy cattle in the south of Chile (IXth Region) and their relation with selenium contents in the forage

    OpenAIRE

    F Wittwer; P Araneda; A Ceballos; P A Contreras; M ANDAUR; H. BÖHMWALD

    2002-01-01

    Con el objeto de determinar la actividad sanguínea de glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px; E.C. 1.11.1.9) en bovinos lecheros de la IX Región de la Araucanía (38º LS y 71º LO), Chile, y establecer su eventual asociación con el contenido de Se en el forraje, durante el otoño y la primavera de 1999 se tomaron muestras de forraje de las praderas y de sangre en grupos de vacas en inicio de lactancia y vaquillas en 12 predios lecheros. Se midió la concentración de Se en el forraje empleando la ...

  5. Evaluación epidemiológica de las técnicas de ELISA y electroinmunotransferencia en el diagnóstico de la hidatidosis ovina en la XI Región de Chile EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF THE ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT TECH- NIQUES IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SHEEP HYDATID DISEASE IN THE XI REGION OF CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    DANILO VARGAS; RAFAEL BONET; SERGIO CAMPANO; TOMAS CHACON; MACARENA VIDAL

    2001-01-01

    Con el propósito de optimizar el diagnóstico de la hidatidosis ovina en la XI Región de Chile, y contribuir a los estudios seroepide-miológicos de esta enfermedad, se estanda-rizaron y evaluaron técnica y epidemioló-gicamente ELISA y E.I.T. como pruebas de tamiz y referencia, respectivamente. Un extracto crudo de proteínas obtenidas de líquido hidatídico proveniente de quistes ovinos hepáticos fue usado como antígeno para ELISA y una fracción de antígeno B enriquecido se utilizó para E.I.T. L...

  6. Indicadores de Rentabilidad y Eficiencia Económica de la Producción de Manzanas cv. Gala en la Región del Maule, Chile Profitability and Economic Efficiency Indicators of cv. Gala Apple Production in Maule Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Lobos A; Tristán Muñoz I

    2005-01-01

    En esta investigación se estimaron indicadores de rentabilidad y de eficiencia económica de la producción de manzanas (Malus domestica L.) cv. Gala para una explotación localizada en la zona de Linares (35º51’ lat. Sur, 71º35’ long. Oeste), Región del Maule, Chile. Los coeficientes técnicos de la plantación fueron tomados de los registros históricos de diferentes predios durante las temporadas agrícolas 1994-1995 a 2003-2004. Para la valorización de las inversiones en plantación y...

  7. ESTIMACIÓN DE COSTOS MEDIOS DE PRODUCCIÓN DE LECHE EN TRES PREDIOS DE LA REGIÓN DEL MAULE, CHILE. ESTUDIO DE CASOS Estimate of Average Production Costs for Three Dairies of Maule Region, Chile: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Germán Lobos A; Mavel Miño C.; Erika González M.; Anita Prizant S.

    2001-01-01

    Se estimaron costos medios mensuales para el año 1998 de la producción de leche en tres lecherías ubicadas en la provincia de Linares (35º51’ lat. S. y 71º35’ long. O.), Región del Maule, Chile. Las explotaciones lecheras están asociadas a la empresa PROLECHE S.A., formada con apoyo financiero de la Corporación de Fomento de la Producción (CORFO) para la gestión asociativa. La tasa de descuento relevante fue estimada utilizando el Modelo de Valorización de Activos de Capital (CAPM) y el Costo...

  8. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  9. [Adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile, 1968-1990].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taucher, E; Albala, C; Icaza, G

    1994-12-01

    "The paper starts with a brief analysis of the sources and the quality of the data and the mortality indices [for trends in adult mortality from chronic diseases in Chile]....A comparison is made of mortality among the 13 regions of the country and an attempt is made to relate the observed differences to some environmental and life-style factors. Rural-urban and educational differences of mortality by cause of death are also analyzed. The paper ends by comparing mortality by chronic disease in Chile with that of other countries of the Latin American region, noting some difficulties [in] such a comparison and proposing hypotheses for future studies." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12290226

  10. Acuicultura Insostenible en Chile (Unsustainable aquaculture in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer, Marcos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acuicultura en Chile sólo será alternativa a la pesca si se consigue llevar su producción a parámetros de sostenibilidad, no solamente económica sino, fundamentalmente, ambiental. Con un esfuerzo dirigido hacia medidas legislativas y de control, e investigación aplicada, podríamos acercarnos a una acuicultura ambientalmente sostenible.

  11. Business Incubator Financing and Financial Services in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Chandra; Magda Narczewska

    2009-01-01

    Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 20-25 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to organize risk...

  12. Desigualdades sociales y tipos de territorios en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Las desigualdades sociales en Chile incluyen desigualdades territoriales que permanecen no observadas cuando se enfoca exclusivamente las regiones administrativas. Un conjunto entrelazado de tipos de territorios representativos del proceso de urbanización en un nivel subregional, es propuesto para el estudio de las desigualdades sociales desde una perspectiva territorial. Un territorio es delimitado por un mercado de trabajo común, lo que es medido por la conmutación o movilidad territorial.

  13. Field survey of the 16 September 2015 Chile tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Marcelo; Fritz, Hermann M.

    2016-04-01

    On the evening of 16 September, 2015 a magnitude Mw 8.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of central Chile's Coquimbo region. The ensuing tsunami caused significant inundation and damage in the Coquimbo or 4th region and mostly minor effects in neighbouring 3rd and 5th regions. Fortunately, ancestral knowledge from the past 1922 and 1943 tsunamis in the region along with the catastrophic 2010 Maule and recent 2014 tsunamis, as well as tsunami education and evacuation exercises prompted most coastal residents to spontaneously evacuate to high ground after the earthquake. There were a few tsunami victims; while a handful of fatalities were associated to earthquake induced building collapses and the physical stress of tsunami evacuation. The international scientist joined the local effort from September 20 to 26, 2015. The international tsunami survey team (ITST) interviewed numerous eyewitnesses and documented flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment deposition, damage patterns, performance of the navigation infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The ITST covered a 500 km stretch of coastline from Caleta Chañaral de Aceituno (28.8° S) south of Huasco down to Llolleo near San Antonio (33.6° S). We surveyed more than 40 locations and recorded more than 100 tsunami and runup heights with differential GPS and integrated laser range finders. The tsunami impact peaked at Caleta Totoral near Punta Aldea with both tsunami and runup heights exceeding 10 m as surveyed on September 22 and broadcasted nationwide that evening. Runup exceeded 10 m at a second uninhabited location some 15 km south of Caleta Totoral. A significant variation in tsunami impact was observed along the coastlines of central Chile at local and regional scales. The tsunami occurred in the evening hours limiting the availability of eyewitness video footages. Observations from the 2015 Chile tsunami are compared against the 1922, 1943, 2010 and 2014 Chile tsunamis. The

  14. [The epidemiological transition in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalá, C; Vio, F; Robledo, A; Icaza, G

    1993-12-01

    Aiming to describe the place that Chile has in the epidemiological transition, a descriptive study of the changes in demographic and epidemiological profiles of the country during the last 30 years is presented. The important decrease in general and child mortality rates, that has lead to an increase in life expectancy and ageing of the population, is emphasized. A 82% reduction in the proportion of deaths among less than one year old children and a 62% increase in mortality among people 65 years or older is observed. In agreement with these changes, non transmissible chronic diseases appear as the principal cause of mortality (65% of all deaths). However, regarding morbidity, an increase in digestive infectious and sexually transmitted diseases and a decrease in immuno-preventable diseases, excepting measles, is noted. It is concluded that, according to mortality, Chile is in a post transition stage, but there is persistence of some infectious diseases, typical of a pre-transition stage. PMID:8085073

  15. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Amado M. Padilla; Lillian Comas Díaz

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychologic...

  16. Reflections on a study of Intercultural Education and Participation in Mapuche Communities in the IX Region of La Araucania, Chile Reflexiones a partir de un estudio sobre Educación Intercultural y Participación en Comunidades Mapuche en la Novena Región de La Araucanía, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Williamson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis focuses on a specific dimension of the "indigenous question" in Chile: that of social participation in educational processes, specifically within the context of the current national education reform. Beginning with new understandings based on the work of the Proyecto de Investigación & Desarrollo, Gestión Participativa en Educación-Kelluwün, this paper analyzes the possibilities and limits of participation, considering the particular framework of institutional structures inherited from the Military Regime, characteristics of the education reform, and the context of current indigenous conflicts for territorial and political rights. The Proyecto Kelluwün, using methods of action research and based on the principles of Paulo Freire, developed diverse experiences oriented to the augmentation of action, dialogue, critical reflection and elevating the social power of the community as an actor able to confront the local government, the aim being the integration of Mapuche culture, language and cosmovision into the curriculum, pedagogy, organization and culture of local schools. Through the understandings generated in the process of engaged research, we interrogate the real possibilities of increasing effective participation in actual contexts--participation, social engagement aimed at attaining the objectives of the quality and equity sought by the current educational reform as well as the expansion of community rights sought by the Mapuche in Chile. El artículo analiza una dimensión particular de la "cuestión indígena" en Chile: la de la Participación Social en los procesos educacionales, particularmente en el contexto de la Reforma Educacional. A partir de los aprendizajes y descubrimientos del Proyecto de Investigación & Desarrollo, Gestión Participativa en Educación-Kelluwün, analiza las posibilidades y límites a la participación, en el marco de la institucionalidad heredada del régimen militar, de las caracter

  17. Quinua in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Enrique A.; Fuentes, Francisco F.; Chia, Eduardo; Namdar-Irani, Mina; Olguin, Pablo; Saa, Constanza; Thomet, Max; Vidal, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    The biogeography of quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd.) provides a comprehensive view of a crop that is relatively minor in Chilean agriculture, despite growing in a large geographical area (18°–47°S). Quinoa’s genetic diversity illustrates that it is a vital crop in the South American Andes region. It was domesticated in various geographical zones, which generated a wide variety of adaptative morphological and environmental features. Specific adaptations in each macrozone throughout the Andes...

  18. Study of air pollution in Chile using biomonitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project has been undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present project aims at the selection of appropriate plants and other indicators for monitoring of air pollution in several cities and rural areas in Chile. Nuclear analytical techniques, in particular neutron activation analysis (NAA) will be used complemented by AAS for the analysis of selected elements and to determine the sources of pollutants and the applicability of biomonitors to study air pollution in large areas, using indicators either naturally grown or artificially introduced to the region under examination. (author)

  19. The Bulimulidae (Mollusca: Pulmonata) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The bulimulid genus Bostryx Troschel, 1847 is the most species-rich genus of land snails found in Chile, with the majority of its species found only in the northern part of the country, usually in arid coastal zones. This genus has been sparsely studied in Chile and there is little information on their distribution, diversity or ecology. Here, for the first time, a formal analysis of the diversity of bulimulids in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile, is reported. Of the seventeen species recorded for the area, most of them were efectively found in the field collections and one record was based on literature. Five taxa are described as new: Bostryx ancavilorum sp. nov., Bostryx breurei sp. nov., Bostryx calderaensis sp. nov., Bostryx ireneae sp. nov. and Bostryx valdovinosi sp. nov., and the known geographic distribution of seven species is extended. Results reveal that the Región de Atacama is the richest region in terrestrial snails in Chile, after the Juan Fernández Archipelago. All of the terrestrial molluscan species occurring in the area are endemic to Chile, most of them with restricted geographic distributions along the coastal zones, and none of them are currently protected by law. Further sampling in northern Chile will probably reveal more snail species to be discovered and described. PMID:26587346

  20. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  1. Chile : Household Risk Management and Social Protection

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2004-01-01

    This report is part of the World Bank's advisory and analytical assistance to the Government of Chile. The report examines whether Chile has a social protection "system" - broadly defined to include policy interventions, public institutions, and the regulation of private institutions that lower the welfare costs of adverse shocks to income from job loss and extended unemployment, health ep...

  2. Earthquake engineering research program in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragoni, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    Earthquake engineering research in Chile has been carried out for more than 30 years. Systematic research is done at the university of Chile in Santiago. Other universities such as the Catholic University, university of Concepcion, and the Federico Santa Maria Technical University have begun to teach and conduct research in earthquake engineering in recent years. 

  3. Karu-INIA, nuevo cultivar de papa para Chile Karu-INIA, new potato cultivar for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Kalazich B.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Karu-INIA es un nuevo cultivar de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. creado a partir del cruzamiento Yagana-INIA x Fanfare, por el Programa de Mejoramiento Genético de la Papa del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, en el Centro Regional de Investigación Remehue, Osorno, el año 1989. Es una planta semi erecta, de buen vigor, con tubérculos de tamaño medio a grande, uniformes, de forma oval alargada, piel roja y pulpa amarilla clara. Posee altos rendimientos y se adapta bien a la mayoría de las zonas y épocas de cultivo de la papa en Chile. Su uso preferente es para consumo fresco, aunque produce una fritura de calidad altamente aceptable, similar a Yagana-INIA.Karu-INIA is a new potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cultivar, created from a cross between the cultivars Yagana-INIA x Fanfare by the Potato Breeding Program of the National Agricultural Research Institue (INIA, at the Remehue Regional Research Center, Osorno, Chile, in 1989. It is a semi-erect plant, with vigorous growth, a medium to large size, long oval-shaped tuber, red skin and clear yellow flesh. It is a high yielding cultivar and adapts well to the majority of the potato production areas and crop seasons in Chile. It is preferred for fresh consumption, although it has fairly good frying quality, similar to Yagana-INIA.

  4. Consumer Perception of Animal Welfare and Livestock Production in the Araucania Region , Chile Percepción de los Consumidores sobre el Bienestar Animal y la Producción Ganadera en Región de La Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of animal welfare (AW in developed countries, a survey was carried out among 384 consumers in Temuco, Chile, to establish their knowledge and perceptions about animals handling during production, to detect preferences for meat produced under AW principles, their willingness to pay a higher price for this and to distinguish different consumer segments. Approximately 60% of people surveyed knew about livestock management practices, half of them considered that these practices had a negative effect on the animals, but only 32.1% have changed their meat consumption habits due to this. Seventy percent of the people surveyed had over 50% of knowledge about AW aspects. There is a strong preference and willingness to pay a higher price for meat produced under AW principles. Consumers have a positive perception of the fact that the meat that they consume comes from pasture-fed animals, raised in the open, and raised, transported and slaughtered following humane principles. Three segments were identified by using cluster analysis: the most numerous (58.6% considers confinement and feeding with concentrates as positive; the second group (25.5% showed a strong rejection of the use of hormones, feeding with broiler litter and concentrates, and places a positive value on raising animals in the open. The smallest segment (15.4% placed the highest value on humane treatment of the animals, plus a positive value on concentrates use and rejected confined raising. The conclusion is that a large part of the population perceives AW as a desirable condition when purchasing beefConsiderando la importancia del bienestar animal (BA en los países desarrollados, se realizó una encuesta a 384 consumidores de Temuco, Chile, para determinar el conocimiento y percepción sobre el manejo productivo de animales bovinos y ovinos y BA, detectar la preferencia y disposición a pagar por carne producida con animales tratados con las normas BA y distinguir

  5. Variabilidad Espacial de la Mineralización de Nitrógeno en un Suelo Volcánico de la Provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región, Chile Spatial Variability of Nitrogen Mineralization in a Volcanic Soil of Ñuble Province, VIII Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ortega B.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la variabilidad espacial de la mineralización de N en un suelo volcánico, correspondiente a una mezcla de las series Bulnes y Arrayán (Typic Distrandept de la provincia de Ñuble, Chile, para determinar el potencial del manejo sitio-específico de N, desde el punto de vista del suministro de N del suelo. Muestras de suelo intactas, georeferenciadas con un receptor de sistemas de posición global (GPS con señal diferencial (DGPS, contenidas en tubos de polivinilclorado (PVC (5 cm diámetro por 12 cm largo, con bolsas de resinas de intercambio iónico en su porción inferior, fueron incubadas in situ. Las cantidades de N-NO3 y N-NH4 extraídas desde el suelo fueron adicionadas al N-inorgánico extraído desde las resinas para determinar el N mineralizado durante los períodos de incubación. Para determinar N-NO3 se empleó el método de Self y Rodríguez (1998 modificado. A través del uso de herramientas geoestadísticas fue posible mapear adecuadamen te la variabilidad espacial del N mineralizado en los dos períodos de evaluación, así como en el intervalo total del estudio. Futuros estudios de mineralización de N in situ, en suelos similares, debieran considerar intensidades de 5 a 35 puntos ha-1, para asegurar dependencia espacial.The objective of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of N mineralization in a volcanic soil, corresponding to a mix of the Bulnes and Arrayan series (Typic Distrandept of Ñuble Province, Chile, to determine the potential of site-specific N management from the soil N-supply standpoint. Intact soil samples, georeferenced with a differential global position system (DGPS contained in PVC tubes (5 cm diameter by 12 cm length, with bags containing ion exchange resins were incubated in situ. The amounts of NO3-N plus NH4-N extracted from the soil were added to those extracted from the resin bags to determine N mineralized during the incubation periods. To

  6. ENSAYOS BIOLÓGICOS EN MACETAS CON TRÉBOL SUBTERRÁNEO EN SUELOS DEL SECANO COSTERO, VI REGIÓN DE CHILE.: EXPLORACIÓN DE DISPONIBILIDAD DE FÓSFORO, AZUFRE, BORO, MOLIBDENO Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA NODULACIÓN Biological tests in pots with subterranean clover in Coastal Dry Land soils, VI Region of Chile: Survey of available phosphorus, sulfur, boron and molybdenum and their relation to nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingo Opazo A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available La productividad y calidad de la pradera natural del secano de la Cordillera de la Costa de la VI Región de Chile, recurso muy importante para la ganadería de esta zona y principal fuente de ingreso para su población, pueden mejorarse incrementando la presencia de especies con mayor valor forrajero tal como el trébol subterráneo (Trifolium subterraneum L.. Sin embargo, el adecuado establecimiento del trébol subterráneo se ha visto dificultado, postulándose posibles deficiencias nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue validar una metodología de ensayo en macetas en condiciones de invernadero, como un método rápido para evaluar posibles deficiencias nutricionales de P, S, B y Mo. Se usaron los suelos de las series Curanipe (Alfisol y Marchihue (Inceptisol. Los tratamientos aplicados a cada maceta con 2 kg de suelo y seis plantas de trébol subterráneo cv. Trikkala fueron testigo (T, fertilización completa (FC, FC-P, FC-S, FC-B y FC-Mo. Las plantas se cortaron a los 79 días desde la siembra. El rendimiento de materia seca aérea (MSA y la nodulación fueron afectados por una deficiencia severa de fósforo, un pH ácido (5,1, y por el aluminio intercambiable (0,09 cmol (+ kg-1. La MSA no fue afectada por la aplicación de B y Mo. Los incrementos de materia seca del trébol subterráneo, bajo las condiciones del estudio, se duplicaron y sextuplicaron, dependiendo de la degradación de la fertilidad de los suelos. Para la interpretación del azufre disponible se recomienda considerar el azufre mineralizable y la posible absorción foliar de SO2The productivity and quality of native dry land pasture of the Coastal Range of the VI Region of Chile, the major feed resource for the livestock of this zone and main source of economic income for its population, could be improved increasing the proportion of better forage species, such as subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.. However, the adequate establishment of subterranean

  7. Frecuencia y distribución, según edad y estacionalidad, de patologías hepáticas en salmonídeos, provenientes de la Xª a XIIª Región de Chile. Período 1988-1998. Histopathological lesions in the liver of salmonids, from the X to XII Region of Chile. Frequency and distribution according to the age and the season of the year, 1988-1998.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. LÓPEZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de determinar los tipos de alteraciones presentes en hígados de salmonídeos y su relación con la edad y estaciones del año, se analizaron 709 informes anatomopatológicos correspondientes a muestras hepáticas de salmonídeos (S. salar, O. kisutch, O. tschawytscha, O. mykiss recepcionadas en el Instituto de Patología Animal de la Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias de la UACh, provenientes de centros de cultivo de la Xª a XIIª Región de Chile, durante el período 1988-1998. Los resultados obtenidos indican que del total de muestras recepcionadas, el 91,5% de los hígados presentaron alteraciones microscópicas, no apreciándose diferencias entre especies. Por otra parte, se observaron dos incrementos en la recepción de muestras en el lapso estudiado, el primero entre 1990-1992, en los meses de verano, y el segundo, entre 1994-1996, en los meses de otoño, correspondiendo a la presencia de Síndrome Rickettsial Salmonídeo y Leucemia Linfoblástica respectivamente. Del total de muestras hepáticas recepcionadas (período 1988-1998, el 45,0% correspondió a salmón coho (O. kisutch. En relación a la edad de los salmonídeos, la categoría smolt evidenció el mayor porcentaje de muestras de hígado recibidas, siendo los smolt de los salmones coho los de mayor presentación (53,0%. Los resultados de la presente investigación confirman al hígado como uno de los órganos más importantes a considerar en la evaluación histopatológica, ya que tal como se ha demostrado, por sus características anatómicas, histológicas y funcionales es blanco de una gran diversidad de agentes infecciosos y cuadros metabólicos, participando además, en procesos de detoxificación.The purpose of this report was to analize the kinds of lesions present in livers of salmonids grown in fish farms in the Tenth to Twelfth Region of Chile, from 1988 until 1998, in relation to age and seasons. Anatomic-pathologic reports from the Animal Pathology

  8. Sistema de salud de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  9. Actividad de visita de Bombus dahlbomi (Guériny Bombus ruderatus (F. (Hymenoptera:Apidae sobre Trébol Rosado (Trifolium pratense L. en la IX Región de la La Araucanía, Chile Visiting Activity of Bombus dahlbomi (Guérin and Bombus ruderatus (F.(Hymenoptera: Apidae on Red Clover (Trifolium pratense L. in the IX Region of La Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rebolledo R.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available En la temporada 1998/99 se estudió en las localidades de Gorbea y Nueva Imperial de la IX Región de La Araucanía, la acción polinizadora de los abejorros Bombus dahlbomi y Bombus ruderatus sobre semilleros de trébol rosado (Trifolium pratense L.. Durante la temporada 1999/2000 se registró la distribución, abundancia relativa y la longitud de la probóscide de ambas especies, las que se encuentran ampliamente distribuidas en la Región, con abundancias relativas de un 58,8 y 41,2% respectivamente. Se observó una mayor actividad polinizadora en los intervalos de la mañana y de la tarde, destacándose B. ruderatus por visitar un mayor número de flores por inflorescencia y ocupar más tiempo que B. dahlbomi en esta labor. Se constató la preferencia de esta última por plantas nativas y de mayor altura, mientras que B. ruderatus prefirió plantas herbáceas y foráneas. El largo promedio de la probóscide fue de 9,86 mm para B. dahlbomi y 9,77 mm para B. ruderatus, concluyendo que ambos moscardones pertenecen al grupo de Bombus de lengua larga, capaces de polinizar flores de corolas profundas como las de trébol rosado.In the 1998/99 season, the pollinating activity of the bumblebees Bombus dahlbomi (Guérin and Bombus ruderatus (F. on red clover (Trifolium pratense L. for seed production was studied in the localities of Gorbea and Nueva Imperial in the IX Region of La Araucania, Chile. During the 1999/2000 season, the distribution, relative abundance and size of the proboscis were recorded. Both species are widely distributed in the Region, with a relative abundance of 58.8% and 41.2%, respectively. A greater pollinating activity could be observed in the morning and evening intervals, with B. ruderatus being more active in visiting a greater number of flowers and spending more time than B. dahlbomi. A preference of this latter species was observed for higher native plants, while B. ruderatus preferred herbaceous and exotic plants. The

  10. SPATIAL INEQUALITY, MIGRATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Soto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 1975 and 2000, annual per-capita GDP in Chile grew at 5%. Yet, regions did not benefit equally: poverty declined significantly in all regions but regional income inequality remained stagnant. We found that convergence in per-capita income and productivity levels is too slow to become a significant force in equalizing regional income. Lack of convergence is mostly associated with low levels of internal migration. This, in turn, is found to be largely the result of government policies, in particular, public housing. The efficient targeting of subsidies coupled with the prohibition to sell houses, tied families to their geographical location, inhibiting migrationEntre 1975 y 2000, el PIB por habitante creció 5% por año en Chile. Sin embargo, las regiones no se beneficiaron de igual forma: la pobreza cayó significativamente en todas ellas, pero la desigualdad de ingreso regional se mantuvo constante. Encontramos que la convergencia en el ingreso y productividad per capita es demasiado lenta para igualar los ingresos regionales. La falta de convergencia se relaciona con la insuficiente migración interna. Esta se debe, en gran medida, a políticas públicas, en especial la de vivienda. La alta eficiencia en la asignación de subsidios en conjunto con las restricciones de enajenación han anclado a las familias a sus lugares de origen, inhibiendo la migración

  11. Diagnóstico de brucelosis bovina en leche por el Ring Test y ELISA en lecherías de la provincia de Ñuble (VIII Región Bovine brucellosis diagnosis in milk by Ring Test and ELISA in dairy farms of Ñuble (VIII Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. LOPEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron los métodos de ELISA y Ring Test en leche para diagnosticar brucelosis bovina en estanques de recolección en frío a 60 predios lecheros de la provincia de Ñuble, VIII Región de Chile, durante los meses de noviembre y diciembre de 1995. Estos fueron estratificados en relación al número de vacas en producción de leche. Los resultados obtenidos por ambos métodos fueron similares,18 muestras positivas y 42 negativas. La diferencia se estableció en 5 muestras (8.3% que fueron clasificadas como positivas débiles al Ring Test y confirmadas como positivas por ELISA. Se determinó que la prevalencia predial de brucelosis bovina fue de un 30% en predios lecheros con estanque enfriador en la provincia de Ñuble. El métodode ELISA resultó ser una prueba confiable para diagnosticar brucelosis bovina en leches colectivas.ELISA and Ring Test were compared as diagnostic tests for bovine brucellosis in bulk tank refrigerated milk from 60 dairies in the Ñuble Province, VIII Region, Chile, from November to December. Samples were stratified according to the number of cows in the farm. Diagnosis obtained from both methods gave similar results: 18 positive and 42 negative. The difference was established in 5 samples (8.3% that were classified as weak positive to the Ring Test and confirmed as positives by ELISA. Furthermore, it was determined that there was 30% prevalence of bovine brucellosis in dairies with refrigerated tanks in the Ñuble province. The ELISA proved to be a reliable diagnostic test of bovine brucellosis in bulk milk

  12. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chile has an area of 740,760 square kilometers. The capital is Santiago. The country is 4,183 km. long and ranges from 22.5 to about 354 km. in width. Its chief topographic features para]lei each other - the Coastal Range, Andes Mountains and Central Valley. The Coastal Range rises to 2,130 meters in the north, but averages from 610 to 700 meters high generally. The range plunges into the Pacific Ocean far south of Valparaiso and reappears in the southern archipelagic islands. The Andes extend along nearly the entire length of Chile and contain 100 volcanoes. Andean peaks range mostly from 3,000 to 6,700 meters in elevation. In southern Chile the Andes are lower, and contain about a dozen major lakes. The mountains disappear in Chilean Patagonia, but reappear at Cape Horn. The Central Valley lies between the Coastal Range and the Andes, being best defined in the midland region as a 64 to 72 km sloping plain. It is the Chilean heartland with three-quarters of the country's population. Salt basins are found over much of northern Chile in the very arid desert, while the region south of the Gulf of Reloncavi consists of unpopulated islands, fjords, channels and heavily forested mountains. The Strait of Magellan, the Tierra del Fuego archipelago and a flat grassland area make up the extreme southern end of the country. Much of Chile is subject to flash floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and avalanches. In September 1976 the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCEN) was given exclusive rights to negotiate contracts with private companies for the exploration, development and mining of uranium and other radioactive minerals. The new law provides the CCEN with considerable flexibility in the terms of the contracts. Pre-964 owners of uranium deposits may reach agreements with foreign companies to mine the uranium, but since 1964 all uranium has belonged to the state. Uranium produced in the country can only be exported after Chile's needs have been met. The

  13. Revisiting the Source Process of the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, M.; Minson, S. E.; Jolivet, R.; Jiang, J.; Beck, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    We revisit the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake to create a finite fault kinematic source model based on the current best practices in data analysis and inversion methods. The data used to constrain the source model include both static GPS offsets and 1 Hz kinematic GPS time series, as well as interferograms which have been reanalyzed to remove tropospheric effects which can be quite significant in this region. Our inversion methodology is a Bayesian approach that uses only physics-based constraints on the rupture evolution, and which utilizes models of both the observational noise and the errors in our forward model to obtain the ensemble of all plausible rupture models which satisfy both the data and our a priori assumptions. This approach allows us to better understand which parts of the rupture process are well-constrained and which are not, and thus to better understand how the 2007 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake rupture fits into the sequence of large earthquakes which have been mosaicking the northern Chile subduction zone.

  14. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  15. Miedo y represionpolitica en Chile

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    Amado M. Padilla

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a human rights fact-finding mission to Chile concerned with the use of psychological techniques employed in offlcia- Uy sactioned torture and repressíon, Meetings and interviews were conducted with representatives of many organízatíons working with víctima of governrnental repression including the Chílean Psychological Assocíation. Fear and repression wene found to be widespread among all socioeconomic segments of the population. Physical and psychological abuses directed at individuals are díscussed, Psychological techníques used in the control of social groups such as intimidation, control of information, and community destabilization are also described. It is concluded that violations of human rigths are a reality in Chile. Ways to support the work of Chilean psychologists must be sought sínce the damaging eonsequences of officially sanctioned repressíon are wid.espread, and resources are minimal.

  16. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  17. Chile's energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-18

    In recent years, a new emphasis has been placed on increasing solid fuel availability in Chile, to reach the northern mining operations where demand for power is soaring. The south of the country is well served by hydroelectric power plants (2.3 million kW). The coal industry has doubled its capacity to cope with increased copper production - the Tocopilla power plant at the Chuquicamata copper mine has been converted from oil to coal - and there has been a major investment programme in the steel industry. In 1986, 1.4 million tons of coal was mined, mostly from the Provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the remainder from Valdivia. Since then, 70 million US dollars has been invested by COCAR SA in the Pecket deposit near Punta Arenas. Coal from Pecket should cost around 26 dollars/t compared with 60 dollars/t for underground coal. It should support an expanded coal market in Chile and may also be able to compete in the Brazilian and Argentine markets. Reserves are estimated at over 200 Mt. Petroleum reserves in Tierra del Fuego are nearly exhausted; seismic surveys in the Atacama desert are promising.

  18. ALMA communication backbone in Chile goes optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, G.; Ibsen, J.; Jaque, Sandra; Liello, F.; Navarro, C.

    2014-07-01

    High-bandwidth communication has become a key factor for scientific installations as Observatories. This paper describes the technical, organizational, and operational goals and the level of completion of the ALMA Optical Link Project. The project focus is the creation and operation of an effective and sustainable communication infrastructure to connect the ALMA Observatory, located in the Atacama Desert, in the Northern region of Chile, with the point of presence in ANTOFAGASTA, about 400km away, of the EVALSO infrastructure, and from there to the Central Office in the Chilean capital, Santiago. This new infrastructure that will be operated in behalf of ALMA by REUNA, the Chilean National Research and Education Network, will use state of the art technologies, like dark fiber from newly built cables and DWDM transmission, allowing extending the reach of high capacity communication to the remote region where the Observatory is located. When completed, the end-to-end Gigabit-per-second (Gbps) capable link will provide ALMA with a modern, effective, robust, communication infrastructure capable to cope with present and future demands, like those coming from fast growing data transfer to rapid response mode, from remote monitoring and engineering to virtual presence.

  19. Holocene and deglacial paleoenvironmental history of the Peru-Chile current system and adjacent continental Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Kim, J.; Mohtadi, M.; Ruehlemann, C.

    2002-12-01

    A combined analysis of terrigenous and biogenic compounds in marine sediments from the Chilean continental slope allows detailed reconstructions of both the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history of this region during the last glacial and Holocene. Based on sediment cores recovered during two cruises with the German R/V Sonne, we found evidence for changes both in continental rainfall, most likely induced by latitudinal shifts of the Southern Westerlies, and marine productivity as well as sea surface temperature (SST) changes within the Peru-Chile Current system on time scales ranging from Milankovitch to centennial-scale. On Milankovitch time-scales, we found strong evidence for precession-controlled shifts of the Southern Westerlies implying e.g. more humid conditions during the LGM in the Chilean Norte Chico and a trend towards more arid climates during the deglaciation culminating in the early Holocene. These shifts are paralleled by paleoceanographic changes indicating generally higher productivity during the LGM mainly caused by increased advection of nutrients from the south through an enhanced Peru-Chile current. SSTs off central Chile were about 3.5 C lower than present during the LGM. On shorter time-scales, extremely high resolution sediment cores from the southern Chilean margin provide evidence of significant short-term Holocene climate changes with bands of variability centred at ca. 900 and 1500 years, periodicities also well known from Northern Hemisphere records. Our data point to strong interhemispheric connections of climate change both on multi-centennial to millennial and Milankovitch time-scales with a major role of the tropics for the interhemispheric transfer of climate signals involving changes within the Hadley circulation and/or probably long-term modifications of the El Ni¤o-Southern Oscillation system. The recently drilled ODP Sites 1233 (ca. 41S) and 1234/1235 (ca. 36S) at the southern Chilean margin have the potential to extent

  20. Chile: los mapuches y el Bicentenario Chile: Mapuches e do Bicentenario Chile: Mapuche and the Bicentennial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bengoa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Bicentenario de la República de Chile se conmemoró en el mes de septiembre del año 2010. Además de marcar un importante hito histórico, coincidió con un cambio político en el Gobierno del país, el que pasó de la Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia a la Alianza de partidos formada por la derecha chilena. Se cumplieron por tanto 20 años desde que en el año 1990 cambiara el Gobierno militar presidido por el general Pinochet. Ese largo tiempo, dos décadas, coincide con un período de políticas que el Estado ha implementado hacia los Pueblos Indígenas. El Proyecto “Conmemoraciones y Memorias Subalternas” ha realizado durante el año 2010 un conjunto de investigaciones de terreno y documentales tendientes a comprender del modo más objetivo y científico lo ocurrido en el período y por tanto la situación actual de las sociedades mapuches en sus complejas relaciones con la chilena.O Bicentenario da República do Chile comemorou-se no mês de Setembro do ano 2010. Junto com transformar-se num marco histórico, coincidiu com uma mudança política no Governo do país, que passou da Concertação de Partidos pela Democracia (centro-esquerda à Aliança de partidos formada pela direita chilena. Cumpriram-se por tanto 20 anos desde que em 1990 mudasse o Governo militar presidido pelo general Pinochet. Esse longo tempo, duas décadas, coincide com um período de políticas que o Estado implementou para com os Povos Indígenas. O Projeto “Comemorações e Memórias Subalternas” realizou durante o ano 2010 um conjunto de pesquisas de campo e documentais tendentes a compreender do modo mais objetivo e científico o ocorrido no período e, por tanto, a situação atual das sociedades mapuches em suas complexas relações com a chilena.The conmeration of the 200 years of the Independence of Chile was in September 2010. This year was also the political change from the Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia to the right

  1. Análisis comparativo de índices bióticos utilizados en la evaluación de la calidad de las aguas en un río mediterráneo de Chile: río Chillán, VIII Región Comparative analysis of biotic indexes used to evaluate water quality in a Mediterranean river of Chile: Chillán River, VIII Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICARDO FIGUEROA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El uso de macroinvertebrados bentónicos como indicadores biológicos es de larga tradición en los países desarrollados y son incorporados en todas las evaluaciones de calidad ecológica de sistemas fluviales. En América Latina estos estudios son menos frecuentes y las normativas para la protección de los recursos acuáticos recién comienzan a elaborarse, como es el caso de Chile, dejando abierta la posibilidad al uso de criterios biológicos. El presente estudio realiza una adaptación de índices bióticos (IBE, BMWP, IBF y SIGNAL los que son aplicados y comparados en una cuenca mediterránea de Chile, el río Chillan. Los resultados muestran el mismo patrón de comportamiento para todos los índices, definiendo áreas en buen estado y otras fuertemente impactadas desde el punto de vista biológico. Sin embargo, el IBF y el SIGNAL son más sensibles a perturbaciones no detectadas por el IBE y BMWP. Se discute la factibilidad de aplicación y ventajas que ofrece cada uno de los índices, permitiendo hacer una propuesta metodológica para Chile centralDeveloped countries have traditionally used benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators, incorporating them into the environmental quality evaluations of fluvial systems. These studies are less frequent in Latin America, where the environmental protection standards for aquatic resources are just beginning to be elaborated. Thus, in Chile, the use of biocriteria for such studies remains a possibility. This study of the Chilian River (Chile adapts these biotic indexes (IBE, BMWP, IBF, and SIGNAL for their application and comparison in a Mediterranean basin. The results showed the same behavior pattern for all indexes, defining some areas as having good conditions and others, which, from a biological perspective, have been strongly impacted. Specifically, the IBF and SIGNAL indexes are more sensitive to disturbances than the IBE and BMWP. Application feasibility and the advantages of the

  2. "Oasis de neblina" en los cerros costeros del sur de Iquique, región de Tarapacá, Chile, durante el evento El Niño 1997-1998 Fog oases during the El Niño Southern Oscillation 1997-1998, in the coastal hills south of Iquique, Tarapacá region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÉLICA MUÑOZ-SCHICK

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la flora de cuatro sitios de "oasis de neblina" del desierto costero del Norte de Chile, entre Iquique y la desembocadura del río Loa, muestreados entre los meses de octubre de 1997 y enero de 1998. No existían muestreos anteriores en tres de los sitios: Alto Patache, Punta Lobos y Alto Chipana. Se registraron en esta ocasión 72 especies de plantas vasculares, lo que amplía notablemente el conocimiento florístico de este sector, que poseía a la fecha apenas una veintena de especies registradas. De las especies recolectadas, tres constituyen nuevos registros para la flora chilena: Nolana adansonii (Roem. et Schult. Johnst., Solanum cfr. montanum L. y Ophryosporus cfr. floribundus (DC. King et Rob., mientras que Alstroemeria lutea (Muñoz 2000 constituye una especie nueva para la ciencia. Esta última, junto a Eulychnia aricensis Ritter, Pyrrhocactus saxifragus Ritter y Nolana intonsa Johnst., son endémicas locales. Del total de especies, un 43 % son endémicas y un 52,8 % son nativas no endémicas, existiendo un bajo porcentaje (4,2 % de especies adventicias; 34 especies (47,2 % comparten su área de distribución con el Perú. Las familias Asteraceae, Nolanaceae y Solanaceae son las mejor representadas en el área con más de siete especies cada una. Las condiciones climáticas derivadas del evento El Niño 1997-1998 han favorecido el desarrollo de la vegetación en los oasis de neblina al sur de Iquique. Aunque no hay un aumento de las precipitaciones durante el período 1997-1998, sí se aprecia un incremento en las temperaturas así como en el contenido líquido de la neblina, lo que favorecería el desarrollo de una vegetación más exuberante y la expansión del área de ocupación de algunos elementos florísticosThe flora of four fog oases in the northern Chilean coastal desert, visited between October 1997 and January 1998, is described. These botanical collections are new for Alto Patache, Punta Lobos and Alto Chipana

  3. Macrophytes assemblages in mountain lakes of Huerquehue National Park (39°S, Araucanía Region, Chile Ensambles de macrófitas en lagos de montaña del Parque Nacional Huerquehue (39°S, Región de la Araucanía, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Hauenstein

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The lakes studied (Tinquilco, Verde, Toro, Chico are located in the Huerquehue National Park (39°08'S, 71°40'W, Chile. An inventory of the aquatic and riparian species was performed between December 2005 and March 2006. A null model analysis was done to determine the existence of regulatory factors of species associations, and the Jaccard index was applied to determine floristic similarities. Seventy-five species were identified. The greatest number (54 and highest percentage of introduced species (37% occurred at Tinquilco Lake, placing it in the category of "high human disturbance". Verde Lake, on the other hand, presented the lowest number of species (21, and the percentage of introduced species did not exceed 20% in the other three lakes, which are considered to have "low human disturbance". The analysis of the null model revealed the presence of regulatory factors in one of the three simulations. However, in the other two simulations, the species associations appeared to be random, presumably because many species were repeated at the study sites. According to the Jaccard index, Tinquilco Lake is noticeably different from the other lakes, probably due to its transition from oligotrophy to mesotrophy.Los lagos estudiados (Tinquilco, Verde, Toro, Chico se localizan en el Parque Nacional Huerquehue (39°08'S, 71°40'W. Entre diciembre de 2005 y marzo de 2006, se inventarió su flora acuática y ribereña. Para determinar la influencia de factores reguladores en las asociaciones de especies se aplicó un análisis de modelo nulo y para determinar similitudes florísticas se aplicó el índice de Jaccard. Se identificaron 75 especies, donde el mayor número (54 y el mayor porcentaje de especies introducidas (37% se registró en el lago Tinquilco, por lo que se incluye en la categoría de "altamente intervenido"; mientras que el menor número de especies se registró en el lago Verde con 21, y el porcentaje de especies introducidas no superó el

  4. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  5. Peru-Chile upwelling dynamics under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oerder, Véra; Colas, Francois; Echevin, Vincent; Codron, Francis; Tam, Jorge; Belmadani, Ali

    2015-02-01

    The consequences of global warming on the Peru-Chile Current System (PCCS) ocean circulation are examined with a high-resolution, eddy-resolving regional oceanic model. We performed a dynamical downscaling of climate scenarios from the IPSL-CM4 Coupled General Circulation Model (CGCM), corresponding to various levels of CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. High-resolution atmospheric forcing for the regional ocean model are obtained from the IPSL atmospheric model run on a stretched grid with increased horizontal resolution in the PCCS region. When comparing future scenarios to preindustrial (PI) conditions, the circulation along the Peru and Chile coasts is strongly modified by changes in surface winds and increased stratification caused by the regional warming. While the coastal poleward undercurrent is intensified, the surface equatorial coastal jet shoals and the nearshore mesoscale activity are reinforced. Reduction in alongshore wind stress and nearshore wind stress curl drive a year-round reduction in upwelling intensity off Peru. Modifications in geostrophic circulation mitigate this upwelling decrease in late austral summer. The depth of the upwelling source waters becomes shallower in warmer conditions, which may have a major impact on the system's biological productivity.

  6. Village microgrids: The Chile project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a village application in Chile. The objective was to demonstrate the technical, economic and institutional viability of renewable energy for rural electrification, as well as to allow local partners to gain experience with hybrid/renewable technology, resource assessment, system siting and operation. A micro-grid system is viewed as a small village system, up to 1200 kWh/day load with a 50 kW peak load. It can consist of components of wind, photovoltaic, batteries, and conventional generators. It is usually associated with a single generator source, and uses batteries to cover light day time loads. This paper looks at the experiences learned from this project with regard to all of the facets of planning and installing this project.

  7. 1960 Puerto Montt, Valdivia, Chile Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960, a Mw 9.5 earthquake, the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded, occurred in southern Chile. The series of earthquakes that followed...

  8. Report on the ESO Chile Science Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael

    2008-03-01

    Science Days in Santiago are an annual gathering of ESO's geographically dispersed team in Chile to learn more about each other's research, to celebrate scientific achievements of the past year and to encourage new collaborations.

  9. Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, Chile

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Observations from Punta Arenas, in extreme southern Chile. WMO station ID 85934. Period of record 1896-1954. The original forms were scanned at the Museo...

  10. Biomonitoring air pollution in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chile, in general, and Santiago, its capital city, in particular, has serious air pollution problems mainly in winter time when the pollutants could reach dangerous levels which might be detrimental to older people and children. A project was undertaken within the framework of a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to carry out a long term study on atmospheric air pollution in Chile using biomonitors. The present paper describes the activities carried out within this CRP. The lichens, collected in clean areas (native forests), were transplanted to selected sites in Santiago and exposed during three and six months. At a second stage, samples of Tillandsia recurvata were collected in the Metropolitan Area. All samples were carefully cleaned, using only clean plastic materials, milled at liquid nitrogen temperature, freeze dried, re-homogenized and stored at low temperature until analysis. The samples were mainly analysed by INAA, RNAA SS-AAS and ASV. As part of the routine QA/QC programme, analytical laboratories involved in the project participated in intercomparison runs organized by the IAEA for the determination of trace and minor elements in two lichens samples. From the data and its subsequent mapping over the area under study, it was possible to identify places exposed to higher amounts of some elements. Of interest are also the correlations between several elements, perhaps indicating a given source of pollutants. The results indicate the usefulness of biomonitoring air pollution using lichens and Tillandsias, which, jointly with multielemental analytical techniques, such as NAA, open the possibility to study extensive areas without the infrastructure needed for conventional APM sample collection and at reduced costs. (author)

  11. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to d...

  12. Enterprise Surveys : Chile Country Profile 2010

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; International Finance Corporation

    2011-01-01

    The Country Profile for Chile is based on data from the Enterprise Surveys conducted by the World Bank. The benchmarks include the averages for the group of countries in Latin America & Caribbean and the Chile income group. The enterprise surveys focus on the many factors that shape the decisions of firms to invest. These factors can be accommodating or constraining and play an important r...

  13. Chile ushers in new hydro era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The planned construction of two hydroelectric power plants at Peuchen and Mampil, will help to meet Chile's growing electricity demand. Securing finance for the project has been straight forward thanks to the optimal hydrological conditions, rivers with a very strong flow providing a large head of water over short distance. Hydropower plays a central role in Chile's generating capacity providing 70% of total energy consumption. Thus, the future of these projects will be highly successful, it is argued. (UK)

  14. Desigualdad geográfica en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Agostini, Claudio A.; Brown, Philip H.

    2007-01-01

    Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measu...

  15. The fruit fly programme in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: country. In fact, no species of the genera Ceratitis, Bactrocera, Anastrepha, Dacus and Toxotrypana exist in the country. This programme uses the Fruit fly National Detection System, which includes detection of the pest by trapping and fruit sampling in different areas located between the I and XI Regions of the country. This system is approved by the Chilean trade partners on the basis of the fruit fly-free recognition. For the Chilean fresh fruit exports, this is an important advantage, because there is no need to apply quarantine treatments or any other restriction measure. Chile has also a huge fruit industry, whose export revenues last season reached USD 1,900 million. This fact has permitted to undertake continuously a big effort to maintain that phytosanitary condition. Since Chile is the only fruit-fly free Latin American country, it has to face a continuous biological pressure of fruit flies, mainly C. capitata, to invade its territory. But the country has also some important advantages to prevent flies migrating due to its natural isolation. These natural barriers are the Los Andes ranges in the east, thousands of kilometers of desert in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the west and finally an extremely cold, sub polar climate in the south. This isolation has led to the NPPO officials to believe that the passive spread, through smuggling and hidden fruit in passenger's baggage, to be the most likely source of fruit fly entries. Because of that, Chile has a very strict quarantine system with border control stations at every point of entry. The only exception to the mentioned isolation is Arica Province on the border with Peru. There, SAG applies an area-wide preventative approach through the rearing and release of sterile insects, as well as bait spraying in the border area, which is mainly desert, but has some 'green spots' that allow the fly to alight for resting and feeding. Additionally, through bi-national agreements, common activities are

  16. Biogeografía marina de Chile continental Marine biogeography of continental Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO A. CAMUS

    2001-09-01

    literature review on the marine biogeography of Chile and related subjects, with the following objectives: (a to summarize the oceanographic, climatic and geomorphologic characteristics of the Chilean continental coast; (b to discuss 27 biogeographic classifications published for the Chilean coast, analyzing both the procedures and criteria used by their authors, along with their main conclusions and agreements; (c to assess the vicariant and dispersal processes associated with the displacement and modification of the regional biotas, regarding the available antecedentes on the prevailing conditions and main events during the Tertiary and Quaternary periods; and (d to propose a scenario of biogeographic change based on historical determinants and their influence on the formation, character, and dynamics of biotas along the Chilean coast, emphasizing the identification and biogeographic nature of the main spatial units. From the preceding information, I propose a hypothesis of biogeographic classification for the level of biotas, not necessarily coincident with prior studies at lower levels such as flora or fauna. This classification identifies three major spatial units: a southern area which comprises an austral biota (Magellan Province, a northern area which comprises a warm-temperate biota (Peruvian Province, and a non transitional, Intermediate Area including mixed components of biota and exhibiting a poor biogeographic definition of both its character and hierarchical rank. I also discuss the different nature of two transitional zones located at the boundaries of the Intermediate Area, a southward induced transition and a northward contact transition, likely produced by the migration of biotas and glacial-tectonic events, respectively

  17. The Impact of President Reaganâ s Foreign Policy Efforts in Chile and Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Rebecca Lee

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores whether President Ronald Reaganâ s policies on Chile and Nicaragua met his intended goals of promoting the spread of liberal democracy and countering Soviet influence in the region. Using a case studies approach to analyze Reaganâ s foreign policies in Chile and Nicaragua, the thesis seeks to inform conclusions about his success and failure in U.S. foreign policy in Latin America. The study examined whether Reagan achieved success in these two countries by using the k...

  18. Chile's Millennium Science Initiative : Building Human Capital for the Global Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz; Norsworthy, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Chile's scientific community garners well-deserved respect in the region and worldwide. The country has made significant and fruitful efforts to move towards a leadership position in research among industrializing countries. While progress has been substantial it has not yet matched the country's aspirations and much remains to be done. Although, there are no observed specific inequities w...

  19. EL CONEJO EUROPEO EN CHILE: HISTORIA DE UNA INVASIÓN BIOLÓGICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Camus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente, a partir de la historia de la aclimatación y posterior invasión de conejos en Chile, constatando que, en el largo plazo, las acciones humanas tienen efectos e impactos insospechados sobre el medio natural. En efecto, si bien inicialmente los conejos fueron vistos como una oportunidad de desarrollo económico a partir del aprovechamiento de su piel y su carne, pronto esta especie se convirtió en una plaga difícil de controlar en diversas regiones del país, como Chile central, Tierra del Fuego e islas Juan Fernández. Así, con el paso del tiempo, el conejo se ha terminado por transformar en nuestro país en un verdadero "convidado de piedra".This work analyses the relationship between human beings and their environment taking into consideration the adjustment and eventual invasión of rabbits in Chile. It argües that in the long run, human actions have unsuspected effects upon the environment. In fact rabbits were seen initially as an opportunity for economic development because of the exploitation of their meat and skin. Later, rabbits became a plague in different áreas of Central Chile, Tierra del Fuego and Juan Fernández islands, which was difficult to control. Over the years rabbits became unwelcome guests in Chile.

  20. The Ordovician Quebrada Grande Formation, Cordón de Lila (Antofagasta Region, northern Chile: stratigraphicand paleogeographic significance La Formación QuebradaGrande, del Ordovícico, Cordón de Lila (Región de Antofagasta, norte de Chile: significado estratigráfico y paleogeográfico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cordón de Lila is located immediately to the south of the Salar de Atacama, in northern Chile. The geology of the Cordón de Lila is characterized by extensive outcrops of Early Paleozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks (Cordón de Lila Igneous and Sedimentary Complex; CISL that form the 'Arco magmático occidental' (AMO which is intruded by a multiple suite of Middle Ordovician to Lower Silurian granitoids. In this contribution we report the results of a sedimentological and paleontological study of a recently discovered 1,600 m thick marine Ordovician sedimentary sequence (Quebrada Grande Formation which unconformably overlies the CISL. The Quebrada Grande Formation comprises three mayor facies associations. In stratigrafic order, these facies associations are: matrix-supported conglomerates (1, interbedded sandstones and siltstones (2 and clast-supported conglomerates (3. Facies association (1 is interpreted as debris flow deposits accumulated in a proximal marine fan-delta setting while the overlying sandstones and siltstones facies (2 represent open-marine platform deposits. Clast-supported conglomerates (3 are the record of high-energy sedimentary episodes during which coarse sediments reached the distal part of the fan-delta. The detrital fraction of the Quebrada Grande Formation is derived from the erosion of the Cambrian?-Lower Ordovician? CISL volcanic arc, the plutonio roots of the arc and its continental basement. The age of this formation is well constrained by the occurrence of brachiopods (Paralenorthis sp., Monorthis transversa Benedetto, and Mollesella? sp. near the base and graptolites (Tetragraptus sp. and Cryptograptus? sp. towards the middle of the succession. Both brachiopods and graptolites indicate an Arenigian to early Llanvirnian (Darriwilian age. The brachiopod assemblage from Cordón de Lila displays affinities with the Famatina basin fauna of western Argentina. The absence of taxa in common between the AMO and

  1. Immigrant health workers in Chile: is there a Latin American "brain drain"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-08-01

    Most research on the phenomenon of "brain drain" (one-way flow of highly skilled/educated individuals) has focused on movement between the least developed and most highly developed countries. Therefore, the significance of patterns of migration to middle-income countries such as those in Latin America is less clear. The aim of this study was to outline key features of international health worker "brain drain" to Chile to promote discussion and further research on this phenomenon as it pertains to the Latin American region. The study compared immigrant health workers living in Chile to both Chilean-born health workers and other immigrants living in Chile using a qualitative nationwide dataset (the results of Chile's 2009 National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey). Demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related variables were included in the analyses, which were weighted by population to obtain nationally representative estimates. In 2009, immigrant health workers represented 2.2% of all health personnel and 2.6% of all resident immigrants in the country. While most immigrant health workers had a universitylevel education, about 25% had only a high school-level education or less. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of immigrant health workers' household income and that of Chilean-born health workers. A significantly higher proportion of the immigrant group reported no entitlement to health care provision. While the results of this study do not indicate a significant international health worker "brain drain" to Chile, they do suggest distinctive patterns of migration within the Latin American region. Future studies in Chile could confirm the validity of these results, using a larger sample of immigrant health workers. PMID:23099879

  2. Diversidad y patrones de distribución de coleópteros en la Región del Biobío, Chile: una aproximación preliminar para la conservación de la diversidad Diversity and distributional patterns of beetles in the Biobío region, Chile: a preliminary approach to the conservation of the diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA E VERGARA

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Los coleópteros, por estar asociados con formaciones vegetales, presentar gran abundancia y diversidad ecológica, rangos de distribución restringidos y alto endemismo, constituyen buenos indicadores de la biodiversidad de un territorio. En la Región del Biobío, área crítica de conservación, estudios sobre la riqueza taxonómica y distribución de coleópteros son muy pocos a pesar de su carácter transicional y de constituir una zona de "puntos calientes" de diversidad a nivel mundial. Nuestros objetivos fueron conocer la composición taxonómica y representatividad regional de coleópteros, determinar sectores con mayor riqueza de especies y relacionar los patrones de distribución de las especies con formaciones vegetales y áreas silvestres protegidas de la región. A partir de un mapa dividido en cuadrículas y una base de datos de localidades de colecta obtenidos de literatura y colecciones de referencia, se confeccionó una matriz de presencia/ausencia de especies en la región. Para cada cuadrícula se estableció la riqueza de especies y, para determinar áreas de concentración de especies y su relación con las formaciones vegetales se realizó un análisis de parsimonia de endemismos (PAE. Se registraron 53 familias, 361 géneros y 664 especies de coleópteros, siendo Staphylinidae y Curculionidae las familias más diversas. Los lugares con mayor número de registros corresponden a Chillán, Concepción, y Cordillera de Nahuelbuta. El análisis de parsimonia agrupa las especies en tres sectores: (1 Sector Costero, (2 Cordillera de los Andes y (3 Cordillera de Nahuelbuta. Estas áreas de concentración de especies no se relacionan con las áreas silvestres protegidas de la regiónBeetles constitute bioindicators because of their association with plant formations, their high abundance, ecological diversity, restricted geographic ranges and high endemism. The Biobío Region is a critical area for conserving the biodiversity

  3. Heat balance and eddies in the Peru-Chile current system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, Francois; McWilliams, James C.; Kurian, Jaison [University of California, Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Capet, Xavier [Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans, Ifremer, Plouzane (France)

    2012-07-15

    The Peru-Chile current System (PCS) is a region of persistent biases in global climate models. It has strong coastal upwelling, alongshore boundary currents, and mesoscale eddies. These oceanic phenomena provide essential heat transport to maintain a cool oceanic surface underneath the prevalent atmospheric stratus cloud deck, through a combination of mean circulation and eddy flux. We demonstrate these behaviors in a regional, quasi-equilibrium oceanic model that adequately resolves the mesoscale eddies with climatological forcing. The key result is that the atmospheric heating is large (>50 W m{sup -2}) over a substantial strip >500 km wide off the coast of Peru, and the balancing lateral oceanic flux is much larger than provided by the offshore Ekman flux alone. The atmospheric heating is weaker and the coastally influenced strip is narrower off Chile, but again the Ekman flux is not sufficient for heat balance. The eddy contribution to the oceanic flux is substantial. Analysis of eddy properties shows strong surface temperature fronts and associated large vorticity, especially off Peru. Cyclonic eddies moderately dominate the surface layer, and anticyclonic eddies, originating from the nearshore poleward Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC), dominate the subsurface, especially off Chile. The sensitivity of the PCS heat balance to equatorial intra-seasonal oscillations is found to be small. We demonstrate that forcing the regional model with a representative, coarse-resolution global reanalysis wind product has dramatic and deleterious consequences for the oceanic circulation and climate heat balance, the eddy heat flux in particular. (orig.)

  4. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ∼160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ∼40 to experimental physicists; ∼178 are men and only ∼22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ∼160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y TecnologIa (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is

  5. The Genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia (Diptera, Rhagionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    NAGATOMI, Akira; NAGATOMI, Hisako; ナガトミ, アキラ; ナガトミ, ヒサコ; 永冨, 昭; 永冨, 尚子

    1988-01-01

    The genus Austroleptis from South Chile and Patagonia is revised and three new species are added. So, there are eight known species, five of which are from South Chile and Patagonia and three from Australia and Tasmania.

  6. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander, E-mail: alexander@galetovic.cl [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. Av. San Carlos de Apoquindo 2200, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M., E-mail: cmunozm@aes.com [AES Gener and Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad Catolica de Chile (Chile)

    2011-10-15

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: > We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. > Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. > Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. > Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. > We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  7. Isotope hydrology in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotope analyses were done on samples from aquifers in the Pampa del Tamarugal and the Salar de Atacama drainage basin in northern Chile. In the Pampa it is possible to delineate individual groundwater bodies on the basis of their 18O and deuterium contents and, in some cases, to relate these to specific recharge areas. A marked displacement from the meteoric water line indicates that river recharge is an important mechanism for groundwater renewal. Groundwater ages appear high at distance from the Andes and much of the water found in the Pampa may have to be treated as a non-renewable resource. The groundwaters, springs and rivers of the Salar de Atacama drainage basin vary between -6.09 and -8.06%. No difference between the different waters can be recognized and an evaporative isotope enrichment indicates that also here river recharge is an important process. Some groundwaters adjacent to the Salar are very salty but 18O and deuterium data show that these waters are not refluxed brines but simply salty freshwater. The 14C contents in groundwaters and springs are very low but their delta13C values are high. It is concluded that this is probably due to the uptake of volcanic CO2. 14C age dating is thus not possible unless the delta13C values of all possible carbon sources can be defined and the geochemical evolution of the groundwaters is better understood. (author)

  8. Regulated electricity retailing in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While some countries have unbundled distribution and retailing, skeptics argue that the physical attributes of electricity make retailers redundant. Instead, it is claimed that passive pass through of wholesale prices plus regulated charges for transmission and distribution suffice for customers to benefit from competitive generation markets. We review the Chilean experience with regulated retailing and pass through of wholesale prices. We argue that when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices are stabilized, distortions emerge. Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting them. On the contrary, sometimes price distortions increase their profits. We estimate the cost of three distortions that neither regulated retailers nor the regulator have shown any interest in correcting. - Highlights: → We review Chile's experience with regulated electricity retailing. → Distortions emerge when energy wholesale prices are volatile and prices stabilized. → Regulated retailers gain little by mitigating or correcting distortions. → Sometimes price distortions increase retailers' profits. → We estimate the cost of three distortions, which retailers have not corrected.

  9. Radioactive wastes management development in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Facility for immobilizing and conditioning of radioactive wastes generated in Chile, has recently started in operation. It is a Radioactive Wastes Treatment Plant, RWTP, whose owner is Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CCHEN. A Storgement Building of Conditioned Wastes accomplishes the facility for medium and low level activity wastes. The Project has been carried with participation of chilean professionals at CCHEN and Technical Assistance of International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. Processes developed are volume reduction by compaction; immobilization by cementation and conditioning. Equipment has been selected to process radioactive wastes into a 200 liters drum, in which wastes are definitively conditioned, avoiding exposition and contamination risks. The Plant has capacity to treat low and medium activity radioactive wastes produced in Chile due to Reactor Experimental No. 1 operation, and annex Laboratories in Nuclear Research Centers, as also those produced by users of nuclear techniques in Industries, Hospitals, Research Centers and Universities, in the whole country. With the infrastructure developed in Chile, a centralization of Radioactive Wastes Management activities is achieved. A data base system helps to control and register radioactive wastes arising in Chile. Generation of radioactive wastes in Chile, has found solution for the present production and that of near future

  10. Análisis comparativo de índices bióticos utilizados en la evaluación de la calidad de las aguas en un río mediterráneo de Chile: río Chillán, VIII Región Comparative analysis of biotic indexes used to evaluate water quality in a Mediterranean river of Chile: Chillán River, VIII Region

    OpenAIRE

    RICARDO FIGUEROA; ALEJANDRO PALMA; VICTOR RUIZ; XAVIER NIELL

    2007-01-01

    El uso de macroinvertebrados bentónicos como indicadores biológicos es de larga tradición en los países desarrollados y son incorporados en todas las evaluaciones de calidad ecológica de sistemas fluviales. En América Latina estos estudios son menos frecuentes y las normativas para la protección de los recursos acuáticos recién comienzan a elaborarse, como es el caso de Chile, dejando abierta la posibilidad al uso de criterios biológicos. El presente estudio realiza una adaptación de índices ...

  11. Prevalencia y distribución espacial de brucelosis, leucosis bovina, diarrea viral bovina y rinotraqueítis infecciosa bovina a partir del análisis ELISA de estanques prediales en lecherías de la IX Región, Chile Prevalence and space distribution of brucellosis, bovine leukaemia, bovine viral diarrhea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis by using bulk milk ELISA test in dairy herds of the IX Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    R Felmer; Zúñiga, J.; López, A.; Miranda, H. de

    2009-01-01

    Chile es reconocido internacionalmente por poseer una buena situación sanitaria pues el país ha podido alcanzar y mantener el estado de oficialmente libre de las principales enfermedades de la lista de la OIE. Sin embargo, aún coexisten en nuestros rebaños bovinos una serie de enfermedades, las cuales tienen un directo impacto en la producción, por cuanto disminuyen la fertilidad, producen pérdidas por aborto, alargan el lapso interparto y fundamentalmente constituyen barreras sanitarias para...

  12. Long-term ecological research in the forests of the United States: Key lessons for its application in Chile and around the world Estudios ecológicos de largo plazo en bosques de Estados Unidos: Lecciones claves para su aplicación en Chile y otras regiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERRY F FRANKLIN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term ecological research addresses questions to which short-term research projects cannot effectively respond because of the temporal scales over which many ecosystem processes operate. In North America, this type of research has yielded important information on key processes and organisms in many forest types, from eastern broadleaf forests to the coniferous forests of the west, and from tropical to boreal latitudes. Long-term ecological research (that conducted at the decade scale or longer in the forests of North America has included watershed studies, silvicultural trials, establishment of permanent plots to assess forest demographics, and the study of disturbance regimes and predator-prey systems. Instituting such research in forest ecosystems of other regions of the world, especially at corresponding latitudes on either side of the equator, will help scientists understand patterns of natural disturbance and succession, the effects of alternative management strategies, and the impacts of climate change. Key recommendations based on North American long-term ecological research include: 1 the importance of multidisciplinary research, 2 the need to invest in data storage and management, 3 the deployment of both basic and advanced technology (e.g., eddy covariance systems, and 4 development of collaboration networks among regions, institutions, and individual researchers.La investigación ecológica de largo plazo es capaz de abordar ciertas preguntas de una manera mejor que los proyectos de corto plazo, debido a las escalas temporales en que funcionan muchos procesos ecológicos. En Norteamérica, este tipo de investigación ha brindado conocimiento sobre importantes procesos y organismos claves en muchos tipos forestales, extendiéndose desde los bosques caducifolios de la costa este a los bosques de coniferas en la costa oeste, y en latitudes tropicales hasta boreales. La investigación ecológica de largo plazo en los bosques de

  13. Diversidad y patrones de distribución geográfica de insectos coleópteros en ecosistemas desérticos de la región de Antofagasta, Chile Diversity and geographic distribution patterns of coleopteran insects in desert ecosystems of the Antofagasta region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIVIANE JEREZ

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available La fauna coleopterológica de la Región de Antofagasta, ha sido objeto de diversos trabajos, pero hasta el momento falta un análisis de conjunto de la diversidad y distribución espacial de las especies. En este trabajo se da a conocer la diversidad de Coleoptera, rangos de distribución de las especies y se analiza las relaciones biogeográficas que pueden existir entre los distintos ecosistemas descritos para la Región. Para ello se elaboró un catastro georreferenciado en base a revisión bibliográfica, material de colección y prospecciones en terreno. La distribución espacial de los taxa se estableció en relación a 11 ecosistemas descritos para la Región y se determinaron áreas de endemismo mediante análisis de parsimonia biogeográfico. La composición taxonómica de Coleoptera está formada por 21 familias, 86 géneros y 167 especies, siendo Tenebrionidae la familia más diversa con 23 géneros y 78 especies. Los ecosistemas que presentan mayor diversidad específica son Estepa subdesértica de la puna (52 sp., Desierto costero de Tocopilla (50 sp., Desierto del Salar de Atacama (35 sp., Desierto costero de Taltal (32 sp., Desierto de los aluviones (22 sp. y Estepa arbustiva (17 sp.. Sin embargo los ecosistemas que concentran el mayor porcentaje de endemismo son Desierto costero de Tocopilla (72%, Desierto costero de Taltal (62,5%, Estepa subdesértica de la puna (55,8%, Desierto del Salar de Atacama (51,4 %, Estepa arbustiva (47% y Desierto de los aluviones (36,3%. Se delimitaron tres áreas de endemismo para la Región de Antofagasta y que corresponden a tres grandes ecosistemas distribuidos en un gradiente altitudinal: Desierto litoral, Desierto de los aluviones y Zona tropicalThe coleopterologic fauna of the Antofagasta Region has been the object of diverse studies, but until now, an analysis of both the diversity and spatial distribution of the species was lacking. In this paper, the diversity of coleopteran species and

  14. Productividad, consumo y eficiencia biológica en vacas Frisón Neozelandés y F1 (Jersey-Frisón Neozelandés paridas a fines de invierno en la X Región, Chile Productivity, intake and biological efficiency in New Zealand Friesian and F1 (Jersey-New Zealand Friesian cows calved during late winter in the Xth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. González-Verdugo

    2005-01-01

    significativas (P = 0,0001 en favor de F1. Las mayores diferencias se observaron en producción de grasa (24,6% y PL corregida a 4% de materia grasa (20,5%. Los valores de CMS no difirieron significativamente (P = 0,1642. Sin embargo, al expresarlos en relación a 100 kg de PV el valor de F1 tendió a ser de mayor magnitud (P = 0,0615. La PL y sólidos lácteos por unidad de CMS fueron altamente significativas (P = 0,0284 a favor del F1. La mayor superioridad se obtuvo en materia grasa (17,4%, donde el F1 alcanzó un valor de 63,88 g/kg de CMS. El cuociente entre la producción de proteína láctea y proteína cruda ingerida arrojó valores de 32,70 y 29,33% (P = 0,0003. En F1 la valoración energética de la PL diaria representó un 37,13% de la energía metabolizable consumida, aumentando a 41,38% al corregir por el aporte de reservas corporales. Estos valores fueron menores (P = 0,0002 en las FN. Se concluyó que la mayor producción de sólidos lácteos, menor PV y mejor utilización de la proteína cruda y energía metabolizable le otorgan al F1 una mayor eficiencia biológica respecto del FN. Las aptitudes mencionadas le confieren a las mestizas ventajas comparativas en sistemas donde se premia la producción y contenido de sólidos lácteos.At Oromo Experimental Station, University of Chile, Xth Region, Chile (41º08’ S; 73º09’ W, 47 primiparous cows, 23 New Zealand Friesian (NZF and 24 Jersey-NZF (F1, were used to estimate productivity, intake and biological efficiency, under grazing conditions. The information was obtained in 3 experimental periods (21 days each one, at which the cows were at 66, 126 and 220 days of lactation, respectively. The animals were weighed daily in order to estimate mean live weight (LW and live weight changes. Milk production (MP was measured 9 times each period, and weekly, a sample of milk was used to measure fat and protein content. Pasture dry matter intake (PDMI was estimated relating metabolizable energy requirements (MER and

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-38 - Citrus from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Citrus from Chile. 319.56-38 Section 319.56-38... from Chile. Clementines (Citrus reticulata Blanco var. Clementine), mandarins (Citrus reticulata Blanco), and tangerines (Citrus reticulata Blanco) may be imported into the United States from Chile,...

  16. The Agency's Technical Co-operation programme in Chile, 1981-1991. Country programme evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agency support for nuclear activities in Chile dates back to the early 1960s. During the last ten years, the period covered by this evaluation, this support has considerably expanded. In the period 1981-1991, 62 Agency projects with allotments amounting to over $7 million were completed or are under implementation. Through this co-operation Chile has received 360 man-months of expert services, $3.4 million worth of equipment, and 105 fellowships for some 390 man-months of training. In addition, 262 Chileans attended 219 Agency regional and interregional training courses, and Chilean institutions were awarded 40 research contracts worth over $325,000. This evaluation covers ten years of Agency technical co-operation with Chile, during which 35 projects were completed and 27 are still being implemented. Eight major sectors received assistance: general atomic energy development; nuclear physics; nuclear raw materials; nuclear engineering and technology; nuclear techniques in agriculture; nuclear medicine; hydrology; and nuclear safety. The evaluation concluded that, overall, the Agency's technical co-operation activities have, in keeping with the national priorities concerning peaceful nuclear applications, contributed substantially to the establishment of Chile's nuclear scientific and technical infrastructure, and played a major role in Chile's efforts to introduce nuclear applications in a number of sectors of the economy, with many benefits for broader national development objectives. Another strength of the Agency's programme with Chile is the high level of commitment and dedication that was noted in the great majority of recipient institutions, and in particular at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, CChEN. Mention should also be made of the fact that bureaucracy appears to be less severe than in some other developing countries, and that constraints that frequently affect other countries, such as insufficient counterpart commitment and lack of continuity of

  17. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus Andes en Chile CARDIOPULMONARY SYNDROME DUE TO ANDES VIRUS IN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA CASTILLO H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1993 han ocurrido 204 casos de Síndrome Cardiopulmonar por Hantavirus (SCPH en Chile. Los brotes epidémicos comenzaron en el sur y avanzan hacia el norte del país. Los más afectados son varones jóvenes, obreros agrícolas o forestales. En Chile, el SCPH es causado por el virus Andes, cuyo reservorio es el Oligorizomys longicaudatus (ratón de cola larga, que se distribuye desde la III Región al sur. El cuadro clínico es similar al descrito en EE.UU., caracterizado por una fase prodrómica que simula un estado gripal o cuadro gastrointestinal febril y que agrava por la aparición de edema pulmonar agudo e inestabilidad hemodinámica (fase cardiopulmonar. Sin embargo, cursa con mayores alteraciones hemorragí-paras y compromiso renal. La mortalidad inicial fue sobre 50% y actualmente es de alrededor del 33,3%. La presente revisión incluye: historia de la enfermedad, reservorio, modos de transmisión, patogenia, cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, tratamiento y medidas de prevenciónSince 1993, 204 cases of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in Chile. Epidemic began in the south and moved thereafter to the northern regions. The disease affected predominantly young males, who worked in agricultural labours or as timber workers. The HCPS in Chile is caused by the Andes virus. The reservoir is the wild rat Oligoryzomis longicaudatus distributed from the III to the XII Region. The clinical features are similar to those described for Sin Nombre Virus. The disease has a prodromal stage characterised by fever, muscular pain, with or without gastrointestinal manifestations, followed by the rapid onset of respiratory insufficiency and haemodynamic unstability. Andes virus courses more often with haemorrhagic disorders and overt renal failure, than Sin Nombre Virus. The initial mortality was over 50% and declined to 33,3% in the last year. History of hantavirus-diseases, reservoir, and mode of contagion, pathogenesis, clinical

  18. Water Scarcity and the Impact of the Mining and Agricultural Sectors in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Aitken; Diego Rivera; Alex Godoy-Faúndez; Eduardo Holzapfel

    2016-01-01

    Chile contains some of the driest areas in the world, yet human activities in these areas require large volumes of water, the result is regions experiencing high water scarcity leading to environmental degradation, conflicts and reduced industrial productivity. The aim of this paper was to quantify the water scarcity in the central and northern regions by calculating the water scarcity index—the ratio of annual water demand to availability. A focus of the paper was to determine the impact of ...

  19. Water Governance in Chile and Canada: a Comparison of Adaptive Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Margot A. Hurlbert; Harry Diaz

    2013-01-01

    We compare the structures and adaptive capacities of water governance regimes that respond to water scarcity or drought in the South Saskatchewan River Basin (SSRB) of western Canada and the Elqui River Basin (EB) in Chile. Both regions anticipate climate change that will result in more extreme weather events including increasing droughts. The SSRB and the EB represent two large, regional, dryland water basins with significant irrigated agricultural production but with significantly differe...

  20. Características de los bovinos faenados en la Xa Región (Chile según las pautas indicadas en las normas oficiales de clasificación y tipificación Characteristics of cattle slaughtered within the Xth Region (Chile According to the terms stated by the official chilean standards for classification and carcass grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GALLO

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describió el sexo y la edad de 114.666 bovinos faenados en los 22 mataderos habilitados en la Xa Región durante 1994 y las características de sus canales, utilizando las pautas impuestas por las normas chilenas oficiales de clasificación del ganado bovino y tipificación de sus canales. En cuanto a la clasificación de los bovinos, basada en la edad por cronometría dentaria (presencia de dientes de leche sin nivelar=DL , pinzas de leche niveladas=DL*, número de incisivos permanentes=2-8D, segundos medianos nivelados 8D* y el sexo, se encontró que la distribución regional de clases fue: 40.3% Novillito (DL* ó 2D; 16.1% Vaquilla (DL* ó 2D; 1.5% Torito (DL*; 10.6% Novillo (4-6D; 7.6% Vaca joven (4-6D; 9.0% Vaca adulta (8D; 6.1% Vaca vieja (8D*; 0.0% Toruno (2-8D*; 2.4% Toro (2-8D*; 4.2% Buey (8D ó 8D* y 2.2% Ternero/a (DL. Para las categorías de tipificación de las canales la distribución fue la siguiente: V=55.9%; A= 12.7%; C= 4,6%; U= 15.2%; N= 10.4% y O= 1.2%. Los diferentes grados de cobertura grasa se presentaron en un 10.1% el grado 0 (prácticamente no existe, un 78.3% el grado 1 (escasa, un 10.2% el grado 2 (abundante y un 1.4% el grado 3 (excesiva. Se registró un 7.7% de contusiones en el total de canales, de las cuales un 4.8% correspondió a contusiones de primer grado (afectan sólo tejido subcutáneo, un 2.1% de segundo grado (afectan también músculo y un 0.8% de tercer grado (afectan incluso hueso . Se concluye que en la Xa Región predomina la faena de bovinos jóvenes, de hasta 2 dientes incisivos permanentes, especialmente novillitos y vaquillas, cuyas canales presentan una cobertura grasa escasa, siendo categorizadas en V. Además, las contusiones que afectan la categorización (grado 2 y 3 se presentan en un bajo porcentajeThe present study describes the characteristics of 114.666 cattle slaughtered during 1994 in the 22 slaughterhouses functioning within the Xth Region and the corresponding carcasses produced

  1. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  2. RENTABILIDAD ECONÓMICA DE SISTEMAS LECHEROS CON DISTINTA INVERSIÓN Y FINANCIAMIENTO EN LA REGIÓN DE LA ARAUCANÍA, CHILE. ESTUDIO DE CASOS Economic profitability of dairy systems with different investment and financing in the Araucanía Region, Chile. Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler M.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se simuló la implementación de predios lecheros grandes con vacas Holstein Friesian y Overo Negro en el sector de Quepe (38º51’ lat. Sur, 72º49’ long. Oeste Región de La Araucanía, con el objetivo de evaluar y comparar la rentabilidad posible de obtener si se invierte en la adquisición de predios e infraestructura versus arrendar activos similares, considerando estructuras de capital con y sin deuda. Se utilizaron los indicadores Valor Actual Neto (VAN evaluado a una tasa de descuento de 10,86 y 13% para las estructuras de capital con y sin deuda, respectivamente, y Tasa Interna de Retorno Modificada (TIRM. A los niveles de rentabilidad exigida, todas las alternativas presentaron valores negativos de VAN; las menores pérdidas corresponden a las alternativas que consideran arriendo, elevándose éstas en el caso de financiar con deuda. Se obtuvieron niveles de rentabilidad en torno al 3% para la producción con vacas Holstein Friesian e inferiores al 1% con vacas Overo Negro para las estructuras de capital sin endeudamiento.The implementation of large dairy farms with Holstein Friesian and Chilean Friesian cows in the Quepe Sector (38º51’ S lat., 72º49’ W long. of the Araucanía Region was simulated, with the purpose of evaluating and comparing the possible profitability to be obtained if investing in farm acquisition and infrastructure versus renting similar assets, considering structures of capital with and without debt. Net Present Value (VAN, evaluated at a discount rate of 10.86 and 13% for the structures of capital with and without debt, respectively, and Modified Internal Rate of Return (TIRM were used. At the required levels of profitability, all the alternatives had negative VAN values, the smallest losses correspond to the alternatives considering rent, and increasing these in the case of financing with debt. Profitability levels around 3% were obtained for production with Holstein Friesian and lower than 1% with

  3. Prevalencia serológica predial e intrapredial para el virus de la leucosis bovina (VLB en lecherías de las regiones de Los Ríos y de Los Lagos de Chile Between and within-herd seroprevalence for bovine leukosis virus infection in dairy herds from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Grau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue estimar la seroprevalencia predial e intrapredial contra el virus de la leucosis bovina en lecherías de las Regiones de Los Ríos y de Los Lagos y describirla según algunas características de los predios. Se utilizó un estudio transversal y una estrategia de muestreo aleatorio estratificado. Se recolectaron 4.360 muestras de sangre de todas las hembras mayores de seis meses y de los toros, de un total de 75 predios durante los meses de septiembre a diciembre del 2007 y se analizaron mediante un kit comercial de ELISA, siguiendo los procedimientos e interpretación sugeridos por los fabricantes. Se estimó la proporción de los predios infectados (PP y la prevalencia aparente (PA general y por tamaño predial y grupo etario. La PP general fue 34,7% (IC 95% (22,6; 44,1 y 23,9% (IC 95% (11,1; 36,7 en predios chicos, 43,5% (IC 95% (21,6; 65,4 en medianos y 83,3% (IC 95% (40,5; 100,0 en grandes y esta diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa (P ≤ 0,05. La PA general fue 14,6% y la PA predial promedio fue 5,3% (IC 95% (2,3; 8,3. La PA intrapredial promedio fue 2,1% (IC 95% (0,34; 3,8 para los predios chicos, 10,13% (IC 95% (10,0; 10,2 para medianos y 30,1% (IC 95% (29,9; 30,3 para grandes y esta diferencia fue estadísticamente significativa (P ≤ 0,05. La PA promedio fue 5,1% (IC 95% (1,6; 8,6 para adultos y 1,3% (IC 95% (0,4; 2,2 para jóvenes. En nuestro estudio se muestra que en las regiones de Los Ríos y de Los Lagos, el grupo de los predios más grandes debería ser el objetivo de un programa de control. Además se presenta una oportunidad para los pequeños agricultores.The objectives of this study were to estimate herd and within-herd seroprevalences against bovine leukemia virus in dairy herds of Región de los Ríos and Los Lagos, and to describe them according to the characteristics of the farm. A cross-sectional study and a random stratified sampling strategy were used. 4,360 blood and serum samples from

  4. Estado de conocimiento de las aves de aguas continentales de Chile Synopsis of the Inland aquatic birds of Chile

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    Pedro F Victoriano

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se informa de manera sintética la composición de especies, distribución, estatus de conservación y algunos aspectos de la biología de las aves acuáticas de ambientes continentales de Chile. Esta avifauna está compuesta por un total de 133 especies, distribuidas en 69 géneros, 21 familias y 10 órdenes. El grupo representado por el mayor número de especies es el Orden Charadriiformes (51 especies, con una alta presencia en ambientes ecotonales estuarinos. En ambientes de aguas interiores el grupo con más especies es el Orden Anseriformes (29 especies. La distribución de la riqueza de especies se corresponde en términos generales con las tendencias de representación para cada Orden en Sudamérica. De acuerdo a esta revisión, una parte importante de los registros para Chile son esporádicos (28 especies o visitantes regulares (13 especies, y sólo un 69% del total pueden ser consideradas como residentes de nuestra avifauna acuática. De acuerdo a los estados de conservación, un total de 25 especies es considerada en algún sistema de clasificación, de las cuales una especie, Numenius borealis o zarapito boreal, se considera extinta en todo su rango distribucional. Según los registros de los últimos 50 años, el pidén austral (Rallus antarcticus es una especie extinta en la zona central de Chile, quedando sólo algunas poblaciones poco abundantes en el extremo sur del país y en el sur de Argentina. En Chile no existen especies de aves acuáticas endémicas. Sin embargo, al considerar como áreas de análisis las regiones biogeográficas clásicas de nuestro país, existen dos zonas con un alto número de especies exclusivas: en la ecorregión Desértica 9,1% del total nacional son endémicas de esa zona, mientras que la Tropical o Puna incluye un 7,6%. A pesar de que en las ecorregiones Mediterránea y Oceánica existe un alto número de especies, éstas muestran pocos taxa propios (3% y 2,3% respectivamente. Se

  5. EVALUACIÓN DEL CULTIVO DE Leucadendron sp. cv. SAFARI SUNSET PARA FLOR CORTADA EN UN VALLE INTERIOR DEL SECANO COSTERO DE LA VII REGIÓN, CHILE Evaluation of Leucadendron sp. cv. ‘Safari Sunset’ for cut flower production in an interior dryland coastal valley of the VIIth Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Schiappacasse

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available El Leucadendron sp. cv. Safari Sunset es un híbrido de las especies L. salignum y L. laureolum. Es utilizado comercialmente como flor de corte o follaje decorativo. Requiere suelos más bien ácidos, con bajos niveles de P, no tolera heladas severas y presenta relativamente bajo consumo de agua. Estas características hacen del sector costero de la VII Región una zona apta para su cultivo. El objetivo general del presente trabajo fue evaluar diferentes tratamientos de enraizamiento y la fenología de plantas de Leucadendron sp. cv. Safari Sunset en un predio ubicado en la localidad de Lien, comuna de Curepto (35°05’ lat. Sur y 72°01’ long. Oeste. Se utilizaron estacas enraizadas que fueron plantadas en diciembre de 1998; se efectuaron evaluaciones de fenología, longitud de varas, rendimiento, y enraizamiento de estacas. Respecto a la fenología, se observó que la brotación comenzó en octubre, durante todo el verano los brotes estuvieron en activo crecimiento, aumentando en longitud hasta finales de marzo, cuando se inició la floración. Al segundo año, la longitud de varas fue en promedio 70 cm, el número de brotes o varas por planta correspondió aproximadamente a 17, de los cuales 5,7 fueron de calidad comercial. El mejor porcentaje de enraizamiento se obtuvo con estacas subterminales, con 74% de estacas enraizadas al aplicar 4000 mg kg-1 de ácido indol butírico (AIB en forma líquida.Leucadendron sp. ‘Safari Sunset’ is a hybrid of the species L. salignum and L. laureolum. It is commercially utilized as a cut flower or decorative foliage. The plant requires acid soils with low P levels, does not tolerate severe frosts, and has relatively low water consumption. These characteristics make the coastal area of the Seventh Region a suitable area for its cultivation. The main aim of this study was to evaluate different rooting treatments and the plant phenology of Leucadendron sp. ‘Safari Sunset’ in a field located in Lien

  6. Hallazgo de Ehrlichia canis en Chile, informe preliminar Ehrlichia canis in Chile; preliminary report

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    J. LÓPEZ

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el primer caso de Ehrlichiosis canina detectado en Chile, causado por la rickettsia Ehrlichia canis y transmitida por el vector Rhipicephalus sanguineus. El diagnóstico clínico fue confirmado en Alemania por Inmunofluorescencia Indirecta (IFATThe first case of canine ehrlichiosis detected in Chile is described. It is caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis and carried by the vektor Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in Germany using the Immunofluorescent Antibody Test (IFA

  7. Museos de Santiago de Chile. Directorio

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo, Andrea; Funes, Catherine; Heredia, Constanza; Herrera, Daniela; Suárez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Directory of the museums in Santiago of Chile categorized by subject, such as Art, Archaeology, Historic house, Science and technology, Natural science and Natural history, Specialized, Ethnography and Anthropology, History, Site museum and Other. It comprehends basic information about name, creation date, collections, services, contact info, social network accounts, website and entrance fee of the museums.

  8. Republic of Chile : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    Chile's public procurement system is considered generally free of corruption, supported by probity of the civil servants, decentralization, and good budgetary and control systems. However, it is affected by deficiencies that the government recognizes, and is taking action to overcome, particularly with respect to procurement of goods and services. There is no unified comprehensive, and pub...

  9. DEZVOLTAREA CONTEMPORANĂ A TURISMULUI DIN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Mihaela Győri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary development of the Chilean Tourism sector is analyzed mainly on thebasis of data supplied by the National Service of Tourism in Chile. Figures on inboundtourism, domestic tourism, lodging, employment, receipts, as well as the existing structurewithin the sector, were taken into consideration for the investigated period of 1999-2006.

  10. [Notes about other epidemics in Colonial Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Enrique

    2015-10-01

    In chronicles or in the historiography of the Colony in Chile there are few references about epidemics different to smallpox; like typhus, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc. Almost all, fast spreading in the country and some with high lethality, which led to overflowing the capacity of hospitals in the Chilean colonial period. PMID:26633117

  11. A Decade of Environment Management in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthenberg, Ina-Marlene

    2001-01-01

    This publication presents an evaluation of the Environmental Institutions Development Project in Chile, selected by Bank management to be part of an intensive learning process in final project evaluation, given its contributing factor to the Bank's knowledge base on environmental institutional development projects. The first part of the publication focuses on the project as catalyst for cu...

  12. Nuclear public information activities in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plans and developing programs in developing and developed countries are facing-in a higher or lower degree- opposition from public opinion. The objectives and contents of the public education program on nuclear energy in Chile are dealt with in this paper

  13. Estimación del costo para el diagnóstico precoz de la hidatidosis en niños de 5 y 12 años en la provincia de Ñuble, Región del Bío-Bío, Chile Cost analysis of early diagnosis of hydatidosis in children of 5 and 12 years old in the province of Ñuble, Bío-Bío Region, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    M. José Farías C; Alex Medina G

    2011-01-01

    Se efectuó un análisis de costo de las diferentes intervenciones en el diagnóstico precoz de la hidatidosis, durante los años 2006 -2007 en la Provincia de Nuble, Región del Bío-Bío, Chile. Esta investigación tenía por objetivo estimar los costos del diagnóstico precoz de esta patología; para ello se incluyó a todo niño de 5 y 12 años de zonas rurales de la provincia. Para la recolección de datos se determinaron las actividades, que consistieron en: medición de anticuerpos específicos en suer...

  14. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  15. The Evolution of Seabirds in the Humboldt Current: New Clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Hoffmeister, Martín; Carrillo Briceño, Jorge D.; Nielsen, Sven N.

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap. Principal Findings Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified. Conclusion/Significance The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa) suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current. PMID:24621560

  16. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como los profesionales y técnicos. El sector privado cubre aproximadamente a 17.5% de la población perteneciente a los grupos sociales de mayores ingresos. Un pequeño sector de la población, perteneciente a la clase alta, realiza pagos directos de bolsillo a proveedores privados de servicios de atención a la salud. Alrededor de 10% de la población está cubierta por otras agencias públicas, fundamentalmente los Servicios de Salud de las Fuerzas Armadas. Recientemente el sistema se reformó creando el Régimen General de Garantías en Salud, que establece un Sistema Universal con Garantías Explícitas que se tradujo, en 2005, en el Plan de Acceso Universal con Garantías Explícitas (AUGE, que garantiza el acceso oportuno a servicios de calidad para 56 problemas de salud, incluyendo cáncer en niños, cáncer de mama, trastornos isquémicos del corazón, VIH/SIDA y diabetes.This paper describes the Chilean health system, including its structure, financing, beneficiaries, and its physical, material and human resources. This system has two sectors, public and private. The public sector comprises all the organisms that constitute the National System of Health Services, which covers 70% of the population, including the rural and urban poor, the low middle-class, the retired, and the self-employed professionals and technicians.The private sector covers 17.5% of the population, mostly the upper middle-class and the high-income population. A small

  17. Comparative study of virgin olive oil quality from single varieties cultivated in Chile and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-González, Diego L; Romero, Nalda; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive tree varieties that were cultivated only in the Mediterranean basin a few decades ago are now planted in the Southern Hemisphere as well. The chemical composition of the oils produced in countries as far distant as Spain and Chile are affected by differences in latitude and climate. In this work, seven monovarietal virgin olive oils from Chile (Arbequina, Barnea, Frantoio, Koroneiki, Leccino, Manzanilla and Picual) have been characterized by the chemical compounds responsible for taste (phenols) and aroma (volatiles). The oils were produced in five regions of Chile, and the concentration values of some chemical compounds were related to the geographical location of the olive tree orchards. Virgin olive oils from the major cultivars, Arbequina and Picual, were characterized in comparison with the same monovarietal oils produced in Spain. The concentration values of fourteen volatile compounds showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the oils produced in Spain and Chile. Concerning the phenol composition, main differences were found on the secoiridoids derivatives of oleuropein and ligstroside, apigenin and luteolin. PMID:21090684

  18. Coastal Upwelling off Chile: Ocean Productivity and Surface Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbeln, D.; Lamy, F.

    2002-12-01

    The coastal upwelling system of the Peru-Chile Current belongs to the most productive regions in the world oceans. In spite of this fact only very little is known about the sediment distribution in its southern part off the coast of Chile. To increase the knowledge about this region a multi-parameter study of the surface sediment distribution at over 100 sampling sites along the Chilean continental slope between 23°S and 45°S has been carried out. Detailed analyses of sedimentary data (TOC, carbonate, and biogenic opal contents, delta 15N) reveal a close relation to environmental conditions in the region. Coastal upwelling along the Chilean coast, centered around main upwelling centers such as off Antofagasta (23°S), off Lengua de Vaca (30°S), off Valparaiso (33°S), and off Concepci¢n (35-38°S), sustains the high productivity observed in satellite pigment data and in sediment data. However, the highest pigment concentrations are found south of 40°S where prevailing onshore winds of the Southern Westerlies generally prevent coastal upwelling. There, also highest estimated accumulation rates of organic carbon and biogenic opal at the sea floor are found. Thus, the general pattern of a southward increase of surface water productivity known from satellite data is closely reflected in the organic carbon, biogenic opal and ?15N data, although the observation of highest productivity south of the upwelling area is surprising. Probably, this high productivity in the south can be attributed to the advection of (macro-) nutrients by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, supplying so-called high nutrient-low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters to the Chilean margin. Impinging on the Chilean margin these waters can take up micronutrients such as iron from the strong riverine input and from benthic exchange processes. The combination of macro- and micro-nutrients in this area most likely results in the high productivity of the area between 40°S and 45°S. From there these fertile

  19. Adding the human dimension to drought: an example from Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangecroft, Sally; Van Loon, Anne; Maureira, Héctor; Rojas, Pablo; Alejandro Gutiérrez Valdés, Sergio; Verbist, Koen

    2016-04-01

    Drought and water scarcity are important hazards and can lead to severe socio-economic impacts in many regions of the world. Given the interlinked interactions and feedbacks of hydrological droughts and their impacts and management, we need tools to evaluate these complexities and effects on the availability of water resources. Here we use a real-world case study of the Huasco basin (Northern Chile) in which we quantify the influence of human activities on hydrological drought signals. In this arid region, Andean snowmelt provides water essential for users, with agriculture acting as the main water consumer (85% of total). An increasing water demand from different water sectors (agriculture, mining, and domestic water usage) has increased pressure on available water and its management. Consequently, the Santa Juana dam was built by 1995 to increase irrigation security for downstream users, and recent management and restrictions have been established with the objective to limit impacts of hydrological droughts across the basin. The feedbacks between water availability and water management are explored for this water stressed region in Chile. Hydro-meteorological (e.g. precipitation, temperature, streamflow, reservoir levels) variables have been analysed to assess trends and drought patterns. Data over the past three decades has indicated a decrease in surface water supply, with the basin entering a situation of water scarcity during the recent multiyear drought (2007 - to-date), partly caused by meteorological drought and partly by abstraction. During this period, water supply failed to meet the demands of water users, resulting in the implementation of water restrictions. As well as the necessary continuous hydro-meteorological data, here we used information on human water users and scenario modeling, allowing for the analysis and quantification of feedbacks. This work highlights the importance of local knowledge, especially in understanding water laws, rights

  20. Infecção por Enterobius vermicularis em populações agro-pastoris pré-colombianas de San Pedro de Atacama, Chile Enterobius vermicularis infection in pre-Columbian population from San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Fernando Ferreira; Adauto Araujo; Ulisses Confalonieri; Lautaro Nuñez

    1989-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis eggs were found in human coprolites collected from the archaeological site of San Pedro de Atacama, North of Chile, in occupational layers dated from 1,000 BC. Agricultures and herding were begining at this period of time in this region of South America. The paleoparasitological data amplifies the knowledge about the distribution of human oxyuriasis in Pre-Columbian America.

  1. DEMETER Satellite Observations of Particle Burst Prior to Chile Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhenxia; Shen, Xuhui; Ma, Yuqian; Chen, Huaran; You, Xinzhao; Yuan, Yahong

    2010-01-01

    The lithosphere activity during seismogenic or occurrence of one earthquake may emit electromagnetic wave which propagate to ionosphere and radiation belt, then induce disturbance of electric and magnetic field and the precipitation of high energy charged particles. This paper, based on the data detected by DEMETER satellite, present the high energy charged particle burst(PB) with 4 to 6 times enhancement over the average value observed about ten days days before Chile earthquake. The obvious particle burst was also observed in the northern hemisphere mirror points conjugate of epicenter and no PB events in different years over the same epicenter region was found. The energy spectra of the PBs are different from the one averaged within the first three months in 2010. At the same time, the disturbance of the VLF electric spectrum in ionosphere over the epicenter detected by the DEMETER satellite are also observed in the same two orbits. Those observations from energetic PB and VLF electric spectrum disturbance...

  2. Challenges Encountered During the Veterinary Disaster Response: An Example from Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Garde; Guillermo Enrique Pérez; Gerardo Acosta-Jamett; Barend Mark Bronsvoort

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Disaster preparedness for companion animals has economic, social and welfare benefits, yet many countries continue to omit dogs and cats from their national and regional contingency planning. Responses therefore, are often chaotic, inefficient and uncoordinated, or absent altogether. Documented experiences in Chile contribute to the information supporting the inclusion of companion animals into locally relevant disaster plans. These plans serve to prepare communities and author...

  3. Monitoring land cover change of the dryland forest landscape of Central Chile (1975–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Benayas, José María; Schulz, Jennifer J.; Cayuela Delgado, Luis; Echeverría, Cristian; Salas Rey, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    Las figuras que contiene el documento se localizan al final del mismo. Land cover and its configuration in the landscape are crucial components in the provision of biodiversity and ecosystem services. In Mediterranean regions, natural landscapes mostly covered by evergreen vegetation have been to a large extent transformed into cultural landscapes since long time ago. We investigated land cover changes in Central Chile using multi-temporal satellite imagery taken in 1975, 1985, 1999 and 20...

  4. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Freddy MORA; TAPIA, Francisco; Carlos Alberto; Elias Nunes

    2007-01-01

    Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino) under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93%) confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003), veget...

  5. Polygenetic development and paleoenvironmental implications of a Pleistocene calcrete at Tongoy, central northern Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pfeiffer; J. Le Roux; H. Kemnitz

    2011-01-01

    The Norte Chico Region, in central northern Chile, is a particularly sensitive area to Quaternary climate changes because of its extreme climatic gradients. However, very little has been done to determine the late Pleistocene climatic conditions of the area. Calcretes are known to be important repositories of information on past ecosystems and environments. In the Tongoy paleobay, a series of four marine beach terraces have developed over a Mio-Pliocene calcareous formation since MIS 11 to th...

  6. Eficiencia de la migración interregional en Chile para ajustar el mercado laboral

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, Francisco/F; Aroca, Patricio/P

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the article is to re-review the interregional migration process in Chile according to Aroca & Hewings (2002), using up-dated data of 1992 and 2002 from CENSO of population and housing in a probability model probit. Additionally, analyse the efficiency of the interregional migration process in terms of equalising regional salaries and unemployment rates. The results show that signal labour markets are less important for explaining the probability to migrate related to others r...

  7. Assessing the performance of hybrid CSP+PV plants in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Allan; Cardemil, José M.; Escobar, Rodrigo; Colle, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    The electricity systems in Chile are characterized by a variable hourly demand in the central grid and an almost constant demand in the northern grid, which require different operation strategies for solar power plants depending on their location. Hybridizing a CSP plant with a PV plant can increase the whole plant capacity factor by allowing thermal energy to be stored while the PV plant is in production and thus help to achieve a fully dispatchable solar electricity production system. A thermal and economic analysis of hybrid CSP+PV plants is conducted considering a range of plant capacities based on a parabolic trough plant with the addition of a PV plant for the environmental conditions of Crucero in Northern Chile, which is a hotspot for solar energy development in the country. The study considers a parametric analysis and optimization of the storage and power block sizes for the CSP plant in terms of the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for varying PV plant nominal capacity. The annual production of the plants are calculated by using the Transient System Simulation program (TRNSYS), which uses a new component library developed for that purpose. The results show good agreement with other software packages as well as with actual data from currently operating CSP plants. The adopted approach helps the proper assessment of the integration of different technologies, since it uses the well-kwon modular structure of the TRNSYS. Regarding the potential for the hybrid solar-solar plants in the Atacama Desert, the high level of irradiation available in Chile can provide a competitive electricity cost, allowing to investors the access to PPA contracts with mining companies in northern Chile. Additionally, the optimization analysis shows that the northern regions of Chile present an outstanding potential for the deployment of such projects.

  8. Bordeaux of Talca and Champagne of Mendoza: Appellations of Origin and identity contamination of wines in Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alberto Lacoste

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of Appellations of Origin (AO is one of the wines of outstanding wine industry in Argentina and Chile subjects. Given the strong trend towards concentration of the wine industry in these two countries, it is relevant to study the AO because they represent an appropriate mechanism to reduce the gap and enhance the possibilities of SMEs. Why AO not have developed in Argentina and Chile? This article examines the causes that inhibit the development of local AO in the regional viticulture.

  9. The Impact of Participation and Social Contacts on International Attitudes of Youth (The Case of Bolivia and Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, Dario

    Interviews with high school seniors in Bolivia (n=1,100) and Chile (n=2,460) demonstrated that individuals with international contacts hold more positive attitudes toward others than those individuals without this type of exposure. The study examined the students' opinions about other countries of the Latin American region, opportunities for…

  10. Migración Interregional y el Mercado Laboral en Chile: 1977-82 y 1987-92

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Aroca; Geoffrey Jd Hewings; Jim Paredes

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the migration processes that have been occurring in Chile between 1977-82 and 1987-92, as a market mechanism to re-allocate labor among regions. Using traditional consumer theory, a model is developed for a

  11. The provenance of archaeological obsidian artifacts from Northern Chile determined by source-induced X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of provenance of obsidian artifacts from 'site 25-Las Estacas', Quebrada de Jorquera (Copiapo, Northern Chile) was carried out by means of X-ray fluorescence, using radioactive sources. Obsidian samples from different Chilean geological regions, located in South Central Chile (Laguna del Maule volcanic area, sources of La Coloradas and La Plata), 'Radal Siete Tazas' and the North of Chile (Copiapo Volcano) were analyzed. The analysis was performed using 109Cd and 241Am annular excitation sources and X-ray fluorescence. This allowed the determination of Fe, Cu, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, and Ba concentrations on samples of ground obsidian from the aforementioned sites. The measured Rb, Sr, and Zr concentrations were used to construct discriminant diagrams, which clearly showed clustering of the samples from the different sources, and the association of the archaeological obsidian sample to the Copiapo Volcano source, which is geographically close to the site. (author)

  12. A new gravity map of southern Chile and its preliminary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E. Murdie

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo mapade la gravedad en el sur de Chile y su interpretación preliminar. Se han recolectado datos de gravedad en el sur de Chile en la región continental frente al Punto Triple Nazca-Sudamérica-Antártica. El objetivo de este proyecto fue investigar los efectos de la subducción de una dorsal bajo el margen continental. El mapa de anomalías de Bouguer muestra una disminución regional de ellas hacia el este, correspondiendo con un engrosamiento de la cuña mantélica, un gran bajo circular de ca. 60 mGal de la anomalía de Bouguer en la vecindad del lago General Carrera y una tendencia linear en el borde occidental de la cordillera Andina Principal a lo largo de la zona de Fallas Liquiñe-Ofqui. Se utilizo la desconvolución de Euler para determinar la profundidad del cuerpo causativo principal, el que yace a profundidades subcorticales (ca. 65 km. La anomalía yace cerca de la posición predicha para los segmentos subducidos de la Dorsal de Chile y los autores sugieren que la anomalía está, por lo tanto, relacionada con el proceso de subducción de dorsalesNew onshore gravity data have been collected in Southern Chile in the region onshore of the Chile Margin Triple Junction. The aim of the project was to investigate the effects of ridge subduction on the continental margin. The resultant Bouguer anomaly map shows a regional decrease in Bouguer anomaly to the east, corresponding with thickening of the mantle wedge, a large circular low of about -60 mGal in the Bouguer Anomaly in the vicinity of Lago General Carrera and a linear trend at the western edge of the main Andean Chain along the Liquiñe -Ofqui Fault. Euler deconvolution has been used to determine the depth to the principal causative body which lies at subcrustal depths (ca. 65 km. The anomaly lies close to the predicted positions of subducted segments of the Chile Rise and the authors suggest that the anomaly is associated with the ridge subduction process

  13. Conditioning of radium sources in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process experimented in Chile to conditioning Ra-226 sources arising as waste from medical uses in Chile is described. The IAEA offered to participate in the Project for Conditioning Radium Sources in order to place all the radium sources in the country under an internationally accepted standard. These sources hare those that have been used in medical applications for many years. The CCHEN made its own modifications to the project's execution by using its own infrastructure and scientific and technical skill in this field. For this purpose, the CCHEN uses the human resources and facilities of the Radioactive Waste Management Unit (UGDR) and acquires materials that are commercially available in the country. IAEA assistance focused on quality assurance, so they supply all expensive items which the UGDR, cannot access, plus they certify the quality of the conditioned products. This assistance is achieved through the approval of procedures and methodologies based on those that are recommended

  14. Hemophilia in Chile, 1996-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Donoso Scroppo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the process that Chile underwent from 1996 to 2006, which is the dawn of a period of planned and systematic organization that begins to solve the severe health problems that afflict patients with hemophilia. The article reports a general overview of the situation of hemophilia in Chile in that period – up to 2006 - , including the lack of reliable data, treatment options, training of specialists on the topic and healthcare system responses. The article then goes on to describe in general terms the main aspects of Operation Access and the National Hemostasis and Thrombosis Program, the results of which will be described in a subsequent article of this series.

  15. Thermoluminescence properties of Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermoluminescence properties of the inorganic dust extracted from the Chile Guajillo (paprika) Mexicano, were studied in order to verify the possibility of using the TL technique to discriminate between irradiated and non irradiated peppers. The inorganic dust was found to consist of quartz 60%, albite (NaAlSi3O8) 30%, and ortose (KAlSi3O8) 10%. Its thermoluminescence dose response covers the wide dose range of 1Gy-10kGy, which was attributed mainly to feldspars. Its high sensitivity and its stability over 10 irradiation-readout cycles allow the application of a single grain-single aliquot regeneration dosimetry in Chile Guajillo (paprika). Evaluations based on trapping parameters show that thermal fading at room temperature for glow-peaks above 180 deg.. C, is not a problem in the dosimetry of paprika

  16. Infecciones por Vibrio parahaemolyticus e intoxicaciones por algas: problemas emergentes de salud pública en Chile Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections and algal intoxications as emergent public health problems in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Hernández G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available There is interest in the paradigm that relates environmental sea changes to the emergence of diseases that affect both aquatic organisms in the sea and human beings. The emergence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus as an important cause of epidemic summer diarrhea in 2004 and 2005, confined mainly to the tenth region in Chile, could be a manifestation of this trend. This and other areas of the country have also experienced several outbreaks of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP, diarrheal shellfish poisoning (DSP and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP caused by harmful algal blooms (HAB of Alexandrium catenella, Dinophysis acuta and Pseudonitzchia species, respectively. The short historical record of these pathological phenomena in Chile suggests that they are increasing in frequency and expanding their geographical range. The V parahaemolyticus isolates responsible for the Chilean outbreaks correspond mainly to the pandemic strain O3:K6. HAB found in Chile and the intoxications caused by them have similar biological characteristics to those described in other areas of the world. The tenth region, the area where these problems are emerging, produces approximately 80-90% of the shellfish consumed in Chile and a large proportion of the shellfish that is exported. Prevention of these public health problems can be attained by developing policies that increase environmental surveillance for Vibrios and toxic algae, improve the epidemiological surveillance of acute diarrhea and algal intoxications after the ingestion of raw bivalves, and educate the population on the mode of transmission of these diseases. Scientific capacity and laboratories need to be developed to widen the limited knowledge of the biology of Vibrio and toxic algae and the environmental factors that favor their emergence as public health and economic problems in Chile (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 1081-88

  17. Evolution of Housing Prices in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Eric Parrado H. /; Paulo Cox P.; Marcelo Fuenzalida C.

    2009-01-01

    The availability of real estate data is clearly limited in Chile, which makes more complex the discussion of the possible vulnerabilities of households and the financial sector to risks arising from real estate markets. This paper proposes a set of housing price indicators for measuring the potential pressures that could be developing in the credit market. Using these price measures, we find that the recent sustained rise in home prices coincides with the sustained increase in disposable inco...

  18. Movilidad intrageneracional del ingreso en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio, Sapelli

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the different intra-generational mobility indicators for Chile on the basis of the Casen panel. Conclusions from the literature are evaluated in light of results that are based mainly on a discussion of the transition matrix. It is concluded that there is a mistaken interpretation of the data in part of the literature. A simulation is made that demonstrates that the Chilean transition matrix could be the consequence of random shocks to the effective distribution of income...

  19. Equity in health care utilization in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Alicia; Chi, Chunhuei

    2013-01-01

    One of the most extensive Chilean health care reforms occurred in July 2005, when the Regime of Explicit Health Guarantees (AUGE) became effective. This reform guarantees coverage for a specific set of health conditions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to provide timely evidence for policy makers to understand the current distribution and equity of health care utilization in Chile. The authors analyzed secondary data from the National Socioeconomic Survey (CASEN) for the years 1992–2009 an...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Chile pepper [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Chile pepper Capsicum annuum Capsicum_annuum_L.png Capsicum_annuum_NL.png Capsicum_annuum_S.png Capsicum..._annuum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=L htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum...+annuum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capsicum+annuum&t=NS ...

  1. Structural Volatility in Chile: A Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Caballero

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies Chile's economic weaknesses and offers policy recommendations for increasing stability. Current problems include weak international financial links, a Central Bank mandate that is ill-designed to deal with terms of trade shocks, a propensity to waste scarce liquidity in the banking system; and limited development of financial markets. The paper's policy recommendations include improving external financial links, molding terms of trade contingencies into anti-cyclical pol...

  2. Distribution and habitat ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, lichenized Ascomycota in Chile Distribución y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota liquenizado en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JARLE W BJERKE

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The taxonomy and ecology of the sorediate species of Menegazzia from the southernmost regions of Chile and Argentina and the South Atlantic Islands was recently published, only with sporadic reports from the more northern regions. In the present work the distribution patterns and habitat ecology of the sorediate species are discussed, with emphasis on the area north of 48º S. Eleven species are treated. Menegazzia subpertusa, an epiphyte of sclerophyll scrubs, is recorded from South America for the first time (Chile and Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica has a disjunct distribution in Chile, with occurrences in Fray Jorge (Fourth Region of Chile and on Islas Juan Fernández, and along the coast south of latitude 38º S. Menegazzia kawesqarica and M. tenuis are most common in the southernmost part of Chile, but are also found at high altitudes at lower latitudes. Additional treated species are M. chrysogaster, M. fumarprotocetrarica, M. globulifera, M. magellanica, M. norsorediata, M. sanguinascens and M. wandae. Several of the sorediate species are early colonisers of newly developed substrates. They show variable occurrences along light and humidity gradients. Distribution maps and a revised key are presented.Recientemente se han publicado datos sobre la taxonomía y ecología de las especies sorediosas de Menegazzia representadas en las regiones más australes de Chile y Argentina e islas del Atlántico Sur, además de registros esporádicos en zonas ubicadas más al norte en Chile. En este trabajo se discuten los patrones de distribución y la ecología del hábitat de 11 especies sorediosas, con especial enfásis en aquellas que se desarrollan al norte de los 48º S. Menegazzia subpertusa, un epífito de arbustos esclerófilos, se registra por primera vez en América (Chile y Argentina. Menegazzia neozelandica tiene una distribución discontinua en Chile; ha sido recolectada en Fray Jorge (Cuarta Región de Chile, Islas Juan Fern

  3. Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Genotypic Lineage Distribution in Chile and Neighboring Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagos, Jaime; Couvin, David; Arata, Loredana; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Leiva, Tamara; Arias, Fabiola; Hormazabal, Juan Carlos; Rastogi, Nalin; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), remains a disease of high importance to global public health. Studies into the population structure of MTB have become vital to monitoring possible outbreaks and also to develop strategies regarding disease control. Although Chile has a low incidence of MTB, the current rates of migration have the potential to change this scenario. We collected and analyzed a total of 458 M. tuberculosis isolates (1 isolate per patient) originating from all 15 regions of Chile. The isolates were genotyped using the spoligotyping method and the data obtained were analyzed and compared with the SITVIT2 database. A total of 169 different patterns were identified, of which, 119 patterns (408 strains) corresponded to Spoligotype International Types (SITs) and 50 patterns corresponded to orphan strains. The most abundantly represented SITs/lineages were: SIT53/T1 (11.57%), SIT33/LAM3 (9.6%), SIT42/LAM9 (9.39%), SIT50/H3 (5.9%), SIT37/T3 (5%); analysis of the spoligotyping minimum spanning tree as well as spoligoforest were suggestive of a recent expansion of SIT42, SIT50 and SIT37; all of which potentially evolved from SIT53. The most abundantly represented lineages were LAM (40.6%), T (34.1%) and Haarlem (13.5%). LAM was more prevalent in the Santiago (43.6%) and Concepción (44.1%) isolates, rather than the Iquique (29.4%) strains. The proportion of X lineage was appreciably higher in Iquique and Concepción (11.7% in both) as compared to Santiago (1.6%). Global analysis of MTB lineage distribution in Chile versus neighboring countries showed that evolutionary recent lineages (LAM, T and Haarlem) accounted together for 88.2% of isolates in Chile, a pattern which mirrored MTB lineage distribution in neighboring countries (n = 7378 isolates recorded in SITVIT2 database for Peru, Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina; and published studies), highlighting epidemiological advantage of Euro-American lineages in this region

  4. Integrated Geophysical Characteristics of the 2015 Illapel, Chile, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, M. W.; Yeck, W. L.; Nealy, J. L.; Hayes, G. P.; Barnhart, W. D.; Benz, H.; Furlong, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    On September 16th, 2015, an Mw 8.3 earthquake (USGS moment magnitude) ruptured offshore of central Chile, 50 km west of the city of Illapel and 200 km north of Santiago. The earthquake occurred just north of where the Juan Fernandez Ridge enters the subduction zone. In this study, we integrate multiple seismic and geodetic datasets, including multiple-event earthquake relocations; moment tensors of the Illapel mainshock, aftershocks, and prior regional seismicity; finite fault models (FFMs) of the mainshock rupture; subduction zone geometry; Coulomb stress transfer calculations; and co-seismic GPS offsets and InSAR images. These datasets allow us to (a) assess the context of the Illapel earthquake sequence with respect to historical seismicity in central Chile; (b) constrain the relationship between subduction geometry and the kinematic characteristics of the earthquake sequence; and (c) understand the distribution of aftershocks with respect to the rupture zone. Double source W-phase moment tensor analysis indicates the Illapel mainshock rupture began as a smaller Mw ~7.2 thrusting event before growing into a great-sized Mw 8.3 earthquake. Relocated aftershock seismicity is concentrated around the main region of slip, and few aftershocks occur on the megathrust shallower than ~15 km, despite the FFM indicating slip near the trench. This distribution is consistent with the aftershock behavior following the 2010 Maule and 2014 Iquique earthquakes: aftershocks primarily surround the rupture zones and are largely absent from regions of greatest slip. However, in contrast to the recent 2014 Iquique and 2010 Maule events, which ruptured in regions of the Chilean subduction zone that had not had large events in over a century, this earthquake occurred in a section of the subduction zone that hosted a large earthquake as recently as 1943, as well as earlier significant events in 1880 and 1822. At this section of the subduction zone, in addition to the impinging Juan

  5. [Aquaculture and public health. The emergence of diphyllobothriasis in Chile and the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2007-08-01

    Recent clinical and epidemiológical information, an analysis of the literature, and study of the technical aspects of Chilean salmon aquaculture indicate that this activity has the ability to expand the range of diphyllobothriasis caused by the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. Evidence for expansion of the range of the fish tapeworm includes the emergences of clinical cases in Brazil related to consumption of salmon produced in Chile. Expansion of the range of this parasite is also suggested by an increase of its geographical range in Chile, beyond its previously endemic foci in the lakes of Regions IX and X. Prevention of further dissemination of this parasitic disease rests on an improvement of sanitation and sewage disposal around the lakes of Regions IX, X and XI in Chile, improvement in aquaculture methods including curtailing the use of fish tapeworm-contaminated lakes to grow juveniles forms of salmonids and more measures to decrease the number of salmonid escapees from marine pens to prevent their return to rivers and lakes carrying the infestation. Moreover, tracking the origin of juveniles in marketed salmon, determining the presence of plerocercoids in them, and increased education of the public regarding the potential dangers of eating raw fish should also be implemented. Only by stimulating the dialogue between the industry, consumers and state regulators will it be possible to implement appropriate measures to prevent further expansion of this parasitic disease by salmon aquaculture. PMID:17989866

  6. Uso de las concesiones acuícolas de mar en la industria salmonera en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vega

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es una revisión sobre las concesiones de acuicultura del salmón en la zona sur de Chile, específicamente entre las regiones de Los Lagos y Magallanes. La industria del salmón en Chile ha tenido un incremento en ingresos y producción, que se redujo por el virus ISA entre los años 2008 y 2009, pero tuvo una recuperación posterior. Se comenta sobre los aspectos de costos y tópicos de manejo desde los puntos de vista técnico, económico y legal asociados a la industria del salmón.

  7. Azufre Elemental como Corrector del pH y la Fertilidad de Alfunos Suelos de la III y IV Región de Chile Elemental Sulphur as pH and Soil Fertility Amendment for Some Chileans Soils of Regions III and IV

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Sierra B; Angelus Lancelloti M; Iván Vidal P.

    2007-01-01

    En los suelos de la zona norte de Chile existen suelos con carbonatos, situación que influye sobre la disponibilidad de nutrientes para los cultivos. En el presente experimento se evaluó en condiciones de laboratorio, el efecto de la aplicación de azufre elemental sobre el pH, conductividad eléctrica y micronutrientes en seis suelos de la III y IV Región, Chile. El azufre se aplicó en dosis de 500 y 1000 mg S° kg-1, y el suelo se incubó por períodos de 60 y 120 días a 80% de su capacidad de c...

  8. The Mass Media and Political Socialization: Chile, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Amy R.

    2005-01-01

    This project seeks to determine the effect of the mass media on political attitudes and behaviors in Chile between the years 1970 and 2000. The relationship between the media and "political socialization" is just now gaining recognition in scholarly research, and Chile offers an excellent case study. This paper traces these two variables during…

  9. Chile - Institutional Design for an Effective Education Quality Assurance

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this report is to present the Government of Chile with policy options related to the institutional distribution of roles and responsibilities for effective quality assurance in education. Following the introduction, the report is structured as follows. Chapter II presents background information on the evolution of Chile's education system since 1980. This information,...

  10. Chile: Una Vision Politica, Economica y Social (Chile: A Political, Economic, and Social View).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes-Hwang, Adriana

    1972-01-01

    This address seeks to explain in brief the historical background and political, economic, and social conditions leading to the democratic election of a Marxist president in Chile. A historical sketch of Chilean government from independence in 1810 is provided with a description of the situation just before Salvador Allende's election in 1969. Some…

  11. Saprolegnia parasitica en salmones y truchas del sur de Chile Saprolegnia parasitica in salmon and trout from southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Zaror

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 35 cepas de Saprolegnia, aisladas de Salmón y Trucha, provenientes de dos laboratorios ictiopatológicos de Castro y Puerto Montt, de Chile. Las cepas fueron obtenidas de ovas, branquias y aletas de alevines y "smolt", de distintas especies de salmonídeos: salmón del Atlántico, salmón coho y trucha arco iris. Se reaislaron las cepas y se purificaron en agar Sabouraud, agar Lactrimel y agar MAO, con antimicrobianos. Saprolegnia fue cultivada en agua destilada y semillas de cáñamo, para la producción de estructuras sexuales y posterior identificación morfológica, según Dick (1973 y Seymour (1970. De las cepas estudiadas, las 35 correspondieron a Saprolegnia parasitica, única especie aislada, conformando el 100 % del total. El 34% de las cepas presentó estructuras sexuadas y el 100% se desarrolló a 30ºC.Thirty five strains of Saprolegnia were isolated from salmon and trout, obtained from the IX, X and XII regions in southern Chile. The strains were obtained from eggs, gills and fins of alevins and smolt phase of different species of salmonids: Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon; Oncorhynchus kisutch (Coho salmon and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout. The strains were re-isolated and purified in Sabouraud agar, Lactrimel and MAO agar, supplemented with antibiotics. The strains were cultured in distilled water and hemp seeds, for the production of sexual structures, and for their morphological identification. All strains collected, were identified as Saprolegnia parasitica. This species was the only one isolated of its genus.

  12. Los patelogastrópodos intermareales de Chile y Perú Intertidal limpets of Chile and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN ESPOZ

    2004-06-01

    diversos del mundo. Más aún, esta variabilidad y flexibilidad pueden ser responsables de las confusiones taxonómicas que han rodeado a este conjunto faunísticoIn this study we present a classification system reflecting the phylogenetic relationships for the intertidal patellogastropods of Chile and Peru. We infer phylogenetic relationships between limpets species using DNA sequences from the 16S region of the mitochondrial genome. We include a comparative limpet study of: shell structure, color and morphological patterns of the shell, radular teeth and anatomy. Additionally, we provide information about the distribution and ecology for members of this group within the studied area. The results show a Chilean-Peruvian Lottiidae fauna consisting of at least nine species, which are grouped into a single monophyletic clade Scurria (S. variabilis, S. zebrina, S. viridula, S. plana, S. scurra, S. araucana, S. ceciliana and a non identificated species, and a "problematic taxon" preliminarily assigned to the genus Lottia (Lottia orbignyi. The group of species is present in the intertidal rocky shores between 5º S and 54º S, from the upper to the lower intertidal fringes, ranging from exposed to protected areas. The systematic outcome of this study suggests the synonymization of S. parasitica to S. variabilis, and of S. ceciliana to S. boehmita. According to our field results, the species S. variabilis shows at least three ecophenotypes: (1 on rocky substrates along the full geographic range, (2 on the shells of the key-hole limpets: Fissurella crassa and F. limbata mainly in central and south of Chile, and (3 on the chiton plates of Enoplochiton niger in the north of Chile and south of Perú. S. ceciliana is a species in which morphology and color patterns are highly variable. In general, this variability indicates that the Chilean-Peruvian limpet species are among the most complex and diverse limpet fauna in the world. This, may reflects the taxonomic confusion which has

  13. China and Chile Are to Be Free-Trade Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In line with the words "We hope that Chile's Next Partner is China", Chile is believed to choose China as the new negotiation party of Free Trade Agreements after signing respectively free trade agreements with Canada, the United States, EU and ROK. On January 24, Chile's trade delegation composed of 20 members led by Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs paid the first visit to China to launch first five-day round of mutual trade negotiation.Kaiross Feirch, the Head of economy general department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Chile and Barbirlo Kafuleirla, Chile's Ambassador to China received special visit of reporters about this round.

  14. Chile's pension reform after twenty years

    OpenAIRE

    Acuna R., Rodrigo; Iglesias P., Augusto

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the 1980 Chilean pension reform and to present its main results and economic impact. It is mainly descriptive; however we have tried to emphasize the lessons that may be learned and that may be of interest to other countries in different circumstances. In particular, we focus on potential areas for regulatory improvements. In Section II, a brief description of the AFP system and its place within Chile's social security system is presented. Also, the main c...

  15. Chile Successfully Halts Rise in Childhood Obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Latin America has become a cause for concern. The IAEA has worked closely with the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA) at the University of Chile since 1997 to address the problem of malnutrition in the country. In Santiago, the Laboratory of Energy Metabolism and Stable Isotopes was established in 1998 with the help of the IAEA to provide an isotope ratio mass spectrometer and training in the use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition, infant feeding practices and total daily energy expenditure

  16. Los Maestros en Chile: Carreras e Incentivos

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Mizala; Pablo González; Pilar Romaguera; Andrea Guzmán

    2000-01-01

    La reforma educacional que Chile está implementando requiere para su éxito que los maestros se pongan a la cabeza de la reforma, y para ello es necesario fortalecer la profesión docente y la carrera de pedagogía. Diseñar políticas efectivas hacia los maestros supone estudiar las características socioeconómicas y motivacionales de éstos, así como los incentivos y factores institucionales que determinan la composición del cuerpo docente y que influencian su desempeño profesional. Esto es lo que...

  17. Financiamiento de la vivienda en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Morandé, Felipe G.; Garcia, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    El financiamiento a la vivienda en Chile ha alcanzado en los últimos 20 años un grado de desarrollo muy importante. Para esto ha sido fundamental: a) la eliminación del efecto de la inflación sobre el valor de las deudas de largo plazo, primero, mediante el desarrollo de una unidad de cuenta indexada a la inflación creíble y transparente (la UF), y posteriormente, con el abatimiento de la inflación como fenómeno macroeconómico; b) la reforma provisional de comienzos de los años 80, que fue cl...

  18. Influencia del país de origen en la toma de decisión de compra de alimentos: un estudio en consumidores de distinta etnia en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Bárbara Obreque; Emilia Cid; Marcos Mora; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Marianela Denegri

    2010-01-01

    A pesar del interés por estudiar el comportamiento de compra de minorías étnicas, gran parte de las investigaciones se centran en los inmigrantes y no en los pueblos originarios indígenas, de importancia en Chile y América. Considerando el aumento de las importaciones de alimentos en Chile, se determinó la importancia del país de origen en la decisión de compra de carne bovina en personas de distinta etnia en las Regiones de La Araucanía y Metropolitana (Chile), a través de una encuesta perso...

  19. 75 FR 10846 - The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc., et al.; Notice of Application March 2, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange.... Applicants: The Chile Fund, Inc. (``Chile Fund''), Aberdeen Australia Equity Fund (``Australia Fund,'' together with the Chile Fund, the ``Current Funds''), Aberdeen Asset Management Asia Limited...

  20. Regional Convergence in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett Sutton; Genevieve Lindow; Maria Isabel Serra; Gustavo Ramirez; Maria Fernanda Pazmino

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence on convergence of per capita output for regions within six large middle-income Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. It explores the role played by several exogenous sectoral shocks and differences in steady states within each country. It finds that poor and rich regions within each country converged at very low rates over the past three decades. It also finds evidence of regional "convergence clubs" within Brazi...

  1. Subsidios en Educación: Impacto en la Migración y Convergencia Regional

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Durán

    2005-01-01

    During the last couple of decades, migratory movements in Chile have been minimal. Regions are far from achieving equality in per capita income, and migration has not been an equalizing force. Hence, there is marked persistence in regional inequity. This

  2. Impact of Intrathermocline eddies on seamount and oceanic island off Central Chile: Observation and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormazabal, Samuel; Morales, Carmen; Cornejo, Marcela; Bento, Joaquim; Valencia, Luis; Auger, Pierre; Rodriguez, Angel; Correa, Marco; Anabalón, Valeria; Silva, Nelson

    2016-04-01

    In the Southeast Pacific, oceanographic processes that sustain the biological production necessary to maintain the ecosystems associated to seamounts and oceanic islands are still poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that the interaction of mesoscale and submesoescale eddies with oceanic islands and seamounts could be playing an important role in the time-space variability of primary production. In this work, research cruises, satellite data and Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) results have been used to describe the main characteristics of intrathermocline eddies (ITE) and their impact on the Juan Fernández archipelago (JFA), off central Chile. The JFA is located off the coast of central Chile (33°S), and is composed of three main islands: Robinson Crusoe (RC), Alejandro Selkirk (AS) and Santa Clara (SC). Between the RC and AS are located the westernmost seamounts (JF6 and JF5) of the Juan Fernández archipelago. Satellite altimetry data (sea surface height from AVISO) were used to detect and track mesoscale eddies through eddy-tracking algorithm. Physical, chemical and biological parameters as temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and fluorescence were measured in the water column at JF5 and JF6, and along the coast off central Chile (30-40°S). Results from the research cruise exhibit the interaction between an ITE and the seamount JF6. Eddy-tracking results showed that the ITE observed at the JF6 was formed at the coast off central-southern Chile, traveled ~900 km seaward and after ~9 months reached the JF5 and JF6 region. Observations along the Chilean coast confirmed that the coast corresponds to the formation area of the observed ITE. In this region, ITEs are represented by subsurface lenses (~100 km diameter; 400 m thickness) of homogeneous salinity, nutrient rich and oxygen-poor equatorial subsurface water mass (ESSW) which is transported poleward by the Peru-Chile undercurrent in the coastal band and seaward by ITEs. The effect of ITEs on the

  3. Ecology and geography of transmission of two bat-borne rabies lineages in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Escobar

    Full Text Available Rabies was known to humans as a disease thousands of years ago. In America, insectivorous bats are natural reservoirs of rabies virus. The bat species Tadarida brasiliensis and Lasiurus cinereus, with their respective, host-specific rabies virus variants AgV4 and AgV6, are the principal rabies reservoirs in Chile. However, little is known about the roles of bat species in the ecology and geographic distribution of the virus. This contribution aims to address a series of questions regarding the ecology of rabies transmission in Chile. Analyzing records from 1985-2011 at the Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile (ISP and using ecological niche modeling, we address these questions to help in understanding rabies-bat ecological dynamics in South America. We found ecological niche identity between both hosts and both viral variants, indicating that niches of all actors in the system are undifferentiated, although the viruses do not necessarily occupy the full geographic distributions of their hosts. Bat species and rabies viruses share similar niches, and our models had significant predictive power even across unsampled regions; results thus suggest that outbreaks may occur under consistent, stable, and predictable circumstances.

  4. Nitrogen fixation in four dryland tree species in central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a 5-year experiment using 15N-enriched fertilizer to determine N2 fixation in four tree species on degraded soils in a Mediterranean-climate region of central Chile in which there are 5 months of drought. Species tested included three slow-growing but long-lived savannah trees native to southers South America, (acacia caven, Prosopic alba and P. chilensis; Mimosoideae), and Tagasaste (Chamaecytisus proliferus ssp. palmensis; Papilonoideae), a fast-growing but medium-lived tree from the Canary Islands. Tagasaste produced four- to twenty-fold more biomass than the other species, but showed declining N2 fixation and biomass accumulation during the 5th year, corresponding to the juvenile-to-adult developmental transition. Nitrogen content was significantly higher in Tagasaste and Acacia caven than in the other species. The data revealed inter-specific differences in resource allocation and phenology of N2 fixation rarely detailed for woody plants in dryland regions. (author)

  5. Report from the First Latin American Urological Oncology Symposium (SLAURO) 19-21 June 2014, Viña del Mar, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Pinto, Ivàn; Altamirano, Jaime; Vilches, Roberto; Martìn, Eu Marìa Eliana San; Gallardo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most important diseases in Chile, with alarming incidence and mortality rates that are among the highest in Latin America. Economic growth in South America has led to demographic change, with an aging population typical of developed countries, but also a growing population with cancer. The incidence and mortality of urological cancers in Chile is significant, and has led to the formulation of health laws and policies promoting the early treatment of urological cancers. It is also well known that there are regions of Chile with extremely high incidence and mortality of bladder cancer caused by arsenic exposure. SLAURO (Simposio Latinoamericano de Urología Oncológica [Latin American Oncological Urology Symposium]) is a new Latin American forum for discussing and promoting knowledge of urological cancers across the region. PMID:25525468

  6. Transformaciones del modelo territorial de Santiago de Chile./ Transformations in the territorial model of Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonás Figueroa Salas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las tendencias morfológicas, como expresiones espaciales del crecimiento físico del Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, sirve para reflexionar acerca de las diferentes y variadas contradicciones -negaciones y discontinuidades- que operan eventualmente entre el modelo territorial propuesto por los instrumentos de ordenamiento y la planta final resultante. Junto a ello, esta reflexión nos brinda la oportunidad de identificar las tendencias registradas por una urbanística de escala metropolitana, cuyo signo de los tiempos es el todo urbanizable, dejando de lado otras maneras y modos de encarar el crecimiento físico de la ciudad. En tal sentido, el diseño de una armadura de escala provincial, como factor de reequilibrio entre un débil sistema regional de ciudades y un área metropolitana excedida, constituye la segunda parte del escrito./The urban growth of Santiago, and it morphology, is the starting point in the study of the contradictions between the plans for Santiago and its results. The author also notes that the differences between the scales of planning is also an issue in the attempt to perform a better regional and local planning.

  7. Chile; Staff Report for the 2001 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    Chile's economic performance was very strong during most of the 1990s, but the country suffered a recession in 1998–99. In early 1998, Chile faced a widening external current account deficit—resulting from surging domestic demand and a large drop in copper export prices—which together with turbulence in world financial markets weakened investor confidence and put downward pressure on the currency. Chile has maintained a very open trade regime and has continued with the unilateral phased...

  8. [Spanish, Italian, and Portuguese immigration: Chile 1860-1930].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Roldan, H G

    1989-12-01

    "The paper refers to the amount and some characteristics of the Spanish, Italian and Portuguese immigration to Chile during the period 1860-1930. It is compared with [movements to] Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Uruguay.... Different information sources are used and in spite of data weakness, the low preference for Chile of the European migratory flows is ratified as compared with those to Argentina.... It is pointed out that the migratory flows to Latin America, in particular to Chile, are associated, on the one hand, with the favourable... European [immigration] policy in this country and on the other hand with the huge European emigration overseas during that period." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342735

  9. CASO DE ESTUDIO: LA FUNDACION COCA-COLA CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE HERRERA

    2006-01-01

    This case gives an overview of the Coca-Cola System in Chile and focuses on the Coca-Cola Chile Foundation (CCFCH), a non-profit organization dedicated to education. Created in 1992 with donations from Coca-Cola de Chile S.A. (CCCH) and the bottling companies Embotelladora Andina S.A., Coca-Cola Embonor S.A. and Coca-Cola Polar S.A., the foundation now faces an expansion dilemma in its most important program, the TAVEC Laboratories. Under this program the CCFCH donated interactive scientific ...

  10. Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Silva Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El libro Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción surge en el marco de la alianza entre dos grupos de investigación de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia: el Grupo de Estudios sobre la Problemática Urbano-Regional en Colombia (Geourbe del Departamento de Geografía, sede Bogotá; y el de Dinámicas Urbano-Regionales de la Facultad de Arquitectura, sede Medellín. Posteriormente, la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile se sumó a la alianza con la organización del seminario Dinámicas Metropolitanas Colombia-Chile, diálogo entre Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción, en noviembre de 2012 en la ciudad de Santiago. Los trabajos allí presentados fueron la base para la edición y materialización de esta interesante obra que contiene diecisiete textos, en los que se examina el proceso de metropolización en cuatro ciudades de Colombia y Chile desde diferentes perspectivas, donde el término ‘metropolizaciones’, en plural, sugiere la riqueza de aportes y enfoques tanto teóricos como metodológicos, expuestos para estudiar las metrópolis en cuanto a sus particularidades, formas y dinámicas resultantes.

  11. Evaluating the Chile Solidario program: results using the Chile Solidario panel and the administrative databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hoces de la Guardia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una evaluación de tres años realizada en las primeras cohortes del Programa Chile Solidario, el programa de reducción de la pobreza más importante de Chile. El artículo presenta una descripción del programa, haciendo hincapié en el mecanismo por el cual las personas fueron admitidas en el programa. A continuación, propone estrategias de evaluación y discute su validez. 8a evaluación final se realiza mediante un estimador de "Matching" (pareo, y se discuten los principios en base a los cuales se trataría de un método de evaluación válida. Los resultados iniciales usando el Panel de Chile Solidario sugieren que el programa ha tenido efectos positivos sobre el bienestar psicosocial y en la adopción de subsidios y programas sociales. Sin embargo, no es posible obtener resultados fiables debido a las deficiencias de datos, en particular la falta de una línea de base. Con el fin de resolver el problema, hemos generado una base de datos utilizando seis años de datos administrativos, incluyendo alrededor de 1.000.000 de registros de familias por año. Un método para superar el problema de sustitución de tratamiento es discutido y aplicado. Los resultados son mucho más robustos que los del Panel de Chile Solidario y muestran pequeños, pero evidentes efectos positivos de varias variables, especialmente relativos al número de trabajadores en el hogar, el porcentaje de trabajadores en el hogar y el empleo del jefe de hogar.

  12. LA NOVELA DE LA DICTADURA EN CHILE The novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lulo C

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Para un sector de la crítica y de la academia chilena, la gran novela de la Dictadura es una asignatura pendiente. En este artículo se problematiza este tema mediante la formulación de una hipótesis según la cual una serie de novelas aparecidas en Chile entre 1977 y 2006 cumplen con la función de narrar -desde su fragmentariedad- las causas y consecuencias del 11 de septiembre de 1973. Así, busca plantear las bases epistemológicas e históricas que posibiliten llevar a cabo una investigación de mayor alcance acerca del problema del papel de la novela durante y después de la Dictadura.For many critics and scholars the great novel of the dictatorship's period in Chile still remains a pending matter. This article, on the contrary, hypothesizes on the existence of a significant number of novéis published in Chile between 1977 and 2006, which out of their fragmentary character and peculiarity give a proper account of the causes and consequences of the coup d'état held on September llth 1973. The article seeks to set a preliminary basis for an epistemological discussion and further major research about the role of the Chilean novel, in the historical context of post modernity, during and after the dictatorship's era.

  13. Análisis de la situación de la salud ocupacional en Chile Analysis of the situation of occupational health in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Inés Sanhueza Alvarado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Las autoras realizan un análisis crítico de la Salud Ocupacional en Chile con base en las conclusiones de un taller multidisciplinario donde participaron profesionales dedicados a esta área y en el cual se utilizó la metodología de planificación estratégica, exponiendo debilidades, fortalezas y sus proyecciones en la salud del ambiente regional. También se discutió un perfil del profesional que debe participar en los programas, se delimitó un plan de trabajo que reflejaría el desarrollo futuro de esta área y resumió el papel de la Universidad en este plan de trabajo, se analizó el futuro de la Salud Ocupacional.The authors make a critical analysis of the Occupational Health in Chile based on the conclusions obtained from a multidisciplinary workshop, attended by professionals of this area. The method used was strategic planning, exposing the weaknesses, strengths and expectations regarding the health reality of the region. A profile of the type of professionals that should participate in the programs was also discussed, elaborating a work plan that should reflect the future development in this area, as well as pointing out the role of the University in the work plan and analysing the future of Occupational Health.

  14. urbano - territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Soms García

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews two methodological experiences that analyse the potential development of specific urbanterritorial systems. The paper was presented at the V International Seminar-Workshop of the Mexican Network of Cities towards Sustainability that took place in Querétaro in October 2004. The Ministry of Planning and Cooperation of Chile has undertaken various studies related to regional competitiveness oriented to predict and evaluate the positive and negative impact of the recent Free Trade Agreements between Chile and the European Commission, USA and Korea, as well as the future agreement with the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC countries. In terms of urban competitiveness, the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism and the Regional Governments of Antofagasta, Bio-Bio, Valparaiso and Santiago are carrying out interesting studies and projects as part of the program “Cities for the Bicentenary”.

  15. Human pseudoterranovosis, an emerging infection in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, P; Jercic, M I; Weitz, J C; Dobrew, E K; Mercado, R A

    2007-04-01

    Fifteen cases of human pseudoterranovosis are reported for Chile, representing an emerging parasitic infection in this country caused by larvae of the nematode Pseudoterranova sp. Our observations also included an outbreak of pseudoterranovosis in 3 of 4 individuals who shared the same raw fish dish (cebiche). Most of the cases occurred in adult patients. The main source of infection was from consumption raw or fried marine fish, including hakes (Merluccius australis or Merlucciuts gayi), pomfret (Brama australis), Inca scad (Trachurus murphvi), and corvina (Cilus gilberti). Seasonal distribution showed most of the cases to occur in fall and spring. Parasite larvae were isolated from the mouths of most of the patients after they reported a pharyngeal tickling sensation, coughing, vomiting, or a foreign body in the mouth or throat. PMID:17539437

  16. A DRONE FLIGHT OVER PARANAL, CHILE

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Aerial clip (shot using a drone and a Go pro) describing ESO's astronomical observatory facilities in the Atacama desert, Northern Chile. Locations covered by the drone flight include Cerro Paranal, with the Residencia (external and internal views) and the Very Large Telescope facility on Cerro Paranal, from above and with a peek into Unit Telescope 1 and its 8,2 m diameter mirror; final image on Cerro Armazones, the site chosen for building ESO's next telescope, the E-ELT (European Extremely Large Telescope). With a 39-metre main mirror, it will be the largest optical/near-infrared telescope in the world. The Argentinian Codillera with the Llullaillaco volcano are visible in the background.

  17. Improving the effectiveness of rural development policy in Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter Leal, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, agriculture remains a key economic factor for rural development. Accordingly, the Chilean government, through the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), provides financial support for fostering entrepreneurship among small farmers to enable them to become more competitive in global ma

  18. Infecção por Enterobius vermicularis em populações agro-pastoris pré-colombianas de San Pedro de Atacama, Chile Enterobius vermicularis infection in pre-Columbian population from San Pedro de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Ferreira

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis eggs were found in human coprolites collected from the archaeological site of San Pedro de Atacama, North of Chile, in occupational layers dated from 1,000 BC. Agricultures and herding were begining at this period of time in this region of South America. The paleoparasitological data amplifies the knowledge about the distribution of human oxyuriasis in Pre-Columbian America.

  19. Research training in dental undergraduate curriculum in Chile.

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Moreno

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research plays a central role in professional training in dentistry. There is a clear recommendation to include a minimum training in biomedical research at undergraduate level. In Chile, there is no standardized curriculum structure including research training for undergraduate students. Objective: To describe the presence of research courses in the undergraduate dental curriculum in Chile during 2014. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study. The curriculum for all Chilean...

  20. Beyond Income: A Study of Multidimensional Poverty in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Bronfman, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Using the latest nationally representative household survey for Chile, this paper empirically assesses multidimensional poverty both at the national and subnational level. Based on the Alkire-Foster method and focusing on four dimensions of well-being –education, health, income and living standard– this study estimates the level and depth of multidimensional poverty for Chile in 2011. At national level, the results show that fewer individuals are subject to multidimensional poverty compared t...

  1. Transportation in Developing Countries: Greenhouse Gas Scenarios for Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl O'Ryan; Daniel Sperling; Tom Turrentine; Mark Delucchii

    2001-01-01

    Chile is a lightly populated country of 15 million that has undergone large economic transformations. Over the past 25 years, the economy has evolved from a slow-growing state-directed economy into a fast growing, market-oriented economy. Its South American neighbors are imitating this transformation. The changes have been especially great in the transport sector, with the private sector taking over many traditional public sector activities. This report addresses the implications of Chile's e...

  2. Decades lost and found: Mexico and Chile since 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Bergoeing; Patrick J. Kehoe; Timothy J. Kehoe; Raimundo Soto

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, yet Chile recovered much faster than Mexico. This study analyzes four possible explanations for this difference and rules out three, explanations based on money supply expansion, real wage and real exchange rate declines, and foreign debt overhangs. The fourth explanation is based on government policy reforms in the two countries. Using growth accounting and a calibrated growth model, the study determines that the on...

  3. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  4. Geomorphological characterization of endorheic basins in northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsaz, J.; Gironas, J. A.; Escauriaza, C. R.; Rinaldo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative geomorphology regroups a large number of interesting tools to characterize natural basins across scales. The application of these tools to several river basins allows the description and comparison of geomorphological properties at different spatial scales as oppose to more traditional descriptors that are typically applied at a single scale, meaning the catchment scale. Most of the recent research using these quantitative geomorphological tools has focused on open catchments and no specific attention has been given to endorheic basins, and the possibility of having particular features that distinguish them from exorheic catchments. The main objective of our study is to characterize endorheic basins and investigate whether these special geomorphological features can be identified. Because scaling invariance is a widely observed and relatively well quantified property of open basins, it provides a suitable tool to characterize differences between the geomorphology of closed and open basins. Our investigation focuses on three closed basins located in northern Chile which describe well the diversity in the geomorphology and geology of this arid region. Results show that endhoreic basins exhibit different slope-area and flow paths sinuosity regimes compared to those observed in open basins. These differences are in agreement with the particular self-similar behavior across spatial scales of the Euclidean length of subcatchments, as well as the Hack's law and Horton's ratios. These regimes imply different physical processes inside the channel network regardless of the basin area, and they seem to be related to the endorheic character of these basins. The analysis of the probability density functions of contributing areas and lengths to the lower region shows that the hypothesis of self-similarity can also be applied to closed basins. Theoretical expressions for these distributions were derived and validated by the data. Future research will focus on (1

  5. Bacterial community structure in the hyperarid core of the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Kevin P.; Neilson, Julia W.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Quade, Jay; Henderson, David A.; Pryor, Barry M.; Maier, Raina M.

    2006-01-01

    Soils from the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile were sampled along an east-west elevational transect (23.75 to 24.70 degrees S) through the driest sector to compare the relative structure of bacterial communities. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles from each of the samples revealed that microbial communities from the extreme hyperarid core of the desert clustered separately from all of the remaining communities. Bands sequenced from DGGE profiles of two samples taken at a 22-month interval from this core region revealed the presence of similar populations dominated by bacteria from the Gemmatimonadetes and Planctomycetes phyla.

  6. Observaciones sobre la flora del “Norte Chico” de Chile./ Notes on the flora of

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo Ulriksen Becker [1952

    2008-01-01

    Desde un profundo conocimiento adquirido en sus estudios teóricos y prácticos, Guillermo Ulriksen da una mirada a la flora y fauna encontrada en sus exhaustivos recorridos por el Norte Chico de Chile, y a sus experiencias con ellas en circunstancias de su trabajo −conjunto con Oscar Prager− para efectos del proyecto del llamado “Plan Serena” desde 1947, y de su tesis de título de Arquitecto en 1952-53. En esta última, intenta aportar bases para la planeación regional del Norte Chico, a partir...

  7. MIGRACION INTERREGIONAL Y EL MERCADO LABORAL EN CHILE: 1977-82 Y 1987-92

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Aroca; Hewings, Geoffrey J.D.; Jimmy Paredes Godoy

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el proceso de migración que ha ocurrido en Chile en los períodos 1977-82 y 1987-92, como un mecanismo de reasignación laboral entre las regiones. Usando la teoría del consumidor tradicional, se desarrolla un modelo para el trabajador que está evaluando emigrar. Este modelo es estimado, con datos de corte transversal, usando una formulación logit para ambos períodos. Los resultados indican que aunque las señales del mercado están dirigiendo a los trabajad...

  8. [Undergraduate and postgraduate studies in the biological sciences in Chile (1985)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, H

    1986-01-01

    A study group of scientists was convened by the Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Biological Society of Chile) and the Regional Program for Graduate Training in Biological Sciences, PNUD-Unesco, RLA 78/024, to assess undergraduate and graduate studies in life sciences in Chile. The group presented this report at the 28th Annual Meeting of the Society. Discussion centered on the features that should characterize the studies leading to the academic degrees of Licenciado (Licenciate), Magíster (Master) and Doctor (Ph. D) in Sciences, and also on the qualifications that the universities should satisfy in order to grant them. After analyzing the present situation of undergraduate and graduate studies in Biological Sciences in Chilean universities, the group made the following main suggestions: 1. It is recommended that Chilean universities agree on a 4-year plan for the Licenciado degree, without the requirement of a thesis. The importance of providing the students with good laboratory exercises and field experience and with the opportunity to perform short research projects is stressed. In addition, a sound theoretical training on mathematics, physics and chemistry in the education of a modern Biologist is important. Licenciate studies ought to be the basis for professional careers and the universities should offer to the Licenciados free access to their professional schools. 2. It is considered appropriate for Chile and its universities to develop graduate programs in those disciplines that have reached a level of excellence. To accomplish this aim, adequate finance of the universities is necessary to permit them to provide the essential facilities for doing research, and to create a wide system of fellowships for graduate students. Direct government support for research and graduate student fellowships is requested. 3. Research experience of the kind needed for the preparation of a doctoral thesis is recommended as the academic level appropriate for those engaged in

  9. Habronyx Foerster (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Anomaloninae) in Andean and Neantarctic South Americawith description of new species from Bolivia and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Charles C. Porter

    2009-01-01

    Habronyx Foerster occurs in all regions except the Afrotropical and parasitizes lepidopterous larvae (Geometridae, Noctuidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, Psychidae). Habronyx albifrons (Spinola) inhabits neantartic Chile and southern Argentina. It is black with a white flagellar annulus and with a strong prepectal carina on the lower half of the mesopleuron. Habronyx albifrons is redescribed and descriptions are given of two new species which belong to a group of their own: Habronyx citrinus Por...

  10. Resource Extraction and the Planetary Extension of the Urban Form: Understanding Sociospatial Transformation in the Huasco Valley, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Arboleda, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Through an engagement with an emerging strand of critical urban theory that reworks Henri Lefebvre’s notion of ‘planetary urbanisation’, this dissertation explores the complex relation between contemporary forms of resource extraction and processes of capitalist urbanisation. It does so through the case of the Huasco Valley, an erstwhile agrarian region in northern Chile that was comprehensively redesigned and engineered into a mining, energy and agroindustrial hinterland strongly embedded in...

  11. Determinantes del desarrollo de Mercados de Capitales. Estudios de casos de Chile, Colombia y Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Borges; María Victoria Landaberry; Gerardo Licandro

    2012-01-01

    This paper tries to elicit lessons on the development of domestic financial markets based on case studies of Chile, Colombia and Perú. The three cases show a succesful development of domestic financial markets in the last decades, and are particularly relevant for the case of Uruguay due to the region they belong to, and, particularly in the case of Perú, their structural similarities in the financial sector. We find that factors such as economy size, inflation, macroeconomic environment, ins...

  12. Horizontes de posibilidad de la mentoría en Chile: análisis de la experiencia piloto desde la perspectiva del discurso

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Gloria Núñez; Mauricio Pino; Verónica López

    2011-01-01

    A lo largo de la historia de Chile es posible identificar diversos discursos sobre la formación docente. Una reciente modalidad es la mentoría, en la cual un profesor con experiencia trabaja con un profesor que recién ingresa al sistema educativo. En este artículo presentamos un análisis discursivo desde una perspectiva foucaultiana, de la sistematización de un programa piloto realizado en dos regiones de Chile. Del análisis se concluye que los horizontes de posibilidad desde los cuales emerg...

  13. Diversidad genética de cepas de Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App aisladas desde planteles de producción intensiva de cerdos en Chile Genetic diversity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App strains in intensive swine farms in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Neira-Ramírez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App es el agente etiológico de la pleuroneumonía contagiosa porcina, una de las enfermedades de etiología bacteriana de mayor relevancia en producción porcina. En el mundo se han descrito 15 serotipos de App, en Chile solo los serotipos 1 y 5. La serotipificación requiere mucho tiempo, trabajo y dinero, actualmente se encuentran herramientas moleculares para realizar una "serotipificación" mediante la genotipificación de toxinas Apx. Así, se evaluaron 60 aislados de App provenientes de nueve empresas porcinas de producción intensiva distribuidas en distintas regiones de Chile, obtenidas desde pulmones de cerdos con lesiones compatibles con pleuroneumonía contagiosa porcina. Las bacterias fueron aisladas mediante los métodos tradicionales y confirmados por API, recolectados durante los años 2007, 2008 y 2009. Los resultados identificaron los genotipos correspondientes sólo a los serotipos 4, 6 y 7, los cuales se describen por primera vez en Chile, siendo el más frecuente el serotipo 7. En las diferentes zonas estudiadas, no existió un serotipo predominante, excepto en las regiones de O'Higgins y del Biobío en las cuales fue más frecuentemente aislado el serotipo 7. El presente estudio es el primer acercamiento con el fin de conocer la distribución de serotipos de App en Chile. Con el fin de conocer la real diversidad genética y serotipos de App en los diversos planteles en Chile es necesario realizar estudios que contemplen un mayor número de aislados.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App is the etiologic agent of porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, an important bacterial disease in intensive pig production. In the world were described 15 App serotypes, in Chile serotypes 1 and 5 have been reported. The serotyping technique is slow, expensive and difficult; currently, a molecular tool named PCR is available to "serotyping" by Apx toxins genotyping, which is quick, non-expensive and easy. 60 App

  14. Modelling the seasonal dynamics of the Peru-Chile Undercurrent off Central Chile (30-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Odette A.; Echevín, Vincent; Sepúlveda, Héctor H.; Colas, Francois; Quiñones, Renato A.

    2016-07-01

    The seasonal variability of the hydrology and the poleward subsurface Peru-Chile Undercurrent (PCUC) off the central Chilean coast (29-41°S) were examined using a high-resolution regional model. The model realistically reproduced observed sea level variability, such as intense anticyclonic eddies, the offshore intensification of the poleward flow and the reduced nearshore equatorward flow during autumn, as well as the equatorward intensification of nearshore meandering flow during spring. Values for geostrophic eddy kinetic energy were high along the coast between 30° and 37°S, and lower south of this area. The modelled poleward undercurrent showed latitudinal variability in velocity and transport. The maximum average transport reported was 0.8 Sv near 30°S, consistent with previous modelling studies and estimations derived from in situ observations. The poleward reduction in undercurrent strength was shown to be partly generated by the poleward decrease in wind stress curl and by the formation of a westward jet near 35°S associated with westward-propagating eddies. A Lagrangian analysis of the modelled water parcels transported by the undercurrent shows that only 14-20% of the subsurface floats transported by the undercurrent upwelled into the surface layer within the subsequent six months after their release. The floats remaining within the subsurface layer were likely transported further south by the current, offshore by westward-propagating eddies or equatorward by the deeper part of the surface coastal current.

  15. A review of the Hexactinellida (Porifera) of Chile, with the first record of Caulophacus Schulze, 1885 (Lyssacinosida: Rossellidae) from the Southeastern Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiswig, Henry M; Araya, Juan Francisco

    2014-01-01

    All records of the 15 hexactinellid sponge species known to occur off Chile are reviewed, including the first record in the Southeastern Pacific of the genus Caulophacus Schulze, 1885, with the new species Caulophacus chilense sp. n. collected as bycatch in the deep water fisheries of the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides Smitt, 1898 off Caldera (27ºS), Region of Atacama, northern Chile. All Chilean hexactinellid species occur in bathyal to abyssal depths (from 256 up to 4142 m); nine of them are reported for the Sala y Gomez and Nazca Ridges, with one species each in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago and Easter Island. The Chilean hexactinellid fauna is still largely unknown, consisting of only 2.5 % of the known hexactinellid extant species. Further studies and deep water sampling are essential to assess their ecology and distribution, particularly in northern Chile. PMID:25544276

  16. Homogeneidade e heterogeneidade nos sistemas educacionais: Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México Homogeneity and heterogeneity on education systems in Argentine, Brazil, Chile and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Rut Krawczyk

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo focaliza a reconfiguração da gestão educacional a partir da nova lógica de regulação social e do novo papel do Estado, à luz da historicidade dos países estudados (Argentina, Brasil, Chile e México, examinando os fatores culturais que interferiram na dinâmica da reforma educacional da década de 90. Aspectos que evidenciam a homogeneidade e a heterogeneidade dessa reforma na região, bem como as especificidades nacionais que intervieram em sua concretização, são destacados. Afirma que a historicidade que caracteriza a realidade educacional tem sofrido, no México, o que poderíamos denominar "ruptura conservadora"; no Chile, "continuidade conservadora"; no Brasil, "renovação conservadora"; e, na Argentina, "ruptura interrompida". Recupera algumas conclusões alcançadas por meio da análise de 186 textos de caráter acadêmico sobre os impactos, nos países estudados, da reforma educacional da década.This study focus on the reconfiguration of educational management in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, which was promoted by the new logic of social regulation and the new role attributed to the State, considering each country's own historicity. So, the cultural factors that interfere on the dynamics of the 90' school reform are analyzed. Aspects that show the homogeneity or heterogeneity of these reforms in the region, as well as local specificities that block out the concretization of the reform are underlined. It is shown that the historicity that characterizes the educational reform has taken, in each country, a form that can be called, in Mexico, "conservative rupture"; in Chile, "conservative continuity"; in Brazil, "conservative renovation"; and, in Argentina, "interrupted rupture". Some conclusions about the impact of educational reform in the selected countries are recuperated through the analysis of 186 academic texts on the subject.

  17. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with ∼0.45 and 0.021 mmol L-1 total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb2O3. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  18. Partitioning geochemistry of arsenic and antimony, El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landrum, J.T. [Department of Geological Sciences, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Bennett, P.C., E-mail: pbennett@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States); Engel, A.S. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Alsina, M.A.; Pasten, P.A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Milliken, K. [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78759 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    The abundance of As and Sb in aqueous, mineral and biological reservoirs was examined at El Tatio Geyser Field, a unique hydrothermal basin located in the Atacama Desert region of Chile. Here the concentration of total As and Sb in hydrothermal springs and discharge streams are the highest reported for a natural surface water, and the geyser basin represents a significant source of toxic elements for downstream users across Region II, Chile. The geyser waters are near neutral Na:Cl type with {approx}0.45 and 0.021 mmol L{sup -1} total As and Sb, respectively, primarily in the reduced (III) redox state at the discharge with progressive oxidation downstream. The ferric oxyhydroxides associated with the microbial mats and some mineral precipitates accumulate substantial As that was identified as arsenate by XAS analysis (>10 wt% in the mats). This As is easily mobilized by anion exchange or mild dissolution of the HFO, and the ubiquitous microbial mats represent a significant reservoir of As in this system. Antimony, in contrast, is not associated with the mineral ferric oxides or the biomats, but is substantially enriched in the silica matrix of the geyserite precipitates, up to 2 wt% as Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Understanding the mobility and partitioning behavior of these metalloids is critical for understanding their eventual impact on regional water management.

  19. Streamflow responses in Chile to megathrust earthquakes in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Christian; Manga, Michael; Wang, Chi-yuen; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Both coseismic static stress and dynamic stresses associated with seismic waves may cause responses in hydrological systems. Such responses include changes in the water level, hydrochemistry and streamflow discharge. Earthquake effects on hydrological systems provide a means to study the interaction between stress changes and regional hydrology, which is otherwise rarely possible. Chile is a country of frequent and large earthquakes and thus provides abundant opportunities to study such interactions and processes. We analyze streamflow responses in Chile to several megathrust earthquakes, including the 1943 Mw 8.1 Coquimbo, 1950 Mw 8.2 Antofagasta, 1960 Mw 9.5 Valdivia, 1985 Mw 8.0 Valparaiso, 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta, 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, and the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquakes. We use data from 716 stream gauges distributed from the Altiplano in the North to Tierra del Fuego in the South. This network covers the Andes mountain ranges, the central valley, the Coastal Mountain ranges and (mainly in the more southern parts) the Coastal flats. We combine empirical magnitude-distance relationships, machine learning tools, and process-based modeling to characterize responses. We first assess the streamflow anomalies and relate these to topographical, hydro-climatic, geological and earthquake-related (volumetric and dynamic strain) factors using various classifiers. We then apply 1D-groundwater flow modeling to selected catchments in order to test competing hypotheses for the origin of streamflow changes. We show that the co-seismic responses of streamflow mostly involved increasing discharges. We conclude that enhanced vertical permeability can explain most streamflow responses at the regional scale. The total excess water released by a single earthquake, i.e. the Maule earthquake, yielded up to 1 km3. Against the background of megathrust earthquakes frequently hitting Chile, the amount of water released by earthquakes is substantial, particularly for the arid northern

  20. Estudios de competitividad en sistemas urbano - territoriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Soms García

    2015-03-01

    El Ministerio de Planificación y Cooperación de Chile, ha desarrollado varios estudios relacionados con la competitividad regional, destinados a pronosticar y evaluar los impactos positivos y negativos que podrían derivarse de los recientes Acuerdos de Libre Comercio suscritos por Chile con la Comunidad Europea, Estados Unidos y Corea, más los acuerdos ad portas con los Países de la APEC. En lo referente a competitividad urbana, destacan algunos estudios y proyectos relacionados con el programa gubernamental "Ciudades para el Bicentenario", impulsado el Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo y los Gobiernos Regionales de Antofagasta, Bio Bio, Valparaíso y Santiago.

  1. Blueberry production in Chile: current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge B. Retamales

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile has become a major actor in the blueberry industry as the most important supplier of off-season fresh fruit for the northern hemisphere. Blueberry exports passed from US$ 30 million (around 4,000 tons in 2000 to US$ 380 million (94,000 tons in 2011. The characteristics of the major blueberry growing regions (North, Central, South-central and South are presented in terms of acreage, varieties, management practices, extension of the harvest season, and soil and climatic conditions. Most fruit is from highbush varieties, picked by hand and exported fresh by boat to United States. Largest proportion of fruit is exported from mid December to late January, which coincides with lowest prices. The south-central region (latitudes 34º50' to 38º15' S was in 2007 the most important one with 5,075 ha (51.1% of area planted. Among the challenges for the Chilean blueberry industry in the near future are: 1. Lower profitability due to lower rates of currency exchange and higher costs, 2 - Greater scarcity and higher cost of labor, 3.- Need for higher productivity and sustainable production practices, 4- Fruit of high and consistent quality, and 5.- Greater investment in research. As a case study the article presents three approaches that can help identify areas with low availability of labor and improve its efficiency. The article shows the use of geomatic tools to establish labor availability, application of growth regulators to reduce crop load, increase fruit size and improve harvest efficiency, and the use of shakers to harvest fresh fruit for long distance markets. More research is needed to improve yields, reduce costs and give greater economical and ecological sustainability to the Chilean blueberry industry.

  2. La Medialuna: un edificio para Chile/The Crescent, a building for Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Recchione, Alberto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se refiere los antecedentes históricos sobre la escuela ecuestre de la jineta y su introducción en las faenas agrícola-ganaderas chilenas. Se reseña el nacimiento del rodeo como deporte nacional chileno y los requerimientos del complejo espacio de la “fiesta del rodeo”: un problema arquitectónico y también urbanístico./ The equestrian school of "La Jineta" in Chile, and the architecture for the national holiday of "rodeo."

  3. TRICOMONOSIS EN ADOLESCENTES EMBARAZADAS DE ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HERNAN SAGUA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Los problemas de salud de la adolescencia se caracterizan por una carga psicosocial elevada y un nivel de daño relativamente bajo en términos de morbilidad y mortalidad, sin embargo, la disminución de la edad promedio de la menarquia y el inicio precoz de actividad sexual coital son factores de riesgo para el embarazo y las enfermedades de transmisión sexual (ETS entre los adolescentes. En este trabajo se investigó la infección por Trichomonas vaginalis y los factores epidemiológicos y obstétricos relacionados entre 300 adolescentes embarazadas de la ciudad de Antofagasta, cuyas edades variaron entre 12 y 18 años, de las cuales el 87,7 % se concentró en el rango 15 y 17 años, en tanto que el 76,0 % tuvo su menarquia entre los 12 - 14 años y el 27,3 % inició su actividad sexual antes de los 15 años. Se determinó una tasa de infección por T. vaginalis de un 5,7 % .TRICHOMONOSIS IN PREGNANT ADOLESCENT FROM ANTOFAGASTA, CHILE A large psychosocial load and a relatively lower impact in terms of morbidity and mortality characterize adolescence’s health problems. For adolescents, however, a decrease in the average for the first menstruation and an early start in sexual activity, are two risk factors for both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. In this work, we have investigated Trichomonas vaginalis’ infection and its related epidemiological and obstetric factors, among 300 pregnant adolescents from Antofagasta in northern Chile, between the ages of 12 to 18. Most adolescents studied (87.7% were in the range of 15-17 years old; 76.0% had the first menstruation at the range of 12-14 years old and 27.3 % started sexual activity before the age 15. A T. vaginalis’ infection rate of 5.7 % was obtained

  4. Chile's dilemma: how to reinsert scientists trained abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Ramos, Maria-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Chile is recognized worldwide as an emergent economy, with a great power in natural resource exploitation. Nonetheless, despite being one of the most developed countries in Latin America, Chile imports most of the knowledge and technology necessary to drive innovation in the country. The tight budget that the Chilean government assigned to research and development and the absence of a long-term scientific agenda contributed to a limited supply of scientists over the years. In an effort to reverse this scenario, Chile has created several fellowships, such as the Becas Chile Program (BCP) to encourage new generations to pursue graduate studies to ultimately advance research and development in situ. More than 6000 fellows are now being trained abroad, accumulating an incredible potential to transform the Chilean scientific environment as we know it.  Chile now faces a greater challenge: it has to offer infrastructure and job openings to the highly skilled professionals in whom it invested. Unfortunately no clear public policies to address this situation have been developed, partially due to the lack of a dedicated institution, such as a Ministry for Science and Technology which could focalize the necessary efforts to promote such policies. Therefore, in the meantime, Chilean scientist have been motivated to create different organizations, such as, Mas Ciencia para Chile and Nexos Chile-USA, to promote constructive discussion of the policies that could be implemented to improve the Chilean scientific situation. We hope that these and other organizations have a real impact on the generation of scientific guidelines that will finally contribute to the development of the country. PMID:25309739

  5. Scale-free and small-world properties of earthquake network in Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Pasten, Denisse; Munoz, Victor; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2010-01-01

    The properties of earthquake networks have been studied so far mainly for the seismic data sets taken from California, Japan and Iran, and features common in these regions have been reported in the literature. Here, an earthquake network is constructed and analyzed for the Chilean data to examine if the scale-free and small-world properties of the earthquake networks constructed in the other geographical regions can also be found in seismicity in Chile. It is shown that the result is affirmative: in all the regions both the exponent "gamma" of the power-law connectivity distribution and the clustering coefficient C take the universal invariant values "gamma ~1" and "C~0.85", respectively, as the cell size becomes larger than a certain value, which is the scale of coarse graining needed for constructing earthquake network. An interpretation for this remarkable result is presented based on physical considerations.

  6. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  7. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level. PMID:3834878

  8. Financiamiento Solidario para Vivienda en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Rojas Mujica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El Programa de Desarrollo Solidario (PDS del Banco del Desarrollo consiste en brindar apoyo financiero y formativo a mujeres de escasos recursos a lo largo de todo Chile, a través de un crédito solidario, sin ningún otro tipo de garantía que la confianza, la responsabilidad y la solidaridad. En este Programa se trabaja con grupos de al menos 8 mujeres de muy escasos recursos que no tienen acceso al sistema bancario tradicional por no contar con ingresos demostrables ni estables. El apoyo financiero se canaliza a través de créditos solidarios. El apoyo formativo consiste en un trabajo en forma previa al otorgamiento de los créditos y luego un seguimiento periódico del grupo, durante todo el periodo de reembolso del crédito. A la fecha, han participado en este programa más de 10.000 mujeres, estimándose que más de 6.000 de ellas han dedicado estos préstamos al mejoramiento de la calidad de su vivienda, movilizando en forma directa más de 2 millones de dólares.

  9. The Mw 8.1 2014 Iquique, Chile, seismic sequence: a tale of foreshocks and aftershocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesca, S.; Grigoli, F.; Heimann, S.; Dahm, T.; Kriegerowski, M.; Sobiesiak, M.; Tassara, C.; Olcay, M.

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 April 1, Mw 8.1 Iquique (Chile) earthquake struck in the Northern Chile seismic gap. With a rupture length of less than 200 km, it left unbroken large segments of the former gap. Early studies were able to model the main rupture features but results are ambiguous with respect to the role of aseismic slip and left open questions on the remaining hazard at the Northern Chile gap. A striking observation of the 2014 earthquake has been its extensive preparation phase, with more than 1300 events with magnitude above ML 3, occurring during the 15 months preceding the main shock. Increasing seismicity rates and observed peak magnitudes accompanied the last three weeks before the main shock. Thanks to the large data sets of regional recordings, we assess the precursor activity, compare foreshocks and aftershocks and model rupture preparation and rupture effects. To tackle inversion challenges for moderate events with an asymmetric network geometry, we use full waveforms techniques to locate events, map the seismicity rate and derive source parameters, obtaining moment tensors for more than 300 events (magnitudes Mw 4.0-8.1) in the period 2013 January 1-2014 April 30. This unique data set of fore- and aftershocks is investigated to distinguish rupture process models and models of strain and stress rotation during an earthquake. Results indicate that the spatial distributions of foreshocks delineated the shallower part of the rupture areas of the main shock and its largest aftershock, well matching the spatial extension of the aftershocks cloud. Most moment tensors correspond to almost pure double couple thrust mechanisms, consistent with the slab orientation. Whereas no significant differences are observed among thrust mechanisms in different areas, nor among thrust foreshocks and aftershocks, the early aftershock sequence is characterized by the presence of normal fault mechanisms, striking parallel to the trench but dipping westward. These events likely occurred

  10. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor A. Vargas; Gerardo Lamas

    2011-01-01

    First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae) é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  11. Policy-Driven Productivity in Chile and Mexico in the 1980s and 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo Soto; Raphael Bergoeing; Timothy Kehoe; Patrick Kehoe

    2002-01-01

    Both Chile and Mexico experienced severe economic crises in the early 1980s, but Chile recovered much faster than did Mexico. Using growth accounting and a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model, we conclude that the crucial determinant of this difference between the two countries was the faster productivity growth in Chile, rather than higher investment or employment. Our hypothesis is that this difference in productivity was driven by earlier policy reforms in Chile, the most crucial ...

  12. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, T.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.

    2011-12-01

    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such earthquakes seismic velocities may be changing (e.g. Brenguier et al. 2008). The first method is testing for phase shifts in receiver functions. To avoid varying travel paths of different events we compare events located in small source regions. Although temporal variations have been found in receiver functions for the Parkfield M6.0 and San Simeon M6.5 earthquakes (Audet 2006) we cannot find any variations exceeding the noise level of our dataset at the time of the M7.0 earthquake near Tocopilla. Therefore the data is analyzed with the help of cross-correlation technique of ambient seismic noise (Bensen et al. 2007). Compared to the first method it has the advantage of regularly available correlation functions (e.g. 1 per day). We report on first results.

  13. Radiation doses to adult patients in interventional procedure: the first data for the Biobio region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in interventional cardiology procedures and neurological (diagnostic and therapeutic) in the main public hospital in Chile, in the region of Biobio

  14. Desarrollo de la educación parvularia en Chile - Preschool education development in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Caiceo, Chile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available DESENVOLVIMENTO DA EDUCAÇÃO PRÉ-ESCOLAR NO CHILEResumoA educação pré-escolar no Chile tem início na segunda metade do século 19, especialmente por influência alemã, trazida ao país por José Abelardo Núñez. No começo se deu de forma particular, formando-se os primeiros jardins de infância. Somente em 1906 foi fundado o primeiro jardim da infância mantido pelo Estado, anexo à Escola Normal n. 1. Para isso foi contratada a educadora austríaca Leopoldina Maluschka, que usou metodologias inspiradas em Fröebel. Na Universidad de Chile, a partir da década de 1930, teve início um movimento de renovação pedagógica orientado por Irma Salas, que havia se doutorado nos Estados Unidos com Dewey e trouxe o pensamento da Escola Nova para o país. Ela conduziu a criação da Escola de Educadoras de Pré-Escolares em 1944. A primeira diretora dessa escola foi a destacada professora Amanda Labarca. Isto facilitou a criação de berçários e creches no país. Neste texto, de caráter histórico, em que se recorrerá a documentos primários e secundários, se pretende descrever o desenvolvimento que o Estado do Chile tem mostrado pela educação pré-escolar no país, reconhecendo os direitos das crianças.Palavras-chave: jardins de infância, educação pré-escolar, Escola Nova, Junji/Integra. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN CHILEAbstractPreschool education in Chile has its beginnings in the second half of the nineteenth century due to the German influence brought to Chile by José Abelardo Núñez. The first kindergarten was formed in a particular way. After that, the first public kindergarten, attached to the Normal School No. 1, was founded in 1906. At the same time, the austrian educator Maluschka Leopoldina was hired and the Froebelian method was used. At the University of Chile, in the 30s of the twentieth century, an improved movement was carried out by Irma Salas who studied for her doctorate in The United States with Dewey

  15. 76 FR 14320 - Importation of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... of Figs and Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... regulations to allow the importation into the continental United States of figs and pomegranates from Chile... production that is registered with the Government of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence...

  16. 77 FR 22663 - Importation of Pomegranates From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Chile Under a Systems Approach AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final... continental United States of pomegranates from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems... plant protection organization of Chile and certified as having a low prevalence of Brevipalpus...

  17. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  18. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach, the fruit must be grown in a place of production that is registered with the Government of Chile...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-23 - Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Chile. 319.56-23 Section 319.56-23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... and Vegetables § 319.56-23 Apricots, nectarines, peaches, plumcot, and plums from Chile. (a... from Chile in accordance with this section and all other applicable provisions of this subpart. 3 3...

  20. 75 FR 32901 - Notice of Determination of Pest-Free Areas in the Republic of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we are recognizing an additional area of the Republic of Chile as a pest-free area for... the documentation submitted by the Republic of Chile, which we made available to the public review...

  1. 19 CFR 10.490 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Chile. 10.490 Section 10.490 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.490 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Chile. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  2. 75 FR 28059 - Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... COMMISSION Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements With Chile, Australia, and Singapore AGENCY: United...) instituted investigation No. 332-515, Actual Effects of the Free Trade Agreements with Chile, Australia, and...) concluded with Chile, Singapore, and Australia. In its report the Commission will-- (1) With respect to...

  3. CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

  4. The National Immunization Plan for Chile: is it a priority?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Crocco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978, Chile has an expanded immunization program. Target population is all infants and children in the country, along with the elderly at age 65. If we review available World Health Organization data on the immunization monitoring system, in 2011 all vaccines had below 95% coverage. With the exception of BCG, vaccines are primarily applied in the primary care setting. One way to understand organizational priorities is to identify how present they are in the management systems. Thus, it is possible to determine the priority of the National Immunization Plan in Chile by looking into sectoral planning. A review of the most recent policy documents of the Ministry of Health of Chile, one titled “National Health Strategy to Achieve the Health Objectives of the 2011-2020 Decade" stands out. Upon reviewing this policy paper, the National Immunization Plan is not considered as an outcome as a whole, but only some of the vaccines it includes.

  5. Desigualdad Geográfica en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Agostini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite success in reducing poverty over the last twenty years, inequality in Chile has remained virtually unchanged, making Chile one of the least equal countries in the world. High levels of inequality have been shown to hamper further reductions in poverty as well as economic growth and local inequality has been shown to affect such outcomes as violence and health. The study of inequality at the local level is thus crucial for understanding the economic well-being of a country. Local measures of inequality have been difficult to obtain, but recent theoretical advances have enabled the combination of survey and census data to obtain estimators of inequality that are robust at disaggregated geographic levels. In this paper, we employ this methodology to produce consistent estimators of inequality for every county in Chile. We find a great deal of variation in inequality, with countylevel Gini coefficients ranging from 0.41 to 0.63.

  6. Observations of the 1995 ozone hole over Punta Arenas, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Sahai, Y.; Casiccia, C. A. R. S.; Zamorano, B. F.; Valderrama, V. V.

    1997-07-01

    We examine the appearance of the ozone hole over a populated area with more than 100,000 inhabitants. The largest population concentrations on the South American continent nearest the ozone hole region are Punta Arenas, Chile (53.0°S, 70.9°W) and Ushuaia, Argentina (54.5°S, 68.0°W), located close to the strait of Magallanes, opposite the Antarctic Peninsula. A special field mission was held in Punta Arenas, in September-October 1995 to investigate the vertical distribution of ozone during the appearance of the Antarctic ozone hole. Previous work has shown that the city of Punta Arenas is located at the edge of the hole area and is affected every year during a few days in the October period. The ozone trend near these locations is -0.5% per year using the yearly averages and -1.2% per year using the October means. This trend is 2 to 5 times larger than the global average. Several ozonesondes of the electrochemical concentration cell type were launched from Punta Arenas to determine the vertical distribution of ozone during "normal" and "perturbed" conditions. The ozone hole passed over Punta Arenas on October 12, 13 and 14, 1995. In addition to the sondes, which were launched once a day, ozone column amounts and UVB radiation were measured with a ground-based ozone Brewer spectrophotometer. The strongest ozone depletion over Punta Arenas in 1995 occurred on October 13, when the ozone column decreased from a "normal" value of about 325 Dobson Units (DU) to 200 DU; the vertical distribution of ozone on October 13 compared with October 6 shows depleted ozone roughly 50% less during hole conditions in the stratosphere. The UVB intensities have increased accordingly. The spectral ratio for October 13 to October 4 is 13 times larger at 297 nm.

  7. conelchilenoresistentearte, Solidaridad: Chile Vive, una Exposición en España contra el Chile Dictatorial withthechileanresistantart, Solidarity: Chile Vive, an Exposition in Spain against the Dictatorial Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Godoy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1987 se realiza en Madrid Chile Vive, megaexposición que incluye diferentes manifestaciones artísticas para dar cuenta de la vitalidad cultural de Chile en dictadura. El ensayo, partiendo de una discusión conceptual sobre el problema de la exposición de arte latinoamericano en el extranjero, analiza la configuración de esta exposición, centrándose en las artes visuales como alineación unitaria de un discurso político de país, además de examinar su repercusión en la prensa española de la época. Por otro lado, reflexiona sobre las inclusiones y exclusiones de artistas y las proyecciones de Chile Vive en el problema de la exposición del arte chileno en el extranjero, particularmente el de un periodo tan complejo como el producido durante la dictadura militar.In 1987, Chile Vive, a mega-exhibition that included different artistic expressions, was performed in Madrid to inform people about the cultural vitality of Chile during their dictatorship. This essay will focus on a conceptual discussion about the problem of Latin American art exhibitions abroad. It will analyze the configuration of the mentioned exhibition, focusing on visual arts as a unitary alignment of a political discourse of nation. The text will also examine the repercussion in the Media of Spain in that period of time. On the other hand, the article will develop some thoughts on the artists incorporations, exclusions and projections of Chile Vive, focusing on why the exhibition of Chilean art abroad might be problematic, particularly the ones that belongs to this complex period of time; the military dictatorship.

  8. Nuevos registros de Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 (Amphipoda, Talitridae, en la costa de Chile New records of Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 (Amphipoda, Talitridae, from the coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Baessolo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan nuevas localidades para el anfípodo talítrido Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 en playas arenosas de la costa Chilena, extendiéndose el límite sur de distribución de la especie hasta el mar interior de la región de Aysén. Además, se discute la necesidad de intensificar los estudios taxonómicos con el objeto de descartar la presencia de más de una especie en el género.We report new localities of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet 1849 in sand beaches from the Chilean coast, extending the southern distributional limit of the species to the inner sea of Aysen Region, Chile. Besides, we discuss the need for more taxonomic studies, to exclude the presence of more than one species in the genus.

  9. Ganadería y Contaminación Difusa, Implicancias para el Sur de Chile Livestock Production and Diffuse Pollution, Implications for Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Alfaro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Producto de los tratados de libre comercio firmados por Chile, que auguran la apertura de mercados para la exportación de productos lácteos y cárnicos, se espera que la actividad ganadera del Sur del país se incremente e intensifique. A pesar del conocimiento técnico disponible para el incremento de la productividad del rubro, poco se sabe con certeza sobre el impacto ambiental de esta actividad, en especial sobre cursos de agua, a pesar de que los ríos y lagos de la región son además la base de otras actividades económicas de importancia, como la acuicultura y el turismo. En países desarrollados se ha demostrado que existe una fuerte relación causa-efecto entre la actividad ganadera y la polución difusa de cursos de agua superficiales, en especial de su eutroficación por altas concentraciones de nitrógeno (N y fósforo (P. Realizando un análisis de los mecanismos que controlan dichas pérdidas, es posible plantear un escenario futuro para la Región de Los Lagos, en el sur de Chile. El mayor uso de insumos, el incremento de la carga animal, la falta de normas de manejo mejoradas y la incorporación de zonas de mayor pendiente o con implementación de drenaje artificial a la actividad permiten prever un bajo nivel de eficiencia en el uso del N y P que ingresan como fertilizantes a los sistemas ganaderos de la región, incrementándose sus pérdidas y pudiendo generarse con ello la subsecuente eutroficación de los cursos de agua aledaños.As a result of the free trade agreements signed by Chile, which will open markets for the export of dairy and beef products, it is expected that the livestock production activity will be increased and intensified in Southern Chile. Despite the technological knowledge available for livestock production in the area, little is known about the environmental impact of this activity, especially on surface waters, in spite of the fact that the rivers and lakes of the region are also the main resources

  10. Subduction zone guided waves in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Thomas; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed in subduction zones as high frequency energy is retained and delayed by low velocity structure in the subducting slab, while lower frequency energy is able to travel at the faster velocities associated with the surrounding mantle material. As subduction zone guided waves spend longer interacting with the low velocity structure of the slab than any other seismic phase, they have a unique capability to resolve these low velocity structures. In Northern Chile, guided wave arrivals are clearly observed on two stations in the Chilean fore-arc on permanent stations of the IPOC network. High frequency (> 5 Hz) P-wave arrivals are delayed by approximately 2 seconds compared to the low frequency (times of different frequencies, while the velocity spectra is used to constrain the relative amplitude of the arrivals. Constraining the waveform in these two ways means that the full waveform is also matched, and the low pass filtered observed and synthetic waveforms can be compared. A combined misfit between synthetic and observed waveforms is then calculated following Garth & Rietbrock (2014). Based on this misfit criterion we constrain the velocity model by using a grid search approach. Modelling the guided wave arrivals suggest that the observed dispersion cannot be solely accounted for by a single low velocity layer as suggested by previous guided wave studies. Including dipping low velocity normal fault structures in the synthetic model not only accounts for the observed strong P-wave coda, but also produces a clear first motion dispersion. We therefore propose that the lithospheric mantle of the subducting Nazca plate is highly hydrated at intermediate depths by dipping low velocity normal faults. Additionally, we show that the low velocity oceanic crust persists to depths of up to 200 km, well beyond the depth range where the eclogite transition is expected to have occurred. Our results suggest that young subducting lithosphere also has

  11. Nuevos inmigrantes en Chile: Los determinantes de su actividad emprendedora

    OpenAIRE

    Mancilla, Claudio; de Lima, Philomena

    2014-01-01

    En Chile es poca la literatura que estudia a los inmigrantes desde una perspectiva económica, y menos la que aborda su actitud emprendedora (a pesar de que son proporcionalmente más emprendedores que los habitantes locales). El objetivo de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que influyen en el emprendimiento de los in - migrantes sudamericanos en Chile. Se utilizó un modelo logit ajustado para even - tos extraños para determinar el impacto sobre la probabilidad de emprendimiento individual....

  12. Competitividad de las exportaciones de chile seco mexicano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Alberto Flores Sánchez; Alejandro Mungaray Lagarda

    2015-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento de la competitividad que ha mostrado México, en cuanto a sus exportaciones de chile seco, durante el periodo de 1993 a 2009, mediante la obtención del índice de ventaja relativa de exportaciones y aplicando el método de análisis de participación constante de mercado, los resultados que se obtuvieron muestran que las exportaciones de chile seco de México han crecido fuertemente, con una tendencia de crecimiento muy variable, por otro lado los...

  13. Migración y Mercado Laboral en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dante Contreras; Jaime Ruiz-Tagle; Paulina Sepúlveda

    2013-01-01

    Los últimos procesos migratorios que ha vivido Chile han despertado el interés respecto a los efectos de la inmigración sobre la economía del país. El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar y analizar los efectos de la inmigración sobre el mercado laboral en Chile y la situación de los migrantes en el mercado laboral local. Utilizando los datos de la encuesta CASEN 2006 y 2009, y los datos de Extranjería del Ministerio del Interior y del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, encontramos que ...

  14. El poblamiento temprano de la costa norte de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto

    2005-01-01

    La costa Norte de Chile estuvo habitada por lo menos desde 10000 AP por pequeños grupos humanos que subsistían de los recursos del mar y la costa. Ellos estaban asociados con la cultura Chinchorro, caracterizada por el tratamiento artificial que le daban a sus muertos. El sitio Caleta Huelén 42 se encuentra ubicado en la desembocadura del río Loa en el Norte de Chile. Constituye una importante conexión hacia el sur, vinculada con la expansión de los grupos de pescadores arcaicos semejantes a ...

  15. The economic and financial gains from water markets in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Hearne, Robert R.; Easter, K. William

    1997-01-01

    Chile is one of the few countries that has encouraged the use of markets in water resource management. In order to assess the impact of water markets and transactions costs in Chile, four river valleys, the Maipo, Elqui, Limari, and the Azapa were selected as case studies. Transactions from the Elqui and Limari valleys, during the years 1986 to 1993, were analyzed to determine the gains-from-trade from market transfers. In the economic and financial analysis of water markets, crop budgets wer...

  16. Entendiendo las brechas salariales por genero en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Perticara; Ivonne Bueno

    2008-01-01

    El propósito de este paper es estudiar las brechas salariales por género en Chile usando una nueva base de datos, la Encuesta de Protección Social 2002-2006, la que permite controlar por la experiencia laboral efectiva y el timming de dicha experiencia. Las variables de experiencia laboral potencial no reflejan el patrón de participación laboral intermitente y poco continuo que tienen las mujeres en Chile. Se introducen también correcciones por selección ocupacional y se instrumentan dos vari...

  17. REFORMAS DA EDUCAÇÃO SUPERIOR NO CHILE, NO BRASIL E EM PORTUGAL: UMA ABORDAGEM COMPARATIVA

    OpenAIRE

    Afrânio Mendes Catani; Juan Carlos Campbell Esquivel; Renato de Sousa Porto Gilioli

    2007-01-01

    Diverse research already had detached the neoliberal character of the reforms of the superior education in Latin America in the decade of 1990. Almost all the region was affected by changes in the direction to transform the education into a service, consisting in plus one of the sectors being conducted by the logic of the free-market - typical case of Brazil. However, for a comparative analysis of the region, it is necessary also to point out the case of Chile, where this model was establishe...

  18. Paleodistribución del alerce y ciprés de las Guaitecas durante períodos interestadiales de la Glaciación Llanquihue: provincias de Llanquihue y Chiloé, Región de Los Lagos, Chile Paleodistribution of the alerce and cypres of the Guaitecas during the interstadial stages of the Llanquihue Glaciation: Llanquihue and Chiloé provinces, Los Lagos Region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villagrán

    2004-07-01

    . The spectra suggest a relatively warm and wet interstadial during middle Llanquihue glaciation. Conifer forests probably had wider and more continuous distribution than today, occupying lowland sites in the Central Depresion of Llanquihue and Chiloé provinces before the onset of the cold stadials of late Llanquihue glaciation (30.000-14.000 14C yr BC, isotopic stage 2. These forests have a disjunct distribution at present, with populations present on the summits and high elevation sites of both mountain ranges (Andes and Coastal in the Lake Region, and small isolated populations present at lower elevations. This montane distribution is attributed to increasing temperatures since the late glacial and during the Holocene, and hence, the populations at lower elevations would be relicts from glacial stages, as it is suggested by a greater degree of genetic divergence present in these relicts as compared to the high elevation populations.

  19. Scenarios for wind power in Brazil, Argentina and Chile; Cenarios para a energia eolio eletrica no Brasil, Argentina e Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedecca, Joao Gorestein; Nogueira, Larissa Goncalves; Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: jdedecca@fem.unicamp.br, larissa@fem.unicamp.br, januzzi@fem.unicamp.br; Gomes, Rodolfo Dourado [International Energy Initiative-Latin America (IEI-LA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], email: rodolfo@iei-la.org

    2010-07-01

    The Chilean, Argentinean and Brazilian power matrixes presented in the last two decades a growth of the non-renewable energy sources share, especially fossil sources, mainly in installed capacity and in a lesser degree in energy production. Greenpeace and the European Renewable Energy Council have elaborated a reference energy scenario together with a scenario analyzing the institution of ample measures for the promotion of renewable energy sources. Feed-in tariffs and auction or bidding mechanisms implemented in Brazil and Argentina and the renewable portfolio standard implemented in Chile allied with the wind industry state in these countries indicate that Chile and Argentina will fulfill the 2020 wind power installed capacity predicted in the reference scenarios, while Brazil will reach the energy revolution scenario prediction. Important energy policy changes are required if the Chile and Argentina energy revolution scenarios wind power installed capacity are to become a reality in 2020. (author)

  20. Comparative Study Of Focal Mechanisms In South Central Chile Before And After The 2010 Maule Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, H.; Rietbrock, A.; Ryder, I. M.; Haberland, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    On 27 February 2010, a Mw=8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of south central Chile rupturing nearly 500 km of the subduction zone plate interface. The earthquake also generated a tsunami and caused more than 500 fatalities. The largest earthquakes recorded have taken place along subduction margins (e.g. Chile 1960, 2010, Andaman-Sumatra 2004, Japan 2011) and understanding their rupture mechanisms and deformation regimes is therefore of vital importance. From November 2004 to October 2005, the TIPTEQ project ("From The Incoming Plate to megaThrust EarthQuake"; Rietbrock et al., 2007; Haberland et al., 2009) maintained a network of 120 seismic stations inland and 10 stations at sea between 37 and 39° lat. S., continuously-recording and monitoring the seismicity occurring in the area before the 2010 Maule earthquake. By using first motion polarities and moment tensor inversion we have computed and analyzed focal mechanisms for a subset of data from these records. We found thrust faulting along the subduction interface down to a depth of ~30 km, followed by a gap in the seismicity and then deeper earthquakes showing diverse faulting mechanisms more sparsely distributed within the subducting plate. We also see strike-slip crustal faulting occurring down to ~12 km depth within the area of the Lanalhue fault. The most striking observation is the presence of deep (40 km) normal faulting seismicity in the fore-arc, close to the trench. We have now started to analyze the International Maule Aftershocks Dataset (IMAD) of the 2010 earthquake in the southern rupture region. Again we observe thrust faulting in the subduction interface and a seismic gap between an upper and lower zone of seismicity along the interface. By comparison of the pre- and post-earthquake datasets we are investigating whether the Maule earthquake caused any changes in the style of deformation in this part of Chile. References Haberland, C., A. Rietbrock, D. Lange, K. Bataille, and T. Dahm (2009

  1. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  2. Production and consumption of energy in Chile 1987. Produccion y consumo de energia en Chile 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    Presents information, at a national level, on production and consumption of various types of energy, including statistical data on commercial deals (hydrocarbons, coal) and the activities of the companies (hydromechanical energy, vegetable wastes for power generation and biogas). Electrical energy is described in detail. The first chapter presents an energy overview of the country and its energy sources, evaluating each one in order to obtain the total energy produced in Chile. The second chapter deals with electric power in the country, classifying power installed, generated and consumed by category of producer, consumer and generating type. The third chapter discusses the planned capacity of the Zonas Electricas, and the fourth chapter reviews the characteristics of the installations, production statistics, consumption and operation of the grid.

  3. Nuevos registros de Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) en Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, en Chile New records of Phthiraptera (Artropoda: Insecta) in Lama pacos Linnaeus 1758, in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    D. González-Acuña; I. CABEZAS; Moreno, L.; Castro, D.

    2007-01-01

    Se cita a Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) y Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866) por primera vez en Chile, y se confirma la presencia de M. praelongiceps (Neumann 1909) parasitando alpacas en la comuna de General Lagos (I Región), Chile. Se discute la importancia de los presentes registros.For the first time in Chile, the presence of Microthoracius mazzai (Werneck 1932) and Bovicola breviceps (Rudow 1866), are reported, and the presence of M. praelongiceps (Neuman 1909) parasiting alpacas in ...

  4. Source Process of the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minson, S. E.; Simons, M.; Owen, S.; Genrich, J.; Galetzka, J.; Chowdhury, F. R.; Webb, F.; Beck, J. L.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.

    2008-12-01

    The magnitude 7.7 Tocopilla earthquake of November 14, 2007 ruptured a stretch of the northern Chile subduction zone just north of the 1995 Antofagasta earthquake source region. In this study, we compare a Bayesian analysis with a simulated annealing inversion methodology to determine a finite fault rupture model for the Tocopilla earthquake. While we also incorporate both teleseismic data and satellite radar images, high-rate (5 samples/sec) GPS data provides particularly important constraints on the source process of this event. Because the Tocopilla earthquake was located immediately coastward of the CANTO (Central ANdean Tectonic Observatory) geodetic network, the evolution of the local slip field is well-recorded. We find that the high-rate continuous GPS data is key to determining the location of the hypocenter and asperities as well as the evolution of slip. Most of the slip is located east of the coastline with at least two distinct regions of concentrated slip.

  5. Chile: protección social de la salud Chile: social protection in health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Urriola

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins with a brief discussion of the concepts leading to the social right to health protection. Special emphasis is placed on the principle of social cohesion, which has influenced social health protection in European countries. Chile’s experience in this field from the 1990s to the present is described, as exemplified in three dimensions. In the first place, social security coverage is presented as a means to achieve universal (horizontal coverage. A discussion follows on vertical coverage, where the author identifies health problems for which insured persons have guaranteed rights of access to medical care. This section describes available emergency care, primary health care, and the special plan for Universal Access to Explicit Guarantees (Acceso Universal de Garantías Explícitas de salud, or AUGE. Thirdly, the discussion covers the funding sources supporting the Chilean health care system: Government subsidies, contributions to social security, and out-of-pocket disbursements for private care. Chile’s public health system has various special programs. One of them is catastrophic insurance, which covers 100% of the care needed for complex and very costly treatments. Older persons (over 65 have coverage for 100% of the cost of eyeglasses and hearing aids, and for 50% of the cost of home care. If life expectancy is an appropriate indicator of health system results, it is worth noting that Chile and the United States of America have both achieved a life expectancy of 77 years, even though Chile spends only 5.9% of its gross domestic product on health care, as compared to the 15% spent by the United States.

  6. Neosporosis canina: Presencia de anticuerpos sericos en poblaciones caninas rurales y urbanas de Chile Neosporosis canine: detection of sera antibodies in rural and urban canine population of chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Patitucci

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum es un protozoo parásito cuya infección se ha reportado en vacunos, caninos y otras especies en diversas partes del mundo. Los perros actúan como huéspedes definitivos e intermediario a la vez. En esta especie la enfermedad se caracteriza por paresia y/o parálisis de los miembros posteriores y puede ser fatal tanto en cachorros infectados transplacentariamente como en adultos. En Chile, no existe información sobre Neospora en caninos pero se ha demostrado la presencia de anticuerpos contra el protozoo en bovinos, por tal motivo se propuso la identificación de la infección mediante la detección de anticuerpos séricos contra N. caninum en perros. Se estudiaron 201 sueros caninos de diferentes edades, sexo, raza, ambiente ("rural" vs. "urbano" y tipo de alimentación ("carne cruda" vs. "no cruda" en una dilución 1:50 mediante la técnica de Inmuno Fluorescencia Indirecta (IFA. Del total de perros estudiados, el 18% (36/201 presentó anticuerpos contra N. caninum. Además se demostró asociación entre la cantidad de positivos y el ambiente y con el tipo de alimentación; no obstante, no hubo relación con el sexo, raza y edad. Los resultados indican que el pertenecer al ambiente rural y/o consumir carne cruda pueden ser importantes factores de riesgo dentro de la epidemiología de la infección por N.caninum. Complementariamente se procesaron dos sueros de zorros (Pseudolapex fulvipes mediante la técnica del Aglutinación de taquizoitos de Neospora (NAT que resultaron positivos hasta la máxima dilución analizada (1:320, demostrando que los animales estaban infectados al momento de la toma de muestra y abriendo interrogantes en la epidemiología de la enfermedad a nivel local.Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite whose infection has been detected in canine, bovine and others species around the world. In Chile, the presence of the disease has been already demonstrated in cows of the IX Region of the country. In the

  7. Application of the 137Cs technique to quantify soil redistribution rates in paleohumults from Central-South Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the applicability of the 137Cs technique in obtaining spatial distributed information on mean soil redistribution rates in Central-South Chile. For this purpose four fields of Palehumult soil and contrasting land use and management were selected in the Coastal Mountain Range of the 9th Region: Crop fields under subsistence and commercial management and non-permanent prairies under subsistence and commercial management. The spatial distribution of the soil redistribution rates obtained by the 137Cs method was similar to the one obtained by pedological observations. Also, annual sediment fluxes measured at experimental plots were similar to the erosion rates determined by the 137Cs method at adjacent points. The 137Cs technique is seen as an efficient method to obtain long-term soil redistribution rates under the climatic conditions and the soil type selected in Chile. In the future, it is necessary to study the applicability of the method under other climatic conditions and soil types occurring in Chile in which erosion is not so evident, and to adjust the method to optimise costs and benefits. (author)

  8. How government can support protection of “dark skies” as a public policy: the experience of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel

    2015-08-01

    For more than fifty years Chile has been the host of world-leading optical and radio astronomical observatories because of the exceptional atmospheric conditions and the existence of isolated areas in the northern desert regions. As of today, Chile, through agreements with foreign governments and international research institutions around the world concentrates almost 30% of the total radio and optical observation capabilities of the planet, scattered in different sites. With the new projects already planned or in construction, the country will be the host of almost 70% of the total world-wide observational facilities by 2021-2022Since the beginning of the astronomical research activities in Chile, the government has played an increasing role in attracting and facilitating the installation of these projects. The presentation shows how the relationship between the government and international consortia has evolved with special reference to designing policies to protect “dark skies” and to manage the relationship between the observations sites, the local productive activities to be developed in the same areas, mainly mining and energy, and the relationship with local communities and aboriginal populations and traditions. Special reference will be made to recent initiatives connected with World Heritage program of UNESCO, new laws and regulations and public awareness and education.

  9. Lower plate deformation at the Chile Triple Junction from the paleomagnetic record (45°30'S-46°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagabrielle, Yves; Bourgois, Jacques; Dyment, Jerôme; Pelletier, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    During the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ) cruise, geophysical surveys were conducted between 45°S and 48°S, in the region of the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ), where the Nazca and Antarctica Plates are subducting beneath the South American Plate. Near the CTJ, the South Chile Rise (SCR), which separates the Nazca and Antarctica lower plates, consists of three spreading segments trending ~N160°, separated by a series of parallel fracture zones. The active spreading centers of the three segments consist of grabens with various widths and depths, bounded by steep fault scarps. We provide robust data showing that the SCR recorded remote and long-term effects of ridge subduction far from the subduction front. Magnetic profiles, multibeam bathymetric, and seismic data were acquired at intervals of 13 km along a N80°E direction across the SCR during the CTJ cruise of R/V L'Atalante. Deformation of the oceanic lithosphere includes (1) a segmentation of the spreading axes along strike, (2) some ridge jumps, and (3) local constriction and changes in trend of the fracture zone valleys. Off-axis volcanism is observed in places that may suggest a link with an abnormal stress field induced by ridge subduction. The tectonic and volcanic anomalies, which occurred in response to the subduction of the SCR1 axis, may be correlated with geochemical anomalies and slab fragmentation recognized by previous works.

  10. Definition of sanitary boundaries to prevent ISAv spread between salmon farms in southern Chile based on numerical simulations of currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Gonzalo; Sepúlveda, H. H.; Yannicelli, B.

    2015-06-01

    The infectious Salmon Anemia virus (ISAv) is a pathogen that mainly affects the Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar). It was detected in Norway in 1984 and in June 2007 appeared in Chile, producing a drop of more than 30% in the country's production level. It is expected that with certain regularity, outbreaks will continue to appear in Chile without the need of reintroducing the virus from foreign countries. We present a numerical study of the influence of winds and tides in the dispersion of lagrangian particles to simulate the transport of ISAv in the Aysen region, in southern Chile. This study combines the use of numerical models of the ocean and atmosphere, lagrangian tracking and biological aspects of ISAv infections. As in previous results, a wider dispersion of ISAv was observed during spring tides. Temporal changes in wind significantly modified the transport of viral particles from an infected center. Under similar forcing conditions, the areas of risk associated to culture sites separated by a few kilometers could be very different. Our main results remark the importance of the use of a detailed knowledge of hydrographic and atmospheric circulation in the definition of boundaries for sanitary management areas. We suggest that a methodology similar to the one presented in this study should be considered to define sanitary strategies to minimize the occurrence of native outbreaks of ISAv.

  11. Paleopathology and osteobiography of the people of Peñuelas, Chile's semiarid north

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Araya Rosado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Museo de La Serena, IV Region, Chile has collections of skeletal remains representing the agricultural Diaguita people of 500 years ago excavated in the 1980s from the sites Peñuelas 21 and 24, Chile's semiarid north. Their excellent preservation has permitted an osteobiographical and radiographic analysis to better understand the patterns of the disease. This research continues the osteological analyses begun in 1989 by Rosado that seek to understand the impact the transition to and adoption of farming had on the health of prehistoric populations. Because of the significance of paleopathology in the understanding of cultural and biological adaptations, it has also become necessary to assess the preservation status and design a conservation protocol to protect and document the remains. The objectives of this communication are to: establish demographic patterns of the skeletal samples and identify and diagnose skeletal paleopathologies via photography and radiographs. Intentional cranial alteration, limb and cranial fractures, dental wear, and dental abscesses and caries are among the interesting paleopathologies so far documented. Intentional cranial alteration is very common and is manifested as tabular erect in both males and females. The high frequency of carious lesions indicates a diet that emphasized carbohydrates. Skeletal radiographs are available for several of the individuals in the sample and this has afforded a more detailed description of the paleopathologies originally documented via photography.

  12. Reduction of firewood consumption by households in south-central Chile associated with energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cities in the central-southern area of Chile face serious environmental pollution due to extensive use of firewood for heating. Low energy efficiency of constructions and cold climate increase the problem, which also affects native forests. The aims of this study are to characterize energy consumption in dwellings of this region, investigate the reduction potential, and study social and environmental consequences of high consumption of firewood. Actual energy consumption is studied with information from surveys, potential for reduction is modeled with software and other consequences are analyzed from previous studies. Results for the city of Valdivia show high firewood consumption per household, with a media bulk volume near 12 m3/year. Thermal regulations are softer compared with other countries. Moreover, around 85% of buildings were built before enforcing codes in 2007, and has almost no thermal protection. The reduction potential due to thermal improvements is found to be very high (62%) if buildings are refurbished to comply with the present Chilean Norm of 2007, but it reaches a 77% reduction if refurbished according to stricter foreign regulations. Therefore, an energy efficiency program strongly addressing existing buildings has the largest potential for reducing firewood use, and therefore mitigate environmental and health impacts. - Highlights: • High firewood consumption and environmental pollution in cities of south-central Chile. • High use of firewood due to inefficient constructions and soft thermal regulations. • Potential reduction of energy consumption up to 77% with more demanding regulations. • Policies should address building stock before thermal regulation, corresponding to 85%

  13. Investigations of biodeterioration by fungi in historic wooden churches of Chiloé, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rodrigo; Párraga, Mario; Navarrete, José; Carrasco, Ivo; de la Vega, Eduardo; Ortiz, Manuel; Herrera, Paula; Jurgens, Joel A; Held, Benjamin W; Blanchette, Robert A

    2014-04-01

    The use of wood in construction has had a long history and Chile has a rich cultural heritage of using native woods for building churches and other important structures. In 2000, UNESCO designated a number of the historic churches of Chiloé, built entirely of native woods, as World Heritage Sites. These unique churches were built in the late 1700 s and throughout the 1800 s, and because of their age and exposure to the environment, they have been found to have serious deterioration problems. Efforts are underway to better understand these decay processes and to carryout conservation efforts for the long-term preservation of these important structures. This study characterized the types of degradation taking place and identified the wood decay fungi obtained from eight historic churches in Chiloé, seven of them designated as UNESCO World Heritage sites. Micromorphological observations identified white, brown and soft rot in the structural woods and isolations provided pure cultures of fungi that were identified by sequencing of the internal transcribed region of rDNA. Twenty-nine Basidiomycota and 18 Ascomycota were found. These diverse groups of fungi represent several genera and species not previously reported from Chile and demonstrates a varied microflora is causing decay in these historic buildings. PMID:24407313

  14. Abrupt change in the dip of the subducting plate beneath north Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, E.; Jara, J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ruiz, S.; Carrizo, D.

    2012-05-01

    No large tsunamigenic earthquake has occurred in north Chile since 1877 and the region has been largely recognized as a mature seismic gap. At the southern end of the seismic gap, the 2007 Mw7.7 Tocopilla earthquake ruptured the deeper seismogenic interface, whereas the coupled upper interface remained unbroken. Seismological studies onshore show a gently varying dip of 20° to 30° of the downgoing Nazca plate, which extends from the trench down to depths of 40-50km. Here, we study the lithospheric structure of the subduction zone of north Chile at about 22°S, using wide-angle seismic refraction and reflection data from land and sea, complemented by hypocentre data recorded during the 2007 Tocopilla aftershocks. Our data document an abrupt increase in the dip of the subducting plate, from less than 10° to about 22°, at a depth of approximately 20km. The distribution of the 2007 aftershocks indicates that the change in dip acted as a barrier for the propagation of the 2007 earthquake towards the trench, which, in turn, indicates that the subduction megathrust is not only segmented along the trench, but also in the direction of the dip. We propose that large-magnitude tsunamigenic earthquakes must cross the barrier and rupture the entire seismogenic zone.

  15. Reestablecimiento de Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae en el norte de Chile Reestablishment of Choromytilus chorus (Molina, 1782 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hasta fines del siglo pasado no existían registros de la presencia de Choromytilus chorus al norte de los 23°S, pese a antecedentes que señalaban su existencia en épocas pasadas. Ciertos cambios relacionados con las masas de agua costeras de esta zona, habrían generado la ausencia o escasez que presentaba el entorno costero actual. Sin embargo, hace una década atrás, su presencia en el norte de Chile, comienza a tener connotación pesquera. En el presente trabajo se confirma su reestablecimiento en las regiones de Antofagasta y Tarapacá, mediante prospecciones realizadas en seis lugares donde se registró su presencia, así como mediante la captación de semilla en colectores suspendidos. Se indica interacción con Aulacomya ater, a la cual ha desplazado a estratos más profundos, mientras que su reestablecimiento, iniciado en las regiones de Atacama y Antofagasta, y que se amplió posteriormente a la región de Tarapacá; permite postular la hipótesis que la dinámica de estos bancos, respondería a una estructura de metapoblación, dado el sistema de corrientes y vientos que predominan en la zona norte, permitiendo la advección larval de poblaciones existentes en la región de Coquimbo.Despite indications of its presence in past ages, until the end of the last century, no records showed Choromytilus chorus north of 23°S. Certain changes related to coastal water masses in the zone could be responsible for the present lack or scarcity of this species in the coastal area. However, a decade ago, this species appeared in northern Chile in the context of fisheries. This study confirms the re-establishment of C. chorus in the Antofagasta and Tarapaca regions through surveys at six sites where the species had been registered and spat collection using suspended collectors. This species has interacted with Aulacomya ater, displacing it towards deeper habitats. The re-establishment of C. chorus began in the Atacama and Antofagasta regions and

  16. National Television of Chile--New headquarters building acoustic projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaquin, Mario

    2002-11-01

    In the last 15 years TV stations in Chile have been incorporating in their facilities architectural acoustic and noise control approaches. This has been necessary as much for the technological advance, as for the necessity to achieve a better quality of sound that the listeners receive. In 1998, the National Television of Chile, with the sponsorship of the College of Architects of Chile, requested preliminary architectural designs in order to enlarge and to renovate its headquarters buildings in Santiago, Chile in stages. The Acoustic Project has been developed in an integral way, with three fundamental disciplines: noise and noise control; Machine rooms; vibrations and vibration control; Buildings, engines; architectural acoustics and acoustic comfort; TV studios and technical rooms. This presentation describes the Acoustic Project, phases I (1999), and II (2002), how it was possible to establish a common language with architects and engineers and the different specialties, to apply acoustic criteria and standards, the theoretical development and the projected acoustic solutions. (To be presented in Spanish.)

  17. Creating Dialogues: Exploring the "Good Early Childhood Educator" in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the different ways in which a number of Chilean stakeholders conceptualise the "good early childhood educator" in Chile. In a context where new foreign narratives are increasingly dominating the field and the recent standardisation of the educators' professional role is being implemented, this…

  18. Great Chile Earthquake of May 22, 1960 - Anniversary Edition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On May 22, 1960 (19:11 UTC), a Mw 9.5 earthquake occurred in southern Chile (39.5 S, 74.5 W). This was the largest earthquake ever instrumentally recorded. (It was...

  19. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA. PMID:24861179

  20. Popular Education for Peasant Communities in Chile. Chapter 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante R., Isabel; Letelier G., Eugenia

    The rural population of Chile has been served poorly by the formal educational system, rural educational attainment lags behind that of urban areas, and outmigration and alienation of rural youth are high. In the past decade, popular education has attempted to educate rural people and put them in control of their destinies by drawing on popular…

  1. Radiation doses in neuroangiography for a clinical hospital in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in neuroangiography procedures diagnostic and therapy in a Chile's Hospital, using a biplane angiographic system Siemens model ArtisZee. This research was conducted under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the support of their radiation protection programs for patients

  2. Sowing Consumers in the Garden of Mass Retailing in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José

    2014-01-01

    It is known that some key elements of modern consumer credit were originally developed in department stores. However, almost no attention has been given to new developments in this area. This paper studies the case of retail credit in Chile. Special attention is given to a particular technique kn...

  3. Reshaping Power Markets-Lessons from Chile and Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lalor, R. Peter; García, Hernán

    1996-01-01

    Power sector reforms in Chile and Argentina are now roughly fourteen and four years old. In both countries, restructuring and deregulation have increased efficiency, led to active entry by new generators, improved the quality of supply, and reduced prices in real terms. The authors' review of experience in both systems confirms that policymakers must apply effective measures to introduce a...

  4. Gender Effects of Social Security Reform in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Cox Edwards, Alejandra

    2002-01-01

    In 1981 Chile replaced a mature government-run social security system that operated on a pay-as-you-go basis with a privately managed system based on individual retirement accounts. The new system is more fiscally sustainable because pension benefits are defined by contributions. The minimum pension guaranteed to beneficiaries with at least 20 years is funded from general taxes, preserving...

  5. 75 FR 11583 - The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION The Chile Fund, Inc.; Notice of Application March 8, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act'') for an exemption from section 17(a) of the Act. Applicant: The...

  6. Education with ICT in South Korea and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro; Harris, Jordan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a linear-analytical case study on the development of ICT within the educational systems of Chile and South Korea. Through a comprehensive meta-data analysis and bibliographic review, we collected information on both educational systems and their ICT adoption policies. Key differences necessary to understand how both countries…

  7. Transit Search from Antarctica and Chile - Comparison and Combination

    CERN Document Server

    Fruth, T; Csizmadia, Sz; Dreyer, C; Eigmüller, P; Erikson, A; Kabath, P; Pasternacki, T; Rauer, H; Titz-Weider, R; Abe, L; Agabi, A; Gonçalves, I; Guillot, T; Mékarnia, D; Rivet, J -P; Crouzet, N; Chini, R; Lemke, R; Murphy, M

    2014-01-01

    Observing sites at the East-Antarctic plateau are considered to provide exceptional conditions for astronomy. The aim of this work is to assess its potential for detecting transiting extrasolar planets through a comparison and combination of photometric data from Antarctica with time series from a midlatitude site. During 2010, the two small aperture telescopes ASTEP 400 (Dome C) and BEST II (Chile) together performed an observing campaign of two target fields and the transiting planet WASP-18b. For the latter, a bright star, Dome C appears to yield an advantageous signal-to-noise ratio. For field surveys, both Dome C and Chile appear to be of comparable photometric quality. However, within two weeks, observations at Dome C yield a transit detection efficiency that typically requires a whole observing season in Chile. For the first time, data from Antarctica and Chile have been combined to extent the observational duty cycle. This approach is both feasible in practice and favorable for transit search, as it i...

  8. Towards a Vision for Agricultural Innovation in Chile in 2030

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a vision statement for the agricultural sector that may then guide the future investments in Chile's agricultural innovation system, A joint and shared perspective on how the sector might look and what role agricultural innovation should play in getting there is a prerequisite for any effective strategy. But developing such a vision is not only a function of what...

  9. Chile : A Strategy to Promote Innovative Small and Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study is to provide the Government of Chile with a review of the portfolio of small and medium enterprise (SMEs) development programs and the institutions that provide them, leading to recommendations to improve the effectiveness of a streamlined portfolio. This emphasis is important for economic reasons, given the sectors role in employment, and the possibility of improving its integration ...

  10. The 2008 Eruption of Chaitén Volcano, Chile and National Volcano-Monitoring Programs in the U.S. and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Lara, L. E.; Moreno, H.

    2008-12-01

    Chaitén volcano, southern Chile, began erupting on 2 May 2008. The eruption produced 3 Plinian eruption pulses between May 2 and 8. Between Plinian phases the volcano emitted a constant column of ash to approximately 10 km, gradually diminishing to approximately 3 km by the end of June. The eruption of Chaitén was remarkable on several counts--it was the first rhyolite eruption on the planet since Novarupta (Katmai) erupted in 1912, and Chaitén had apparently lain dormant for approximately 9300 years. Though Chaitén is located in a generally sparsely populated region, the eruption had widespread impacts. More than 5000 people had to be quickly evacuated from proximal areas and aviation in southern South America was disrupted for weeks. Within 10 days secondary lahars had overrun much of the town of Chaitén complicating the prospects of the townspeople to return to their homes. Prior to the eruption onset, the nearest real-time seismic station was 300 km distant, and earthquakes were not felt by local citizens until approximately 30 hours before the eruption onset. No other signs of unrest were noted. Owing to the lack of near-field monitoring, and the nighttime eruption onset, there was initial confusion about which volcano was erupting: Chaitén or nearby Michinmahuida. Lack of monitoring systems at Chaitén meant that warning time for the public at risk was extremely short, and owing to the nature of the eruption and the physical geography of the area, it was very difficult to install monitoring instruments to track its progress after the eruption started. The lack of geophysical monitoring also means that an important data set on precursory behavior for silicic systems was not collected. With more than 120 Pleistocene to Holocene-age volcanoes within its continental territory, Chile is one of the more volcanically active countries in the world. The eruption of Chaitén has catalyzed the creation of a new program within the Servicio Nacional de Geología y

  11. Radiation doses to adult patients in interventional procedure: the first data for the Biobio region; Dosis de radiacion a pacientes adultos en procedimientos de intervencionismo: los primeiros datos para la region del Biobio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubeda, C.A.; Nocetti, D.A., E-mail: carlos.ubeda.uta@gmail.com [Universidade de Tarapaca (Chile). Centro de Estudos en Ciencias Radiologicas (CECRad). Dept. de Tecnologic Medica. Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud (FACSAL); Robles, I.L., E-mail: isabel.robles.p@gmail.com [Hospital Clinico Guilhermo Grant Benavente, Concepcion (Chile). Servico de Imagenologia

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate the levels of radiation to the patient in interventional cardiology procedures and neurological (diagnostic and therapeutic) in the main public hospital in Chile, in the region of Biobio.

  12. Densidades de carga utilizadas para el transporte de bovinos destinados a matadero en Chile Stocking densities used to transport cattle to slaughter in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Gallo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las densidades de carga empleadas en el transporte de 413 cargas (camionadas de bovinos, que comprendieron un total de 12.931 animales, recibidos en dos plantas faenadoras en Chile durante el año 2002, una en la X Región y la otra en la Región Metropolitana. Para las cargas recibidas en la planta de la X Región, las densidades de carga registradas fluctuaron entre 106 y 693 kg/m² (promedio 457 ± 6,6 kg/m² y en la Región Metropolitana fluctuaron entre 268 y 632 kg/m² (promedio 453 ± 9,7 kg/m². En ambas regiones se observó una tendencia a que las densidades de carga usadas en los vehículos de mayor tamaño (camiones simples y con carro fueran mayores; la mayoría de las cargas animales eran transportadas en este tipo de vehículo. Las densidades de carga encontradas para los viajes más largos no difirieron de aquellas usadas para los viajes cortos en el caso de la Región Metropolitana; sin embargo, en el caso de las cargas recibidas en la X Región se observó que en general los animales transportados por distancias más largas viajaron a densidades de carga mayores. En general, 32,4% de las 413 cargas revisadas, que correspondieron a 35,6% de todos los bovinos, sobrepasaron el límite de densidad de carga permitido por la legislación vigente (500 kg/m². Considerando que la literatura indica que el ganado bovino transportado a muy altas densidades, particularmente sobre 500 kg/m², sufre mayor estrés y produce inferior calidad de carne, especialmente en términos de mayor incidencia de contusiones, y que, además, en Chile las canales con contusiones que afectan el tejido muscular sufren una degradación en cuanto a la categoría de tipificación, reduciendo su valor económico, se recomienda, tanto desde el punto de vista de bienestar animal como de calidad de carne, al menos respetar el límite máximo de densidad de carga establecido para el transporte de ganado bovino en ChileThe stocking densities employed in

  13. Foreshock triggering of the 1 April 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique, Chile, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Matthew W.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Benz, Harley M.

    2016-08-01

    On April 1st, 2014, a Mw 8.2 (U.S. Geological Survey moment magnitude) earthquake occurred in the subduction zone offshore northern Chile. In the two weeks leading up to the earthquake, a sequence of foreshocks, starting with a Mw 6.7 earthquake on March 16th and including three more Mw 6.0+ events, occurred predominantly south of the April 1st mainshock epicenter and up-dip of the area of significant slip during the mainshock. Using earthquake locations and source parameters derived in a previous study (Hayes et al., 2014) and a Coulomb failure stress change analysis of these events, we assess in detail the hypothesis that the earthquakes occurred as a cascading sequence, each event successively triggering the next, ultimately triggering the rupture of the mainshock. Following the initial Mw 6.7 event, each of the three largest foreshocks (Mw 6.4, 6.2 and 6.3), as well as the hypocenter of the mainshock, occurred in a region of positive Coulomb stress change produced by the preceding events, indicating these events were brought closer to failure by the prior seismicity. In addition, we reexamine the possibility that aseismic slip occurred and what role it may have played in loading the plate boundary. Using horizontal GPS displacements from along the northern Chile coast prior to the mainshock, we find that the foreshock seismicity alone likely does not account for the observed signals. We perform a grid search for the location and magnitude of an aseismic slip patch that can account for the difference between observed signals and foreshock-related displacement, and find that a slow slip region with slip corresponding to a Mw ∼ 6.8 earthquake located coincident with or up-dip of the foreshock seismicity can best explain this discrepancy. Additionally, such a slow slip region positively loads the mainshock hypocentral area, enhancing the positive loading produced by the foreshock seismicity.

  14. Antecedentes sobre el desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile Background of carcinology progress in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Jara

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile continental la utilización de los crustáceos se remonta al menos a 10.200 años atrás. Sin embargo, la descripción formal de los componentes de la carcinofauna chilena se inició hace alrededor de 200 años, reconociéndose a Juan I. Molina como el primer naturalista nacional y el primero en asignar nombres científicos a crustáceos de este país. El desarrollo de la carcinología en Chile es obra de un vasto conjunto de especialistas extranjeros y nacionales. Entre los extranjeros destacan viajeros como el inglés Charles R. Darwin, quien contribuyó al conocimiento de los cirripedios; el francés Alcide D'Orbigny, primero en describir decápodos fósiles de Chile; y el alemán Eduard Poeppig, a quien se debe la temprana descripción de decápodos marinos y dulceacuícolas. Entre las expediciones extranjeras destacan la del buque británico H.M.S."Challenger", la de la Universidad de Lund (Suecia a Chile y la más reciente del B/I alemán "Victor Hensen" a Magallanes. Entre los naturalistas chilenos destacan Claudio Gay, Rodulfo A. Philippi, Carlos E. Porter y Nibaldo Bahamonde, todos ellos relacionados con el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural y el último reconocido como el más importante promotor del desarrollo contemporáneo de la carcinología en Chile. Hoy el conocimiento de la carcinofauna chilena de decápodos puede considerarse relativamente completo a nivel de taxonomía alfa, pero es preliminar en relación con la biología y ecología de la mayor parte de las especiesAlthough the utilization of crustaceans in continental Chile is at least 10,200 years old, the formal description of the components of the Chilean carcinofauna only began about 200 years ago; Juan I. Molina having being the first Chilean naturalist to scientifically name autochtonous crustacean species. Many foreign and national scientists have contributed, with their efforts, to the development of carcinology in Chile. Among the foreigners we find

  15. Coseismic radiation and stress drop during the 2015 Mw 8.3 Illapel, Chile megathrust earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Yang, Hongfeng; Yao, Huajian; Weng, Huihui

    2016-02-01

    On 16 September 2015, an Mw 8.3 earthquake struck middle Chile due to the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South America plate. This earthquake is the consequence of 72 years of strain accumulation in the region since the 1943 M 8.3 event. In this study, we apply the compressive sensing method (CS) to invert for the spatiotemporal distribution of the coseismic radiation at different frequencies of this event. The results show clear frequency-dependent feature of earthquake rupture with low-frequency (LF) radiation located in the updip region while high-frequency (HF) radiation concentrated in the downdip region of the megathrust. We also compare the CS results with three coseismic slip models as well as the stress drop distributions inferred from these slip models. The comparison confirms our understanding of coseismic radiation that energy sources are mostly located in the margin of large coseismic slip regions. Furthermore, we find that the LF radiation sources are mainly within the stress-decreasing (releasing) regions while the HF radiation sources are mainly located in the stress-increasing (loading) regions due to rupturing of relatively large asperities nearby (stress decreasing and releasing). These results help to better understand the physics of the rupture process during megathrust earthquakes. Moreover, our results do not show radiation sources south of the epicenter, suggesting that the subducting Juan Fernandez Ridge probably stopped the rupture of this earthquake toward the south.

  16. Estudio de prevalencia serológica de hidatidosis en caprinos de Til Til y Colina, Santiago de Chile 2005 (Seroprevalence of hidatidosis in goats from Til Til and Colina, Santiagode Chile 2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Lorca Myriam:; Diaz Ximena:; Alvarez Cristian

    2006-01-01

    ResumenLa hidatidosis es una enfermedad parasitaria de distribución mundial que es causada por el cestodo Echinococcus granulosus, en Chile es considerada una enfermedad endémica, importante en problema de Salud Pública. En los últimos años se ha observado una baja en la hidatidosis animal a nivel de mataderos, a excepción de los caprinos que han aumentado su porcentaje de infección. Esta especie es una importante fuente de recursos económicos para la población ruralen muchas regiones del paí...

  17. Desigualdades en la provisión de asistencia médica en el sector público de salud en Chile Inequalities in public health care provision in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Arteaga; Ignacio Astorga; Ana María Pinto

    2002-01-01

    Entre los años 1997 y 1999, el Ministerio de Salud de Chile impulsó la realización de estudios de la red asistencial en cada una de las 13 regiones del país, con el fin de poder orientar en ellas el desarrollo del sector salud y la cartera de inversiones. En este artículo se analizan algunos resultados de estos estudios. La cobertura del aseguramiento presenta variaciones geográficas, de edad y género. La atención médica ambulatoria y de hospitalización en el sector público presenta important...

  18. Cenozoic evolution of the northwestern Salar de Atacama Basin, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pananont, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Blanco, N.; Jordan, T. E.; Brown, L. D.

    2004-12-01

    Since 90 Ma, the nonmarine Salar de Atacama Basin has been the largest, deepest, and most persistent sedimentary basin of northern Chile. Integration of 200 km of two-dimensional seismic reflection data with surface geological data clarifies Oligocene and Neogene evolution of the northern part of the basin. A normal fault with 6 ± 1 km of vertical separation controlled the western boundary of the basin during the accumulation of the Oligocene-lower Miocene Paciencia Group. The combination of this structure, a similar one in the Calama Basin, and regional structural data suggests that localized extension played an important role within a tectonic environment dominated by margin-perpendicular compression and margin-parallel strike-slip deformation. Seismic data substantiate the surface interpretation that much of the Cordillera de la Sal ridge resulted from diapiric flow of the Paciencia Group. Diapiric flow initiated during the late early Miocene or middle Miocene, associated with a deep reverse fault.

  19. Ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations observed on DEMETER satellite before Chile M7.9 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemin Zhang; Jiadong Qian; Xinyan Ouyang; Xuhui Shen; Jinan Cai; Shufan Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Based on the ionospheric electromagnetic data observed on DEMETER satellite of France, the ionospheric electromagnetic signals were analyzed within 10 days before Chile M7.9 earthquake on November 14, 2007. It is found that, low frequency electromagnetic disturbances began to increase in a large scale of latitude, and reached to a maximum one week prior to the earthquake, and at about three days before the quake, the peak values shifted to lower latitude. Taking three days as a group, spatial images of a few parameters were analyzed, from which it can be seen during the five days prior to this earthquake, the amplitude and scale of anomalies are enlarged, while the epicenter is located at the boundary of anomalous region. The anomalous tempo-spatial variation in electron density prior to the earthquake were also obtained in terms of tracing the data from revisited orbits in half a year prior to the quake.

  20. Levelized cost of HCPV-generated electricity in Chile and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissilä, Elina

    2015-09-01

    With the new and promising, but debated concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) technology it is aimed at lowering levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) through higher efficiency. The cost of CPV-generated electricity still remains as a major uncertainty issue, and that was aimed to tackle in this study. LCOE of CPV-generated electricity in Turkey and Chile was calculated and compared based on multiple assumptions from public sources. A comprehensive sensitivity analysis was carried out and it is openly presented in order to illustrate the impact of the initial assumptions to the results. It was found that PV is very competitive, but CPV still has some potential in high irradiance regions through technology improvements and improved financing.

  1. Human Rights, Economic Liberalism and Social Affairs in Post-Pinochet Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Chilean democratisation process sought the international rehabilitation of a country in the declarative triad of human rights, democratic representation and economic liberalism. Since 1994, the country has reached greater prominence through economic diplomacy and the strategy of open regionalism, and with it the influence of business interest groups. This article holds that, additionally, the human rights movement gave the civilian governments a stamp of symbolic commitment to this issue that, at the turn of the century, led to Chile's active participation in multilateral forums on social inclusion. Additionally, with the turn of the century, the State opened spaces for the interaction of border social groups, particularly the ethnic groups, with which they had cultivated strong transnational dynamics.

  2. VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND EARLY PRODUCTION OF SIX OLIVE CULTIVARS, IN SOUTHERN ATACAMA DESERT, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy MORA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree survival, early fruit production, vegetative growth and alternate bearing were examined in six different olive cultivars (Barnea, Biancolilla, Coratina, Empeltre, Koroneiki and Leccino under intensive agronomic conditions i southern Atacama Desert, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The cultivars were evaluated over four successive years and had a high survival rate (93% confi rming their potential for these dry-lands. Fruit production (recorded over the growing seasons 2002-2003, vegetative growth (2000-2003 and alternate bearing differed signifi cantly among cultivars. Olive selection in intensively managed planting at the southern part of the Atacama Desert depends on matching specifi c cultivars to sites on which they perform the best.

  3. Dentists’ training in Chile and some iberoamerican countries. Considerations for education, health and job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggelo Carrizo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, several studies focused on the training of dentists in Chile and other Ibero-American countries and its implications have been published. However, there is no analysis of all the evidence at a regional level. The aim of this article is to review the changes in training for dentists in Ibero-America, the educational and/or sanitary policies associated to these changes and the impact that they have for dentists in the future in Chile and the region. In general terms, a strong increase in the amount of available places for studying dentistry, without a clear sanitary or educational planning to justify it, has been observed in several countries of the region this rise does not show a positive impact in the access to dental treatment, especially for the poorest populations. Although the levels of satisfaction are high among dentists, an unemployment rise and a salary decrease have been observed over the last few years, which could impact professional satisfaction. In Ibero-America, an exponential increase of dental schools, without a positive impact on the oral health of the population, but negatively affecting workforce, is observed. RESUMEN En los últimos años se han publicado varias investigaciones centradas en el aumento de la formación de dentistas en Chile y otros países de Iberoamérica. Sin embargo, no existen análisis de toda la evidencia a nivel regional. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar los cambios en la formación de dentistas en Iberoamérica, las políticas educativas y/o sanitarias asociadas a dichos cambios y el impacto que han tenido en el futuro para los odontólogos de Chile y la región. En términos generales se observa un fuerte incremento en la cantidad de plazas disponibles para estudiar odontología en varios países del área, sin una clara planificación sanitaria o educativa que lo justifique. Este crecimiento no ha mostrado un impacto positivo en el acceso a atención odontol

  4. Curriculum characterisation assessed in sixth grade in mathematics. A descriptive study in Valparaiso, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras, Gloria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the investigation Curriculum Characterisation Assessed in Sixth Grade Mathematics: Guidelines for the Initial and Continuous Training of Teachers, which aims to describe and analyse what is being evaluated in sixth grade mathematics and how, in the region of Valparaiso, Chile. A total of 103 written mathematic tests conducive to grading from 27 educational institutions were analysed. A group of codes refers to both the formal aspects and mathematical contents, while mathematical skills were applied to these tests and respective questions (2,516. Researchers conclude students are mainly required to provide close and unique answers, which evaluate the memorization and solution of exercises in a mechanical way, and the coverage level of the curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education is low, where most mathematical contents and abilities are below the sixth grade level.

  5. Three-dimensional distribution of ionospheric anomalies prior to three large earthquakes in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liming; Heki, Kosuke

    2016-07-01

    Using regional Global Positioning System (GPS) networks, we studied three-dimensional spatial structure of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) anomalies preceding three recent large earthquakes in Chile, South America, i.e., the 2010 Maule (Mw 8.8), the 2014 Iquique (Mw 8.2), and the 2015 Illapel (Mw 8.3) earthquakes. Both positive and negative TEC anomalies, with areal extent dependent on the earthquake magnitudes, appeared simultaneously 20-40 min before the earthquakes. For the two midlatitude earthquakes (2010 Maule and 2015 Illapel), positive anomalies occurred to the north of the epicenters at altitudes 150-250 km. The negative anomalies occurred farther to the north at higher altitudes 200-500 km. This lets the epicenter, the positive and negative anomalies align parallel with the local geomagnetic field, which is a typical structure of ionospheric anomalies occurring in response to positive surface electric charges.

  6. Isoprenoid and branched GDGT-based proxies for surface sediments from marine, fjord and lake environments in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kaiser; Schouten, S.; Kilian, R.; H. W. Arz; F. Lamy; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Proxies based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) lipids from archaea [isoprenoid GDGTs] and bacteria [branched (br) GDGTs] in 33 surface sediments from marine, fjord and lake systems between 25°S and 50°S in Chile were analyzed. The regional TEXH86 calibration obtained from the marine and fjord sediments and mean annual surface temperature (T = 59.6 × TEXH86 + 33.0; r2 0.9; n = 23) is statistically identical to the global ocean calibration based on suspended particulate material i...

  7. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile)

    OpenAIRE

    Jan R. Bannister; Pablo J. Donoso

    2013-01-01

    The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S). These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typific...

  8. Technical Session: Strategic and Policy Concerns when Considering the Introduction of Nuclear Energy: The Case of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2007, the President of Chile, Dr. Michelle Bachelet, decided to take a serious look at the possibility of including the nuclear option in the country's energy mix. Mrs. Bachelet had a personal anti-nuclear stand and she had even established an agreement with the environmentalist movement not to include the nuclear energy option in Chile's energy matrix during her government. However, she was convinced that being a matter of national importance, the nuclear option required a careful and rational analysis in order to decide whether it should be considered or dismissed because of its supposedly inherently unsafe nature. Consequently, in February 2007, she established the Working Group on Nucleoelectric Generation (GTNE), panel of ten independent professionals from academia, the business sector and government, with diverse backgrounds, including mathematics, physics, biology, social sciences, engineering, economics, law and environmental sciences. The purpose of the commission was to make a preliminary assessment based on the international experience in order to establish whether the use of nuclear energy to generate electricity would be a sensible possibility in Chile. Why was this decision made? Like many countries, Chile needs to diversify its tight energy matrix. The country imports 95% of its coal, 75% of its gas and 90% of its oil. Traditionally, electric generation in this mountainous country was based on hydro power. However, the steady economic growth of the past quarter of a century has doubled the electricity demand every 10 or 12 years. At the moment, the possibilities of large dams in the central region of the country where more than 90% of the population live are exhausted. Only two large rivers in Patagonia -more than 2000 km south of Santiago- and a number of smaller ones elsewhere can still be used to provide base-load. This expansion would represent at best an addition of some 3GW to the country's current power generation capacity of about 12GW. In

  9. Seismicity and Design Codes in Chile: Characteristic Features and a Comparison with Some of the Provisions of the Romanian Seismic Design Code

    OpenAIRE

    Diana ENE; Iolanda-Gabriela CRAIFALEANU

    2010-01-01

    A brief history and the characteristics of the seismic region and events in Chile reveal interesting indices in understanding the present day Chilean seismic design code. The paper points out some of the most important prescriptions in the Chilean code that could have led to the relatively reduced number of casualties at the seismic event on February 27th, 2010. By comparing the Chilean code to the Romanian one, the goal is to underline the differences and the similarities regarding both the ...

  10. Temporal and spatial analyses on seismo-electric anomalies associated with the 27 February 2010 M = 8.8 Chile earthquake observed by DEMETER satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Y.-Y; Liu, J.-Y.; M. Parrot; Pinçon, J.-L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies seismo-electromagnetic anomalies observed by the French satellite DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) during the 27 February 2010 M = 8.8 Chile earthquake. The nighttime electron density (Ne), electron temperature (Te), ion density (Ni), ion temperature (Ti) and whistler counts (Cw) are investigated. A statistical analysis of the box-and-whisker method is applied to see if data of two or more groups under...

  11. Conocimiento campesino sobre plagas asociadas al cultivo del chile poblano (Capsicum annuum L.) y evaluación de la toxicidad de insecticidas sobre Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), en San Matias Tlalancaleca, Puebla, México.

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón Aguayo, Ana Lilia

    2011-01-01

    El chile poblano (C. annuum), es un cultivo importante en el estado de Puebla, ya que es una especie de gran tradición en la alimentación regional y nacional, sin embargo, la realidad que enfrenta la producción de chile poblano en el municipio de San Matías Tlalancaleca perteneciente a la región de la Sierra Nevada del estado, se refleja en problemas fitosanitarios como la incidencia y daños causados por diversas plagas de insectos. A pesar de que se han realizado trabajos de investigación so...

  12. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  13. Bias adjustment of satellite-based precipitation estimation using gauge observations: A case study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongwen; Hsu, Kuolin; Sorooshian, Soroosh; Xu, Xinyi; Braithwaite, Dan; Verbist, Koen M. J.

    2016-04-01

    Satellite-based precipitation estimates (SPEs) are promising alternative precipitation data for climatic and hydrological applications, especially for regions where ground-based observations are limited. However, existing satellite-based rainfall estimations are subject to systematic biases. This study aims to adjust the biases in the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS) rainfall data over Chile, using gauge observations as reference. A novel bias adjustment framework, termed QM-GW, is proposed based on the nonparametric quantile mapping approach and a Gaussian weighting interpolation scheme. The PERSIANN-CCS precipitation estimates (daily, 0.04°×0.04°) over Chile are adjusted for the period of 2009-2014. The historical data (satellite and gauge) for 2009-2013 are used to calibrate the methodology; nonparametric cumulative distribution functions of satellite and gauge observations are estimated at every 1°×1° box region. One year (2014) of gauge data was used for validation. The results show that the biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation data are effectively reduced. The spatial patterns of adjusted satellite rainfall show high consistency to the gauge observations, with reduced root-mean-square errors and mean biases. The systematic biases of the PERSIANN-CCS precipitation time series, at both monthly and daily scales, are removed. The extended validation also verifies that the proposed approach can be applied to adjust SPEs into the future, without further need for ground-based measurements. This study serves as a valuable reference for the bias adjustment of existing SPEs using gauge observations worldwide.

  14. Comparative karyotype analysis of populations in the Alstroemeria presliana Herbert (Alstroemeriaceae) complex in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Carlos; Finot, Víctor L; Ruiz, Eduardo

    2015-05-01

    Alstroemeria L., one of the most diverse genera of the Chilean flora and of high floricultural value, is represented by 35 species, most of them distributed between 28-38° S in the Mediterranean zone of Central Chile. There are 24 complex-forming taxa, of which 18 have conservation problems (8 are considered "endangered" and 10 as "vulnerable"). One of these complexes is Alstroemeria presliana Herb. with two subspecies: subsp. presliana and subsp. australis Bayer. Alstroemeria presliana grows in Chile and Argentina: subsp. presliana is distributed from Reserva Nacional Siete Tazas (35°27' S, Region of Maule) to Antuco, (37°25' S, Region of Bío-Bío), and is also found in Neuquén, Argentina; subsp. australis is endemic to the Cordillera of Nahuelbuta. A comparative karyotype study was carried out among six populations of A. presliana subsp. presliana and five populations of A. presliana subsp. australis. The eleven populations presented an asymmetric karyotype, with 2n = 2× = 16 chromosomes but with different karyotype formulae. A. presliana subsp. presliana shows the haploid formula 2m + 2m-sat + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 1t + 1 t-sat, and A. preslianasubsp. australis presents a formula 1m + 2m-sat + 1sm + 2t + 2t-sat chromosomes. The architecture of the karyotype between the subspecies is very different. The scatter plot among CVCL vs. MCA shows different groupings between populations of the two subspecies. According to the results obtained it is possible to consider raising Alstroemeria presliana subsp. australis at species level. PMID:26273223

  15. Comparative karyotype analysis of populations in the Alstroemeria presliana Herbert (Alstroemeriaceae complex in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Baeza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alstroemeria L., one of the most diverse genera of the Chilean flora and of high floricultural value, is represented by 35 species, most of them distributed between 28–38° S in the Mediterranean zone of Central Chile. There are 24 complex-forming taxa, of which 18 have conservation problems (8 are considered “endangered” and 10 as “vulnerable”. One of these complexes is Alstroemeria presliana Herb. with two subspecies: subsp. presliana and subsp. australis Bayer. Alstroemeria presliana grows in Chile and Argentina: subsp. presliana is distributed from Reserva Nacional Siete Tazas (35°27′ S, Region of Maule to Antuco, (37°25′ S, Region of Bío-Bío, and is also found in Neuquén, Argentina; subsp. australis is endemic to the Cordillera of Nahuelbuta. A comparative karyotype study was carried out among six populations of A. presliana subsp. presliana and five populations of A. presliana subsp. australis. The eleven populations presented an asymmetric karyotype, with 2n = 2× = 16 chromosomes but with different karyotype formulae. A. presliana subsp. presliana shows the haploid formula 2m + 2m-sat + 1sm-sat + 1st-sat + 1t + 1 t-sat, and A. presliana subsp. australis presents a formula 1m + 2m-sat + 1sm + 2t + 2t-sat chromosomes. The architecture of the karyotype between the subspecies is very different. The scatter plot among CVCL vs. MCA shows different groupings between populations of the two subspecies. According to the results obtained it is possible to consider raising Alstroemeria presliana subsp. australis at species level.

  16. Human papillomavirus in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Colombia and Chile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andres Castillo; Claudia Backhouse; Jorge Argandona; Tetsuhiko Itoh; Karem Shuyama; Yoshito Eizuru; Suminori Akiba; Francisco Aguayo; Chihaya Koriyama; Miyerlandi Torres; Edwin Carrascal; Alejandro Corvalan; Juan P Roblero; Cecilia Naquira; Mariana Palrna

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)specimens collected from Colombia and Chile located in the northern and southern ends of the continent, respectively.METHODS: We examined 47 and 26 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded ESCC specimens from Colombia and Chile, respectively. HPV was detected using GP5+/GP6+primer pair for PCR, and confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Sequencing analysis of L1 region fragment was used to identify HPV genotype. In addition, P16INK4A protein immunostaining of all the specimens was conducted.RESULTS: HPV was detected in 21 ESCC specimens (29%). Sequencing analysis of L1 region fragment identified HPV-16 genome in 6 Colombian cases (13%) and in 5 Chilean cases (19%). HPV-18 was detected in 10 cases (21%) in Colombia but not in any Chilean case. Since Chilean ESCC cases had a higher prevalence of HPV-16 (without statistical significance),but a significantly lower prevalence of HPV-18 than in Colombian cases (P = 0.011) even though the two countries have similar ESCC incidence rates, the frequency of HPV-related ESCC may not be strongly affected by risk factors affecting the incidence of ESCC.HPV-16 genome was more frequently detected in p16positive carcinomas, although the difference was not statistically significant. HPV-18 detection rate did not show any association with p16 expression. Well-differentiated tumors tended to have either HPV-16 or HPV-18 but the association was not statistically significant. HPV genotypes other than HPV-16 or 18 were not detected in either country.CONCLUSION: HPV-16 and HPV-18 genotypes can be found in ESCC specimens collected from two South American countries. Further studies on the relationship between HPV-16 presence and p16 expression in ESCC would aid understanding of the mechanism underlying the presence of HPV in ESCC.

  17. Parameterisation of incoming longwave radiation over glacier surfaces in the semiarid Andes of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Shelley; Nicholson, Lindsey; Kinnard, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    A good understanding of radiation fluxes is important for calculating energy, and hence, mass exchange at glacier surfaces. This study evaluates incoming longwave radiation measured at two nearby glacier stations in the high Andes of the Norte Chico region of Chile. These data are the first published records of atmospheric longwave radiation measurements in this region. Nine previously published optimised parameterisations for clear sky emissivity all produced results with a root mean square error (RMSE) ~20 W m-2 and bias within ±5 W m-2, which is inline with findings from other regions. Six optimised parameterisations for incoming longwave in all sky conditions were trialled for application to this site, five of which performed comparably well with RMSE on daytime data <18 W m-2 and bias within ±6 W m-2 when applied to the optimisation site and RMSE <20 W m-2 and bias within ±10 W m-2 when applied to the validation site. The parameterisation proposed by Mölg et al. (J Glaciol 55:292-302, 2009) was selected for use in this region. Incorporating the proposed elevation modification into the equation reduced the bias in the modelled incoming longwave radiation for the validation site. It was found that applying the parameterisation optimised in the original work at Kilimanjaro produced good results at both the primary and validation site in this study, suggesting that this formulation may be robust for different high mountain regions.

  18. [Public health infrastructure investment difficulties in Chile: concessions and public tenders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyenechea, Matías

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the problems of gaps in health infrastructure in Chile, and to analyze the mechanisms by which it is provided. In Chile this is done in two ways: the first is through competitive bidding or sector-wide modality. The second way is through hospital concessions. Both mechanisms have had difficulties in recent years, which are reported. Finally, we propose ways to improve the provision of health infrastructure in Chile. PMID:27187810

  19. Disintegration in Peru - consolidation in Chile: the case for militant Capitalism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Edward J.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Over the past two decades, Peru and Chile have each experienced both military regimes and civilian governments. Peru's experience has been dominated by the political left; Chile's by the right. In contrast to Peru's populist politics and interventionist economics, Chile, in 1973, experienced a militant capitalist revolution. Almost twenty years later, Peru is a nation torn by political violence of both the left and right; on the brink...

  20. Pre-crisis Conditions and Government Policy Responses: Chile and Mexico during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martorano

    2014-01-01

    Chile and Mexico reacted to the crisis by implementing several policy responses, they achieved different outcomes. In particular, the Chilean economy recovered faster than the Mexican one. However, the main differences are related to social outcomes. On one hand, the Gini coefficient decreased in both countries. On the other hand, both overall and child poverty dropped in Chile while they rose sharply in Mexico. , Chile introduced a stimulus package twice as large the Mexican one. When the fi...