WorldWideScience

Sample records for bio safety level

  1. Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation for the Proposed Bio Safety Level 3 (BSl-3) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenbach, T J; Nguyen, S N

    2003-09-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to construct a biosafety level (BSL-3) facility at Site 200 in Livermore, California. Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) is a designation assigned by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Institutes Health (NIH) for handling infectious organisms based on the specific microorganisms and associated operations. Biosafety levels range from BSL-1 (lowest hazard) to BSL-4 (highest hazard). Details about the BSL-3 criteria are described in the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institutes of Health (NIH)'s publication ''Biosafety Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories'' (BMBL), 4th edition (CDC 1999): The BSL-3 facility will be built in accordance with the required BMBL guidelines. This Preliminary Authorization Basis Documentation (PABD) for the proposed BSL-3 facility has been prepared in accordance with the current contractual requirements at LLNL. This includes the LLNL Environment, Safety, and Health Manual (ES&H Manual) and applicable Work Smart Standards, including the biosafety standards, such as the aforementioned BMBL and the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules: The proposed BSL-3 facility is a 1,100 ft{sup 2}, one-story permanent prefabricated facility, which will have three individual BSL-3 laboratory rooms (one of which is an animal biosafety level-3 [ABSL-3] laboratory to handle rodents), a mechanical room, clothes-change and shower rooms, and small storage space (Figure 3.1). The BSL-3 facility will be designed and operated accordance with guidelines for BSL-3 laboratories established by the CDC and the NIH. No radiological, high explosives, fissile, or propellant material will be used or stored in the proposed BSL-3 facility. The BSL-3 facility will be used to develop scientific tools to identify and understand the pathogens of medical, environmental, and forensic importance. Microorganisms that are to

  2. Strengthening the diagnostic capacity to detect Bio Safety Level 3 organisms in unusual respiratory viral outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asten, Liselotte; van der Lubben, Mariken; van den Wijngaard, Cees; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Verheij, Robert; Jacobi, Andre; Overduin, Pieter; Meijer, Adam; Luijt, Dirk; Claas, Eric; Hermans, Mirjam; Melchers, Willem; Rossen, John; Schuurman, Rob; Wolffs, Petra; Bouchier, Charles; Schirm, Jurjen; Kroes, Louis; Leenders, Sander; Galama, Joep; Peeters, Marcel; van Loon, Anton; Stobberingh, Ellen; Schutten, Martin; Koopmans, Marion D. V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Experience with a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the Netherlands (2003) illustrated that the diagnostic demand for respiratory viruses at different biosafety levels (including BSL3), can increase unexpectedly and dramatically. Objectives: We describe the measures taken sin

  3. 高级别动物生物安全实验室气密性的探讨%Discussion on Tightness of High-level Animal Bio-safety Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严春炎; 李正武; 亓伟伟

    2014-01-01

    高级别动物生物安全实验室气密性是保证实验室空气洁净度、室内实验人员和室外环境安全的重要手段。我国现行规范对高级别动物生物实验室各区域气密性有严格的规定。从实验室装修、围护结构设备安装以及气密性检测方面对实验室气密性进行了讨论,以期为我国高级别动物生物安全实验室的建设提供参考。%Air tightness is important to ensure high-level animal bio-safety laboratory air cleanliness, indoor staffs and outdoor environmental safety. The current standard has strict rules on high-level animal bio-safety laboratory air tightness. Decoration, equipment installation and tightness test are discussed in the article in order to provide reference for the construction of China’ s high-level animal bio-safety laboratory.

  4. Levels of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When speaking about danger of catastrophe, it is the first level of danger. Its absence is the first level of safety. When speaking about danger of danger of catastrophe, it is the second level of danger. Its absence is the second level of safety. The paper proposes the way to formalize these ideas and use formal models to construct the states-and-event scale for a given object. The proposed approach can be applied to objects of different nature. The states-and-events scale may be used for transformation of initial objectives state-and-transitions graph to reduce bad classes of states

  5. Optimum Safety Levels for Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2005-01-01

    Optimum design safety levels for rock and cube armoured rubble mound breakwaters without superstructure are investigated by numerical simulations on the basis of minimization of the total costs over the service life of the structure, taking into account typical uncertainties related to wave stati...

  6. Use of BioSense for Rapid Assessment of the Safety of Medical Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Coates, Ralph J.; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To conduct an initial examination of the potential use of BioSense data to monitor and rapidly assess the safety of medical countermeasures (MCM) used for prevention or treatment of adverse health effects of biological, chemical, and radiation exposures during a public health emergency. Introduction BioSense is a national human health surveillance system for disease detection, monitoring, and situation awareness through near real-time access to existing electronic healthcare encount...

  7. Radiation safety status at a bio medical research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are being used for biomedical research purpose at School of Life Science, Jawaharlal Nehru University for the last twenty five years. Present paper analyses the overall status of radiation safety at this Centre

  8. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A.; Culurciello, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential ...

  9. Bio-optofluidics and biophotonics at the cellular level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep; Pedersen, Finn; Glückstad, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micro-manipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optic...

  10. Innovation in Bio-disaster Prevention and Control Mechanism after Forest Tenure Reform at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zu-ren

    2012-01-01

    Taking Youxi County of Fujian Province as an example,the author introduced basic situations of new bio-disaster prevention and control mechanism for forest resource protection and social service works after the forest tenure reform.Then,the author analyzed new problems faced by bio-disaster prevention and control in forestry.Finally,the author present the existing problems of bio-disaster prevention and control at the county level from five aspects:innovating upon plant quarantine management mechanism;innovation upon survey methods and service modes of bio-disaster monitoring;strengthening and improving construction of bio-disaster monitoring and forecasting network;innovating upon management system for bio-disaster prevention and control;speeding up construction of service system for social prevention and control of bio-disasters.

  11. Innovation in Bio-disaster Prevention and Control Mechanism after Forest Tenure Reform at County Level

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Zu-ren

    2012-01-01

    Taking Youxi County of Fujian Province as an example, I introduced basic situations of new bio-disaster prevention and control mechanism for forest resource protection and social service works after the forest tenure reform. Then, I analyzed new problems faced by bio-disaster prevention and control in forestry. Finally, I present the existing problems of bio-disaster prevention and control at the county level from five aspects: innovating upon plant quarantine management mechanism; innovation...

  12. Probabilistic safety criteria at the safety function/system level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technical Committee Meeting was held in Vienna, Austria, from 26-30 January 1987. The objectives of the meeting were: to review the national developments of PSC at the level of safety functions/systems including future trends; to analyse basic principles, assumptions, and objectives; to compare numerical values and the rationale for choosing them; to compile the experience with use of such PSC; to analyse the role of uncertainties in particular regarding procedures for showing compliance. The general objective of establishing PSC at the level of safety functions/systems is to provide a pragmatic tool to evaluate plant safety which is placing emphasis on the prevention principle. Such criteria could thus lead to a better understanding of the importance to safety of the various functions which have to be performed to ensure the safety of the plant, and the engineering means of performing these functions. They would reflect the state-of-the-art in modern PSAs and could contribute to a balance in system design. This report, prepared by the participants of the meeting, reviews the current status and future trends in the field and should assist Member States in developing their national approaches. The draft of this document was also submitted to INSAG to be considered in its work to prepare a document on safety principles for nuclear power plants. Five papers presented at the meeting are also included in this publication. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Inflammatory Bio marker Levels in Obese Prepubertal Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood obesity has grown at an alarming rate, and is associated with metabolic disturbances that determine a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. These disturbances may arise at a very early age in obese children. These metabolic disturbances may be associated with insulin resistance (IR), a systemic low-grade inflammatory state and endothelial dysfunction. Thus it was aimed to determine the concentration levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in obese pre-pubertal children, and their possible relation with metabolic syndrome. For this reason weight (kg), height (m), body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, mm Hg), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), cholesterol fractions HDL-C and LDL-C, and triglycerides (TGs)], fasting insulin (FI), fasting glucose ,HOMA-IR =fasting insulin (μU/ml) blood glucose (mg/dl)/405, CRP, IL-6 and sICAM-1 were analyzed in 30 obese and 15 non obese children. The results obtained displayed significantly elevated values for insulin (ρ= 0.001), homeostasis model assessment for IR (HOMA-IR, ρ 0.001), CRP (ρ< 0.001), IL-6 (ρ= 0.001) and sICAM-1 levels (ρ0.001) in obese children. Nonsignificant differences were found in fasting glucose. Moreover, sICAM- 1 showed a positive correlation with insulin, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 (ρ= 0.042), (ρ= 0.0009), (ρ0.054) and (ρ= 0.026) respectively. It thus could be concluded that prepubertal obese children displayed alterations indicative of endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, and inflammatory state which may foreshadow an increased burden of CVD and T2DM in the future. Thus, early identification of the inflammatory and endothelial bio markers in obese children may assist in early interference to prevent progression and complications of type 2 DM and CVD. Moreover, longitudinal

  14. Toward a patient safety upper level ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvignet, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Patient Safety (PS) standardization is the key to improve interoperability and expand international share of incident reporting system knowledge. By aligning the Patient Safety Categorial Structure (PS-CAST) to the Basic Formal Ontology version 2 (BFO2) upper level ontology, we aim to provide more rigor on the underlying organization on the one hand, and to share instances of concepts of categorial structure on the other hand. This alignment is a big step in the top-down approach, to build a complete and standardized domain ontology in order to facilitate the basis to a WHO accepted new information model for Patient Safety. PMID:25991122

  15. Behavioral integrity for safety, priority of safety, psychological safety, and patient safety: a team-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Anseel, Frederik; Simons, Tony; Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; McCaughey, Deirdre; Savage, Grant T; Sels, Luc

    2012-11-01

    This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety positively relates to both team priority of safety and psychological safety. In turn, team priority of safety and team psychological safety were, respectively, negatively and positively related with the number of treatment errors that were reported to head nurses. We further demonstrated an interaction effect between team priority of safety and psychological safety on reported errors such that the relationship between team priority of safety and the number of errors was stronger for higher levels of team psychological safety. Finally, we showed that both team priority of safety and team psychological safety mediated the relationship between leader behavioral integrity for safety and reported treatment errors. These results suggest that although adhering to safety protocols and admitting mistakes against those protocols show opposite relations to reported treatment errors, both are important to improving patient safety and both are fostered by leaders who walk their safety talk. PMID:22985115

  16. Technical safety requirements control level verification; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  17. Technical safety requirements control level verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Technical Safety Requirement (TSR) control level verification process was developed for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) TSRs at the Hanford Site in Richland, WA, at the direction of the US. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL). The objective of the effort was to develop a process to ensure that the TWRS TSR controls are designated and managed at the appropriate levels as Safety Limits (SLs), Limiting Control Settings (LCSs), Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs), Administrative Controls (ACs), or Design Features. The TSR control level verification process was developed and implemented by a team of contractor personnel with the participation of Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) integrating contractor, and RL representatives. The team was composed of individuals with the following experience base: nuclear safety analysis; licensing; nuclear industry and DOE-complex TSR preparation/review experience; tank farm operations; FDH policy and compliance; and RL-TWRS oversight. Each TSR control level designation was completed utilizing TSR control logic diagrams and TSR criteria checklists based on DOE Orders, Standards, Contractor TSR policy, and other guidance. The control logic diagrams and criteria checklists were reviewed and modified by team members during team meetings. The TSR control level verification process was used to systematically evaluate 12 LCOs, 22 AC programs, and approximately 100 program key elements identified in the TWRS TSR document. The verification of each TSR control required a team consensus. Based on the results of the process, refinements were identified and the TWRS TSRs were modified as appropriate. A final report documenting key assumptions and the control level designation for each TSR control was prepared and is maintained on file for future reference. The results of the process were used as a reference in the RL review of the final TWRS TSRs and control suite. RL

  18. Advanced Nanoporous Materials for Micro-Gravimetric Sensing to Trace-Level Bio/Chemical Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Functionalized nanoporous materials have been developed recently as bio/chemical sensing materials. Due to the huge specific surface of the nano-materials for molecular adsorption, high hopes have been placed on gravimetric detection with micro/nano resonant cantilevers for ultra-sensitive sensing of low-concentration bio/chemical substances. In order to enhance selectivity of the gravimetric resonant sensors to the target molecules, it is crucial to modify specific groups onto the pore-surface of the nano-materials. By loading the nanoporous sensing material onto the desired region of the mass-type transducers like resonant cantilevers, the micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors can be formed. Recently, such micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensors have been successfully applied for rapid or on-the-spot detection of various bio/chemical molecules at the trace-concentration level. The applicable nanoporous sensing materials include mesoporous silica, zeolite, nanoporous graphene oxide (GO and so on. This review article focuses on the recent achievements in design, preparation, functionalization and characterization of advanced nanoporous sensing materials for micro-gravimetric bio/chemical sensing.

  19. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  20. Opportunities for bio-based packaging technologies to improve the quality and safety of fresh and further processed muscle foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Catherine Nettles

    2006-09-01

    It has been well documented that vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging materials, made from polyethylene- or other plastic-based materials, have been found to improve the stability and safety of raw or further processed muscle foods. However, recent research developments have demonstrated the feasibility, utilization, and commercial application of a variety of bio-based polymers or bio-polymers made from a variety of materials, including renewable/sustainable agricultural commodities, and applied to muscle foods. A variety of these bio-based materials have been shown to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation and improve flavor attributes, as well as enhancing the handling properties, color retention, and microbial stability of foods. With consumers demanding more environmentally friendly packaging and a desire for more natural products, bio-based films or bio-polymers will continue to play an important role in the food industry by improving the quality of many products, including fresh or further processed muscle foods. PMID:22062722

  1. Safety management at the (micro)regional level

    OpenAIRE

    Horčička, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Global and domestic Czech experience shows the growing importance of safety management at the beginning of the 21st century. Area safety issues are currently well solved at the state and regional level in the Czech Republic, but there are still missing in the most developing strategic micro-regional documents. The aim of the paper is to define the term "area safety management" at the micro-regional level and its "safety system", including basic elements and relations among them.

  2. Continuous Time Level Crossing Sampling ADC for Bio-Potential Recording Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Osman, Ahmad; Kim, Dongsoo; Goldstein, Brian; Huang, Chenxi; Martini, Berin; Pieribone, Vincent A; Culurciello, Eugenio

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we present a fixed window level crossing sampling analog to digital convertor for bio-potential recording sensors. This is the first proposed and fully implemented fixed window level crossing ADC without local DACs and clocks. The circuit is designed to reduce data size, power, and silicon area in future wireless neurophysiological sensor systems. We built a testing system to measure bio-potential signals and used it to evaluate the performance of the circuit. The bio-potential amplifier offers a gain of 53 dB within a bandwidth of 200 Hz-20 kHz. The input-referred rms noise is 2.8 µV. In the asynchronous level crossing ADC, the minimum delta resolution is 4 mV. The input signal frequency of the ADC is up to 5 kHz. The system was fabricated using the AMI 0.5 µm CMOS process. The chip size is 1.5 mm by 1.5 mm. The power consumption of the 4-channel system from a 3.3 V supply is 118.8 µW in the static state and 501.6 µW with a 240 kS/s sampling rate. The conversion efficiency is 1.6 nJ/conversion. PMID:24163640

  3. The effects of error management climate and safety communication on safety: a multi-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigularov, Konstantin P; Chen, Peter Y; Rosecrance, John

    2010-09-01

    Work in the construction industry is considered inherently dangerous, despite the technological improvements regarding the safety of work conditions and equipment. To address the urgent need to identify organizational predictors of safety performance and outcomes among construction workers, the present study examined multi-level effects of two important indicators of safety climate, namely contractor error management climate and worker safety communication, on safety behavior, injury, and pain among union construction workers. Data were collected from 235 union construction workers employed by 15 contractors in Midwest and Northwest regions of the United States. Results revealed significant main effects for safety communication and error management climate on safety behaviors and pain, but not on injuries. Our findings suggest that positive safety communication and error management climate are important contributors to improving workplace safety. Specific implications of these results for organizational safety research and practice are discussed. PMID:20538106

  4. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  5. Quantitative Assessment of Safety Integrity Level of Message Transmission Between Safety-Related Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Rástočný; Mária Franeková; Iveta Zolotová; Karol Rástočný, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the possibilities of a quantitative assessment of message transmission between safety-related equipment for control and communication systems with a guarantee of a higher safety integrity level (SIL). The theoretical methods and standards recommended for industrial safety-related control, information and communication systems with SIL3 are described. The main part of the contribution covers theoretical methods and practical procedures used within a safety ana...

  6. Indicators for assessing the safety level of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the political opening of the states of Central and Eastern Europe roughly one decade ago, Western industrialized countries in particular have been striving to achieve sustainable improvements in the safety of nuclear reactors in those countries. One objective of these efforts is to ensure a high level of nuclear safety and safety culture in line with worldwide endeavors. The enlargement of the European Union in the very near future offers an opportunity for reaching this goal in the participating countries. Existing international framework agreements refer to the appropriate safety guidelines. At EU level, the harmonization of nuclear safety standards has been an important topic for years, with specific constructive activities being initiated, e.g., by the industry and by regulatory authorities. Uniform safety standards should not be the basis of proven reviews conducted by the national licensing and supervisory authorities. The objective should be the development of key requirements as framework conditions, irrespective of their practical implementation. They could be applied to any nuclear power plant in an accession country, but likewise to plants in member states, in order to provide an overview of the current safety status of a nuclear power plant and the rules by which it is run. As deriving uniform safety standards is a very expensive and lengthy procedure, the approach shown here identifies six main areas of review for light water reactors (safety systems; integrity of the safety barriers; risk assessment; radiation exposure of the plant personnel and the environment; plant operations management; plant safety) and the associated safety indicators, with reference criteria formulated as concretely as possible. This proposal also lends itself to international individual evaluations of safety levels and could facilitate the review process already under way for the EU candidate countries. (orig.)

  7. Behavioral integrity for safety, priority of safety, psychological safety, and patient safety: a team-level study

    OpenAIRE

    Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Anseel, Frederik; Simons, Tony; Halbesleben, Jonathon RB; McCaughey, Deirdre; Savage, Grant T.; Sels, Luc

    2012-01-01

    This article clarifies how leader behavioral integrity for safety helps solve follower's double bind between adhering to safety protocols and speaking up about mistakes against protocols. Path modeling of survey data in 54 nursing teams showed that head nurse behavioral integrity for safety positively relates to both team priority of safety and psychological safety. In turn, team priority of safety and team psychological safety were, respectively, negatively and positively related with the nu...

  8. Reconciling the Bio Safety Protocol and the WTO Regime: Problems, Perspectives and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Gayathri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The issue of regulation of international trade in Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs evokes a very unique, passionate and emotional debate between environmentalists and businesses. At the conceptual level itself, like most other multilateral environmental agreements, the Cartagena Protocol appears to be incompatible with the WTO Rules. Approach: Further, since there is precious little scientific certainty on the actual and potential impact of GMOs on environment and human health, and because the debate spans cultural and philosophical contours, domestic regulation of GMOs vary substantially. The most vocal among such divergences has been the trans-atlantic rift between the US and the European Community regarding the application and interpretation of the precautionary principle. All these negatively hamper international trade and fragment international market, thereby decreasing economies of scale, which in turn is a huge setback to the massive research and development costs involved in the production of GMOs. It is a particularly challenging scenario for developing countries, as it directly affects their exports, even of organic products. Results: The authors strongly believe that the benefits of bio-technology shall not be wholly abandoned without proper scientific evidence; because the evolution of an environmentally safe and risk-free GM product has the potential to become the panacea for global food shortage and inequity. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study will first examine the apparent conflict and tension between the Cartagena Protocol and the WTO regime. Secondly, the language of the savings clause in the Cartagena Protocol would be analyzed, to emphasize that the Protocol was envisaged to be in force with equal primacy to the WTO regime and that WTO rules can be harmoniously interpreted with the Protocol, in a manner that is beneficial to both. Next, it would be elaborated on how the Cartagena Protocol in effect

  9. Safety testing of VIROTECTO as a bio insecticide on animal health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal's health. Fifty-four male albino rats (100-110 g) were randomly divided into three equal groups, eighteen in each, the first group served as control, the second group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% normal potato and the third group fed on 50% normal concentrate and 50% potato sprayed with 0.15 g/kg potato virotecto. Blood samples were collected at fixed time intervals of 15, 35 and 45 days. Results of the present study showed that viral uses led to a significant decrease in final body weight and organs weight. Hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb, Ht, MCU, MCH and MCHC), biochemical (testosterone, lipid peroxide, total lipid, total protein and albumin) and histopathological examination of testis revealed that there were different disorders as a result of viral uses as a bio insecticide on animal health

  10. Influence of safety culture on the safety level in chosen enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wolany

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper was carried out the analysis of influence of safety culture, connected with implementation Occupational Health and Safety Management System, on safety level in chosen enterprise. The organizational practices necessary for the effective formulation and maintenance of high safety culture were characterized.Design/methodology/approach: The concept of health and safety at work legislation was defined and the idea of safety culture was discussed. Moreover, the necessity of continuous improvement according to PN-N-18001 standard was showed. In this paper was talked over the problem of accidents and occupational diseases among coal miners, who work in a huge and rich in dangers area.Findings: According to continuous improvement principles is the necessity of monitoring work conditions, conducting regular audits and organizing training courses, which lead to developing high safety culture.Practical implications: Developing of the safety culture brings some profits as reducing numbers of heavy and fatal accidents, increasing the number of detect occupational diseases. The enterprise, which developing high safety culture can expect from employees greater caution and respect for rules and instructions bench.Originality/value: The article indicated that the coal mines needs effective actions which should be directed on increase supervision in workplaces and reducing threats causing industrial accidents. The essence of safety culture was presented.

  11. Fuzzy Risk Graph Model for Determining Safety Integrity Level

    OpenAIRE

    Ouzraoui, N.; R. Nait-Said; Zidani, F.

    2008-01-01

    The risk graph is one of the most popular methods used to determine the safety integrity level for safety instrumented functions. However, conventional risk graph as described in the IEC 61508 standard is subjective and suffers from an interpretation problem of risk parameters. Thus, it can lead to inconsistent outcomes that may result in conservative SIL's. To overcome this difficulty, a modified risk graph using fuzzy rule-based system is proposed. This novel version of risk graph uses fuzz...

  12. Temperature and level measurements realized for Nuclear Safety Level Improvement of Slovak NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process of continual safety improvement in the individual Slovak nuclear power plants has been in progress since the beginning of nineties with the objective to upgrade the safety level of units in operation up to the European standards. In the framework of these activities, safety instrumentation systems with 1E qualification for the control of WWER reactor coolant systems were built and added. Methods for implementation of safety instrumentation systems for monitoring temperature and level in reactor coolant systems in the particular plants in Slovakia are presented showing the objectives and methods of their implementation. (Authors)

  13. Determining supply chain safety stock level and location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Amirjabbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The lean methodology and its principles have widely been applied in supply chain management in recent decades. Manufacturers are one of the most important contributors in a supply chain and inventory plays a paramount role for them to become lean. Therefore, there should be appropriate management of inventory and all of its drivers in accordance with a lean strategy. Safety stock is one of the main drivers of inventory; it protects against increasing the stretch in the breaking points of the supply chain, which in turn can result in possible reduction of inventory. In this paper an optimization model and a simulation model are developed and applied in a real case to optimize the safety stock level with the objective of logistics cost minimization.Design/methodology/approach: In order to optimize the safety stock level while minimizing logistics costs, a nonlinear cost minimization safety stock model is developed in this paper and then it is applied in a real world manufacturing case company. A safety stock simulation model based on appropriate metrics in the case company’s supply chain performance is also provided.Findings: These models result in not only the optimum levels but also locations of safety stock within the supply chain.Originality/value: In this research, two models of cost minimization and simulation have been developed and also applied in a real case company to result in not only optimized levels but also optimized locations of safety stock across the whole supply chain. In addition, the appropriate supply chain performance measurement metrics have been introduced in this paper and the simulation model is developed based on those.

  14. CoDA: Collaborative Data Aggregation in Emerging Sensor Networks Using Bio-Level Voronoi Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chengpei; Yang, Nian

    2016-01-01

    To implement minimum power consumption of the link, cluster heads adopt the multi-hop manner for inter-cluster communication so as to forward the aggregation data to the relay nodes. This paper proposes a collaborative data aggregation in emerging sensor networks using a bio-level Voronoi diagram, which is an energy-efficient data aggregation protocol that integrates topology control, Multiple Access Control (MAC) and routing. The sensor nodes situated in the lower level of the diagram are responsible for listening and gathering data, and should be organized by optimal clustering node. In the inter-cluster communication stage, a particle swarm optimization algorithm is addressed to seek optimal transmission path which could simultaneously achieve the minimization of the maximum next hop distance between two nodes in the routing path and the minimization of the maximum hop count, so the minimization of whole network energy consumption is realized. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation results show that energy efficiency and synchronization accuracy of the proposed algorithm can be much better than with traditional routing protocols, and the energy consumption of nodes in the whole network can be more balanced. PMID:27527181

  15. A level 1+ probabilistic safety assessment for Dhruva reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Probabilistic safety assessment of Dhruva research reactor has been carried out. The scope of this work extends beyond level 1 PSA study to include the limited scope level 2 PSA study to give the likelihood of releases, during the postulated LOCA scenario, to the member of public. The work involved under this project include the reliability analysis of safety systems and safety support systems, estimation of failure frequency of the initiating events and modeling of accident sequences towards giving the statement of core damage frequency (CDF) for the plant. The uncertainty analysis has been carried out at system level as well as at CDF level to account for possible data and modeling error. The sensitivity analysis has been performed to check the affect of major assumptions and critical system parameters on the result of this analysis. The results of this analysis include the statement of CDF and important accident sequences for the plant. The important accident initiators identified in this study which contribute significantly to the CDF value. Though LOCA contribution is small to the CDF the consequences of LOCA have potential of radioactivity release into the containment. There exists potential, however small it may be, for release of radioactivity outside the plant depending on the performance of containment isolation and emergency exhaust system. Based on the results and findings of the deterministic safety analysis of the plant, further study was carried out to estimate the frequency of release of radioactivity during LOCA scenario. It was found that the likelihood of release of radioactivity of the order of around one-tenth of the permissible limit, to the member of public is very low

  16. Microbiological safety of a novel bio-artificial liver support system based on porcine hepatocytes: a experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bing

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our institute has developed a novel bio-artificial liver (BAL support system, based on a multi-layer radial-flow bioreactor carrying porcine hepatocytes and mesenchymal stem cells. It has been shown that porcine hepatocytes are capable of carrying infectious porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs into human cells, thus the microbiological safety of any such system must be confirmed before clinical trials can be performed. In this study, we focused on assessing the status of PERV infection in beagles treated with the novel BAL. Methods Five normal beagles were treated with the novel BAL for 6 hours. The study was conducted for 6 months, during which plasma was collected from the BAL and whole blood from the beagles at regular intervals. DNA and RNA in both the collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and plasma samples were extracted for conventional PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR with PERV-specific primers and the porcine-specific primer Sus scrofa cytochrome B. Meanwhile, the RT activity and the in vitro infectivity of the plasma were measured. Results Positive PERV RNA and RT activity were detected only in the plasma samples taken from the third circuit of the BAL system. All other samples including PBMCs and other plasma samples were negative for PERV RNA, PERV DNA, and RT activity. In the in vitro infection experiment, no infection was found in HEK293 cells treated with plasma. Conclusions No infective PERV was detected in the experimental animals, thus the novel BAL had a reliable microbiological safety profile.

  17. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper gives results from the first comprehensive level-3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the Hanford tank farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM). At the HTF, there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/saltcake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is ∼60 million gal, containing ∼200 million Ci of radioactivity

  18. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) Level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider the current state of the art in PSA to be sufficiently well developed for results to be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process-referred to as risk informed regulation. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for the regulatory authority to have a high degree of confidence in the PSA. However, at the 1994 IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997, the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce, in cooperation, guidance on Regulatory Review of PSA. This led to the publication of IAEA-TECDOC-1135 on the Regulatory Review of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1, which gives advice for the review of Level 1 PSA for initiating events occurring at power plants. This TECDOC extends the coverage to address the regulatory review of Level 2 PSA.These publications are intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable level of quality so that it can be used as the

  19. 77 FR 33777 - General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD General Aviation Safety Forum: Climbing to the Next Level The National Transportation Safety...-20, 2012 in Washington, DC. The event, ``General Aviation Safety: Climbing to the Next Level,''...

  20. Bio-enhancing effect of Piperine with Metformin on lowering blood glucose level in Alloxan induced diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Atal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is the most rampant metabolic pandemic of the 21 st century. Piperine, the chief alkaloid of Piper nigrum (black pepper is widely used in alternative and complementary therapies has been extensively studied for its bio-enhancing property. Objective: To evaluate the bio-enhancing effect of piperine with metformin in lowering blood glucose levels in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Piperine was isolated from an extract of fruits of P. nigrum. Alloxan-induced (150 mg/kg intraperitoneal diabetic mice were divided into four groups. Group I (control 2% gum acacia 2 g/100 mL, Group II (metformin 250 mg/kg, Group III (metformin and piperine 250 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg, and Group IV (metformin and piperine 125 mg/kg + 10 mg/kg. All the drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at day 0, day 14, and end of the study (day 28. Results: The combination of piperine with therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 250 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose level as compared to metformin alone on both 14 th and 28 th day (P < 0.05. Piperine in combination with sub-therapeutic dose of metformin (10 mg/kg + 125 mg/kg showed significantly more lowering of blood glucose as compared to control group and also showed greater lowering of blood glucose as compared to metformin (250 mg/kg alone. Conclusion: Piperine has the potential to be used as a bio-enhancing agent in combination with metformin which can help reduce the dose of metformin and its adverse effects.

  1. Regulatory review of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) level 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used along with those from the deterministic analysis. Many regulatory authorities consider that the current state of the art in PSA (especially Level 1 PSA) is sufficiently well developed that it can be used centrally in the regulatory decision making process - referred to as 'risk informed regulation'. For these applications to be successful, it will be necessary for regulatory authorities to have a high degree of confidence in PSA. However, at the IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Use of PSA in the Regulatory Process in 1994 and at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Committee for Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) 'Special Issues' Meeting in 1997 on Review Procedures and Criteria for Different Regulatory Applications of PSA, it was recognized that formal regulatory review guidance for PSA did not exist. The senior regulators noted that there was a need to produce some international guidance for reviewing PSAs to establish an agreed basis for assessing whether important technological and methodological issues in PSAs are treated adequately and to verify that conclusions reached are appropriate. In 1997 the IAEA and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency agreed to produce in co-operation a technical document on the regulatory review of PSA. This publication is intended to provide guidance to regulatory authorities on how to review the PSA for a nuclear power plant to gain confidence that it has been carried out to an acceptable standard so that it can be used as the basis for taking risk informed decisions within a regulatory decision making process. The document gives guidance on how to set about reviewing a PSA and on the technical issues that need to be addressed. This publication gives guidance for the review of Level 1 PSA for

  2. Calculation Model of Safety Level of Production Logistics System in Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhai Xue-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affecting the safety of production logistics system of coal mine and the impact of these factors on the safety degree is not consistent, this study determines the safety indicators from five aspects, such as, the personal quality, mechanical equipment, environment, safety management and emergency rescue, etc. This study fitted the interaction of safety indicator and safety level by using the polynomial model and constructing security level calculation model through the analysis of regression model and its coefficient. This article proposes a method of calculating the safety production level of coal mine by using polynomial model, this method helps to indicate direction for analyzing safety production status and raising safety level of coal mining enterprise.

  3. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-wu FAN; Shu-hai JIANG; Zhang, Ming

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in Chi...

  4. Building Design Guidelines of Interior Architecture for Bio safety Levels of Biology Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the pivotal role of the Interior Architecture As one of the scientific disciplines minute to complete the Architectural Sciences, which relied upon the achievement and development of facilities containing scientific research laboratories, in terms of planning and design, particularly those containing biological laboratories using radioactive materials, adding to that, the application of the materials or raw materials commensurate with each discipline of laboratory and its work nature, and by the discussion the processing of design techniques and requirements of interior architecture dealing with Research Laboratory for electronic circuits an their applications with the making of its prototypes

  5. Regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of regulatory requirements for demonstration of the achieved safety level at the Mochovce NPP before commissioning is given. It contains licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning; Status and methodology of Mochovce safety analysis report; Mochovce NPP safety enhancement program; Regulatory body policy towards Mochovce NPP safety enhancement; Recent development in Mochovce pre-operational safety enhancement program review and assessment process; Licensing steps in Slovakia during commissioning

  6. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D.A.M. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage people to take up cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predomi

  7. The Dutch road to a high level of cycling safety.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, P. Twisk, D. Fishman, E. Fyhri, A. & Jensen, A.

    2015-01-01

    Many governments attempt to improve cycling safety to reduce the number of bicycle crashes and encourage cycling. The Netherlands is a world leader in bicycle use and safety. This paper explores how the Netherlands achieved an 80% reduction in the number of cyclists killed (predominantly bicycle–mot

  8. Dynamic probability evaluation of safety levels of earth-rockfill dams using Bayesian approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-wu FAN; Shu-hai JIANG; Ming ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    In order to accurately predict and control the aging process of dams, new information should be collected continuously to renew the quantitative evaluation of dam safety levels. Owing to the complex structural characteristics of dams, it is quite difficult to predict the time-varying factors affecting their safety levels. It is not feasible to employ dynamic reliability indices to evaluate the actual safety levels of dams. Based on the relevant regulations for dam safety classification in China, a dynamic probability description of dam safety levels was developed. Using the Bayesian approach and effective information mining, as well as real-time information, this study achieved more rational evaluation and prediction of dam safety levels. With the Bayesian expression of discrete stochastic variables, the a priori probabilities of the dam safety levels determined by experts were combined with the likelihood probability of the real-time check information, and the probability information for the evaluation of dam safety levels was renewed. The probability index was then applied to dam rehabilitation decision-making. This method helps reduce the difficulty and uncertainty of the evaluation of dam safety levels and complies with the current safe decision-making regulations for dams in China. It also enhances the application of current risk analysis methods for dam safety levels.

  9. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Zarogoulidis; Goldberg, Eugene P.; Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schimdt; Haidong Huang; Kalliopi Domvri; Konstantinos Porpodis; Karamanos, Nikos K.; Paul Zarogouldis

    2012-01-01

    Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano...

  10. Predisposal management of high level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated in the generation of electricity in nuclear power plants and in the use of radioactive material in industry, research and medicine. The importance of the safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized. The principles and requirements that govern the safety of the management of radioactive waste are presented in 'The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management', 'Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety' and 'Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste, Including Decommissioning'. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established in Refs for the predisposal management of HLW. This Safety Guide applies to the predisposal management of HLW. For liquid HLW arising from the reprocessing of spent fuel the recommendations of this Safety Guide apply from when liquid waste from the first extraction process is collected for storage and subsequent processing. Recommendations and guidance on the storage of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor are provided in Refs. For spent fuel declared as waste this Safety Guide applies to all activities subsequent to its removal from the storage facility of a reactor and prior to its disposal. Requirements pertaining to the transport of spent fuel, whether or not declared as waste, and of all forms of HLW are established. This Safety Guide provides recommendations on the safety aspects of managing HLW, including the planning, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of equipment or facilities for the predisposal management of HLW. It addresses the following elements: (a) The characterization and processing (i.e. pretreatment

  11. The Structure and Application of High Level Safety Goals. A Review by the MDEP Sub-committee on Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the aims of MDEP is to work towards greater harmonisation of regulatory requirements. To achieve this aim, it is necessary that there is a degree of convergence on the safety goals that are required to be met by designers and operators. The term 'safety goals' is defined to cover all health and safety requirements which must be met: these may be deterministic rules and/or probabilistic targets. They should cover the safety of workers, public and the environment in line with the IAEA's Basic Safety Objective; encompassing safety in normal operation through to severe accidents. All regulators have safety goals, but these are expressed in many different ways and exercises in comparing them frequently are done at a very low level eg specific temperatures in the reactor vessel. The differences in the requirements from different regulators are difficult to resolve as the goals are derived using different principles and assumptions and are for a specific technology. Therefore MDEP set up a sub-committee to investigate a different approach. This approach was to start with the top level goals and to derive a structure and means of deriving lower tier goals that can be seen to be clearly related to the higher level ones. This approach has the potential to greatly assist in the process of harmonisation of regulatory requirements. The paper reviews the high level goals used in MDEP countries and the relevant work of international groups. From these it draws broad conclusions that the form of the framework should be an Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals, incorporating an extended Defense-in-Depth approach. The basis concept is that the higher level safety goals can then developed, in a coherent and consistent manner, into lower level safety goals and targets that can be applied within the design and operation of reactors, with a clear connection between the different levels. This structured approach is technology-neutral and is sufficiently flexible that it can be

  12. Computer codes for level 1 probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) entails several laborious tasks suitable for computer codes assistance. This guide identifies these tasks, presents guidelines for selecting and utilizing computer codes in the conduct of the PSA tasks and for the use of PSA results in safety management and provides information on available codes suggested or applied in performing PSA in nuclear power plants. The guidance is intended for use by nuclear power plant system engineers, safety and operating personnel, and regulators. Large efforts are made today to provide PC-based software systems and PSA processed information in a way to enable their use as a safety management tool by the nuclear power plant overall management. Guidelines on the characteristics of software needed for management to prepare a software that meets their specific needs are also provided. Most of these computer codes are also applicable for PSA of other industrial facilities. The scope of this document is limited to computer codes used for the treatment of internal events. It does not address other codes available mainly for the analysis of external events (e.g. seismic analysis) flood and fire analysis. Codes discussed in the document are those used for probabilistic rather than for phenomenological modelling. It should be also appreciated that these guidelines are not intended to lead the user to selection of one specific code. They provide simply criteria for the selection. Refs and tabs

  13. Using Of Porcellio sp. As A Bio indicator To Measuring The Level Of Some Heavy Metal Pollution In Baghdad City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to estimate the pollution levels of heavy metals by using the genus porcellio sp. a bio indicator to this pollution.Four experimental sites in Baghdad were selected (Jadrya, Al-sadr, Al-dura and Al-gazalya).The genus individuals were take from the soil of these places and dried then analyzed by the Absorption Spectrophotometry.Seven heavy metals measured they includes (Pb ,Cu ,Fe ,Mn ,Cd and Co).The results showed that there was a pollution in these places and the higher levels in Jadrya were in (Cu 8166±0.33 , Mn 5963±0.44 , Cd 146±0.08) μg/gm, in Al-sadr city were in (Fe 9980±1015 , Co 220±0.15) μg/g in Aldura was in (Ni 416±0.08)μg/g and in Algazalya were in (Pb 6966±0.88 , Co 233±0.12) μg/g.This pollution of heavy metals was a natural result because of the traffic activity and the increasing of the car numbers which still using the lead gasoline and this caused big troubles to the environment, dangerous to the human.Beside the human activities, recent the green zones is important in decreases the damages of heavy metals on the environment

  14. Study on the development of safety regulations for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of regulations under Regulations on Safety Management of Radioactive Waste has become necessary as the issuance of it. The regulations related to geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste can promote the progress of research and development on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China. This paper has present suggestions on development of regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by analyzing development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in foreign countries and problems occurred in China and discussed important issues related to the development of safety regulations on geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. (author)

  15. Partial Safety Factors and Target Reliability Level in Danish Structural Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hansen, J. O.; Nielsen, T. A.

    The partial safety factors in the newly revised Danish structural codes have been derived using a reliability-based calibration. The calibrated partial safety factors result in the same average reliability level as in the previous codes, but a much more uniform reliability level has been obtained...

  16. Determining supply chain safety stock level and location

    OpenAIRE

    Bahareh Amirjabbari; Nadia Bhuiyan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The lean methodology and its principles have widely been applied in supply chain management in recent decades. Manufacturers are one of the most important contributors in a supply chain and inventory plays a paramount role for them to become lean. Therefore, there should be appropriate management of inventory and all of its drivers in accordance with a lean strategy. Safety stock is one of the main drivers of inventory; it protects against increasing the stretch in the breaking point...

  17. Low power level safety management of Finnish BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good practices in work coordination and safety management have contributed to short refueling outage duration in Finnish BWR plants. Human and organizational factors are considered especially important in the low paper states, which consist of start-up, shut-down and the outage period itself. This originates from the use of external labour during the outage, the number of both contemporary and sequentially linked human actions and the variety of potential ways the personnel can affect the plant state. While the containment barrier does not exist, more organizational and administrative means have to be used in risk management. To promote the safety further, special studies have been carried out. This paper discusses both the low power mode PSA and the studies of work orientation and competence among the operating staff in Olkiluoto BWR plant. An advanced outage control requires also open-minded consideration of potential risks and the means for their reduction. Good results in low power risk management can be reached only by the involvement of both the plant operating and the maintenance staff. A profound safety management is a prerequisite for safe low power states. (author)

  18. Emergency concepts for the safety level four; Notfallkonzepte der Sicherheitsebene Vier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richner, Martin [Axpo Power AG, Doettingen (Switzerland). Kernkraftwerk Beznau

    2016-04-15

    According to the IAEA Guidelines and the Swiss Safety Guidelines the defence-in depth safety concept for a nuclear power plant consists of four safety levels. Emergency measures for the limitation of beyond design basis accidents are of safety level four. They are referred to as incident management. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, in Switzerland the former regulatory body HSK (today ENSI) requested several retrofit measures in the field of accident management. The importance of accident management was visible again in Fukushima and demands for preventive measures grew.

  19. Role of bio-fertilizers in phosphorus utilization by wheat with various levels of N, P and FYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study P utilization by wheat with various combinations of N, P, FYM and bio-fertilizers. The grain and straw yield of wheat increased with increasing levels of nitrogen along with P and FYM. The highest yield was obtained with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 and 20 t FYM under no inoculation. However, it was highest with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under both the inoculation treatments. Almost similar trend was followed for the total P uptake. The values for per cent P derived from fertilizer (% Pdff) and P utilization were higher with 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM than the other treatments under no inoculation as well as Azospirillum inoculation. However, highest Pdff and P utilization were observed with 80 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 20 t FYM under the Azotobacter inoculation. The Azotobacter was superior to uninoculation and Azospirillum inoculation with respect to yield, total P uptake, percent Pdff and per cent P utilization by wheat. (author)

  20. Pilot plant studies on denitrification of low level radioactive effluent using bio-degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the radioactive effluents generated in nuclear installations contain significant amount of nitrate because of the use of nitric acid in uranium metal extraction, fuel fabrication and fuel reprocessing plants. The radioactive effluent is normally provided treatment for retention of radioactivity to meet the regulatory requirement. The effluent being discharged to the environment after dilution should also meet the regulatory limit of 44.2 ppm set by Central Pollution Control Board (Handbook of Environment Laws) for nitrates. Laboratory scale studies on biodegradation of nitrates in the low level radioactive effluent waste from fuel processing plant received at Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP), Trombay have been completed successfully. The results obtained indicated that nitrate concentration upto 2000 ppm nitrate could be biodegraded to below permissible limit. To scale up the experiment, a pilot plant of 2.5 m3/d capacity was set up at ETP, Trombay in the year 2005. The plant is being operated continuously since last more than two years with actual effluent to optimize engineering scale parameters. The optimized value for pH was found to be 7-8.5, N:C ratio 1:1.7 and the maximum nitrate concentration that could be biodegraded below permissible discharge limit was found to be 3000 ppm. (author)

  1. Vectors for Inhaled Gene Therapy in Lung Cancer. Application for Nano Oncology and Safety of Bio Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Zarogoulidis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel aerosol therapeutic modalities have been investigated for lung cancer. Inhaled gene therapy has presented safety and effectiveness previously in cystic fibrosis. However, safety concerns have been raised regarding the safety of non-viral vectors for inhaled gene therapy in lung cancer, and therefore small steps have been made towards this multifunctional treatment modality. During the last decade, numerous new nanocomplexes have been created and investigated as a safe gene delivery nano-vehicle. These formulations are multifunctional; they can be used as either local therapy or carrier for an effective inhaled gene therapy for lung cancer. Herein, we present current and future perspectives of nanocomplexes for inhaled gene therapy treatment in lung cancer.

  2. Predisposal Management of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide regulatory bodies and the operators that generate and manage radioactive waste with recommendations on how to meet the principles and requirements established for the predisposal management of low and intermediate level waste. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of human health and the environment; 3. Roles and responsibilities; 4. General safety considerations; 5. Safety features for the predisposal management of LILW; 6. Record keeping and reporting; 7. Safety assessment; 8. Quality assurance; Annex I: Nature and sources of LILW from nuclear facilities; Annex II: Development of specifications for waste packages; Annex III: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external natural phenomena); Annex IV: Site conditions, processes and events for consideration in a safety assessment (external human induced phenomena); Annex V: Postulated initiating events for consideration in a safety assessment (internal phenomena).

  3. BIO-ANALYTICAL STUDIES ON THE PROCESS OF DETOXIFICATION AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF ACONITUM LACINIATUM AND ABRUS PRECATORIUS FOR USE IN AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Sane

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seed which are used in Ayurvedic preparations.Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared , before and after detoxification process, using triphala quath. Infra red spectral studies for Abrus precatorius species (red and white were compared, with respect to detoxification process. Protein fingerprinting was carried out for various Aconitum species available in the market. In support of the results obtained from the above methods for detoxification, safety evaluation , post single dose administration, C1- post single dose administration]was done using albino mice as the study model for Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seeds- red and white.Outcome Measures: Comparison of the results for the crude poisonous herbal material with the material obtained after detoxification in triphala quath. Results: HPTLC fingerprinting, Infra red spectral studies, safety evaluation study (animal toxicity showed that process of detoxification for the above mentioned plant materials using triphala quath is effective and less time consuming.Conclusions: The study highlights that the commonly used poisonous crude herbal materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root and Abrus precatorius (seeds - red and white can be safely used in Ayurvedic preparations, after detoxification using triphala quath.

  4. BIO 240 Tutorials /bio240dotcom

    OpenAIRE

    veena022

    2015-01-01

    BIO 240 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.bio240.com BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 1 Cells BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 2 Virus BIO 240 Week 1 Comparing Cell Structures Worksheet  BIO 240 Week 1 Photosynthesis and Respiration Paper  BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 1  BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 2  BIO 240 Week 3 Learning Team Outline BIO 240 Week 3 DNA and Protein Synthesis BIO 240 Week 4 DQ 1 BIO 240 W...

  5. Level 2 probabilistic safety assessment of the Paks NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the objectives, scope and organization of level 2 PSA of the Paks NPP is presented, including phases of the level 2, interface with level 1 and grouping of sequences. The performed containment event trees analysis, conditional probability of nodes and release categories description are discussed and main results are illustrated. The objective, present situation and two strategies for accident management are given. The results for the containment performance analysis are also shown

  6. Impact of ITER liquid metal design options on safety level and licensing - Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety level and licensability of five design options for ITER coolant, breeding material and structural material are assessed, with emphasis on some specified accident scenarios. The safety level is assessed in terms of barrier requirements and the feasibility to construct and qualify such a barrier. The licensability in Sweden of each design option is assessed based on the indicated safety level and on a judgement of the technical feasibility to construct and qualify the ITER tokamak itself, based on the selected design option. 20 refs

  7. Parallel multi-level methodology for BWR safety parameters evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-level methodology to extend the TRAC-BF1/NEM coupled code capability to obtain the transient fuel rod response has been developed. COBRA-TF thermal-hydraulics sub-channel analysis code is coupled to TRAC-BF1/NEM in parallel virtual machine (PVM) environment. The power information obtained from the NEM three-dimensional (3-D) neutronic calculation is used by the hot channel analysis module. COBRA-TF thermal-hydraulic boundary conditions are provided by TRAC-BF1 thermal-hydraulic system analysis code. The subchannel analysis module uses this information to re-calculate the fluid, thermal and hydraulics conditions in the most limiting node (axial region of assembly/channel) within the core at each time step. Results, obtained with the new parallel multi-level coupled methodology, are presented and discussed for the ''Laguna Verde'' 1 Control Rod Drop Accident. (author)

  8. Evaluation of health and safety impacts of defense high-level waste in geologic repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursuant to the requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 that the President evaluate the use of commercial high-level waste repositories for the disposal of defense high-level wastes, a comparative assessment has been performed of the potential health and safety impacts of disposal of defense wastes in commercial or defense-only repositories. Simplified models were used to make quantitative estimates of both long- and short-term health and safety impacts of several options for defense high-level waste disposal. The results indicate that potential health and safety impacts are not likely to vary significantly among the different disposal options for defense wastes. Estimated long-term health and safety impacts from all defense-waste disposal options are somewhat less than those from commercial waste disposal, while short-term health and safety impacts appear to be insensitive to the differences between defense and commercial wastes. In all cases, potential health and safety impacts are small because of the need to meet stringent standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. We conclude that health and safety impacts should not be a significant factor in the choice of a disposal option for defense high-level wastes. 20 references, 14 tables

  9. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot U

  10. Low-level radioactive waste transportation safety history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioactive Materials Incident Report (RMIR) database was developed fin 1981 at the Transportation Technology Center of Sandia National Laboratories to support its research and development activities for the US department of Energy (DOE). This database contains information about radioactive material (RAM) transportation incidents that have occurred in the US since 1971. These data were drawn from the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Hazardous Materials Incident Report system, from Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) files, and from various agencies including state radiological control offices. Support for the RMIR data base is funded by the US DOE National Transportation Program (NTP). Transportation events in RMIR are classified in one of the following ways: as a transportation accident, as a handling accident, or as a reported incident. This presentation will provide definitions for these classifications and give examples of each. The primary objective of this presentation is to provide information on nuclear materials transportation accident/incident events involving low-level waste (LLW) that have occurred in the US for the period 1971 through 1996. Among the areas to be examined are: transportation accidents by mode, package response during accidents, and an examination of accidents where release of contents has occurred. Where information is available, accident and incident history and package response for LLW packages in transportation accidents will be described

  11. Trending of low level events and near misses to enhance safety performance in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Safety Fundamentals publication, Safety of Nuclear Installations, Safety Series No. 110, states the need for operating organizations to establish a programme for the collection and analysis of operating experience in nuclear power plants. Such a programme ensures that operating experience is analysed, events important to safety are reviewed in depth, and lessons learned are disseminated to the staff of the organization and to relevant national and international organizations. As a result of the effort to enhance safety in operating organizations, incidents are progressively decreasing in number and significance. This means that in accordance with international reporting requirements the amount of collected data becomes less sufficient to draw meaningful statistical conclusions. This is where the collection and trend analysis of low level events and near misses can prove to be very useful. These trends can show which of the safety barriers are weak or failing more frequently. Evaluation and trending of low level events and near misses will help to prevent major incidents because latent weaknesses have been identified and corrective actions taken to prevent recurrence. This leads to improved safety and production. Low level events and near misses, which may reach several thousand per reactor operating year, need to be treated by the organizations as learning opportunities. A system for capturing these low level events and near misses truly needs to be an organization-wide system in which all levels of the organization, including contractors, participate. It is desirable that the overall operational experience feedback (OEF) process should integrate the lessons learned and the associated data from significant events with those of lower level events and near misses. To be able to effectively implement a process dealing with low level events and near misses, it is necessary that the organization have a well established OEF process for significant events

  12. Format and Contents of Safety Analysis Report for Croatian Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a Croatian near surface repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) may soon appear among national waste management strategy projects. Development of a repository is a complex process in which an adequate level of protection and safety must be designed and documented in accordance with the relevant regulations. The objective of this presentation is to clarify basic requirements on the form and content of a safety analysis report (SAR). In order to do that, we shall first place Croatian legislation into perspective provided by the recent developments in the regulatory approach to safety of LILW disposal world-wide. The scope of this presentation is nominally limited to a preliminary SAR, which is to be drawn up before some key decisions about the prospective repository are made. In conclusion, we propose to briefly outline the form and contents of the safety report in general, bearing in mind preliminary SAR in particular. (author)

  13. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  14. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  15. Testing the BIO-SEA ballast water management system; Filter efficiency tests with high levels of zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The BIO-SEA® Ballast Water Treatment System (BWTS) was tested at the IMARES land-based test facility. General goal of the tests was to compare two different brands of filter and to test the filter efficiency of finer mesh sizes of each brand. The filters were tested in combination with a ‘one-shot UVtreatment’ (ballasting and deballasting the same day) in order to evaluate the effect of the filters on the overall treatment efficacy.

  16. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final disposal of radioactive waste involves preventing the waste from returning from the repository location into the biosphere by means of successively arranged containment measures known as safety barriers. In the present volume NGB 85-04 of the series of reports for Project 'Guarantee' 1985, the safety barrier system for the type C repository for high-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). Safety barriers take the form of both technically constructed containment measures and the siting of the repository in suitable geological formations. The technical safety barrier system in the case of high-level waste comprises: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters, encasement of the waste canisters, encasement of the waste canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of vacant storage space and access routes on repository closure. The natural geological safety barriers - the host rock and overlying formations provide sufficiently long deep groundwater flow times from the repository location to the earth's surface and for additional lengthening of radionuclide migration times by means of various chemical and physical retardation mechanisms. The stability of the geological formations is so great that hydrogeological system is protected for a sufficient length of time from deterioration caused, in particular, by erosion. Observations in the final section of the report indicate that input data for the type C repository safety

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  18. Level-2 probabilistic safety assessment for 220 MWe Indian PHWR (KAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used to complement, enhance and validate conclusions that are based on deterministic design principles. The Level-2 PSA for Kakrapara Atomic Power Station (KAPS), an Indian PHWR, is an extension of Level-l PSA where Plant Damage States (PDSs) form the interface between the two. The ultimate product of a Level 2 PSA study are identification of various challenges to the containment, the possible containment responses and their estimated probabilities and an assessment of the consequent releases to the environment. This paper discusses the significance of level-2 PSA, The main contributors to large Early Release Frequency (LERF) come from severe accident sequences

  19. Common basis of establishing safety standards and other safety decision-making levels for different sources of health risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current approaches in establishing safety standards and other decision-making levels for different sources of health risk are critically analysed. To have a common basis for this decision-making a specific risk index R is recommended. In the common sense R is quantitatively defined as LLE caused by the annual exposure to the risk source considered: R = annual exposure, damage (LLE) from the exposure unit. This common definition is also rewritten in specific forms for a set of different risk sources (ionising radiation, chemical pollutants, etc): for different risk sources the exposure can be measured with different quantities (the probability of death, the exposure dose, etc.). R is relative LLE: LLE in years referred to 1 year under the risk. The dimension of this value is [year/year]. In the statistical sense R is conditionally the share of the year, which is lost due to exposure to a risk source during this year. In this sense R can be called as the relative damage. Really lifetime years are lost after the exposure. R can be in some conditional sense considered as a dimensionless quantity. General safety standards Rn for the public and occupational workers have been suggested in terms of this index: Rn = 0.0007 and 0.01 accordingly. Secondary safety standards are derived for a number of risk sources (ionising radiation, environmental chemical pollutants, etc). Values of Rn are chosen in such a way that to have the secondary radiation BSS being equivalent to the current one's. Other general and derived levels for safety decision-making are also proposed including the de-minimus levels. Their possible dependence on the national or regional health-demographic data (HDD) is considered. Such issues as the ways of the integration and averaging of risk indices considered through the national or regional HDD for different risk sources and the use of non-threshold linear exposure - response relationships for ionising radiation and chemical pollutants are analysed

  20. BIO 315 Complete Class

    OpenAIRE

    admn

    2015-01-01

    BIO 315 Complete Class Check this A+ tutorial guideline at   http://www.assignmentcloud.com/BIO-315/BIO-315-Complete-Class BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Individual Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Individual Assignment Environment Resources and Competition BIO 315 Week 2 Week Two Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO ...

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  2. Predisposal management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    considered in this publication begins with the refining and conversion of uranium concentrates. Recommendations on the management of radioactive waste from the mining and milling of uranium and thorium ores are provided. Some parts of the nuclear fuel cycle generate both high level waste and LLW. The management of high level waste itself generates LLW. The predisposal management of this LLW is included in the scope of this Safety Guide. Recommendations on the predisposal management of high level waste are provided. The recommendations in this Safety Guide primarily concern complex management activities for LLW. The regulatory body should decide which parts of this Safety Guide are relevant and appropriate for particular circumstances, and the extent to which the recommendations and guidance apply. This Safety Guide provides only introductory material on the transport and storage of LLW. Requirements and recommendations are provided in Refs. There may be non-radiological hazards associated with the predisposal management of LLW. Some guidance is given on the safety measures to be taken against non-radiological hazards if they have potential consequences for radiation safety. However, detailed recommendations are beyond the scope of this Safety Guide. The user should seek guidance from the regulatory body in the areas of health and safety and environmental protection

  3. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-04-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  4. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2012-08-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  5. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Chirstensen

    2015-03-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1C, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  6. Safety Design Strategy for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Mecham

    2009-10-01

    In accordance with the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 413.3A, “Program and Project Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets,” safety must be integrated into the design process for new or major modifications to DOE Hazard Category 1, 2, and 3 nuclear facilities. The intended purpose of this requirement involves the handling of hazardous materials, both radiological and chemical, in a way that provides adequate protection to the public, workers, and the environment. Requirements provided in DOE Order 413.3A and DOE Order 420.1B, “Facility Safety,” and the expectations of DOE-STD-1189-2008, “Integration of Safety into the Design Process,” provide for identification of hazards early in the project and use of an integrated team approach to design safety into the facility. This safety design strategy provides the basic safety-in-design principles and concepts that will be used for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project.

  7. Upgrade activities for the Criticality Safety Program of Hanford High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the plan for implementing the findings and recommendations made by a team of experts for the US Department of Energy in their Nuclear Criticality Safety Review Of Hanford High-Level Radioactive Waste Tank Farms. The team was chartered to review the nuclear criticality safety of the tank farms and recommend programmatic changes where appropriate, including the specific incident leading to an Unusual Occurrence Report filed in June 1991 on the 241-C-104 specification violation. Although no imminent risks of criticality were found, the review team identified several problems with respect to nuclear criticality safety. Primary among the problems is the Tack of dofinitive knowledge of the fissile material inventory and distribution within the tanks. The lack of good characterization data prompted Westinghouse Hanford Company to declare an Unreviewed Safety Question with respect to criticality safety. Activities by the responsible Hanford Site contractor that address each of the findings, recommendations, and activities required to resolve the Unreviewed Safety Question are described. Schedules and estimated costs are also included with the plan

  8. The ARCON 5.0 system for the level 1 probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most relevant potentialities of the ARCON 5.0 system used in the level 1 probabilistic safety analysis of the Juragua NPP is presented. The system allows for the analysis of complex fault trees in personal computers with easiness of data input, checking and output. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of three vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 vaccine for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robert J; Kalsi, Gurdyal; Montalvo-Lugo, Victor M; Sharma, Mona; Wu, Yukun; Muse, Derek D; Sheldon, Eric A; Hampel, Frank C; Lemiale, Laurence

    2016-04-19

    AV7909 vaccine being developed for post-exposure prophylaxis of anthrax disease may require fewer vaccinations and reduced amount of antigen to achieve an accelerated immune response over BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed). A phase 2, randomized, double-blind, BioThrax vacccine-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of three intramuscular vaccination schedules and two dose levels of AV7909 in 168 healthy adults. Subjects were randomized at a 4:3:2:4:2 ratio to 5 groups: (1) AV7909 on Days 0/14; (2) AV7909 on Days 0/28; (3) AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; (4) half dose AV7909 on Days 0/14/28; and (5) BioThrax vaccine on Days 0/14/28. Vaccinations in all groups were well tolerated. The incidences of adverse events (AEs) were 79% for AV7909 subjects and 65% for BioThrax subjects; 92% of AV7909 subjects and 87% of BioThrax subjects having AEs reported Grade 1-2 AEs. No serious AEs were assessed as potentially vaccine-related, and no AEs of potential autoimmune etiology were reported. There was no discernible pattern indicative of a safety concern across groups in the incidence or severity of reactogenicity events. Groups 2-4 achieved success for the primary endpoint, demonstrated by a lower 95% confidence limit of the percentage of subjects with protective toxin neutralizing antibody NF50 values (≥0.56) to be ≥40% at Day 63. Group 1 marginally missed the criterion (lower bound 95% confidence limit of 39.5%). Immune responses were above this threshold for Groups 1, 3 and 4 at Day 28 and all groups at Day 42. Further study of an AV7909 two-dose schedule given 2 weeks apart is warranted in light of the favorable tolerability profile and immunogenicity response relative to three doses of BioThrax vaccine, as well as preliminary data from nonclinical studies indicating similar immune responses correlate with higher survival for AV7909 than BioThrax vaccine. PMID:26979136

  10. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  11. Regulatory and bio-safety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing GMO and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    equivalence from the point of view of human food safety, and data is required to elucidate molecular characterization, nutritional similarities, and toxicological studies to substantiate that the animal product is safe. To address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals, the regulatory framework should take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with the conventional populations. They should consider biosafety issues to prevent adverse effects of genetic modification on bio-diversity and to prove that the animals have no negative environmental impact. The challenge to regulate the animal health component of transgenic animals is addressed by animal welfare considerations and risk assessments, to ensure that such animals are not susceptible to diseases or acting as vectors for disease promoting organisms by virtue of their transgenic origin. An effective regulatory filter can permit safe products while forming a secure barrier for those that pose an unacceptable risk. However, even though extrapolation of regulatory principles from the Canadian system may be adaptable in developing countries, there remains a wide scope for improvements, just as the Canadian system is undergoing further development. The fast pace at which methodological advancements are currently being introduced indicates that the regulatory system will have to be constantly reviewed, altered and improved in a manner that keeps up with the technological leaps in order to address the public concern over transgenesis in agriculture

  12. Bio energy: Bio fuel - Properties and Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Chapter 3 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Definitions and properties, (2) Bio fuel from the forest, (3) Processed bio fuel - briquettes, pellets and powder, (4) Bio fuel from agriculture, (5) Bio fuel from agro industry, (6) Bio fuel from lakes and sea, (7) Bio fuel from aquaculture, (8) Bio fuel from wastes and (9) Hydrogen as a fuel. The exposition largely describes the conditions in Norway. The chapter on energy from the forest includes products from the timber and sawmill industry, the pulp and paper industry, furniture factories etc. Among agricultural sources are straw, energy forests, vegetable oil, bio ethanol, manure

  13. Safety assessment for the bituminization facility of the medium-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety assessment for the home-made bituminization facility of the medium-level waste during hot test is made. The average external dose equivalent per month is 0.136 x 10-2 Sv. The radioactive substance released into the environment is much lower than the permissible limit. The danger of burning and exploding of the bituminized product is avoided because the operation temperature is controlled strictly below 170 C degree. The report also briefly describes the structural characteristic of the facility, the main process and radiation protection and safety measures

  14. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jung, Jong Tae; Kang, Chul Hyung (and others)

    2008-04-15

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out.

  15. Modeling and Analysis on Radiological Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modeling study and analysis for technical support for the safety and performance assessment of the low- and intermediate level (LILW) repository partially needed for radiological environmental impact reporting which is essential for the licenses for construction and operation of LILW has been fulfilled. Throughout this study such essential area for technical support for safety and performance assessment of the LILW repository and its licensing as gas generation and migration in and around the repository, risk analysis and environmental impact during transportation of LILW, biosphere modeling and assessment for the flux-to-dose conversion factors for human exposure as well as regional and global groundwater modeling and analysis has been carried out

  16. Optimum Safety Levels and Design Rules for the Icelandic-Type Berm Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdarson, Sigurdur; van der Meer, Jentsje W.; Burcharth, Hans F.;

    2009-01-01

    strategies and possible failure with corresponding downtime have been taken into account, as well as actual market prices (in Iceland and Norway) for rack material and construction. Calculations show that low stability numbers for the largest rock armour layer give the optimal safety level.......This paper gives first an elaboration of berm recession equations for berm breakwaters and then new deterministic design rules for the Icelandic-type berm breakwater. Safety optimization calculations have been performed for a mild depth limited wave climate and for a situation a deep water. Repair...

  17. Safety and protection aspects of the management of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appropriate consideration is given in France to safety and protection problems to be solved from production up to the final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The first stage of this work consisted in emphasizing the various technical options. Different strategies appear to be possible, taking into account the technical, political and psychological difficulties. This results in evaluating the safety problems to be solved in the framework of those strategies. In this field the main safety and protection principles do not differ from those applying to other nuclear facilities. Nevertheless, the factor of time is in most cases quite different (thousands or millions of years). The question is then raised of evaluating the importance to be given to very remote consequences, both at philosophical and at scientific levels. As a first result of these considerations, the application of the barrier concept is recommended. This concept is familiar to safety specialists. Different barriers, for which particular problems are listed and evaluated, are defined. Another result with regard to radiation protection principles is to consider that if safety provisions should lead to as efficient a containment of radioactive products as possible, it would not be realistic to consider such a containment as absolute, in particular for disposal lasting anything up to thousands of years. It is therefore assumed that a limited radioactivity transfer should be taken into account, and its consequences for the environment and man calculated. This is especially true in the study of an appropriate site for final storage, and the study should necessarily include a detailed investigation of the retention characteristics of soil layers, and the implementation of appropriate models giving a sufficiently accurate evaluation of the consequences of transfers, including those related to the effect of various elements after their arrival into the biosphere. The authors review the different

  18. Small and Medium Sized Liquid Metal Cooled Safety Analysis Using Multi Level Complexity Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inherent safety characteristics of liquid metal cooled fast reactors is very important capital for next generation nuclear power plants. However inherent safety assessment need appropriate computer code or experiment. Here, a computer code for liquid metal cooled fast reactor accident analysis with various level of complexity has been developed. At the simplest approach, quasi-static method is adopted to get asymptotic condition during UTOP, ULOF, and UTOP-ULOF accident. Here we can get asymptotic power level, asymptotic average coolant temperature, and asymptotic fuel temperature for a certain external reactivity and natural circulation level. In the next grade, the code will simulate transient effect using point kinetic method and quasistatic approach for thermal hydraulic analysis. Here we can get time dependent power change, coolant temperature change and fuel temperature change. Finally in the rigorous analysis, coupled space dependent kinetic and transient thermal hydraulic are coupled and solved to get time dependent information of various process involved in the accident. (author)

  19. Computer models for safety assessment on land disposal of low level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, a storage and land disposal of the low level wastes (LLW) has been expected to start at the Shimokita site, Aomori prefecture, in a few years. The objectives of this paper are to develop the computer models for the safety assessment of the land disposal of the LLW and to provide the reliable results needed for the safety assessment at the Shimokita site. In this paper, the authors calculated preliminarily not only the geoenvironmental diffusion of radionuclide discharged from the site under predetermined conditions but also the internal radiation dose to individual, by using the computer codes developed by CRIEPI. From the results of this trial estimation, they obtained 0.003 mrem/yr as radiation dose derived from the activities of the storage and land disposal, and clarified that the computer codes were available for the preliminary safety assessment

  20. High level issues in reliability quantification of safety-critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose of developing a consensus method for the reliability assessment of safety-critical digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, several high level issues in reliability assessment of the safety-critical software based on Bayesian belief network modeling and statistical testing are discussed. Related to the Bayesian belief network modeling, the relation between the assessment approach and the sources of evidence, the relation between qualitative evidence and quantitative evidence, how to consider qualitative evidence, and the cause-consequence relation are discussed. Related to the statistical testing, the need of the consideration of context-specific software failure probabilities and the inability to perform a huge number of tests in the real world are discussed. The discussions in this paper are expected to provide a common basis for future discussions on the reliability assessment of safety-critical software. (author)

  1. Planning exercise for the resolution of high level waste tank safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several conditions have been found to exist within high level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford site which could lead to uncontrolled exothermic reactions and/or to the release of tank contents into the environment. These conditions have led to the establishment of four priority 1 safety issues for the Hanford tanks. Resolution of these safety issues will require the coordinated efforts of professionals in chemical, nuclear, operations, safety, and other technical areas. A coordinated and integrated approach is necessary in order to achieve resolution in the shortest possible time, while ensuring that the steps taken do not complicate the later jobs of vitrification and ultimate disposal. This paper describes the purpose, process, and results of an effort to develop a suggested approach. (author)

  2. Low- and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Environmental and Safety Assessment Activities in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of the environment is one of the main concerns in the management of radioactive waste, especially in repository planning. In different stages of repository lifetime the environmental assessment has different functions: it can be used as a decision making process and as a planning, communication and management tool. Safety assessment as a procedure for evaluating the performance of a disposal system, and its potential radiological impact on human health and environment, is also required. Following the international recommendations and Slovene legislation, a presentation is given of the role and importance of the environmental and safety assessment activities in the early stages following concept development and site selection for a low- and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository in Slovenia. As a case study, a short overview is also given of the preliminary safety assessment that has been carried out in the analysis of possibilities for long-lived LILW disposal in Slovenia. (author)

  3. Several High Level Issues in Reliability Assessment of Safety-Critical Software in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Jang, Seung Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    For the purpose of developing a consensus method for the reliability assessment of safety-critical digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, several high level issues in reliability assessment of the safety-critical software based on Bayesian belief network modeling and statistical testing are discussed. Related to the Bayesian belief network modeling, the relation between the assessment approach and the sources of evidence, the relation between qualitative evidence and quantitative evidence, and how to consider qualitative evidence are discussed. Related to the statistical testing, the need of the consideration of context-specific software failure probabilities and the inability to perform a huge number of tests in the real world are discussed. The discussions in this paper are expected to provide a common basis for future discussions on the reliability assessment of safety-critical software.

  4. Resolution of the ferrocyanide safety issue for the Hanford site high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the approach used to resolve the ferrocyanide safety issue, a process that began in 1990 after heightened concern was expressed by various government agencies about the safety of Hanford site high-level waste tanks. At the time, little was known about ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite reactions and the potential for offsite releases of radioactivity from the Hanford Site. Recent studies have shown that the combined effects of temperature, radiation, and pH during more than 38 years of storage have destroyed most of the ferrocyanide originally added to tanks. This has been proven in the laboratory using flowsheet-derived waste simulants and confirmed by waste samples obtained from the ferrocyanide tanks. The resulting tank waste sludges are too dilute to support a sustained exothermic reaction, even if dried out and heated to temperatures of at least 250 C. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been requested to close the ferrocyanide safety issue

  5. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storage of radioactive waste must delay the return of radionuclides to the biosphere for a long period of time and must maintain the release rates at a sufficiently low level for all time. This is achieved with the aid of a series of safety barriers which consist, on the one hand, of technical barriers in the repository and, on the other hand , of natural geological barriers as they occur at the repository location. In order to assess the efficiency of the barriers, the working methods of the technical barriers and the host rock must be understood. This understanding is transferred into quantitative models in order to calculate the safety of the repository. The individual barriers and the methods used to modelling their functions were described in volume NGB 85-07 of the Project Guarantee 1985 report series and the data necessary for modelling were given. The models and data are used in the safety analysis, the results of which are contained in the present report. Safety considerations show that models are available in Switzerland which allow, in principle, an assessment of the long-term behaviour of a repository for low- and intermediate-level waste. The evaluation of earlier studies and experimental work, suitable laboratory measurements and results from field research enable compilation of a representative data-set so that the requirements for quantitative statements on safety of final disposal are met from this side also. The safety calculations show that the radiation doses calculated for a base case scenario with realistic/conservative parameter values are negligibly low. Also, radiation doses which are clearly under the protection standard of 10 mrem per year result for conservative values and the cumulation of several conservative assumptions. Even assuming exposure of the repository by erosion, a radiotoxicity of the soil formed results which is under natural values

  6. Safety documentation in the siting process of low and intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Slovenian legislation a mandate is given to The Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (Arab) to perform various tasks related to safe management of radioactive waste in Slovenia. Part of the activities is siting and construction of a repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The process of siting and construction is three-phase, with accompanying safety documentation produced in each step, Special Safety Analysis (SSA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Safety Analysis Report (SAR), respectively. Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) is a regulatory body, whereas ARAO is the licensee. The interaction between the two should follow the scheme: requirements, guidelines, application with documents, review and licensing. The repository project is the first of a kind according to new Slovenian nuclear regulations set in 2002. Compliant with its scope of responsibilities SNSA shall determine requirements regarding the extent and contents of the safety documentation. The paper will present the process of preparation of the guidelines and requirements by SNSA. The latest findings in regulatory role at regard of interaction with licensee were used, taking into consideration recommendations from International Atomic Energy Agency, European Union, Nuclear Energy Agency, and similar examples in other countries. SNSA has already prepared extensive guidelines on how to perform SSA, while guidelines for EIA and SAR are in the drafting phase. Requirements and guidelines are important documents both for licensee, when producing the safety documentation, and for regulator, when reviewing the application, and to great extent contribute to prevention of any unnecessary delays in the licensing process. A national repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste is due to start operation in 2013 with the location known in 2008. (author)

  7. Minimising inventory costs by properly choosing the level of safety stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Ferbar Tratar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Markets are everyday becoming ever more demanding and companies are adjusting in different ways. The objective of forecasting in a demand-driven supply network is to identify the probable range of expected demand so that supply can cover demand anywhere within the statistical range. Supply can cover the range either through having the capacity to replenish within lead times or by carrying excess inventory (safety stock. Nowadays, many companies put a lot of their energy and finance into setting the right level of safety stock and reducing related expenses. In this paper, we improve an existing method for calculating the safety stock for a particular Slovenian company. We present the existing and proposed methods for calculating safety stock and derive a cost model. Finally, we prove that the proposed method not only reduces average costs but also helps to meet the target customer service level – making it also applicable to other Slovenian companies encountering situations where demand is seasonal.

  8. Review of practicing Level-2 probabilistic safety analysis for Chinese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing studies about Level-2 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) in the world, covering NUREG-1150, IAEA-SSG-4, 50-P-8 and Level-2 plant PSA reports for AP1000 and EPR, serve in this paper as the basis of a literature study aimed at determining guidelines to practice Level-2 PSA in Chinese commercial nuclear power plants. We recapitulate the main technical elements composing Level-2 PSA: the familiarization with plant data and systems, interface with Level-1, containment performance analysis, accident progression and containment event tree analysis, source term and release category analysis, sensitivity, importance and uncertainty analysis, and the relationship between them. At last, outcomes of Level-2 PSA are presented. (author)

  9. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 μg/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 μg/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 μg/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  10. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the indus...

  11. Systematic analysis of impact factors and level of coal miners’ safety behavior

    OpenAIRE

    He Gang; Qiao Guo-tong; Li Tian-bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper indicates that coal miners’ unsafe behavior is the major internal reason causing coal mine accidents. Factors affecting coal miners’ unsafe behavior were identified. The relatively entire system of coal miners’ safety behavior was built accordingly. Coal miners’ unsafe behavior system was analyzed quantitatively. Path and divergence of impact factors within the system were explained in detail. Management decision can be formulated to advance management level in coal mine industry....

  12. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis methodology in a level-I PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a methodology for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, applicable to a probabilistic safety assessment level I. The work contents are: correct association of distributions to parameters, importance and qualification of expert opinions, generations of samples according to sample sizes, and study of the relationships among system variables and system response. A series of statistical-mathematical techniques are recommended along the development of the analysis methodology, as well different graphical visualization for the control of the study. (author)

  13. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, MOSTI, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew [Atomic Energy Licensing Board, MOSTI, 43800 Dengkil, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamed, Faizal [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  14. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  15. Safety Assessment of the New Very Low-Level Waste Disposal Installation at El Cabril, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish government in 2006, foresees important volumes of wastes with a very low content of radioactivity mainly coming from the dismantling of nuclear power plants, along with the occurrence of some radiological industrial incidents in the past. This fact has boosted the construction of a new disposal installation, specifically designed for this category of waste. This new installation is part of the existing low and intermediate level waste (LILW) disposal facility at El Cabril, and includes four cells with a total capacity of around 130,000 m3. The design of the cells is consistent with the European Directive for the disposal of hazardous waste and fulfils the same basic safety criteria as the present facility for LILW. The safety assessment methodology applied for the very low level waste (VLLW) installation is fully coherent with the approach adopted for the existing disposal facility for low and intermediate level waste (concrete vaults disposal system) and takes into account the potential impact of the new installation during both the operational and long-term periods. The license for the VLLW installation was granted by the Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce (MITYC) in July 2008, following technical approval by the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), and the first disposal operation occurred in October 2008. (authors)

  16. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji

    2014-02-01

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  17. Preliminary Safety Design Report for Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Solack; Carol Mason

    2012-03-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled low-level waste disposal for remote-handled low-level waste from the Idaho National Laboratory and for nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled low-level waste in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This preliminary safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled low-level waste disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by discussing site characteristics that impact accident analysis, by providing the facility and process information necessary to support the hazard analysis, by identifying and evaluating potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled low-level waste, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  18. Approach to establishing safety margin for uncertainty in measurement and nuclide spectrum in clearance level inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the monitoring for compliance with the clearance level, the concentrations of objective nuclides, such as alpha or low-energy beta emitters, can be estimated without direct gamma measurement by assuming the existence of objective nuclides at geometric mean concentrations or by using previously assessed information on nuclide spectra and measurement results for a key gamma nuclide. To determine whether clearance can be carried out, the uncertainty in the mean concentrations and concentration ratios to the key gamma nuclide should be appropriately considered, in addition to the measurement uncertainty. In this work, the concept of the clearance level has been reconsidered and a new approach to establishing an appropriate safety factor of the monitoring for compliance with the clearance level has been proposed. This approach was adopted in the draft of standard of 'Monitoring for Compliance with Clearance Level' prepared by the Standards Committee (SC) of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). (author)

  19. bioCEED Survey 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hole, Torstein Nielsen; Jeno, Lucas Matias; Holtermann, Kristin; Raaheim, Arild; Velle, Gaute; Simonelli, Anne Laure; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    The bioCEED Survey 2015 is a baseline study of major tertiary-level biology education in Norway. The survey addresses themes such as learning in practice, transferable skills, motivation, laboratory and field learning, didactical approaches specifically relevant to biology education, knowledge needs and experiences of biologists in the workforce. The bioCEED Survey 2015 reports the results from four separate sub-surveys of tertiary-level biology education, mapping the experiences, attitu...

  20. Safety Assessment of Low- and Intermediate-Level Waste Disposal at Vaalputs, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, M. W.; Beyleveld, C.; Carolissen, A.

    2006-12-01

    The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa ) owns and operates the Vaalputs radioactive waste disposal site, which is South Africa's designated facility for the disposal of low-and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW). The bulk of the currently authorized LILW disposal at Vaalputs was generated at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) near Cape Town. However, Necsa has generated wastes associated with research and uranium enrichment that are currently in storage, which are intended for disposal at Vaalputs. In addition, South Africa is currently considering expansion of its nuclear power generating capabilities, both through construction of a second pressurized water reactor (PWR) and through the development of the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) design. The proposed change in waste characteristics warrants a safety review of the Vaalputs authorization for the disposal of LILW. As part of the safety review, an updated postclosure safety assessment is being conducted. This current safety assessment is being conducted according to an internationally accepted state-of-the-art safety assessment methodology (IAEA, 2004), and is defensible, transparent, and credible. A formal scenario-generation methodology is being applied, which has led to the identification of a number of site-specific scenarios for further consideration. Specific features of the site, the disposal facility design, and local behavior patterns were used to screen Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) from consideration. Specific FEPs were chosen as initiating FEPs for scenarios to be considered in the safety assessment, based on a combination of reasonable likelihood and high consequence for the analysis. Scenarios identified by this process are A nominal scenario represents the intended design basis for the long-term function of the repository. A late-subsidence scenario is included, in which subsidence occurs after active institutional control measures cease, such that

  1. Level-2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for 220 MWe Indian PHWR (KAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) is increasingly being used as part of the decision making process to assess the level of safety of nuclear power plants. The methodologies in use are maturing and the insights gained from the PSAs are being used to complement, enhance and validate conclusions that are based on deterministic design principles. This paper discusses various stages and insights drawn from Level-2 PSA study performed for Kakrapara Atomic Power Station (KAPS), an Indian PHWR. The Level-2 PSA deals with frequency and magnitude of releases to environment and consists of probabilistic and deterministic analysis elements. The probabilistic element consists of the development and quantification of containment logic models for each PDS. The deterministic element consists of calculating the release magnitude from the core, physical process of accident progression including containment response and source term analysis of radionuclide releases to the environment for the representative events from each PDS using appropriate codes. Some intended objectives of this Level-2 PSA study were : - To gain insights into the progression of severe accidents and containment performance and identify and prioritise scenarios requiring further and more refined analysis. - To identify major containment failure modes and to estimate the corresponding releases of radionuclides. - To identify any weak links in the plant design and suggest plant specific back-fit measures as risk reduction options. The Level-2 is an extension of Level-1 PSA The Plant Damage States form the interface between the two analyses are developed according to the requirement of Level-2 analysis. The containment Engineered Safety Features (ESFs) are treated as part of the Level-2 analysis. The ultimate product of a Level 2 PSA, is a discussion of a number of challenges to the containment, of the possible containment responses and their estimated probabilities and an assessment of the consequent releases

  2. Proposal for basic safety requirements regarding the disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A working group commissioned to prepare proposals for basic safety requirements for the storage and transport of radioactive waste prepared its report to the Danish Agency of Environmental Protection. The proposals include: radiation protection requirements, requirements concerning the properties of high-level waste units, the geological conditions of the waste disposal location, the supervision of waste disposal areas. The proposed primary requirements for safety evaluation of the disposal of high-level waste in deep geological formations are of a general nature, not being tied to specific assumptions regarding the waste itself, the geological and other conditions at the place of disposal, and the technical methods of disposal. It was impossible to test the proposals for requirements on a working repository. As no country has, to the knowledge of the working group, actually disposed of hifg-level radioactive waste or approved of plans for such disposal. Methods for evaluating the suitability of geological formations for waste disposal, and background material concerning the preparation of these proposals for basic safety requirements relating to radiation, waste handling and geological conditions are reviewed. Appended to the report is a description of the phases of the fuel cycle that are related to the storage of spent fuel and the disposal of high-level reprocessing waste in a salt formation. It should be noted that the proposals of the working group are not limited to the disposal of reprocessed fuel, but also include the direct disposal of spent fuel as well as disposal in geological formations other than salt. (EG)

  3. Do we need an integrative approach to food safety at the country level?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific data show increasing evidence of relationship between food safety and food standards on one hand and public health concern on the other hand. In FR Yugoslavia in 1989 the system of reporting on food safety issues on federal and republic level was established. The system provides data on laboratory analysis of 22 food items (bread, milk, meat and meat products, vegetables, processed vegetables etc). Those items were and still are tested on food quality and safety parameters such as microbiological, chemical and radio nuclides. Seldom all required testing on chemical and radio nuclides are performed, so we lack exact risk assessment for those contaminants. Further, during war conflict in FR Yugoslavia and also due to industrial hazards in neighbouring countries (Rumania, Hungary) high quantities of PCBs, dioxins, heavy metals, arsenic compounds and other toxic compounds contaminated the environment. In the soil and in some food products (animal fats predominantly) radionuclides originating from Chernobyl hazard can still be detected. In order to identify the level of exposure to chemical and radio nuclide contaminants in the food chain it is essential to test intensively and systematically food from animal and from plant origin. In order to prevent entering the contaminants to the food chain new recommendations from WHO, FAO and EU suggest implementation of integrative approach to food safety and control over the whole chain of food production from 'farm to table'. This approach provides control of the contaminants in soil, water, air, control over primary food production (covering animal feed too), intensive control over processing with implementation of HACCP system, but also, over transportation, retail trade, street food and home made food too. In our country creation of the map of the polluted areas, and actions in order to treat the pollution should accompany implementation of this new food safety system. The need for assessment of the level of

  4. Bio-psycho-social model of treatment and rehabilitation of addicts during the conduction of safety measure of obligatory psychiatric treatment in prison hospital Zagreb

    OpenAIRE

    Sušić, Esta; Ničea Gruber, Ema; Guberina Korotaj, Blaženka

    2014-01-01

    Addicts are a specific category of offenders or prisoners. Although some of them are primarily criminalized, the largest number of sentences for drug abuse crimes seem just as direct or indirect consequences of these disorders. Therefore, the application of a special program is needed for the treatment of addicts, lead by multi-disciplinary team of experts and focused on the prevention of future addiction behavior, and therefore criminal relapse. Authors are presenting the bio-psycho-so...

  5. BIO-ANALYTICAL STUDIES ON THE PROCESS OF DETOXIFICATION AND SAFETY EVALUATION OF ACONITUM LACINIATUM AND ABRUS PRECATORIUS FOR USE IN AYURVEDIC PREPARATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    R. T. Sane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to have bio-analytical approach for detoxification process of two poisonous plant materials viz. Aconitum laciniatum (root) and Abrus precatorius (seed) which are used in Ayurvedic preparations.Materials and Methods: For both the species proximate analysis was carried out. For the same plants HPTLC fingerprinting was compared , before and after detoxification process, using triphala quath. Infra red spectral studies for Abrus precatorius species (red and wh...

  6. The use of child safety seats: A survey on levels of knowledge and attitudes of university employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz Palancı

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Child safety seats are the best practice for protecting child occupants. In western world, a significant reduction of child deaths in motor vehicle crashes has occurred over the past years. However, the use of child safety seats will be obligatory in Turkey from 2010 onwards. We aimed to determine the prevalence of safety seat use and survey the opinions of parents about children safety seat use in traffic.Materials and methods: A survey was conducted in Kars province of Turkey. A questionnaire was handed out to parents who were employees in a university. The first part of questionnaire was concerned with the personal properties of participants. The second part was designed to evaluate the level of parents’ knowledge on child safety seat.Results: Of the 600 questionnaires distributed, 516 (86% were returned and included in the final analysis. This study showed that 266 participants were having children and automobile. The ownership of child safety seat was only 13.5% among them. The parents reported that the lack of knowledge about child safety seats was the main reason for not having safety seats. Majority of parents stated that they would be more careful in the future about child safety in traffic.Conclusion: This study showed that most parents were uninformed about the necessity of child safety seats. The authorities have to develop new strategies to increase the rate of child safety seat use. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:157-60

  7. Multi-level Bayesian safety analysis with unprocessed Automatic Vehicle Identification data for an urban expressway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Yu, Rongjie

    2016-03-01

    In traffic safety studies, crash frequency modeling of total crashes is the cornerstone before proceeding to more detailed safety evaluation. The relationship between crash occurrence and factors such as traffic flow and roadway geometric characteristics has been extensively explored for a better understanding of crash mechanisms. In this study, a multi-level Bayesian framework has been developed in an effort to identify the crash contributing factors on an urban expressway in the Central Florida area. Two types of traffic data from the Automatic Vehicle Identification system, which are the processed data capped at speed limit and the unprocessed data retaining the original speed were incorporated in the analysis along with road geometric information. The model framework was proposed to account for the hierarchical data structure and the heterogeneity among the traffic and roadway geometric data. Multi-level and random parameters models were constructed and compared with the Negative Binomial model under the Bayesian inference framework. Results showed that the unprocessed traffic data was superior. Both multi-level models and random parameters models outperformed the Negative Binomial model and the models with random parameters achieved the best model fitting. The contributing factors identified imply that on the urban expressway lower speed and higher speed variation could significantly increase the crash likelihood. Other geometric factors were significant including auxiliary lanes and horizontal curvature. PMID:26722989

  8. Safety analysis report vitrified high level waste type B shipping cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This Safety Analysis Report describes the design, analyses, and principle features of the Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) Cask. In preparing this report a detailed evaluation of the design has been performed to ensure that all safety, licensing, and operational goals for the cask and its associated Department of Energy program can be met. The functions of this report are: (1) to fully document that all functional and regulatory requirements of 10CFR71 can be met by the package; and (2) to document the design and analyses of the cask for review by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The VHLW Cask is the reusable shipping package designed by GNSI under Department of Energy contract DE-AC04-89AL53-689 for transportation of Vitrified High Level Waste, and to meet the requirements for certification under 10CFR71 for a Type B(U) package. The VHLW cask has been designed as packaging for transport of canisters of Vitrified High Level Waste solidified at Department of Energy facilities.

  9. Comparison of serum YKL-40 bio marker levels in primary prostate cancer and recurrent cases after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39 is homologs of family 18 glycosyl hydrolases secreted by human macrophages.Although high levels of YKL-40 is associated with several diseases. YKL-40, a growth factor for connective tissue cells, a migration factor for endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells, is expressed by several types of solid human carcinoma, including prostate carcinoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic role of serum YKL-40 levels in primary prostate cancer and detection of recurrences after radiotherapy. Methods: YKL-40 determined in serum samples from 50 patients with primary prostate cancer and 25 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia as control. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by ELISA. PSA levels were also measured by using IMMULIT system. Results: Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher (P= 0.000) in patients with prostate cancer compared with control group whereas no significant elevation in BPH. Conclusion: High serum YKL-40 levels in patients with primary prostate cancer indicate that YKL-40 may have a function in the Progression of malignant diseases, whereas no significant elevation was observed in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Further studies are needed to elucidate the biologic role of YKL-40 in cancer aggressiveness and in progression of malignant diseases.

  10. Bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, L-L; Joutsen, S; Lunden, J; Hänninen, M-L; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of packaged fresh leafy vegetables, which are convenient ready-to-eat products, has increased during the last decade. The number of foodborne outbreaks associated with these products has concurrently increased. In our study, (1) label information, (2) O2/CO2 composition, (3) bacterial quality and (4) safety of 100 fresh leafy vegetables at the retail level were studied in Finland during 2013. Bacterial quality was studied using aerobic bacteria (AB) and coliform bacteria (CB) counts, and searching for the presence of Escherichia coli, Listeria and Yersinia. The safety was studied by the presence of Salmonella, ail-positive Yersinia, stx-positive E. coli (STEC) and Listeria monocytogenes using PCR and culturing. Important label information was unavailable on several packages originating from different companies. The packaging date was missing on all packages and the date of durability on 83% of the packages. Storage temperature was declared on 62% of the packages and 73% of the packages contained information about prewashing. The batch/lot number was missing on 29% of the packages. Very low oxygen (O2) (companies varied widely. High AB and CB counts and pathogenic bacteria were detected in ready-to-eat products not needing washing before use. Our study shows that the bacterial quality and safety of packaged fresh leafy vegetables is poor and label information on the packages is inadequate. More studies are needed concerning the impact of a protective atmosphere on bacterial growth, and the impact of washing for removing bacteria. PMID:27257744

  11. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. Considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, some specific reference biospheres' are developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. The models represent the components of the surface environment using compartments between which fluxes of materials (solid/water) and radionuclides are defined by transfer factors. A range of exposure pathways via which such radionuclides enter the food-chain, along with uptake and concentration factors, are also defined. The response to a step function of unit flux from the geosphere is determined for each model. The results show that it is reasonable to use steady-state biosphere responses to a unit-input flux to define nuclide-dependent factors for converting fluxes from the geosphere to doses. This simplifies safety assessment calculations, which then require only look-up tables for such flux to dose conversion rather than fully coupled biosphere models. (author)

  12. Biosphere modeling for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, T.; Ishihara, Y.; Ishiguro, K. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Tokai Works, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [Nuclear Energy System Incorporated, Tokyo (Japan); Naito, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Geological Isolation Research Project, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, T. [Japan Gas Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Little, R. [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal system, it is required to estimate future radiological impacts on human beings. Consideration of living habits and the human environment in the future involves a large degree of uncertainty. To avoid endless speculation aimed at reducing such uncertainty, an approach is applied for identifying and justifying a 'reference biosphere' for use in safety assessment in Japan. Considering a wide range of Japanese geological environments, some specific reference biospheres' are developed using an approach consistent with the BIOMOVS II reference biosphere methodology. The models represent the components of the surface environment using compartments between which fluxes of materials (solid/water) and radionuclides are defined by transfer factors. A range of exposure pathways via which such radionuclides enter the food-chain, along with uptake and concentration factors, are also defined. The response to a step function of unit flux from the geosphere is determined for each model. The results show that it is reasonable to use steady-state biosphere responses to a unit-input flux to define nuclide-dependent factors for converting fluxes from the geosphere to doses. This simplifies safety assessment calculations, which then require only look-up tables for such flux to dose conversion rather than fully coupled biosphere models. (author)

  13. Research on radiation safety accompanying transport of low level radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research aims at completing the code system that can evaluate in detail the radiation exposure in the sea transport of low level waste, and enabling the estimation of the safety margin of radiation shields. In fiscal year 1995, the second experiment on an actual ship and its analysis, and the evaluation of safety margin accompanying the modeling of the computed form were carried out. The LLW carrier ''Seiei-maru'' of about 100 m length and 3000 t deadweight has 7 holds, in which 384 containers or 3072 drums can be loaded. In the transport of this time, 360 containers were transported, and the radioactivity in respective holds is shown. The nuclides related to external exposure are 60Co and 137Cs. The dose measurement was carried out with the TCS-161 survey meter made by ALOKA Co. The maximum dose on hatch covers and in living section was far under the values of regulation, and it was able to be confirmed that the safety regarding the radiation exposure of crews at the time of this transport has been secured. The dose rate distribution on hatch covers was analyzed by using the continuous energy Monte Carlo code. MCNP 4A. The effect that the difference of modeling exerts to the result of calculation was examined. The results are reported. (K.I.)

  14. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E. S.; Holter, G. M.

    1980-06-01

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  15. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Main Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 1 (Main Report) contains background information and study results in summary form.

  16. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning a Reference Low-Level Waste Burial Ground. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and cost information are developed for the conceptual decommissioning of commercial low-level waste (LLW) burial grounds. Two generic burial grounds, one located on an arid western site and the other located on a humid eastern site, are used as reference facilities for the study. The two burial grounds are assumed to have the same site capacity for waste, the same radioactive waste inventory, and similar trench characteristics and operating procedures. The climate, geology. and hydrology of the two sites are chosen to be typical of real western and eastern sites. Volume 2 (Appendices) contains the detailed analyses and data needed to support the results given in Volume 1.

  17. Storage of liquid high-level radioactive waste at Sellafield an examination of safety documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid high-level radioactive waste arises from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield. The waste is held in tanks known as Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs). The radioactive inventory of a HAST is extremely large and decays away very slowly. The decay process produces heat and so the tanks require continuous cooling to prevent evaporation and ultimately, in the case of those tanks with the larger radioactive inventories, boiling and possible release to the atmosphere. The risk of an accidental release of radioactivity to the atmosphere has been a matter of concern in Ireland for some time. Following a request from the Irish authorities, British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) agreed that two representatives of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland could visit the plant to examine the latest safety analysis, entitled the Continued Operation Safety Report (COSR), and supporting documentation relating to the operation of the HASTs. The principal objectives of the examination were to: determine whether the COSR includes all significant hazards, evaluate the COSR's conclusions on the probability of occurrence of a number of accident scenarios, determine whether confidence can be placed in the reliability database used in the COSR and assess the significance of any shortcomings, assess the need for further improvements in safety. Based on this examination the report concludes that the present risks of a severe accident associated with the HASTs are low, but that they could be reduced further by attention to the points listed below. The report also emphasises the inherent risks associated with the storage of high-level radioactive waste in liquid form. The process, which is in progress, of converting the material to a safer solid form should be expedited. Among the specific findings were: the risk of damage from a severe earthquake has not been fully analysed. All other major accident scenarios appear to have been considered. While the probability of

  18. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April, 1981 to March, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main results obtained on Safety Research of High-Level Waste Management in 1981 were edited. The research tjeme are following. (1) Characterization of vitrified waste. (2) Alternative waste form development. (3) Durability tests for HLW storage facility. (4) Safety evaluation of geologic disposal. (5) Preparation for hot test. (author)

  19. Procedure for conducting probabilistic safety assessment: level 1 full power internal event analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides guidance on conducting a Level I PSA for internal events in NPPs, which is based on the method and procedure that was used in the PSA for the design of Korea Standard Nuclear Plants (KSNPs). Level I PSA is to delineate the accident sequences leading to core damage and to estimate their frequencies. It has been directly used for assessing and modifying the system safety and reliability as a key and base part of PSA. Also, Level I PSA provides insights into design weakness and into ways of preventing core damage, which in most cases is the precursor to accidents leading to major accidents. So Level I PSA has been used as the essential technical bases for risk-informed application in NPPs. The report consists six major procedural steps for Level I PSA; familiarization of plant, initiating event analysis, event tree analysis, system fault tree analysis, reliability data analysis, and accident sequence quantification. The report is intended to assist technical persons performing Level I PSA for NPPs. A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs. On the other hand, this report would be useful for the managers or regulatory persons related to risk-informed regulation, and also for conducting PSA for other industries

  20. CO2 bio-sequestration by Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis in response to different levels of salinity and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The limitation of fresh water and the exorbitant cost of land to grow such plants, algae are the most optimum organisms for CO2 bio-sequestration and also microalgae cultures avail many characteristics that make them an arguable option for higher productivities as compared to higher plants. The aim of this study was the sequestrate CO2 by Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris under the different levels of salinity and CO2. The highest growth rate obtained during the first 4 days and higher biomass concentration at CO2 concentration from 0.03% to 10% respectively. The significant (p<0.05 biomass productivity, growth rate and CO2 sequestration rate under different level of CO2 and EC between Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were detected. The ultimate CO2 sequestration rate of Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris were 0.49 and 0.152 g/L/d in natural water respectively, although in artificial sea water 0.419 and 0.097 g/L/d were recorded at 10% CO2 concentrations respectively.

  1. Construction Safety And Health Factors At The Industry Level: The Case Of Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.J. Cheah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is one of the most hazardous industries due to the unique nature of its products and the processes involved. Recent occurrences of highly publicized construction site accidents in Singapore have highlighted the immediate needs for the local industry to address safety and attention at the industry level. The objective of this paper is to examine issues and critical factors affecting S&H standards in Singapore. Clearly, collective efforts should be pursued at the industry level as the country moves towards the ultimate safety management strategy of self-regulation. The findings also indicate that the challenge of making worksites safe should not be placed solely on the contractors but should be shared by all parties affecting the value chain of construction, including the developers, the consultants and the government. The factors identified through factor analysis may inform legislators and industry practitioners in terms of the sources of problems and help develop effective strategies for improvement. Some of the experiences mentioned in the paper could also be relevant to other countries facing similar circumstances.

  2. Level 1 and 2 probabilistic safety assessment for designing a 300 MW NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software for Level 1, 2 and 3 probabilistic safety assessments (PSA) was developed based on the PSA code by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and independent research. It was applied to integrating the design of a 300 MW nuclear power plant, unit 2 (C-2). It includes the analysis of initiating events, event trees, fault trees,dependency analysis, human reliability analysis, database analysis, event sequence quantification, plant damage state analysis, accident progression and containment response analysis, source term analysis, large early release frequency (LERF) analysis, uncertainty analysis, importance/sensitivity analysis, applications during design phase, etc. The model of Level 1 and 2 PSA was established for the C-2 unit.Several design improvements based on the PSA were implemented in the design, such as the isolation valves on the mini-flow line of the safety injection pump and spray pump, reciprocating charging pump in chemical and volume control system, essential service water system, etc. The unit's internal events at power generation were assessed as 7.25 x 10-6/ry for core damage frequency (CDF) and 3.24 x 10-7/ry for LERF. The C-2 PSA has not only justified the balance of its design, but also provided the probability assessment information for optimizing C-2 design and operation strategies, reducing the risk of severe accidents efficiently. (authors)

  3. Consideration of safety level when a country selects nuclear power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Hoang [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration, typically lasting about 10 to 15 years. The main focus, however, is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from the views of commercial benefits and, more importantly to ensure the acceptability of the public over long term period, safety level achieved or to be achieved by the project. This paper is aimed at providing consideration on the practical selection of a first nuclear power project in a country to ensure that the project will have enough safety level.

  4. Bio-economic evaluation of tank raised Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1896 fed on varying dietary protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Makwinja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to determine the effects of varying dietary protein levels in feed on bioeconomic aspect of tank raised Tilapia rendalli production in Malawi. T. rendalli of average body weights (23 g were randomly stocked into 5 m3 experimental tanks at stocking density of 5 fish/m3. The experimental diets containing 25, 30 and 35% CP were formulated. Higher significant (P < 0.05 average weight gain, feed conversion ratio, break-even price, break even yield, net return were recorded in fish fed on the diet containing 35% CP. However, gross margin profit ratio was the lowest in the diet containing 35% CP. The significance of the study findings is that higher inclusion of protein in feed produce better growth and high overall net return, hence need to use high dietary protein level in this case, 35%.

  5. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  6. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36Cl and 93Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  7. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36Cl and 93Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  8. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  9. The safety assessment of high level waste in Sweden-SR97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for nuclear waste management of spent nuclear fuel and operational waste from nuclear power plant has been developed in Sweden during the last two decades. An important part of the system is high-level waste storage for spent nuclear fuel. This facility will be built within the next decade in crystalline rock at approximately 500 m depth. To guide siting and test the performance of the planned facility regularly safety assessments are made. The purpose is also to develop safety assessments that are appropriate for licensing a future facility. Presently a safety assessment, SR97, has been performed. SR97 covers the system with repository canisters surrounded by bentonite-buffer, repository tunnels, overlying rock and the surface ecosystems. Models describe important processes affecting the repository and transport of radionuclides in the nearfield around the canisters and tunnels, farfield and surface ecosystems. Data from three geologically investigated sites in Sweden are used as input for assessing three hypothetical sites. Several scenarios are handled: 1. Normal development for a repository working as planned. 2. A failure in quality control of canister leading to a small hole corroding. 3. Different future climates. 4. Tectonic activity. 5. Future human actions. A conceptual outline of the models is presented and the assessment of doses in the surface ecosystems is detailed. The main results show that under most circumstances the repository system is robust to withstand environmental changes for more than million years. Hypothetical canister failures will produce doses below dose-limits and in the far future. Although there are differences at the three sites all sites will be well below dose-limits. (author)

  10. Gas generation in high level waste geological disposal: elements for integration in a safety strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas generation in high level nuclear waste repositories has become a subject of concern during the past decade. Important work has been done in evaluating the possible sources and quantities of gas likely to be produced in the lifetime of the repository, together with the development of experimental and modeling capabilities for assessing the possible consequences of such generation. As a general picture of the evaluations that have been carried out so far, it can be drawn out that a gas pressure build-up is possible in the infrastructures of a repository. Though the gas production rates are generally low, the isolation capacity of the engineered barriers and host rock that are looked for in order to confine radionuclides are sufficiently high to prevent gas from freely dissolve and diffuse in the media. The gas formed is mainly hydrogen from metal corrosion and water radiolysis, and possibly carbon dioxide from bacterial degradation of organic matter contained in the wastes. The formation of a gaseous phase in a repository is therefore bearing potential risks, of 'classical' nature (such as for example fire hazards in mined structures) or of radioactive nature (contamination of operated vaults by volatile activity, gas being a vector of transport). It also bears a potential for damaging engineered systems in the long term and create pathways of possible faster transport characteristics for released activity. There is consequently a need for thoroughly assessing the potential effects of gas generation in view of building the safety case of a repository, and of implementing a safety strategy that accounts for a minimization of these effects. Elements for establishing a framework in which such a strategy may be developed is given hereafter. This framework is an illustration, focused on gas generation problematic, of the incremental process needed to progressively achieve confidence in the safety of geological repositories. (author)

  11. Evaluation of uncertainties in relation to severe accidents and level-2 probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncertainties of various natures have to be taken into account in severe accident analysis, in particular those related to level-2 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA). However, the extension and application of uncertainty methods to severe accidents is more difficult than for design-basis accidents because of the considerable differences in the availability of experimental data and the level of development and validation of computer codes. Best-estimate approaches used in severe accidents require an assessment of related uncertainties. Besides the evaluation of experimental data scatter, expert judgement is usually needed to assess physical parameter uncertainties, which have to be propagated to results using different techniques. Moreover, the relation between uncertainties and stochastic probabilities (concerning for instance equipment failure and human error), remains an open question, in particular in the framework of level-2 PSAs. The workshop aimed to exchange information about the state of the art in this field and to facilitate the development of a coherent approach to uncertainties in relation to severe accidents. It also provides recommendations for future NEA work in this field. These proceedings gather twenty-four articles shared into four sessions dealing with: 1 - methods for uncertainty assessment, 2 - applications to uncertainty assessment on severe accident physical phenomena, 3 - applications to uncertainty assessment in level 2 PSA, and, 4 - general discussion, conclusions and recommendations

  12. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Improvement of level 1 PSA computer code package-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyoo; Kim, Tae Woon; Kim, Kil Yoo; Han, Sang Hoon; Jung, Won Dae; Jang, Seung Chul; Yang, Joon Un; Choi, Yung; Sung, Tae Yong; Son, Yung Suk; Park, Won Suk; Jung, Kwang Sub; Kang Dae Il; Park, Jin Heui; Hwang, Mi Jung; Hah, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    This year is the third year of the Government-sponsored mid- and long-term nuclear power technology development project. The scope of this sub project titled on `The improvement of level-1 PSA computer codes` is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the underdeveloped fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and low power situations, (2) Computer code package development for level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in this area of shutdown risk assessment technology development, plant outage experiences of domestic plants are reviewed and plant operating states (POS) are decided. A sample core damage frequency is estimated for over draining event in RCS low water inventory i.e. mid-loop operation. Human reliability analysis and thermal hydraulic support analysis are identified to be needed to reduce uncertainty. Two design improvement alternatives are evaluated using PSA technique for mid-loop operation situation: one is use of containment spray system as backup of shutdown cooling system and the other is installation of two independent level indication system. Procedure change is identified more preferable option to hardware modification in the core damage frequency point of view. Next, level-1 PSA code KIRAP is converted to PC-windows environment. For the improvement of efficiency in performing PSA, the fast cutest generation algorithm and an analytical technique for handling logical loop in fault tree modeling are developed. 48 figs, 15 tabs, 59 refs. (Author).

  13. The role of knowledge management in achieving harmonized high level of nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    imply the exercise of authority in the case a utility fails to live up to the requirements. However, the member states of EU have much to be gained from harmonization of national approaches. The objective of WENRA harmonization work is to achieve step by step the level of convergence warranting that 'there are no substantial differences between the countries from the safety point of view in generic formally issued national safety requirements, and in the resulting implementation on the nuclear power plants'. Harmonization means neither uniformity nor loss of responsibility. It means, for instance, that a improvement that has been discovered in one place can be more easily made universal. Harmonization is a prerequisite for sharing a certain number of tasks, rather than reinventing them in every institution involved. Harmonization would thus enable all actors to more easily achieve the standards of those with the best ones. The goals for the interface between regulatory and industry oversight activities also need to be considered. Perhaps an ideal world would rely on nuclear industry self-regulation with regulatory oversight to assure itself and the public that the self-regulation is working. This requires also a better understanding of how the social environment influences both nuclear industry safety performance and regulatory oversight activities. Knowledge management is important for enhancing an organization's ability and capacity to deal with its mission, its ability to deliver the results and to be able to cope with change. The value of knowledge management relates directly to the effectiveness with which the managed knowledge enables the members of the organization to deal with today's situations and effectively envision and create their future. Without access to managed knowledge, every situation is addressed based on what the individual or group brings to the situation with them. With access to managed knowledge, every situation is addressed with the sum total

  14. Level of knowledge among the population of radiation safety basic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zelencova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of research was to determine the level of knowledge among the population on issues like sources of ionising radiation, methods of ionising radiation measurement, measures of self-protection in case of threating or actual radioactive pollution in the district, and to study self-estimation by the population of their knowledge of radiation safety issues. Research was carried out using the method of questioning of population groups in three regions close to the places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions (Arkhangelsk, Murmansk and Tyumen regions, and in five Far East regions of the Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Khabarovsk, Primorsky, Magadan and South-Sakhalin regions after radiation accident in Japan at "Fukushima-1" NPP. This research included processing of 243 questionnaires from the regions close to places of previous peaceful nuclear explosions and 216 questionnaires from the Far East regions.The analysis of obtained questioning results enabled to make the following conclusions: the level of knowledge among the population about the basic concepts of radiation safety appeared to be generally low among respondents of all eight territories. Considerable number of respondents in seven groups correctly mentioned the x-ray device as a source of ionising radiation (from 71 to 88 % of answers. In Murmansk region – only 52 % of the answers. Respondents of the same seven groups often correctly answered the question on how to detect ionising radiation (only with devices – from 68 to 98 % in different groups. The smallest number of correct answers to this question (42 % is also noted among respondents from the Murmansk region.Level of knowledge on self-protection measures at threating or actual radioactive pollution of the places of residence appeared a little higher among the Far East region population, who had actual concerns regarding the threat of radioactive pollution at the present time. However, in all eight investigated groups

  15. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Engineering-Initial High-Level Safety Risk Assessment and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." ITT has completed a safety hazard analysis providing a preliminary safety assessment for the proposed C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system. The assessment was performed following the guidelines outlined in the Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Guidance for System Acquisitions document. The safety analysis did not identify any hazards with an unacceptable risk, though a number of hazards with a medium risk were documented. This effort represents an initial high-level safety hazard analysis and notes the triggers for risk reassessment. A detailed safety hazards analysis is recommended as a follow-on activity to assess particular components of the C-band communication system after the profile is finalized and system rollout timing is determined. A security risk assessment has been performed by NASA as a parallel activity. While safety analysis is concerned with a prevention of accidental errors and failures, the security threat analysis focuses on deliberate attacks. Both processes identify the events that affect operation of the system; and from a safety perspective the security threats may present safety risks.

  16. Towards instantaneous cellular level bio diagnosis: laser extraction and imaging of biological entities with conserved integrity and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L; Robertson, W D; Reimer, R; Heinze, C; Schneider, C; Eggert, D; Truschow, P; Hansen, N-O; Kroetz, P; Zou, J; Miller, R J D

    2015-07-17

    The prospect for spatial imaging with mass spectroscopy at the level of the cell requires new means of cell extraction to conserve molecular structure. To this aim, we demonstrate a new laser extraction process capable of extracting intact biological entities with conserved biological function. The method is based on the recently developed picosecond infrared laser (PIRL), designed specifically to provide matrix-free extraction by selectively exciting the water vibrational modes under the condition of ultrafast desorption by impulsive vibrational excitation (DIVE). The basic concept is to extract the constituent protein structures on the fastest impulsive limit for ablation to avoid excessive thermal heating of the proteins and to use strongly resonant 1-photon conditions to avoid multiphoton ionization and degradation of the sample integrity. With various microscope imaging and biochemical analysis methods, nanoscale single protein molecules, viruses, and cells in the ablation plume are found to be morphologically and functionally identical with their corresponding controls. This method provides a new means to resolve chemical activity within cells and is amenable to subcellular imaging with near-field approaches. The most important finding is the conserved nature of the extracted biological material within the laser ablation plume, which is fully consistent with in vivo structures and characteristics. PMID:26111866

  17. Increasing Safety of Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of aging high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage tanks due to cracking is a serious problem. Present fracture mechanics analyses assume small ductility and have limited applicability to these tanks. This research program addresses this limitation by combining slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture analysis approach) with fully plastic, 3-D finite element analyses to predict growth of part-through surface cracks to, and past, the point of penetration. An extensive experimental program supports the development. The sudden transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture, including event probability, is also examined. Developed capabilities will provide the basis for a reliable predictive model of fracture in HLW storage tanks across the DOE complex, but will also be applicable to spent nuclear fuel canisters, natural gas pipelines, and other safety critical engineered structures. Experimental, numerical and analytical results are presented along with a roadmap of programmatic direction

  18. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (Level 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides guidance for conducting a Level 1 of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), that is a PSA concerned with events leading to core damage. The scope of this report is confined to internal initiating events (excluding internal fires and floods). A particular aim is to promote a standardized framework, terminology and form of documentation for PSAs so as to facilitate external review of the results of such studies. The report is divided into the following major sections: management and organization; identification of sources of radioactive releases and accident initiators; accident sequence modelling; data assessment and parameter estimation; accident sequence quantification; documentation of the analysis: display and interpretation of result. 45 refs, 7 figs, 23 tabs

  19. Prediction of the safety level in a tritium processing facility through predictive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The safety level of a nuclear facility for personnel and environment depends generally on the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and particularly on several technical, technological, economic, and human factors. The role of maintenance is fundamental because it is determined by all the technical, economic and human elements as parts of an integrated system dominated by an important feedback from upstream activities which eventually define the life cycle of the nuclear facility considered. In the maintenance activity as in case of any dynamic area, new elements may appear which, sometimes, require new methods of approach. For considered installation which is a Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) operating as a division of the National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICSI, Rm.Valcea, in order to ensure a safety level in operation as high as possible through predictive maintenance, the fuzzy theory and software LabVIEW were applied. The final aim is to achieve the best practices in maintenance of the tritium processing plant. The safety in operation of the NDP equipment and installations is directly related with the maintenance achieved by improving the reliability through methods and advanced techniques. The maintainability is the capacity of an industrial product, in given utilization conditions, to be maintained and re-established up to achieve specified functions. In general the reliability on some interval is a probability conditioned by good operation at the beginning of the interval, representing thus the probability as the element which operated at t = t0 to operate in the interval (t0, t1). The failure is a fundamental event in the reliability theory. Breakdown (failure) is understood as the stop process of the function required from a given product, the failure representing the effect upon that process. The operation of a product on a certain duration can be a 'success' or a

  20. Endogenous estimation of safety coefficient for optimal design of biochemical reactors at industrial level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontorou, Christina G.; Karydi, Angeliki

    2012-12-01

    This work deals with the endogenous estimation of the Safety Coefficient Ge = Vd/Vm, where Vd is the design volume and Vm is the mean volume of liquid of a biochemical reactor operating at industrial level. The Vd-value is estimated through Monte Carlo simulation while Vm-value is obtained by means of material balances and biochemical kinetics. A case example on waste water biological treatment is presented, referring to a well-mixed bioreactor followed by a clarifier. The Ge-values finally estimated are in the lower part of the (exogenously determined) region as suggested in the relevant technical literature, implying a significant saving of investment capital, which forms the principle component of fixed cost. Similar applications are also mentioned in brief.

  1. BIO 100 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    welcome1351

    2015-01-01

    BIO 100 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+   BIO 100 Assignment: The Scientific Method BIO 100 Exercise: UNESCO Research BIO 100 CheckPoint: Living Organisms BIO 100 Assignment: PopEcoLab BIO 100 Assignment: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration BIO 100 Assignment: DemographyLab BIO 100 Final Project: UNESCO Paper BIO 100 CheckPoint: Theories of Biology BIO ...

  2. BIO 100 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    sssASF

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BIO 100 Assignment: The Scientific Method BIO 100 Exercise: UNESCO Research BIO 100 CheckPoint: Living Organisms BIO 100 Assignment: PopEcoLab BIO 100 Assignment: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration BIO 100 Assignment: DemographyLab BIO 100 Final Project: UNESCO Paper BIO 100 CheckPoint: Theories of Biology BIO 100 Assignment: Pearson Lab Scavenger Hunt BIO 100 CheckPoint: Plants vs. Animals ...

  3. Improvement of Level-1 PSA computer code package -A study for nuclear safety improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This year is the second year of the Government-sponsored Mid- and Long-Term Nuclear Power Technology Development Project. The scope of this subproject titled on 'The Improvement of Level-1 PSA Computer Codes' is divided into three main activities : (1) Methodology development on the under-developed fields such as risk assessment technology for plant shutdown and external events, (2) Computer code package development for Level-1 PSA, (3) Applications of new technologies to reactor safety assessment. At first, in the area of PSA methodology development, foreign PSA reports on shutdown and external events have been reviewed and various PSA methodologies have been compared. Level-1 PSA code KIRAP and CCF analysis code COCOA are converted from KOS to Windows. Human reliability database has been also established in this year. In the area of new technology applications, fuzzy set theory and entropy theory are used to estimate component life and to develop a new measure of uncertainty importance. Finally, in the field of application study of PSA technique to reactor regulation, a strategic study to develop a dynamic risk management tool PEPSI and the determination of inspection and test priority of motor operated valves based on risk importance worths have been studied. (Author)

  4. Building a safety case for a small sized product line of Fuel Level Display Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gallucci, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    ISO 26262 is an international standard valid for the automotive domain. It regulates all the activities to perform for developing safety critical systems in such domain. To be compliant with ISO 26262, all the required activities have to be performed and all the required work products have to be provided. Furthermore, in addition to develop a system in a safe way, following the safety standard guidelines, the achieved safety has also to be demonstrated. This is done through a safety case, a s...

  5. The Feasibility of Establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research Centers at University-Level Institutions. Final Report, Volume I: Study Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorness, Maury H.; And Others

    To examine the feasibility of establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research (HSMDR) Centers at university-level institutions which would produce three types of manpower--safety specialists, safety professionals, and research manpower, previous National Highway Safety Bureau research studies and approximately 50 federally funded…

  6. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes: The system of safety barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety barrier system for the type B repository for low- and intermediate-level waste is described. The barrier parameters which are relevant for safety analysis are quantified and associated error limits and data scatter are given. The aim of the report is to give a summary documentation of the safety analysis input data and their scientific background. For secure containment of radioactive waste safety barriers are used which effectively limit the release of radioactive material from the repository (release barriers) and effectively retard the entry of the original radioactive material into the biosphere (time barriers). In the case of low- and intermediate-level waste the technical safety barrier system comprises: waste solidification matrix (cement, bitumen and resin), immobilisation of the waste packages in containers using liquid cement, concrete repository containers, backfilling of remaining vacant storage space with special concrete, concrete lining of the repository caverns, sealing of access tunnels on final closure of the repository. Natural geological safety barriers - host rock and overlying formations - have the following important functions. Because of its stability, the host rock in the repository zone protects the technical safety barrier system from destruction caused by climatic effects and erosion for a sufficient length of time. It also provides for low water flow and favourable chemistry (reducing conditions)

  7. BIO 315 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SSDDCC

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 2 Environment, Resources, and Competition BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 4 BIO 315 Week 3 Individual Assignment Yeast Culture Lab ...

  8. BIO 240 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    ADGF

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 1 Cells BIO 240 Week 1 DQ 2 Virus BIO 240 Week 1 Comparing Cell Structures Worksheet BIO 240 Week 1 Photosynthesis and Respiration Paper BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 240 Week 3 Learning Team Outline BIO 240 Week 3 DNA and Protein Synthesis BIO 240 Week 4 DQ 1 BIO 240 Week 4 DQ2 BIO 240 Week 4 Natural Selection Pap...

  9. BIO 315 Course Tutorial / tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    welcome1358

    2015-01-01

    BIO 315 Entire Course (UOP) For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+ BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 2 Environment, Resources, and Competition BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 3 BIO...

  10. Safety-related equipment prioritization for reliability centered maintenance purposes based on a plant specific level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Importance measures are widely used for multiple purposes concerning safety improvement of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This paper proposes a new approach for performing the safety-related equipment prioritization for reliability centered maintenance purposes that considers two measures of risk importance of components based on a simplified Core Damage Frequency model derived from the plant specific level 1 PSA. It is also included the case of application to the Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) at the Confrentes NPP in Spain

  11. Pilot-benchmarking of the WENRA safety reference levels for the spent fuel intermediate storage facility Ahaus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Western European Nuclear Regulator's Association (WENRA) has 2007 issued the draft of the 'Waste and Spent Fuel Storage Safety Reference Levels'. The objective of WENRA is to strive for a harmonized safety level of nuclear facilities within the European Community and these Reference Levels are a benchmark method to demonstrate the achieved level for the regulatory system and the implementation as well. Safety Reference Levels exist at the moment for Reactor Safety, Waste Storage and Decommissioning in different stages of development. ENISS, the European Nuclear Installations Safety Standards Initiative, a FORATOM based special organisation of nuclear operators, has discussed these Safety Reference Levels very intensively with WENRA and the agreement was to make a implementation benchmark-exercise for the storage facilities before the authorities finally agree on the Reference Levels. This benchmark was scheduled for the year 2008. Because of the special situation in Germany where a large number of storage facilities is in operation the German authorities felt that it would be useful to initiate a Pilot-Benchmark to get first results on the feasibility of the Reference Levels and the burden imposed to authorities and operators by these benchmark-exercises. GNS, a subsidiary company of the utilities, agreed to step into this process on a voluntary basis with its storage facility for spent fuel in Ahaus. The exercise was done in a very efficient way and in good co-operation between the authorities, local and federal, and the operator. The results in terms of safety assessments have been very satisfactory showing the high degree of safety. Although the facility was for the first time licensed already in 1987 the compliance with nearly all Reference Levels from 2007 could be demonstrated. It became also clear that newer facilities would fulfil the desired safety standard too. Nevertheless, in spite of the good results the exercise revealed some weak

  12. Evaluation of the Level of Food Safety Protection Provided by the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance and Its Associated Cooperative Grade "A" Milk Safety Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yinqing; Klontz, Karl C; DiNovi, Michael J; Edwards, Alison J; Hennes, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the level of food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments (NCIMS) Grade "A" Milk Safety Program through its implementation and enforcement of the U.S. Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO). The number of reported illnesses associated with Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was obtained from state and federal agencies and published articles. The consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States was estimated from food consumption survey data for individuals. The level of food safety protection was measured quantitatively using the metric of annual illness attack rate. During a 15-year period (1999 through 2013), the estimated annual illness attack rate was 0.41 reported illnesses per 1 billion exposures (estimated using person-day intake data) or 0.52 reported illnesses per 1 billion lb (454 million kg) of Grade "A" milk and milk products consumed. Food safety protection provided to consumers of Grade "A" milk and milk products by the NCIMS through its implementation and enforcement of the PMO is important given the common consumption of Grade "A" milk and milk products in the United States. PMID:26219354

  13. Evaluation of safety issues on newly regulated nuclear power plant by tsunami-level 1 PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tsunami caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered severe accidents involving the units 1 to 4 at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station (NPS). In order to re-operate existing nuclear power plants it should be necessary to reduce the core damage frequency on risk by tsunami. In this work, effects of the off-site power supply installation on resuming operation of nuclear power plants were investigated by utilizing the Tsunami-Level 1 Probability Risk Assessment (PRA). Unit 2 of the Onagawa nuclear power station, which resembled units 2 and 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi, was selected for PRA. First, event-tree was created for the units of the Onagawa nuclear power station with the safety systems such as Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS), investigating the plant situation at the time of the earthquake and tsunami occurrences. It was assumed that the magnitude of the tsunami was equivalent to the Great East Japan Earthquake. The accident-analytical progression-time was 36 hours, determined from the core-damage occurrence of the unit 3 of Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station. Failure probabilities were calculated by the fault tree, which was created from the elements listed in the event tree. For the calculation, failure rates reported by the NUCIA (NUClear Information Archives) were primarily utilized. Then, obtained failure probabilities were embedded to the event tree. Core damage probabilities were evaluated by calculating success and failure rates for each accidental progression and scenarios. Restoration of the failed equipment and machineries was not considered in the analysis. Installation of the power supply vehicles at the nuclear power plant site reduced the core damage probability from 2.58×10-6 to 8.56×10-7. However, continued addition of the power supply vehicles could not lower the core damage probability further more. In the case of Unit 2 of Onagawa nuclear power station, there could be a limit to lower the core damage probability

  14. Level-1 probability safety assessment of the Iranian heavy water reactor using SAPHIRE software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of this review paper is to analyze the total frequency of the core damage of the Iranian Heavy Water Research Reactor (IHWRR) compared with standard criteria and to determine the strengths and the weaknesses of the reactor safety systems towards improving its design and operation. The PSA has been considered for full-power state of the reactor and this article represents a level-1 PSA analysis using System Analysis Programs for Hands-On Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) software. It is specifically designed to permit a listing of the potential accident sequences, compute their frequencies of occurrence and assign each sequence to a consequence. The method used for modeling the systems and accident sequences, is Large Fault Tree/Small Event Tree method. This PSA level-1 for IHWRR indicates that, based on conservative assumptions, the total frequency of accidents that would lead to core damage from internal initiating events is 4.44E-05 per year of reactor operation

  15. Results of the Safety probabilistic analysis of Level 2 of the CNSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has concluded the one develop of their Probabilistic Analysis of Safety (APS) of Level 2. The reach of the study it considers internal events to full power and it was developed on the base of the methodology of the NUREG-1150, for what you it was built an Event Tree of the Progression of the Accident (APET) to analyze the 25 States of Damage to the Plant (PDS) obtained of the APS Nl of the CNSNS. In the APET are considered the phenomenology of severe accidents, the performance of mitigation systems and actions of the operator that could modify the evolution of a severe accident in the CNLV, as well as the diverse modes of failure of the primary container and it identifies the trajectories of liberation of radioactive material to the exterior. The conditional probabilities of failure of the primary container were obtained and it was characterized the time so much to which happens the liberation of radioactive material as the quantity of the term liberated source. Also, to establish the times and parameters of the evolution of accidents were selected representative accident sequences of the diverse accident types and their conditions were simulated by means of the MELCOR computer code. Also it was developed a code of parametric compute type XSOR, specific for Laguna Verde, with which it was carried out the estimate of the term source in each one of the release trajectories. In this work the main characteristic ones are presented and results of the APS N2 developed in the CNSNS and they are compared against the model and results of the EIP of the CNLV. (Author)

  16. A checklist for patient safety rounds at the care pathway level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cordula; Thompson, Caroline A.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Groene, Oliver; Klazinga, Niek S.; Dersarkissian, Maral; Suñol, Rosa; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To define a checklist that can be used to assess the performance of a department and evaluate the implementation of quality management (QM) activities across departments or pathways in acute care hospitals. Design We developed and tested a checklist for the assessment of QM activities at department level in a cross-sectional study using on-site visits by trained external auditors. Setting and participants A sample of 292 hospital departments of 74 acute care hospitals across seven European countries. In every hospital, four departments for the conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, hip fracture and deliveries participated. Main Outcome Measures Four measures of QM activities were evaluated at care pathway level focusing on specialized expertise and responsibility (SER), evidence-based organization of pathways (EBOP), patient safety strategies and clinical review (CR). Results Participating departments attained mean values on the various scales between 1.2 and 3.7. The theoretical range was 0–4. Three of the four QM measures are identical for the four conditions, whereas one scale (EBOP) has condition-specific items. Correlations showed that every factor was related, but also distinct, and added to the overall picture of QM at pathway level. Conclusion The newly developed checklist can be used across various types of departments and pathways in acute care hospitals like AMI, deliveries, stroke and hip fracture. The anticipated users of the checklist are internal (e.g. peers within the hospital and hospital executive board) and external auditors (e.g. healthcare inspectorate, professional or patient organizations). PMID:24615594

  17. Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposes an overview of methods and concepts used in the nuclear industry, at the design level as well as at the exploitation level, to ensure an acceptable safety level, notably in the case of nuclear reactors. He first addresses the general objectives of nuclear safety and the notion of acceptable risk: definition and organisation of nuclear safety (relationships between safety authorities and operators), notion of acceptable risk, deterministic safety approach and main safety principles (safety functions and confinement barriers, concept of defence in depth). Then, the author addresses the safety approach at the design level: studies of operational situations, studies of internal and external aggressions, safety report, design principles for important-for-safety systems (failure criterion, redundancy, failure prevention, safety classification). The next part addresses safety during exploitation and general exploitation rules: definition of the operation domain and of its limits, periodic controls and tests, management in case of incidents, accidents or aggressions

  18. French statutory approach of the evaluation of the safety level of old nuclear divisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal French procedures include three steps which have to be followed during the exam of the safety in nuclear plants (creation authorization, loading authorization, actual running of the plant). After listing the different types of evaluation of safety in fraction of plants, this report presents the main themes encountered during the safety assessment: state of the reactor, maintenance, tracking of the incidents, personnel training, radioprotection, radioactive releases. The Fessenheim and Bugey list of reevaluation themes is also given. (TEC)

  19. Deterministic and probabilistic methods to assess the safety level of operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German safety concept for nuclear power plants gives priority to the deterministic approach, i.e. deterministic analysis and good engineering judgement are primary tools of design evaluation. Probabilistic safety assessment is seen as a supplementary tool to the deterministic approach which provides quantitative information on the occurrence of incidents and thus can be used to check deterministic design assumptions, to evaluate desired plant and system modifications, to optimize backfitting measures and to quantify existing safety margins of operating nuclear power plants, e.g. in the frame of periodic safety reviews.(author)

  20. PSAPACK 4.2. A code for probabilistic safety assessment level 1. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only limited use has been made until now of the large amount of information contained in probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs). This is mainly due to the complexity of the PSA reports and the difficulties in obtaining intermediate results and in performing updates and recalculations. Moreover, PSA software was developed for mainframe computers, and the files of information such as fault trees and accident sequences were intended for the use of the analysts carrying out PSA studies or other skilled PSA practitioners. The increasing power and availability of personal computers (PCs) and developments in recent years in both hardware and software have made it possible to develop PSA software for use in PCs. Furthermore, the operational characteristics of PCs make them attractive not only for performing PSAs but also for updating the results and in using them in day-to-day applications. The IAEA has therefore developed in co-operation with its Member States, a software package (PSAPACK) for PCs for use in performing a Level 1 PSA and for easy interrogation of the results. Figs

  1. Biosphere modeling with climate changes for safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste geological isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the safety assessment of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system, it is required to estimate radiological impacts on future human beings arising from potential radionuclide releases from a deep repository into the surface environment. In order to estimate the impacts, a biosphere model is developed by reasonably assuming radionuclide migration processes in the surface environment and relevant human lifestyles. Releases from the repository might not occur for many thousands of years after disposal. Over such timescales, it is anticipated that the considerable climatic change, for example, induced by the next glaciation period expected to occur in around ten thousand years from now, will have a significant influence on the near surface environment and associated human lifestyles. In case of taking these evolution effects into account in modeling, it is reasonable to develop several alternative models on biosphere evolution systems consistent with possible future conditions affected by expected climatic changes. In this study, alternative biosphere models were developed taking effects of possible climatic change into account. In the modeling, different climatic states existing in the world from the present climate condition in Japan are utilized as an analogy. Estimation of net effects of the climatic change on biosphere system was made by comparing these alternative biosphere models with a constant biosphere model consistent with the present climatic state through flux to dose conversion factors derived from each one. (author)

  2. Radiation safety concerns and diagnostic reference levels for computed tomography scanners in Tamil Nadu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety in computed tomography (CT) scanners is of concern due its widespread use in the field of radiological imaging. This study intends to evaluate radiation doses imparted to patients undergoing thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations and formulate regional diagnostic reference levels (DRL) in Tamil Nadu, South India. In-site CT dose measurement was performed in 127 CT scanners in Tamil Nadu for a period of 2 years as a part of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)-funded project. Out of the 127 CT scanners,13 were conventional; 53 single-slice helical scanners (SSHS); 44 multislice CT (MSCT) scanners; and 17 refurbished scanners. CT dose index (CTDI) was measured using a 32-cm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-body phantom in each CT scanner. Dose length product (DLP) for different anatomical regions was generated using CTDI values. The regional DRLs for thorax, abdomen and pelvis examinations were 557, 521 and 294 mGy cm, respectively. The mean effective dose was estimated using the DLP values and was found to be 8.04, 6.69 and 4.79 mSv for thorax, abdomen and pelvic CT examinations, respectively. The establishment of DRLs in this study is the first step towards optimization of CT doses in the Indian context. (author)

  3. Challenges to maintain the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One possible tool to identify new challenges is the evaluation of operating experience. For example, the evaluation of operating experience has resulted in the further development of safety standards and regulations. Also, it is highly useful in connection with the identification of generic weak points. The development of safety management systems in German nuclear power plants was initiated in the wake of two events with high safety significance. As a result, the Fundamentals of Safety Management Systems were published by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 2004. Another important challenge is the need for an ageing management system in nuclear power plants. In 2004, the German Reactor Safety Commission submitted a comprehensive recommendation on the control of ageing processes. The aim was to include all possible ageing mechanisms. Finally, a further challenge is the increasing tendency to perform realistic or so-called best estimate calculations. Improved analyses increase the degree of certainty associated with calculated safety margins of acceptance criteria. Once this increased margin has been identified, the best possible uses of this gain of margin have to be identified. One of them might be to improve the plant's performance. The lessons learned from these examples can be summarized in the following statement: to maintain safety under changing boundary conditions, progress is necessary. (author)

  4. Psychological Safety and Social Support in Groupware Adoption: A Multi-Level Assessment in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, J.; de Jong, A.; Wetzels, M.; de Ruyter, K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose that psychological safety, a sense of interpersonal trust and being valued in a work team, is an important determinant of groupware technology adoption in an educational setting. They develop and test a model of antecedents and consequences of psychological safety. Data were collected from 361 university…

  5. Approach to improved safety of high-level radioactive waste storage by the U.S. Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In mid-1990, two unreviewed safety questions were identified associated with high-level radioactive waste (HLW) storage at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site located near Richland, Washington. Admiral Watkins, the Secretary of Energy, and Leo Duffy, the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), immediately initiated an aggressive program to resolve these two unreviewed safety questions and to improve the overall safety posture of HLW storage. This paper will first describe the DOE's approach to improve the safety of HLW storage and then discuss DOE's program to resolve the high-priority safety issues at the Hanford Site. High-level radioactive wastes are stored at four DOE facilities: the Hanford Site, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Savannah River Site, and the West Valley Demonstration Project. The largest volume of waste is stored at the Hanford Site, while Savannah River Site has the greatest quantity of radionuclides. It is DOE'S plan to treat and immobilize the high-level fraction of HLW at Hanford, the Savannah River Site, and the West Valley Demonstration Project as borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. To that end, vitrification facilities are undergoing operational testing at the Savannah River Site, being completed at the West Valley Demonstration Project, and are in the final planning stage at the Hanford Site. Unlike other sites, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is storing its HLW either in acidic form or as calcine, and DOE is still in the early planning stage regarding selection of the appropriate waste form for disposal of this waste. Of all the sites with HLW storage, Hanford poses the greatest challenge, given the age of the storage tanks, the large number of different production and waste processing campaigns, and design of the single-shell tanks; the majority of the HLW tanks at Hanford are single-shell tanks. A significant number of the single-shell tanks

  6. Lessons learned from exchanges between safety authorities in France and the Federal Republic of Germany: Comparison of the reactor safety levels achieved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first two sections of the paper give a historical survey of the bilateral co-operation between France and the Federal Republic of Germany, emphasize the exceptional extent of the exchanges and illustrate the substance of these exchanges with a description of the technical areas treated for 15 years by the working group in charge of PWR safety. The overview given in the third section deals with three main results gained from this co-operation. The results of this work are largely positive as is confirmed by the 1981 agreement of information exchange in the event of an accident, the installation of dedicated data links between the public authorities, installed in the towns of Colmar, Freiburg, Metz, Trier, and Saarbruecken, the measures taken to ensure consistency between emergency plans in both countries and the monitoring of the level of liquid effluents and the level's compliance with regulations in both countries. The results of this work are mainly positive regarding mutual understanding of the approaches utilized in each country (taking account of national particularities, particularly population density and industrial environment) as well as the assessment of the advantages and disadvantages, on a technical and economic level, of the options selected in each of the two countries. After achieving the first two of these results gained from the bilateral co-operation, the third was also achieved, but further data were provided by a certain number of fruitful comparisons. The Cattenom-Philippsburg qustionnaire enabled verification of the fact that beyond the particularities of national regulations, the safety objectives and methods were formulated with a comparable level of stringency in each country. Currently, a series of particularly significant assessments are being performed by joint French and Federal German teams. These include a reassessment of plant safety at Fessenheim and Neckarwestheim and an analysis of the capability of containments to fulfil

  7. Follow-up the commissioning of CENM TRIGA Mark II research reactor on safety level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The follow-up of the commissioning of the CENM-TRIGA Mark II Reactor has been performed in conformance with national regulation and the IAEA standards. For this purpose, the CNESTEN established a safety committee to review all safety aspects during reactor commissioning and operation. A set of hold points was established in the commissioning program, typically at the end of each stage to ensure that (i) test results have been reviewed by the safety committee and meet acceptance criterion, and (ii) requirements for the performance of the following stage of the commissioning program reviewed and understood by all the parties

  8. Safety evaluation of geological disposal concepts for low and medium-level wastes in rock-salt (Pacoma project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the Performance Assessment of Confinements for MLW and Alpha Waste (PACOMA) the disposal options dealing with rock-salt are studied by GSF and ECN (with subcontract to RIVM). The overall objectives of these studies are to develop and demonstrate procedures for the radiological safety assessment of a deep repository in salt formations. An essential objective is to show how far appropriate choices of the repository design parameters can improve the performances of the whole system. The research covers two waste inventories (the Dutch OPLA and the PACOMA reference inventory), two disposal techniques (conventional and solution mining) and three types of formations (salt dome, pillow and bedded salt). An important part of the research has been carried out in the socalled VEOS project within the framework of the Dutch OPLA study. The methodology used in the consequence analysis is a deterministic one. The models and calculation tools used to perform the consequence analysis are the codes: EMOS, METROPOL and BIOS. The results are expressed in terms of dose rates and doses to individuals as well as to groups. Detailed information with respect to the input data and the results obtained with the three codes is given in three annexes to this final report

  9. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Level 1 Seismic Condition for AP600 Power Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research about probabilistic safety assessment level 1 for AP600 power reactor has been conducted an seismic condition as external initiator. They key elements of this research are seismic fragility evaluation to define fragility curve of component s, accident sequence analysis to build event tree and fault tree, and core damage frequency as the final result. The seismic hazard analysis products a seismic occurrence per year for a certain range of seismic acceleration on a certain location. With large break LOCA as an addition fault condition 10 components and systems of AP600 have been chosen whose fragility curves can be made. Those are reactor coolant system piping. reactor protection system, reactor coolant pump, core makeup tank, accumulator tank, RWST, DC distribution panel cable trays, check valve, and isolation valve. The fragility curve shows in conditional fault probability on a seismic condition in form of normal cumulative distribution function with different confidences. This function is integrated from median acceleration Am, uncertainty βu and randomness βr parameter. From function and response analysis of AP600 systems a specific event tree and fault tree for large break LOCA are built with the fault probability parameter from the fragility curves as the input. The conditional probability of core damage can therefore be calculated for each accident sequence. After combined with values of the seismic hazard curve the core damage frequency per year for for each accident sequence and totally are obtained. The final calculation shows that the total core damage frequency for AP600 power reactor on seismic condition with the initiated fault condition large break LOCA is 3,87.10-7/years

  10. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Industry, Science and Tourism selected PLG, an EQE International Company, to systematically and independently evaluate the safety of the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR), located at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. PLG performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to quantify the risks posed by operation of HIFAR . The PSA identified possible accident scenarios, estimated their likelihood of occurrence, and assigned each scenario to a consequence category; i.e., end state. The accident scenarios developed included the possible release of radioactive material from irradiated nuclear fuel and of tritium releases from reactor coolant. The study team developed a recommended set of safety criteria against which the results of the PSA may be judged. HIFAR was found to exceed one of the two primary safety objectives and two of the five secondary safety objectives. Reactor coolant leaks, earthquakes, and coolant pump trips were the accident initiators that contributed most to scenarios that could result in fuel overheating. Scenarios initiated by earthquakes were the reason the frequency criterion for the one primary safety objective was exceeded. Overall, the plant safety status has been shown to be generally good with no evidence of major safety-related problems from its operation. One design deficiency associated with the emergency core cooling system was identified that should be corrected as soon as possible. Additionally, several analytical issues have been identified that should be investigated further. The results from these additional investigations should be used to determine whether additional plant and procedural changes are required, or if further evaluations of postulated severe accidents are warranted. Supporting information can be found in Appendix A for the seismic analysis and in the Appendix B for selected other external events

  11. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Industry, Science and Tourism selected PLG, an EQE International Company, to systematically and independently evaluate the safety of the High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR), located at Lucas Heights, New South Wales. PLG performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) to quantify the risks posed by operation of HIFAR . The PSA identified possible accident scenarios, estimated their likelihood of occurrence, and assigned each scenario to a consequence category; i.e., end state. The accident scenarios developed included the possible release of radioactive material from irradiated nuclear fuel and of tritium releases from reactor coolant. The study team developed a recommended set of safety criteria against which the results of the PSA may be judged. HIFAR was found to exceed one of the two primary safety objectives and two of the five secondary safety objectives. Reactor coolant leaks, earthquakes, and coolant pump trips were the accident initiators that contributed most to scenarios that could result in fuel overheating. Scenarios initiated by earthquakes were the reason the frequency criterion for the one primary safety objective was exceeded. Overall, the plant safety status has been shown to be generally good with no evidence of major safety-related problems from its operation. One design deficiency associated with the emergency core cooling system was identified that should be corrected as soon as possible. Additionally, several analytical issues have been identified that should be investigated further. The results from these additional investigations should be used to determine whether additional plant and procedural changes are required, or if further evaluations of postulated severe accidents are warranted. Supporting information can be found in Appendix A for the seismic analysis and in the Appendix B for selected other external events refs., 139 tabs., 85 figs. Prepared for Department of Industry, Science and Tourism

  12. Low-level software security : exploiting memory safety vulnerabilities and assumptions

    OpenAIRE

    Checkoway, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The security of computer systems depends in a fundamental way on the validity of assumptions made by the systems' designers. Assumptions made about attacker capabilities have a tendency to turn out false and many computer systems are insecure as a direct consequence. This is especially true with memory-safety vulnerabilities whereby an attacker is able to violate the memory-safety guarantees of a software system. Here, system designers have assumed that defenses against code injection or cert...

  13. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  14. Technical consideration on a safety assessment methodology for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses some regulatory issues concerning how to interpret and implement detailed technical requirements pertaining to long-term post-closure safety assessment for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The considerations include: (1) general characteristics of the post-closure performance assessment (PA); (2) regulatory framework of the PA; (3) an acceptable approach for demonstrating compliance with the post-closure performance objective; and (4) policy issues regarding the PA. The views presented are based on a consistent concept that the uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be treated as clearly as possible to demonstrate, with reasonable assurance, that the performance objective will be met

  15. Progress report on safety research on high-level waste management for the period April 1990 to March 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on high-level waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory and Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1990 described. The topics are as follows: 1) As for waste forms and engineered barrier material, performance assessment studies on glass, ceramic and buffer materials, and corrosion test of stainless steel were carried out. 2) In the safety evaluation study for geological disposal, chemical behavior of nuclide in water, nuclide migration and fixation in geosphere were studied. 3) Distribution of uranium and migration of uranium series nuclide in uranium ore were examined as a natural analogue study. (author)

  16. The study of the mutagenetical effects of low dose level exposure to ionizing radiation using a bio indicator system close to deposits of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Leal, T.C. dos; Kelecom, A. [Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental (PGCA)-UFF-Niteroi (Brazil); Crispim, V.R.; Silva, A.X. da [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE/UFRJ-Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Frota, M. [Laboratorio de Radiobiologia e Radiometria (LARARA)-Dept. Biologia Geral UFF-Niteroi (Brazil)].e-mail: teresa@tcleal.eng.br

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the biological mutational effects caused by low doses of ionizing radiation in biological samples placed close to and around deposits of radioactive waste, as a way of monitoring the environment close to these deposits. In order to do this the Tradescantia pallida, was chosen, and through micronuclei tests one could verify the sensitivity of the dose/ Response to bio-monitoring. The plants were exposed for a period of 24 hours in previously chosen sites around Brazil, within the proximity of deposits of nuclear waste. In each location, three points were chosen for bio-monitoring. The results obtained at these locations shows a small increment in the frequency of micronuclei per cell analyzed by the biosensor. From this data, a scale of mutagenesis affects from low dosage radiation was built up. The Tradescantia pallida is a good alternative in environmental bio-monitoring for tropical climates, as it is an excellent alternative tool in the studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. (Author)

  17. The study of the mutagenetical effects of low dose level exposure to ionizing radiation using a bio indicator system close to deposits of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the biological mutational effects caused by low doses of ionizing radiation in biological samples placed close to and around deposits of radioactive waste, as a way of monitoring the environment close to these deposits. In order to do this the Tradescantia pallida, was chosen, and through micronuclei tests one could verify the sensitivity of the dose/ Response to bio-monitoring. The plants were exposed for a period of 24 hours in previously chosen sites around Brazil, within the proximity of deposits of nuclear waste. In each location, three points were chosen for bio-monitoring. The results obtained at these locations shows a small increment in the frequency of micronuclei per cell analyzed by the biosensor. From this data, a scale of mutagenesis affects from low dosage radiation was built up. The Tradescantia pallida is a good alternative in environmental bio-monitoring for tropical climates, as it is an excellent alternative tool in the studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on the environment. (Author)

  18. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  19. Bio-Functional Au/Si Nanorods for Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Abstract Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabr...

  20. Rapid Prototyping of NASA's Solar and Meteorological Data For Regional Level Modeling of Agricultural and Bio-fuel Crop Phenology and Yield Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, J. M.; Stackhouse, P. W.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    Global demand for food, feedstock and bio-fuel crops is expanding rapidly due to population growth, increasing consumption of these products (especially in developing countries), and more recently skyrocketing use of these crops to produce ethanol as a bio-fuel. As a result, there are growing concerns, both in the US and world wide, about the ability to meet the projected demand for agricultural/bio-fuel crops without expanding production areas into environmentally sensitive regions. Concurrently, there are increasing concerns over the negative impact of global warming on crop yields. Accurate ecophysiological crop models have been developed for many of the food and bio-fuel crops and serve as the back-bone in sophisticated Decision Support Systems (DSS). These DSS's are increasingly being used to address the balance between the need to increase production/efficiency and environmental concerns, as well as the impact of global warming on crop production. Realistic application of these agricultural DSS's requires accurate environmental data on time scales ranging from hours to decades. To date only sparse surface measurements are used that typically do not measure solar irradiance. NASA's Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) project, which has as one of its objectives the development of data products for agricultural applications, currently provides a climatological data base of meteorological parameters and surface solar energy fluxes on a global 1-degree latitude by 1- degree longitude grid. NASA is also developing capabilities to produce near-real time data sets specifically designed for application by agricultural DSS's. In this presentation, we discuss the development of 1-degree global data products which combine the climatological data in the POWER project archive (http://earth-www.larc.nasa.gov/power), near real time (2 to 3 day lag) meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) quick-look products, and global solar energy

  1. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April, 1982 to March, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main results obtained on Safety Research of High-Level waste Management in 1982 were editted. 1) The leaching mechanisms of the vitrified waste were studied to estimate the leach rate in disposal condition. 2) For the safety assessment of storage and disposal of the returning waste resulted from overseas reprocessing, properties of the glass simulating the composition by COGEMA are being measured. 3) In order to assess the integrity of the repository, influence of heat on the characteristics of rock mass and buffer materials was studied in underground drift. And also the retardation mechanism of the leached elements by rock mass was discussed. 4) The construction of Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF) was completed, and vitrification test and near-field test using large radiation sources were initiated. (author)

  2. BIO 101 Course tutorial/ indigohelp

    OpenAIRE

    SAFDs

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.indigohelp.com   BIO 101 Week 1 DQs  BIO 101 Week 1 Individual What Is Life?  BIO 101 Week 2 Individual Family Tree Presentation  BIO 101 Week 2 DQs  BIO 101 Week 3 Learning Team Presentation  BIO 101 Week 3 DQs  BIO 101 Week 3 Individual Evolution Lab  BIO 101 Week 4 DQs  BIO 101 Week 4 Individual Organism Physiology Paper  BIO 101 Week 4 Learning Team Assignment &...

  3. The meaning of the employers’ liability provisions for raising the level of workers safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ampovska, Marija; Belovski, Vojo

    2015-01-01

    In the legislation of Republic of Macedonia the workers protection during work is regulated with tha Law on safety and health during work. This law provides a large number of obligations for the employer and the employee. General obligation of the employer is to ensure the safety and health of its employees in every aspect related to work. Failure to follow the provisions of this law is the basis for employer’s liability when an employee suffers an injury in the workplace. The provisions o...

  4. An Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) to Increase Safety and Security Levels in Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main idea of this research is to develop an Online Risk Monitor System (ORMS) based on Living Probabilistic Safety Assessment (LPSA). The article highlights the essential features and functions of ORMS. The basic models and modules such as, Reliability Data Update Model (RDUM), running time update, redundant system unavailability update, Engineered Safety Features (ESF) unavailability update and general system update have been described in this study. ORMS not only provides quantitative analysis but also highlights qualitative aspects of risk measures. ORMS is capable of automatically updating the online risk models and reliability parameters of equipment. ORMS can support in the decision making process of operators and managers in Nuclear Power Plants

  5. Willingness to use safety belt and levels of injury in car accidents

    OpenAIRE

    DE LAPPARENT, M

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we develop a bivariate ordered Probit model to analyze the decision to fasten the safety belt in a car and the resulting severity of accidents if it happens. The approach takes into account the fact that the decision to fasten the safety belt has a direct causal effect on the category of injury if an accident happens. Our application to a sample drawn from the database of French accident reports in 2003 for three populations of car users (drivers, front passengers, rear passe...

  6. Probabilistic safety analysis of Novovoronezh-5. The level-1 study overview and findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Russian-Swiss Swisrus project, a stage 1 probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for internally initiated events was carried out for the Novovoronezh-5 nuclear generating unit. The real purpose of the project was the transfer to technical know-how in the field of PSA on the basis of a plant-specific analysis. The study was conducted by scientists of the Scientific and Engineering Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety (SEC NRS) of the Russian Nuclear Safety Authority, GAN, in close cooperation with experts from the plant. A team headed by the Swiss Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Installations, HSK, followed the work performed by the Russian scientists, checked, and commented upon, the results, gave instructions and passed on information. When required, workshops were organized on special subjects. The final results and findings were subjected to close scrutiny. The results of the study completed in March 1997 after two and a half years of work have been summarized in a comprehensive final report. The most important conclusions, findings, necessary model improvements, and planned backfitting measures in the plant are presented and discussed. A follow-on project has already been approved and is to be completed by mid-2000. The most important topics to be covered are the application of the PSA model to the plant ('Living PSA'); PSA for external events, including fire and internal flooding; and stage 2 PSA to evaluate containment functioning in major accidents. (orig.)

  7. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM)

  8. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, L.H.; MacFarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). This work was sponsored by the Department of Energy/Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division (DOE/EM).

  9. Project Guarantee 1985. Final repository for high-level radioactive wastes: Safety report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposal of radioactive was involves preventing releases to the biosphere for a long period of time and subsequently limiting the magnitude of releases by means of a series of safety barriers: the waste solidification matrix (borosilicate glass), massive steel canisters in highly compacted bentonite, sealing of void spacer and access routes on repository closure. The geological barriers are formed by the crystalline bed-rock and the overlying sedimentary layers. In order to perform a safety assessment the behaviour of these technical barriers and of the host rock must be understood and this understanding must be translated into quantitative models which allow calculation of repository performance. For the particular case of a Swiss repository, the main criterion is the individual dose limit of 10 mrem/year, which is given in the safety guidelines of the Swiss authorities. The procedure for the safety analysis involves examination of all scenarios which could give rise to radionuclide release from the repository. Qualitative considerations of both the magnitude of their consequences and their likelihood are used in order to identify a restricted number of scenarios for quantitative analysis

  10. E-bike safety: Individual-level factors and incident characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2016-01-01

    safety critical incident that they believed would not have happened on a conventional bike. The most frequent explanation offered for these situations was that other road users had underestimated the speed of the e-bike, followed by rider problems regulating e-bike speed. Older cyclists were more likely...

  11. Evaluation of the safety of vitrified high level waste shipments from the UK to continental Europe by sea. Annex 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The return of vitrified high level waste arising from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel at Sellafield to continental Europe, e.g. Germany, will start around the end of the century. The shipment of the specific flasks will include transportation via the Irish Sea, the English Channel and the North Sea with ships of the Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited (PNTL) classified to the INF 3 standard. The assessment approach is to analyse the severity and the frequency of mechanical impacts, fires and explosions with the potential to affect the package. The results show that there is a high safety margin due to the special safety features of the INF 3 ships compared to conventional ships. The remaining accident probability for a trans-port of vitrified high level waste from UK to the continent is very low. No realistic severe accident scenarios that could seriously affect the flasks and could lead to a radioactivity re-lease have been identified. (author)

  12. Progress report on safety research of high-level waste management for the period April 1987 to March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researches on high-level waste management at the High Level Waste Management Laboratory and the Waste Safety Testing Facility Operation Division of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in the fiscal year of 1987 are reviewed in the three sections of the report. The topics are as follows: 1) On performance and durability of waste forms and engineered barrier materials, accelerated alpha radiation stability of glass form and Synroc has been investigated and stress corrosion cracking of canister materials was examined under simulated conditions. 2) Sorption of 237Np on granite samples and behavior of iron during weathering of granites were studied with respect to safety evaluation for geological disposal. 3) Actual waste was transported from the Tokai Reprocessing Plant and hot operation using the actual waste was initiated at WASTEF. (author)

  13. Bio-nanoceramics and Bio-nanocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika; Suchý, Tomáš

    Oxford : Elsevier, 2015 - (Makhlouf, A.; Scharnweber, D.), s. 29-58 ISBN 978-0-12-799947-0 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bio apatite * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * nanoceramics * nanocomposite * naturally derived material Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  14. Procedures for conducting probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (level 2). Accident progression, containment analysis and estimation of accident source terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present publication on Level 2 PSA is based on a compilation and review of practices in various Member States. It complements Safety Series No. 50-P-4, issued in 1992, on Procedures for Conducting Probabilistic Safety Assessments of Nuclear Power Plants (Level 1). Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Results of safety analysis concerning level gauge of pressurizer and related measures for Ohi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of safety analysis concerning the level gauge of a pressurizer and the related measures for the Ohi Nuclear Power Station, which were reported by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry on May 1, 1979, and then investigated and presented by the Nuclear Reactor Safety Special Investigation Committee, are regarded as appropriate by the Atomic Energy Safety Commission (AESC) on May 19, 1979. This analysis and investigation were conducted in relation to the accident in the Three Mile Island (TMI) No. 2 nuclear power plant, occurred on March 28, 1979. In this investigation the influences of the problem concerning the level gauge for a pressurizer of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station on the function and the performance of emergency core cooling system (ECCS) for pressurized water reactors were analyzed, simulating the initial phenomena of the accident in TMI. As for the adequacy of the prior conditions of safety analysis and the analytical codes, the following three points were investigated; 1) the adequacy of accident conditions which were set as the subjects of safety analysis, 2) the adequacy of the assumption supposing that the auxiliary feed water pump is started by manual operation fifteen minutes after accident occurrence, and 3) the adequacy of the analytical Codes MARVEL and SATAN-6. The analytical results showed that the relief valve on a pressurizer does not operate at the similar accident to TMI in the Ohi Nuclear Power Station, because the difference of design exists between both plants, and also even if the relief valve on a pressurizer operates and does not close, the core is cooled sufficiently in the Ohi Nuclear Power Station. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; Bay, P. Michael

    2009-01-01

    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  17. Safety insurance of disposal of low level radioactive waste generated from decommissioned nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basis technique to affect the safety design of radioactive waste disposal facility is supported by the long-term stability examination for the characterization (the water permeability, absorption and so on) of the various barrier material, development of analysis code to use for the estimation of the material movement and the chemical environment change, and the acquisition of the natural analog data which is used to confirm its validity. It is thought that the effectivity of this basis technique depends on the kind of the waste, but in the field of LLW, it is possible to apply the technique. It this report, it confirmed the basis technique, which is possible to apply to the safety design of the disposal facilities about decommissioning waste from nuclear power plant. For example, activated metal is possible to evaluate using corrosion speed. And the basic data exists to argue about the long-term stability of cement and bentonite as engineered barrier. (author)

  18. New challenges in the safety analysis of DOE's high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tank 241-SY-101, located at the Department of Energy Hanford Site, has periodically released up to 283 m3 (10,000 ft3) of flammable gas. This release has been one of the highest priority DOE operational safety problems because of potential consequences if the gas were ignited during one of these releases. The gases include hydrogen and ammonia (fuels) and nitrous oxide (oxidizer). There have been many opinions regarding the controlling mechanisms for these releases, but demonstrating an adequate understanding of the problem, selecting a mitigation methodology, and preparing the safety analysis have presented numerous new challenges. The purpose of this report is to present an overview of the problem, the main issues, the method selected to mitigate this hazard, and the results of the mitigation program

  19. Technical Insight of the High Level Safety Goal for the NPPs Built in China’S Thirteenth Five-Year Period (2016-2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The “Nuclear Safety Planning” has been published in Oct. 2012 in China, which stipulates the safety goals for the NPPs which will be built in the future. As for the NPPs which will be built in China's Thirteenth Five-Year (2016-2020) and later, the high level safety goal is described as “the possibility of the large radioactive release should be practically eliminated by design”. A thorough investigation has been performed at SNERDI to explore the technical insights of this high level safety goal by using MEDP hierarchical safety goal approach. The definition of large release is proposed accordingly, DID requirements and probabilistic requirements are derived from this high level safety goal. (author)

  20. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 3: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The third volume of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment contains supporting information for the PSA as follows: Appendix C (continued) with details of the system analysis and reports for the system/top event models; Appendix D with results of the specific engineering analyses of internal initiating events; Appendix E, containing supporting data for the human performance assessment,; Appendix F with details of the estimation of the frequency of leaks at HIFAR and Appendix G, containing event sequence model and quantification results

  1. A Level 1+ Probabilistic Safety Assessment of the High Flux Australian Reactor. Vol 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third volume of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment contains supporting information for the PSA as follows: Appendix C (continued) with details of the system analysis and reports for the system/top event models; Appendix D with results of the specific engineering analyses of internal initiating events; Appendix E, containing supporting data for the human performance assessment,; Appendix F with details of the estimation of the frequency of leaks at HIFAR and Appendix G, containing event sequence model and quantification results

  2. Analysis of the residual safety level in R/C slabs with severe joist corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Vercher Sanchis, José María; Gil Benso, Enrique; Mas Tomas, Maria De Los Angeles; Cubel Arjona, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    An analysis until the failure on a series of one-way slabs with severe corrosion at the lower reinforcement of the R/C joists is presented. Different positions in the slab and number of damaged joists have been studied, obtaining the residual safety assessment in cases of slabs damaged by flexural failure mechanisms. Since the boundary conditions have proved decisive for obtaining the behavior, the damaged slab has been evaluated as part of the entire building, as precisely as possible...

  3. Peer review of the Barselina Level 1 probabilistic safety assessment of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barselina Project is a Swedish-funded, cooperative effort among Lithuania, Russia and Sweden to transfer Western probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology to the designers/operators of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP). The overall goal is to use the PSA as a tool for assessing plant operational safety. The INPP is a two-unit, Former Soviet Union-designed nuclear facility located in Lithuania. The results of this PSA will ultimately be used to identify plant-specific improvements in system design and the conduct of facility operations, allowing improved operational safety. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked to perform an independent expert peer review of the Barselina PSA. This report documents the findings of this review. This review, financed with nuclear safety assistance funds through the US Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), satisfies Task II of the PNL peer review of the Barselina project. The objective is to provide an independent, in-proce ss examination of the Barselina Level 1 PSA of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 2. The review consisted of an investigation of the project documentation, interviews, and extensive discussions with the PSA staff during critical stages of the project. PNL assessed the readability, completeness, consistency, validity, and applicability of the PSA. The major aspects explored were its purpose, major assumptions, analysis/modeling, results, and interpretation. It was not within the scope of this review to perform plant walkdowns or to review material other than the PSA documentation

  4. Metrology for Bio Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blunt, Liam; Bills, Paul J.; Fleming, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    The current paper addresses the advent of next generation bio system focussed Micro Nano Manufacturing Technologies (MNMT). These products and processes have placed significant new emphasis on specification and quality control systems, especially if these product and processes are to achieve economic scale up. Bio technology products and processes are a core element of MNMT and structured surfaces can be a key element in enabling bio system function. There examples of the application of such ...

  5. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  6. Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Irfana; Faizan, Shahla; Perveen, Rubina; Kausar, Saima

    2014-09-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of biofertilizers in alleviation of cadmium stress, given at the rate of 0, 50, and 100 mg kg(-1) of soil. The plants of isabgol, were grown in pots with and without application of AM fungi and Azotobacter (alone and combination). Cadmium showed negative effect on growth and biochemical component whereas proline and MDA content increase with increasing cadmium concentration. Addition of bio-fertilizer showed better growth and higher pigment concentration under cadmium stress as compared to the control. The dual inoculation of AM fungi and Azotobacter was found to be the best in reduction of cadmium stress and promotion of growth parameters. PMID:25183940

  7. Progress report on safety research on high-level waste management for the period April 1989 to March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on high-level waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory and Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1989 are described. The topics are as follows: 1) As for waste forms and engineered barrier material, performance assessment studies on glass and ceramic forms, and corrosion test of carbon steel were continued. 2) In the safety evaluation study for geological disposal, chemical behavior of nuclide in water, nuclide migration and retardation in geosphere were studied. New microspectrometers was developed to analyze the chemical form in rocks. 3) Distribution and migration of uranium in uranium ore were examined as a natural analogue study. (author)

  8. Progress report on safety research on high-level waste management for the period April 1991 to March 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on high-level waste management at the Engineered Barrier Materials Laboratory, Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory and Environmental Radiochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research, JAERI in the fiscal year of 1991 are described. The topics are as follows: 1) As for waste forms and engineered barrier material, performance assessment studies on glass, ceramic and buffer materials were carried out. 2) In the safety evaluation study for geological disposal, behavior of radionuclide in deep underground water, nuclide migration in-situ and natural groundwater flow system were studied. 3) Changes in layer charge of smectite, alteration of uranium mineral and uranium fixation in uranium ore were examined as a natural analogue study. (author)

  9. Experience of safety assessment for the deep disposal of intermediate-level waste in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    United Kingdom Nirex Ltd is investigating Sellafield as a potential site for the deep geological disposal of solid intermediate-level waste (ILW) and some low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Attention is currently focused on a potential repository located in volcanic rocks (the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, Bag) at a depth of 650 m below ordinance datum OD. This paper summarises Nirex 95, a preliminary analysis of the groundwater pathway for this repository. Nirex 95 has focused on the calculation of annual individual risk, which is a principal safety requirement as set out by the U.K. regulatory bodies. lt is not a comprehensive safety assessment, which would require the systematic analysis of a wider range of features, events and processes. However, it does illustrate a number of key components of the methodology employed in the Nirex programme. Data and underlying research to support assessments of the repository are provided by the Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme (NSARP). The assessment was based on a hydrogeological conceptual model of the site constructed on the basis of the extensive characterisation programme involving a series of deep boreholes, associated testing and geophysical surveys. Based on this conceptual model, effective hydrogeological properties were generated that were used in calculations of groundwater flow and radionuclide transport. The uncertainties in the values of the parameters used in the assessment models are addressed through the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). For many parameters, probability density functions (PDFs) that characterise the uncertainty have been obtained in structured data elicitation sessions, which are held with appropriate expert groups [4]. An important component of the assessment is the propagation of these uncertainties through the calculations in a systematic manner. 9 refs

  10. Conceptual Safety Design Report for the Remote Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd D. Christensen

    2010-05-01

    A new onsite, remote-handled LLW disposal facility has been identified as the highest ranked alternative for providing continued, uninterrupted remote-handled LLW disposal for remote-handled LLW from the Idaho National Laboratory and for spent nuclear fuel processing activities at the Naval Reactors Facility. Historically, this type of waste has been disposed of at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Disposal of remote-handled LLW in concrete disposal vaults at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex will continue until the facility is full or until it must be closed in preparation for final remediation of the Subsurface Disposal Area (approximately at the end of Fiscal Year 2017). This conceptual safety design report supports the design of a proposed onsite remote-handled LLW disposal facility by providing an initial nuclear facility hazard categorization, by identifying potential hazards for processes associated with onsite handling and disposal of remote-handled LLW, by evaluating consequences of postulated accidents, and by discussing the need for safety features that will become part of the facility design.

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases (open-quotes burpsclose quotes) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity

  12. Safety evaluation methodology of engineering barriers at repository for low and intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of the roles of cement-based barriers in radioactive waste isolation show that models used to estimate their characteristics during the lifetime of the repository must consider the alteration of material properties with time due to degradation processes. Reinforced concrete barriers at repositories shall be designed in such manner that they fulfil besides isolative capabilities also the required functions of mechanical resistance and stability. Key elements of safety evaluation are mainly the correct selection of materials for mineral composites with cement binder (cements, aggregates, mineral additives and chemical admixtures) and their design, execution of construction works and production of precast concrete containers (continuous casting of concrete - no cold joints, limited number of construction joints, proper placing and consolidation, finishing and curing), strict control of used materials and inspection of works, as well as investigation after the construction (visual inspection, non-destructive testing, monitoring, ageing assessment on test containers). According to the methodology presented in this paper the lifetime of the repository can be estimated and, if shorter than 300 years or shorter than the period resulting from safety analysis, appropriate corrective measures shall be taken. (author)

  13. Safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes safety and sensitivity analyses of a generic geologic disposal system for HLW, using a GSRW code and an automated sensitivity analysis methodology based on the Differential Algebra. An exposure scenario considered here is based on a normal evolution scenario which excludes events attributable to probabilistic alterations in the environment. The results of sensitivity analyses indicate that parameters related to a homogeneous rock surrounding a disposal facility have higher sensitivities to the output analyzed here than those of a fractured zone and engineered barriers. The sensitivity analysis methodology provides technical information which might be bases for the optimization of design of the disposal facility. Safety analyses were performed on the reference disposal system which involve HLW in amounts corresponding to 16,000 MTU of spent fuels. The individual dose equivalent due to the exposure pathway ingesting drinking water was calculated using both the conservative and realistic values of geochemical parameters. In both cases, the committed dose equivalent evaluated here is the order of 10-7Sv, and thus geologic disposal of HLW may be feasible if the disposal conditions assumed here remain unchanged throughout the periods assessed here. (author)

  14. Probabilistic safety assessment for Hanford high-level waste tank 241-SY-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacFarlane, D.R.; Bott, T.F.; Brown, L.F.; Stack, D.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kindinger, J.; Deremer, R.K.; Medhekar, S.R.; Mikschl, T.J. [PLG, Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) is performing a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), which will include consideration of external events for the 18 tank farms at the Hanford Site. This effort is sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE/EM, EM-36). Even though the methodology described herein will be applied to the entire tank farm, this report focuses only on the risk from the weapons-production wastes stored in tank number 241-SY-101, commonly known as Tank 101-SY, as configured in December 1992. This tank, which periodically releases ({open_quotes}burps{close_quotes}) a gaseous mixture of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, ammonia, and nitrogen, was analyzed first because of public safety concerns associated with the potential for release of radioactive tank contents should this gas mixture be ignited during one of the burps. In an effort to mitigate the burping phenomenon, an experiment is being conducted in which a large pump has been inserted into the tank to determine if pump-induced circulation of the tank contents will promote a slow, controlled release of the gases. At the Hanford Site there are 177 underground tanks in 18 separate tank farms containing accumulated liquid/sludge/salt cake radioactive wastes from 50 yr of weapons materials production activities. The total waste volume is about 60 million gal., which contains approximately 120 million Ci of radioactivity.

  15. The application of computational fluid dynamics to pedestrian level wind safety problem induced by high-rise buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Lei; Hu Fei; Cheng Xue-Ling; Han Hao-Yu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the pedestrian level wind safety problem induced by high-rise buildings has been studied using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes Fluent. The verification by use of wind tunnel data shows that Fluent can fairly reproduce the flow field in the areas adjacent to the structure when a realizable k-ε turbulence model is adopted in calculations. The results of the numerical simulations including seven cases show that the existence of high-rise buildings does increase the wind hazard probability at the pedestrian level; furthermore, the wind direction, the geometric size of structures and the layout of structures can obviously affect the pedestrian level wind environment. However, trees on the pavement do not contribute much in reducing the wind hazard probability.

  16. Evaluasi Reliability dan Safety pada Sistem Pengendalian Level Syn Gas 2ND Interstage Separator Di PT. Petrokimia Gresik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nur Rahmawati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan evaluasi reliability dan safety pada sistem pengendalian level separator. Tujuan dilakukan tugas akhir ini yaitu untuk mengetahui evaluasi perhitungan reliability dan nilai SIL yang terpakai pada sistem pengendalian level separator. Metode yang digunakan yaitu metode kuantitatif. Synthesis gas compressor adalah plant untuk menaikkan pressure dari 30 kg/cm2 menjadi 180 kg/cm2. Plant ini terdiri dari 4 tingkat yang didalamnya terdapat cooler dan separator. Separator merupakan tabung bertekanan yang digunakan untuk memisahkan gas dengan air. Didalam separator diharapkan tidak terdapat air karena air dapat menyebabkan vibrasi dikompressor. Dari hasil evaluasi didapatkan nilai reliability terendah dimiliki oleh komponen LV 1159 sebesar 0,58574 selama 8760 jam. Untuk tingkat safety komponen sistem pengendalian level separator berada pada SIL 1, namun pada komponen LV 1159 dilakukan penurunan nilai PFD dengan metode redundant yang semula nilai PFD-nya 0,05220 menjadi 0,00892 sehingga nilai SIL-nya menjadi SIL 2. Berdasarkan batas acuan nilai reliability untuk dilakukan preventive maintenance sebesar 0,8 maka untuk komponen LV 1159 memiliki waktu preventive maintenance 1900 jam atau 2,5 bulan, LT 1159 t = 13900 jam atau 19 bulan, dan LIC 1159 t = 17300 jam atau 2 tahun. Dengan biaya preventive maintenance keseluruhan komponen sebesar Rp. 516.120,00 pertahunnya.

  17. Development of SAGE, A computer code for safety assessment analyses for Korean Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a computer code, called SAGE (Safety Assessment Groundwater Evaluation) to be used for evaluation of the concept for low-level waste disposal in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The conceptual model in the code is focused on releases from a gradually degrading engineered barrier system to an underlying unsaturated zone, thence to a saturated groundwater zone. Doses can be calculated for several biosphere systems including drinking contaminated groundwater, and subsequent contamination of foods, rivers, lakes, or the ocean by that groundwater. The flexibility of the code will permit both generic analyses in support of design and site development activities, and straightforward modification to permit site-specific and design-specific safety assessments of a real facility as progress is made toward implementation of a disposal site. In addition, the code has been written to easily interface with more detailed codes for specific parts of the safety assessment. In this way, the code's capabilities can be significantly expanded as needed. The code has the capability to treat input parameters either deterministic ally or probabilistic ally. Parameter input is achieved through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface.

  18. A framework for evaluating safety-net and other community-level factors on access for low-income populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Pamela L; Andersen, Ronald M; Wyn, Roberta; Brown, E Richard

    2004-01-01

    The framework presented in this article extends the Andersen behavioral model of health services utilization research to examine the effects of contextual determinants of access. A conceptual framework is suggested for selecting and constructing contextual (or community-level) variables representing the social, economic, structural, and public policy environment that influence low-income people's use of medical care. Contextual variables capture the characteristics of the population that disproportionately relies on the health care safety net, the public policy support for low-income and safety-net populations, and the structure of the health care market and safety-net services within that market. Until recently, the literature in this area has been largely qualitative and descriptive and few multivariate studies comprehensively investigated the contextual determinants of access. The comprehensive and systematic approach suggested by the framework will enable researchers to strengthen the external validity of results by accounting for the influence of a consistent set of contextual factors across locations and populations. A subsequent article in this issue of Inquiry applies the framework to examine access to ambulatory care for low-income adults, both insured and uninsured. PMID:15224958

  19. Proceedings of the international symposium on safety related measurements in PWRs: Topic of the first meeting: 'Temperature and level measurements'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous teams of experts from several countries deal with theme of measurement important for safety operation of WWER reactors. These special teams have a need to meet at various opportunities to change their experience. As an example I can mention meeting of experts from Russia , Germany, France and Slovakia at completion and reconstruction of Slovak NPP, at modernisation of Russian and Bulgarian NPP. Mentioned meetings have invoked an idea of participants to organise a common action aimed at measurement important for safety operation of WWER, that participants can change their experience from mentioned area at welcome environment of symposium. Therefore, at meeting of experts from Siemens, INCOR and VUJE at the end of the year 2000 participants agreed on realisation of such common action. Participants have taken orientation at all safety measurements for very deep topic. Therefore, they have decided in respect of this first meeting of symposium to give consideration to only some special measurements in particular to temperature and surface. In case of interest there is possible to take focus at other type of measurements. Slovakia has been chosen for the first meeting place on basis of economic reasons and also because a number of improvements of standard reactor temperature measuring procedures have been implemented here that over passed its frontiers. In addition the first fail-safe level measuring in reactor pressure vessel has been effectuated in Slovakia

  20. Impact of criticality level on safety of accelerator driven systems with conventional Mox and advanced fertile free fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of Accelerator Driven Systems are currently investigated in Europe: with conventional MOX fuel (of e.g. Superphenix type) for demonstration and experimental purposes; and with Advanced Fertile Free Fuels for nuclear waste burning. Usually a similar subcriticality level is assumed acceptable in the both cases: with keff being around 0,95 - 0,97. In the paper, analyses of protected and unprotected (i.e. with and without accelerator shutdown) transients are performed for a wider range of initial (at the beginning of the transient) keff values to assess corresponding advantages and disadvantages (from the safety point of view) for the both types of ADS. (authors)

  1. System safety education focused on flight safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  2. Bio-methanol from Bio-oil Reforming Syngas Using Dual-reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Tong-qi; Yan, Shi-zhi; Xu, Yong; Qiu, Song-bai; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-08-01

    A dual-reactor, assembled with the on-line syngas conditioning and methanol synthesis, was successfully applied for high efficient conversion of rich CO2 bio-oil derived syngas to bio-methanol. In the forepart catalyst bed reactor, the catalytic conversion can effectively adjust the rich-CO2 crude bio-syngas into the CO-containing bio-syngas using the CuZnAlZr catalyst. After the on-line syngas conditioning at 450 °C, the CO2/CO ratio in the bio-syngas significantly decreased from 6.3 to 1.2. In the rearward catalyst bed reactor, the conversion of the conditioned bio-syngas to bio-methanol shows the maximum yield about 1.21 kg/(kgcatal·h) MeOH with a methanol selectivity of 97.9% at 260 °C and 5.05 MPa using conventional CuZnAl catalyst, which is close to the level typically obtained in the conventional methanol synthesis process using natural gas. The influences of temperature, pressure and space velocity on the bio-methanol synthesis were also investigated in detail.

  3. Bio-methane. Challenges and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the new energy sectors in development, biogas has many benefits: several valorization possibilities (bio-methane, electricity and heat), continuous production, easy storage. In Europe, and particularly in France, the bio-methane market will be in the next years a driver for the improvement of the economic, environmental and social performance of the actors of the value chain of biogas. ENEA releases a report on the current state of the bio-methane market in Europe. This publication mainly describes: An outlook of the market evolution and the corresponding stakes for the actors of this sector, the technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each biogas upgrading process, An analysis of the French regulatory framework for bio-methane injection into the grid

  4. Fuzzy multi-objective decision making on a low and intermediate level waste repository safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low and intermediate waste disposal facilities safety assessment is comprised of several steps from site selection , construction and operation to post-closure performance assessment. This is a multidisciplinary and complex task , and can not be analyzed by one expert only. This high complexity can lead to ambiguity and vagueness in information and consequently in the decision making process. In order to make the decision process clear and objective, there is the need to provide the decision makers with a clear and comprehensive picture of the whole process and, at the same time, simple and easily understandable by the public. This paper suggests the development of an inference system based on fuzzy decision making methodology. Fuzzy logic tools are specially suited to deal with ambiguous data by using language expressions. This process would be capable of integrating knowledge from various fields of environmental sciences. It has an advantage of keeping record of reasoning for each intermediate decision that lead to the final results which makes it more dependable and defensible as well. (author)

  5. Safety level of Levofloxacin following repeated oral adminstration in White Leg Horn layer birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin H. Patel

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Levofloxacin is a fluorinated quinolone which has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity at low plasma/tissue concentration. The present study was designed to investigate safety of levofloxacin (10 mg/kg after repeated oral administration at 12 hours interval for 14 days in layer birds (30-35 weeks old and weighing between 1.5-2.0 kg and to determine tissue concentration of the drug following oral administration (10 mg/kg for 5 days. Drug concentration in tissue was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Repeated oral administration of levofloxacin in layer birds was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AST, ALT, AKP, ACP, LDH, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin, Serum Creatinine, Blood glucose and Total bilirubin and histopathology of liver, kidney and joint cartilage. Levofloxacin could not be detected in body tissues (liver and skeletal muscle at 12 hours after the last administration. [Vet. World 2009; 2(4.000: 137-139

  6. Safety Study of the X-Ray Reference Laboratory for Radiation Protection Levels (IR-14D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a study about the safety of the X-ray reference laboratory that has been recently constructed in the building 2 of the CIEMAT. After a brief description of the apparatus, we present the method used to calculate the exposure and absorbed dose rates in the most characteristic points of the laboratory. This method takes into account the spectral distribution of the radiation beams as a function of the accelerating voltage. The built-up factors of the absorbent materials have been considered to calculate the transmission of the radiation beams through the filters and shielding. Scattered radiations has been introduced in the calculations by means of a semiempirical method. This model supposes that multiple scattering processes give an isotropic contribution to the reflected beams and the single scattered can be described in terms of the differential cross section of Klein-Nishina. The results of this study have been applied to determine the maximum dose equivalent that the personnel of the laboratory could receive in normal operation conditions. (Author) 5 refs

  7. Radiation safety and health effects related to low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hazards associated with low-level radioactive waste, one of the nation's greatest concerns, are discussed from a health physicist's perspective. Potential biological hazards, four stages of the low-level radioactive waste disposal process, and suggested methods of reducing the risks of handling and disposal, based on previous studies, are defined. Also discussed are potential pathways of human exposure and two scenarios designed to demonstrate the complexity of modeling exposure pathways. The risks of developing a fatal cancer from exposure to the radioactive material, should it occur, is compared to other more commonly accepted risks

  8. Main Results and Conclusions of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) Level 1 for Units 5 and 6 of ''Kozloduy'' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with international practice, probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is an established tool for studying the main risk aspects of the design and operation, to explore the importance of plant modifications and evaluation of events plant experience. Different PSA applications are very useful and flexible tool in addition to deterministic analysis. PSA can be used to optimize the different plant configurations, for justification or basis for modification of limiting conditions for operation (LCO), for planning of maintenance activities, to provide engineering evaluations in decisions making process as well as to control and monitoring the safety. This paper presents the main results and conclusions from the last update of PSA level 1 for 5 and 6 units of ''Kozloduy'' NPP. This study shows the measures of ''modernization program'' 5 and 6 units of ''Kozloduy'' NPP, realized in the period 2001-2007. PSA level 1 is performed by the team of Risk Engineering. This paper shows the main contributors to the risk. The results for internal initiating events, earthquakes, internal flooding and internal fires are given.(author).

  9. Auditable safety analysis: High Radiation Level Chemical Development Facility (Buildings 4507 and 4556), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Radiation-Level Chemical Development Facility includes Buildings 4507 and 4556. Building 4507, located immediately to the west of Building 4500N and to the south of Building 4505, is a doubly contained three-level structure constructed in 1957. The most recent use of the facility was for recovery of multi-gram quantities of 244Cm during the early 1970s and for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel studies in the late 1970s. It has remained in safe standby since 1980. Building 4556 is a below-grade filter pit located to the southwest of Building 4507 and was constructed in 1972. Ventilation from the cells in Building 4507 is passed through high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration in this building prior to being exhausted to the Building 3039 stack system. This building remains in operation to support ventilation requirements for Building 4507. This Auditable Safety Analysis (ASA) was developed in accordance with the requirements in Energy Systems Program Description FS-103PD, Safety Documentation, Revision 1. This ASA identifies and screens all hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556. The only hazard not screened out and requiring further analysis following the initial screening process is radioactive material in the form of surface contamination. The results of this ASA indicate that the hazards associated with Buildings 4507 and 4556 do not pose a significant threat to workers, the public, or the environment

  10. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  11. Human factors, system safety, and systems engineering in the transportation of U.S. high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board is an independent agency charged with evaluating the technical and scientific validity of the U.S. Department of Energy's program to manage the disposal of spent fuel and defense high-level waste. The Board has continued to emphasize the importance of using a true system approach in designing the waste management system. The Board has recommended the application of basic design disciplines such as human factors, system safety, and systems engineering. A top-level system study needs to be undertaken that focuses on minimizing handling. The analysis must be well done, in a timely manner, and without the inclusion in the analysis of arbitrary and artificial constraints. (author)

  12. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns

  13. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  15. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  16. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer

  17. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morici, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  18. Safety principles and technical criteria for the underground disposal of high level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this book is to set out an internationally agreed set of principles and criteria for the design of deep underground repositories for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes. This book is concerned with the post-closure period. Consideration of the operational requirements which must be met when wastes are being handled, stored and emplaced are not therefore included

  19. Safety assessment for the disposal of very low-level radioactive concrete wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To estimate concentration of very low level radioactive concrete wastes which arise from decontamination activities of the KRR-2 auxiliary facility satisfied with the dose limits of clearance level by using RESRAD Ver. 6.21. The maximum individual dose and collective dose were evaluated by using dose conversion factor which was based on the concept of effective dose in ICRP publication 60 and partly adopting input parameter to circumstance in Korea. In case the radionuclide concentration is 0.4 Bq/g, the result of maximum individual dose and collective dose is 49.25 μSv per year, 7.880x10-5 man□Sv per year about landfill workers for the most risky source(Co-60) and 53.44 μSv per year 2.432 10-3 man□Sv per year about residents after closed for the risky source(Cs-137) respectively. The concentration of radionuclide for self-disposition for satisfying the dose limits of clearance level is less than 8.122x10-2 Bq/g in the very low-level radioactive concrete wastes

  20. Health status and bio-security plans on pig farms

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković B.; Hristov S.; Bojkovski T.J.; Maksimović N.

    2010-01-01

    Preservation of necessary level of swine herd health status is the most important aspect of bio-security, farm production and successful welfare protection. It involves a list of bio-security measures which must be essential part of production technology, including good rearing conditions and other prophylactic measures appliance. According to previously performed investigations, a list of elements required to establish standards for bio-security for particular pig farm was created. The list ...

  1. Application of PSA to Assess the Safety Level of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the application of PSA in German nuclear power plant regulation. From a fundamental point of view, it has to be mentioned that as stipulated in the corresponding requirements, regulatory decision making in Germany is primarily based on deterministic analyses and evaluations. Therefore, PSA is not used as a stand alone but as a supplementary basis. In this context PSA has developed a valuable tool with continuously growing importance. Level 1+ PSAs are now elaborated for all German nuclear power plants in operation, most of them are already reviewed by the competent supervisory authority and its experts. Current research activities on the federal level primarily concentrate on the further development of the methodology in the areas human factor, common cause failures, accident management measures and reduction of uncertainties in methods and data. (author)

  2. Using radar level measurement for increased environmental protection and plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave radar level measurement has been used extensively in oil and chemical tanker marine applications and refinery tank farm applications. New advances now make radar measurement affordable for the smaller vessels found in general industrial applications for process transmitters. This paper briefly describes radar gauges and transmitters and how their principles of operation are different from other non-contact approaches. Process seals that isolate the radar sensor from the tank environment to reduce the risk of tank leakage and personnel exposure to tank contents are shown for a variety of industrial vessels including high pressure spheres and bullets, floating roof vessels, sanitary tanks with CIP procedures, and mixing tanks. new, electronic-only techniques for measurement system verification are discussed that eliminate the need for wet calibration checks, provide earlier warning of measurement system problems, and reduce the risk of personnel exposure to tank contents. Alternative radar hybrid systems are describe for improving level measurement reliability

  3. Some safety aspects of intermediate-level waste disposal in shallow clay formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of full-scale testing in a shallow disposal facility of cemented, bituminized, and vitrified intermediate-level radwaste from a nuclear power plant with a channel-type reactor; the information obtained is used to make a comparative evaluation of the relative danger of contamination of the environment. Quantitative evidence is presented in support of the use of the vitrification process for waste of this type. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment, (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tanks at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). The discussion of the analysis is divided into four sections: defining the initiating events and their frequencies, accident sequence modeling and quantification, source terms, and consequence assessments. The results of this study are particular to the Hanford Site, and they should not be applied to other sites having waste tanks. Health risks to co-located workers (on site) and the public (off site) from airborne releases in the Hanford HLW tanks are very low, about 0.014% and 0.027% of the exposure from background radiation for the average on-site co- located worker and the public, respectively. The highest ranking class of accidents was found to be seismic events, contributing about half of the total mean value off-site risk. Although the frequency of these events is very low, the involvement of multiple tanks and the potential for extended releases until recovery actions can be completed, caused the calculated consequences to be sufficiently large to rank first for overall health risk. After seismic events, scenarios contributing to health risk are high-frequency, low-consequence events, especially the airborne component of surface spills during waste transfers. Although there may be conservatism in the modeling of transfer spill events, improvements in data and modeling would not be expected to change the scenarios' relative position as important risk contributors. This finding implies that the potential risks of sluicing operations should be examined carefully as part of the preparations for waste retrieval. Flammable gas accumulation and ignition are important risk contributors, even with elimination of BURP events in Tank SY-101. The results of this analysis indicate that flammable gas accumulation and ignition in passively-ventilated tanks is the most likely

  5. Probabilistic safety assessment for high-level waste tanks at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, L.H.; Macfarlane, D.R.; Stack, D.W. [Probabilistic Risk and Hazard Analysis Group, Technology and Safety Assessment Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has performed a comprehensive probabilistic safety assessment, (PSA), including consideration of external events, for the 18 tanks at the Hanford Tank Farm (HTF). The discussion of the analysis is divided into four sections: defining the initiating events and their frequencies, accident sequence modeling and quantification, source terms, and consequence assessments. The results of this study are particular to the Hanford Site, and they should not be applied to other sites having waste tanks. Health risks to co-located workers (on site) and the public (off site) from airborne releases in the Hanford HLW tanks are very low, about 0.014% and 0.027% of the exposure from background radiation for the average on-site co- located worker and the public, respectively. The highest ranking class of accidents was found to be seismic events, contributing about half of the total mean value off-site risk. Although the frequency of these events is very low, the involvement of multiple tanks and the potential for extended releases until recovery actions can be completed, caused the calculated consequences to be sufficiently large to rank first for overall health risk. After seismic events, scenarios contributing to health risk are high-frequency, low-consequence events, especially the airborne component of surface spills during waste transfers. Although there may be conservatism in the modeling of transfer spill events, improvements in data and modeling would not be expected to change the scenarios' relative position as important risk contributors. This finding implies that the potential risks of sluicing operations should be examined carefully as part of the preparations for waste retrieval. Flammable gas accumulation and ignition are important risk contributors, even with elimination of BURP events in Tank SY-101. The results of this analysis indicate that flammable gas accumulation and ignition in passively-ventilated tanks is the most likely

  6. Bio energy: Economy and Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is Chapter 6 of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Planning of bio fuel plants, (2) Calculation of energy prices, (3) Estimates for different types of bio fuel plants, (4) The bio energy market in Norway and its actors and (5) Socio-economic aspects of the use of bio energy. The Chapter discusses technical and economical planning of bi energy plants and demonstrates the calculation of the energy price for some types of bio fuel plants. Examples of bio fuels and biogas plants are included

  7. BIO 315 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+ BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 2 Environment, Resources, and Competition BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 4 BIO 315 Wee...

  8. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  9. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  10. BioSentinel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BioSentinel technology will provide critical information about how living systems, from humans down to cells, adapt, respond and survive in deep space, beyond LEO...

  11. A priori assessment of safety impacts of traffic management operations: Level of service based approach

    OpenAIRE

    PRINCETON, J; Cohen, S.

    2011-01-01

    The number of accidents that occur on a road is often linked to traffic flow whereas the severity is related to mean speed. The method developed in this paper links the level of service-described by both traffic mean flow and speed-to the number of accidents observed on a road section. The objective is to use this relationship in a priori assessment of traffic management strategies by using traffic simulation tools. Flows and speed represent the main outputs of such models and are assumed to...

  12. Research on the improvement of nuclear safety -Development of computing code system for level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Dong Ha; Park, Won Seok; Hwang, Mi Jeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Among the various research areas of the level 3 PSA, the effect of terrain on the transport of radioactive material was investigated. These results will give a physical insight in the development of a new dispersion model. A wind tunnel experiment with bell shaped hill model was made in order to develop a new dispersion model. And an improved dispersion model was developed based on the concentration distribution data obtained from the wind tunnel experiment. This model will be added as an option to the atmospheric dispersion code. A stand-alone atmospheric code using MS Visual Basic programming language which runs at the Windows environment of a PC was developed. A user can easily select a necessary data file and type input data by clicking menus, and can select calculation options such building wake, plume rise etc., if necessary. And a user can easily understand the meaning of concentration distribution on the map around the plant site as well as output files. Also the methodologies for the estimation of radiation exposure and for the calculation of risks was established. These methodologies will be used for the development of modules for the radiation exposure and risks respectively. These modules will be developed independently and finally will be combined to the atmospheric dispersion code in order to develop a level 3 PSA code. 30 tabs., 56 figs., refs. (Author).

  13. Bio energy; Bioenergie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    Energy from biomass has an amount of nearly 70% in the power generation from renewable energy source. In Germany, the share of bio energy in the energy consumption amounts nearly eight per cent. The contribution reports on the form, utilization and practical examples of application of bio energy under consideration of critical aspects. It also presents possibilities to guarantee a sustainable cultivation of energy crops and the precedence of the production of food stuffs.

  14. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  15. Preliminary post-closure safety assessment of repository concepts for low level radioactive waste at the Bruce Site, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preliminary post-closure safety assessment of permanent repository concepts for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Bruce Site is described. The study considered the disposal of both short and long-lived LLW. Four geotechnically feasible repository concepts were considered (two near-surface and two deep repositories). An approach consistent with best international practice was used to provide a reasoned and comprehensive analysis of post-closure impacts of the repository concepts. The results demonstrated that the deep repository concepts in shale and in limestone, and the surface repository concept on sand should meet radiological protection criteria. For the surface repository concept on glacial till, it appears that increased engineering such as grouting of waste and voids should be considered to meet the relevant dose constraint. Should the project to develop a permanent repository for LLW proceed, it is expected that this preliminary safety assessment would need to be updated to take account of future site-specific investigations and design updates. (author)

  16. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klett, R.D.

    1997-06-01

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  17. Interim radiological safety standards and evaluation procedures for subseabed high-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Seabed Disposal Project (SDP) was evaluating the technical feasibility of high-level nuclear waste disposal in deep ocean sediments. Working standards were needed for risk assessments, evaluation of alternative designs, sensitivity studies, and conceptual design guidelines. This report completes a three part program to develop radiological standards for the feasibility phase of the SDP. The characteristics of subseabed disposal and how they affect the selection of standards are discussed. General radiological protection standards are reviewed, along with some new methods, and a systematic approach to developing standards is presented. The selected interim radiological standards for the SDP and the reasons for their selection are given. These standards have no legal or regulatory status and will be replaced or modified by regulatory agencies if subseabed disposal is implemented. 56 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities of this EMSP project at the U. S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS) are developed for the site-specific needs in the area of high level nuclear waste tanks. Traditional and advanced fracture methodologies are assessed, the crack growth resistance properties for the material of construction (A285 carbon steel) are measured in terms of crack tip constraint, crack growth criteria based on crack opening displacement (CTOD) or angle (CTOA) are developed, and the relationship between stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and the weld residual stress is investigated. All these activities lead to the development of predictive tools for the structural integrity of the SRS waste tanks. The methodologies can be extended to commercial applications

  19. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  20. Increasing Safety and Reducing Environmental Damage Risk from Aging High-Level Radioactive Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a paramount need for improved understanding the behavior of high-level nuclear waste containers and the impact on structural integrity in terms of leak tightness and mechanical stability. The current program aims to develop and verify models of crack growth in high level waste tanks under accidental overloads such as ground settlement, earthquakes and airplane crashes based on extending current fracture mechanics methods. While studies in fracture have advanced, the mechanics have not included extensive crack growth. For problems at the INEEL, Savannah River Site and Hanford there are serious limitations to current theories regarding growth of surface cracks through the thickness and the extension of through-thickness cracks. We propose to further develop and extend slip line fracture mechanics (SLFM, a ductile fracture modeling methodology) and, if need be, other ductile fracture characterizing approaches with the goal of predicting growth of surface cracks to the point o f penetration of the opposing surface. Ultimately we aim to also quantify the stress and displacement fields surrounding a growing crack front (slanted and tunneled) using generalized plane stress and fully plastic, three-dimensional finite element analyses. Finally, we will investigate the fracture processes associated with the previously observed transition of stable ductile crack growth to unstable cleavage fracture to include estimates of event probability. These objectives will build the groundwork for a reliable predictive model of fracture in the HLW storage tanks that will also be applicable to standardized spent nuclear fuel storage canisters. This predictive capability will not only reduce the potential for severe environmental damage, but will also serve to guide safe retrieval of waste. This program was initiated in November of 2001

  1. A longitudinal, multi-level comparative study of quality and safety in European hospitals: the QUASER study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weggelaar Anne-Marie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background although there is a wealth of information available about quality improvement tools and techniques in healthcare there is little understanding about overcoming the challenges of day-to-day implementation in complex organisations like hospitals. The 'Quality and Safety in Europe by Research' (QUASER study will investigate how hospitals implement, spread and sustain quality improvement, including the difficulties they face and how they overcome them. The overall aim of the study is to explore relationships between the organisational and cultural characteristics of hospitals and how these impact on the quality of health care; the findings will be designed to help policy makers, payers and hospital managers understand the factors and processes that enable hospitals in Europe to achieve-and sustain-high quality services for their patients. Methods/design in-depth multi-level (macro, meso and micro-system analysis of healthcare quality policies and practices in 5 European countries, including longitudinal case studies in a purposive sample of 10 hospitals. The project design has three major features: • a working definition of quality comprising three components: clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient experience • a conceptualisation of quality as a human, social, technical and organisational accomplishment • an emphasis on translational research that is evidence-based and seeks to provide strategic and practical guidance for hospital practitioners and health care policy makers in the European Union. Throughout the study we will adopt a mixed methods approach, including qualitative (in-depth, narrative-based, ethnographic case studies using interviews, and direct non-participant observation of organisational processes and quantitative research (secondary analysis of safety and quality data, for example: adverse incident reporting; patient complaints and claims. Discussion the protocol is based on the premise that

  2. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  3. Development of Models and Computer Codes for Assessing the Safety of Romanian Repository for Low and Intermediate Level Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the safety assessment methodology developed in Institute for Nuclear Research for low and intermediate level waste Romanian final repository. The methodology will focus on the post-closure assessment of final disposal and has been developed in following steps: 1. Identification and selection of those release pathways that are of primary importance for repository. 2. Selecting and integrating of appropriate models for analyses of important physical and chemical process. 3. Selecting the appropriate codes that include these selected models. 4. Implement and assess computer codes. The most probable pathway of the radionuclide release involves penetration of water into repository, the leaching of the waste form, and radionuclei transport in ground water and surface water. In consideration of Romanian selected site specific conditions (arid climate and very deep unsaturated zone) we consider that the unsaturated zone flow together the term source model are the most important modules of the methodology. (author)

  4. Marked enhancement of the immune response to BioThrax® (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) by the TLR9 agonist CPG 7909 in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynkiewicz, Dianna; Rathkopf, Melinda; Sim, Iain; Waytes, A Thomas; Hopkins, Robert J; Giri, Lallan; DeMuria, Deborah; Ransom, Janet; Quinn, James; Nabors, Gary S; Nielsen, Carl J

    2011-08-26

    Immunization with BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed) is a safe and effective means of preventing anthrax. Animal studies have demonstrated that the addition of CpG DNA adjuvants to BioThrax can markedly increase the immunogenicity of the vaccine, increasing both serum anti-protective antigen (PA) antibody and anthrax toxin-neutralizing antibody (TNA) concentrations. The immune response to CpG-adjuvanted BioThrax in animals was not only stronger, but was also more rapid and led to higher levels of protection in spore challenge models. The B-class CpG DNA adjuvant CPG 7909, a 24-base synthetic, single-strand oligodeoxynucleotide, was evaluated for its safety profile and adjuvant properties in a Phase 1 clinical trial. A double-blind study was performed in which 69 healthy subjects, age 18-45 years, were randomized to receive three doses of either: (1) BioThrax alone, (2) 1 mg of CPG 7909 alone or (3) BioThrax plus 1 mg of CPG 7909, all given intramuscularly on study days 0, 14 and 28. Subjects were monitored for IgG to PA by ELISA and for TNA titers through study day 56 and for safety through month 6. CPG 7909 increased the antibody response by 6-8-fold at peak, and accelerated the response by 3 weeks compared to the response seen in subjects vaccinated with BioThrax alone. No serious adverse events related to study agents were reported, and the combination was considered to be reasonably well tolerated. The marked acceleration and enhancement of the immune response seen by combining BioThrax and CPG 7909 offers the potential to shorten the course of immunization and reduce the time to protection, and may be particularly useful in the setting of post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:21624418

  5. Parametric analysis on ground level safety near steel poles under fault conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Ma, J.; Dawalibi, F.P. [Safe Engineering Services and Technologies Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    When an electrical fault occurs on a distribution or transmission steel pole, the faulted pole or adjacent poles can experience a sharp increase in ground potential. This paper presented a detailed study that investigated the design of a buried grounding loop around the base of the pole. A series of computer simulations were carried out to determine the effectiveness of various ground loop arrangements in various soil models in minimizing touch and step voltages near a faulted pole. When a fault occurs, the earth surface voltage gradient near the tower is increased and could represent a hazard for people nearby. As such, an appropriate pole grounding design is needed. This detailed parametric analysis showed how the grounding system can effectively reduce the touch and step voltages on the pole ground level. In general, the installation of a buried grounding loop around the pole decreases the touch voltages but increases the step voltages. Increasing the grounding system radius can improve the touch voltage significantly without increasing the step voltage. Large variations in soil resistivity with depth have a large impact on the performance of the grounding system. Burying the grounding system in a relatively low soil resistivity layer can maximize the effectiveness of the grounding system for both touch and step voltages. In urban areas with a network of metallic pipes that are connected to the neutral customer service, the touch and step voltages are significantly reduced. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

  6. THE IMPACT OF LARGE INVESTMENT PROJECTS ON THE LEVEL OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SAFETY OF REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishulina S. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our country has become the venue for a number of large-scale worldwide events, the so-called megaprojects (e.g. APEC Summit in Vladivostok in 2012, the World summer Universiade in Kazan-2013, 2014 Winter Olympics of Sochi, the FIFA World Cup in 2018, the preparation and conduct of which include implementation of projects for the establishment of appropriate facilities and infrastructure. The impact of the preparation and holding of such large investment projects is diverse and multifaceted on all spheres of life of the host region. This article is devoted to the analysis of influence of the XXII Olympic Games on the level of social and economic security of the city of Sochi and Krasnodar region. In addition to traditional in national and foreign scientific literature analysis of dynamics of basic macroeconomic indicators as the important characteristics of the efficiency and competitiveness of the regional economy, in the article are studied the indicators and causes of changes in the investment climate and business activity. Special attention is paid to small business in connection with the place and the role in the local economies recreation and tourism specialization

  7. BIO 100 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+   BIO 100 Assignment: The Scientific Method BIO 100 Exercise: UNESCO Research BIO 100 CheckPoint: Living Organisms BIO 100 Assignment: PopEcoLab BIO 100 Assignment: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration BIO 100 Assignment: DemographyLab BIO 100 Final Project: UNESCO Paper BIO 100 CheckPoint: Theories of Biology BIO 100 Assignment: Pearson Lab Scav...

  8. Relationship between degree of risk, cost and level of compliance to occupational health and safety regulations in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Olukemi Windapo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of statutory health and safety (H&S regulations in managing construction project risks. The study examines whether the decision made by contractors to comply with the regulations, the cost of compliance and savings of H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the degree or level of risk, which the regulations are trying to prevent. The rationale for the examination stems from previous studies which establish that building designers and contractors perceive the cost of complying with regulations as additional burdens, which they have to conform to, and which are in some cases unnecessary, and also the fact that construction related injuries and fatalities are on the increase. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a descriptive survey and H&S site audit by the Master Builder Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC were used as the measurements of risk, level of compliance to regulations, cost of compliance and savings. By correlating the quantitative and qualitative data, there is empirical evidence to support a negative relationship between the degree of risk, level and cost of compliance and cost savings. Based on the study’s findings, this paper concludes that the decision made by contractors to comply with H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the perceived cost saving on account of compliance and that cost savings are influenced by the probability of accident occurrence which is an element of the degree of risk which the regulation is trying to prevent or control. 

  9. Relationship between degree of risk, cost and level of compliance to occupational health and safety regulations in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Olukemi Windapo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of statutory health and safety (H&S regulations in managing construction project risks. The study examines whether the decision made by contractors to comply with the regulations, the cost of compliance and savings of H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the degree or level of risk, which the regulations are trying to prevent. The rationale for the examination stems from previous studies which establish that building designers and contractors perceive the cost of complying with regulations as additional burdens, which they have to conform to, and which are in some cases unnecessary, and also the fact that construction related injuries and fatalities are on the increase. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a descriptive survey and H&S site audit by the Master Builder Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC were used as the measurements of risk, level of compliance to regulations, cost of compliance and savings. By correlating the quantitative and qualitative data, there is empirical evidence to support a negative relationship between the degree of risk, level and cost of compliance and cost savings. Based on the study’s findings, this paper concludes that the decision made by contractors to comply with H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the perceived cost saving on account of compliance and that cost savings are influenced by the probability of accident occurrence which is an element of the degree of risk which the regulation is trying to prevent or control.

  10. Simultaneous investigation of blast induced ground vibration and airblast effects on safety level of structures and human in surface blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faramarzi Farhad⇑; Ebrahimi Farsangi Mohammad Ali; Mansouri Hamid

    2014-01-01

    The significance of studying, monitoring and predicting blast induced vibration and noise level in mining and civil activities is justified in the capability of imposing damages, sense of uncertainty due to negative psychological impacts on involved personnel and also judicial complaints of local inhabitants in the nearby area. This paper presents achieved results during an investigation carried out at Sungun Copper Mine, Iran. Besides, the research also studied the significance of blast induced ground vibration and air-blast on safety aspects of nearby structures, potential risks, frequency analysis, and human response. According to the United States Bureau of Mines (USBM) standard, the attenuation equations were devel-oped using field records. A general frequency analysis and risk evaluation revealed that:94%of generated frequencies are less than 14 Hz which is within the natural frequency of structures that increases risk of damage. At the end, studies of human response showed destructive effects of the phenomena by ranging between 2.54 and 25.40 mm/s for ground vibrations and by the average value of 110 dB for noise levels which could increase sense of uncertainty among involved employees.

  11. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  12. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  13. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.; Brandbyge, Mads; Jensen, J. H.; De Vico, L.

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  14. Gonadal histology and serum vitellogenin levels of bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus from the Northern Pacific Ocean--absence of endocrine disruption bio-indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shinya; Kurihara, Ryo; Strüssmann, Carlos Augusto; Yamasaki, Tsugiko; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Hara, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals such as organochlorines have been detected in a large number of marine fish. Histological observation of the gonads, measurement of serum vitellogenin (VTG) level and of liver polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content were performed to evaluate the reproductive health and the contamination with endocrine disruptors in bigeye tuna Thunnus obesus, collected in the northern Pacific Ocean in 1999 and 2000. Abnormalities commonly found in species affected by endocrine disruptors such as the presence of oocytes in the testis or elevated serum VTG levels were not found in any of males examined. Both males and females had only small amounts of liver PCB content. The results suggest that currently there is little if any risk of organochlorine contamination or endocrine disruption of gonadal function in bigeye tuna from the northern Pacific Ocean. However, further studies are necessary to evaluate the health status of the open sea fishery resources. PMID:12705919

  15. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.;

    2013-01-01

    signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  16. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  17. How Events at the Nano/Bio Interface Determine Good and Adverse Biological Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Andre

    2014-03-01

    We have come to recognize that much of biology is executed at the nanoscale level, therefore providing a rational approach to using discovery about the structure and function of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) at the nano/bio interface for interrogation of disease, diagnosis, treatment, and imaging at levels of sophistication not possible before. Moreover, the behavior of ENM's at the nano/bio interface also constitutes the basis for hazard generation and is therefore key for understanding the safety assessment and safer design of nanomaterials. In this overview, I will discuss how discovery at the molecular, cellular, organ and systemic nano/bio interfaces has helped us to my progress progress in the fields of nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. I will explain how the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials relate to nanoscale interactions at the membrane, intracellular organelles, tissues and organs in response to exposure to a variety of commercial ENMs as well as for therapeutic nanocarriers. I will delineate how the use of high throughput screening to establish structure-activity relationships can be used for the design of improved nanocarriers for cancer treatment as well as hazard and risk ranking of large categories of commercial ENMs on their way to the marketplace.

  18. BioMart: a data federation framework for large collaborative projects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Junjun; Haider, Syed; Baran, Joachim; Cros, Anthony; Guberman, Jonathan M.; Hsu, Jack; Liang, Yong; Yao, Long; Kasprzyk, Arek

    2011-01-01

    BioMart is a freely available, open source, federated database system that provides a unified access to disparate, geographically distributed data sources. It is designed to be data agnostic and platform independent, such that existing databases can easily be incorporated into the BioMart framework. BioMart allows databases hosted on different servers to be presented seamlessly to users, facilitating collaborative projects between different research groups. BioMart contains several levels of ...

  19. On personal safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper mainly expounds the personal safety culture, including the following aspects: the attitude to exploration, strict methods and the habit of exchange etc. It points out that straightening the education of safety culture and heightening the level of personal safety culture can get not only high-level safety but also high-level quality

  20. Lessons learned from exchanges between the french and german safety authorities. Comparison of the safety levels achieved for reactors built in these two countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to emphasize, right at the beginning, the exceptional extent of the assessment work performed over several years on the nuclear power plants in each country (exchange of confidential documents, communication of incidents during the plant building stage, specialist visits to the site, joint reports by the Franco-German Commission on all important safety problems). The D.F.K. (Franco-German Commission) has been the official framework for these exchanges since 1976 (the exchanges relating to FESSENHEIM and its ''twin'' plant NECKARWESTHEIM 1 began as far back as 1973 and were pursued, when construction of CATTENOM began, by a comparison with PHILIPPSBURG). Apart from its annual plenary session, it presently comprises 6 standing working groups dealing respectively with general safety problems (including primary system technology problems and exchanges on incidents discussed by two subcommittees), emergency plans, radiation protection problems, radioactive waste, fuel cycle installations, fast breeder reactors. It is also worth noting the regular meetings held by the standing groups of experts (GPR and RSK), which have enabled periodical assessment of the extent to which the approaches of the two countries to the main safety problems are tending to converge (severe accidents, operating feedback, containment, followup on the TMI and CHERNOBYL accidents, etc) and the exchanges between the IPSN and the GRS on the corresponding research programs

  1. Using naturalistic driving data to explore the association between traffic safety-related events and crash risk at driver level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kun-Feng; Aguero-Valverde, Jonathan; Jovanis, Paul P

    2014-11-01

    There has been considerable research conducted over the last 40 years using traffic safety-related events to support road safety analyses. Dating back to traffic conflict studies from the 1960s these observational studies of driver behavior have been criticized due to: poor quality data; lack of available and useful exposure measures linked to the observations; the incomparability of self-reported safety-related events; and, the difficulty in assessing culpability for safety-related events. This study seeks to explore the relationships between driver characteristics and traffic safety-related events, and between traffic safety-related events and crash involvement while mitigating some of those limitations. The Virginia Tech Transportation Institute 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study dataset, in which the participants' vehicles were instrumented with various cameras and sensors during the study period, was used for this study. The study data set includes 90 drivers observed for 12-13 months driving. This study focuses on single vehicle run-off-road safety-related events only, including 14 crashes and 182 safety-related events (30 near crashes, and 152 crash-relevant incidents). Among the findings are: (1) drivers under age 25 are significantly more likely to be involved in safety-related events and crashes; and (2) significantly positive correlations exist between crashes, near crashes, and crash-relevant incidents. Although there is still much to learn about the factors affecting the positive correlation between safety-related events and crashes, a Bayesian multivariate Poisson log-normal model is shown to be useful to quantify the associations between safety-related events and crash risk while controlling for driver characteristics. PMID:25086439

  2. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  3. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  4. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  5. Radiological safety assessment for a low-level radioactive solid waste storage facility: preliminary risk evaluation by reliability techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of reliability techniques was examined to the determination of quantitative risks presented by a low-level radioactive solid waste storage facility. Fault trees and event trees were defined based on many relevant assumptions to obtain the average occurrence rate of rare accidents which could lead to potential hazards to the general public. The amount of radioactivity which would be transported into the environment from a storage facility was calculated using assumptions and/or estimates of the magnitude of each accident, together with estimates of probability of occurrence, and was used as an index for measuring the potential risks. Some valuable results were obtained in this study under the limits considered. These are as follows: (1) Reliability techniques are effective and promising for assessing the quantitative risks due to storing radioactive wastes in a waste package storage facility for long periods; (2) The main failures associated with an accident are summarized and listed; (3) The advantages and disadvantages of two types of waste package storage room and the amounts of radioactivity which would be released accidentally from them are also summarized and listed; and (4) The improvements to a storage facility that are desirable from a radiological safety aspect are proposed. (author)

  6. One safety critical indicators model for regulatory actions on nuclear power plants based on a level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents a general methodology to the establishment, selection and use of safety indicators for a two loop PWR plant, as Angra 1. The study performed identifies areas considered critical for the plant operational safety. For each of these areas, strategic sub-areas are defined. For each strategic sub-area, specific safety indicators are defined. These proposed Safety Indicators are based on the contribution to risk considering a quantitative risk analysis. For each safety indicator, a goal, a bounded interval and proper bases are developed, to allow for a clear and comprehensive individual behavior evaluation. Additionally, an integrated evaluation of the indicators, using expert systems, was done to obtain an overview of the plant general safety. This methodology can be used for identifying situations where the plant safety is challenged, by giving a general overview of the plant operational condition. Additionally, this study can also identify eventual room for improvements by generating suggestions and recommendations, as a complement for regulatory actions and inspections, focusing resources on eventual existing weaknesses, in order to increase or maintain a high pattern of operational safety. (author)

  7. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions. PMID:19745488

  8. Influence of Cadmium(II Ions and Brewery Sludge on Metallothionein Level in Earthworms (Eisenia fetida – Bio- transforming of Toxic Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins belong to a group of intracellular, high molecular andcysteine-rich proteins whose content in an organism increase with increasing concentrationof a heavy metal. The aim of this work was to apply the electrochemical analysis for theanalysis of metallothioneins in earthworms exposed to cadmium ions and brewery sludge.Here we utilized adsorptive transfer technique coupled with differential pulse voltammetryBrdicka reaction to determine metallothionein in different biological samples. By meansthis very sensitive technique it was possible to analyze metallothionein in concentrationsbelow 1 μmol.l-1 with the standard deviation of 4-5%. We found out that the average MTlevel in the non-treated earthworms oscillated between 19 and 48 μmol.l-1. When weanalysed samples of earthworms treated by cadmium, we observed that the MT contentincreased with the exposition length and increase dose of cadmium ions. Finally, weattempted to study and compare the toxicity of the raw sludge and its leach by using ofearthworms. The raw brewery sludge caused the death of the earthworms quickly.Earthworms held in the presence of leach from brewery sludge increased their weight of147 % of their original weight because they ingested the nutrients from the sludge. Themetallothionein level changes markedly with increasing time of exposition and applieddose of toxic compound. It clearly follows from the obtained results that the MT synthesisis insufficient in the first hours of the exposition and increases after more than 24 h.

  9. Principal characteristics of good safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation briefly discusses the following aspects of safety culture: what is safety culture; universal features of safety culture; the main elements of safety culture; requirements at policy level; safety culture at government level, regulatory body, operators; requirements on managers

  10. Magnesium implant alloy with low levels of strontium and calcium: The third element effect and phase selection improve bio-corrosion resistance and mechanical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . - Highlights: • The addition of low level of Sr and Ca improves the corrosion resistance of Mg. • Their combined addition is more effective due to the third element effect. • Ternary globular Ca/Sr-rich phases form in the Mg–0.3Sr–0.3Ca alloy. • Compact hydroxyapatite layer forms on the surface and slows down degradation

  11. To what extent can natural analogues contribute to the safety case of high level waste repositories in rock salt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most important key element of any safety case for a radioactive waste repository is the safety assessment. It quantifies potential hazards to the environment from selected scenarios by means of numerical model calculations. A time frame for the assessment of 1 million years is proposed in the course of the revision of the German safety criteria. Due to the growing uncertainties in the safety assessment within the extended geological time frame multiple lines of evidence supporting the modelling results as well as the conclusions to be drawn will be of increasing importance. One category of supporting arguments can be derived from natural analogues. Their role in the safety case depends to some extent on the time period which they cover. Especially industrial or archaeological analogues can help understanding and underpinning of short-term processes within the repository. However, the main benefit of natural analogues in a safety case is to increase the understanding of long-term processes. In this paper it is evaluated in what way natural analogues can contribute to the different elements of a safety case. This is illustrated by discussion of their relevance to specific time frames for the example of a generic HLW-repository in rock salt. (authors)

  12. Radiation and environmental safety of spent nuclear fuel management options based on direct disposal or reprocessing and disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report considers the various stages of two nuclear fuel cycle options: direct disposal and reprocessing followed by disposal of vitrified high-level waste. The comparative review is based on the results of previous international studies and concentrates on the radiation and environmental safety aspects of technical solutions based on today's technology. (23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.)

  13. Bio-functional Au/Si Nanrods for Pathogen Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing a...

  14. Standard format and content of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document discusses the information that should be provided in the Safety Analysis Report and establishes a uniform format for presenting the information necessary to fulfill the licensing requirements for land disposal of radioactive waste called for in 10 CFR 61. The uniform format will (1) help ensure that the Safety Analysis Report contains the information required by 10 CFR 61, (2) aid the applicant and NRC staff in ensuring that the information is complete, (3) help persons reading the Safety Analysis Report to locate information, and (4) contribute to shortening the time needed for the review process

  15. Synthesis of the IRSN report on severe accidents and level 2 probabilistic safety studies within the frame of the safety re-examination associated with the third decennial inspection of 1300 MW reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to analyze studies related to severe accidents and performed within the framework of the third decennial safety re-examination of the French 1300 We nuclear reactors. It also reports the main conclusions of a detailed analysis of level-2 probabilistic safety studies performed according to another procedure. The report first addresses the 'severe accident' system of reference. It presents the general approach and the safety objectives, discusses the management of a site with a unit in severe accident (this encompasses the management of neighbouring units, the conditions of intervention in terms of habitability of the control room and of manoeuvrability of the venting-filtration system), discusses the expected equipment performance (concerned equipment, safety requirements for equipment needed in case of severe accident, loadings). A second part addresses and comments the results of level 2 probabilistic studies. The report then addresses the water management in the vessel sink with two main objectives (to keep corium in the vessel while promoting its cooling, to cool corium fallen in the vessel sink). The next part addresses modifications planned by EDF in terms of instrumentation associated with a severe accident situation, of improvement of confinement and reduction of risks of important and early releases, of enclosure depressurization in case of unavailability of the enclosure sprinkling system, and of strategy of opening the venting-filtration device in case of total loss of electricity supplies

  16. Building a Safety Case in Compliance with ISO 26262 for Fuel LevelEstimation and Display System

    OpenAIRE

    Dardar, Raghad

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, road vehicles, including trucks, are characterized by an increasedcomplexity due to a greater variety of software, and a greater number of sensorsand actuators. As a consequence, there is an increased risk in termsof software or hardware failures that could lead to unacceptable hazards.Thus safety, more precisely functional safety, is a crucial property that mustbe ensured to avoid or mitigate these potential unacceptable hazards. Inthe automotive domain, recently (November 2011), t...

  17. Bio-fuels - biohazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politicians have a clear explanation for growing commodity prices. It is all the fault of speculators. It is easy to point the finger at an imaginary enemy. It is more difficult and from the point of view of a political career suicidal to admit one's mistakes. And there are reasons for remorse. According to studies prepared by the OECD and the World Bank bio-fuels are to be blame for high food prices. The bio-fuel boom that increases the demand for agro-commodities has been created by politicians offering generous subsidies. And so farming products do not end up on the table, but in the fuel tanks of cars in the form of additives. And their only efficiency is that they make food more expensive. The first relevant indication that environmentalist tendencies in global politics have resulted in shortages and food price increases can be found in a confidential report prepared by the World Bank. Parts of the report were leaked to the media last month. According to this information growing bio-fuel production has resulted in a food price increase by 75%. The theory that this development was caused by speculators and Chinese and Indian demand received a serious blow. And the OECD report definitely contradicted the excuse used by the politicians. According to the report one of the main reasons for growing food prices are generously subsidized bio-fuels. Their share of the increase of demand for agro-commodities in 2005 -2007 was 60% according to the study. (author)

  18. BIO 100 UOP course/uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     BIO 100 Assignment: The Scientific Method     BIO 100 Exercise: UNESCO Research     BIO 100 CheckPoint: Living Organisms     BIO 100 Assignment: PopEcoLab     BIO 100 Assignment: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration     BIO 100 Assignment: DemographyLab     BIO 100 Final Project: UNE...

  19. Building Newcomer Competence for NPP Safety Assessment through Learning by Doing: Development of Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final remarks: • COMPASS-M project is a very fruitful study. 1. State-of-the-art competence for PSA technique in Malaysia (applicable to nuclear installations, incl. RR and NPP). 2. PSA model and report for the operating research reactor in Malaysia. → Risk estimate of core damage and ranking contributors to the risk; → Basis for further safety improvement of RR as appropriate. 3. Input for IAEA’s publications on PSA for research reactors. • The results will be available to interested Member States (security considerations be addressed); → Completion in mid-2014, paper to be published in PSAM-12; ► Managerial support is instrumental for success of learning-by-doing projects

  20. Study on safety assessment methodology for shallow land disposal of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) conducted a five-year (from Jan. 1988 to Jan. 1993) project entitled 'Study on Safety Assessment Methodology for Shallow Land Disposal of Low-and-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste' in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The project was aimed to develop a set of techniques and methods, including parameters, models and computer codes, for safety assessment of shallow land disposal of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste. The author describes the pattern of nuclide migration in loess aerated zone, study on moisture movement, determination of related parameters and the results. Site characteristics and development of relevant models and codes are also described. In order to carry out the field tracing test and the laboratory simulation test of radionuclide migration, a field test site (CIRP's Field Test Site), a test hall equipped with sprinkler, and an environmental simulation laboratory were established. A direct measurement device used for field radionuclide migration test, laboratory simulation setup for radionuclide migration and an intact soil sampler were developed. The loess aerated zone radionuclide migration test started in May 1989 and finished in August 1991. Tests were carried out under two rainfall conditions, natural rainfall (438 mm/a) and artificial sprinkling (with sprinkling density of 15 mm/d, corresponding to annual rainfall of 5480 mm). The laboratory simulation ran about one year with daily sprinkling density of 0.796 mm for soil column 4 and 0.656 mm for soil column 2. The tracer nuclides are 60Co, 85Sr and 134Cs and (or 137Cs). Field moisture movement study and a test using 3H as tracer for moisture movement were performed simultaneously. The major conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Under the artificial sprinkling condition, peak of 85Sr moved about 13 cm in the loess aerated zone during about two years, while under the natural condition, it moved

  1. Social Science Insights for the BioCCS Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maree Dowd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BioCCS is a technology gaining support as a possible emissions reduction policy option to address climate change. The process entails the capture, transport and storage of carbon dioxide produced during energy production from biomass. Globally, the most optimistic energy efficiency scenarios cannot avoid an average temperature increase of +2 °C without bioCCS. Although very much at the commencement stage, bioCCS demonstration projects can provide opportunity to garner knowledge, achieve consensus and build support around the technology’s properties. Yet many challenges face the bioCCS industry, including no guarantee biomass will always be from sustainable sources or potentially result in carbon stock losses. The operating environment also has no or limited policies, regulations and legal frameworks, and risk and safety concerns abound. Some state the key problem for bioCCS is cultural, lacking in a ‘community of support’, awareness and credibility amongst its own key stakeholders and the wider public. Therefore, the industry can benefit from the growing social science literature, drawing upon other energy and resource based industries with regard to social choice for future energy options. To this end, the following scoping review was conducted in order to ascertain gaps in existing public perception and acceptance research focusing on bioCCS.

  2. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  3. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  4. Large scale production of bio methane from wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Rabou, L.P.L.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Vreugdenhil, B.J.; Smit, R. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    An increasing number of countries is setting objectives and obligations to replace part of their fossil natural gas consumptions by bio-methane to reduce CO2 emissions. The production of bio-methane via digestion has been developed and is implemented on a small scale. The limited amount of suitable digestible feedstock demands for development of a technology which can convert a wider range of biomass fuels, such as wood into bio-methane. Gasification is such a route. Gasification technology offers the possibility to convert lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. residual wood) into a combustible gas. This gas can be converted into natural gas quality gas (bio-methane) by catalytic processes. Bio-fuels such as bio-methane produced from biomass have the potential to become a CO2 negative fuel, because part of the biomass carbon is separated as CO2 during the production process. If this pure CO2 stream is sequestrated, these bio-fuels become even CO2 negative. This might be an attractive option for reducing the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Several bio-methane demonstration projects are underway based on thermal gasification of woody biomass. The most well known is the 20 MWth GoBiGas project in Gothenburg by Goeteborg Energi and E.ON. ECN (Energy research Centre of the Netherlands) has developed an alternative gasification process (MILENA), optimized for the production of bio-methane. This system has an overall efficiency of 70% from wood to bio-methane. The technology is demonstrated at lab scale (30 kWth) and pilot scale (800 kWth). A 12 MWth demonstration plant is under preparation in close cooperation with the HVC Group who plan to act as launching customer.

  5. BIO 101 UOP Course Tutorial / Tutorialrank

    OpenAIRE

    charles

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+    BIO 101 Week 1 DQs  BIO 101 Week 1 Individual What Is Life?  BIO 101 Week 2 Individual Family Tree Presentation  BIO 101 Week 2 DQs  BIO 101 Week 3 Learning Team Presentation  BIO 101 Week 3 DQs  BIO 101 Week 3 Individual Evolution Lab  BIO 101 Week 4 DQs  BIO 101 Week 4 Individual Organism Physiology ...

  6. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang;

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  7. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express3D

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Derek W.; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J.; Freeman, Tom C.

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express3D is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pa...

  8. Bio aerosol Generation at wastewater treatment plants: Identification of main bio aerosols sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Typical operations taking place at wastewater treatment plants, especially those involving aeration and mechanical agitation of raw wastewater, represent one of the main sources of bio aerosols that, if inhaled, could pose a biologic hazard to site workers and local residents. Six different wastewater treatment plants from southeast Spain were monitories in order to identify the main bio aerosol sources and to evaluate the airborne microorganisms levels to which workers may be exposed to. Air samples were taken from selected locations by using a single stage impactor. (Author)

  9. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackowski, Stefan A; Alvi, Azhar Z; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) procedures. Comparisons between supplements' final forms, oil source and n-3 PUFA concentration quartiles, as measures of product formulations and delivery forms, were compared using ANOVA. Of the products successfully tested, 50 % exceeded the voluntary recommended levels for markers of oxidation. Another 18 % of products were approaching the limits with 1-3 years before expiration. Encapsulated products without flavour additives had significantly lower secondary and TOTOX levels than bulk oils and flavoured products (P oil sources (P > 0·05), with the exception of krill oil products having higher secondary oxidation levels than plant-based products (P > 0·05). Markers of oxidation did not differ between n-3 PUFA supplement concentration quartiles. Consumers may be at risk of exposure to higher levels of oxidative products. New regulatory mandates need to be introduced to ensure that all n-3 PUFA products, used as nutritional supplements, regardless of their formulation or delivery form, can be tested for oxidative safety and compliance. PMID:26688721

  10. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  11. Shielding analysis for ITER equatorial bio-shield plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER equatorial port cell outside bio-shield plug is a place for allowing free personnel access after shutdown which accommodates various sensitive equipment and pipes. To ensure the personnel safety in port cell after shutdown, the distribution of dose rate in port cell was studied. Based on VisualBUS (CAD-Based Multi-Functional 4D Neutronics Simulation System), dose rate calculations were completed in port cell after shutdown. The result showed that dose rates in port cell are still 2 orders of magnitude more than desired limit (10 μSv/h) after one day shutdown. The optimization of bio-shield was needed. (authors)

  12. bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier León Correa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la publicación de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, hemos podido comprobar una evolución importante en el desarrollo de esta disciplina, tanto en España como en Latinoamérica, que son los ámbitos donde muy especialmente se difunde. Trataré de señalar los aspectos que considero de mayor interés en los inicios y desarrollo de esta nueva disciplina, para poder entender mejor los retos actuales que enfrenta y cuáles son las líneas que ha seguido la revista en esta andadura inicial, y que deberá seguir para responder a los retos de los próximos años. Es un reto la realidad que vivimos en nuestros países, con la aprobación de leyes impuestas desde los poderes públicos con muy poca —o ninguna— discusión social que se parezca de lejos al diálogo tolerante racional que propugna la Bioética; con las reformas aceleradas e indecisas de los sistemas de salud; con el cambio del rol del médico y de la relación médico-paciente desde un paternalismo aún presente a un modelo participativo o contractual sin defi nir claramente; con importantes desigualdades en el acceso a la atención de salud dentro de cada propio país, pero a la vez con un creciente reconocimiento de los derechos de los pacientes y de su necesaria participación para mejorar la calidad de la asistencia clínica. Tiene especial importancia valorar cuáles han sido los instrumentos del éxito y de la difusión de la Bioética clínica, y cuáles pueden ser las nuevas propuestas para el desarrollo de la Bioética como una disciplina de debate ético social y político, ligada a las exigencias éticas de la justicia y el desarrollo social. Hemos de ver cuál ha sido el aporte en estos quince años de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, con la colaboración de cientos de autores de diversos países, en que se ha mantenido fi el a la propuesta de los que la iniciamos en Santiago de Compostela en el año 1990: construir un buen aporte al debate actual de Bio

  13. Exercising Synergy of Safeguards Safety and Security at Facility Level of the GA Siwabessy Multi-Purpose Reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safeguards, safety and security (3Ss) constitute as essential elements for successful development of nuclear technology in the life time of nuclear installation. All 3Ss need to be coordinated due workers, the public and the environment require protection from plant malfunction, human error, malicious acts and proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. Then the importance of the 3Ss was deemed valuable, particularly to a country having willingness to expand to nuclear power reactor such as Indonesia that in the near future plans to build small experimental power reactor. This paper is aimed to discuss synergy among safeguards, safety and security which will have opportunity been exercising at the GA Siwabessy Reactor (RSG-GAS), Indonesia. Synergy among safeguards, safety and security offers much opportunity for cost savings and enhance efficiency. Discussion is carried out by first investigating common values and conflicts exist among 3S. Up to now each of them was accomplished separately by different division and using different equipment due lack of coordination among them. The objective of this exercise is to develop more efficient and effective 3Ss infrastructures and also to support skill and knowledge of human resources. Benefitting from synergy between safeguards and security such as management of nuclear material and non proliferation; safeguards and safety such as management of nuclear material and waste management; safety and security such as prevent radiological release and also tension among them if any are discussed. It is expected that outcome of this exercise will able to develop a role model of infrastructures to the up-coming small experimental power reactor in Indonesia. (author)

  14. Occupational bio-aerosol exposure in veterinary medicine: a comprehensive assessment of exposure and exploration of bio-aerosol related health effects

    OpenAIRE

    Samadi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies showed that workers handling animals especially in livestock farms (e.g. pig, cow, and poultry) are likely exposed to high levels of bio-aerosols. Working with animals during veterinary practice has great similarities with livestock farming because veterinary populations spent a considerable amount of their time in stables or clinics in close contact with animals. Thus, exposure to bio-aerosols during veterinary practice seems likely, but detailed and comprehensive studies on bio-aero...

  15. Harmony Analysis on Economic Development and Safety Production Level in China’s Mining Industry Based on Identity-difference-opposition Dynamic Associated Method

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Haixia; Chen Lin; Wang Hongtu

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate whether the level of development between the mining economy and the national economy and between the safety of mining production and its economic development should be asynchronous or not and exploring the underlying causes for inharmonious development, using identity-difference-opposition analysis method, this study analyzed and evaluated the harmonies that economic development state of mining industry relative to that of industrial and t...

  16. Lessons Learnt in the Development of Level 1 PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor Probability Safety Assessment: A Collaboration Project under the Norwegian Extra Budgetary Fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports about the lessons learnt from the development of level 1 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) project that was implemented under the IAEA mentoring program for TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI research reactor (RTP). As a project that involved more than 3 organizations, a strategic planning of the management and implementation of individual assignment is truly a hectic task. This report compiles all related activities from the forming of the Malaysian PSA team up to the final report submitted to the IAEA. (author)

  17. Risk assessment of low-level chemical exposures from consumer products under the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission chronic hazard guidelines.

    OpenAIRE

    Babich, M A

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency that was created in 1973. The CPSC has jurisdiction over more the 15,000 types of consumer products used in and around the home or by children, except items such as food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, pesticides, certain radioactive materials, products that emit radiation (e.g., microwave ovens), and automobiles. The CPSC has investigated many low-level exposures from consumer products, including forma...

  18. Nuclear Non-safety Level DCS System Signal Processing Failure Methods%核电非安全级DCS系统信号失效处理方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜慧; 王敬军; 孙建朝

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the treatment of nuclear non-safety level DCS system in case of signal failure,that is when the signal quality is bad.This paper is divided into LEVEL1 (site control er) and LEVEL2 (operation control screen) two parts.This paper is based on CPR1000 project non-safety level DCS system platform (based on the MACSVl HOLLYSYS platform) processing of signal failure.%描述了核电非安全级DCS系统在信号失效的情况下,即信号质量变坏时的处理方法,分为LEVEL1(现场控制站)和LEVEL2(操作控制画面)两部分进行描述。以CPR1000项目的非安全级DCS系统平台(基于HOLLYSYS的MACSVl系统平台)中的信号失效处理。

  19. Briquetting mechanism and waterproof performance of bio-briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Chen, L.; Cao, J. [Henen Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2008-07-15

    Maize stalk and bio-briquette binder made from it were studied comparatively by FTIR and the microstructure of bio-briquette was observed and analyzed by microscopy. It was found that a large amount of unreacted biomass fibers exist in the binder. These form a multi-level network structure inside the bio-briquette and could make fine coal particles connect together. The multi-level network structure would be still present after the bio-briquettes are immersed in water for 24 hours. On the other hand, stalk materials could be partly degraded after treatment and, with other liquid ingredients in the binder, the degradation products could form a viscous fluid which would work as a bonding ingredient inside the bio-briquette and could improve the waterproofing ability of the binder after solidification. Therefore, the multi-level network structure of the biomaterial and the presence of viscous fluid are very important to the shaping and the improvement of the waterproofing ability of bio-briquettes. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Development and test of safety devices for a repository for high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany, direct disposal of spent fuel is being developed to technical maturity within an ambitious R and D program. Since it is a principle of the German licensing practice only to license demonstrated equipment and procedures, the program covered all elements of this novel technology. A key element was demonstrating the safe shaft hoisting of heavy payloads up to 85 t, which corresponds to the combined weight of the Pollux cask, of 65 t, plus max. 20 t for the railbound transport car. The Pollux cask is also suitable for final disposal of reprocessing waste. The results of the development and testing of the corresponding safety devices have been very satisfactory. The shaft safety gate, the shaft airlock gate, the cage rests, to hold the cage platform during loading and unloading operations, and an energy dissipating system to safely arrest and stop the cage after overwinding have been successfully tested. The conventional cage arrestor comprising wooden wedge guides failed to perform properly

  1. Initial development of a metric to describe the level of safety associated with piloting an aircraft with synthetic vision systems (SVS) displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolone, Anthony P.; Glaab, Louis J.; Hughes, Monica F.; Parrish, Russell V.

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) displays provide pilots with a continuous view of terrain combined with integrated guidance symbology in an effort to increase situation awareness (SA) and decrease workload during operations in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC). It is hypothesized that SVS displays can replicate the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual out-the-window (OTW) visibility or time of day. Throughout the course of recent SVS research, significant progress has been made towards evolving SVS displays as well as demonstrating their ability to increase SA compared to conventional avionics in a variety of conditions. While a substantial amount of data has been accumulated demonstrating the capabilities of SVS displays, the ability of SVS to replicate the safety and operational flexibility of VMC flight performance in all visibility conditions is unknown to any specific degree. The previous piloted simulations and flight tests have shown better SA and path precision is achievable with SVS displays without causing an increase in workload, however none of the previous SVS research attempted to fully capture the significance of SVS displays in terms of their contribution to safety or operational benefits. In order to more fully quantify the relationship of flight operations in IMC with SVS displays to conventional operations conducted in VMC, a fundamental comparison to current day general aviation (GA) flight instruments was warranted. Such a comparison could begin to establish the extent to which SVS display concepts are capable of maintaining an "equivalent level of safety" with the round dials they could one day replace, for both current and future operations. Such a comparison was the focus of the SVS-ES experiment conducted under the Aviation Safety and Security Program's (AvSSP) GA Element of the SVS Project at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. A combination of

  2. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  3. Analysis of Correlations between the Level of Partnering Relations and their Influence on the Time, Cost, Quality and Safety of Implementation of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper uses the developed model of the influence of partnering relations on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. On its basis, a questionnaire has been created and a preliminary survey has been conducted. The paper presents an analysis of correlations between the level of partnering relations in the context of the partnering measures indicated in the model and their influence on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. The analysis was conducted based on the data collected in 52 construction projects. The values of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient have been calculated for the examined relations. The analysis allowed for indicating the measures of partnering whose improvement most often brings benefits with regard to the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. Among the 80 analysed correlations, the ones identified as strong were: 15 relations connected with the time, 8 with the cost, 5 with the quality and 1 with the safety of implementation of construction projects.

  4. Influência do treinamento aeróbio sobre o cortisol e glicose plasmáticos em equinos Influence of the aerobic training on cortisol and glucose levels in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Ferraz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a resposta do cortisol e da glicemia em 12 equinos da raça Puro Sangue Árabe destreinados (T0 por oito meses e submetidos a um período de 90 dias de treinamento aeróbio (T90. Para avaliação dos efeitos do treinamento, empregou-se teste ergométrico constituído de exercício progressivo em esteira rolante, acompanhado por colheitas de sangue 15 segundos antes do término de cada etapa de esforço. A velocidade (intensidade do treino foi definida como sendo 80% da V4 (velocidade na qual a lactacidemia atinge 4mmol/L. Adicionalmente, no último mês de treinamento, foi instituído, uma vez por semana, exercício com velocidades variáveis, chamado "fartlek". Após 90 dias de treinamento, a concentração plasmática de cortisol elevou-se e após o teste de esforço (20min, houve aumento da glicemia. Este resultado reflete a possibilidade de adaptação ao treinamento. Conclui-se que o cortisol plasmático pode ser utilizado como ferramenta na avaliação de um programa de treinamento em equinos.Cortisol and glucose responses were evaluated in 12 Arabian (PSA horses submitted to a detraining period of eight months (T0 and to 90 days of aerobic training (T90. For the evaluation of the effect of training, a standardized incremental exercise test in a treadmill was used. Fifteen seconds before the ending of each effort step, blood samples were collected. The speed (intensity of the training was defined as being 80% of the V4 (speed at which the blood lactate concentration reaches 4mmol/L. Additionally, in the last month of training, velocity play, a type of exercise with varying velocities called "fartlek" was instituted, once a week. Results showed that after 90 days of training, the plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and glucose increased when compared to the untrained horses. This result reflects the possibility of adaptation to the training. The blood cortisol levels may be used as a tool for the evaluation of a training program

  5. CLINICO-MORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF BIO-OSS ® DURING BONE-PLASTIC OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SIDELNIKOV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the clinical and morphological characteristics of Bio-Oss ® and Bio-Gate ® materials during bone-plastic operations, especially bone regeneration after surgical interventiond. Materials and method: The pathomorphological study was performed with the intravital biopsy material of bone tissue from augmentation areas, obtained during implants placement. Clinical studies included subjective and objective methods, in particular X-ray analysis and photo documenting. Bio-Oss ®, Bio-Gide ®, Bio-Gide ® Perio membranes, Resor-Pin pins, U-impl implant systems were investigated and 231 operations were performed with Bio-Oss ® and Bio-Gate ®, of which 38 cases of sinus lifting, 145 of bone plasty with simultaneous implantation and 48 cases of periodontal surgery. Results: Usage of bone-plastic Bio-OSS ® and Bio-Gate ® materials during various bone-plastic and periodontal operations assures a high clinical effect (from 93 to 99%. Morphologically, it has been observed that, after usage of bone Bio-OSS ® and Bio-Gate ® materials, a new osteoid tissue was formed, similar to the bone tissue of the alveolar process, with high mineralization levels, especially in the first 2 years, due to the simultaneous resorption of the material. The newly-formed tissue has a classical design and can fully perform the functions of jaw bones, especially for carrying loads transmitted with either teeth or implants.

  6. Limits to the potential of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document examines bio-physical limits of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon by examining available solar radiation and observed efficiencies with which natural ecosystems and agricultural systems convert that energy to biomass. It compares these energy/carbon exchanges with national levels of energy use and carbon emissions for Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. Globally primary energy consumption (related carbon emissions) is currently equivalent to ∼0.06% of the incident solar energy, and 43% of the energy (carbon) captured by photosynthesis. The nations fall into three categories. Those with primary energy consumption that is: 1–10% (Japan, Korea and Singapore); ∼0.1% (China, UK and the US) and; 0.1–0.01% (Australia, Brazil, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Sweden) of incident solar radiation. The percentage of energy captured in biomass follows this pattern, but generally lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. The energy content of traded wheat, corn and rice represents conversion efficiencies of solar radiation of 0.08–0.17% and for sugar close to 1%, ignoring energy use in production and conversion of biomass to fuels. The study implies that bio-fuels or bio-sequestration can only be a small part of an inclusive portfolio of actions towards a low carbon future and minimised net emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Global energy consumption is ∼0.06% of solar; 43% of net primary production. • 11 nations studied fall into 3 groups: consumption/solar=1–10%; ∼0.1%; 0.1–0.01%. • % of energy captured in biomass is lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. • Crops and natural ecosystems capture 0.1–0.3% and sugar 1% of solar energy. • Significant bio-energy/carbon sequestration via biomass is unrealistic

  7. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  8. Comparison of efficacy, safety and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in patients of major depressive disorder, treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, R; Gupta, R; Bhatia, M S; Tripathi, A K; Gupta, L K

    2015-12-01

    This randomized, open label, prospective, observational study compared clinical efficacy, safety alongwith plasma BDNF levels in outpatients of depression treated with fluoxetine and desvenlafaxine. Patients (aged 18-60 years) with moderate to severe major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnosed by DSM-IV criteria, and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥14, who were prescribed fluoxetine or desvenlafaxine were included (n=30 in each group). Patients were followed up for 12 weeks for evaluation of clinical efficacy, safety along with BDNF levels. In the fluoxetine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 19±4.09 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 9.24±3.98 at 12 weeks. In the desvenlafaxine group, HAM-D scores at the start of treatment was 18±3.75 which significantly (p<0.05) reduced to 10±3.75 at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the fluoxetine group were 775.32±30.38pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 850.3±24.92pg/ml at 12 weeks. The BDNF levels in the desvenlafaxine group were 760.5±28.53pg/ml at the start of treatment which significantly (p<0.05) increased to 845.8±32.82pg/ml at 12 weeks. Both the antidepressants were found to be safe and well tolerated. The efficacy and the safety profile of desvenlafaxine is comparable to fluoxetine in patients of MDD. BDNF levels were significantly increased post-treatment with both the antidepressive agents. Whether BDNF may have a prognostic value in predicting treatment response to antidepressant drugs needs to be investigated in a larger patient population. PMID:26514447

  9. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... Baltic Sea, the prevalence of oxygen depleted areas has not decreased. Two pilot projects in Sweden and Finland investigate the effects of oxygenation pumping in coastal and deepwater areas (PROPPEN and BOX projects, respectively). Oxygenation pumping moves oxygen rich water from the higher levels of the...... water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  10. HSP as bio dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  11. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals. PMID:24370629

  12. Evaluation of the safety of vitrified high level waste shipments from UK to continental Europe by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, prepared in the framework of a study for the European Commission in collaboration with the GRS (Germany and BNFL (United Kingdom), relates to the evaluation of the safety associated to the maritime transport of vitrified wastes from the United Kingdom towards Europe. With this intention, a travel of 1000 nautical miles (1852 km) was considered and a detailed analysis of the boat used by BNFL has been realized in order to elaborate a fault tree, for scenarios able to generate mechanical and thermal stresses significant on the transport packages (type B-packages). (A.L.B.)

  13. Design, development and safety assessment of the IRUS repository for disposal of low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is provided of IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure), a belowground vault intended for LLRW with a hazardous lifetime of 500 years, and scheduled to start accepting wastes in 1991. The R and D programs in support of IRUS are concentrating on the optimization of barrier materials, such as concrete and buffer layers, and on understanding the chemistry and physics of the processing occurring within the vault. Safety assessments using the COSMOS S/D code have shown that the risks to the critical population from IRUS are well within regulatory limits

  14. Standard Review Plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  15. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streatfield, I. J.; Duerden, S. L.; Yearsley, R. A.

    2002-02-26

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme.

  16. The Environmental Agency's Assessment of the Post-Closure Safety Case for the BNFL DRIGG Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency is responsible, in England and Wales, for authorization of radioactive waste disposal under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) is currently authorized by the Environment Agency to dispose of solid low level radioactive waste at its site at Drigg, near Sellafield, NW England. As part of a planned review of this authorization, the Environment Agency is currently undertaking an assessment of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case Development Programme for the Drigg disposal facility. This paper presents an outline of the review methodology developed and implemented by the Environment Agency specifically for the planned review of BNFL's Post-Closure Safety Case. The paper also provides an overview of the Environment Agency's progress in its on-going assessment programme

  17. Standard review plan for the review of a license application for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility: Safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) (NUREG-1200) provides guidance to staff reviewers in the Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards who perform safety reviews of applications to construct and operate low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The SRP ensures the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews and presents a well-defined base from which to evaluate proposed changes in the scope and requirements of the staff reviews. The SRP makes information about the regulatory licensing process widely available and serves to improve the understanding of the staff's review process by interested members of the public and the nuclear power industry. Each individual SRP addresses the responsibilities of persons performing the review, the matters that are reviewed, the Commission's regulations and acceptance criteria necessary for the review, how the review is accomplished, the conclusions that are appropriate, and the implementation requirements

  18. Safety relevant aspects of the long-term intermediate storage of spent fuel elements and vitrified high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The currently in Germany pursued concept for management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants provides intermediate dry cask storage at the NPP sites until direct disposal in a deep geologic repository. In addition the earlier commissioned centralized dry storage facilities are being used for storage of high level radioactive waste returned from foreign reprocessing of German spent fuel performed so far. The dry interim storage facilities are licensed for 40 years of operation time. According to the German regulations a full scope periodic safety review is not required so far, neither practical experience on dry storage for this period of time is available. With regard to this background the report at hand is dealing with long term effects, which may affect safety of the interim storage during the 40 years period or beyond if appropriate, and with the question, whether additional analyses or monitoring measures may be required. Therefore relevant publications have been evaluated, calculations have been performed as well as a systematic screening with regard to loads and possible ageing effects has been applied to structures and components important for safety of the storage, in order to identify relevant long term effects, which may not have been considered sufficiently so far and to provide proposals for an improved ageing management. The report firstly provides an overview on the current state of technology describing shortly the national and international practice and experience. In the following chapters safety aspects of interim storage with regard to time dependent effects and variations are being analyzed and discussed. Among this not only technical aspects like the long term behavior of fuel elements, canisters and storage systems are addressed, but also operational long term aspects regarding personnel planning, know how conservation, documentation and quality management are taken into account. A separate chapter is dedicated to developing and describing

  19. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...

  20. Bio-safety of transgenic papaya resistant against Papaya ring spot virus%抗病毒转基因番木瓜及其安全性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世访

    2011-01-01

    本文对番木瓜生产上存在的病害问题、转基因番木瓜的研发、转基因番木瓜国际竞争的动态与趋势、转基因番木瓜的安全性、转基因木瓜的标识等几个方面进行综述.%This paper was focused on the following issues: 1) Diseases of papaya; 2) Research and development of transgenic papaya; 3) Trends of international competition on transgenic papaya; 4) Safety of transgenic papaya; 5) Identification of transgenic papaya.

  1. On bio-diversity, complexity of M-CSF and its receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the development of science, the methods and the views of scientific research changed from analyses to syntheses. Recently, more attention has been paid to bio-diversity and complexity. According to the study on M-CSF and its receptor for years, the author suggests that, the multi-level of bio-diversity also appears at the bio-macromolecular level. Probability of bio-diversity is one of the bases for bio-complexity. Cellular sociology and topobiology are important aspects in bio-complexity, and should be developed. If taking Chinese traditional medicine together with the advantage from Reductionism, joining the study on complexity, Chinese scientist would make a chair in the international scientific society.

  2. Bio diesel production from algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algae appear to be an emerging source of biomass for bio diesel that has the potential to completely displace fossil fuel. Two thirds of earth's surface is covered with water, thus alga e would truly be renewable option of great potential for global energy needs. This study discusses specific and comparative bio diesel quantitative potential of Cladophora sp., also highlighting its biomass (after oil extraction), pH and sediments (glycerine, water and pigments) quantitative properties. Comparison of Cladophora sp., with Oedogonium sp., and Spirogyra sp., (Hossain et al., 2008) shows that Cladophora sp., produce higher quantity of bio diesel than Spirogyra sp., whereas biomass and sediments were higher than the both algal specimens in comparison to the results obtained by earlier workers. No prominent difference in pH of bio diesel was found. In Pakistan this is a first step towards bio diesel production from algae. Results indicate that Cladophora sp., provide a reasonable quantity of bio diesel, its greater biomass after oil extraction and sediments make it a better option for bio diesel production than the comparing species. (author)

  3. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  4. Co-processing potential of HTL bio-crude at petroleum refineries – Part 1: Fractional distillation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2016-01-01

    assays, adapted from conventional crude oil assays, have been obtained, including fractionation of the bio-crude through 15:5 vacuum distillation. The bio-crude and its fractions have been analyzed with respect to heating value, elemental composition, density and oxygen-containing functional groups......This study presents detailed chemical and thermophysical analysis of bio-crude from a continuous hydrothermal liquefaction research plant. Current research on bio-crude focuses mainly on specific biomass feedstocks and conversion process conditions and resulting yields rather than on bio-crude...... properties for downstream processing. This study contributes to the next level of research, where HTL bio-crude is evaluated as a potential refinery co-processing feedstock with regard to bulk and fractional properties. The bio-crude used in the current work has been produced from a hardwood feedstock. Bio-crude...

  5. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  6. The long-term radiological safety of a surface disposal facility for low-level waste in Belgium - An international Peer review of key aspects of ONDRAF/NIRAS' safety report of November 2011 in preparation for the license

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important activity of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. This report provides an international peer review of the long-term safety strategy and assessment being developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials, ONDRAF/NIRAS, as part of the licence application for the construction and operation of a surface disposal facility for short-lived, low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste in the municipality of Dessel, Belgium. The review was carried out by an International Review Team comprised of seven international specialists, all of whom were free of conflict of interest and chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. To be accessible to both specialist and non-specialist readers, the review findings are provided at several levels of detail

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-tryptophan technically pure produced by fermentation with Escherichia coli for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG on behalf of Global Bio-Chem Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The product L-tryptophan is a feed additive produced by fermentation with a genetically modified (GM strain of Escherichia coli. The amino acid L-tryptophan itself is considered safe for the target animals, the consumer and the environment. However, the genetic modification, including the presence/absence of recombinant DNA and of antibiotic resistance genes in the product, is insufficiently characterised. Consequently, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the safety of the L-tryptophan produced by fermentation with this recombinant strain of E. coli for target animals, consumers, users and the environment. Regardless of the assessment of the genetic modification, the FEEDAP Panel has concerns on the use of unprotected forms of L-tryptophan in ruminants, and on the safety of the amino acid L-tryptophan for target species when administered simultaneously via water for drinking. The product has been shown to be non-irritant to skin and eyes, and non-toxic by inhalation but should be considered as a potential dermal sensitizer. The amino acid L-tryptophan itself does not pose any risk for the environment. The additive L-tryptophan is regarded as an effective source of L-tryptophan for all non-ruminant species. Supplemental L-tryptophan is mainly degraded by ruminal microbiota, if not given in a protected form.

  8. Bio-Glasses An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This new work is dedicated to glasses and their variants which can be used as biomaterials to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Bio-glasses are superior to other biomaterials in many applications, such as healing bone by signaling stem cells to become bone cells.   Key features:  First book on biomaterials to focus on bio-glassesEdited by a leading authority on bio-glasses trained by one of its inventors, Dr Larry HenchSupported by the International Commission on Glass (ICG)Authored by members of the ICG Biomedical Glass Committee, with the goal of creating a seamless textb

  9. The Bio-Economy Concept and Knowledge Base in a Public Goods and Farmer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Schmidt; Susanne Padel; Les Levidow

    2012-01-01

    Currently an industrial perspective dominates the EU policy framework for a European bio-economy. The Commission’s proposal on the bio-economy emphasises greater resource-efficiency, largely within an industrial perspective on global economic competitiveness, benefiting capital-intensive industries at higher levels of the value chain. However a responsible bio-economy must initially address the sustainable use of resources. Many farmers are not only commodity producers but also providers of...

  10. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming less useful…

  11. Demand for public safety

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; Ravallion, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In public safety of less concern to poor people? What about people in poor areas? How is demand for public safety affected by income inequality? Is there a self-correcting mechanism whereby higher crime increases demand for public safety? The authors study subjective assessments of public safety using a comprehensive socioeconomic survey of living standards in Brazil. They find public safety to be a normal good at the household level. Marginal income effects are higher for the poor, so inequa...

  12. The critical soil P levels for crop yield, soil fertility and environmental safety in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.H.; Li, H.G.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhou, B.K.; Shi, X.J.; Wang, B.R.; Li, D.C.; Shen, J.B.; Chen, Q.; Qin, W.; Oenema, O.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is important for achieving optimal crop production, but excessive soil P levels may create a risk of P losses and associated eutrophication of surface waters. The aim of this study was to determine critical soil P levels for achieving optimal crop yields and minimal P

  13. Overview of PHARE projects implemented in Romania between 1997 and 2008 for enhancing the nuclear safety level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the Poland Hungary Aid for Reconstruction of the Economy (PHARE) programme, the European Commission (EC) supported the transition of the Eastern European states to the European market economy. PHARE was a pre-accession financial assistance programme which involved countries from Central and Eastern Europe that applied to become members of the European Union. The paper presents a synthesis of the projects carried out in Romania for enhancing nuclear safety by consolidating key areas such as Regulatory Activities, Radioactive Waste Management and On-Site assistance, in order to fulfil the requirements for accession to the European Union. Statistical considerations on the impact of the projects are also proposed and an analysis of the methodology of intervention is made.

  14. Development of partial models of comprehensive safety assessment model for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive wastes, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction code (LEACH) for radionuclide leaching from solidified waste forms has been developed to estimate the source term concernning shallow land disposal of the waste forms, as a part of the development of the partial model on an engineered barrier which constitutes one of the major components of the comprehensive safety assessment model. The system considered here consists of a finite cylinder source and semiinfinite leaching medium in which the cylinder is immersed. The resulting mass-transport equation solved by a differential method under the three kinds of boundary conditions. This code gives a two dimensional redionuclide concentration distribution within a waste form, a cumulative fraction leached out, and also a leaching rate as a function of time. The leaching fraction as a function of time predicted by the code is in excellent accordance with that calculated by the equation obtained by solving the mass-transport equation analytically. (author)

  15. Overview of PHARE projects implemented in Romania between 1997 and 2008 for enhancing the nuclear safety level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanda, Radian; Zerger, Benoit; Manna, Giustino; Farrar, Brian [European Commission, Petten (Netherlands). Joint Research Centre (JRC)

    2015-01-15

    Through the Poland Hungary Aid for Reconstruction of the Economy (PHARE) programme, the European Commission (EC) supported the transition of the Eastern European states to the European market economy. PHARE was a pre-accession financial assistance programme which involved countries from Central and Eastern Europe that applied to become members of the European Union. The paper presents a synthesis of the projects carried out in Romania for enhancing nuclear safety by consolidating key areas such as Regulatory Activities, Radioactive Waste Management and On-Site assistance, in order to fulfil the requirements for accession to the European Union. Statistical considerations on the impact of the projects are also proposed and an analysis of the methodology of intervention is made.

  16. Visualisation of BioPAX Networks using BioLayout Express (3D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Derek W; Angus, Tim; Enright, Anton J; Freeman, Tom C

    2014-01-01

    BioLayout Express (3D) is a network analysis tool designed for the visualisation and analysis of graphs derived from biological data. It has proved to be powerful in the analysis of gene expression data, biological pathways and in a range of other applications. In version 3.2 of the tool we have introduced the ability to import, merge and display pathways and protein interaction networks available in the BioPAX Level 3 standard exchange format. A graphical interface allows users to search for pathways or interaction data stored in the Pathway Commons database. Queries using either gene/protein or pathway names are made via the cPath2 client and users can also define the source and/or species of information that they wish to examine. Data matching a query are listed and individual records may be viewed in isolation or merged using an 'Advanced' query tab. A visualisation scheme has been defined by mapping BioPAX entity types to a range of glyphs. Graphs of these data can be viewed and explored within BioLayout as 2D or 3D graph layouts, where they can be edited and/or exported for visualisation and editing within other tools. PMID:25949802

  17. Transport safety and struggle against malevolent acts: a synergy to be developed - Protecting transports against malevolent acts, Synergies between security and safety: lessons learned from the IAEA international conference, Role of the IRSN transport operational level in the field of safety, Transparency and secret in the field of nuclear material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first article proposes an interview with the chief of the security department within the French ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transports and Housing who comments his missions and his relationships with the ASN and the French Home Office for the protection and control of nuclear materials. A second article discusses the lessons learned from an IAEA international conference about the relationship between the approaches to security and to safety. The third article briefly describes the role of the IRSN transport operational level in the field of safety. The last article discusses how opposite notions like transparency and secret are managed in the case of nuclear material transport

  18. Level 1 and 2 probabilistic safety assessment technology study and its application in the design of CHASHMA nuclear power plant unit2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software used for Level 1,2 and 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been developed by technique introduction as well as independent research. It has been studied and applied to integrating the design of CHASHMA Nuclear Power Plant unit 2 (C-2) with the Level 1 and 2 PSA technology, which include the analysis of initiating events, event trees, fault trees, dependency analysis, human reliability analysis, database analysis, event sequence quantification, plant damage state analysis, accident progression and containment response analysis, source term analysis, large early release frequency (LERF) analysis, uncertainty analysis, importance/sensitivity analysis, applications during design phase, and so on. The model of Level 1 and 2 PSA has been established for C-2. In the meantime, several significant design improvement has been implemented in the process of C-2 design based on the PSA insights, such as that of isolation valves on the mini-flow line of the safety injection pump and spray pump, reciprocating charging pump in chemical and volume control system, essential service water system, etc. Thus, the figures of merit for C-2 for the internal events at power operating condition have been achieved with 7.25E-6/ry for core damage frequency (CDF), 3.24E-07/ry for LERF. The C-2 PSA has not only justified the balance of its design, but also provided the probability assessment information for evaluating the optimization of C-2 design and operation strategies, efficiently reducing the risk of severe accidents. (authors)

  19. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  20. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  1. Technical reliability of geological disposal for high-level radioactive wastes in Japan. The second progress report. Part 3. Safety assessment for geological disposal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Advisory Committee Report on Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Policy submitted to the Japanese Government in 1997, JNC documents the progress of research and development program in the form of the second progress report (the first one published in 1992). It summarizes an evaluation of the technical reliability and safety of the geological disposal concept for high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) in Japan. The present document, the part 3 of the progress report, concerns safety assessment for geological disposal systems definitely introduced in part 1 and 2 of this series and consists of 9 chapters. Chapter I concerns the methodology for safety assessment while Chapter II deals with diversity and uncertainty about the scenario, the adequate model and the required data of the systems above. Chapter III summarizes the components of the geological disposal system. Chapter IV refers to the relationship between radioactive wastes and human life through groundwater, i.e. nuclide migration. In Chapter V is made a reference case which characterizes the geological environmental data using artificial barrier specifications. (Ohno. S.)

  2. BIO 315 UOP Course Tutorial/TutorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    apj

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+ BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 2 Environment, Resources, and Competition BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 4 BIO 315 Wee...

  3. BIO 315 UOP Course Tutorial/TutotorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    maritenz

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+ BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 1 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 1 Assignment Beren Robinson Field Study Paper BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 2 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 2 Learning Team Exercises BIO 315 Week 2 Environment, Resources, and Competition BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 1 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 2 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 3 BIO 315 Week 3 DQ 4 BIO 315 Wee...

  4. Bio-Conjugated Polycaprolactone Membranes: A Novel Wound Dressing

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Teo, Erin Yiling; Jing, Lim; Koh, Yun Pei; Qian, Tan Si; Wen, Feng; Lee, James Wai Kit; Hing, Eileen Chor Hoong; Yap, Yan Lin; Lee, Hanjing; Lee, Chuen Neng; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Lim,Jane; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of polycaprolactone and hyaluronic acid creates an ideal environment for wound healing. Hyaluronic acid maintains a moist wound environment and accelerates the in-growth of granulation tissue. Polycaprolactone has excellent mechanical strength, limits inflammation and is biocompatible. This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of bio-conjugated polycaprolactone membranes (BPM) as a wound dressing. Methods 16 New Zealand white rabbits were sedated and local anaest...

  5. Integration of Nevada Test Site (NTS) Work Control Programs and Incorporating Integrated Safety Management (ISM) into Activity Level Work Planning and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the Nevada Site Office (NSO) to improve the planning and execution of work activities utilizing an Activity Level Work Control process in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2004-1, Oversight of Complex, High-Hazard Nuclear Operations. The process was initially developed during Fiscal Year (FY) 2007, and implementation is commencing during the fourth quarter of FY 2008. This process will significantly enhance the flexibility and the appropriate rigor in the performance of work activities

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of L-threonine produced by Escherichia coli for all animal species, based on a dossier submitted by HELM AG on behalf of Global Bio-Chem Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The product L-threonine, technically pure, is a feed additive produced by fermentation with a genetically (GM modified strain of Escherichia coli. L-threonine is an essential amino acid for all animal species. It is commonly considered the second or third limiting amino acid in cereal-based diets for pigs and poultry, respectively. It is widely used in the feed industry to optimise the dietary protein. The amino acid L-threonine itself is considered safe for the target animals, the consumer and the environment. However, the genetic modification, including the presence/absence of recombinant DNA and of antibiotic resistance genes in the product, is insufficiently characterised. Consequently, the FEEDAP Panel cannot conclude on the safety of the L-threonine produced by fermentation with this recombinant strain of E. coli for target animals, consumers, users and the environment. Regardless of the assessment of the genetic modification, the FEEDAP Panel has concerns about the safety of amino acids, including L-threonine, for target species when administered via water for drinking. From results provided, it is concluded that there is no concern for users in respect of respiratory toxicity or skin or eye irritancy. In the absence of any data on sensitisation it must be concluded that the product may have potential to be a dermal sensitiser. The amino acid L-threonine itself does not pose any risk to the environment. The product L-threonine is an efficacious source of supplemented amino acid to maintain or restore the adequate balance of dietary amino acids for all non-ruminant species. Supplemental threonine is mainly degraded by ruminal microbiota, if not given in a protected form.

  7. Are red mullet efficient as bio-indicators of mercury contamination? A case study from the French Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hg was monitored in Mullus spp. from 5 French Mediterranean zones during 18 months. • All concentrations were below recommended European health safety levels. • Hg trends were consistent with environmental contamination except in Corsica. • Oligotrophy could explain the high and unexpected values in Corsica. • Biotic and abiotic parameters must been considered when using bioindicators. - Abstract: Mercury (Hg) is one of the main chemicals currently altering Mediterranean ecosystems. Red mullet (Mullus barbatus and M. surmuletus) have been widely used as quantitative bio-indicators of chemical contamination. In this study, we reassess the ability of these species to be used as efficient bio-indicators of Hg contamination by monitoring during 18 months Hg concentrations in muscle tissue of mullet sampled from 5 French Mediterranean coastal areas. Mean concentrations ranged between 0.23 and 0.78 μg g−1 dry mass for both species. Values were consistent with expected contamination patterns of all sites except Corsica. Results confirmed that red mullets are efficient bio-indicators of Hg contamination. Nevertheless, the observed variability in Hg concentrations calls for caution regarding the period and the sample size. Attention should be paid to environmental and biologic specificities of each studied site, as they can alter the bioaccumulation of Hg, and lead to inferences about environmental Hg concentrations

  8. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  9. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  10. Microbes in geological disposal system of high-level radioactive waste in Japan. Studies of microbial influence for safety assessment in Underground Research Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current concept for the functioning of high-level radioactive waste repositories assumes that redox conditions will remain reducing even after repository closure. Oxidizing conditions may, however, develop in and around the waste cavern due to inorganic and/or organic redox reaction during the construction and the operational phase. Within the redox reaction, several kinds of oxides and hydroxides are inevitably formed and believed to have a strong influence on elemental migration and retardation through adsorption and/or co-precipitation in the near-field (NF) environment, where their formation is certainly influenced by microbial activity. Such oxidized zones can be formed at the interface between the engineered barrier system and surrounding host rock and will affect the efficiency of the safety barrier after closure of the repository. The influence of the interaction between microbes, water and rock around waste caverns is therefore important in understanding long-term chemical stability, elemental migration, and hence the safety of proposed sites for deep geological isolation of radioactive waste. However, the complex reaction among groundwater, rock/minerals including synthetic materials and microbes under deep geological environments is not well understood and is thus not sufficiently taken into account in present safety case development. Here, we therefore try to describe the role of microbes in the repository system in our geological regime and deep geological environment for both cases of sedimentary and crystalline rocks. This kind of discussion can also be used for the planning of Underground Research Laboratory's (URL) study relevant to microbial influence in NF environment for the development of realistic long-term safety of radioactive waste repositories in Japan. (author)

  11. BIO-1211 (Biogen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, G T

    2000-05-01

    Biogen, in collaboration with Merck & Co, is developing late activator VLA-4 (alpha4beta1) integrin antagonists for the potential treatment of inflammatory conditions [271194]. Merck has begun phase II trials with the lead compound, BIO-1211, for asthma, Biogen is still conducting preclinical research for its designated indications [317648,319225]. Under the collaborative agreement, each company has worldwide rights to certain indications; Merck has rights for asthma and Biogen retains the rights to a number of smaller indications, including multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, renal indications and most diseases in which the US patient population is less than 200,000 [271194]. VLA-4 inhibitors show anti-inflammatory action by inhibition of binding between adhesion factors and leukocytes, but with no loss of basophil function, and they have the advantage of specificity not seen with existing drugs [273417]. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers predicted 40% probabilities that the compound would reach the US and ex-US markets for the asthma indication (Merck), and launch onto these markets by 2003. Peak annual sales of US dollar 500 million (US) and US dollar 500 million (outside US) are predicted, both in 2010 [319225]. PMID:16100687

  12. Chronic Electromagnetic Exposure at Occupational Safety Level Does Not Affect the Metabolic Profile nor Cornea Healing after LASIK Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Crouzier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available LASIK eye surgery has become a very common practice for myopic people, especially those in the military. Sometimes undertaken by people who need to keep a specific medical aptitude, this surgery could be performed in secret from the hierarchy and from the institute medical staff. However, even though the eyes have been previously described as one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic fields in the human body, no data exist on the potential deleterious effects of electromagnetic fields on the healing eye. The consequences of chronic long-lasting radar exposures at power density, in accordance with the occupational safety standards (9.71 GHz, 50 W/m2, were investigated on cornea healing. The metabolic and clinical statuses after experimental LASIK keratotomy were assessed on the different eye segments in a New Zealand rabbit model. The analysis methods were performed after 5 months of exposure (1 hour/day, 3 times/week. Neither clinical or histological examinations, nor experimental data, such as light scattering, 1H-NMR HRMAS metabolomics, 13C-NMR spectra of lipidic extracts, and antioxidant status, evidenced significant modifications. It was concluded that withdrawing the medical aptitude of people working in electromagnetic field environments (i.e., radar operators in the navy after eye surgery was not justified.

  13. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: murillolongo@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida Juri [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Parra, Joao P.R.L.L. [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Landsgesell, Sven [Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Smith, Ron I. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • We synthesized a magnetic bio-NCP with potential to be used against breast cancer. • The magnetic nanoparticles have an inverted spinel structure. • The coating with chitosan does not cause changes to the particle microstructure. • The hydration level of bio-NCP is crucial to the surface modification with apatite. • Bio-NCP with narrow size distribution and high magnetic response was obtained. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution and high magnetic response at room temperature and is a very promising material for early diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment.

  14. Joint SKI and SSI review of SKB preliminary safety assessment of repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKI and SSI find that SKB's first proper safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repositories provides a valuable springboard for continued efforts in this field. Even though the safety assessment is relatively limited in scope, it has numerous merits. The specific problems associated with the chosen repository concept for SFL 3-5 are discussed in a generally transparent manner. On the other hand, the authorities consider that SKB have only partly achieved the expressed goal of studying the significance of the current repository design and the choice of site. The greatest deficiency consists in that neither internal disturbances (such as considerable cracking or degradation of concrete structures) nor external disturbances (such as the effects of climate changes and glaciation) have been addressed in a thorough manner. A coherent report justifying the design choice from a long-term safety perspective is, in large part, not found here. SKI and SSI recommend that SKB provide a comparison with other possible SFL 3-5 repository designs. Depending upon, among other factors, what geospheric and biospheric conditions are assumed, SKB have shown that the calculated dose values could be relatively high for certain cases. More realistic assessments would be needed to draw reasonable comparisons between different sites, and to evaluate the importance of different nuclides in different contexts. Our review of SKBs preliminary safety assessment indicates that a great deal of research and development work remains to be done before the level of knowledge in this field is comparable with that associated with the final repository for spent fuel. This is reflected with unanimity in the international expert committee's review, and in the consultants' reviews. SKI and SSI wish to point out in particular the fact that comparison with SFR is of limited value, since the safety associated with SFL 3- 5 must be assessed on a much longer time scale. SKI and SSI find it remarkable that SKB have

  15. Long-term safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive and non-radioactive contaminants found in common low level radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level radioactive waste (LLW) can contain non-radioactive as well as radioactive contaminants. However, very few long-term safety assessments of LLW disposal have included quantitative evaluation of the environmental impacts of the non-radioactive contaminants in the wastes since it is commonly assumed that their impacts will be small compared with those of the radioactive contaminants. To test this assumption, QuantiSci Limited has undertaken two studies for the European Commission. The first study investigated the application of safety assessment approaches developed for radioactive contaminants to the assessment of non-radioactive contaminants in LLW. It demonstrated how disposal limits could be derived for a range of non-radioactive contaminants and generic disposal facilities. Generic, acceptable disposal levels were calculated for a variety of nonradioactive contaminants that would allow the presence of the waste streams in the range of disposal facilities considered. The second study used the same approach but undertook more detailed, disposal system specific calculations, assessing the impacts of both the non-radioactive and radioactive contaminants. The more detailed system and waste stream specific calculations generally implied less restrictive disposal limits for the non-radioactive contaminants. The calculations also indicated that it is prudent to consider non-radioactive as well as radioactive contaminants when assessing the impacts of LLW disposal. (author)

  16. Operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PNL Safety, Standards and Compliance Program contributed to the development and issuance of safety policies, standards, and criteria; for projects in the nuclear and nonnuclear areas. During 1976 the major emphasis was on developing criteria, instruments and methods to assure that radiation exposure to occupational personnel and to people in the environs of nuclear-related facilities is maintained at the lowest level technically and economically practicable. Progress in 1976 is reported on the preparation of guidelines for radiation exposure; Pu dosimetry studies; the preparation of an environmental monitoring handbook; and emergency instrumentation preparedness

  17. Safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution

  18. BIO 100 UOP Course Tutorial/TutotorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    JOHN

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+   BIO 100 Assignment: The Scientific Method BIO 100 Exercise: UNESCO Research BIO 100 CheckPoint: Living Organisms BIO 100 Assignment: PopEcoLab BIO 100 Assignment: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration BIO 100 Assignment: DemographyLab BIO 100 Final Project: UNESCO Paper BIO 100 CheckPoint: Theories of Biology BIO 100 Assignment: Pearson Lab Scav...

  19. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  20. Bio-energy and youth: Analyzing the role of school, home, and media from the future policy perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Pradipta; Pelkonen, Paavo [School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Havu-Nuutinen, Sari [School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pietarinen, Janne [School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2011-04-15

    The study investigated the relationships between students' perceived information on bio-energy from school, home and media and their perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge regarding bio-energy. The study also analyzed the scope of future policies to raise awareness among young students about bio-energy. Data drawn from 495 Finnish students studying in ninth grade revealed that the students were more positive in their attitudes towards bio-energy compared to their perceptions of it. They were very positive about learning about bio-energy, while not so eager towards its utilization. It appeared that school, home, and media all had statistically significant effects on students' perceptions, attitudes, and level of knowledge related to bio-energy. Three principal components emerged from students' perceptions and attitudes towards bio-energy viz. 'motivation' revealing students' eagerness to know more about bio-energy; 'considering sustainability' revealing their criticality of forest bio-energy; and 'utilization' revealing their state of interests to use bio-energy. Bio-energy policies to be effective must consider the role of school, home, and media as important means to engage young students in bio-energy related discussions. It is also desirable to establish interactions between energy and educational policies to integrate the modern renewable energy concepts in the school curriculum. (author)

  1. Bio-energy and youth: Analyzing the role of school, home, and media from the future policy perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigated the relationships between students' perceived information on bio-energy from school, home and media and their perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge regarding bio-energy. The study also analyzed the scope of future policies to raise awareness among young students about bio-energy. Data drawn from 495 Finnish students studying in ninth grade revealed that the students were more positive in their attitudes towards bio-energy compared to their perceptions of it. They were very positive about learning about bio-energy, while not so eager towards its utilization. It appeared that school, home, and media all had statistically significant effects on students' perceptions, attitudes, and level of knowledge related to bio-energy. Three principal components emerged from students' perceptions and attitudes towards bio-energy viz. 'motivation' revealing students' eagerness to know more about bio-energy; 'considering sustainability' revealing their criticality of forest bio-energy; and 'utilization' revealing their state of interests to use bio-energy. Bio-energy policies to be effective must consider the role of school, home, and media as important means to engage young students in bio-energy related discussions. It is also desirable to establish interactions between energy and educational policies to integrate the modern renewable energy concepts in the school curriculum.

  2. A methodology for Level 2 PSA evaluation with consideration of specific features for Low Power Shutdown Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Gab; Seok, Ho [KEPCO-ENC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The primary objective of the Level 2 PSA during Lower Power/Shutdown (LPSD) operation is to provide insights into potential plant vulnerabilities with regard to accident progression. The shutdown risk information can be used to provide the information to develop outage risk management guidelines. The LPSD Level 2 analysis utilizes much of the at-power Level 2 analysis for bounding, conservative treatment of severe accident phenomena. But, for some portions of the analysis including Plant Operational States (POSs), LPSD-specific evaluations such as UPC related to the containment Equipment Hatch (E/H) with 4 bolts, Reactor Coolant System (RCS) Not Intact for severe accident phenomena are desired for realistic evaluation. All POSs are evaluated for their Large Release Frequency (LRF). Some POSs are evaluated conservatively utilizing the at-power models, and other POSs are evaluated in specific analysis. The overall LPSD Level 2 model is evaluated. If the containment E/H and one of the two doors on each of the personal air locks are closed as containment is operable at reduced RCS inventory operation, LRF is expected to be less than 10% of LPSD CDF.

  3. A methodology for Level 2 PSA evaluation with consideration of specific features for Low Power Shutdown Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objective of the Level 2 PSA during Lower Power/Shutdown (LPSD) operation is to provide insights into potential plant vulnerabilities with regard to accident progression. The shutdown risk information can be used to provide the information to develop outage risk management guidelines. The LPSD Level 2 analysis utilizes much of the at-power Level 2 analysis for bounding, conservative treatment of severe accident phenomena. But, for some portions of the analysis including Plant Operational States (POSs), LPSD-specific evaluations such as UPC related to the containment Equipment Hatch (E/H) with 4 bolts, Reactor Coolant System (RCS) Not Intact for severe accident phenomena are desired for realistic evaluation. All POSs are evaluated for their Large Release Frequency (LRF). Some POSs are evaluated conservatively utilizing the at-power models, and other POSs are evaluated in specific analysis. The overall LPSD Level 2 model is evaluated. If the containment E/H and one of the two doors on each of the personal air locks are closed as containment is operable at reduced RCS inventory operation, LRF is expected to be less than 10% of LPSD CDF

  4. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2 inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Hirohisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2 has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1 and 3% (case2,3 H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters. For a consistency study, HC in the venous blood of 10 patients were obtained on multiple occasions at the end of 30-min H2 inhalation treatment. Results The HC gradually reached a plateau level in 20 min after H2 inhalation in the blood, which was equivalent to the level reported by animal experiments. The HC rapidly decreased to 10% of the plateau level in about 6 min and 18 min in arterial and venous blood, respectively after H2 inhalation was discontinued. Physiological parameters on these 3 patients were essentially unchanged by use of hydrogen. The consistency study of 10 patients showed the HC at the end of 30-min inhalation treatment was quite variable but the inconsistency improved with more attention and encouragement. Conclusion H2 inhalation of at least 3% concentration for 30 min delivered enough HC, equivalent to the animal experiment levels, in the blood without compromising the safety. However, the consistency of H2 delivery by inhalation needs to be improved.

  5. Influence of power level and fuel type on safety and economy of the simplified pebble bed HTR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For three different power levels, 20, 40 and 150 MWth, the PAP-HTR has been studied. This is an HTR Module concept that has been simplified in such a way that the continuously defuelling system has been eliminated and no defuelling takes place during a period of several years. Two core heatup scenarios have been simulated. It has been shown that in all cases the maximum fuel pebble temperature remains below 1600C, the temperature above which fuel degradation would start to occur, also after the reactor has gone critical again and the power level has been stabilized by itself. Fuel and gas temperature distributions are compared as well. The maximum pebble temperature before recriticality is higher for the loss of coolant (LOCA) scenario than for the loss of flow (LOFA) case, but the equilibrium maximum temperature after recriticality turns out to be higher for the pressurized case, because of the higher equilibrium power level. The equilibrium power level is a much smaller fraction of the nominal power level for the large 150 MWth system than for the smaller systems, due to the lower rate of cooling down of the large system after initiation of the accident. Therefore the equilibrium maximum temperature stays within acceptable limits for the large system too. The effects of the use of thorium fuel on the core height and waste radiotoxicity have been compared with the case of uranium fuel. Although it is widely believed that burnt thorium fuel would be cleaner than spent uranium fuel in terms of radiotoxicity, this did not appear to be more pronounced for this reactor concept than for e.g. PWRs. The relationship of power level and energy price is obvious for this power range. The use of thorium with highly enriched uranium could bring an additional economical advantage because of the lower core height needed for the same power level as the uranium case. With thorium a higher burnup can be attained, through which fuel pebbles can be added at a slower rate. The size of

  6. Deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. A preliminary safety assessment; Djupfoervar for laanglivat laag- och medelaktivt avfall. Preliminaer saekerhetsanalys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo, are important to be taken into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  7. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  8. On the use of Bio-PEPA for modelling and analysing collective behaviours in swarm robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Massink M; Brambilla M; Latella D; Dorigo M; Birattari M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyse a swarm robotics system using Bio-PEPA. Bio-PEPA is a process algebra language originally developed to analyse biochemical systems. A swarm robotics system can be analysed at two levels: the macroscopic level, to study the collective behaviour of the system, and the microscopic level, to study the robot-to-robot and robot-to-environment interactions. In general, multiple models are necessary to analyse a system at different levels. However, developing multiple models ...

  9. Pressures on safety net access: the level of managed care penetration and uninsurance rate in a community.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, P J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of managed care penetration and the uninsurance rate in an area on access to care of low-income uninsured persons and to compare differences in access between low-income insured and uninsured persons across these different market areas. DATA SOURCES: Primarily the Community Tracking Study household survey. Other market-level data were obtained from the Community Tracking Study physician survey, American Hospital Association annual survey of hospitals, Area Re...

  10. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  11. Intrinsic Bio-Signature of Gene Delivery Nanocarriers May Impair Gene Therapy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-viral lipid/polymeric vectors have widely been used as nanocarriers (NCs for gene delivery. They possess large surface area to volume ratio and are able to interact with biomolecules through functional moieties, resulting in inadvertent biological impacts, in particular at genomic level. Thus, their genomic bio-signature needs to be investigated prior to use in vivo. Using high-throughput microarray and qPCR gene expression profiling techniques, we have reported the genomic impacts of lipid/polymeric NCs. Given the fact that the ultimate objectives of gene therapy may inevitably be impaired by nonspecific intrinsic genomic impacts of these NCs, here, we highlight their nonspecific genomic bio-signature. We envision that better understanding on the genotoxicity of gene delivery NCs, as guiding premise, will help us to develop much safer NCs and also to accelerate their translation into clinical use and to provide pivotal information on safety liabilities early in discovery and developments process prior to its inevitable consequences in vivo.

  12. Comments on a paper tilted `The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; McConnell, P.E.; Nigrey, P.J.; Ammerman, D.J. [and others

    1997-05-01

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed.

  13. Comments on a paper tilted 'The sea transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes: Unresolved safety issues'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cited paper estimates the consequences that might occur should a purpose-built ship transporting Vitrified High Level Waste (VHLW) be involved in a severe collision that causes the VHLW canisters in one Type-B package to spill onto the floor of a major ocean fishing region. Release of radioactivity from VHLW glass logs, failure of elastomer cask seals, failure of VHLW canisters due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and the probabilities of the hypothesized accident scenario, of catastrophic cask failure, and of cask recovery from the sea are all discussed

  14. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 2, Chemical constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  15. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical.

  16. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains health and safety information relating to the chemicals that have been identified in the mixed waste streams at the Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Information is summarized in two summary sections--one for health considerations and one for safety considerations. Detailed health and safety information is presented in material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for each chemical

  17. PRESTO-II computer code for safety assessment on shallow land disposal of low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRESTO-II (Prediction of Radiation Exposures from Shallow Trench Operations) computer code is used to assess the risk associated with the shallow land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) in various sites in Turkey. A preliminary simulation using the PRESTO-II computer code has been run for the site in Koteyli-Balikesir and Kozakli-Nevsehir. This example simulation was performed using the same radionuclide data set believed representative of the LLW disposal facility in Barnwell, South Carolina. These simulation results must be generally regarded as estimates based on the assumptions about waste stream composition, disposal methodology, and site geography. Lower consequences are predicted for the Barnwell, South Carolina site and Kozakli-Nevsehire, relative to the Koteyli-Balikesir but this conclusion results largely from the assumption that Koteyli, Turkey site may eventually be used for agricultural use. If the Koteyli, Turkey site were not irrigated, predicted consequences for this site could be considerably lessened. This presentation summarizes the results of preliminary simulations which have been performed of release and transport of radionuclides from a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal sites in Turkey

  18. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts. (topical review)

  19. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junliang; (Bill Yu, Xiong

    2012-11-01

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts.

  20. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  1. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  2. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  3. Overview of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project safety culture is considered at policy, management and individual levels. The primary objective of this work is to provide an overview of safety culture relevant to radiotherapy practices. The specific objectives are to review and analyze the causes of poor safety culture and provide recommendations on implementation of sound safety culture within radiotherapy facilities which will help to prevent radiological accidents or to mitigate their consequences. The methodology used is the review of published IAEA materials and other documents containing safety culture with specific reference to radiotherapy. The result of the review revealed that all accidents in radiotherapy facilities were due to poor safety culture practices including inadequate regulatory control over sight. Some recommendations are provided and if implemented could improve safety culture which will lead to good safety performance and excellent commitment to safety culture which will significantly reduce accidents and their consequences in radiotherapy. (au)

  4. Bio politics - The bio-environment - bio-culture of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bio-environment has been the single most important correlation in human history and can successfully promote international co-operational co-operation and understanding. With the construction of a network for collaboration, the 'Danube Countries' can come together in celebration of their culture and heritage. As the Danube flows from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, it carries messages of peace, hope and co-operation. Applying these messages to every endeavour can improve our quality of life and lead to a brighter future. Since its inception in 1985, the Bio politics International Organization (B.I.O.) has been labouring to raise awareness of the urgent need to instate a new system of norms and principles, compatible with sound environmental management and with the most important task of ensuring global literacy on environmental issues. Along with critically re-assessing the concept of profit, the goal is to adopt a system of bio centric values, where respect for the bio-environment will govern our every action and thought

  5. The environment agency's assessment of BNGSL'S 2002 post-closure safety case for the low-level radioactive waste repository at drigg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environment Agency regulates radioactive waste disposal in accordance with the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. British Nuclear Group Sellafield Ltd (BNGSL) is currently authorised to dispose of solid low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at a repository near the village of Drigg, in North-west England. We review authorizations for the disposal of radioactive waste periodically. We assessed BNGSL 2002 Post-Closure Safety Case (PCSC) for the LLW repository (LLWR) to inform the recent review of the LLWR Authorization. The paper presents an overview of our assessment of the 2002 PCSC for the LLWR, with particular emphasis on the process, rather than on specific review findings and recommendations. We have noted, in particular, some important lessons that are relevant to the consideration of any future applications for new near-surface or deep geological disposal facilities. (authors)

  6. Level of activity and short implementation times - are quality and safety suffering?; Aktivitetsnivaa og korte gjennomfoeringstider - gaar det paa kvaliteten og sikkerheten loes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Gunnar [Oljedirektoratet, Stavanger (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    The level of activity on the Norwegian Shelf has been very high. Activity has increased faster than the capacity in the market. The availability of competence and skilled personnel has been limited. However, by preserving the best in the development, it will be possible to continue the development towards a cost-effective petroleum activity that meets the quality requirements, including safety and working environment. It has been said that the great pace with which today's projects are implemented, everything must be done correctly first time. Although this is a great challenge, the interesting point is that a way of defining quality and quality management may be just that this means doing the right thing first time. Quality is a management responsibility.

  7. An analysis on pressure and level change of Safety Injection Tank (SIT) during blowdown test for Yonggwang nuclear power plants units 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the requirements of regulatory body, Safety Injection Tank (SIT) blowdown test is performed during plant startup test period to verify the performance of the tank. The test is sequentially conducted on each of four tanks and the pressure and level of SIT are measured to verify that the acceptance criteria are met. From the analysis of Yonggwang Units 5 and 6(YGN 5 and 6) test results, it is found that the polytropic index of the pressurized nitrogen gas expansion is 1.26. The TURTLE code, which has been modified in isolation valve model, simulates YGN 5 and 6 blowdown process adequately. Therefore, the modified TURTLE code will be used to generate a test acceptance criterion and evaluate test results for SIT blowdown tests

  8. Geochemical studies for geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Research activities in Department of Environmental Safety Research, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Geochemistry Laboratory of the Department of Environmental Safety Research of JAERI (EGL/JAERI) is responsible for performing fundamental research to support the geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste and the performance assessment of the disposal concept. This research includes basic laboratory experiments as well as field studies of natural analogs to understand the geochemical behavior of radionuclides, i.e., the interactions between radionuclides, groundwater and geological materials. This report summarizes background, objectives and recent results of the scientific investigations and emphasizes the significance of these studies in terms of both fundamental research on geochemistry and applied research for performance assessment of the waste disposal concept. The importance of performing fundamental research to radioactive waste disposal is stressed in this report. The report is aimed at both the radioactive waste disposal scientific community and the interdisciplinary sciences that interact with this community. (author)

  9. Analysis of colloids erosion from the bentonite barrier of a high level radioactive waste repository and implications in safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the dominant mechanisms of colloid formation from compacted and confined bentonite innovative experiments were conducted. Chemical or physical processes that can affect the erosion of the bentonite surface were analyzed (ionic strength of the water, Ca in the water and in the exchange complex of the clay, dry density of the clay and presence of a water flow rate at the bentonite surface).Hydration, swelling and extrusion of clay into pores or fractures are primary steps for the formation of free colloidal particles in the aqueous phase, and the chemistry of the clay/water system is the most important parameter controlling the generation and stability of colloids. Ca-bentonite formed colloids quantities below the detection limit of our techniques, even in deionised water, but a percentage of Na approximately 20-30% in the clay exchange complex, as that present in the FEBEX bentonite, is enough to allow the formation of colloidal particles in quantities very similar to those produced by the Na-bentonite. The results for bentonite colloid generation obtained at a laboratory scale allowed the estimation of a range of colloid generation rates under different chemical conditions. Results were compared with in situ experimental investigations carried out at the FEBEX gallery emplaced in a granite massif at the Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). The quantitative analysis of laboratory and in situ data can be used as input for models and performance assessment (PA) of high level radioactive waste (HLRW) repositories. (authors)

  10. Psacoin level S intercomparison: An International code intercomparison exercise on a hypothetical safety assessment case study for radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the Level S exercise of the Probabilistic System Assessment Group (PSAG). Level S is the fifth in a series of Probabilistic Code Intercomparison (PSACOIN) exercises designed to contribute to the verification of probabilistic codes and methodologies that may be used in assessing the safety of radioactive waste disposal systems and concepts. The focus of the Level S exercise lies on sensitivity analysis. Given a common data set of model output and input values the participants were asked to identify both the underlying model's most important parameters (deterministic sensitivity analysis) and the link between the distributions of the input and output values (distribution sensitivity analysis). Agreement was generally found where it was expected and the exercise has achieved its objectives in acting as a focus for testing and discussing sensitivity analysis issues. Among the outstanding issues that have been identified are: (i) that techniques for distribution sensitivity analysis are needed that avoid the problem of statistical noise; (ii) that further investigations are warranted on the most appropriate way of handling large numbers of effectively zero results generated by Monte Carlo sampling; and (iii) that methods need to be developed for demonstrating that the results of sensitivity analysis are indeed correct

  11. To evaluate the safety and efficiency of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in treating decubitus ulcers: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ambereen

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Pressure sores (decubitus ulcer) are a serious problem in health care management, especially for middleaged to older people who are bed-ridden. Although preventative measures are used, the condition remains common and development of novel, improved treatment methods are desirable. This article reviews the application of laser-based methods, previously shown to be effective in accelerating wound-healing in animal models and in the treatment of decubitus ulcers in humans. Methods: About 23 scientific articles on the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing in animals and humans from 2000-2014 were reviewed. Additionally, results of several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed, and compared with other treatment methods available. Results: Whilst carefully controlled, laboratory-based animal studies indicated that LLLT can reduce healing time for several types of injuries, however similar studies in humans failed to demonstrate consistent beneficial effects in the clinical setting. An acceleration of decubitus ulcer healing has been occasionally found, although limited to certain wavelengths and sometimes only in combination with other types of therapies. Indeed, some of the clinical articles indicated that certain laser wavelengths can have detrimental effects on time of healing. Conclusions: To date, there remains no convincing evidence that LLLT has consistent medical benefit in treating decubitus ulcers. Caution should be applied when considering LLLT since only certain wavelengths utilized have shown beneficial effects. It is concluded that, more RCTs are needed since, there is no clinical justification for LLLT, alone or in combination with other methods, in treating decubitus ulcers.

  12. Validation of a an analysis method of Marine Bio toxins Type Saxitoxin based on test coupled receptor (RBA) with Radiochemical Detection with liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The saxitoxin s are bio toxins belonging to the family of toxins of the type PSP. They are paralysing toxins secreted by marine micro-organisms, phytoplankton, called Alexandrium. They constitute a risk for the human health in the event of their consumption in contaminated food. The acceptable maximum limit of these bio toxins in molluscs and shellfish is fixed to 800 μg /kg of meat of molluscs or shellfish. It proves, thus, that it is essential to develop and validate analytical methods for the level monitoring of contamination of the marine resources by these species in order to found a program of their monitoring and to guarantee an acceptable level of the food safety of the products available on the national and international markets. The present work allowed the validation of the quantification method of these toxins which is based on the use of the Receptor Binding Assay (RBA) with liquid scintillation nuclear technique detection using tritium as radiotracer and while proceeding by the different statistical tests of validation (Standard Nf XP T 90-210). The field of linearity ranged from 0 to 20 n M and the limit of detection was found to be 1 n M. The validation of this method will allow the reinforcement of the analytical means of analysis of marine bi toxins type SXT and to set up, in the near future, a monitoring and surveillance routine program for these bio toxins at the national, regional and African scales. (Author)

  13. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en bio-wa

  14. Auto Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Auto Safety KidsHealth > For Parents > Auto Safety Print A A ... by teaching some basic rules. Importance of Child Safety Seats Using a child safety seat (car seat) ...

  15. REPORT: BioMedBridges standards workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Conte, Nathalie; Hancocks, Tom; Suhr, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This workshop, co-organized by BioMedBridges WP3 and 12, was held on 24-25 June and hosted by BioMedBridges partners at VUMC in Amsterdam. Attendees included BioMedBridges personnel, members from the ESFRI BMS research infrastructures and invited external experts from existing standards organisations. The following aspects of data standardisation were explored: Defining entity identifiers and identifiers best practice Development of a Meta models and Mappings Registry for bio...

  16. Perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados em exercício aeróbio ou anaeróbio e suplementados com maltodextrina Los lípidos y los niveles de glucosa de las ratas entrenadas en condiciones aeróbicas o anaeróbicas y se complementa con maltodextrina Lipids and glucose levels of trained rats in aerobic or anaerobic conditions and supplemented with maltodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Fernandes Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as alterações no perfil lipídico e glicêmico de ratos treinados, suplementados com maltodextrina. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: o protocolo de treinamento consistiu de 8 semanas de natação em padrão contínuo (60min.dia-1 ou intermitente (2 períodos de 30min, com intervalo de 10min, com sobrecargas correspondentes a 5% e 10% do peso corporal, respectivamente. Durante 37 dias os animais foram suplementados com uma dose diária de 0,48g.kg-1 de maltodextrina dissolvida em água ou receberam água pura. RESULTADOS: o exercício aeróbio ocasionou aumento significativo no nível glicêmico. Os exercícios e a maltodextrina não causaram alterações no perfil lipídico. CONCLUSÃO: o exercício aeróbio proporcionou elevação no nível glicêmico, não causando hipoglicemia.El objetivo fue comprobar los cambios en los lípidos y los niveles de glucosa de las ratas entrenadas complementados con maltodextrina. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El protocolo consistió en 8 semanas de patrón de natación continua (60min.dia-1 o intermitente (2 períodos de 30 min, con un intervalo de 10 min, con sobrecargas que corresponden al 5% y el 10% del peso corporal. Durante 37 días los animales fueron suplementados con una dosis diaria de 0,48 g.kg-1 maltodextrina disuelta en agua o agua pura. RESULTADOS: El ejercicio aeróbico provocó un aumento significativo en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre. Los ejercicios y la maltodextrina no causó cambios en el perfil lipídico. CONCLUSIONES: El ejercicio aeróbico dio lugar en los niveles de glucosa en la sangre, sin causar hipoglucemia.The objective was to verify changes in lipids and glucose levels of trained rats supplemented with maltodextrin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The training protocol consisted of 8 weeks of continuous swimming pattern (60min.dia-1 or intermittent (2 periods of 30 minutes, with an interval of 10 minutes, with overloads corresponding to 5% and 10% of body weight, respectively. For

  17. Bio-fuel - millions to be invested despite great uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A directive passed by Brussels which directs Europe Union (EU) members to replace traditional fuels has created problems for many countries as they are not yet ready for bio-fuels. The directive counts with most euro-citizens no longer using pure petrol or diesel as of next year. Most refineries and petrol stations will have to sell a mixture of petrol and alcohol, or diesel and MERO. From 2007, bio-elements should comprise up to 5.75% of the energy content of diesel and petrol. The content of the bio-elements should be gradually increased to reach this figure - by the end of this year the required level will be 2%. For EU members, bio-fuels will create major problems and few advantages. Their share of car fuels will still be too low to have a major environmental effect or decrease dependency on oil imports. Reaching the prescribed percentage of bio-components in fuels will be expensive for the state. Exact figures are not yet available, but according to the National Program of Bio-Fuel Development this process will cost Slovakia over 500 mil Slovak crowns (Sk) (13.158 mil. Eur) in 2007 and by 2010 total state budget contributions will double. EC Directive 2003/30/EC creates business opportunities for certain business groups. But to benefit from this development they will have to act fast. In 2010, 29,000 ha. of maize and a greater acreage of grain will be needed for the production of the required volumes of bio-ethanol and so farmers have a chance to benefit from this situation. But farmers still do not have a clear view of what their cooperation with refineries will be like. In Slovakia, bio-alcohol will be produced from maize or grain. Its price is currently around 100 euro (4 000 Sk) per ton. To produce 1 ton of alcohol, 3 tons of grain are needed. A faster solution for Slovakia could be mixing diesel with MERO as in this area sufficient production capacity already exists, currently a part of production is exported to Germany, according to the head of Palma

  18. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. PMID:27589962

  19. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  20. Bio-sorption based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the highly efficient enrichment of trace-level bisphenol A from water samples prior to its determination by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Seyed Ammar

    2016-08-15

    In this study, biosorption based dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (Bio-DLLME) has been developed as a new method for the extraction of bisphenol A (BPA) from water samples. In this technique, the BPA is extracted into a stable cloudy phase. The colloidal phase is composed of micro-particles made from rhaminolipid biosurfactant and methanol, which dispersed in the water samples and facilitated the breakdown of analyte matrix bonds and provided high extraction yields. Rhaminolipid biosurfactants form a thin molecular interfacial film. This layer is formed between donor and recipient phase. This molecular layer, lowers the interfacial tension between immiscible phases (aqueous solution: colloidal particles) and allow dissimilar phases to mix and interact more easily. So the equilibrium state is achieved quickly and, therefore, the extraction time is very short. The attraction of the proposed method is that the extraction is fast, simple and can be done without toxic organic solvents. Also bioaggregates have several advantages such as higher environmental compatibility and biodegradability. Experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, relative recoveries of BPA were in the ranges of 98-103.3%. The calibration plot is linear in the range between 1 and 1000μgL(-1) (R(2)=0.998), and the relative standard deviation (RSD, for n=6) is 3.24%. PMID:27362996

  1. Risk Level Based Management System: a control banding model for occupational health and safety risk management in a highly regulated environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalk, D; Kamerzell, R; Paik, S; Kapp, J; Harrington, D; Swuste, P

    2009-05-27

    The Risk Level Based Management System (RLBMS) is an occupational risk management (ORM) model that focuses occupational safety, hygeiene, and health (OSHH) resources on the highest risk procedures at work. This article demonstrates the model's simplicity through an implementation within a heavily regulated research institution. The model utilizes control banding strategies with a stratification of four risk levels (RLs) for many commonly performed maintenance and support activities, characterizing risk consistently for comparable tasks. RLBMS creates an auditable tracking of activities, maximizes OSHH professional field time, and standardizes documentation and control commensurate to a given task's RL. Validation of RLs and their exposure control effectiveness is collected in a traditional quantitative collection regime for regulatory auditing. However, qualitative risk assessment methods are also used within this validation process. Participatory approaches are used throughout the RLBMS process. Workers are involved in all phases of building, maintaining, and improving this model. This work participation also improves the implementation of established controls.

  2. Results of the Safety probabilistic analysis of Level 2 of the CNSNS; Resultados del analisis probabilista de seguridad de nivel 2 de la CNSNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez M, R.; Godinez S, V. [CNSNS, 03020 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. e-mail: rlopezm@cnsns.gob.mx

    2004-07-01

    The National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) it has concluded the one develop of their Probabilistic Analysis of Safety (APS) of Level 2. The reach of the study it considers internal events to full power and it was developed on the base of the methodology of the NUREG-1150, for what you it was built an Event Tree of the Progression of the Accident (APET) to analyze the 25 States of Damage to the Plant (PDS) obtained of the APS Nl of the CNSNS. In the APET are considered the phenomenology of severe accidents, the performance of mitigation systems and actions of the operator that could modify the evolution of a severe accident in the CNLV, as well as the diverse modes of failure of the primary container and it identifies the trajectories of liberation of radioactive material to the exterior. The conditional probabilities of failure of the primary container were obtained and it was characterized the time so much to which happens the liberation of radioactive material as the quantity of the term liberated source. Also, to establish the times and parameters of the evolution of accidents were selected representative accident sequences of the diverse accident types and their conditions were simulated by means of the MELCOR computer code. Also it was developed a code of parametric compute type XSOR, specific for Laguna Verde, with which it was carried out the estimate of the term source in each one of the release trajectories. In this work the main characteristic ones are presented and results of the APS N2 developed in the CNSNS and they are compared against the model and results of the EIP of the CNLV. (Author)

  3. A Smartphone-Based Driver Safety Monitoring System Using Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Young Chung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for monitoring driver safety levels using a data fusion approach based on several discrete data types: eye features, bio-signal variation, in-vehicle temperature, and vehicle speed. The driver safety monitoring system was developed in practice in the form of an application for an Android-based smartphone device, where measuring safety-related data requires no extra monetary expenditure or equipment. Moreover, the system provides high resolution and flexibility. The safety monitoring process involves the fusion of attributes gathered from different sensors, including video, electrocardiography, photoplethysmography, temperature, and a three-axis accelerometer, that are assigned as input variables to an inference analysis framework. A Fuzzy Bayesian framework is designed to indicate the driver’s capability level and is updated continuously in real-time. The sensory data are transmitted via Bluetooth communication to the smartphone device. A fake incoming call warning service alerts the driver if his or her safety level is suspiciously compromised. Realistic testing of the system demonstrates the practical benefits of multiple features and their fusion in providing a more authentic and effective driver safety monitoring.

  4. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systemes Bio-Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    The impact of the French 2910 decree concerning pollution emission (emission levels of boilers, turbines, engines and dryers) on the calculation of chimney stack height, gas ejection minimum speed and influence of obstacles, is reviewed. The energy efficiency improvement of 400 kW to 50 MW boilers and the implementation of a cogeneration plant are also described

  5. Bio-Matematik ved Roskilde Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    Ved Institut for Natur, Systemer og Modeller ved Roskilde Universitet finder man en velkonsolideret gruppe af forskere, BioMath-gruppen, der beskæftiger sig med Bio-Matematik og Bio-Medicinsk Modellering. Faktisk startede BioMath-gruppen på det tidligere Institut for Studiet af Matematik og Fysik......-programmet "Mathematical modeling and its mathematical prerequisites" ledet af undertegnet. Programmet er associeret med den nationale phd-skole "Research School for Mathematics and Applications".   BioMath-gruppens fokusområder er bl.a. 1) Kardiovaskulær fysiologi og dets kontrolmekanismer; 2) Fluiddynamik og klapløse...

  6. Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes research to develop risk-based indicators of plant safety performance. One measure of the safety-performance of operating nuclear power plants is the unavailability of important safety systems. Brookhaven National Laboratory and Science Applications International Corporation are evaluating ways to aggregate train-level or component-level data to provide such an indicator. This type of indicator would respond to changes in plant safety margins faster than the currently used indicator of safety system unavailability (i.e., safety system failures reported in licensee event reports). Trends in the proposed indicator would be one indication of trends in plant safety performance and maintenance effectiveness. This paper summarizes the basis for such an indicator, identifies technical issues to be resolved, and illustrates the potential usefullness of such indicators by means of computer simulations and case studies

  7. Multimegawatt Space Reactor Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multimegawatt (MMW) Space Reactor Project supports the Strategic Defense Initiative Office requirement to provide reliable, safe, cost-effective, electrical power in the MMW range. Specifically, power may be used for neutral particle beams, free electron lasers, electromagnetic launchers, and orbital transfer vehicles. This power plant technology may also apply to the electrical power required for other uses such as deep-space probes and planetary exploration. The Multimegawatt Space Reactor Project, the Thermionic Fuel Element Verification Program, and Centaurus Program all support the Multimegawatt Space Nuclear Power Program and form an important part of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) space and defense power systems activities. A major objective of the MMW project is the development of a reference flight system design that provides the desired levels of public safety, health protection, and special nuclear material (SNM) protection when used during its designated missions. The safety requirements for the MMW project are a hierarchy of requirements that consist of safety requirements/regulations, a safety policy, general safety criteria, safety technical specifications, safety design specifications, and the system design. This paper describes the strategy and philosophy behind the development of the safety requirements imposed upon the MMW concept developers. The safety organization, safety policy, generic safety issues, general safety criteria, and the safety technical specifications are discussed

  8. Management of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strengthening of safety culture in an organization has become an increasingly important issue for nuclear industry. A high level of safety performance is essential for business success in intensely competitive global environment. This presentation offers a discussion of some principles and activities used in enhancing safety performance and appropriate safety behaviour at the Krsko NPP. Over the years a number of events have occurred in nuclear industry that have involved problems in human performance. A review of these and other significant events has identified recurring weaknesses in plant safety culture and policy. Focusing attention on the strengthening of relevant processes can help plants avoid similar undesirable events. The policy of the Krsko NPP is that all employees concerned shall constantly be alert to opportunities to reduce risks to the lowest practicable level and to achieve excellence in plant safety. The most important objective is to protect individuals, society and the environment by establishing and maintaining an effective defense against radiological hazard in the nuclear power plant. It is achieved through the use of reliable structures, components, systems, and procedures, as well as plant personnel committed to a strong safety culture. The elements of safety culture include both organizational and individual aspects. Elements commonly included at the organizational level are senior management commitment to safety, organizational effectiveness, effective communication, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages identification and resolution of safety issues. Elements identified at the individual level include personal accountability, a questioning attitude, communication, procedural adherence, etc.(author)

  9. Efficacy and safety of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: A randomized trial of two different levels of dosing on maternal and neonatal Vitamin D outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Ahmad Mir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnant women represent a typical group susceptible to dietary and mineral deficiencies. This study was sought to assess the efficacy and safety of various doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D supplementation during pregnancy and ratify the inadequacy of the recommended daily allowance for Vitamin D in vulnerable groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women were included in this open-label, parallel group, prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. Study subjects were assigned to four treatment groups: Group 1 (n = 26, 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily; Group 2 (n = 21, 30,000 IU of Vitamin D monthly; Group 3 (n = 27, 2000 IU of Vitamin D daily; and Group 4 (n = 26, 60,000 IU Vitamin D monthly. Group 1 and 2 were further analyzed together as Group 1K (1000 IU daily and 30,000 IU monthly, and Group 3 and 4 as Group 2K (2000 IU daily and 60,000 IU monthly. The analysis was done on an intention to treat basis. Results: A total of 87 patients completed the study; 21 in Group 1, 25 in Group 2, 18 in Group 3, and 23 in Group 4. The levels of 25(OHD at baseline ranged from 1.3 to 58.0 with a mean of 24.2 ± 15.1 ng/ml. Postsupplementation, 25(OHD levels ranged from 11.5 to 70.3 with a mean of 40.2 ± 12.2 ng/ml. The postsupplementation levels of 25(OHD were higher in Group 2K (42.86 ± 12.83 than in Group 1K (36.96 ± 10.56 with P value of 0.023. Conclusion: We concluded that Vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU/day or 60,000 IU/month is very effective and safe in achieving Vitamin D sufficiency in pregnant women.

  10. Bio-diversity: an effective safety net against environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiversity is the feedstock for the biotechnology industry. Hence, the conservation, enhancement and sustainable and equitable use of biodiversity should be accorded high priority in all national environment protection programmes. Lichens serve as useful indicators of environmental health. Similarly, several blue green algae help to sequester salt from water. There is need for the more widespread use of such biomonitoring and bioremediation agents. Bioprospecting research designed to identify novel metabolites must be rooted in the principle of equity in sharing benefits with the holders of traditional knowledge. There is need for greater vigil against alien invasive species, since with growing world trade in food grains and other agricultural commodities, there is an increasing possibility of introducing new pests, weeds and harmful micro-organisms. Finally, biological scientists should place emphasis on their ethical responsibility for the consequences of their research, since otherwise bioterrorism could become a major threat to human security. - The age of biological diversity serves as an impetus for the future of biotechnology

  11. Safety of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety philosophy of a PWR type reactor distinguishing three levels of safety, is presented. At the first level, the concept of reactivity defining coefficients which measure the reactivity variation is introduced. At the second level, the reactor protection system establishing the design criteria to assure the high reliability, is defined. At the third level, the protection barriers to contain the consequences of accident evolution, are defined. (M.C.K.)

  12. NPP safety indicators development methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The material presents briefly the objectives, the scope and the main steps in the development process of defining the safety indicators. The actual safety indicators methods used in leveling performance and the type of information included in the data acquisition are also mentioned. Finally the safety indicators areas and the IAEA safety indicators list consistent with CANDU-6 NPPs are presented. (authors)

  13. Study of bioavailability of Mn in soil manured with bio solids using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work evaluated, using neutron activation analysis (NAA), the behavior of Mn absorption by Eucalyptus manured with bio solids. Manganese is an important micro nutrient because it is an activator of enzymes, controller of oxy reduction reactions, essential to the photosynthesis and synthesis of chlorophyll and protein. Its lack causes a decrease in photosynthesis, which reduces growth and productivity. In alkaline soils there is manganese deficiency. The critical level of Mn is 675 μg:g-1, above this value manganese is toxic to the plant, but the bio solids applied had a concentration of 300 μg:g-1, below the critical level. 16 samples were analyzed, and various elements were detected. But the interest in this work was to evaluate the behavior of Mn with increasing the amount of bio solids used as manure. Three different concentrations of bio solids: 10 kg:ha-1; 20 kg:ha-1 and 40 kg:ha-1 were applied. Alkaline bio solids provides an increase of the soil pH, which cause the reduction of the manganese availability. The bio solid is a mud resulting from the biological treatment of wasted liquids. It is considered as a profitable alternative and important to minimize the environmental impact generated by the sewage thrown into sanitary lands. The level of pH above 5.5 causes the Mn reduction. The values obtained showed this reduction of Mn phytoavailability with the bio solids increase. (author)

  14. Bio-oil from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, N.B.

    2012-08-15

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). It has been the objective of the present work to investigate the influence of changed operation conditions on the yield of bio-oil, char and gas; as well as to investigate the composition and storage properties of some of the produced bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were investigated for straw and pine wood oil at different temperature and residence times. Temperature plays a major role in the pyrolysis process and it determines to a high degree the fate of the final product yields and also product composition. Higher temperature favors the formation of pyrolysis gas while lower temperatures increase the yield of char. Liquid oil, however increases with temperature up to certain point and thereafter it decreases at still higher temperature due to secondary cracking of the primary products. The presence of moisture in the feed stock may also influences the pyrolysis process. The influence of reaction temperature and the moisture content on the flash pyrolysis product yield has been reported in Paper I (Chapter 2). It was observed that the presence of moisture in the wheat straw with different moisture levels of 1.5 wt. %, 6.2 wt. % and 15.0 wt. % have shown no significant effect on the pyrolysis product distribution. The fraction of bio-oil, char and gases produced from pyrolysis of straw were in the range of 40-60 wt. %, 18-50 wt. % and 5-22 wt. %, respectively, regardless of the straw moisture levels. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was around 525 deg. C to 550 deg. C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in

  15. Bios a study of creation

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelli, Hector

    2005-01-01

    This book focuses on a prototype of creative causal processes termed BIOS and how the concept can be applied to the physical world, in medicine and in social science. This book presents methods for identifying creative features in empirical data; studies showing biotic patterns in physical, biological, and economic processes; mathematical models of bipolar (positive and negative) feedback that generate biotic patterns. These studies support the hypothesis that natural processes are creative (not determined) and causal (not random) and that bipolar feedback plays a major role in their evolution. Simple processes precede, coexist, constitute and surround the complex systems they generate (priority of the simple). In turn, complex processes feedback and transform simpler ones (supremacy of the complex). Contents: Creative Processes and Mathematical Models: A Research Program: A Science of Creative Processes; On the Shoulders of Giants; Mathematical Ideas: Bios and Biotic Feedback (with L Kauffman); Methods and E...

  16. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  17. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  18. Bio technologies in extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bio technologies processes used (or used in the future) in extractive metallurgy are presented. The most advanced one is the degradation of the metals sulfides (bacteria catalyzing the sulfides oxidation of Au, Cu, U). Two other applications outside the extractive metallurgy are also described: metals fixation by living or dead organic matter and the biological destruction of organic reactants such as cyanides. (A.B.)

  19. Sugarcane bio ethanol and bioelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Luiz Augusto Horta; Leal, Manoel Regis Lima Verde

    2012-07-01

    This chapter approaches the Brazilian sugar cane production and processing model, sugarcane processing, sugarcane reception, sugarcane preparation and juice extraction, juice treatment, fermentation, distillation, sector efficiencies and future improvement - 2007, 2015 and 2025, present situation (considering the 2007/2008 harvesting season), prospective values for 2015 and for 2025, bioelectricity generation, straw recovery, bagasse availability, energy balance, present situation, perspective for improvements in the GHG mitigation potential, bio ethanol production chain - from field to tank, and surplus electricity generation.

  20. Algae for Bio diesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sustainable bio fuels production cannot ignore the competition between the food and agroenergy chains for the cultivable land, and many advocate oleaginous microbial biomass as a possible solution to this problem. Their advantages include fast growth, significant oil content, productivity significantly larger than that featured by higher plants but, most importantly, the possibility of exploiting marginal lands. Before they can be deployed on a large scale, some remaining critical points must be solved

  1. Molecular bio monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the technique of PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is receiving a growing attention from the academic side. It allows researchers to estimate the damage that several pollutants cause to the structure of the DNA so that, after having exposed carefully selected vegetal organisms, it makes possible to assess if alarm levels are beyond the limits imposed by law. Thanks to the opportunity of analysing DNA structure modifications, researchers are in a position to interpret the risks to the future of the environment because the ways in which DNA can be altered by several pollutants are the same for animals, human beings and plants. This article describes both methodology and scientific background of PCR, aiming to enlighten future further applications

  2. Transport Safety Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    WEGMAN, F.; Brouwer, M.; CAUZARD, J.P; Elvik, R.; MACHATA, K.; Makinen, T.; STENBORG, L.; Yannis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Transport safety is a key priority in the Common Transport Policy and a high level of protection for EU citizens in all harmonisation activity is required by the Treaty. Policymakers and managers aiming for a higher level of safety need to take an interest in as many of the factors influencing safety as possible and, at least, those factors they are able to affect or control. Safety performance indicators provide a means by which policymakers can ensure that their actions are as effective as ...

  3. BioRefine Yearbook 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekinen, T.; Kauppi, M. (eds.) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Alakangas, E. (ed.) (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland))

    2011-11-15

    The BioRefine - new biomass products programme is approaching its final active year 2012. The programme contains several significant industrial research and development projects that aim to demonstrate large scale biorefineries. At the same time, a number of projects are led by SMEs focusing on smaller localised solutions. The programme is co-operating closely with Forestcluster Ltd, one of the Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation in Finland, which is owned by major forest-related companies and institutes. Forestcluster has launched a second phase of its Future Biorefinery (FuBio) programme, which aims to create a new world-leading-competence platform in the field of biorefinery and to develop new value chains in which wood is refined into materials and chemicals. Together the two programmes are a central part of the Finnish biorefining entity. One of the main goals of the BioRefine programme has been to bring together multidisciplinary research and development competences and different business areas for creating sustainable and commercially viable biorefinery concepts. With the increasing pressure on low-carbon processes and on the efficient and sustainable use of raw materials, the need for a multidisciplinary approach has become evident. Bioeconomy aims to bring these different competence and business areas into close co-operation for creating new solutions based on non-fossil raw materials. In the future, the holistic and multidisciplinary approach to utilising biomass resources efficiently and in an environmentally and economically sustainable way will be increasingly emphasized

  4. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis presented, no thorough

  5. Safety Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, James H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five articles in this issue focus on safety education in agricultural laboratories. Topics discussed include teacher liability; elements of a safety instruction program; state and federal safety standards; ground fault current protection; and eye protection requirements and equipment. (SK)

  6. Radiation Role in Biosynthesis of Bio surfactant by Stenotorphomonas maltophilia Using Rice Straw and Cane Bagasses Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renewable raw materials such as rice straw and cane bagasses look promising for replacing environmentally the traditional risky chemical surfactants raw materials and hence, creating green products. Rice straw is a by-product of rice production. A great bio-source Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, bio surfactant producer strain was tested for the bio surfactant production capacity on irradiated rice straw and sugar cane bagasses. The two substrates subjected to different doses of gamma irradiation in a trial to improve its availability for bio surfactant production which resulted in promising exhibition of the bio surfactant production at dose level 10 kGy for both substrates after 72 hours. Generally, the irradiated rice straw showed lower bio surfactant production capacity than in case of sugar cane bagasses for both Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Suez Gulf microbial consortia

  7. Development of a bio-chip dedicated to planetary exploration. First step: resistance studies to space conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For upcoming exploration missions, space agencies advocate the development of a new promising technique to search for traces of extent or extinct life: the bio-chip use. A bio-chip is a miniaturized device composed of biological sensitive systems fixed on a solid substrate. As space is a hazardous environment, a main concern relies on the resistance of a bio-chip to a panel of harsh constraints among which the resistance to radiations. Within the framework of the BiOMAS (Bio-chip for Organic Matter Analysis in Space) project, our team is currently developing a bio-chip especially designed for planetary exploration. We present here the methodology adopted and the beginning experiments to select the best constituents, to determine resistance levels and to define well-adapted protection for the bio-chip

  8. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  9. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  10. BIO 101 UOP Course Tutorial/TutotorialRank

    OpenAIRE

    marit

    2015-01-01

    For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Tutorial Purchased: 3 Times, Rating: A+    BIO 101 Week 1 DQs  BIO 101 Week 1 Individual What Is Life?  BIO 101 Week 2 Individual Family Tree Presentation  BIO 101 Week 2 DQs  BIO 101 Week 3 Learning Team Presentation  BIO 101 Week 3 DQs  BIO 101 Week 3 Individual Evolution Lab  BIO 101 Week 4 DQs  BIO 101 Week 4 Individual Organism Physiology ...

  11. Bioética Bioética Boethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina Rodrigues Nunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bioética é um novo campo de conhecimento e uma corrente de pensamento que vem se desenvolvendo amplamente no Brasil, principalmente a partir da década de 90. Nesse artigo buscamos contextualizar o seu surgimento, justificando a necessidade da criação desse neologismo, uma vez que a ética estava de certo modo esquecida, em relação à técnica, restringindo-se apenas à ética profissional. Hoje nos deparamos com uma ampla gama de produções nessa área que ajudam a nortear nossa ação enquanto cidadãos que buscam qualidade de vida e a preservação da vida no planeta. A bioética, no entanto, preocupa-se com o modo de ser: pensamento-julgamento-ação, em relação aos seres humanos entre si e com a natureza.La bioética es un nuevo campo de conocimiento y una corriente del pensamiento que está en pleno desarrollo en Brasil, principalmente a partir de la década del 90. En este artículo explicamos el contexto de su surgimiento, justificando la necesidad de la creación de este neologismo, una vez que la ética estaba de una cierta manera relegada, con relación a la técnica, limitada apenas a la ética profesional. Hoy nosotros notamos una amplia gama de producciones en esta área que nos ayudan a orientar nuestras acciones como ciudadanos que buscan la calidad de vida y la preservación de la vida en el planeta. La bioética, sin embargo, se preocupa con el modo de ser: pensamiento-juicio-acción, con relación a los seres humanos entre sí y con la naturaleza.Bioethics is a new field of knowledge and a current of thought that has been largely developing in Brazil, especially since the Nineties. In this article, we try to contextualize its inception by justifying the need to create such a neologism, since ethics was somewhat forgotten, in relation to the technique, being restricted to professional ethics. We are nowadays faced with a wide scope of works in this area that help guide our action as citizens who want quality of life

  12. Bio-leaching and bio-remediation; Biolixiviation et bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-09-01

    There are only a few bio-technological applications in ore beneficiation, but many in the environmental domain. Economical, technical and technological factors as well as respective contexts in project development explain this difference. In both cases however, the problem is to utilize processes coming from the observation of natural phenomena and to stimulate a beneficial biological activity in a mineral context; it results similar applications with similar limitations. In this paper, the characteristics of both domains are outlined, on the basis of present practices in extractive metallurgy and degradation of organic pollutants respectively, pointing out their similarities and their differences. (author)

  13. Delivering safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  14. Long-term sustainability of bio-components production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souček Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels play an increasingly important role in motor fuel market. The list of biofuels (bio-components in accordance with EU legislations contains a number of substances not widely used in the market. Traditionally these include: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, in the Czech Republic methyl ether of rape seed oil and bioethanol (also ethyl terc. buthyl ether ETBE, based on bioethanol. The availability and possible utilizations of bio-component fuels in Czech Republic and Serbia are discussed. Additional attention is paid on the identification of the possibilities to improve effectiveness of rape seeds cultivation and utilization of by-products from FAME production (utilization of sew, rape-meal and glycerol which will allow fulfilment of the sustainability criteria for the first generation biofuels. The new approaches on renewable co-processing are commented. The concept of 3E (emissions, energy demand, and economics is introduced specifying three main attributes for effective production of FAME production in accordance with legal compliances. Bio-components price change is analyzed in comparison to the price of motor fuels, identifying possible (speculative crude price break-even point at the level of 149-176 USD/bbl at which point bio-fuels would become economically cost effective for the use by refiners.

  15. Supporting Fernald Site Closure with Integrated Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D and D) of over 200 structures, including eight major nuclear production plants. There is one of twelve nuclear facilities still remaining (Silos containing uranium ore residues) with its own safety basis documentation. This paper presents the status of the FCP's safety basis documentation program, illustrating that all of the former nuclear facilities and activities have now replaced. Basis of Interim Operations (BIOs) with I-HASPs as their safety basis during the closure process

  16. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  17. Computational detection of allergenic proteins attains a new level of accuracy with in silico variable-length peptide extraction and machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Soeria-Atmadja, D.; Lundell, T.; Gustafsson, M. G.; Hammerling, U.

    2006-01-01

    The placing of novel or new-in-the-context proteins on the market, appearing in genetically modified foods, certain bio-pharmaceuticals and some household products leads to human exposure to proteins that may elicit allergic responses. Accurate methods to detect allergens are therefore necessary to ensure consumer/patient safety. We demonstrate that it is possible to reach a new level of accuracy in computational detection of allergenic proteins by presenting a novel detector, Detection based...

  18. BioCapacitor: A novel principle for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Koji; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Lee, Inyoung; Hanashi, Takuya; Tsugawa, Wakako

    2016-02-15

    Studies regarding biofuel cells utilizing biocatalysts such as enzymes and microorganisms as electrocatalysts have been vigorously conducted over the last two decades. Because of their environmental safety and sustainability, biofuel cells are expected to be used as clean power generators. Among several principles of biofuel cells, enzyme fuel cells have attracted significant attention for their use as alternative energy sources for future implantable devices, such as implantable insulin pumps and glucose sensors in artificial pancreas and pacemakers. However, the inherent issue of the biofuel cell principle is the low power of a single biofuel cell. The theoretical voltage of biofuel cells is limited by the redox potential of cofactors and/or mediators employed in the anode and cathode, which are inadequate for operating any devices used for biomedical application. These limitations inspired us to develop a novel biodevice based on an enzyme fuel cell that generates sufficient stable power to operate electric devices, designated "BioCapacitor." To increase voltage, the enzyme fuel cell is connected to a charge pump. To obtain a sufficient power and voltage to operate an electric device, a capacitor is used to store the potential generated by the charge pump. Using the combination of a charge pump and capacitor with an enzyme fuel cell, high voltages with sufficient temporary currents to operate an electric device were generated without changing the design and construction of the enzyme fuel cell. In this review, the BioCapacitor principle is described. The three different representative categories of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are introduced. Further, the recent challenges in the developments of self-powered stand-alone biodevices employing enzyme fuel cells combined with charge pumps and capacitors are introduced. Finally, the future prospects of biodevices employing the BioCapacitor principle are addressed. PMID:26278505

  19. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    OpenAIRE

    Wijffels, R. H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en bio-waterstof productie. Achtereenvolgens worden belicht: methaanproductie via anaërobe vergisting, biologische waterstofproductie via (donker) fermentatie, en fotobiologische waterstofproductie.

  20. Authentifizierung von Bio-Milch im Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Molkentin, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    In Deutschland ist die Nachfrage nach Bio-Lebensmitteln in den letzten Jahren stetig gestiegen. So erhöhte sich der Absatz von Bio-Trinkmilch in 2007 im Vergleich zum Vorjahr erneut kräftig um 34 Prozent (ZMP, Bonn) und der Bio-Anteil beträgt inzwischen bei Frischmilch knapp elf Prozent. Aufgrund sporadisch resultierender Lieferengpässe bei Bio-Milch sowie der vorhandenen Handelspreisdifferenz besteht zunehmend ein potenzielles Risiko der Falschdeklaration konventionell erzeugter Milch als Bi...

  1. In Bio-Fuel We Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Annette

    2006-01-01

    In bio-fuel we trust. Or do we? In this chapter, ethnographic material from Sweden is used to discuss ways sin which trust may influence the choice of bio-fuel for heating purposes. The meaning and substance of trust or distrust, as well as the very conditions for trust, are elaborated on in relation to solar and bio-pellet systems, district heating with bio-fuel, and traditional fireplaces. An important conclusion of this chapter is that the degree to which people perceive others as being li...

  2. Evaluation of Bio-Medical Waste Management Practices in a Government Medical College and Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastav Shalini, Mahajan Harsh, Mathur B P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biomedical waste (BMW collection and proper disposal has become a significant concern for both the medical and the general community as improper management poses risks to the health care workers, waste handlers, patients, community in general and largely the environment. Objectives: (i Assessment of current Bio-medical waste management practices including collection, segregation, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal technologies in tertiary health care center. (ii Assessment of health and safety practices for the health care personnel involved in Bio-Medical Waste Management. Materials and Methods: Waste management practices in the Government Hospital was studied during March 2009 – May 2009.The information / data regarding Bio-Medical Waste Management practices and safety was collected by way of semi- structured interview. Results: M.L.B Medical College generates 0.52Kgs waste per bed per day and maximum waste is generated in wards. The institute has got separate color coded bins in wards for collection of waste but segregation practices needs to be more refined. The safety measures taken by health care workers was not satisfactory, it was basically due to un-awareness of health hazards which may occur because of improper waste management practices. Conclusion: Thus it is concluded that there should be strict implementation of a waste management policy set up in the institute; training and motivation must be given paramount importance to meet the current needs and standards of bio-medical waste management.

  3. Enhancing operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since Chernobyl, the dictum An accident anywhere is an accident everywhereis a globally shared perception. The paper presents challenges to the international nuclear community: globalization, sustainable and dynamic development, secure, safe and clean energy supply, nuclear renaissance, public concern for nuclear safety, nuclear security, and technology and management. Strong national safety infrastructures and international cooperation are required to maintain a high level of nuclear safety and security worldwide. There is an increasing number of countries thinking of going nuclear: Morocco, Indonesia, Iran, Poland, Turkey, Bangladesh, Egypt, Vietnam, Chile, Nigeria, Malaysia, Thailand, Uruguay, Tunisia, Algeria. Another serious incident will jeopardize the prospect of nuclear renaissance. Safety and security are preconditions for countries newly introducing NPP as well as for those with mature nuclear programmes. The Global Nuclear Safety Regime (GNSR) is referred to as the institutional, legal and technical framework to achieve worldwide implementation of the safety of nuclear installations. At the top of the framework is the Convention on Nuclear Safety which covers the nuclear power plants. The convention has 56 contracting parties which meet triennially where national reports are presented and subject to the review of peers. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) undertakes a programme to foster the GNSR through the establishment of IAEA safety standards and related publications. The programme provides for the application of standards for the (1) safety of nuclear installations, (2) safety of radioactive sources, (3) safe transport of radioactive material and (4) management of radioactive waste. It also provides for the security of nuclear installations, nuclear material and radioactive material. The safety standards hierarchy is as follows: safety fundamental, safety requirements and safety guides. The safety fundamentals are the bases for IAEA

  4. Bio-functional Au/Si nanorods for pathogen detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bosoon; Fu, Junxue; Zhao, Yiping; Siragusa, Gregory R.; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.

    2007-09-01

    Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabricated by glancing angle deposition method and the gold was sputtered onto the silica nanorods. Alexa488-succinimide dye was immobilized onto the annealed Si nanorods via the attachment between dye ester and primary amine group supplied by the 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The anti-Salmonella was conjugated to gold via Dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate] self-assembly monolayer. Due to the high aspect ratio nature of the Si nanorods, hundreds or thousands of dye molecules attached to the Si nanorods produced enhanced fluorescence signal. These biologically functionalized nanorods can be used to detect Salmonella with fluorescent microscopic imaging. This new nanoscale biosensor will be able to detect other foodborne pathogenic bacteria for food safety and security applications.

  5. Oxidation levels of North American over-the-counter n-3 (omega-3) supplements and the influence of supplement formulation and delivery form on evaluating oxidative safety

    OpenAIRE

    Jackowski, Stefan A.; Alvi, Azhar Z.; Mirajkar, Abdur; Imani, Zahabia; Gamalevych, Yuliya; Shaikh, Nisar A.; Jackowski, George

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidation status of North American n-3 (omega-3) PUFA nutritional supplements commercially available in Canada and evaluate the influence of product formulation and delivery form on oxidative safety. A total of 171 North American over-the-counter n-3 PUFA nutritional supplements were analysed for oxidation safety. Primary and secondary oxidation and total oxidation (TOTOX) were determined using the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AOCS) procedur...

  6. New safety culture strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety culture is a term well known to and respected by nuclear power plant operators. Its principles, however, are applicable for conventional power plants, as well. The approaches to the safety culture management and assessment needed to be unified at the company level and to have the requirements uniformly defined and applied. (author)

  7. Safety culture: modern slogan or effective contribution to safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety culture is defined and its impact on nuclear power plants is documented using the words of the INSAG of IAEA. Two examples from the field of aviation and space flight testify, that the upper management, by its sheer image, may considerably influence actions of the lower levels of the hierarchy. Management therefore can do a lot more for safety than is commonly assumed. Two examples, although separated by 57 years, show that the mentioned influence remains unchanged inspire of progress in management- and organisation-methods as well as in safety-engineering. Safety culture is an overriding element of safety, acting at all levels of a hierarchy. Its action is most important on those levels, for which precise reglementation is hardly possible. The chain of technical and organisational measures guarantees safety only under the condition, that it is embedded in 'safety culture'. Safety culture therefore merits our full attention. (author) 1 fig

  8. Nuclear power plants: safety management, safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting on Nuclear Power Plants: Safety Management, Safety Culture held in Munich on October 30-31, 2002 has made very important contributions to the exchange of ideas and to the analysis of the current situation with respect to this topic. Eighteen technical papers were presented in which the subject was treated and put up for discussion under a variety of aspects raised by nuclear power plant operators, regulatory authorities, expert consultants, experts, scientists, and consultants. The findings elaborated at the event will greatly help to strengthen safety further in electricity generation from nuclear power at its current high level. (orig.)

  9. Intrinsic Surface-Drying Properties of Bio-adhesive Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Akdogan, Yasar; Wei, Wei; Huang, Kuo-Ying; Kageyama, Yoshiyuki; Danner, Eric W.; Miller, Dusty R.; Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R.; Herbert Waite, J.; Han, Songi

    2014-01-01

    Sessile marine mussels must “dry” underwater surfaces before adhering to them. Synthetic adhesives have yet to overcome this fundamental challenge. Previous studies of bio-inspired adhesion have largely been performed under applied compressive forces but these are poor predictors of an adhesive’s ability to spontaneously penetrate surface hydration layers. In a force-free approach to measuring molecular-level interaction via the surface water diffusivity, different mussel foot proteins were f...

  10. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  11. Four principles of bio-musicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-03-19

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality--song, drumming, social synchronization and dance--as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research. PMID:25646514

  12. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. PMID:22609660

  13. Bio-fuels: the rush to industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ambitious goals of the French government fire with enthusiasm the bio-fuel sector which is in the fair way to become an industry at a whole. However, in order to build in time the requested ethanol and bio-diesel units the government will have to speed up the approval procedures and to maintain the financial incentive policy. (J.S.)

  14. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  15. Soils bio-remediation; Bioremediation des sols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, T.M. [Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon-1 (France)

    2001-06-01

    The biological treatment of soils (in-situ or excavated) consists in the use of micro-organisms for the transformation of noxious compounds into non-noxious ones. Bacteria are the main micro-organisms used but fungi can play a role in some ex-situ processes. The bio-remediation of the soil and aquifer requires the use of various processes like diffusion and advection, sorption and desorption, and biodegradation. The degradation of the pollutants is efficient only if a sufficient amount of micro-organisms is in close-contact with the pollutants. The efficiency, fastness and cost are important factors to take into consideration in such remedial actions. Thus, a good mastery of soils sciences and processes engineering is needed. This article presents the concepts and processes used in biological remediation of soils: 1 - concept of processes engineering (heterogenous environments, processes characteristics, in-situ or on-site reactors); 2 - concept of biological treatments (micro-organisms, biodegradation, microbial ecology, bio-stimulation, bio-augmentation); 3 - biological treatment process (bio-venting, bio-spargeing, bio-slurping, in-situ aerobic bio-process, bio-hillock, phyto-remediation, metals extraction). (J.S.)

  16. Resolving conflicting safety cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nuclear power plant sites have been wounded in the crossfire between two distinct corporate cultures. The traditional utility culture lies on one side and that of the nuclear navy on the other. The two corporate cultures lead to different perceptions of open-quotes safety culture.close quotes This clash of safety cultures obscures a very important point about nuclear plant operations: Safety depends on organizational learning. Organizational learning provides the foundation for a perception of safety culture that transcends the conflict between utility and nuclear navy cultures. Corporate culture may be defined as the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs shared by employees of a given company. Safety culture is the part of corporate culture concerning shared attitudes and beliefs affecting individual or public safety. If the safety culture promotes behaviors that lead to greater safety, employees will tend to open-quotes do the right thingclose quotes even when circumstances and formal guidance alone do not ensure that actions will be correct. Safety culture has become particularly important to nuclear plant owners and regulators as they have sought to establish and maintain a high level of safety in today's plants

  17. Safety and security profiles of industry networks used in safety- critical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária FRANEKOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the mechanisms of safety and security profiles of industry and communication networks used within safety – related applications in technological and information levels of process control recommended according to standards IEC 61784-3,4. Nowadays the number of vendors of the safety – related communication technologies who guarantees besides the standard communication, the communication amongst the safety – related equipment according to IEC 61508 is increasing. Also the number of safety – related products is increasing, e. g. safety Fieldbus, safety PLC, safety curtains, safety laser scanners, safety buttons, safety relays and other. According to world survey the safety Fieldbus denoted the highest growth from all manufactured safety products.The main part of this paper is the description of the safety-related Fieldbus communication system, which has to guaranty Safety Integrity Level.

  18. Silymarin BIO-C, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, induces hyperprolactinemia in intact female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Capasso, Francesco; Savino, Francesco; Izzo, Angelo A; Lembo, Francesca; Borrelli, Francesca

    2009-09-01

    Breastfeeding is widely acknowledged to have important health benefits for infants and mothers. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum fruits) has been recently proposed to be used by nursing mothers for stimulating milk production; however, the mode of action of this herbal drug is still unknown. In this paper, we have evaluated the effect of a micronized standardized extract of S. marianum (Silymarin BIO-C=Piùlatte) on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C (25-200mg/kg, given orally) increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels. Moreover, after a 66-day discontinuation of Silymarin BIO-C treatment, prolactin levels were still significantly elevated although we observed a trend to decrease that was counteracted by a further 7-day treatment with Silymarin BIO-C. Bromocriptine, a dopamine D(2) receptor agonist, (1-10mg/kg, os) significantly and in a dose dependent manner, reduced the serum prolactin levels; bromocriptine, at the dose of 1mg/kg, significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silymarin BIO-C. In conclusion, we have shown that an extract from S. marianum fruits significantly increases circulating prolactin levels in female rats; this effect seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D(2) receptors. PMID:19303749

  19. Environmental, Safety, and Health Plan for the remedial investigation of the liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES ampersand H) Plan presents the concepts and methodologies to be used during the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) RI/FS project to protect the health and safety of employees, the public, and the environment. The ES ampersand H Plan acts as a management extension for ORNL and Energy Systems to direct and control implementation of the project ES ampersand H program. This report describes the program philosophy, requirements, quality assurance measures, and methods for applying the ES ampersand H program to individual task remedial investigations, project facilities, and other major tasks assigned to the project

  20. Research on the Maturity of Real Estate Enterprises Safety Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, F.; Y. Zhang; Jun Liu; Hanbin Luo

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture plays an important role in enterprise safety production. The paper analyzed the factors of real estate enterprise safety culture construction and then designed the questionnaire and did research on real estate enterprise safety culture. The questionnaire consists of workers information and seven safety culture dimensions, including safety management system level, publicity and education training level, security issues and management participa...