WorldWideScience

Sample records for bio nenryo seisan

  1. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy field. Final year report. R and D on the bio-fuel production by high functional bio-reactor; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A system was developed for producing automobile fuel from the recycled paper and waste cooking oil using high functional intelligent yeast. Element technology is the functional yeast creation technology and the online intelligent control technology of the process into which the fixed bio-reactor was inserted. Studies were made on the following: 1) creation of high activity lipase production/ethanol production yeasts; 2) bio-fuel production by intelligent bio-reactor; 3) process optimization control technology by fuzzy control; 4) stabilization of bio-fuel production yeast; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, the results were obtained as written below: development of the stable lipase coming from rhizopus japonicus, fixed bacterium using rhizopus oryzae fungus body which can be used more than ten times, direct ethanol fermentation from starch by developing the multi-copy glucoamylase manifestation yeast, operation of a 20L capacity bench plant, etc. (NEDO)

  2. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on area consortium research and development business, 1st year. Area consortium energy research and development (biofuel production by advanced function bioreactor); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies were made to produce ethanol directly from starch and cellulose and to collect biodiesel fuels from waste oil by an enzymatic method. For an increase in the yield of biodiesel fuel production, lipase enzymes were explored and optimum reaction conditions were sought for. Starch decomposition was quick for conversion into the target material in a system with the co-expression of amylase and glucoamylase present on the yeast cell surface layer. There was dramatically rapid progress in the increase of enzymatic activity in the cell, although dependent on cell membrane surface treatment conditions. In the generation of acetaminophen by recombinant cohesive yeasts, highly active and expressive yeasts were automatically fixed in the porous support (intelligent bioreactor) while those deactivated or dead were automatically removed. For the construction of a fuzzy control system for this reaction, basic models were investigated, built on the basis of the enzymatic model of reaction and substance balance. A high-precision structural analysis was conducted for the exploration of secondary structure stabilizing factors in protein and peptide and for the elucidation of correlations between structure and function. (NEDO)

  3. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research on energy (Research and development of biofuel production using highly functional bioreactor - 2nd year); 1999 nendo kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Microbes capable of a high biodiesel fuel (BDF) yield from moisture-containing oils assumedly waste oil are investigated. Lipase attributed to Rhizopus oryzae exhibits a high reaction rate of not lower than 90%. The process functions even when microbes are immobilized by BSPs. BDF does not affect driving performance, and black smoke is reduced. A process basic to industrial production is developed by use of a fixed bed reactor. In the production of ethanol from starch thanks to plural kinds of glucoamylase producing yeast, ethanol is produced at a rate of 7-8% under microaerophilic conditions in both proliferation and fermentation periods, which means a success achieved in growing arming yeast equipped with enhanced functions. A 20-liter class bench plant is installed and immobilization by BSPs is tested, when no problem is detected. In a reaction involving these immobilized microbes, a reaction rate near 16% is achieved. In the production of ethanol by yeast immobilized by BSPs, use of a fuzzy control system is studied, and it is found that prolonged stability is available when glucose concentration is sustained at 10-20g/liter. (NEDO)

  4. Fiscal 1998 R and D project on global environmental industrial technology. R and D result report on environment- friendly production technology (advanced chemical synthesis reactor); 1998 nendo chikyu kankyo sangyo gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo. Kankyo chowagata seisan gijutsu (kokino kagaku gosei bio reactor) kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For high-efficiency production of substances by bioreactor, study was made on a bio-control mechanism as its elementary technology. On the study of breeding technology by expression control, the structure design of a control region and development of new expression vectors had been finished, and study was made on breeding of high-efficiency recombinant production cells by using candidate expression vectors. On the study of breeding technology by multi-stage enzyme reaction control, the enzyme gene of a system synthesizing cysteine from glycerol was searched, and hydroxypyruvaldehyde hydrogenase gene was isolated as substance production model. Cysteine production Escherichia coli combined with serineacetyl transferase gene was also prepared. In addition, study started on cloning of hydroxyacetone oxidase gene. On development of reactor system technology, for conversion of serine to cysteine, study was made on optimization of a reaction condition by theory of enzyme reaction rate. (NEDO)

  5. Production of biopolymers from carbon dioxide. Tansan gas kara no bio polymer no seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizaki, A. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture)

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes biopolymers made from CO2 that contribute to global preservation. PHB that is generated in the processes of CO2 fermentation and protein production from microorganisms draws attention as a useful biopolymer. Biological synthesis requires energy to synthesize the composing materials therein. Organisms are divided into the independent type and the subordinate type depending on how the energy is acquired. The independent type organism is of CO2 self-reducing type, so to speak, and produces organic matters. When hydrogen oxidizing bacteria, A. eutrophus, is cultured under an independent nutrient condition, energy derived from the hydrogen oxidation proliferates the bacteria and produces PHB. However, this fermentation method has a substantially different difficulty. It requires a huge reactor with a large gas migration capacity coefficient, on which the PHB production depends entirely. Other CO2 biopolymer production methods under study include effective utilization of biomass during photosynthetic processes by using plants incorporated with PHB biosynthesized genes, and production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Research report for fiscal 1998. Research concerning studies for development of thermochemical solar hybrid fuel production system; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Netsukagakuteki solar hybrid nenryo seisan system no kaihatsu kenkyu ni kakawaru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A solar heat-aided system is investigated, in which CO2 is recycled, with methanol, dimethyl ether, etc., serving as carriers of the solar heat energy. In the evaluation of validity of the system as a whole, the system scale and economy and technologies necessary for the system were studied, which was to find out whether solar methanol production was commercially feasible in the sun belt. It was concluded that solar methanol was capable of competing against LNG (liquefied natural gas) in cost, that Japan was able to establish its own technologies for developing coal gasification solar reactors using overseas technologies for information, and that therefore such a system was technologically and economically valid. In the study of related technologies as is, surveys were conducted on coal gasification, natural gas reforming furnaces, methanol synthesis, dimethyl ether synthesis, light condensing technology, current state and cost of solar reactors, etc. Also investigated were the marketability of solar hybrid fuel, CO2 reduction efficiency, and the construction cost at the assumed site of construction (Australia). (NEDO)

  7. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  8. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  9. Bios data analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Sugerman, A; Kovacevic, L; Kauffman, L; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Patel, M; Konecki, J

    2005-10-01

    The Bios Data Analyzer (BDA) is a set of computer programs (CD-ROM, in Sabelli et al., Bios. A Study of Creation, 2005) for new time series analyses that detects and measures creative phenomena, namely diversification, novelty, complexes, nonrandom complexity. We define a process as creative when its time series displays these properties. They are found in heartbeat interval series, the exemplar of bios .just as turbulence is the exemplar of chaos, in many other empirical series (galactic distributions, meteorological, economic and physiological series), in biotic series generated mathematically by the bipolar feedback, and in stochastic noise, but not in chaotic attractors. Differencing, consecutive recurrence and partial autocorrelation indicate nonrandom causation, thereby distinguishing chaos and bios from random and random walk. Embedding plots distinguish causal creative processes (e.g. bios) that include both simple and complex components of variation from stochastic processes (e.g. Brownian noise) that include only complex components, and from chaotic processes that decay from order to randomness as the number of dimensions is increased. Varying bin and dimensionality show that entropy measures symmetry and variety, and that complexity is associated with asymmetry. Trigonometric transformations measure coexisting opposites in time series and demonstrate bipolar, partial, and uncorrelated opposites in empirical processes and bios, supporting the hypothesis that bios is generated by bipolar feedback, a concept which is at variance with standard concepts of polar and complementary opposites.

  10. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  11. BioSentinel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BioSentinel technology will provide critical information about how living systems, from humans down to cells, adapt, respond and survive in deep space, beyond LEO...

  12. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  13. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  14. BioArchitecture

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Volume 1 has defined the scope of BioArchitecture. From the outset we have strived to ensure that BioArchitecture is not limited to the three major polymer systems of the cytoplasm. I am happy to say that a cursory glance at the contents of volume 1 makes it clear that we are interested in all aspects of bioarchitecture from molecules to polymers to cells to tissue to the organism.

  15. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...... strength, analyte concentration, and analyte relative orientation on nanowire surface are illustrated. Wherever possible, a comparison to experimental data available in literature is given, displaying the potential of BioFETSIM for interpreting experimental results....

  16. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    OpenAIRE

    Knight Thomas F; Endy Drew; Shetty Reshma P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have ...

  17. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  18. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  19. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  20. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  1. bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier León Correa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la publicación de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, hemos podido comprobar una evolución importante en el desarrollo de esta disciplina, tanto en España como en Latinoamérica, que son los ámbitos donde muy especialmente se difunde. Trataré de señalar los aspectos que considero de mayor interés en los inicios y desarrollo de esta nueva disciplina, para poder entender mejor los retos actualesque enfrenta y cuáles son las líneas que ha seguido la revista en esta andadura inicial, y que deberá seguir para responder a los retos de los próximos años. Es un reto la realidad que vivimos en nuestros países, con la aprobación de leyes impuestas desde los poderes públicos con muy poca o ninguna discusión social que se parezca de lejos al diálogo tolerante racional que propugna la Bioética; con las reformas aceleradas e indecisas de los sistemas de salud; con el cambio del rol del médico y de la relación médico-paciente desde un paternalismo aún presente a un modelo participativo o contractual sin defi nir claramente; con importantes desigualdades en el acceso a la atención de salud dentro de cada propio país, pero a la vez con un creciente reconocimiento de los derechos de los pacientes y de su necesaria participación para mejorar la calidad de la asistencia clínica. Tiene especial importancia valorar cuáles han sido los instrumentos del éxito y de la difusión de la Bioética clínica, y cuáles pueden ser las nuevas propuestas para el desarrollo de la Bioética como una disciplina de debate ético social y político, ligada a las exigencias éticas de la justicia y el desarrollo social. Hemos de ver cuál ha sido el aporte en estos quince años de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, con la colaboración de cientos de autores de diversos países, en que se ha mantenido fi el a la propuesta de los que la iniciamos en Santiago de Compostela en el año 1990: construir un buen aporte al debate actual de Bio

  2. Bio-forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. (Jill)

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  3. Bioética

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cássia Regina Rodrigues [UNESP; Nunes,Amauri Porto

    2004-01-01

    A bioética é um novo campo de conhecimento e uma corrente de pensamento que vem se desenvolvendo amplamente no Brasil, principalmente a partir da década de 90. Nesse artigo buscamos contextualizar o seu surgimento, justificando a necessidade da criação desse neologismo, uma vez que a ética estava de certo modo esquecida, em relação à técnica, restringindo-se apenas à ética profissional. Hoje nos deparamos com uma ampla gama de produções nessa área que ajudam a nortear nossa ação enquanto cida...

  4. Bio-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  5. What is BioOne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2005-01-01

    BioOne is a Web-based aggregation of full-text, high-impact bioscience research journals. Most of its titles are published by small societies or non-commercial publishers and have not been previously available in electronic format. This column describes the BioOne database and gives some basic information about the best ways to search its content.

  6. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  7. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  8. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , however, shown that by following this path, we will lose more than we gain on both CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Being renewable, CO2 neutral and storable, biomass is a priority resource for fossil fuel substitution in general. Investigations of the magnitude of biomass that is or can be made...... available for energy purposes - be it from waste, agricultural residues or energy crops - show, however, that biomass is very limited compared to the potential use of it. Even in the most optimistic near term scenarios (30 years ahead), the total physically available biomass can at maximum substitute around......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  9. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...... that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot....

  10. Bio-Glasses An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This new work is dedicated to glasses and their variants which can be used as biomaterials to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Bio-glasses are superior to other biomaterials in many applications, such as healing bone by signaling stem cells to become bone cells.   Key features:  First book on biomaterials to focus on bio-glassesEdited by a leading authority on bio-glasses trained by one of its inventors, Dr Larry HenchSupported by the International Commission on Glass (ICG)Authored by members of the ICG Biomedical Glass Committee, with the goal of creating a seamless textb

  11. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    UAV ) in order to autonomously form and maintain a dynamic communication network. This system draws upon inspirations from biological cell...presents the BioAIR system for autonomous communication , command and control of a swarm of UAVs . The idea is to form a communication network comprised of...deployment, yet maintaining communications should not interfere with the primary tasks of these entities. The BioAIR system was developed to coordinate

  12. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  13. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  14. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  15. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C.; Jones, Samuel T.; Pollard, Anthony

    2017-04-04

    The present invention relates to a method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also disclosed are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  16. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  17. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. BioMagResBank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, E.L.; Akutsu, H.; Doreleijers, J.; Harano, Y.; Ioannidis, Y.E.; Lin, J.; Livny, M.; Mading, S.; Maziuk, D.; Miller, Z.; Nakatani, E.; Schulte, C.F.; Tolmie, D.E.; Wenger, R Kent; Yao, H.; Markley, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The BioMagResBank (BMRB: www.bmrb.wisc.edu) is a repository for experimental and derived data gathered from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies of biological molecules. BMRB is a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB). The BMRB archive consists of four main data deposi

  20. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  1. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  2. Types for BioAmbients

    CERN Document Server

    Capecchi, Sara; 10.4204/EPTCS.19.7

    2010-01-01

    The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues). Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  3. Bioética Bioética Boethics

    OpenAIRE

    Cássia Regina Rodrigues Nunes; Amauri Porto Nunes

    2004-01-01

    A bioética é um novo campo de conhecimento e uma corrente de pensamento que vem se desenvolvendo amplamente no Brasil, principalmente a partir da década de 90. Nesse artigo buscamos contextualizar o seu surgimento, justificando a necessidade da criação desse neologismo, uma vez que a ética estava de certo modo esquecida, em relação à técnica, restringindo-se apenas à ética profissional. Hoje nos deparamos com uma ampla gama de produções nessa área que ajudam a nortear nossa ação enquanto cida...

  4. Bioética Bioética Boethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina Rodrigues Nunes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bioética é um novo campo de conhecimento e uma corrente de pensamento que vem se desenvolvendo amplamente no Brasil, principalmente a partir da década de 90. Nesse artigo buscamos contextualizar o seu surgimento, justificando a necessidade da criação desse neologismo, uma vez que a ética estava de certo modo esquecida, em relação à técnica, restringindo-se apenas à ética profissional. Hoje nos deparamos com uma ampla gama de produções nessa área que ajudam a nortear nossa ação enquanto cidadãos que buscam qualidade de vida e a preservação da vida no planeta. A bioética, no entanto, preocupa-se com o modo de ser: pensamento-julgamento-ação, em relação aos seres humanos entre si e com a natureza.La bioética es un nuevo campo de conocimiento y una corriente del pensamiento que está en pleno desarrollo en Brasil, principalmente a partir de la década del 90. En este artículo explicamos el contexto de su surgimiento, justificando la necesidad de la creación de este neologismo, una vez que la ética estaba de una cierta manera relegada, con relación a la técnica, limitada apenas a la ética profesional. Hoy nosotros notamos una amplia gama de producciones en esta área que nos ayudan a orientar nuestras acciones como ciudadanos que buscan la calidad de vida y la preservación de la vida en el planeta. La bioética, sin embargo, se preocupa con el modo de ser: pensamiento-juicio-acción, con relación a los seres humanos entre sí y con la naturaleza.Bioethics is a new field of knowledge and a current of thought that has been largely developing in Brazil, especially since the Nineties. In this article, we try to contextualize its inception by justifying the need to create such a neologism, since ethics was somewhat forgotten, in relation to the technique, being restricted to professional ethics. We are nowadays faced with a wide scope of works in this area that help guide our action as citizens who want quality of life

  5. The Bio* toolkits--a brief overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Harry

    2002-09-01

    Bioinformatics research is often difficult to do with commercial software. The Open Source BioPerl, BioPython and Biojava projects provide toolkits with multiple functionality that make it easier to create customised pipelines or analysis. This review briefly compares the quirks of the underlying languages and the functionality, documentation, utility and relative advantages of the Bio counterparts, particularly from the point of view of the beginning biologist programmer.

  6. Bio-logic设备优点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 世界第一台数字脑电图是Bio-logic厂家设计并生产 世界第一台数字视频脑电图是Bio-logic厂家设计并生产 在中国市场"癫痫刀"这个概念,也为Bio-logic厂家所推广 在美国市场,脑电图仪器的行业标准是以Bio-logic产品为基准定制的.

  7. Bio-Matematik ved Roskilde Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    Ved Institut for Natur, Systemer og Modeller ved Roskilde Universitet finder man en velkonsolideret gruppe af forskere, BioMath-gruppen, der beskæftiger sig med Bio-Matematik og Bio-Medicinsk Modellering. Faktisk startede BioMath-gruppen på det tidligere Institut for Studiet af Matematik og Fysik...... pumper; 3) Endokrin fysiologi; 4) Type 1 og type 2 diabetes; 5) Populationsdynamik og sygdomsspredning; og 6) Parameterestimering i patient-specifikke modeller.   Udover overnævnte modelleringsområder har vi ved instituttet en stærk tradition for at beskæftige os med metaaspekter af modellering, f...

  8. Authentifizierung von Bio-Milch im Labor

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In Deutschland ist die Nachfrage nach Bio-Lebensmitteln in den letzten Jahren stetig gestiegen. So erhöhte sich der Absatz von Bio-Trinkmilch in 2007 im Vergleich zum Vorjahr erneut kräftig um 34 Prozent (ZMP, Bonn) und der Bio-Anteil beträgt inzwischen bei Frischmilch knapp elf Prozent. Aufgrund sporadisch resultierender Lieferengpässe bei Bio-Milch sowie der vorhandenen Handelspreisdifferenz besteht zunehmend ein potenzielles Risiko der Falschdeklaration konventionell erzeugter Milch als Bi...

  9. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  10. E-bioética

    OpenAIRE

    López de la Vieja de la Torre, Mª Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In bioethics, the use of new technology facilitates access to information on issues affecting the beginning and end of life, as well as for research. However, the transparency and openness of information does not guarantee the participation and responsibility in decision-making. En Bioética, el uso de las nuevas tecnologías facilita el acceso a información sobre cuestiones que afectan al principio y al fin de la vida, así como a la investigación. Sin embargo, la transparencia y la apertura...

  11. Bio-oxidation of arsenopyrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Tao; LI Qian; YANG Yong-bin; LI Guang-hui; QIU Guan-zhou

    2008-01-01

    Oxidation of arsenopyrite with Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied.The electrochemical results show that arsenopyrite is firstly oxidized to As2S2 at the potential of 0.2-0.3 V (vs SHE) and As2S2 covers the electrode and retards the process continuously.While at higher potential over 0.3 V (vs SHE),As2S2 is oxidized to H3AsO3,and H3AsO3 is then oxidized to H3AsO4 at 0.8 V (vs SHE).The leaching results show that the addition of FeS2 can promote the oxidation of As3+ to As5+ and increase the activity of the bacteria.The best bio-oxidation technical parameters are the initial pH of 1.8-2.0,particle sizes less than 0.074 mm,temperature in the range of 25-30 ℃ and rotating speed of the orbital incubator of 100-160 r/min.The results provide theoretical and technological supports of bio-oxidation arsenopyrite for pretreating refractory arsenic gold ores.

  12. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities.

  13. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  14. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  15. Biosecurity--The Bio-Link Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elaine A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Bio-Link, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology established with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Reports that Bio-Link, headquartered at City College of San Francisco, has created a national network and resource base for community colleges, industry, and others interested in biotechnology…

  16. Microorganisms interacting in a bio filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba-Avila, M. D.; Flores-Tene, F. J.; Moreno-Terrazas, R.; Ramirez-Lopez, E. M.

    2009-07-01

    Biofilm microorganisms developed on a bio filter support media allow the metabolism of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to carbon dioxide and water. VOCs are present in polluted gaseous streams for varied industrial activities. The main objective of this study was to identify the microorganisms present in the biofilm developed on a bio filter support media using molecular biology techniques. (Author)

  17. 76 FR 53631 - BioPreferred Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... biobased preferred procurement program (one part of the BioPreferred Program) is available on the Internet... reference Amend: to: And adding in its place: Sec. 2904.2, definition of ``Biobased part 2902 part 3201. content''. Sec. 2904.2, definition of part 2902 part 3201. ``BioPreferred Product''. Sec....

  18. Core ethical values: EuropaBio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    EuropaBio, the European Association for BioIndustries, represents 40 companies operating world wide and 14 national association (totaling around 600 small and medium-sized enterprises) involved in the research, development, testing, manufacturing, marketing, sales and distribution of biotechnology products and services in the fields of healthcare, agriculture, food and the environment.

  19. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  20. BIO::Phylo-phyloinformatic analysis using perl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Klaas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phyloinformatic analyses involve large amounts of data and metadata of complex structure. Collecting, processing, analyzing, visualizing and summarizing these data and metadata should be done in steps that can be automated and reproduced. This requires flexible, modular toolkits that can represent, manipulate and persist phylogenetic data and metadata as objects with programmable interfaces. Results This paper presents Bio::Phylo, a Perl5 toolkit for phyloinformatic analysis. It implements classes and methods that are compatible with the well-known BioPerl toolkit, but is independent from it (making it easy to install and features a richer API and a data model that is better able to manage the complex relationships between different fundamental data and metadata objects in phylogenetics. It supports commonly used file formats for phylogenetic data including the novel NeXML standard, which allows rich annotations of phylogenetic data to be stored and shared. Bio::Phylo can interact with BioPerl, thereby giving access to the file formats that BioPerl supports. Many methods for data simulation, transformation and manipulation, the analysis of tree shape, and tree visualization are provided. Conclusions Bio::Phylo is composed of 59 richly documented Perl5 modules. It has been deployed successfully on a variety of computer architectures (including various Linux distributions, Mac OS X versions, Windows, Cygwin and UNIX-like systems. It is available as open source (GPL software from http://search.cpan.org/dist/Bio-Phylo

  1. PacBio Sequencing and Its Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Rhoads; Kin Fai Au

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule, real-time sequencing developed by Pacific BioSciences offers longer read lengths than the second-generation sequencing (SGS) technologies, making it well-suited for unsolved problems in genome, transcriptome, and epigenetics research. The highly-contiguous de novo assemblies using PacBio sequencing can close gaps in current reference assemblies and characterize structural variation (SV) in personal genomes. With longer reads, we can sequence through extended repetitive regions and detect mutations, many of which are associated with dis-eases. Moreover, PacBio transcriptome sequencing is advantageous for the identification of gene isoforms and facilitates reliable discoveries of novel genes and novel isoforms of annotated genes, due to its ability to sequence full-length transcripts or fragments with significant lengths. Addition-ally, PacBio’s sequencing technique provides information that is useful for the direct detection of base modifications, such as methylation. In addition to using PacBio sequencing alone, many hybrid sequencing strategies have been developed to make use of more accurate short reads in conjunction with PacBio long reads. In general, hybrid sequencing strategies are more affordable and scalable especially for small-size laboratories than using PacBio Sequencing alone. The advent of PacBio sequencing has made available much information that could not be obtained via SGS alone.

  2. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  3. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  4. Spider Silk: Mother Nature's Bio-Superlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, James N.; Yan, Bing; Hawkins, Nicholas; Vollrath, Fritz; Wang, Zengbo

    2016-09-01

    This paper demonstrates a possible new microfiber bio near field lens that uses minor ampullate spider silk,spun from the Nephila edulis spider, to create a real time image of a surface using near field optical techniques. The microfiber bio lens is the world's first natural superlens created by exploring biological materials. The resolution of the surface image overcomes the diffraction limit, with the ability to resolve patterns at 100 nm under a standard white light source in reflection mode. This resolution offers further developments in superlens technology and paves the way for new bio optics.

  5. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  6. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  7. Wireless MEMs BioSensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  8. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  9. The NCBI BioSystems database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Lewis Y; Marchler-Bauer, Aron; Geer, Renata C; Han, Lianyi; He, Jane; He, Siqian; Liu, Chunlei; Shi, Wenyao; Bryant, Stephen H

    2010-01-01

    The NCBI BioSystems database, found at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosystems/, centralizes and cross-links existing biological systems databases, increasing their utility and target audience by integrating their pathways and systems into NCBI resources. This integration allows users of NCBI's Entrez databases to quickly categorize proteins, genes and small molecules by metabolic pathway, disease state or other BioSystem type, without requiring time-consuming inference of biological relationships from the literature or multiple experimental datasets.

  10. Increase of Bio-Gas Power Potential

    OpenAIRE

    V. Sednin; О. Kraetskaya; I. Prokoрenia

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a review of industrial technologies for obtaining gas-synthesis which is applicable for bio-gas enrichment process. Comparative characteristics are given in the paper. The paper thoroughly considers a technology of dry methane conversion as the most expedient variant recommended for the application in this case. The bio-gas enrichment carried out during its production expands possibilities and efficiency of its application.

  11. Lasers for bio-optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona, Alberto

    1992-03-01

    Lasers are being increasingly used in bioptics and in life sciences in general, especially for medical applications for therapy and diagnostics. Lasers are also broadly used in environment sciences to monitor atmospheric parameters and concentrations of molecular species of natural origin or coming from human activities such as the various kind of pollutants. The peculiar features of lasers exploited in these areas are mainly the capability of developing an action or performing a measurement without physical contact with the target and, if required, from a remote position with the assistance of suitable beam delivery systems such as telescopes, microscopes, or optical fibers. These features are directly related to the space and time coherence of the laser light and to the energy storage capability of the laser material which allow an extremely effective concentration of the beam energy in space, direction frequency, or time. A short description of the principle of operation and relevant properties of lasers are given and the most significant properties of the laser emission are briefly reviewed. Lasers for medical applications (mainly for therapy) will be mentioned, pointing out the specific property exploited for the various applications. Finally, examples of laser applications to the environmental sciences will be reported. A summary of the properties exploited in the various bio-optical applications is shown.

  12. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  13. tmBioC: improving interoperability of text-mining tools with BioC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mao, Yuqing; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The lack of interoperability among biomedical text-mining tools is a major bottleneck in creating more complex applications. Despite the availability of numerous methods and techniques for various text-mining tasks, combining different tools requires substantial efforts and time owing to heterogeneity and variety in data formats. In response, BioC is a recent proposal that offers a minimalistic approach to tool interoperability by stipulating minimal changes to existing tools and applications. BioC is a family of XML formats that define how to present text documents and annotations, and also provides easy-to-use functions to read/write documents in the BioC format. In this study, we introduce our text-mining toolkit, which is designed to perform several challenging and significant tasks in the biomedical domain, and repackage the toolkit into BioC to enhance its interoperability. Our toolkit consists of six state-of-the-art tools for named-entity recognition, normalization and annotation (PubTator) of genes (GenNorm), diseases (DNorm), mutations (tmVar), species (SR4GN) and chemicals (tmChem). Although developed within the same group, each tool is designed to process input articles and output annotations in a different format. We modify these tools and enable them to read/write data in the proposed BioC format. We find that, using the BioC family of formats and functions, only minimal changes were required to build the newer versions of the tools. The resulting BioC wrapped toolkit, which we have named tmBioC, consists of our tools in BioC, an annotated full-text corpus in BioC, and a format detection and conversion tool. Furthermore, through participation in the 2013 BioCreative IV Interoperability Track, we empirically demonstrate that the tools in tmBioC can be more efficiently integrated with each other as well as with external tools: Our experimental results show that using BioC reduces >60% in lines of code for text-mining tool integration. The tmBioC toolkit

  14. Bio-films and processes of bio-corrosion and bio-deterioration in oil-and gas-processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholodenko, V.P.; Irkhina, I.A.; Chugunov, V.A.; Rodin, V.B.; Zhigletsova, S.K.; Yermolenko, Z.M.; Rudavin, V.V. [State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Obolensk, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    As a rule, oil- and gas-processing equipment and pipelines are attacked by different microorganisms. Their vital ability determines processes of bio-deterioration and bio-corrosion that lead often to technological accidents and severe environmental contamination. Bio-films presenting a complex association of different microorganisms and their metabolites are responsible for most of damages. In this context, to study the role bio-films may play in processes of bio-damages and in efficacy of protective measures is important. We have developed method of culturing bio-films on the surface of metal coupons by using a natural microbial association isolated from oil-processing sites. Simple and informative methods of determining microbiological parameters of bio-films required to study bio-corrosion processes are also developed. In addition, a method of electron microscopic analysis of bio-films and pitting corrosion is offered. Using these methods, we conducted model experiments to determine the dynamics of corrosion processes depending on qualitative and quantitative composition of bio-films, aeration conditions and duration of the experiment. A harmful effect of soil bacteria and micro-mycetes on different pipeline coatings was also investigated. Experiments were conducted within 3-6 months and revealed degrading action of microorganisms. This was confirmed by axial tension testing of coatings. All these approaches will be used for further development of measures to protect gas- and oil-processing equipment and pipelines against bio-corrosion and bio-damages (first of all biocides). (authors)

  15. Bio-optofluidics and Bio-photonics: Programmable Phase Optics activities at DTU Fotonik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Pedersen, Finn

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micromanipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optica...... the BioPhotonics Workstation platform more photon efficient by studying the 3D distribution of the counter propagating beams and utilizing the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method for illuminating the applied spatial light modulators.......We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micromanipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...

  16. Bio-functionalization of biomedical metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, M; Chen, Y M; Biao, M N; Zhang, X D; Yang, B C

    2017-01-01

    Bio-functionalization means to endow biomaterials with bio-functions so as to make the materials or devices more suitable for biomedical applications. Traditionally, because of the excellent mechanical properties, the biomedical metals have been widely used in clinic. However, the utilized functions are basically supporting or fixation especially for the implantable devices. Nowadays, some new functions, including bioactivity, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, and so on, are introduced to biomedical metals. To realize those bio-functions on the metallic biomedical materials, surface modification is the most commonly used method. Surface modification, including physical and chemical methods, is an effective way to alter the surface morphology and composition of biomaterials. It can endow the biomedical metals with new surface properties while still retain the good mechanical properties of the bulk material. Having analyzed the ways of realizing the bio-functionalization, this article briefly summarized the bio-functionalization concepts of six hot spots in this field. They are bioactivity, bony tissue inducing, anti-microbial, anti-tumor, anticoagulation, and drug loading functions.

  17. BIOS、CMOS和BIOS SETUP程序

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海丽切木·阿不来提

    2004-01-01

    BIOS SETUP程序的任务是将硬件参数存放在BIOS参数存储器——CMOS中,CMOS需要电池供电来保存这些参数,以便于下次启动时使用.本文主要介绍了BIOS ROM的概念,BIOS的存放地点,BIOS的分类,BIOS主要内容,BIOS功能,CMOS RAM的概念,CMOS RAM的特点,CMOS RAM的内容,BIOS SETUP程序,SETUP存放地点,SETUP的类型,进入SETUP程序的方法和SETUP的设置等内容.

  18. Upscaling of Bio-mediated Soil Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. DeJong; B. C. Martinez; B. M. Mortensen; D. C. Nelson; J. T. Waller; M. H. Weil; T. R. Ginn; T. Weathers; T. Barkouki; Y. Fujita; G. Redden; C. Hunt; D. Major; B. Tunyu

    2009-10-01

    As demand for soil improvement continues to increase, new, sustainable, and innocuous methods are needed to alter the mechanical properties of soils. Recent research has demonstrated the potential of bio-mediated soil improvement for geotechnical applications (DeJong et al. 2006, Whiffin et al. 2007). Upscaling the bio-mediated treatment process for in situ implementation presents a number of challenges to be addressed, including soil and pore fluid interactions, bioaugmentation versus biostimulation of microbial communities, controlled distribution of mediated calcite precipitation, and permanence of the cementation. Current studies are utilizing large-scale laboratory experiments, non-destructive geophysical measurements, and modeling, to develop an optimized and predictable bio-mediated treatment method.

  19. The 3rd DBCLS BioHackathon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Wilkinson, Mark D; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    together representatives from public databases, analytical tool providers, and cyber-infrastructure researchers to jointly tackle important challenges in the area of in silico biological research. RESULTS: The theme of BioHackathon 2010 was the 'Semantic Web', and all attendees gathered with the shared......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: BioHackathon 2010 was the third in a series of meetings hosted by the Database Center for Life Sciences (DBCLS) in Tokyo, Japan. The overall goal of the BioHackathon series is to improve the quality and accessibility of life science research data on the Web by bringing...... goal of producing Semantic Web data from their respective resources, and/or consuming or interacting those data using their tools and interfaces. We discussed on topics including guidelines for designing semantic data and interoperability of resources. We consequently developed tools and clients...

  20. BioSense 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Kelley G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To familiarize public health practitioners with the BioSense 2.0 application and its use in all hazard surveillance. Introduction BioSense 2.0 protects the health of the American people by providing timely insight into the health of communities, regions, and the nation by offering a variety of features to improve data collection, standardization, storage, analysis, and collaboration. BioSense 2.0 is the result of a partnership between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the public health community to track the health and well-being of communities across the country. In 2010, the BioSense Program began a redesign effort to improve features such as centralized data mining and addressing concerns that the system could not meet its original objective to provide early warning or detect local outbreaks. Methods Using the latest technology, BioSense 2.0 integrates current health data shared by health departments from a variety of sources to provide insight on the health of communities and the country. By getting more information faster, local, state, and federal public health partners can detect and respond to more outbreaks and health events more quickly. From flu outbreaks to car accidents, BioSense 2.0 provides the critical data, information, and tools that public health officials need to better understand and address health problems at the local, state, regional, and national levels. Also, by knowing what is happening across local borders, public health professionals can anticipate potential health problems and respond effectively to protect the health of all people. The demonstration will include a basic overview of the BioSense 2.0 application and the functionality available to public health departments and their data providers. The presenter will also show an example of how BioSense 2.0 can be used in a real-world public health example. Conclusions Over the past two years much has been accomplished during the redesign effort. Bio

  1. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  2. Dry electrode bio-potential recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano; Bifulco, Paolo; McEwan, Alistair; Nasehi Tehrani, Joubin; Calvo, Rafael A; Romano, Maria; Ruffo, Mariano; Shephard, Richard; Cesarelli, Mario; Jin, Craig; Mohamed, Armin; van Schaik, André

    2010-01-01

    As wireless bio-medical long term monitoring moves towards personal monitoring it demands very high input impedance systems capable to extend the reading of bio-signal during the daily activities offering a kind of "stress free", convenient connection, with no need for skin preparation. In particular we highlight the development and broad applications of our own circuits for wearable bio-potential sensor systems enabled by the use of an FET based amplifier circuit with sufficiently high impedance to allow the use of passive dry electrodes which overcome the significant barrier of gel based contacts. In this paper we present the ability of dry electrodes in long term monitoring of ECG, EEG and fetal ECG.

  3. Bio-methanol from Bio-oil Reforming Syngas Using Dual-reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tong-qi Ye; Shi-zhi Yan; Yong Xu; Song-bai Qiu; Yong Liu; Quan-xin Li

    2011-01-01

    A dual-reactor,assembled with the on-line syngas conditioning and methanol synthesis,was successfully applied for high efficient conversion of rich CO2 bio-oil derived syngas to bio-methanol.In the forepart catalyst bed reactor,the catalytic conversion can effectively adjust the rich-CO2 crude bio-syngas into the CO-containing bio-syngas using the CuZnAlZr catalyst.After the on-line syngas conditioning at 450 ℃,the CO2/CO ratio in the biosyngas significantly decreased from 6.3 to 1.2.In the rearward catalyst bed reactor,the conversion of the conditioned bio-syngas to bio-methanol shows the maximum yield about 1.21 kg/(kgcatal·h) MeOH with a methanol selectivity of 97.9% at 260 ℃ and 5.05 MPa using conventional CuZnAl catalyst,which is close to the level typically obtained in the conventional methanol synthesis process using natural gas.The influences of temperature,pressure and space velocity on the bio-methanol synthesis were also investigated in detail.

  4. Pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust: Characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralı, Uğur; Yavuzel, Nazan; Şensöz, Sevgi

    2016-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust was performed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. The operational variables were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (400-600°C), heating rate (10-50°Cmin(-1)) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150cm(3)min(-1)). Physicochemical and thermogravimetric characterizations of hornbeam sawdust were performed. The characteristics of bio-oil and bio-char were analyzed on the basis of various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, 1H NMR, SEM, BET. Higher heating value, density and kinematic viscosity of the bio-oil with maximum yield of 35.28% were 23.22MJkg(-1), 1289kgm(-3) and 0.6mm(2)s(-1), respectively. The bio-oil with relatively high fuel potential can be obtained from the pyrolysis of the hornbeam sawdust and the bio-char with a calorific value of 32.88MJkg(-1) is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment.

  5. Bio-microfluidics: biomaterials and biomimetic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domachuk, Peter; Tsioris, Konstantinos; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2010-01-12

    Bio-microfluidics applies biomaterials and biologically inspired structural designs (biomimetics) to microfluidic devices. Microfluidics, the techniques for constraining fluids on the micrometer and sub-micrometer scale, offer applications ranging from lab-on-a-chip to optofluidics. Despite this wealth of applications, the design of typical microfluidic devices imparts relatively simple, laminar behavior on fluids and is realized using materials and techniques from silicon planar fabrication. On the other hand, highly complex microfluidic behavior is commonplace in nature, where fluids with nonlinear rheology flow through chaotic vasculature composed from a range of biopolymers. In this Review, the current state of bio-microfluidic materials, designs and applications are examined. Biopolymers enable bio-microfluidic devices with versatile functionalization chemistries, flexibility in fabrication, and biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric materials such as alginate, collagen, chitosan, and silk are being explored as bulk and film materials for bio-microfluidics. Hydrogels offer options for mechanically functional devices for microfluidic systems such as self-regulating valves, microlens arrays and drug release systems, vital for integrated bio-microfluidic devices. These devices including growth factor gradients to study cell responses, blood analysis, biomimetic capillary designs, and blood vessel tissue culture systems, as some recent examples of inroads in the field that should lead the way in a new generation of microfluidic devices for bio-related needs and applications. Perhaps one of the most intriguing directions for the future will be fully implantable microfluidic devices that will also integrate with existing vasculature and slowly degrade to fully recapitulate native tissue structure and function, yet serve critical interim functions, such as tissue maintenance, drug release, mechanical support, and cell delivery.

  6. ¿Bioética narrativa o narrativa bioética?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los inicios de la bioética, se presenta y agudiza el conflicto entre biomedicina científica basada en evidencia y la bioética preocupada de valores personales y participativos expresados en el consentimiento informado. La medicina terapéutica y la investigación biomédica propician la participación autónoma de pacientes y probandos, la cual se expresa en la narrativa que destaca los valores existenciales de cada persona y el contexto social donde vive. Las humanidades médicas son convocadas para sensibilizar a los profesionales de la salud en sus tareas. Su influencia por elevar los elementos narrativos en la comunicación biomédica ha sido insuficiente y de influencia decreciente, su aporte ancilar a la bioética narrativa no ha logrado evitar un academicismo extremo y una irrelevancia social de la disciplina bioética que está en riesgo de ser marginada, desoída y precipitada en una crisis de validación. Sugiere este artículo atender fuentes no académicas que se muestran plenamente competentes y atractivas para encarar los problemas que la bioética no ha sabido resolver, destacando la publicación de novelas ficcionales que abordan temas bioéticos de forma amena y sistemática, que impactan más allá de las deliberaciones anémicas de la bioética: The Children Act (I. McKewan, 2014 y Reparar a los vivo (M. de Kerangal, M., 2015 son presentadas como propuesta de inaugurar la narrativa bioética, que es el relato ficcional de temas bioéticos.

  7. State and parameter estimation in bio processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, M.; Roux, G.; Dahhou, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    A major difficulty in monitoring and control of bio-processes is the lack of reliable and simple sensors for following the evolution of the main state variables and parameters such as biomass, substrate, product, growth rate, etc... In this article, an adaptive estimation algorithm is proposed to recover the state and parameters in bio-processes. This estimator utilizes the physical process model and the reference model approach. Experimentations concerning estimation of biomass and product concentrations and specific growth rate, during batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation processes are presented. The results show the performance of this adaptive estimation approach. (authors) 12 refs.

  8. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  9. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  10. Research on Miniature Hexapod Bio-robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper described the structure and control of a new kind of miniature hexapod bio-robot, analyzed the moving principle of the robot. The robot is based on the principle of bionics, its structure is simple, design novel, unique. It can move forwards and backwards. The external dimensions of bio-robot is: length 30 mm,width 40 mm, height 20 mm, weight 6.3 g. Some tests about the model robot were made. The experimental results show that the robot has good mobility.

  11. The fairy tale of bio-ethanol. Het sprookje van de bio-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverloo, W.A. (Vakgroep Levensmiddelentechnologie, Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Netherlands))

    1992-03-01

    Agricultural products can be converted into bio-ethanol. Proponents of the bio-ethanol production however use inaccurate arguments with regard to the comparison of the prices per liter for bio-ethanol and petrol instead of using the net heating value of the fuels. Also their basic assumptions concerning the energy efficiency or the energy balances or the carbon dioxide emissions are incorrect. The production of biomass for energy does not serve any other societal interest than subsidized employment for agricultural farmers. 4 tabs., 9 refs.

  12. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Hu, Jianli; Hart, Todd R.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  13. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  14. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    OpenAIRE

    L. Cardon; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of products, (2) value communication between stakeholders in extended value chains, and (3) creating an integrated development approach for optimized bio-based products. Most existing models for valu...

  15. [Implantable loop recorder BioMonitor 2 (Biotronik)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalter, Thorsten; Jilek, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    The implantable loop recorder BioMonitor 2 is available with an emphasis on syncope and one on detection of atrial tachycardias. The BioMonitor 2 can be easily implanted. The BioMonitor 2 pilot study showed a high and over time stable signal and the telemetric performance was above average.

  16. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  17. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    identied as a prospective HDO catalyst, the stability and resistance toward bio-oil impurities was investigated in a high pressure gas and liquid continuous ow setup with bio-oil model compounds and compared to the more traditional hydrotreating catalysts Mo2C/ZrO2 and Ni-MoS2/ZrO2. The investigated bio...

  19. 78 FR 39327 - Bio Diagnostic International; Denial of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Doc No: 2013-15704] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration [Docket No. 11-63] Bio... of Diversion Control, Drug Enforcement Administration, issued an Order to Show Cause to Bio... application of Bio Diagnostic International, Inc., for a DEA Certificate of Registration as a distributor...

  20. Bio-politics Reflexes” or something about what happens with Bio-politics today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorella Manolache

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure dictated by Western modernity movements, life finally enters within strategic (long term relationships circuit. The present study establishes that, bio-politics and bio-power denounces the paradigm of politicization of the biological life. Foucault’s late writings confirm the subordination of bio-politics to the technologies of power, which integrate / reduce life to biological continuity of the species, to the objectification of individual body or investigation of self-techniques, that would allow (beyond the corset of the institutional, the (re affirmation of subjectivity as a force or a form of resistance. The present reactivation of the bio model establishes that we cannot evade Foucault’s view, in which, the biology- meeting – politics confirms that, none of the terms no longer retains its original meaning.

  1. BioNet Digital Communications Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Kevin; Kuzminsky, Sebastian; Williams, Shea

    2010-01-01

    BioNet v2 is a peer-to-peer middleware that enables digital communication devices to talk to each other. It provides a software development framework, standardized application, network-transparent device integration services, a flexible messaging model, and network communications for distributed applications. BioNet is an implementation of the Constellation Program Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) Interoperability specification, given in CxP 70022-01. The system architecture provides the necessary infrastructure for the integration of heterogeneous wired and wireless sensing and control devices into a unified data system with a standardized application interface, providing plug-and-play operation for hardware and software systems. BioNet v2 features a naming schema for mobility and coarse-grained localization information, data normalization within a network-transparent device driver framework, enabling of network communications to non-IP devices, and fine-grained application control of data subscription band width usage. BioNet directly integrates Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) as a communications technology, enabling networked communications with assets that are only intermittently connected including orbiting relay satellites and planetary rover vehicles.

  2. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  3. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...

  4. Immersive Protein Gaming for Bio Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yiyu; Lu, Baifang; Zheng, Jianmin; Li, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Games have long been used as a tool for teaching important subject matter, from concept building to problem solving. Through fun learning, students may further develop their curiosities and interest in their study. This article addresses the issue of learning biomolecular structures by virtual reality gaming. A bio edutainment solution featuring…

  5. Harvesting of microalgae by bio-flocculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.; Bosma, R.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy input for harvesting biomass makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible. A novel harvesting method is presented as a cost and energy efficient alternative: the bio-flocculation by using one flocculating microalga to concentrate the non-flocculati

  6. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  7. BioMEMS in drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuxoll, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The drive to design micro-scale medical devices which can be reliably and uniformly mass produced has prompted many researchers to adapt processing technologies from the semiconductor industry. By operating at a much smaller length scale, the resulting biologically-oriented microelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) provide many opportunities for improved drug delivery: Low-dose vaccinations and painless transdermal drug delivery are possible through precisely engineered microneedles which pierce the skin's barrier layer without reaching the nerves. Low-power, low-volume BioMEMS pumps and reservoirs can be implanted where conventional pumping systems cannot. Drug formulations with geometrically complex, extremely uniform micro- and nano-particles are formed through micromolding or with microfluidic devices. This review describes these BioMEMS technologies and discusses their current state of implementation. As these technologies continue to develop and capitalize on their simpler integration with other MEMS-based systems such as computer controls and telemetry, BioMEMS' impact on the field of drug delivery will continue to increase.

  8. A Review of BioTutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhrkopf, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A review of BioTutor which is software to accompany the third edition of Neil Campbell's textbook, "Biology," is provided. The review includes a brief description of the software and a discussion of good and bad features of the software. In the closing words, the reviewer expresses a considerable amount of concern regarding the quality of this…

  9. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides. Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  10. Bio-antioxidant of Anthraquinone Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI,Jian; LI,Zhao-Long; HONG,Xiao-Yin

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Rubiaceae family is well known for containing anthraquinones. More specifically, lapachol and its analogues are known to possess antitumor, antibiotic, antimalarial and antiulceric activities.[1] Several report indicated that some quinones containing OH in its structure were found to have higher bio-activity than quinines lacking the OH group.

  11. BioProject Number PRJNA230524

    Science.gov (United States)

    This BioProject consists of raw genotyping-by-sequencing data collected in 96-plex format on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system. There were four to six experimental replicates for each of the 46 plants. The development of tens of thousands of mapped SNP markers in wild tomato species was hig...

  12. Bio-Degradable Plastics Impact On Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.SUBRAMANI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biodegradable polymers and more particularly that of polymers obtained from renewable resources such as the polysaccharides (e.g., starch have long been recognized. However, these biodegradable polymers have been largely used in some applications (e.g., food industry and have not found extensive applications in the packaging industries to replace conventional plastic materials, although they could be an interesting way to overcome the limitation of the petrochemical resources in the future. The fossil fuel and gas could be partially replaced by greener agricultural sources, which should participate in the reduction of CO2 emissions. Bio-based and biodegradable plastics can form the basis for environmentally preferable, sustainable alternative to current materials based exclusively on petroleum feed stocks. These bio-based materials offer value in the sustainability/life-cycle equation by being a part of the biological carbon cycle, especially as it relates to carbon-based polymeric materials such as plastics, water soluble polymers and other carbon based products like lubricants, biodiesel, and detergents. Identification and quantification of bio based content uses radioactive C-14 signature. Biopolymers are generally capable of being utilized by living matter (biodegraded, and so can be disposed in safe and ecologically sound ways through disposal processes (waste management like composting, soil application, and biological wastewater treatment. Single use, short-life, disposable products can be engineered to be bio-based and biodegradable.

  13. Taking a view on bio-ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jupp; A. Gibson; J. Malone; H. Parkinson; R. Stevens

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for separating knowledge representation from application specific views that are currently often conflated within bio-ontologies. Many ontologies contain information for two tasks; one to represent the knowledge of some field of interest and another to support an application t

  14. Catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, R.; Dahl, S.; Skjøth-Rasmussen, M.S.;

    2012-01-01

    in an early stage of development and far from industrial application mainly due the short lifetime of the catalysts, but there are also other aspects of the process which need clarification. Future investigations in SR of bio-oil could be to find a sulfur tolerant and stable catalyst, or to investigate...

  15. Pathogenic fungi and Bio-control agents: Competitive bio-assay research

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Fungi of the genus Trichoderma have a track record of being antagonist to quite of a number of agricultural important pathogens. Trichoderma have some unique characteristics that make it scientifically proven and suitable bio-control agents against varieties of pathogenic organism infecting economic food crops. Trichoderma has the advantage of being environment friendly and not hazardous to the health of human beings, livestock, soil and environment. Competitive bio-assay experiment was carri...

  16. BioProject and BioSample databases at NCBI: facilitating capture and organization of metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Tanya; Clark, Karen; Gevorgyan, Robert; Gorelenkov, Vyacheslav; Gribov, Eugene; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Kimelman, Michael; Pruitt, Kim D; Resenchuk, Sergei; Tatusova, Tatiana; Yaschenko, Eugene; Ostell, James

    2012-01-01

    As the volume and complexity of data sets archived at NCBI grow rapidly, so does the need to gather and organize the associated metadata. Although metadata has been collected for some archival databases, previously, there was no centralized approach at NCBI for collecting this information and using it across databases. The BioProject database was recently established to facilitate organization and classification of project data submitted to NCBI, EBI and DDBJ databases. It captures descriptive information about research projects that result in high volume submissions to archival databases, ties together related data across multiple archives and serves as a central portal by which to inform users of data availability. Concomitantly, the BioSample database is being developed to capture descriptive information about the biological samples investigated in projects. BioProject and BioSample records link to corresponding data stored in archival repositories. Submissions are supported by a web-based Submission Portal that guides users through a series of forms for input of rich metadata describing their projects and samples. Together, these databases offer improved ways for users to query, locate, integrate and interpret the masses of data held in NCBI's archival repositories. The BioProject and BioSample databases are available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample, respectively.

  17. Alkaline phosphatase immobilization onto Bio-Gide(R) and Bio-Oss(R) for periodontal and bone regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Plachokova, A.S.; Geenen, C.; Meijer, G.J.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) immobilization onto Bio-Gide((R)) in vitro, and to study the in vivo performance of ALP-enriched Bio-Gide((R)) and/or Bio-Oss((R)) with the purpose to enhance periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alkaline phosphatase ALP was immob

  18. Bio fuels. A comparative analysis; Biokraftstoffe. Eine vergleichende Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Henke, Jan; Klepper, Gernot

    2009-07-01

    The market for bio fuels is subject to very high dynamics worldwide. Due to the extreme rise of the prices of raw materials as well as due to the retrogressive tax reductions for bio fuels in Germany one hardly invests in bio fuels. Substantial changes are experienced in the markets for fossil raw materials. The prices for agrarian raw material used in this contribution originate from the years 2006 and 2007. The effects of clearly higher oil prices on the bio fuel market are described. The investigation under consideration also deals with criteria of sustainability. The contribution of the individual bio fuels to the reduction of greenhouse gases is analyzed. The costs resulting from this are numerated. This enables a well-established comparison in which less representative bio fuels such as bio methane, BtL fuels and cellulose ethanol also are included.

  19. Combustion characteristics and kinetics of bio-oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia ZHANG; Zhaoping ZHONG; Yaji HUANG

    2009-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of bio-oils derived from rice husk and corn were studied by thermogravimetry analysis. According to the thermo-gravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) curves of bio-oils in air and nitrogen atmosphere, we analyzed the combustion characteristics of different kinds of bio-oils in different atmospheres and worked out the combustion kinetics parameters of the bio-oil, providing reliable base data for the burning of bio-oil. The thermogravimetry indicated that the combustion process of bio-oil was divided into three stages. At the same time, the combustion process can be described by different order reaction models, and with the method of Coats-Redfern, the activation energy and frequency factor of different kinds of bio-oils were obtained.

  20. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

  1. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  2. Stomatal Density and Bio-water Saving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Bio-water saving is to increase water use efficiency of crops or crop yield per unit of water input. Plant water use efficiency is determined by photosynthesis and transpiration, for both of which stomata are crucial. Stomata are pores on leaf epidermis for both water and carbon dioxide fluxes that are controlled by two major factors: stomatal behavior and density. Stomatal behavior has been the focus of intensive research, while less attention has been paid to stomatal density. Recently, a number of genes controlling stomatal development have been identified. This review summarizes the recent progress on the genes regulating stomatal density, and discusses the role of stomatal density in plant water use efficiency and the possibility to increase plant water use efficiency, hence bio-water saving by genetically manipulating stomatal density.

  3. BioSAR Airborne Biomass Sensing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Johnson, P.

    2007-05-24

    This CRADA was developed to enable ORNL to assist American Electronics, Inc. test a new technology--BioSAR. BioSAR is a an airborne, low frequency (80-120 MHz {approx} FM radio frequencies) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology which was designed and built for NASA by ZAI-Amelex under Patrick Johnson's direction. At these frequencies, leaves and small branches are nearly transparent and the majority of the energy reflected from the forest and returned to the radar is from the tree trunks. By measuring the magnitude of the back scatter, the volume of the tree trunk and therefore the biomass of the trunks can be inferred. The instrument was successfully tested on tropical rain forests in Panama. Patrick Johnson, with American Electronics, Inc received a Phase II SBIR grant from DOE Office of Climate Change to further test and refine the instrument. Mr Johnson sought ORNL expertise in measuring forest biomass in order for him to further validate his instrument. ORNL provided ground truth measurements of forest biomass at three locations--the Oak Ridge Reservation, Weyerhaeuser Co. commercial pine plantations in North Carolina, and American Energy and Power (AEP) Co. hardwood forests in southern Ohio, and facilitated flights over these forests. After Mr. Johnson processed the signal data from BioSAR instrument, the processed data were given to ORNL and we attempted to derive empirical relationships between the radar signals and the ground truth forest biomass measurements using standard statistical techniques. We were unsuccessful in deriving such relationships. Shortly before the CRADA ended, Mr Johnson discovered that FM signal from local radio station broadcasts had interfered with the back scatter measurements such that the bulk of the signal received by the BioSAR instrument was not backscatter from the radar but rather was local radio station signals.

  4. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products.

  5. Beclometasone oral--DOR BioPharma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    orBec is an oral enteric-coated tablet formulation of the corticosteroid beclometasone, which has been developed by Enteron Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of Corporate Technology Development (now DOR BioPharma). orBec is being developed for the treatment of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and an NDA has been filed in the US. DOR BioPharma has also filed an MAA in Europe for the same indication.orBec is designed to reduce the need for systemic immunosuppressive drugs, thereby improving the outcome of bone marrow and stem cell transplantation.DOR BioPharma may seek a marketing partner in the US and elsewhere for orBec in GVHD and will seek a partner for other potential indications of the drug.In December 2001, Corporate Technology Development was acquired by Endorex Corporation (now DOR BioPharma). In October 1998, Enteron Pharmaceuticals (DOR BioPharma) entered into an exclusive, worldwide, royalty bearing license agreement with George B. McDonald, MD, including the right to grant sublicenses, for the rights to the intellectual property and know-how relating to orBec. In January 2007, DOR BioPharma received $US3 million under a non-binding letter of intent from Sigma-Tau Pharmaceuticals. The agreement grants Sigma-Tau an exclusive right to negotiate terms and conditions for a possible business transaction or strategic alliance regarding orBec and potentially other DOR pipeline compounds until 1 March 2007. Under the terms of the agreement, Sigma-Tau purchased $US1 million of DOR's common stock, with an additional $US2 million paid in cash. If no agreement is reached by 1 March 2007, DOR will return the $US2 million to Sigma-Tau within 60 days. DOR BioPharma received an unsolicited proposal from Cell Therapeutics, Inc. to acquire DOR BioPharma in January 2007. Because of the non-binding agreement already signed with Sigma-Tau, DOR BioPharma's board of directors cannot consider Cell Therapeutics' merger proposal at this time. orBec has been filed for

  6. Engineering tissue with BioMEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2011-11-01

    In summary, microfluidic-BioMEMS platforms are increasingly contributing to tissue engineering in many different ways. First, the accurate control of the cell environment in settings suitable for cell screening and with imaging compatibility is greatly advancing our ability to optimize cell sources for a variety of tissue-engineering applications. Second, the microfluidic technology is ideal for the formation of perfusable networks, either to study their stability and maturation or to use these networks as templates for engineering vascularized tissues. Third, the approaches based on microfluidic and BioMEMS devices enable engineering and the study of minimally functional modules of complex tissues, such as liver sinusoid, kidney nephron, and lung bronchiole. This brief article highlighted some of the unique advantages of this elegant technology using representative examples of tissue-engineering research. We focused on some of the universal needs of the area of tissue engineering: tissue vascularization, faithful recapitulation in vitro of functional units of our tissues and organs, and predictable selection and differentiation of stem cells that are being addressed using the power and versatility of microfluidic-BioMEMS platforms.

  7. Bio Gas Oil Production from Waste Lard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenő Hancsók

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides the second generations bio fuels, one of the most promising products is the bio gas oil, which is a high iso-paraffin containing fuel, which could be produced by the catalytic hydrogenation of different triglycerides. To broaden the feedstock of the bio gas oil the catalytic hydrogenation of waste lard over sulphided NiMo/Al2O3 catalyst, and as the second step, the isomerization of the produced normal paraffin rich mixture (intermediate product over Pt/SAPO-11 catalyst was investigated. It was found that both the hydrogenation and the decarboxylation/decarbonylation oxygen removing reactions took place but their ratio depended on the process parameters (T = 280–380∘C, P = 20–80 bar, LHSV = 0.75–3.0 h−1 and H2/lard ratio: 600 Nm3/m3. In case of the isomerization at the favourable process parameters (T = 360–370∘C, P = 40 –50 bar, LHSV = 1.0 h−1 and H2/hydrocarbon ratio: 400 Nm3/m3 mainly mono-branching isoparaffins were obtained. The obtained products are excellent Diesel fuel blending components, which are practically free of heteroatoms.

  8. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  9. Bio-fuels for the gas turbine: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, K.K. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Medi-Caps Institute of Technology and Management, Pigdamber, Rau, Indore (M.P.) (India); Rehman, A.; Sarviya, R.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, MANIT, Bhopal (M.P.) (India)

    2010-12-15

    Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. (author)

  10. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  11. Solid electrolyte fuel cell. Kotai denkaishitsu nenryo denchi sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, R. (Yuasa Battery Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1992-09-22

    The honeycomb structure has been proposed for the solid electrolyte fuel cell to increase the output power of the cell. However, the honeycomb structure has a shortcoming or difficulty in formation of air electrode, fuel electrode and solid electrolyte membrane as well as in fabrication of air manifold and fuel manifold. This invention solves the problem. In the solid electrolyte cell whose power generation component is composed by laminating the solid electrolyte membrane and the air electrode on the surface of the hollow polygonal column shape fuel electrode, the power generation component and the current conductive component are put together by inserting the metal oxide between the air electrode on the surface of the power generation component and the surface of the current conductive component. With this structure, the parallel connection of a number of solid electrolyte fuel cells by means of electro-conductive component metal oxide in the current conductive component can be achieved, resulting an increase in output power. Examples of the said metal oxide are LaMnO3, LaCoO3, CaMnO3 or LaCrO3 doped with Sr or Ca. 9 figs.

  12. Fuel cell power generation system. Nenryo denchi hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M.; Shiba, Y.

    1993-06-11

    It is general to fabricate the primary cooling water system including the fuel cell main body using corrosion resistant stainless steel, while the secondary cooling system including absorption type freezer is made of carbon steel. For this structure, returning the cooling water of the secondary cooling system to the primary cooling system can cause the corrosion of the primary cooling system. That is, the water of inferior quality in the secondary system can corrode the primary system including the fuel cell. This invention solves the problem. The fuel cell bypass which is branched from the fuel cell cooling water inlet, detours the fuel cell, and it is connected to the water-vapor separator installed to the fuel cell. And the heat exchanger is installed at any of fuel cooling water outlet line, fuel cell cooling water inlet line, or fuel cell bypass line. With this structure, recovering the heat generated during the power generation by the fuel cell at the secondary side of the heat exchanger can be achieved while separating the primary and secondary cooling water. So that the trouble of fuel cell operation caused by the contamination of the primary cooling water with the secondary cooling water which contains corrosive impurities can be avoided. 6 figs.

  13. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasar Habib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG. Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 oC at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG, Elemental Analyzer (E.A and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 oC (53 and 37wt% bio-oil from wheat and barley SG. Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460oC, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals.

  14. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...... of complex terms appearing in the text sources. Along with logical propositions, the system applies a semantic graph representation facilitating calculation of bio-pathways. More generally, the system aords means of query answering appealing to general and domain specic inference rules....

  15. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer;

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...... of complex terms appearing in the text sources. Along with logical propositions, the system applies a semantic graph representation facilitating calculation of bio-pathways. More generally, the system aords means of query answering appealing to general and domain specic inference rules....

  16. ¿Bioética narrativa o narrativa bioética?

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Kottow

    2016-01-01

    Desde los inicios de la bioética, se presenta y agudiza el conflicto entre biomedicina científica basada en evidencia y la bioética preocupada de valores personales y participativos expresados en el consentimiento informado. La medicina terapéutica y la investigación biomédica propician la participación autónoma de pacientes y probandos, la cual se expresa en la narrativa que destaca los valores existenciales de cada persona y el contexto social donde vive. Las humanidades médicas son convoca...

  17. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  18. Prototyping Bio-Nanorobots using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi, Mustapha; Sharma, Gaurav; Ferreira, A.; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920); International audience; This paper presents a molecular mechanics study using a molecular dynamics software (NAMD) coupled to virtual reality (VR) techniques for intuitive Bio-NanoRobotic prototyping. Using simulated Bio-Nano environments in VR, the operator can design and characterize through physical simulation and 3-D visualization the behavior of Bio-NanoRobotic components and structures. The mai...

  19. Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas F. Garrison; Amanda Murawski; Rafael L. Quirino

    2016-01-01

    A variety of renewable starting materials, such as sugars and polysaccharides, vegetable oils, lignin, pine resin derivatives, and proteins, have so far been investigated for the preparation of bio-based polymers. Among the various sources of bio-based feedstock, vegetable oils are one of the most widely used starting materials in the polymer industry due to their easy availability, low toxicity, and relative low cost. Another bio-based plastic of great interest is poly(lactic acid) (PLA), wi...

  20. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jaromsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  1. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    OpenAIRE

    V. N. Jaromsky; E. I. Mihnevich

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  2. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal...... muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed no osteoinduction or osteoconduction in connection with sintered or unsintered Bio-Oss. A foreign body reaction was observed around both forms....

  3. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotations. We extend BioC to Perl, Python, Go and Ruby. We used SWIG to extend the C++ implementation for Perl and one Python implementation. A second Python implementation and the Ruby implementation use native data structures and libraries. BioC is also implemented in the Google language Go. BioC modules are functional in all of these languages, which can facilitate text mining tasks. BioC implementations are freely available through the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/

  4. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  5. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of "bio-objects" and the process we call "bio-objectification." This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific.

  6. Assimilation of Bio-Optical Properties into Coupled Physical, Bio-Optical Coastal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    analysis (updated) fields for the bio-optical model state variables are derived from: Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8724 87240E-3 Downloaded From: http...proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 07/11/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms ),XY(XX fofa HK −+= aX fX oY (1) where is vector of the

  7. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  8. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  9. Biot Savart Law integrator BioSaw

    CERN Document Server

    Äkäslompolo, Simppa; Kurki-Suonio, Taina

    2015-01-01

    This contribution documents the methods used in the BioSaw code. The code is inteded to be a flexible tool for calculating magnetic fields due to coils in magnetic confinement fusion devices. It assumes the conductors are infinitesimally thin and can be described as either point sequences or circular coils. The code can calculate both the magnetic field as well as the vector potential due to the coils. The fields can be reduced very near the coils to avoid singular behaviour caused by the thin conductor approximation.

  10. Bioraffinerie and Knowledge Based BioEconomy

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    La question de la transition vers un paradigme de l′usage des ressources renouvelables se traduit par des efforts particuliers de mobilisation de la recherche ; cette mobilisation se déploie dans des domaines divers (énergie solaire, éolienne, substituts du carbone fossile par du carbone renouvelable en énergie, production de carburants liquides et chimie). La volonté de substitution liée à cet effort de production de carbone renouvelable conduit à s′intéresser au domaine spécifique de la bio...

  11. Bio-energy status document 2012; Statusdocument bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.L.; Van Grinsven, A.H.; Bergsma, G.C.; Croezen, H.C.

    2013-05-15

    In 2012 bio-energy contributed over 71 PJ to the Dutch energy supply, a rise of almost 2 PJ over 2011. This means that 75% of the renewable energy consumed in the Netherlands is now derived from biomass. The growth is due mainly to the increase in the mandatory biotransport fuel percentage from 4.25% to 4.5%. The use of energy from 'other biomass combustion' (incl. paper sludge, green waste and chicken excrement) recovered to the level of 2010, following a marked drop in 2011 due to plant maintenance, termination of the MEP ('Environmental Quality of Power Generation') subsidy scheme and high biomass prices. At large power stations there was a considerable decrease in co-incineration of biomass because of incidents (a fire at the Nijmegen coal-fired plant) and a maintenance backlog (at the Amer power station). These are some of the results reported in the 'Bio-energy status document 2012', prepared by CE Delft for NL Agency. In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] De bijdrage van bio-energie aan de Nederlandse energievoorziening bedroeg in 2012 ruim 71 PJ, een stijging van bijna 2 PJ ten opzichte van 2011. Daarmee is 75% van het verbruik van hernieuwbare energie in Nederland afkomstig van bio-energie. De stijging wordt vooral veroorzaakt door de oplopende bijmengplicht van biotransportbrandstoffen van 4,25% naar 4,5%. Verbruik van energie uit 'overige biomassaverbranding' (o.a. papierslib, groenafval en kippenmest) herstelde zicht tot het niveau van 2010, na een forse daling in 2011 door onderhoud aan installaties, afloop van MEP-subsidies en hoge prijzen van biomassa. Het bij- en meestoken van biomassa in grote elektriciteitscentrales daalde juist aanzienlijk door calamiteiten en uitloop van onderhoud (brand kolencentrale bij Nijmegen

  12. BioDARA: Data Summarization Approach to Extracting Bio-Medical Structuring Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Kheau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Due to the ever growing amount of biomedical datasets stored in multiple tables, Information Extraction (IE from these datasets is increasingly recognized as one of the crucial technologies in bioinformatics. However, for IE to be practically applicable, adaptability of a system is crucial, considering extremely diverse demands in biomedical IE application. One should be able to extract a set of hidden patterns from these biomedical datasets at low cost. Approach: In this study, a new method is proposed, called Bio-medical Data Aggregation for Relational Attributes (BioDARA, for automatic structuring information extraction for biomedical datasets. BioDARA summarizes biomedical data stored in multiple tables in order to facilitate data modeling efforts in a multi-relational setting. BioDARA has the advantages or capabilities to transform biomedical data stored in multiple tables or databases into a Vector Space model, summarize biomedical data using the Information Retrieval theory and finally extract frequent patterns that describe the characteristics of these biomedical datasets. Results: the results show that data summarization performed by DARA, can be beneficial in summarizing biomedical datasets in a complex multi-relational environment, in which biomedical datasets are stored in a multi-level of one-to-many relationships and also in the case of datasets stored in more than one one-to-many relationships with non-target tables. Conclusion: This study concludes that data summarization performed by BioDARA, can be beneficial in summarizing biomedical datasets in a complex multi-relational environment, in which biomedical datasets are stored in a multi-level of one-to-many relationships.

  13. Bio THELYS: A new sludge reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauzy, Julien; Cretenot, Didier; Patria, Lucie; Fernandes, Paulo; Sauvegrain, Patrick; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    New technologies for reducing the sludge production of municipal or industrial WWTP have been appeared during the last few years. One of these innovative processes, Bio THELYS, consists in enhancing the biodegradability of sludge by a stage of thermal hydrolysis. The hydrolysed sludge could then be sent upstream to a biological step either aerobic or anaerobic. The objective is to increase the global mineralisation of the pollution entering the WWTP in order to decrease the waste leaving it, i.e. mainly the sludge. A 2500 population equivalent prototype was installed on a WWTP, in Champagne - France. Thermal hydrolysis is carried out under a temperature of 150-185{sup o}C, a pressure of 10-15 bar with an hydraulic retention time of 30-60 minutes. Thermal hydrolysis is implemented on a secondary recycling loop on the biological basin. Trials started in 1999 and are still on operation. A close monitoring of the WWTP was set up focusing especially on sludge characteristics, treated water quality, yield of sludge production reduction and plant operation. Bio THELYS could achieve a reduction in sludge production up to 70% on the plant. (author)

  14. Bioética de los principios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La bioética ha surgido del problema de la invasión de una mentalidad técnica en una práctica ética pues concierne a la vida humana. De aquí emerge la dificultad de plantear límites morales a esta práctica, ya que parecen exteriores a su racionalidad. La bioética de los principios ha tomado estos de una racionalidad teleológica con una corrección posterior autonomista. Esto produce una divergencia que manifiesta una debilidad epistemológica y una dificultad de comprensión moral. Esto es especialmente evidente en la formulación del principio de autonomía, del que se quita la impronta ética que tenia en Kant. Se ha de postular una nueva racionalidad ética que conlleva una reformulación que parta de principios éticos en conexión con las experiencias éticas básicas.

  15. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  17. E-BioFlow: Different perspectives on scientific workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, I.; Rauwerda, H.; van der Vet, P.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new type of workflow design system called e-BioFlow and illustrate it by means of a simple sequence alignment workflow. E-BioFlow, intended to model advanced scientific workflows, enables the user to model a workflow from three different but strongly coupled perspectives: the control

  18. E-BioFlow: Different Perspectives on Scientific Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, I.; Rauwerda, H.; Vet, van der P.E.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Elloumi, M.; Küng, J.; Linial, M.; Murphy, R.F.; Schneider, K.; Toma, C.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new type of workflow design system called e-BioFlow and illustrate it by means of a simple sequence alignment workflow. E-BioFlow, intended to model advanced scientific workflows, enables the user to model a workflow from three different but strongly coupled perspectives: the control

  19. Weiterentwicklung der Nationalen Forschungsstrategie Bioökonomie 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Braun, Joachim; Lang, Christine; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    Im Jahr 2017 endet die erste Phase der „Nationalen Forschungsstrategie Bioökonomie 2030“. Der Bio-ökonomierat begleitet die Weiterentwicklung des Forschungsprogramms aktiv. Viele richtige Weichenstellungen sind erfolgt, nun gilt es mit ungebrochenem Engagement und Zielbewusstsein die Forschung zu...

  20. BioRuby: Bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goto, N.; Prins, J.C.P.; Nakao, M.; Bonnal, R.; Aerts, J.; Katayama, A.

    2010-01-01

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it suppor

  1. BioRuby : bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goto, Naohisa; Prins, Pjotr; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Bonnal, Raoul; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2010-01-01

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it suppor

  2. Laser Induced Millimeter Wave Fluorescence From Bio-Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    have on identifying and developing effective sensor countermeasures against bio-warfare agent threats - in particular an effective bio-threat early ...IR Intensityf’fewmal IR htensjty 850 900 950 1000 1050 Vibrational Frequency (cm1) (a) (LAMP Transition Probability IR hta -i3tyMa;urral IR

  3. Public Perception of Bio fuels; Percepcion Publica de los Biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Priolo, V.

    2011-11-10

    The deployment of bio fuels has generated a significant controversy in the energy, agricultural and environmental fields. Governments and promoters around the world have advocated for developing bio fuels based on their potential contribution to emissions reduction and energy security. But opposition to bio fuels has growth in the last years. Environmental NGO's and other stake holders have called for a review of the environmental and social sustainability of energy crops. This controversy has characterized the public debate around bio fuels. In this context, and given the need to improve public involvement in energy technologies, this article reports an investigation of Spanish citizens' perceptions about bio fuels. The study investigated the perceptions of informed citizens and the reasoning basis underlying beliefs and attitudes. The study finds an initial positive association of bio fuels to a clean and natural fuel that is mitigated by participants' concerns on the practical usage of bio fuels and the social and environmental impacts. Study participants' reactions show the need to differentiate among the diverse groups of publics holding differing views and a different reaction to information on the benefits and costs of bio fuels. (Author) 9 refs.

  4. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  5. IA of bio-economic projects in Region Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge; Palsberg, Aske

    Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts.......Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts....

  6. Bio fuels price; El precio de los biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.

    2008-07-01

    he process of producing ethanol from corn is very expensive. The best bio-fuel is very far from the service stations and the farmers show difficulties to change his work methods. Really have we a suitable technology to produce bio-fuels?.

  7. Bio-composites from mycelium reinforced agricultural substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need for biodegradable alternatives to the inert plastics and expanded foams currently used in in manufacturing processes and device components. The material focused on in this report is a bio-composite patented by Ecovative Design, LLC. The bio-composite utilizes the fungus mycelium to i...

  8. Bio-TDS: bioscience query tool discovery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnimpieba, Etienne Z; VanDiermen, Menno S; Gustafson, Shayla M; Conn, Bill; Lushbough, Carol M

    2017-01-04

    Bioinformatics and computational biology play a critical role in bioscience and biomedical research. As researchers design their experimental projects, one major challenge is to find the most relevant bioinformatics toolkits that will lead to new knowledge discovery from their data. The Bio-TDS (Bioscience Query Tool Discovery Systems, http://biotds.org/) has been developed to assist researchers in retrieving the most applicable analytic tools by allowing them to formulate their questions as free text. The Bio-TDS is a flexible retrieval system that affords users from multiple bioscience domains (e.g. genomic, proteomic, bio-imaging) the ability to query over 12 000 analytic tool descriptions integrated from well-established, community repositories. One of the primary components of the Bio-TDS is the ontology and natural language processing workflow for annotation, curation, query processing, and evaluation. The Bio-TDS's scientific impact was evaluated using sample questions posed by researchers retrieved from Biostars, a site focusing on BIOLOGICAL DATA ANALYSIS: The Bio-TDS was compared to five similar bioscience analytic tool retrieval systems with the Bio-TDS outperforming the others in terms of relevance and completeness. The Bio-TDS offers researchers the capacity to associate their bioscience question with the most relevant computational toolsets required for the data analysis in their knowledge discovery process.

  9. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  10. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morici, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  11. Bio-based chemicals - green, but also sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ögmundarson, Ólafur; Herrgard, Markus; Förster, Jochen;

    For almost two decades, the chemical industry has put great effort into developing bio-chemicals,among others to fight global warming caused by greenhouse gas emissions, one of the biggest threats that are faced by our society today. To facilitate a growing and versatile bio-based chemical...... production, the US Department of Energy proposed in 2004 a list of 12 building block chemicals which can either be converged through biological or chemical conversions. Moving toward more bio-based chemicals, the chemical industry does not only claim to reduce climate change impacts, but also...... that they are increasing overall sustainability in chemical production. Whether such claims are justifiable is unclear. When sustainability of bio-based polymer production is assessed, various environmental trade-offs occur that need to be considered. It is not enough to claim that a bio-chemical is sustainable...

  12. Protein bio-corona: critical issue in immune nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, Monica; Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Docea, Anca Oana; Constantin, Carolina; Negrei, Carolina; Nikitovic, Dragana; Tsatsakis, Aristidis

    2017-03-01

    With the expansion of the nanomedicine field, the knowledge focusing on the behavior of nanoparticles in the biological milieu has rapidly escalated. Upon introduction to a complex biological system, nanomaterials dynamically interact with all the encountered biomolecules and form the protein "bio-corona." The decoration with these surface biomolecules endows nanoparticles with new properties. The present review will address updates of the protein bio-corona characteristics as influenced by nanoparticle's physicochemical properties and by the particularities of the encountered biological milieu. Undeniably, bio-corona generation influences the efficacy of the nanodrug and guides the actions of innate and adaptive immunity. Exploiting the dynamic process of protein bio-corona development in combination with the new engineered horizons of drugs linked to nanoparticles could lead to innovative functional nanotherapies. Therefore, bio-medical nanotechnologies should focus on the interactions of nanoparticles with the immune system for both safety and efficacy reasons.

  13. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  14. A Survey of Business Trends at BioOne Publishing Partners and its Implications for BioOne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Todd A.; Joseph, Heather; Waltham, Mary

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a survey of BioOne participating publishers that was conducted during the fall of 2003. In that survey, BioOne collected data from 18 not-for-profit publishers on circulation levels, scholarly output in terms of pages and articles produced, revenues, and expenditures. From eight of the publishers, complete profit, loss, and…

  15. The bio-gripper: a fluid-driven micro-manipulator of living tissue constructs for additive bio-manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Blanche C; Cui, Francis; Tripathi, Anubhav; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2016-05-25

    We previously developed the Bio-Pick, Place, and Perfuse (Bio-P3) instrument to fabricate large perfusable tissue constructs by stacking and aligning scaffold-free living microtissues with integrated lumens. The Bio-P3 required an actuating mechanism to manipulate living microtissues of various sizes and shapes that are fragile, and must remain in an aqueous environment. The optical transparency of the Bio-P3 gripping device was essential to provide unobstructed visuals for accurate alignment of microtissues. We previously engineered a pilot fluid force-driven bio-gripper that can pick-and-place microtissue in planar position without causing cellular damage by pulling culture medium through track-etched membrane-integrated cell culture inserts. In this study, we invented a new flexible bio-gripper design that maximized the bio-gripper utilities. We utilized experimental approaches, multivariate analyzes, and theoretical modeling to elucidate how membrane characteristics (pore size, pore density, membrane thickness, membrane area, and surface chemistry) altered bio-gripper robustness and the flow rate (Q(c)) required for successful gripping. We devised two standardized tests and synthetic parts that mimicked microtissues, to systematically quantify bio-gripper performance. All thirteen syringe pump-driven bio-grippers except one successfully gripped and released synthetic parts with values of Q(c) that coincided with our mathematical simulation of the fluid mechanics of gripping. The bio-gripper could grip synthetic parts of various sizes, shapes and masses, demonstrating the robustness of the actuating mechanism. Multivariate analysis of experimental data indicated that both membrane porosity and thickness modulated Q(c), and in addition, revealed that membrane pore density determined membrane optical transparency. Fabricating large tissue constructs requires repeated stacking of microtissues. We showed that one bio-gripper could pick-and-place living microtissues

  16. Civic education and political participation among youth at Universidad del Bio- Bio, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Orellana Fonseca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of this paper are the product of a broader research on political participation. The expressions of young university students are there analyzed about civic education received at school related to political participation. Three focus groups were held with freshmen at Universidad del Bio-Bio, Chile. The results show that the vision of young people about the formation received is rather critical. On the one hand, the need for civic education is identified as that which allows to address the complexity of political activity. Secondly, it is found that school education does not respond to this need, since it is qualified as poor and biased. For students, education must play a politicizing role, providing inputs to influence social change.

  17. Bio-electrosprays: from bio-analytics to a generic tool for the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2011-03-07

    Electrosprays or electrospraying is a process by which an aerosol is generated between two charged electrodes. This aerosol generation methodology has been known for well over a century, and has undergone exploration in aerosol and materials sciences, to many other areas of research and development. In one such exploration, electrosprays were partnered with mass spectrometry for the accurate characterisation of molecules. This technology now widely referred to as electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI MS) significantly contributes to molecular analysis and cancer biology to name a few. In fact these findings were recognised by the Chemistry Nobel Committee in 2002, and have catapulted electrosprays to many areas of research and development. In this review, the author wishes to introduce and discuss another such recent discovery, where electrosprays have been investigated for directly handling living cells and whole organisms. Over the past few years these electrosprays now referred to as "bio-electrosprays" have undergone rigorous developmental studies both in terms of understanding all the associate physical, chemical and biological sciences for completely assessing their effects, if any on the direct handling of living biological materials. Therefore, the review will bring together all the work that has contributed to fully understanding that bio-electrosprays are an inert technology for directly handling living biological materials, while elucidating some unique features they possess over competing technologies. Hence, demonstrating this approach as a flexible methodology for a wide range of applications spanning bio-analytics, diagnostics to the possible creation of synthetic tissues, for repairing and replacing damaged/ageing tissues, to the targeted and controlled delivery of personalised medicine through experimental and/or medical cells and/or genes. Therefore, elucidating the far reaching ramifications bio-electrosprays have to our health sciences

  18. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  19. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  20. Review of Bio-EMC Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Soichi; Wake, Kanako; Fukunaga, Kaori; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2001-12-01

    Biological aspects of electromagnetic compatibility (Bio-EMC) have been studied by EMC Research Group of CRL. There are two main subjects in the field. One is related to rules and regulations of electromagnetic-wave hazards, especially development of standard estimation methods of electromagnetic power deposited in human bodies exposed to microwaves from cellular telephones or VHF-band radio waves. Another is development of exposure setups for laboratory animals used in biological studies on health effects of electromagnetic waves and their dosimetry. Novel phantoms are also being developed in order to perform highly accurate dosimetry in above studies. It is expected that these studies contribute development of compliance tests for radiofrequency protection guidelines and improvement of rationale of those guidelines, which consequently provides safety environment including appropriate radio wave applications.

  1. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-06-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity.

  2. Bio-based polycarbonate as synthetic toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauenstein, O.; Agarwal, S.; Greiner, A.

    2016-01-01

    Completely bio-based poly(limonene carbonate) is a thermoplastic polymer, which can be synthesized by copolymerization of limonene oxide (derived from limonene, which is found in orange peel) and CO2. Poly(limonene carbonate) has one double bond per repeating unit that can be exploited for further chemical modifications. These chemical modifications allow the tuning of the properties of the aliphatic polycarbonate in nearly any direction. Here we show synthetic routes to demonstrate that poly(limonene carbonate) is the perfect green platform polymer, from which many functional materials can be derived. The relevant examples presented in this study are the transformation from an engineering thermoplastic into a rubber, addition of permanent antibacterial activity, hydrophilization and even pH-dependent water solubility of the polycarbonate. Finally, we show a synthetic route to yield the completely saturated counterpart that exhibits improved heat processability due to lower reactivity. PMID:27302694

  3. HSP as bio dosemeters; HSP como biodosimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R. [Grupo Academico de Radiobiologia, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  4. Springer handbook of bio-/neuroinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Springer Handbook of Bio-/Neuro-Informatics is the first published book in one volume that explains together the basics and the state-of-the-art of two major science disciplines in their interaction and mutual relationship, namely: information sciences, bioinformatics and neuroinformatics. Bioinformatics is the area of science which is concerned with the information processes in biology and the development and applications of methods, tools and systems for storing and processing of biological information thus facilitating new knowledge discovery. Neuroinformatics is the area of science which is concerned with the information processes in biology and the development and applications of methods, tools and systems for storing and processing of biological information thus facilitating new knowledge discovery. The text contains 62 chapters organized in 12 parts, 6 of them covering topics from information science and bioinformatics, and 6 cover topics from information science and neuroinformatics. Each chapter ...

  5. DCE Bio Detection System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Michael A.; Batishko, Charles R.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Owsley, Stanley L.; Dunham, Glen C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Willett, Jesse A.

    2007-12-01

    The DCE (DNA Capture Element) Bio-Detection System (Biohound) was conceived, designed, built and tested by PNNL under a MIPR for the US Air Force under the technical direction of Dr. Johnathan Kiel and his team at Brooks City Base in San Antonio Texas. The project was directed toward building a measurement device to take advantage of a unique aptamer based assay developed by the Air Force for detecting biological agents. The assay uses narrow band quantum dots fluorophores, high efficiency fluorescence quenchers, magnetic micro-beads beads and selected aptamers to perform high specificity, high sensitivity detection of targeted biological materials in minutes. This final report summarizes and documents the final configuration of the system delivered to the Air Force in December 2008

  6. Radiation application for upgrading of bio resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Young Il; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lee, Sang Jae; Kim, Yeon Ku; Chang, Hwa Hyoung; Song, In Geun; Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Gab Jin

    2000-04-01

    To degrade lignin which is the most difficult fraction to be degraded in cellulosic bio resources and reuse as valuable formats, the improved strains of edible mushroom with more highly ligno cellulolytic activity were induced by {gamma}-ray radiation and analysed their physiological and genetical characteristics. Mnp, Lac gene related to be the above were cloned. From the base sequence analysis, it seemed that there could be specific radiation-sensitive spots on the gene of mutants. anti mutagenicity, glyceollin elicitation activity and synergistic effects with indole acetic acid were found promisingly from the extracts of their cultural byproducts. And also were the byproducts expected to be useful for the candidate of subsidiary animal feed. By the radiation mutation, it seemed to be possible to induce the improved strains of antifungal activity, too. (author)

  7. Bio-inspired odor-based navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maynard J., III; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    The ability of many insects, especially moths, to locate either food or a member of the opposite sex is an amazing achievement. There are numerous scenarios where having this ability embedded into ground-based or aerial vehicles would be invaluable. This paper presents results from a 3-D computer simulation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomously tracking a chemical plume to its source. The simulation study includes a simulated dynamic chemical plume, 6-degree of freedom, nonlinear aircraft model, and a bio-inspired navigation algorithm. The emphasis of this paper is the development and analysis of the navigation algorithm. The foundation of this algorithm is a fuzzy controller designed to categorize where in the plume the aircraft is located: coming into the plume, in the plume, exiting the plume, or out of the plume.

  8. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains.

  9. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  10. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  11. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid

  12. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  13. Bio-inspired computational techniques based on advanced condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liangcheng; He Shan; Li Xiaoli; Li Xinglin

    2011-01-01

    The application of bio-inspired computational techniques to the field of condition monitoring is addressed.First, the bio-inspired computational techniques are briefly addressed; the advantages and disadvantages of these computational methods are made clear. Then, the roles of condition monitoring in the predictive maintenance and failures prediction and the development trends of condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, a case study on the condition monitoring of grinding machine is described, which shows the application of bio-inspired computational technique to a practical condition monitoring system.

  14. Negative Effects of Sludge Bulking in Membrane Bio-Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying; HUANG Zhi; REN Nanqi; MENG Qingjuan

    2006-01-01

    Sludge bulking property of membrane bio-reactor was investigated in this study through contrast research. When the sludge bulking appeared, the removal efficiency of COD in membrane bio-reactor increased slightly through the function of filamentous bacteria. However, the negative effects of the higher net water-head differential pressures, the high block rate of membrane pore and the great quantity of filamentous bacteria at the external surface presented at the same time. Thus, plenty of methods should be performed to control sludge bulking once it happened in membrane bio-reactor.

  15. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  16. BIO-PROSPECTING, IPR, TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND ITS TRADE SECRETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lad Meenal Deepak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Bio-prospecting involves searching for collecting, and deriving genetic material from samples of bio-diversity that can be used in commercialized pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or chemical processing end products. Salient features of Bio-prospecting are: Conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, Rights of traditional, indigenous knowledge holders; fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the research, indigenous knowledge, intellectual property, or application of biological resources. The meaningful participation in these processes by traditional, indigenous knowledge holders.As far as Bio-prospecting & final commercial manufacturing company is concerned certain larger pharmaceutical companies operate their own Bio-prospecting units. They can develop a commercial drug from an idea to Bio-prospecting for genetic material, clinical trial, manufacturing & marketing.Herbal medicines are not marketed as pharmaceuticals & are not regulated by FDA. These drugs lack in quality control & mostly sold as dietary supplements. Pharmaceutical industries ordinarily synthesize compounds from a limited amount of natural products & the Herbal medicine industries usually don’t attempt to do so because of high cost involved for the relatively low return. Pharmaceutical Bio-prospecting involves high returns & requires low volume harvesting.The convential biological diversities are an international protocol which gives expression to the novel idea that the Bio-prospecting process could yield conservation & develop benefits. The Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement under the World Trade Organization (WTO is the pre-eminent international agreement governing intellectual property rights. It covers a broad range of intellectual property rights, including copyright, trademarks, geographical indications, trade secrets, and patents. Along with TRIPS a focuses given to rights of traditional indigenous

  17. Pyrolysis of sunflower seed hulls for obtaining bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoni, Andrés I; Bidegain, Maximiliano; Cubitto, María A; Curvetto, Nestor; Volpe, María A

    2015-02-01

    Bio-oils from pyrolysis of as received sunflower seed hulls (SSH), hulls previously washed with acid (SSHA) and hulls submitted to a mushroom enzymatic attack (BSSH) were analyzed. The concentration of lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose varied with the pre-treatment. The liquid corresponding to SSH presented a relatively high concentration of acetic acid and a high instability to storage. The bio-oil from SSHA showed a high concentration of furfural and an appreciable amount of levoglucosenone. Lignin was degraded upon enzymatic activity, for this reason BSSH led to the highest yield of bio-oil, with relative high concentration of acetic acid and stability to storage.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION, BIO-FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND SHELF-LIFE STUDIES OF LOCALLY ISOLATED BIO-FERTILIZER STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen fixing, phosphate solubilizing and potash mobilizing bacterial strains were isolated from rhizosphere soil of agricultural land, the isolated bacterial strains were further characterized by a series of biochemical reactions and identified as genus Azotobacter, Bacillus and Pseudomonas respectively. A technology for their mass multiplication and their bio-formulation has been developed. Fly-ash was used as carrier materials for bio-formulation development of bio-fertilizer strains. Shelf-life studies of the bio-formulations were carried out during storage period. The selected isolates were found to be potent nitrogen fixer, phosphate solubilizers showing clear halo zone around their colonies and potash mobilizer showing mobilization of potassium on respective medium. A general decline in cfu count was noticed in fly-ash based bio-formulations. All the bio-formulations however, retained more than 108 cfu/g viable propagules up to 270 days. The present studies were shown encouraging results in respect to fly-ash as carrier materials for bio-fertilizer strains which are comparable to other commercially available carrier materials.

  19. 78 FR 5165 - First Phase of the Forest Planning Process for the Bio-Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Forest Service First Phase of the Forest Planning Process for the Bio-Region AGENCY: U.S.D.A. Forest... the forest planning process for the Bio-Region. SUMMARY: Come gather 'round people Wherever you roam... the Bio-Regional Assessment has begun. DATES: The Bio-Regional Assessment Report will be completed...

  20. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  1. Impact of bio-palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) on the activity and structure of a marine microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Andrea; Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Boon, Nico; Zanaroli, Giulio; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd NPs) represent a promising catalyst for organohalide remediation in water and sediments. However, the available information regarding their possible impact in case of release into the environment, particularly on the environmental microbiota, is limited. In this study the toxicity of bio-Pd NPs on the model marine bacterium V. fischeri was assessed. The impacts of different concentrations of bio-Pd NPs on the respiratory metabolisms (i.e. organohalide respiration, sulfate reduction and methanogenesis) and the structure of a PCB-dechlorinating microbial community enriched form a marine sediment were also investigated in microcosms mimicking the actual sampling site conditions. Bio-Pd NPs had no toxic effect on V. fischeri. In addition, they had no significant effects on PCB-dehalogenating activity, while showing a partial, dose-dependent inhibitory effect on sulfate reduction as well as on methanogenesis. No toxic effects by bio-Pd NPs could be also observed on the total bacterial community structure, as its biodiversity was increased compared to the not exposed community. In addition, resilience of the microbial community to bio-Pd NPs exposure was observed, being the final community organization (Gini coefficient) of samples exposed to bio-Pd NPs similar to that of the not exposed one. Considering all the factors evaluated, bio-Pd NPs could be deemed as non-toxic to the marine microbiota in the conditions tested. This is the first study in which the impact of bio-Pd NPs is extensively evaluated over a microbial community in relevant environmental conditions, providing important information for the assessment of their environmental safety.

  2. BioMEMS for mitochondria medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaraj, Divya

    A BioMEMS device to study cell-mitochondrial physiological functionalities was developed. The pathogenesis of many diseases including obesity, diabetes and heart failure as well as aging has been linked to functional defects of mitochondria. The synthesis of Adenosine Tri Phosphate (ATP) is determined by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. Therefore, electrical characterization by E-fields with complementary chemical testing was used here. The BioMEMS device was fabricated as an SU-8 based microfluidic system with gold electrodes on SiO2/Si wafers for electromagnetic interrogation. Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors (ISFETs) were incorporated for proton studies important in the electron transport chain, together with monitoring Na+, K+ and Ca++ ions for ion channel studies. ISFETs are chemically sensitive Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices and their threshold voltage is directly proportional to the electrolytic H+ ion variation. These ISFETs (sensitivity ˜55 mV/pH for H+) were further realized as specific ion sensitive Chemical Field Effect Transistors (CHEMFETs) by depositing a specific ion sensitive membrane on the gate. Electrodes for dielectric spectroscopy studies of mitochondria were designed as 2- and 4-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range. In addition, to limit polarization effects, a 4-electrode set-up with unique meshed pickup electrodes (7.5x7.5 mum2 loops with 4 mum wires) was fabricated. Sensitivity of impedance spectroscopy to membrane potential changes was confirmed by studying the influence of uncouplers and glucose on mitochondria. An electrical model was developed for the mitochondrial sample, and its frequency response correlated with impedance spectroscopy experiments of sarcolemmal mitochondria. Using the mesh electrode structure, we obtained a reduction of 83.28% in impedance at 200 Hz. COMSOL

  3. Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shuangyan; Fischer, Jürgen; Schaale, Michael; He, Ming-xia

    2014-03-01

    An optical closure study on bio-optical relationships was carried out using radiative transfer model matrix operator method developed by Freie Universität Berlin. As a case study, the optical closure of bio-optical relationships empirically parameterized with in situ data for the East China Sea was examined. Remote-sensing reflectance ( R rs) was computed from the inherent optical properties predicted by these biooptical relationships and compared with published in situ data. It was found that the simulated R rs was overestimated for turbid water. To achieve optical closure, bio-optical relationships for absorption and scattering coefficients for suspended particulate matter were adjusted. Furthermore, the results show that the Fournier and Forand phase functions obtained from the adjusted relationships perform better than the Petzold phase function. Therefore, before bio-optical relationships are used for a local sea area, the optical closure should be examined.

  4. New BioCo binders containing biopolymers for foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of cross-linking of new polymer binders from the BioCo group, their hardening in moulding sands at the application of cross-linking agents both physical and chemical are presented. Their thermal stability was determined. It was proved, that moulding sands bound by the BioCo binders are characterised by the compression strength (Ruc of an order of 2 MPa, and the bending strength (Rug of 1 MPa, after 1 hour of a sample curing. The worked out BioCo binders are biodegradable and renewable in the part which was not completely burned. The investigated moulding sands with the BioCo binders are easily knocked out and have a good susceptibility for mechanical reclamation processes.

  5. [Bio-active substances derived from marine microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quanyong; Hu, Jiangchun; Xue, Delin; Ma, Chengxin; Wang, Shujin

    2002-07-01

    Marine microorganisms, which are taxonomically diverse and genetically special, have powerful potential in producing novel bio-active substances. This article summarized research progress in this respect. The results showed that marine bacteria which are main marine microorganism flora can produce rich kinds of bio-active substances and that even though marine actinomycetes and marine fungi are not as many as marine bacteria in species and quantity, they should be paid no less attention about their bio-active substances. Besides, present research are limited to those marine microorganisms which are easily cultured. One of the future research trends will be focused on bio-active substances derived from non-culturable marine microorganisms.

  6. PubChem BioAssay: 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Bryant, Stephen H.; Cheng, Tiejun; Wang, Jiyao; Gindulyte, Asta; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Thiessen, Paul A.; He, Siqian; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    PubChem's BioAssay database (https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) has served as a public repository for small-molecule and RNAi screening data since 2004 providing open access of its data content to the community. PubChem accepts data submission from worldwide researchers at academia, industry and government agencies. PubChem also collaborates with other chemical biology database stakeholders with data exchange. With over a decade's development effort, it becomes an important information resource supporting drug discovery and chemical biology research. To facilitate data discovery, PubChem is integrated with all other databases at NCBI. In this work, we provide an update for the PubChem BioAssay database describing several recent development including added sources of research data, redesigned BioAssay record page, new BioAssay classification browser and new features in the Upload system facilitating data sharing. PMID:27899599

  7. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

      During emergency response use of wired bio-sensors create problems for the response workers. It is difficult to transport patients and checking of data requires you to be next to the patient. We will report on work in progress regarding development of a wireless bio-monitor system that supports...... distribution and use by all involved parties of bio-sensor data during emergency response. The system is being developed in close cooperation between doctors, paramedics and IT specialists using qualitative methods including ethnographically inspired field work and simulations of future work. The system...... evaluations have already demonstrated the usefulness of being able to move patients without having to take care of wires and being able to inspect bio-sensor data without being next to the patient. However, new problems have also emerged when no wires connect a patient to a display. E.g. how do you know whose...

  8. BioLandMani sünd kontrolli all

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu haridusprogrammide Socrates, Leonardo ja Youth keskuse ekspertide külaskäigust Eesti Põllumajandusülikooli, et kontrollida Baltimaade ühise magistriprogrammi BioLandMan ettevalmistamist

  9. Bio- ja geenitehnoloogia keskus on loodud / Erkki Truve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Truve, Erkki, 1965-

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli nõukogu otsustas ümber kujundada senise materjaliteaduse ja geeni/biotehnoloogia keskuse kaheks uueks keskuseks: bio- ja geenitehnolooogia keskuseks ning materjaliteaduse keskuseks

  10. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  11. Bio-palladium: from metal recovery to catalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, Simon; Hennebel, Tom; De Gusseme, Bart; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    While precious metals are available to a very limited extent, there is an increasing demand to use them as catalyst. This is also true for palladium (Pd) catalysts and their sustainable recycling and production are required. Since Pd catalysts exist nowadays mostly under the form of nanoparticles, these particles need to be produced in an environment-friendly way. Biological synthesis of Pd nanoparticles ('bio-Pd') is an innovative method for both metal recovery and nanocatalyst synthesis. This review will discuss the different bio-Pd precipitating microorganisms, the applications of the catalyst (both for environmental purposes and in organic chemistry) and the state of the art of the reactors based on the bio-Pd concept. In addition, some main challenges are discussed, which need to be overcome in order to create a sustainable nanocatalyst. Finally, some outlooks for bio-Pd in environmental technology are presented.

  12. Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BioGRID is an online interaction repository with data on raw protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. All interaction data are freely...

  13. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  14. Bio-ecology and language: a necessary unity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    -ecology. While shaped by discourse and beliefs about language-systems (and representations), the language and actions of human organism–environment systems change the world. As Garner (2004) argues, ecolinguistics can do more than invoke ‘interaction’ between language and ecology. While ‘realities’ are partly...... illuminate the dynamics which enmesh the bio-ecology, human evolution, local histories, and language. In short, part of the field’s agenda becomes that of clarifying how languaging and language affect plant–animal–human–culture formations. If the approach can be used to forge a unified perspective on the bio......The paper asks how languaging and language influence the world of the living. Extending Clements and Shelford (1939), the bio-ecology is redefined as the domain of plant–animal–human–culture formations. The move places what people do as a result of languaging into a reciprocal relation with the bio...

  15. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    bio-oils. Mainly the influence of feedstock type (wheat straw, rice husk and pine wood), feedstock water content and reactor temperature on the yield of char, bio-oil and gas were investigated. The storage stability of bio-oils with respect to changes in viscosity, water content and pH were...... liquid organics yield. In addition, the chemical compositions of the bio-oils and the chars of the investigated feedstocks were also analyzed. The utilization of the pyrolysis oil in static combustion equipments such as boilers and turbine have shown that the suitability of the pyrolysis oil...... to substitute fossil fuel. However, several limitations still arise due to the instability of the pyrolysis oil that may cause problems with transport and storage. Pyrolysis oil contains more than hundred of chemical compounds and has a wide range of volatility (different boiling points). The stability...

  16. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  17. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  18. Prototyping Bio-Nanorobots using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdi, Mustapha; Ferreira, A; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a molecular mechanics study using a molecular dynamics software (NAMD) coupled to virtual reality (VR) techniques for intuitive Bio-NanoRobotic prototyping. Using simulated Bio-Nano environments in VR, the operator can design and characterize through physical simulation and 3-D visualization the behavior of Bio-NanoRobotic components and structures. The main novelty of the proposed simulations is based on the characterization of stiffness performances of passive joints-based deca-alanine protein molecule and active joints-based viral protein motor (VPL) in their native environment. Their use as elementary Bio-NanoRobotic components (1 dof platform) are also simulated and the results discussed.

  19. Bio-Inspired Political Systems. Opening a Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the scopes of engineering bio-inspired political systems, which are political systems based on the properties of life that self-organize the increasing complexity of human social systems. We describe bio-inspired political systems and conjecture about various ways to get to them, most notably, metaheuristics, modeling and simulation and complexified topologies. Bio-inspired political systems operate with nature-based dynamics, inspired on the knowledge that has been acquired about complexity from natural social systems and life. Bio-inspired political systems are presented as the best alternative for organizing human sociopolitical interactions as computation and microelectronics-based technology profoundly modify the ways in which humans decide. Therefore, weakening classical political systems. For instance, dwindling top-down power structures, modifying the notion of geographical spatiality and augmenting the political granularity. We also argue that, more than a new theoretical p...

  20. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  1. Characterization of the bio-oil of rapeseed cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culcuoglu, E.; Unay, E.; Karaosmanoglu, F. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Angin, D.; Sensoz, S. [Osman Gazi Univ., Meselik Eskisehir (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-10-15

    Pyrolysis is the most important process in the thermal conversion processes of biomass. In this study, pyrolysis of the rapeseed cake was performed within a fixed bed reactor under static nitrogen atmosphere at 650{sup o}C pyrolysis temperature and at 15{sup o}C min{sup -1} heating rate. The various properties of bio-oil acquired under these conditions were identified. The results of bio-oil showed the green candidate fuel. (Author)

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of barley straw to bio-crude oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhe; Rosendahl, Lasse; Toor, Saqib;

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of barley straw with K2CO3 at different temperatures (280–400 C) was conducted and compared to optimize its process conditions; the aqueous phase as a co-product from this process was recycled to explore the feasibility of implementing wastewater reuse for bio...... a detailed insight into the HTL behavior of barley straw, and offers potential opportunities and benefits for bio-crude oil production through the reuse of aqueous phase....

  3. Special issue on bio-ontologies and phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Larisa N; Collier, Nigel; Oellrich, Anika; Groza, Tudor; Verspoor, Karin; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Dumontier, Michel; Shah, Nigam H

    2015-01-01

    The bio-ontologies and phenotypes special issue includes eight papers selected from the 11 papers presented at the Bio-Ontologies SIG (Special Interest Group) and the Phenotype Day at ISMB (Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology) conference in Boston in 2014. The selected papers span a wide range of topics including the automated re-use and update of ontologies, quality assessment of ontological resources, and the systematic description of phenotype variation, driven by manual, semi- and fully automatic means.

  4. Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    subtle leaders of fish schools. Pheromone trails also suggest a way to support human interaction as has been explored to a limited extent... Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms Michael Lewis*, Michael Goodrich**, Katia Sycara+, Mark Steinberg++ * School of...Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer

  5. Bio-Mechatronics: From Insects to In-Vivo Mechatronics

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Automatic Control & Systems Engineering is pleased to announce the following seminar: Bio-Mechatronics: From Insects to In-Vivo Mechatronics Dr Ravi Vaidyanathan Department of Mechanical Engineering Imperial College Wednesday, 25th September 2013 at 14:00, LT02, Sir Henry Stephenson Building Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision engineering, electronic control, and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes. Bio-Mechatron...

  6. Brief overview of BioMicroNano Technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, Paul Lee

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the fields of biological micro-electromechanical systems (bioMEMs) and associated nanobiotechnologies, collectively denoted as BioMicroNano. Although they are developing at a very rapid pace and still redefining themselves, several stabilized areas of research and development can be identified. Six major areas are delineated, and specific examples are discussed and illustrated. Various applications of the technologies are noted, and potential market sizes are compared.

  7. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  8. Report on the 5th International Bio-logging Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...LONG-TERM GOALS Bio-logging originated in the marine (polar) realm, which explains why marine mammals remain today the main biological models in...www.animalbiotelemetry.com/) and Movement Ecology (http://www.movementecologyjournal.com/). A book on Bio-logging, commissioned on Springer will be

  9. Bioterrorism Preparedness Through Public Health and Medical Bio-Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-31

    viral hemorrhagic fevers (Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa ); aflatoxin; and botulinum and shigella toxins comprise some of the most dangerous bio- agents... outbreaks could occur simultaneously in multiple locations, which is less likely in a natural epidemic. 5 Contagions can spread throughout the...surveillance to detect attacks. Surveillance to detect, collect, analyze, and interpret reports of bio-events and trained staffs to monitor disease outbreaks

  10. Transformation fermière de produits Bio Suisse

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Les producteurs bio sont encouragés à mettre en valeur eux-mêmes leurs matières premières chaque fois que possible. Cela permet d’enrichir la gamme de produits écoulés en circuits courts et d’étoffer la palette des produits du terroir. Les points les plus importants de cette transformation fermière bio sont résumés ci-après.

  11. Co-publishing with BioMed Central

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>We are delighted to announce that Chinese Birds will be published in partnership with BioMed Central,part of Springer,under the Open Access model from 2014.As the leading Open Access publisher,BioMed Central will support the journal in its continued growth and development,and will promote to a broader community of audience.Beijing Forestry University will support the journal by sponsoring Article-

  12. Bio-Inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0287 Bio - Inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization Alireza Entezari UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Bio - inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550...invariant representation, one can increase the quality of signal reconstruction. Moreover, the computational cost of the reconstruction process is

  13. Preparation of Bio-beads and Their Atrazine Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Hai-tao; ZHANG Lan-ying; LIU Na; ZHU Bo-lin

    2011-01-01

    Screened atrazine-mineralizing bacterium-Pseudomonas W4 was embedded inside an improved PVAH3BO3 embedment matrix to make bio-beads to degrade atrazine. The atrazine degradation characteristics were studied. The preparation procedure of bio-beads was as follows: (1) preparing a mixture of 100, 12.5, 10, 1.5 and 1 g/L PVA, bentonite(Ca), activated carbon powder, sodium alginate and centrifuged Pseudomonas W4 bacterium, respectively; (2) the mixture was dropped into a gently stirred cross linker solution(pH=6.7) and cured at 10 ℃ for 24 h.The optimal atrazine degradation conditions by bio-beads were as follows: pH=7, the auxiliary carbon source was glucose, and the concentration of glucose was greater than 325 mg/L. The bio-beads demonstrated stronger tolerance ability than the free microorganism to the increase of PCBs, hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion. SEM images show the uniform distribution of the microorganism inside bio-beads and the porous cross-linked structure of bio-beads which provides excellent mass transfer capacity.

  14. BioID Identification of Lamin-Associated Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Aaron A; Anderson, Ruthellen H; Roux, Kyle J

    2016-01-01

    A- and B-type lamins support the nuclear envelope, contribute to heterochromatin organization, and regulate a myriad of nuclear processes. The mechanisms by which lamins function in different cell types and the mechanisms by which lamin mutations cause over a dozen human diseases (laminopathies) remain unclear. The identification of proteins associated with lamins is likely to provide fundamental insight into these mechanisms. BioID (proximity-dependent biotin identification) is a unique and powerful method for identifying protein-protein and proximity-based interactions in living cells. BioID utilizes a mutant biotin ligase from bacteria that is fused to a protein of interest (bait). When expressed in living cells and stimulated with excess biotin, this BioID-fusion protein promiscuously biotinylates directly interacting and vicinal endogenous proteins. Following biotin-affinity capture, the biotinylated proteins can be identified using mass spectrometry. BioID thus enables screening for physiologically relevant protein associations that occur over time in living cells. BioID is applicable to insoluble proteins such as lamins that are often refractory to study by other methods and can identify weak and/or transient interactions. We discuss the use of BioID to elucidate novel lamin-interacting proteins and its applications in a broad range of biological systems, and provide detailed protocols to guide new applications.

  15. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  16. The BioGRID interaction database: 2017 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatr-aryamontri, Andrew; Oughtred, Rose; Boucher, Lorrie; Rust, Jennifer; Chang, Christie; Kolas, Nadine K.; O'Donnell, Lara; Oster, Sara; Theesfeld, Chandra; Sellam, Adnane; Stark, Chris; Breitkreutz, Bobby-Joe; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID: https://thebiogrid.org) is an open access database dedicated to the annotation and archival of protein, genetic and chemical interactions for all major model organism species and humans. As of September 2016 (build 3.4.140), the BioGRID contains 1 072 173 genetic and protein interactions, and 38 559 post-translational modifications, as manually annotated from 48 114 publications. This dataset represents interaction records for 66 model organisms and represents a 30% increase compared to the previous 2015 BioGRID update. BioGRID curates the biomedical literature for major model organism species, including humans, with a recent emphasis on central biological processes and specific human diseases. To facilitate network-based approaches to drug discovery, BioGRID now incorporates 27 501 chemical–protein interactions for human drug targets, as drawn from the DrugBank database. A new dynamic interaction network viewer allows the easy navigation and filtering of all genetic and protein interaction data, as well as for bioactive compounds and their established targets. BioGRID data are directly downloadable without restriction in a variety of standardized formats and are freely distributed through partner model organism databases and meta-databases. PMID:27980099

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of aquatic plants to bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, D.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, S.; Fu, H.; Chen, J. [Fudan Univ., Shanghai (China). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of producing bio-oils from aquatic plants by hydrothermal liquefaction using 2 typical aquatic plants as feedstocks, notably Enteromorpha prolifera and water hyacinth which are typical aquatic plants found in seawater and freshwater. Bio-oil production from these 2 feedstocks was studied in a batch reactor at controlled temperatures under an initial partial pressure of 2.0 MPa N2. The effects of temperature and reaction time on the liquefaction products yields were also studied. GC-MS and elemental analysis were carried out to analyze the composition of bio-oils. The bio-oil produced from Enteromorpha prolifera contained mainly fatty acids, esters and quite a few heterocyclic compounds. Phenols and their derivatives were found to be the main compounds in bio-oils produced from water hyacinth. An elemental analysis revealed that bio-oils produced from the 2 aquatic plants have higher energy density. It was concluded that the use of aquatic plants as feedstock for liquid fuel can contribute to environmental protection and sustainable energy development by reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the burning of fossil fuels. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Garrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of renewable starting materials, such as sugars and polysaccharides, vegetable oils, lignin, pine resin derivatives, and proteins, have so far been investigated for the preparation of bio-based polymers. Among the various sources of bio-based feedstock, vegetable oils are one of the most widely used starting materials in the polymer industry due to their easy availability, low toxicity, and relative low cost. Another bio-based plastic of great interest is poly(lactic acid (PLA, widely used in multiple commercial applications nowadays. There is an intrinsic expectation that bio-based polymers are also biodegradable, but in reality there is no guarantee that polymers prepared from biorenewable feedstock exhibit significant or relevant biodegradability. Biodegradability studies are therefore crucial in order to assess the long-term environmental impact of such materials. This review presents a brief overview of the different classes of bio-based polymers, with a strong focus on vegetable oil-derived resins and PLA. An entire section is dedicated to a discussion of the literature addressing the biodegradability of bio-based polymers.

  19. Social Science Insights for the BioCCS Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maree Dowd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BioCCS is a technology gaining support as a possible emissions reduction policy option to address climate change. The process entails the capture, transport and storage of carbon dioxide produced during energy production from biomass. Globally, the most optimistic energy efficiency scenarios cannot avoid an average temperature increase of +2 °C without bioCCS. Although very much at the commencement stage, bioCCS demonstration projects can provide opportunity to garner knowledge, achieve consensus and build support around the technology’s properties. Yet many challenges face the bioCCS industry, including no guarantee biomass will always be from sustainable sources or potentially result in carbon stock losses. The operating environment also has no or limited policies, regulations and legal frameworks, and risk and safety concerns abound. Some state the key problem for bioCCS is cultural, lacking in a ‘community of support’, awareness and credibility amongst its own key stakeholders and the wider public. Therefore, the industry can benefit from the growing social science literature, drawing upon other energy and resource based industries with regard to social choice for future energy options. To this end, the following scoping review was conducted in order to ascertain gaps in existing public perception and acceptance research focusing on bioCCS.

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  1. BioCMOS Interfaces and Co-Design

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The application of CMOS circuits and ASIC VLSI systems to problems in medicine and system biology has led to the emergence of Bio/CMOS Interfaces and Co-Design as an exciting and rapidly growing area of research. The mutual inter-relationships between VLSI-CMOS design and the biophysics of molecules interfacing with silicon and/or onto metals has led to the emergence of the interdisciplinary engineering approach to Bio/CMOS interfaces. This new approach, facilitated by 3D circuit design and nanotechnology, has resulted in new concepts and applications for VLSI systems in the bio-world. This book offers an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art in Bio/CMOS interfaces. It describes leading-edge research in the field of CMOS design and VLSI development for applications requiring integration of biological molecules onto the chip. It provides multidisciplinary content ranging from biochemistry to CMOS design in order to address Bio/CMOS interface co-design in bio-sensing applications.

  2. investigación en Bioética.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meneses Carmona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito esboza cuestiones acerca del lugar y el problema de la Bioética, tanto como preguntas que no tienen respuestas pre-establecidas y, como tal, exigen investigación. Como lugar, en Bioética se heredan las transformaciones de la racionalidad, la Epistemología y la Ética ocurridas en las interacciones sociales asumidas como contexto; la "Bioética" no tiene un lugar establecido y propio, se sitúa en un campo que se configura sólo al asumir la pregunta por la vida y por lo vivo. Propongo la tesis siguiente: La Bioética se constituye en la acción de introducir la vida como problema en lo cotidiano; esto conlleva la creación de nuevas sensibilidades a lo aún no sentido, lo aún no pensado, lo aún no valorado. De esta manera, el lugar de la Bioética se muestra como un juego de figuras diversas en y con las que se crean opciones de otras vidas aún no vividas y que remite a los aprendizajes como exposición al cambio y a las narrativas en las que éstos ocurren y son posibles. Esta tesis se perfila, en la perspectiva de la Bioética, como el conocimiento de cómo usar el conocimiento.

  3. Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of

  4. Project BioLex. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, J.; Broechner Andersen, M.; FORCE Technology

    2007-01-15

    The usage of biomass as a renewable source of energy is an important issue for a sustainable energy supply in Denmark. Due to pioneering work, Denmark has great experience in producing energy from biomass both in large scale CHP utilities as well as in small scale application such as domestic heating. This experience has been mainly focused in the usage of traditional domestic solid biomass fuels such as wood. However, the limited amounts available of these fuels and thereby following increasing prices have triggered the interest in using other sources of biomass. Rest and waste products from the agricultural industry is one examples of biomass which has a large potential to be used as a cheap biomass fuels. Projects of using these new types of biomass fuels are often hindered by insecurity whether this new biomass source can be applied as fuel or not. Thus in order to support usage of new sources of biomass a first step is to have knowledge on properties of the biomass fuel and be able to compare these to the known traditional fuels used. The BioLex was designed to provide this information about important properties of both traditional Danish as well as new more exotic solid biomass fuels in a database available to the public via the internet. (au)

  5. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-01-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top–down manufacturing. PMID:28008930

  6. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-12-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top-down manufacturing.

  7. Rotational molding of bio-polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Antonio; Maffezzoli, Alfonso; Forleo, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    This paper is aimed to study the suitability of bio-polymers, including poly-lactic acid (PLLA) and Mater-Bi, for the production of hollow components by rotational molding. In order to reduce the brittleness of PLLA, the material was mixed with two different plasticizers, bis-ethyl-hexyl-phthalate (DEHP) and poly-ethylene-glycol (PEG). The materials were characterized in terms of sinterability. To this purpose, thermomechanical (TMA) analysis was performed at different heating rates, in order to identify the endset temperatures of densification and the onset temperatures of degradation. Results obtained indicated that the materials are characterized by a very fast sintering process, occurring just above the melting temperature, and an adequately high onset of degradation. The difference between the onset of degradation and the endset of sintering, defined as the processing window of the polymer, is sufficiently wide, indicating that the polymers can be efficiently processed by rotational molding. Therefore, a laboratory scale apparatus was used for the production of PLLA and Mater-Bi prototypes. The materials were processed using very similar conditions to those used for LLDPE. The production of void-free samples of uniform wall thickness was considered as an indication of the potentiality of the process for the production of biodegradable containers.

  8. O electrolyte for bio-application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Almariri, A.

    2014-09-01

    Porous silicon (PS) has been prepared in the dark by anodic etching of n+-type (111) silicon substrate in a HF:HCl:C2H5OH:H2O2:H2O electrolyte. The processed PS layer is characterized by means of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), water contact angle (CA) measurements, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and micro-Raman scattering. The CA of fresh PS layer is found to be ~142°. On aging at ambient conditions, the CA decreases gently to reach ~133° after 3 month, and then it is stabilized for a prolonged time of aging. The visible PL emission from the PS layer also exhibits a good stability against aging time. The FTIR and XPS measurements and analysis show that the stable aged PS layer has rather SiO2-rich surface. The micro/nanostructure nature of the PS layer is revealed from SEM and micro-Raman results and correlated to CA results. Stable hydrophobic surface of oxidized PS layer is attractive for bio-applications. The efficiency of the produced PS layers as an entrapping template for specific immobilization of IgG2a antibody via physical absorption process is demonstrated.

  9. A New Bio-based Dielectric Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Mingjiang; Wool, Richard P.

    2007-03-01

    Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are widely used in modern high-speed microelectronics, such as printed circuit boards. A new bio-based composite was developed from soybean oil and chicken feather fibers, which has the potential to replace currently used petroleum-based dielectrics. Feather fibers have a unique hollow structure which distinguishes them from glass fibers and give very attractive properties. Due to the retained air in the hollow fibers, the dielectric constant can be lower than conventional epoxy-based dielectrics at both low and high frequencies. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the materials decrease with addition of feather fibers and even can be negative. By controlling the fraction of fibers, delamination caused by CTE mismatch between the dielectric and the metal lines can be avoided. The enhancement of adhesion between copper surface and polymer matrix was investigated. The tough structure of fibers significantly improved the mechanical properties of the composites, such as flexural properties and storage modulus. Supported by USDA

  10. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  11. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid

  12. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: murillolongo@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida Juri [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Parra, Joao P.R.L.L. [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Landsgesell, Sven [Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Smith, Ron I. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • We synthesized a magnetic bio-NCP with potential to be used against breast cancer. • The magnetic nanoparticles have an inverted spinel structure. • The coating with chitosan does not cause changes to the particle microstructure. • The hydration level of bio-NCP is crucial to the surface modification with apatite. • Bio-NCP with narrow size distribution and high magnetic response was obtained. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution and high magnetic response at room temperature and is a very promising material for early diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment.

  13. Paracoccus denitrificans possesses two BioR homologs having a role in regulation of biotin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Kumar, Ritesh; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-08-01

    Recently, we determined that BioR, the GntR family of transcription factor, acts as a repressor for biotin metabolism exclusively distributed in certain species of α-proteobacteria, including the zoonotic agent Brucella melitensis and the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, the scenario is unusual in Paracoccus denitrificans, another closely related member of the same phylum α-proteobacteria featuring with denitrification. Not only does it encode two BioR homologs Pden_1431 and Pden_2922 (designated as BioR1 and BioR2, respectively), but also has six predictive BioR-recognizable sites (the two bioR homolog each has one site, whereas the two bio operons (bioBFDAGC and bioYB) each contains two tandem BioR boxes). It raised the possibility that unexpected complexity is present in BioR-mediated biotin regulation. Here we report that this is the case. The identity of the purified BioR proteins (BioR1 and BioR2) was confirmed with LC-QToF-MS. Phylogenetic analyses combined with GC percentage raised a possibility that the bioR2 gene might be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Gel shift assays revealed that the predicted BioR-binding sites are functional for the two BioR homologs, in much similarity to the scenario seen with the BioR site of A. tumefaciens bioBFDAZ. Using the A. tumefaciens reporter system carrying a plasmid-borne LacZ fusion, we revealed that the two homologs of P. denitrificans BioR are functional repressors for biotin metabolism. As anticipated, not only does the addition of exogenous biotin stimulate efficiently the expression of bioYB operon encoding biotin transport/uptake system BioY, but also inhibits the transcription of the bioBFDAGC operon resembling the de novo biotin synthetic pathway. EMSA-based screening failed to demonstrate that the biotin-related metabolite is involved in BioR-DNA interplay, which is consistent with our former observation with Brucella BioR. Our finding defined a complex regulatory network for biotin

  14. Functional tooth restoration by next-generation bio-hybrid implant as a bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Inoue, Kaoru; Nakajima, Kei; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Isobe, Tomohide; Sugawara, Ayaka; Ogawa, Miho; Tanaka, Chie; Saito, Masahiro; Kasugai, Shohei; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Inoue, Takashi; Tezuka, Katsunari; Kuboki, Takuo; Yamaguchi, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Bio-hybrid artificial organs are an attractive concept to restore organ function through precise biological cooperation with surrounding tissues in vivo. However, in bio-hybrid artificial organs, an artificial organ with fibrous connective tissues, including muscles, tendons and ligaments, has not been developed. Here, we have enveloped with embryonic dental follicle tissue around a HA-coated dental implant, and transplanted into the lower first molar region of a murine tooth-loss model. We successfully developed a novel fibrous connected tooth implant using a HA-coated dental implant and dental follicle stem cells as a bio-hybrid organ. This bio-hybrid implant restored physiological functions, including bone remodelling, regeneration of severe bone-defect and responsiveness to noxious stimuli, through regeneration with periodontal tissues, such as periodontal ligament and cementum. Thus, this study represents the potential for a next-generation bio-hybrid implant for tooth loss as a future bio-hybrid artificial organ replacement therapy.

  15. Bio-Diesel production and Effect of Catalytic Converter on Emission performance with Bio-Diesel Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Murali Manohar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-Diesel the word itself defines almost all the features of the Bio-Diesel literary. In the Era of this Global Warming where the people are making their living more and more comfortable and they are deteriorating the environment also. The uses of the automobiles with the conventional source of fuel leads to the production of the toxic gaseous substances like carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of sulphur, hydro-carbons etc. The limitation comes with the rise in the price of the fuel as well as the produce of the green house gases as the exhaust gas. In the present study, a new method has been employed to produce Bio-Diesel in a homely basis. Theproduction of the Bio-Diesel is done by using Bio-Diesel processor. It requires the used vegetable oil, methanol and the lye with the accurate proportionate. Generally, emissions of regulated compounds changed linearly with the blend level. The objective is to detect any posit ive or negative effects depending on blend levels, because conventional diesel fuel and biodiesel can be blended in every ratio. The known positive and negative effects of biodiesel varied accordingly and investigate the effect of Catalytic Converter on emission performance with Bio- Diesel Blends.

  16. The Role of Bio-productivity on Bio-energy Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc J. J. Janssens

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The principal photosynthetic pathways convert solar energy differently depending on the environmental conditions and the plant morphotype. Partitioning of energy storage within crops will vary according to environmental and seasonal conditions as well. Highest energy concentration is found in terpens like latex and, to a lesser extent, in lipids. Ideally, we want plant ingredients with high energy content easily amenable to ready-to-use bio-fuel. Generally, these crops are adapted to drier areas and tend to save on eco-volume space. Competition with food crops could be avoided by fetching energy from cheap agricultural by-products or waste products such as bagasse in the sugar cane. This would in fact mean that reducing power of agricultural residues should be extracted from the biomass through non-photosynthetic processes like animal ingestion or industrial bio-fermentation. Conversion and transformation efficiencies in the production chain are illustrated for some relevant crops in the light of the maximum power theorem.

  17. 基于BioWin的MBR工艺模拟%Bio Win-based MBR process modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾冰; 郝二成; 顾剑; 许世伟; 李胜田; 周军

    2011-01-01

    以实际运行污水处理厂MBR工艺为研究对象,利用BioWinTM软件平台及其内嵌的通用活性污泥模型和厌氧消化模型(ASDM),建立了工艺模拟模型并进行初步模拟及校正,利用校正的模型对MBR工艺的运行参数进行了模拟分析,得到出水水质对工艺参数的敏感度,从而总结出了部分运行指南.%Taking the actual operating MBR process in wastewater treatment plant as the object, and using the BioWinTM software platform and the embedded general activated sludge/anaerobic digestion model (ASDM), this paper set up a process simulation model and carried the primary simulation and calibration. The simulation analysis of the MBR operation parameters was carried out with the calibrated model, and the sensitivity of the water quality to the process parameters was figured out and partial operation manual was also summarized.

  18. What is life? Bio-physical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, G P

    2009-01-01

    Life arises and develops in gravitationally bound atomic systems, under certain conditions, in the presence of the inflow of energy. A condition of structural dynamic reactivity to the energy inflow qualifies what are anthropomorphically considered as "alive objects". Alive objects, in this perspective, include such rudimentary animate atomic structures as the retinal molecule C20H28o to the herpes simplex virus C102H152N26o29 to the human being, a twenty-six element atomic structure, which can be quantified further as thermodynamic quasi-closed supramolecular systems, which are part of natural open systems. These systems appear and evolve in periodic conditions near to internal equilibrium. This systems attribute of dynamic life can be understood further by the determination and use of mathematical "state functions", which are functions that quantify the state of a system defined by the ensemble of physical quantities: temperature, pressure, composition, etc., which characterize the system, but neither by its surroundings nor by its history. In this view, the phenomenon of a life is easily understood as a general consequence of the laws of the universe, in particular, the laws of thermodynamics, which in the geocentric perspective translate to a formulation of "hierarchical thermodynamics" and a "principle of substance stability". The formation of living thermodynamic structures, in short, arises on the nanolevel by a constantly varying environment that causes variety of living forms. The definition of a life as the bio-chemical-physical phenomenon can thus be given on the basis of the exact sciences, i. e. chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics, without mention of numerous private attributes of a living substance and without physically baseless models of mathematical modeling, such as Prigoginean thermodynamics.

  19. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  20. Culture of osteoblasts on bio-derived bones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xu; YANG Zhi-ming; GE Bao-feng; LIU Xue-mei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of bio-derived bones, as substitutes of autogenous bone grafts and demineralized cadaver bones, on the attachment, spreading and proliferation of isolated osteoblasts. Methods: Osteoblasts were isolated from the calvaria of a fetal rabbit through sequential collagenase digestion. In the attachment study, the osteoblasts labeled with 3H-leucine were incubated with the bio-derived bone materials in sterile microcentrifugale tubes for 15, 90 and 180 minutes, and 24 hours, respectively. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. In the proliferation study, the osteoblasts were cultured with the bio-derived bone materials for 24 hours and 3H-thymidine was added during the last 2 hours of the incubation. The attached cells were collected and the radioactivity was measured with liquid scintillation spectrometry. Osteoblasts were seeded on the bone graft materials for 60 or 120 minutes, 24 or 48 hours, and 3 or 7 days, then the co-culture was processed for scanning electron microscopy to observe the interaction of osteoblasts and the bio-derived bone materials. Results: Osteoblasts attached to the bio-derived bone materials in a time-dependent manner. There were significantly (P<0.05) more attached cells after 180 minutes than after 15 and 90 minutes of incubations (P<0.05). Osteoblasts were proliferated in a large amount on the surface and in the materials. Osteoblasts seeded onto 100 mg bio-derived bones resulted in significantly (P<0.05) more measurable proliferation than those seeded onto 10 mg bones. Osteoblasts appeared round as they attached to the materials, then flattened and spread over with time passing. Conclusions: Bio-derived bones can provide a good environment for the attachment and proliferation of osteoblasts.

  1. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers.

  2. [Effects of bio-fertilizer on organically cultured cucumber growth and soil biological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Zong, Liang-gang; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Yan

    2010-10-01

    Field trials of organic farming were conducted to examine the effects of different bio-fertilizers on the organically cultured cucumber growth, soil enzyme activities, and soil microbial biomass. Four treatments were installed, i. e., organic fertilizer only (CK), bio-fertilizer "Zhonghe" combined with organic fertilizer (ZHH), bio-fertilizer "NST" combined with organic fertilizer (NST), and bio-fertilizer "Bio" combined with organic fertilizer (BIO). Bio-fertilizers combined with organic fertilizer increased the cucumber yield significantly, and improved the root growth and leaf chlorophyll content. Comparing with that in CK, the cucumber yield in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO was increased by 10.4%, 12.4%, and 29.2%, respectively. At the seedling stage, early flowering stage, and picking time of cucumber, the soil microbial biomass C and N in treatments ZHH, NST, and BIO were significantly higher than that in CK, and the activities of soil urease, acid phosphatase, and catalase were also higher.

  3. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  4. Computational Metabolomics Operations at BioCyc.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Karp

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BioCyc.org is a genome and metabolic pathway web portal covering 5500 organisms, including Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. These organism-specific databases have undergone variable degrees of curation. The EcoCyc (Escherichia coli Encyclopedia database is the most highly curated; its contents have been derived from 27,000 publications. The MetaCyc (Metabolic Encyclopedia database within BioCyc is a “universal” metabolic database that describes pathways, reactions, enzymes and metabolites from all domains of life. Metabolic pathways provide an organizing framework for analyzing metabolomics data, and the BioCyc website provides computational operations for metabolomics data that include metabolite search and translation of metabolite identifiers across multiple metabolite databases. The site allows researchers to store and manipulate metabolite lists using a facility called SmartTables, which supports metabolite enrichment analysis. That analysis operation identifies metabolite sets that are statistically over-represented for the substrates of specific metabolic pathways. BioCyc also enables visualization of metabolomics data on individual pathway diagrams and on the organism-specific metabolic map diagrams that are available for every BioCyc organism. Most of these operations are available both interactively and as programmatic web services.

  5. G-InforBIO: integrated system for microbial genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Takashi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome databases contain diverse kinds of information, including gene annotations and nucleotide and amino acid sequences. It is not easy to integrate such information for genomic study. There are few tools for integrated analyses of genomic data, therefore, we developed software that enables users to handle, manipulate, and analyze genome data with a variety of sequence analysis programs. Results The G-InforBIO system is a novel tool for genome data management and sequence analysis. The system can import genome data encoded as eXtensible Markup Language documents as formatted text documents, including annotations and sequences, from DNA Data Bank of Japan and GenBank encoded as flat files. The genome database is constructed automatically after importing, and the database can be exported as documents formatted with eXtensible Markup Language or tab-deliminated text. Users can retrieve data from the database by keyword searches, edit annotation data of genes, and process data with G-InforBIO. In addition, information in the G-InforBIO database can be analyzed seamlessly with nine different software programs, including programs for clustering and homology analyses. Conclusion The G-InforBIO system simplifies genome analyses by integrating several available software programs to allow efficient handling and manipulation of genome data. G-InforBIO is freely available from the download site.

  6. Ensino de Bioética: um desafio transdisciplinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elisa de Souza e Azevêdo

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available O fato inovador de a Bioética ser uma área de conhecimento englobando várias disciplinas, e seu grande desenvolvimento em curto tempo, estão trazendo desafios de ordem acadêmica. O ensino da Bioética tornou-se uma nova experiência sem modelo didático definitivo. A forma tradicional de ensino baseada na concepção disciplinar não é eficaz para a completa compreensão desta nova área. A Bioética lida com saberes na encruzilhada de várias disciplinas, sugerindo uma concepção interdisciplinar ou mesmo transdisciplinar para seu ensino. A concepção filosófica da Bioética, conforme desenvolvida em países europeus, fortalece sua dimensão transdisciplinar e reconhece, na antropologia (cultural e filosófica, o suporte teórico para seu ensino. Assim, considerando a proximidade das culturas e valores morais das sociedades brasileira e européia, a concepção européia da Bioética parece mais apropriada para seu ensino neste país.

  7. Ensino de Bioética: um desafio transdisciplinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Elisa de Souza e Azevêdo

    Full Text Available O fato inovador de a Bioética ser uma área de conhecimento englobando várias disciplinas, e seu grande desenvolvimento em curto tempo, estão trazendo desafios de ordem acadêmica. O ensino da Bioética tornou-se uma nova experiência sem modelo didático definitivo. A forma tradicional de ensino baseada na concepção disciplinar não é eficaz para a completa compreensão desta nova área. A Bioética lida com saberes na encruzilhada de várias disciplinas, sugerindo uma concepção interdisciplinar ou mesmo transdisciplinar para seu ensino. A concepção filosófica da Bioética, conforme desenvolvida em países europeus, fortalece sua dimensão transdisciplinar e reconhece, na antropologia (cultural e filosófica, o suporte teórico para seu ensino. Assim, considerando a proximidade das culturas e valores morais das sociedades brasileira e européia, a concepção européia da Bioética parece mais apropriada para seu ensino neste país.

  8. Bio-composites : opportunities for value-added biobased materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drzal, L.T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science]|[Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Composite Materials and Structures Center

    2003-07-01

    In order to reduce dependency on foreign oil, there is a growing need to develop and commercialize new bio-based green materials and technologies that can produce bio-based structural materials that are competitive with current synthetic products. The use of bio-based products would also improve the environment and create new opportunities for the agricultural economy. This paper described ongoing research into bio-based materials and products that replace petroleum-based products. In particular, it examined the use of biocomposites made by embedding natural/biofibers such as kenaf, hemp, flax, jute, henequen, pineapple leaf fiber, corn stalk fibers and native Michigan grasses into petroleum-derived traditional plastics such as polypropylene, unsaturated polyesters and epoxies. It also examines the use of green biocomposites developed by embedding these bio-fibers into renewable resource-based bioplastics such as cellulosic plastics and soy-based plastics. New processing methods that combine biofibers with plastics were needed to produce the biocomposites with desirable mechanical properties. The study showed that biofiber reinforced petroleum-based plastic biocomposites can produce a structural material that offers a balance between ecology, economy and technology. The potential for using these materials for automotive and building materials was also presented. 1 tab., 28 figs.

  9. Modeling biological systems with delays in Bio-PEPA

    CERN Document Server

    Caravagna, Giulio; 10.4204/EPTCS.40.7

    2010-01-01

    Delays in biological systems may be used to model events for which the underlying dynamics cannot be precisely observed, or to provide abstraction of some behavior of the system resulting more compact models. In this paper we enrich the stochastic process algebra Bio-PEPA, with the possibility of assigning delays to actions, yielding a new non-Markovian process algebra: Bio-PEPAd. This is a conservative extension meaning that the original syntax of Bio-PEPA is retained and the delay specification which can now be associated with actions may be added to existing Bio-PEPA models. The semantics of the firing of the actions with delays is the delay-as-duration approach, earlier presented in papers on the stochastic simulation of biological systems with delays. These semantics of the algebra are given in the Starting-Terminating style, meaning that the state and the completion of an action are observed as two separate events, as required by delays. Furthermore we outline how to perform stochastic simulation of Bio...

  10. Gradient packing bed bio-filter for landfill methane mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obulisamy, Parthiba Karthikeyan; Sim Yan May, Jane; Rajasekar, Balasubramanian

    2016-10-01

    We assessed the suitability of various biogenic materials for development of a gradient packed bed bio-filter to mitigate the methane (CH4) emission from landfills. Five different biogenic materials (windrow compost-WC; vermicompost-VC; landfill top cover-LTC; landfill bottom soil-LBS; and river soil sediment-SS) were screened. Among these materials, the VC showed a better CH4 oxidation potential (MOP) of 12.6μg CH4 gdw(-1)h(-1). Subsequently, the VC was used as a packing material along with wood chips in proto-type bio-filters. Wood chips were mixed at 5-15% to form three distinct gradients in a test bio-filter. Under the three different CH4 loading rates of 33, 44 and 55 gCH4 m(-3)h(-1), the achieved MOPs were 31, 41, and 47gCH4 m(-3)h(-1), respectively. The gradient packed bed bio-filter is effective for landfill CH4 mitigation than the conventional bio-filter as the latter shows gas channeling effects with poor MOPs.

  11. DETERMINATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY OF BIO HUMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova I. S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we present the results of the investigation of acute toxicity of bio humates obtained by the method vermicultivation on laboratory animals. In the diets of farm animals and Pets to fill in the missing nutrients in the past years, we had an extensive use of various feed additives. Among them, mineral (macro - and micronutrients, protein and fat supplements, vitamins, biostimulants, complex natural compounds (sapropel, peat, synthetic products (enzymes, hormones, antibiotics, adaptogens, antioxidants. The search for new ways of improvement and increase of efficiency of agricultural animals using feed additives with high demands on ecology of meat and dairy foods naturally led to increased studies on the use in livestock farming of water-soluble alkaline salts of natural humic acids - humates. Their environmental safety and the unique ability to improve metabolism and increase energy cells very positively manifested in living organisms. Numerous studies Russian and foreign scientists installed a high efficiency natural humates as biostimulators and immunomodulators in animal husbandry and veterinary medicine. Accumulated extensive experimental material, proving that the use of humates leads to faster growth of animals, reducing morbidity and mortality, increase the body's resistance to toxins in feed and resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Improving with the help of humates ecological purity of the ecosystems "water — soil — plant", as well as the health of birds, animals and fish will ultimately lead to strengthen health and to prolong human life as a consumer of agricultural products. Currently, the livestock market is intensively increasing the humates produced in Russia and abroad from brown coal, peat, sapropel. A special place among them has been occupied by the newest formulations because of a unique combination of safety, efficiency, and value, which, thanks to its amazing properties to increase energy cells

  12. Application of Bio-speckle Activity to Assess Seed Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Men

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an assessment method for seed viability, using bio-speckle technique. Bio-speckle is caused by moving of the biological material under highly coherent light. If this phenomenon can be measured by successive speckle patterns during the period of germination, it is possible to identify different activities of the seeds. Viable and non-viable pisumsativum seeds were illuminated by a helium-neon laser source of 7mW with wavelength of 632.8 nm. The speckle patterns were recorded by a digital colour charge-couple device camera and stored in the host computer for further analysis using Matlab. Two methods were used to obtain information of biological activities from these speckle patterns. It was observed that the seeds activities can be distinguished as viable seeds and non-viable seeds. The results indicate that bio-speckle can be used to assess seed viability.

  13. [(Bio)artificial liver support: ready for the patient?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamuleau, R A F M

    2016-05-01

    In 2016, an intensive-care physician has at his disposal a number of artificial organs for the support of patients with organ failure. Examples are the artificial kidney and the heart-lung machine. Artificial livers are being developed for patients with severe liver failure whose lives can only be saved at the present time by a transplant with a donor liver. These artificial livers are based either on a device that removes toxic materials from the patient's blood with, for example, albumin dialysis, or make use of bio-reactors filled with functioning liver cells, the so-called bio-artificial liver. In theory, the bio-artificial liver has the greatest potential to increase life expectancy. The results of clinical studies are also very promising. They are not yet sufficient, however, to permit general clinical use.

  14. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  15. Bio-electrosprayed living composite matrix implanted into mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Warnes, Gary; Scotton, Chris J

    2011-10-10

    We show that composite de novo structures can be generated using bio-electrosprays. Mouse lung fibroblasts are bio-electrosprayed directly with a biopolymer to form cell-bearing matrices, which are viable even when implanted subcutaneously into murine hosts. Generated cell-bearing matrices are assessed in-vitro and found to undergo all expected cellular behaviour. Subsequent in-vivo studies demonstrate the implanted living matrices integrating as expected with the surrounding microenvironment. The in-vitro and in-vivo studies elucidate and validate the ability for either bio-electrosprays or cell electrospinning to form a desired living architecture for undergoing investigation for repairing, replacing and rejuvenating damaged and/or ageing tissues.

  16. BioFET-SIM Web Interface: Implementation and Two Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hediger, Martin R; De Vico, Luca

    2012-01-01

    We present a web interface for the BioFET-SIM program. The web interface allows to conveniently setup calculations based on the BioFET-SIM multiple charges model. As an illustration, two case studies are presented. In the first case, a generic peptide with opposite charges on both ends is inverted in orientation on a semiconducting nanowire surface leading to a corresponding change in sign of the computed sensitivity of the device. In the second case, the binding of an antibody/antigen complex on the nanowire surface is studied in terms of orientation and analyte/nanowire surface distance. We demonstrate how the BioFET-SIM web interface can aid in the understanding of experimental data and postulate alternative ways of antibody/antigen orientation on the nanowire surface.

  17. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  18. Opto-bio-fluidic modeling of bioanalytical and biomedical microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekwas, Andrzej J.; Sikorski, Zbigniew

    2006-08-01

    Optical technology is rapidly finding novel applications in several exiting bioanalytical, biological, and biomedical applications. Optical beams are increasingly used for bio-fluidic sample manipulation in BioMEMS devices replacing convectional mechanical, electrostatic, and electrokinetic methods. This paper presents novel multiphysics computational approach for modeling optical interaction with fluidic, thermal, mechanical, and biological processes. We present a model of optical manipulation of particles and biological cells with laser beams. Computational results are compared to available experimental data from laboratory experiments and from practical engineered optical bio microdevices. The modeling approach is demonstrated on selected specific applications of optical manipulation of micro spheres, micro cylinders, and optical manipulation and sorting of biological cells in microfluidic cytometers.

  19. Mechanical Characterization of Bio-Char Made Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit pandey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Material discoveries and development have always been the cause of the growth and development of a nation and the need of naturally made materials is the need of hours. Thus this paper takes you to the development of a hybrid composite made of sisal fiber with epoxy as the matrix intertwined with softwood bio-char. Softwood chip bio-char, produced by slow pyrolysis, has a porous structure improving its nutrient absorbing capacity, surface area and thus a potential substituent. Bio-char has an appreciable carbon sequestration value i.e. a carbon absorbing product. The orientation of sisal fiber are changed and studied in longitudinal and orthogonal direction indicating superiority of longitudinal fiber orientation .It also addresses the variation in mechanical characteristic (tensile flexural and impact with different constituent of the new composite and its position in material selection charts with a direction for further work.

  20. BioMOBY: an open source biological web services proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Links, Matthew

    2002-12-01

    BioMOBY is an Open Source research project which aims to generate an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services; data and services are decentralised, but the availability of these resources, and the instructions for interacting with them, are registered in a central location called MOBY Central. BioMOBY adds to the web services paradigm, as exemplified by Universal Data Discovery and Integration (UDDI), by having an object-driven registry query system with object and service ontologies. This allows users to traverse expansive and disparate data sets where each possible next step is presented based on the data object currently in-hand. Moreover, a path from the current data object to a desired final data object could be automatically discovered using the registry. Native BioMOBY objects are lightweight XML, and make up both the query and the response of a simple object access protocol (SOAP) transaction.

  1. Bioprocessing of bio-based chemicals produced from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-12-01

    The feedstocks used for the production of bio-based chemicals have recently expanded from edible sugars to inedible and more recalcitrant forms of lignocellulosic biomass. To produce bio-based chemicals from renewable polysaccharides, several bioprocessing approaches have been developed and include separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), and consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). In the last decade, SHF, SSF, and CBP have been used to generate macromolecules and aliphatic and aromatic compounds that are capable of serving as sustainable, drop-in substitutes for petroleum-based chemicals. The present review focuses on recent progress in the bioprocessing of microbially produced chemicals from renewable feedstocks, including starch and lignocellulosic biomass. In particular, the technological feasibility of bio-based chemical production is discussed in terms of the feedstocks and different bioprocessing approaches, including the consolidation of enzyme production, enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation.

  2. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    was tested in a single particle reactor at conditions relevant for suspension firing (A: 1200 °C, 5.5 % O2; B: 1200 °C, 2.9 % O2 and C: 990 °C, 5.5 % O2). The slurries were tested to optimize the bio-oil composition for use as an alternative power plant start-up fuel. Pyrolysis times for 5 mg bio-oil samples...... and thereby decreased flame stability. Most promising were oil or diesel (not palm oil) containing slurries (1 and 5) with heating values in the range of 15 MJ/kg.......Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  3. Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Aimaro; Li, Sujing; Linforth, Rob; Smart, Katherine A; Andrésen, John M

    2011-11-01

    The pyrolysis of wheat and barley spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production respectively was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540 °C using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460 °C leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent grains and low oxygen content. The viscosity profile of the spent grains indicated that activated alumina could promote liquefaction and prevent charring of the structure between 400 and 460 °C. The biochar contains about 10-12% of original carbon and 13-20% of starting nitrogen resulting very attractive as a soil amendment and for carbon sequestration. Overall, value can be added to the spent grains opening a new market in bio-fuel production without the needs of external energy. The bio-oil from spent grains could meet about 9% of the renewable obligation in the UK.

  4. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  5. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2012-04-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize in the main producing countries. The WFs of sweeteners and bio-ethanol are mainly determined by the crop type that is used as a source and by agricultural practise and agro-climatic conditions; process water footprints are relatively small. The weighted global average WF of sugar cane is 209 m(3)/tonne; for sugar beet this is 133 m(3)/tonne and for maize 1222 m(3)/tonne. Large regional differences in WFs indicate that WFs of crops for sweeteners and bio-ethanol can be improved. It is more favourable to use maize as a feedstock for sweeteners or bio-ethanol than sugar beet or sugar cane. The WF of sugar cane contributes to water stress in the Indus and Ganges basins. In the Ukraine, the large grey WF of sugar beet contributes to water pollution. In some western European countries, blue WFs of sugar beet and maize need a large amount of available blue water for agriculture. The allocation of the limited global water resources to bio-energy on a large scale will be at the cost of water allocation to food and nature.

  6. BioWarehouse: a bioinformatics database warehouse toolkit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stringer-Calvert David WJ

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article addresses the problem of interoperation of heterogeneous bioinformatics databases. Results We introduce BioWarehouse, an open source toolkit for constructing bioinformatics database warehouses using the MySQL and Oracle relational database managers. BioWarehouse integrates its component databases into a common representational framework within a single database management system, thus enabling multi-database queries using the Structured Query Language (SQL but also facilitating a variety of database integration tasks such as comparative analysis and data mining. BioWarehouse currently supports the integration of a pathway-centric set of databases including ENZYME, KEGG, and BioCyc, and in addition the UniProt, GenBank, NCBI Taxonomy, and CMR databases, and the Gene Ontology. Loader tools, written in the C and JAVA languages, parse and load these databases into a relational database schema. The loaders also apply a degree of semantic normalization to their respective source data, decreasing semantic heterogeneity. The schema supports the following bioinformatics datatypes: chemical compounds, biochemical reactions, metabolic pathways, proteins, genes, nucleic acid sequences, features on protein and nucleic-acid sequences, organisms, organism taxonomies, and controlled vocabularies. As an application example, we applied BioWarehouse to determine the fraction of biochemically characterized enzyme activities for which no sequences exist in the public sequence databases. The answer is that no sequence exists for 36% of enzyme activities for which EC numbers have been assigned. These gaps in sequence data significantly limit the accuracy of genome annotation and metabolic pathway prediction, and are a barrier for metabolic engineering. Complex queries of this type provide examples of the value of the data warehousing approach to bioinformatics research. Conclusion BioWarehouse embodies significant progress on the

  7. Characterization of Deactivated Bio-oil Hydrotreating Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-06

    Deactivation of bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts remains a significant challenge because of the poor quality of pyrolysis bio-oil input for hydrotreating and understanding their deactivation mode is critical to developing improved catalysts and processes. In this research, we developed an understanding of the deactivation of two-step bio-oil hydrotreating catalysts (sulfided Ru/C and sulfided CoMo/C) through detailed characterization of the catalysts using various complimentary analytical techniques. Severe fouling of both catalysts by carbonaceous species was the major form of deactivation, which is consistent with the significant loss of surface area and pore volume of both deactivated catalysts and the significant increase of the bulk density. Further analysis of the carbonaceous species by thermogravimetric analysis and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that the carbonaceous species was formed by condensation reaction of active species such as sugars and sugar derivatives (aldehydes and ketones) in bio-oil feedstock during bio-oil hydrotreating under the conditions and catalysts used. Microscopy results did not show metal sintering of the Ru/C catalyst. However, X-ray diffraction indicated a probable transformation of the highly-active CoMoS phase in the sulfided CoMo/C catalyst to Co8S9 and MoS2 phase with low activity. Loss of the active site by transport of inorganic elements from the bio-oil and the reactor construction material onto the catalyst surface also might be a cause of deactivation as indicated by elemental analysis of spent catalysts.

  8. Large-scale biohydrogen production from bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Susanjib; Kumar, Amit

    2010-10-01

    Large amount of hydrogen is consumed during the upgrading of bitumen into synthetic crude oil (SCO), and this hydrogen is exclusively produced from natural gas in Western Canada. Because of large amount of emission from natural gas, alternative sources for hydrogen fuel especially renewable feedstocks could significantly reduce CO(2) emissions. In this study, biomass is converted to bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. This bio-oil is steam reformed near bitumen upgrading plant for producing hydrogen fuel. A techno-economic model is developed to estimate the cost of hydrogen from biomass through the pathway of fast pyrolysis. Three different feedstocks including whole-tree biomass, forest residues (i.e. limbs, branches, and tops of tree produced during logging operations), and straw (mostly from wheat and barley crops) are considered for biohydrogen production. Delivered cost of biohydrogen from whole-tree-based biomass ($2.40/kg of H(2)) is lower than that of forest residues ($3.00/kg of H(2)) and agricultural residues ($4.55/kg of H(2)) at a plant capacity of 2000 dry tonnes/day. In this study, bio-oil is produced in the field/forest and transported to a distance of 500 km from the centralized remote bio-oil production plant to bitumen upgrading plant. Feedstock delivery cost and capital cost are the largest cost contributors to the bio-oil production cost, while more than 50% of the cost of biohydrogen production is contributed by bio-oil production and transportation. Carbon credits of $133, $214, and $356/tonne of CO(2) equivalent could make whole-tree, forest residues, and straw-based biohydrogen production competitive with natural gas-based H(2) for a natural gas price of $5/GJ, respectively.

  9. Success factors for the adoption of bio based packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Shahzad

    2011-01-01

    This paper is written as a contribution towards a sustainable society in the context of bio-based packaging. A few decades back, the world was looking for processes that were efficient in terms of output and quality, but now the situation has changed. The world is looking for solutions which are not only effective and efficient but also are sustainable and positive for not just economics but also for the society. This paper is also an effort to elaborate the potential of bio-based packaging. ...

  10. Essais de betteraves bio Résultats de 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli; Böhler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Contexte Depuis l’introduction de l’affouragement 100 % bio pour les ruminants, l’intérêt pour la betterave fourragère a de nouveau augmenté dans certaines régions. La betterave fourragère représente en effet une alternative à la pulpe de betterave conventionnelle qui n’est plus autorisée en bio. Le plus grand problème de la culture de la betterave est le contrôle des adventices. Le travail de désherbage manuel sur la ligne peut atteindre 300 heures par hectare. De nouvelles machines pr...

  11. BioSentinel: Developing a Space Radiation Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    BioSentinel is an autonomous fully self-contained science mission that will conduct the first study of the biological response to space radiation outside low Earth orbit (LEO) in over 40 years. The 4-unit (4U) BioSentinel biosensor system, is housed within a 6-Unit (6U) spacecraft, and uses yeast cells in multiple independent microfluidic cards to detect and measure DNA damage that occurs in response to ambient space radiation. Cell growth and metabolic activity will be measured using a 3-color LED detection system and a metabolic indicator dye with a dedicated thermal control system per fluidic card.

  12. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry.

  13. Problemas bioéticos emergentes de la inteligencia artificial

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Andrés Villalba Gómez

    2016-01-01

    El presente artículo de revisión, relaciona de forma analítica los conceptos entre bioética e inteligencia artificial, identificando los elementos técnicofilosóficos tales como: transhumanismo, inteligencia artificial y bioética de la tecnología; cuyo orden transdisciplinar, evoluciona en cuestionamientos científicos basados en la evolución de la tecnociencia del siglo XXI. Se identificarán los referentes conceptuales de la relación entre transhumanismo ...

  14. Co-publishing with BioMed Central

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>We are delighted to announce that our journal will be published in partnership with BioMed Central,part of Springer,under the Open Access model from 2014.As the leading Open Access publisher,BioMed Central will support the journal in its continued growth and development,and will promote to a broader community of audience.Beijing Forestry University will support the journal by sponsoring ArticleProcessing-Charges(APCs)for authors in the first three years which means authors

  15. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... for syngas production. Experiments have shown that CBS can be successfully processed and gasified in the entrained flow reactor to produce syngas with almost no tar content and low residual carbon formation. High reactor temperature and steam/carbon ratio is favourable for H2 production. At 1400 °C...

  16. Bioquímica. Biosíntesis de Macromoléculas, 2010-11

    OpenAIRE

    González-Núñez, Verónica

    2010-01-01

    I.Materiales de clase:1. Introducción a la Biosíntesis de Macromoléculas; 2. Biosíntesis de nucleótidos. Biosíntesis de nucleótidos pirimidínicos; 3. Biosíntesis de nucleótidos púricos; 4. Biosíntesis de desoxirribonucleótidos; 5. Biosíntesis del DNA; 6. Proteínas responsables de la replicación del DNA; 7. Mecanismos de la biosíntesis de DNA en procariontes; 8. Biosíntesis de proteínas; 9. Modificaciones postraduccionales de las proteínas; 10. Tráfico intracelular de proteínas; 11. Plegamient...

  17. Bio-Inspired Autonomous Communications Systems with Anomaly Detection Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate BioComm, a bio-inspired autonomous communications system (ACS) aimed at dynamically reconfiguring and redeploying autonomous...

  18. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Murillo L; Saeki, Margarida J.; Telling, Mark T. F.

    2014-01-01

    and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD......), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn...... in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents...

  19. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS.

  20. 78 FR 4170 - License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Request for Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Columbia, MO AGENCY... issuance of a license amendment to Materials License No. 24-13365-01 issued to Analytical Bio-Chemistry... accession numbers are: 1. Analytical Bio-Chemistry Laboratories, Inc., Licensee amendment request...

  1. Negotiating Liberalism and Bio-Politics: Stylizing Power in Defense of the Mall Curfew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Brian

    2008-01-01

    While Michel Foucault's "technologies of the self" are useful in explaining the convergence of liberalism and bio-politics, they fail to account for the appeal of juridical mechanisms that administer the conventions of bio-political control. A productive site from which to explore this convergence is provided by the "mall curfew," a bio-political…

  2. A Framework for Smart Distribution of Bio-signal Processing Units in M-Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mei, Hailiang; Widya, Ing; Broens, Tom; Pawar, Pravin; Halteren, van Aart; Shishkov, Boris; Sinderen, van Marten

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the Bio-Signal Processing Unit (BSPU) as a functional component that hosts (part of ) the bio-signal information processing algorithms that are needed for an m-health application. With our approach, the BSPUs can be dynamically assigned to available nodes between the bio-signal

  3. Analysis of Norwegian bio energy statistics. Quality improvement proposals; Analyse av norsk bioenergistatistikk. Forslag til kvalitetsheving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report is an assessment of the current model and presentation form of bio energy statistics. It appears proposed revision and enhancement of both collection and data representation. In the context of market development both in general for energy and particularly for bio energy and government targets, a good bio energy statistics form the basis to follow up the objectives and means.(eb)

  4. Life cycle impact assessment of bio-based plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Faaij, A. P C; Lundquist, L.; Schenker, U.; Briois, J. F.; Patel, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol w

  5. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid b

  6. Chemicals derived from pyrolysis bio-oils as antioxidants in fuels and lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins and hardwood were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oils to produce lignin-derived bio-oils of which phenols were the major component. These bio-oils were extracted with alkali to yield a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. When tested...

  7. Bio-Security Proficiencies Project for Beginning Producers in 4-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Borba, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Improving bio-security practices among 4-H members who raise and show project animals is important. Bio-security measures can reduce the risk of disease spread and mitigate potential health and economic risks of disease outbreaks involving animal and zoonotic pathogens. Survey data provided statistical evidence that the Bio-Security Proficiencies…

  8. Natural product derivative BIO promotes recovery after myocardial infarction via unique modulation of the cardiac microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sook; Jeong, Hye-Yun; Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Woong-Hee; Cho, Haaglim; Um, JungIn; Seo, Youngha; Kang, Wan Seok; Jin, Suk-Won; Kim, Min Chul; Kim, Yong-Chul; Jung, Da-Woon; Williams, Darren R; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2016-08-11

    The cardiac microenvironment includes cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts and macrophages, which regulate remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Targeting this microenvironment is a novel therapeutic approach for MI. We found that the natural compound derivative, BIO ((2'Z,3'E)-6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime) modulated the cardiac microenvironment to exert a therapeutic effect on MI. Using a series of co-culture studies, BIO induced proliferation in cardiomyocytes and inhibited proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts. BIO produced multiple anti-fibrotic effects in cardiac fibroblasts. In macrophages, BIO inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Significantly, BIO modulated the molecular crosstalk between cardiac fibroblasts and differentiating macrophages to induce polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. In the optically transparent zebrafish-based heart failure model, BIO induced cardiomyocyte proliferation and completely recovered survival rate. BIO is a known glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor, but these effects could not be recapitulated using the classical inhibitor, lithium chloride; indicating novel therapeutic effects of BIO. We identified the mechanism of BIO as differential modulation of p27 protein expression and potent induction of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. In a rat MI model, BIO reduced fibrosis and improved cardiac performance. Histological analysis revealed modulation of the cardiac microenvironment by BIO, with increased presence of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. Our results demonstrate that BIO produces unique effects in the cardiac microenvironment to promote recovery post-MI.

  9. Are bio-absorbable stents the future of SFA treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, P; Keirse, K; Verbist, J; Deloose, K; Bosiers, M

    2010-02-01

    Several limitations inherent to the implantation of a metallic device, such as the occurrence of in-stent re-stenosis, in an arterial lumen intuitively explain the interest for developing bio-absorbable stents. Two main types of bio-absorbable stents currently exist: polymer stents and metallic stents. To date, no studies with bio-absorbable stents have been conducted in the superficial femoral artery (SFA). Because of their strut thickness and lack of radial force, polymer stents are no good candidates for endovascular use. Absorbable metal stents (AMS) do have the potential to perform well for artery treatment, although current evidence from in-human coronary and infrapopliteal studies yield unsatisfactory results. Drastic technological improvements are mandatory before AMS can be considered for every day practice. Yet, it is our belief that further development of other metal and non-metal bio-absorbable stents, with or without drug-coating, may lead to the creation of the ultimate SFA stent.

  10. CForBio: a network monitoring Chinese forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Feng; Xiangcheng Mi; Hui Yan; Frank Yonghong Li; Jens-Christian Svenning; Keping Ma

    2016-01-01

    China harbors a rich variety of forest types and forest-associated biodiversity,linked to both historical and contemporary environmental factors.However,being a country with a large population and rapid economic development,its diverse forest is facing unprecedent challenges.The Chinese Forest Biodiversity Network (CForBio) was initiated 12 years ago to study the maintenance of biodiversity in China's forest ecosystems.In this review,we first summarize research progress in CForBio,and then give suggestions for future research.In the past 12 years,the research based on CForBio mainly focused on local ecological factors,such as environment filtering,biotic interactions and small-scale dispersal limitation.We suggest that future studies in CForBio should (1) continue research on trees,but expand more on insects,birds,mammals,microbes and other organism groups;(2)investigate the effects of widespread defaunation on forest biodiversity,structure and functioning;(3) evaluate the diverse effects of climate change on forest composition,structure and functioning;(4) include new technologies,such as remote sensing,to better monitor and study forest biodiversity change and maintenance.

  11. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    the co-combustion of wood and oil. The focus is laid on differences in ash characteristics and on the mobility of Cd and Cr. These two heavy metals are chosen because Cd is the problematic heavy metal in bio ashes and Cr is problematic in many ash stabilization methods (in the Cr(VI) state). Based...

  12. Modelling for Bio-,Agro- and Pharma-Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    approach for meso and microscale partial models. The specific case study of codeine release is examined. As a bio- application, a batch fermentation process is modelled. This involves the generation of a pre-cursor compound for insulin production.The plant involves a number of coupled unit operations...

  13. Early Stage Design of a Bio refinery from Castor Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Daniela; Quaglia, Alberto; Pessoa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic method fo r synthesis and analysis of bio mass based biorefinery pathways (process networks) in terms of current and future market conditions. The systematic method has been implemented into a computer aided tool that is able to quickly evaluate alternatives...

  14. Bio Inspired Algorithms in Single and Multiobjective Reliability Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Burtschy, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Non-traditional search and optimization methods based on natural phenomena have been proposed recently in order to avoid local or unstable behavior when run towards an optimum state. This paper describes the principles of bio inspired algorithms and reports on Migration Algorithms and Bees...

  15. Cementation of Loose Sand Particles based on Bio-cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Hui; QIAN Chunxiang

    2014-01-01

    Loose sand particles could be cemented to sandstone by bio-cement (microbial induced magnesium carbonate). The bio-sandstone was firstly prepared, and then the compressive strength and the porosity of the sandstone cemented by microbial induced magnesium carbonate were tested to characterize the cementation effectiveness. In addition, the formed mineral composition and the microstructure of bio-sandstone were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The experimental results show that the feasibility of binding loose sand particles using microbial induced magnesium carbonate precipitation is available and the acquired compressive strength of bio-sandstone can be excellent at certain ages. Moreover, the compressive strength and the porosity could be improved with the increase of microbial induced magnesium carbonate content. XRD results indicate that the morphology of magnesium carbonate induced by microbe appears as needles and SEM results show that the cementation of loose sand particles to sandstone mainly relies on the microbial induced formation of magnesium carbonate precipitation around individual particles and at particle-particle contacts.

  16. BioPhotonics Workstation: a university tech transfer challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Tauro, Sandeep;

    2011-01-01

    Conventional optical trapping or tweezing is often limited in the achievable trapping range because of high numerical aperture and imaging requirements. To circumvent this, we are developing a next generation BioPhotonics Workstation platform that supports extension modules through a long working...

  17. Ear Authentication and Template Protection using Bio-key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Annapurani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric authentication is gaining popularity in the current scenario. Biometric based authentication is the science of using physical or behavioral characteristic for ensuring that the person is the claimed identity. Biometric authentication system is also vulnerable to attacks in various phases. The biometric data stored in the template has to be protected, since variety of attacks like circumvent, covert acquisition affects the normal functioning of the system. An attacker may create new biometric data or steal the template or modify the template. Once the biometric template is compromised then the entire system is lost. So securing biometric template is an important aspect in biometric authentication system. In this study ear biometric template is secured by a new method of generating bio key from the ear fused template. Here the transformed template is stored in the database. During verification phase, for the new biometric sample a bio key is generated. Using this bio key the person is authenticated if the transformed feature generated is matched with the stored one. Hence the template is protected with the bio key. The authenticated person alone can access the system, since the key to decrypt the encrypted template is obtained from the ear trait of the authenticated person. FAR and FRR are used to evaluate the system performance.

  18. A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.

    2014-01-01

    A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes was developed and successfully tested. A greenhouse as part of a test rig, with different sorts of mangroves, was installed. Measurements showed promising results concerning fresh water relative yielding rates up to 1.4 kg/h/m2 (leaf surfac

  19. Bio-Based Adhesives and Evaluation for Wood Composites Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ferdosian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rapid growth in research and innovation of bio-based adhesives in the engineered wood product industry. This article reviews the recent research published over the last few decades on the synthesis of bio-adhesives derived from such renewable resources as lignin, starch, and plant proteins. The chemical structure of these biopolymers is described and discussed to highlight the active functional groups that are used in the synthesis of bio-adhesives. The potentials and drawbacks of each biomass are then discussed in detail; some methods have been suggested to modify their chemical structures and to improve their properties including water resistance and bonding strength for their ultimate application as wood adhesives. Moreover, this article includes discussion of techniques commonly used for evaluating the petroleum-based wood adhesives in terms of mechanical properties and penetration behavior, which are expected to be more widely applied to bio-based wood adhesives to better evaluate their prospect for wood composites application.

  20. Microscopic and spectroscopic observations in the bio-nanoworld.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterdorfer, Peter; Pohl, Peter; Schütz, Gerhard

    2009-07-13

    Biophysics in Linz: In February biophysicists from across the world converged on Linz for two biophysical conferences. The city which is the Cultural Capital of Europe 2009, provided the perfect environment for fruitful discussions on single-molecule techniques in biophysics, bio-nanotechnology, cell biology, and drug discovery.

  1. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Hoekstra, A.Y.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource

  2. Bio-oxidation of galena particles by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jiang; Huaiyang Zhou; Xiaotong Peng; Zhonghao Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the bio-oxidation of galena particles (-80 meshes) usingAcidithiobacillusferrooxidans and compares it with Fe3+ oxidation. Experimental results show that, at least, 0.00197 mol galena was leached from 100mL pulp (density of 3.8%) with 39 days' bio-oxidation, as compared to 0.00329 mol galena by Fe3+ with 9 days' oxidation. Because Fe3+ was constantly consumed, leaching by F3+e almost stopped after 9 days. Large amounts of lead sulfate were detected in both bio-oxidation and Fe3+ oxidation of galena. A. ferrooxidans followed a unique growth pattern during the bio-oxidation of galena. In the initial 15 days, the bacteria attached themselves to the galena surface with the formation of erosion pits similar in shape and length to those of the bacteria, and there were hardly any bacteria suspended in the solution. After 15 days, suspended bacteria increased. It is thus suggested that A. ferrooxidans may directly oxidize galena.

  3. Bio-economic Household Modelling for Agricultural Intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruseman, G.

    2000-01-01

    This study contributes to the quest for sustainable agricultural intensification through the development of a quantitative bio-economic modelling framework that allows assessment of new technology and policy measures in terms of household welfare and sustainability indicators. The main aim of the st

  4. Schroedinger Eigenmaps for the Analysis of Bio-Medical Data

    CERN Document Server

    Czaja, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    We introduce Schroedinger Eigenmaps, a new semi-supervised manifold learning and recovery technique. This method is based on an implementation of graph Schroedinger operators with appropriately constructed barrier potentials as carriers of labeled information. We apply it to analyze two complex bio-medical datasets: multispectral retinal images and microarray gene expressions.

  5. Psicoanálisis y Bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez Díaz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca cómo articular el psicoanálisis y la bioética. Para ello, se revisa cuáles marcos podrían ser adecuados, optando por la transdisciplina. Para una aproximación transdisciplinaria se requiere romper con algunos puntos de la ortodoxia de cada una de las disciplinas que intentan relacionarse, así como el requerimiento de un eje transdisciplinar que no se restrinja a reunir unas visiones de un modo reductible, ni sometible, ni complementario (en el sentido de agregable, sino que las reorganice en un nuevo nivel epistemológico, distinto. El trabajo propone que los puntos de ruptura de la ortodoxia de la relación entre psicoanálisis y bioética podrían ser la realidad tecnocientífica contemporánea y el papel del psicoanalista en un comité de ética. Finalmente, se propone que un posible eje trans - disciplinario entre psicoanálisis y bioética puede ser la deliberación, metodología propuesta para la bioética (en cuanto ética de la responsabilidad por Diego Gracia Guillén

  6. ‘Kunstbloem’ in finale Bio-Art & Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleis, R.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    Hoe ziet het landschap eruit als bijen op een kunstbloem met gekleurde pollen foerageren? Als een Van Gogh? Het idee levert onderzoeker David Kleijn een plek op in de finale van de Bio-Art & Design competitie. Synthetic Pollinizer heet het project dat Kleijn samen met de Australische kunstenaar

  7. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BIO-OIL PYROLYSIS/GASIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mou Zhang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the mechanism of bio-oil gasification and the influence of operating parameters on the properties of the gas products. Firstly, the pyrolysis/gasification of bio-oil was performed using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The evaporation of gas products from bio-oil were measured on-line with coupled Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The main gas products were CO, CO2, CH4, H2O, and light hydrocarbons, etc. Organics mainly evolved out at lower temperature (100-200°C, while the cracking of heavy hydrocarbon components took place at higher temperature (>200°C. Simultaneously, the gasification behavior of bio-oil was investigated in a fixed bed gasification reactor under different temperature and residence time. The gas product evolving was checked using micro-gas chromatography. It was observed that the yield of CO and H2 increased with increasing gasification temperature above 600°C, and the maximum value was obtained at 800°C. Prolonging the residence time was not favorable for the upgrading of syngas quality.

  8. Superhydrophobic bio-fibre surfaces via tailored grafting architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Daniel; Lindqvist, Josefina; Ostmark, Emma; Hult, Anders; Malmström, Eva

    2006-09-14

    Superhydrophobic bio-fibre surfaces with a micro-nano-binary surface structure have been achieved via the surface-confined grafting of glycidyl methacrylate, using a branched "graft-on-graft" architecture, followed by post-functionalisation to obtain fluorinated brushes.

  9. Rethinking Music Therapy From the Perspective of Bio-politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Miyake

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article, I intend to reconsider music therapy process from the perspectives of bio-power and bio-politics by Foucault (1977, 1990, Agamben (1998, 1999 and Hardt & Negri (2000, 2004.

    My interest is in the political implications of music therapy. I examine discussions of music therapists on the first session of Edward that appeared in the Nordic Journal of Music Therapy (2003. In this article, a predilection to culturally acceptable musical expression is suggested. This musical integration might increase "possibilities of action" or might be a process of civilization (social conformity. When I position these arguments beside bio-politics, the discourses are exclusively discussed from the side of bios, or civilization. Little concern seems to be rendered from the perspective of zoe.

    Can the cultural inclusion through music therapy really help clients construct identities? To go beyond this, I introduce Hardt and Negris' concept of multitude. This concept seems to resonate with many recent music therapists' intentions. The new ways of music making and therapy that can respect the singularity of musical expressions. I suggest that common ideas might be more acceptable within this conceptual framework.

  10. The CAS Bio-specimen Centers in Sound Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Liangqian; QIAO Gexia; YAO Yijian

    2010-01-01

    @@ Bio-specimen centers, including herbaria and zoological museums, are the most integrated places for the storage of specimens, which are real samples and the most important vouchers for taxonomic and biodiversity studies.The information carried by the specimens is of substantial reference for research on species distribution, history, status, phylogeny and evolution, etc.

  11. Technology evaluation: TroVax, Oxford BioMedica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinis, Milan

    2004-08-01

    TroVax, a gene-based tumor vaccine that uses a poxvirus vector to deliver the tumor antigen gene 5T4, is under development by Oxford BioMedica for the potential treatment of cancer. TroVax is undergoing phase II clinical trials.

  12. Exploring Creativity in the Bio-Inspired Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggakara, K.; Aksdal, T.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the of field bio-inspired design has been driven by the acknowledgement that inspiration from nature can serve as a valuable source of innovation. As an emerging approach, there has been a focus on building a principled methodology to address the challenges that arise...

  13. Bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids via tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new catalytic route to bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids will be described. At the heart of the process, the catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by both dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds in an aliphatic chain and, subsequently, decarboxylating specific isomers...

  14. Biofuels, Biolubricants and the BioPreferred(SM) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BioPreferred(SM) Program is a U.S. government initiative intended to encourage the development and widespread use of biofuels, biolubricants, and other biobased products in the U.S. The program consists of the preferred procurement and the voluntary labeling programs. Companies wishing to have t...

  15. Bio-gas production from alligator weeds semiannual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latif, A.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of temperature, sample preparation, reducing agents, light intensity and pH of the media, on bio-gas and methane production from the microbial anaerobic decomposition of alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxeroides). Efforts were also made for the isolation and characterization of the methanogenic bacteria.

  16. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  17. Westhof Bio Group - innovaatilised lahendused Saksamaalt / Argo Peepson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peepson, Argo

    2014-01-01

    Rainer Carstensi maheettevõttes on köögiviljakasvatus ja -töötlemine ühendatud bioenergia tootmisega. Westhof Bio Group asub Põhjamere ääres Dithmarschenis, mis on Saksamaa suuremaid maheköögiviljakasvatuspiirkondi.

  18. Long-term sustainability of bio-components production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souček Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels play an increasingly important role in motor fuel market. The list of biofuels (bio-components in accordance with EU legislations contains a number of substances not widely used in the market. Traditionally these include: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, in the Czech Republic methyl ether of rape seed oil and bioethanol (also ethyl terc. buthyl ether ETBE, based on bioethanol. The availability and possible utilizations of bio-component fuels in Czech Republic and Serbia are discussed. Additional attention is paid on the identification of the possibilities to improve effectiveness of rape seeds cultivation and utilization of by-products from FAME production (utilization of sew, rape-meal and glycerol which will allow fulfilment of the sustainability criteria for the first generation biofuels. The new approaches on renewable co-processing are commented. The concept of 3E (emissions, energy demand, and economics is introduced specifying three main attributes for effective production of FAME production in accordance with legal compliances. Bio-components price change is analyzed in comparison to the price of motor fuels, identifying possible (speculative crude price break-even point at the level of 149-176 USD/bbl at which point bio-fuels would become economically cost effective for the use by refiners.

  19. Zhongrun,Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology%Zhongrun, Heading for Advanced Bio-Energy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Huaibei Zhongrun Bio-energy Technology Development Co.,Ltd.is a high-tech Sino-US joint venture,also a participator of the 12th CHITEC.Its majority shareholder is Anhui Huaibei Mining Group and it is co-sponsored by Anhui Guohua Group and US Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.

  20. The DBCLS BioHackathon: standardization and interoperability for bioinformatics web services and workflows. The DBCLS BioHackathon Consortium*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayama Toshiaki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Web services have become a key technology for bioinformatics, since life science databases are globally decentralized and the exponential increase in the amount of available data demands for efficient systems without the need to transfer entire databases for every step of an analysis. However, various incompatibilities among database resources and analysis services make it difficult to connect and integrate these into interoperable workflows. To resolve this situation, we invited domain specialists from web service providers, client software developers, Open Bio* projects, the BioMoby project and researchers of emerging areas where a standard exchange data format is not well established, for an intensive collaboration entitled the BioHackathon 2008. The meeting was hosted by the Database Center for Life Science (DBCLS and Computational Biology Research Center (CBRC and was held in Tokyo from February 11th to 15th, 2008. In this report we highlight the work accomplished and the common issues arisen from this event, including the standardization of data exchange formats and services in the emerging fields of glycoinformatics, biological interaction networks, text mining, and phyloinformatics. In addition, common shared object development based on BioSQL, as well as technical challenges in large data management, asynchronous services, and security are discussed. Consequently, we improved interoperability of web services in several fields, however, further cooperation among major database centers and continued collaborative efforts between service providers and software developers are still necessary for an effective advance in bioinformatics web service technologies.

  1. Bio-based targeted chemical engineering education : Role and impact of bio-based energy and resourcedevelopment projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardoa, N.M.; Venselaar, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Avans University of Applied Sciences is redrafting its courses and curricula in view of sustainability. For chemical engineering in particular that implies a focus on 'green' and bio-based processes, products and energy. Avans is situated in the Southwest region of the Netherlands and specifically i

  2. Impact of extraction methods on bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet Hoang; Klai, Nouha; Nguyen, Thanh Dong; Tyagi, Rajeshwar Dayal

    2016-09-15

    Effect of ten extraction methods on flocculation activity and chemical composition of bio-flocculants recovered from backwashed sludge of bio-filtration unit was studied. The results showed that the chemical method was better than physical method with respect to the extracted BFs weight and its flocculation activity. Cell lysis did not affect to the flocculation activity of BFs. Among ten extraction methods, EDTA (20 g/L) was the best one with extracted BFs dry weight of 6242 mg/L and flocculation activity of 83%. Optimization of EDTA concentration showed that 5 g EDTA/L (or 0.2 g EDTA/g SS) was suitable for recovery of BFs from backwashed sludge. The flocculation activity of BFs was 94% when using 2.4 mg of BFs/g of kaolin. The outcome of this study suggested that backwashed sludge of the bio-filtration unit was a potential source for exploiting bio-flocculants.

  3. Evaluation of bio-energy potential using world energy models; Sekai energy model ni yoru bio energy no potential hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujino, J.; Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    Bio-energy potential is evaluated using world energy models. The world energy model is a dynamic model by which the total cost of energy systems between 1995 and 2055 can be minimized on the basis of the optimization type world energy demand and supply model. For the given utilization costs of transportation, recovery and planting, the utilization of bio-energy is promoted even under the cost minimization condition. However, the utilization amount varies in a wide range by changing the utilization costs. Among conversion technologies of bio-energy, it is biomass liquefaction that provides the largest utilization amount. Thermal demand, direct combustion for power generation, and biomass gasification follow to the above. Biomass-integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) is to be used up to 2020. It is not to be used after 2030, due to the complete shift to the biomass liquefaction. For a model including the utilization of fast breeder after 2030, the utilization amount of bio-energy is not to change. Competition with food and land utilization is to be investigated. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. CLINICO-MORPHOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF BIO-OSS ® DURING BONE-PLASTIC OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SIDELNIKOV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the clinical and morphological characteristics of Bio-Oss ® and Bio-Gate ® materials during bone-plastic operations, especially bone regeneration after surgical interventiond. Materials and method: The pathomorphological study was performed with the intravital biopsy material of bone tissue from augmentation areas, obtained during implants placement. Clinical studies included subjective and objective methods, in particular X-ray analysis and photo documenting. Bio-Oss ®, Bio-Gide ®, Bio-Gide ® Perio membranes, Resor-Pin pins, U-impl implant systems were investigated and 231 operations were performed with Bio-Oss ® and Bio-Gate ®, of which 38 cases of sinus lifting, 145 of bone plasty with simultaneous implantation and 48 cases of periodontal surgery. Results: Usage of bone-plastic Bio-OSS ® and Bio-Gate ® materials during various bone-plastic and periodontal operations assures a high clinical effect (from 93 to 99%. Morphologically, it has been observed that, after usage of bone Bio-OSS ® and Bio-Gate ® materials, a new osteoid tissue was formed, similar to the bone tissue of the alveolar process, with high mineralization levels, especially in the first 2 years, due to the simultaneous resorption of the material. The newly-formed tissue has a classical design and can fully perform the functions of jaw bones, especially for carrying loads transmitted with either teeth or implants.

  5. BioBrick assembly standards and techniques and associated software tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røkke, Gunvor; Korvald, Eirin; Pahr, Jarle; Oyås, Ove; Lale, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    The BioBrick idea was developed to introduce the engineering principles of abstraction and standardization into synthetic biology. BioBricks are DNA sequences that serve a defined biological function and can be readily assembled with any other BioBrick parts to create new BioBricks with novel properties. In order to achieve this, several assembly standards can be used. Which assembly standards a BioBrick is compatible with, depends on the prefix and suffix sequences surrounding the part. In this chapter, five of the most common assembly standards will be described, as well as some of the most used assembly techniques, cloning procedures, and a presentation of the available software tools that can be used for deciding on the best method for assembling of different BioBricks, and searching for BioBrick parts in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts database.

  6. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy...... into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio......* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux....

  7. Innovation in Bio-disaster Prevention and Control Mechanism after Forest Tenure Reform at County Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Zu-ren

    2012-01-01

    Taking Youxi County of Fujian Province as an example,the author introduced basic situations of new bio-disaster prevention and control mechanism for forest resource protection and social service works after the forest tenure reform.Then,the author analyzed new problems faced by bio-disaster prevention and control in forestry.Finally,the author present the existing problems of bio-disaster prevention and control at the county level from five aspects:innovating upon plant quarantine management mechanism;innovation upon survey methods and service modes of bio-disaster monitoring;strengthening and improving construction of bio-disaster monitoring and forecasting network;innovating upon management system for bio-disaster prevention and control;speeding up construction of service system for social prevention and control of bio-disasters.

  8. Recent Advances in the Sound Insulation Properties of Bio-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many bio-based materials, which have lower environmental impact than traditional synthetic materials, show good sound absorbing and sound insulation performances. This review highlights progress in sound transmission properties of bio-based materials and provides a comprehensive account of various multiporous bio-based materials and multilayered structures used in sound absorption and insulation products. Furthermore, principal models of sound transmission are discussed in order to aid in an understanding of sound transmission properties of bio-based materials. In addition, the review presents discussions on the composite structure optimization and future research in using co-extruded wood plastic composite for sound insulation control. This review contributes to the body of knowledge on the sound transmission properties of bio-based materials, provides a better understanding of the models of some multiporous bio-based materials and multilayered structures, and contributes to the wider adoption of bio-based materials as sound absorbers.

  9. Comparing life cycle energy and GHG emissions of bio-based PET, recycled PET, PLA and man-made cellulosics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose fibers

  10. Characterization of asphalt materials containing bio oil from michigan wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Beale, Julian

    The objective of this research is to develop sustainable wood-blend bioasphalt and characterize the atomic, molecular and bulk-scale behavior necessary to produce advanced asphalt paving mixtures. Bioasphalt was manufactured from Aspen, Basswood, Red Maple, Balsam, Maple, Pine, Beech and Magnolia wood via a 25 KWt fast-pyrolysis plant at 500 °C and refined into two distinct end forms - non-treated (5.54% moisture) and treated bioasphalt (1% moisture). Michigan petroleum-based asphalt, Performance Grade (PG) 58-28 was modified with 2, 5 and 10% of the bioasphalt by weight of base asphalt and characterized with the gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and the automated flocculation titrimetry techniques. The GC-MS method was used to characterize the Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen (CHN) elemental ratio whiles the FTIR and the AFT were used to characterize the oxidative aging performance and the solubility parameters, respectively. For rheological characterization, the rotational viscosity, dynamic shear modulus and flexural bending methods are used in evaluating the low, intermediate and high temperature performance of the bio-modified asphalt materials. 54 5E3 (maximum of 3 million expected equivalent standard axle traffic loads) asphalt paving mixes were then prepared and characterized to investigate their laboratory permanent deformation, dynamic mix stiffness, moisture susceptibility, workability and constructability performance. From the research investigations, it was concluded that: 1) levo, 2, 6 dimethoxyphenol, 2 methoxy 4 vinylphenol, 2 methyl 1-2 cyclopentandione and 4-allyl-2, 6 dimetoxyphenol are the dominant chemical functional groups; 2) bioasphalt increases the viscosity and dynamic shear modulus of traditional asphalt binders; 3) Bio-modified petroleum asphalt can provide low-temperature cracking resistance benefits at -18 °C but is susceptible to cracking at -24 °C; 3) Carbonyl and sulphoxide

  11. Wood to Bio-Methane demonstration project in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meijden, C.M.; Van der Drift, A.; Rietveld, G. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands); Koenemann, J.W. [Dahlman Renewable Technology, P.O. Box 438, 3140 AK Maassluis (Netherlands); Sierhuis, W. [HVCgroup, P.O. Box 9199, 1800 GD, Alkmaar (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) has developed a biomass gasification technology, called the MILENA technology. The Milena gasification technology has a high cold gas efficiency and high methane yield, making it very suitable for gas engine and turbine applications as well as upgrading of the gas into Bio-Methane. An overall efficiency from biomass to power of over 30% is possible, whereas 70% efficiency is achievable from biomass to gas grid quality methane. HVC Group (situated in Alkmaar, North Holland) is a modern public service waste company. HVC converts waste streams which cannot be recycled into usable forms of energy. HVC has a 75 MWth waste wood boiler in operation which produces heat and electricity, and an anaerobic digester which converts domestic fruit, vegetable and garden waste into Bio-Methane. HVC expects an important role for Bio-Methane in the future and HVC has decided to join ECN with the development, demonstration and implementation of the MILENA Bio-Methane technology. Linked to the Bio-Methane demonstration project is the Netherlands Expertise Centre for Biomass Gasification. The MILENA demonstration project and the Gasification Expert Centre are supported by the following companies and organizations: HVC, TAQA, Gasunie, Dahlman, province of North Holland, the Alkmaar municipality and ECN. In 2010 and 2012 extensive lab-scale and pilot scale tests have been executed by ECN and HVC to proof that the gasification and gas cleaning technology is ready for commercial application. The final step in this test program was a duration test in the 800 kWth MILENA pilot plant coupled to the OLGA tar removal unit. The goal was to show high availability. The result of the test was an availability of the gasifier of 96% and an overall availability (including gas cooling and gas cleaning) of 85%. The results of the duration tests convinced HVC and the other partners that the technology is ready for scale-up. The results produced in the

  12. Development of vapor deposited thin films for bio-microsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popat, Ketul Chandrakant

    Increasing demands for more biocompatible and sophisticated bio-microsystems in recent years has led to the development of a new technology called BioMEMS (biological micro-electro-mechanical systems). The foundation of this technology is the same as that of the traditional field of IC (integrated circuits), but an emphasis on developing new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Micro- and nano-fabrication techniques are currently being used to develop implants that can record, sense, stimulate and deliver to biological systems. Micromachined substrates can provide unique advantages over traditional implantable devices in terms of their ability to control surface micro-architecture, topography and feature size in micron and nano sizes. However, as BioMEMS technology is rapidly being developed, the practical use of these bio-microsystems is limited due to the inability to effectively interface with the biological system in non-immunogenic and stable manner. This is one of the most important considerations, and hence it is useful to focus on the fundamental scientific issues relating to material science, surface chemistry and immunology of silicon based bio-microsystems. This results in development of biomolecular interfaces that are compatible with both microfabrication processing and biological systems. The overall thrust of this research is to develop, characterize and integrate vapor deposited thin films with bio-microsystems in a manner that it is both reproducible and fully integrated with existing technologies. The main strategy is to use silane coatings precursor coatings on which poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) will be coated in vapor phase. Silane has been coated user vapor phase, but its chemical and biological characterization and stability of the films under physiological conditions has not been investigated for biological applications. PEG has been coated in solution phase on silicon surface. However, it has not been coated under vapor phase. Here we are

  13. Bio-compute objects - a step towards evaluation and validation of bio-medical scientific computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Vahan; Goecks, Jeremy; Mazumder, Raja

    2016-12-14

    , scientists, regulators, and other stakeholders interested in bio-computing.

  14. Use of Radioactive Beams for Bio-Medical Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Miederer, M; Allen, B

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\With this Proposal we wish to replace the two previous proposals P42 and P48 (corresponding to the ISOLDE Experiments IS330 and IS331, respectively, including the Addendum 1 dated 04.05.94). Based on experimental results obtained during the last four year's research in the framework of the two proposals and considering modern trends in radiopharmaceutical developments we propose as a first main direction to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical parameters, the concentration and specific activity of tracer molecules and the corresponding biological response. This kind of studies requires highest achievable quality and a universality of radio-tracers, available at ISOLDE. Special attention in this concern is paid to bio-specific tracers (receptor-binding ligands, bio-conjugates etc.) aiming to search for new and more efficient radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The second direction is to support clinical radionuclide therapy by a quantitative follow up of the radionu...

  15. BioMet Toolbox: genome-wide analysis of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvijovic, M.; Olivares Hernandez, Roberto; Agren, R.

    2010-01-01

    models. Systematic analysis of biological processes by means of modelling and simulations has made the identification of metabolic networks and prediction of metabolic capabilities under different conditions possible. For facilitating such systemic analysis, we have developed the BioMet Toolbox, a web......-based resource for stoichiometric analysis and for integration of transcriptome and interactome data, thereby exploiting the capabilities of genome-scale metabolic models. The BioMet Toolbox provides an effective user-friendly way to perform linear programming simulations towards maximized or minimized growth...... rates, substrate uptake rates and metabolic production rates by detecting relevant fluxes, simulate single and double gene deletions or detect metabolites around which major transcriptional changes are concentrated. These tools can be used for high-throughput in silico screening and allows fully...

  16. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  17. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  18. Bio-Authentication based Secure Transmission System using Steganography

    CERN Document Server

    Zehra, Najme; Ahuja, Somya; Bansal, Shubha

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with identity verification of an individual by using certain physiological or behavioral features associated with a person. Biometric identification systems using fingerprints patterns are called AFIS (Automatic Fingerprint Identification System). In this paper a composite method for Fingerprint recognition is considered using a combination of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Sobel Filters for improvement of a poor quality fingerprint image. Steganography hides messages inside other messages in such a way that an "adversary" would not even know a secret message were present. The objective of our paper is to make a bio-secure system. In this paper bio-authentication has been implemented in terms of finger print recognition and the second part of the paper is an interactive steganographic system hides the user's data by two options- creating a songs list or hiding the data in an image.

  19. BioFach归来话有机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春敏

    2006-01-01

    BioFach——德国纽伦堡国际有机产品博览会,是一年一度全球规模最大、最集中的有机产品展示会和贸易盛会,从1990始,至今已举办了16届。笔者有幸在2005年和2006年两度参加了BioFach,亲身感受到它的氛围和世界范围内有机食品蓬勃发展的潮流,感触很深。

  20. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M

    2013-01-01

    BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic "dashboard" where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question "what is this taxon?" BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION), and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  1. Interface Design Of Digital Platform For Bio Signal Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongsik; Park; Moonsu; Jang; Seongoo; Lee

    2010-01-01

    <正>Bio-sensor arrays for multi-channel recording have been developed recently and signal processing platforms for those signals have been studied actively.But it’s thereal situation which these technologies are generally developed and studied respectively.So the interface design between recording array and signal processing platform is also an important issue to make bio-sensor signal processing system.In this paper,we proposed interface which has unique protocols to control sensor array and operate platform.There are two types of protocols in the interface.One is between sensor array and MCU in platform and the other is between MCU and board for wireless communication.Basically,each protocol has two kinds of modes(single,frame)and it can be extended if needed.

  2. BioBlocks: Programming Protocols in Biology Made Easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Irimia, Jesús; Pau, Iván; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2017-01-24

    The methods to execute biological experiments are evolving. Affordable fluid handling robots and on-demand biology enterprises are making automating entire experiments a reality. Automation offers the benefit of high-throughput experimentation, rapid prototyping, and improved reproducibility of results. However, learning to automate and codify experiments is a difficult task as it requires programming expertise. Here, we present a web-based visual development environment called BioBlocks for describing experimental protocols in biology. It is based on Google's Blockly and Scratch, and requires little or no experience in computer programming to automate the execution of experiments. The experiments can be specified, saved, modified, and shared between multiple users in an easy manner. BioBlocks is open-source and can be customized to execute protocols on local robotic platforms or remotely, that is, in the cloud. It aims to serve as a de facto open standard for programming protocols in Biology.

  3. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    -oil was around 525 °C to 550 °C for all straw moisture contents. It was investigated how differences in biomass composition influence pyrolysis products yields and the composition of char and bio-oils. Details about this investigation are explained in Paper II (Chapter 3). The used pine wood had a low ash...... at reactor temperatures ranging from 475 to 575 oC. It was observed that the formation of char and gas is affected by the biomass alkali content. Increasing biomass alkali content caused an increased feedstock conversion at low temperature, a lower maximum liquid organic yield temperature and a lower maximum......This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  4. Contributions of Cnn to Bio-Robotics and Brain Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm of Cellular Non-linear Networks is ubiquitously applied in different research fields. In this chapter the breakthrough in bio-robotics and brain science research is focused. In particular the implementation of CNN-based CPGs is discussed proposing different implementations on bio-inspired robots: hexapods, lamprey-like structures, crab-inspired platforms and others. Furthermore the locomotion control system has been extended following a bottom-up procedure to include higher cognitive capabilities. The CNN paradigm was applied to design and implement perceptual architecture inspired by the insect world. Reaction-Diffusion CNN systems have been used to model the arousal of behavioral solution optimized to the on-going environmental conditions. An approach based on Turing patterns is illustrated including experimental results on navigation control with a roving robot. Finally, interesting works based on the olfactory system of insects, modeled with the Winner-less Competition principle, are reported and discussed.

  5. DIY-Bio - economic, epistemological and ethical implications and ambivalences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keulartz, Jozef; van den Belt, Henk

    2016-12-01

    Since 2008, we witness the emergence of the Do-It-Yourself Biology movement, a global movement spreading the use of biotechnology beyond traditional academic and industrial institutions and into the lay public. Practitioners include a broad mix of amateurs, enthusiasts, students, and trained scientists. At this moment, the movement counts nearly 50 local groups, mostly in America and Europe, but also increasingly in Asia. Do-It-Yourself Bio represents a direct translation of hacking culture and practicesfrom the realm of computers and software into the realm of genes and cells. Although the movement is still in its infancy, and it is even unclear whether it will ever reach maturity, the contours of a new paradigm of knowledge production are already becoming visible. We will subsequently sketch the economic, the epistemological and the ethical profile of Do-It-Yourself Bio, and discuss its implications and also its ambivalences.

  6. EcAMSat and BioSentinel: Autonomous Bio Nanosatellites Addressing Strategic Knowledge Gaps for Manned Spaceflight Beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgen, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Manned missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) require that several strategic knowledge gaps about the effects of space travel on the human body be addressed. NASA Ames Research Center has been the leader in developing autonomous bio nanosatellites, including past successful missions for GeneSat, PharmaSat, and O/OREOS, that tackled some of these issues. These nanosatellites provide in situ measurements, which deliver insight into the dynamic changes in cell behavior in microgravity. In this talk, two upcoming bio nanosatellites developed at Ames, the E. coli Antimicrobial Satellite (EcAMSat) and BioSentinel, will be discussed. Both satellites contain microfluidic systems that precisely deliver nutrients to the microorganisms stored within wells of fluidic cards. Each well, in turn, has its own 3-color LED and detector system which is used to monitor changes in metabolic activity with alamarBlue, a redox indicator, and the optical density of the cells. EcAMSat investigates the effects of microgravity on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs, vital knowledge for understanding how to maintain the health of astronauts in long-term and beyond LEO spaceflight. The behavior of wild type and mutant uropathic E. coli will be compared in microgravity and with ground data to help understand the molecular mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance and how these phenotypes might change in space. BioSentinel seeks to directly measure the effects of space radiation on budding yeast S. cerevisiae, particularly double strand breaks (DSB). While hitching a ride on the SLS EM-1 mission (Orion's first unmanned mission to the moon) in 2018, BioSentinel will be kicked off and enter into a heliocentric orbit, becoming the first study of the effects of radiation on living organisms outside LEO since the Apollo program. The yeast are stored in eighteen independent 16-well microfluidic cards, which will be individually activated over the 12 month mission duration. In addition to the wild

  7. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Weiwei; Yao, Yanlai; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Weiping; Chang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20) significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community. PMID:28166302

  8. The influence of different concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer on cucumber Fusarium wilt and soil microflora alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nan; Wang, Weiwei; Yao, Yanlai; Zhu, Fengxiang; Wang, Weiping; Chang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the main diseases of cucumber, and bio-organic fertilizer has been used to control Fusarium wilt. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bio-organic fertilizer applied at four levels on the suppression of Fusarium wilt disease in cucumber, the soil physico-chemical properties and the microbial communities. In comparison with the control (CK), low concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO2.5 and BIO5) did not effectively reduce the disease incidence and had little effect on soil microorganisms. High concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer (BIO10 and BIO20) significantly reduced the disease incidence by 33.3%-66.7% and the production was significantly improved by 83.8%-100.3%. The soil population of F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum was significantly lower in bio-organic fertilizer treatments, especially in BIO10 and BIO20. The microorganism activity increased with the bio-organic fertilizer concentration. High-throughput sequencing demonstrated that, at the order level, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Solibacterales and Xylariales were significantly abundant in BIO10 and BIO20 soils. At the genus level, the abundance and composition of bacterial and fungal communities in BIO10 and BIO20 were similar, illustrating that high concentrations of bio-organic fertilizer activated diverse groups of microorganisms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that Xanthomonadales, Sphingomonadales, Bacillales, Orbiliales, Sordariales, and Mucorales occurred predominantly in the BIO10 and BIO20. These microorganisms were related to the organic matter, available potassium and available phosphorus contents. In conclusion, a high concentration of bio-organic fertilizer application suppressed the Fusarium wilt disease and increased cucumber production after continuous cropping might through improving soil chemical condition and manipulating the composition of soil microbial community.

  9. Bio-fabrication: Experiments and Experiences in Ethics and Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Gaymon Lamont

    2011-01-01

    Bio-fabrication: Experiments and Experiences in Ethics and Sciences provides an account of an experiment I undertook in ethics and anthropology as part of the International Open Facility Advancing Biotechnology, the BIOFAB. It offers an analysis of the facility's programmatic attempt to actualize a core claim of the new field of synthetic biology: that living beings can be conceived as collections of interoperable genetic components, constructed through rational design, standardized, and fabr...

  10. Functionalized 2PP structures for the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuoka, Tomoyo; Nishi, Masayuki; Sakakura, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    In its standard version, our BioPhotonics Workstation (BWS) can generate multiple controllable counter-propagating beams to create real-time user-programmable optical traps for stable three-dimensional control and manipulation of a plurality of particles. The combination of the platform with micr...... on the BWS platform by functionalizing them with silica-based sol-gel materials inside which dyes can be entrapped....

  11. New library buildings: Creighton University Bio-Information Center.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    In May 1977 the newly constructed Creighton University Bio-Information Center, costing over $4 million and containing more than 57,000 square feet of space, officially began to provide services. This facility houses three educational support programs--the Health Sciences Library, the Learning Resources Center, and the Biomedical Communications Center--that primarily serve the University's health sciences schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing, and allied health, and the University'...

  12. Programmable bio-nano-chip system for saliva diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulides, Nicolaos; De La Garza, Richard; Simmons, Glennon W.; McRae, Michael P.; Wong, Jorge; Kosten, Thomas R.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; McDevitt, John

    2014-06-01

    This manuscript describes programmable Bio-Nano-Chip (p-BNC) approach that serves as miniaturized assay platform designed for the rapid detection and quantitation of multiple analytes in biological fluids along with the specific applications in salivary diagnostics intended for the point of need (PON). Included here are oral fluid-based tests for local periodontal disease, systemic cardiac disease and multiplexed tests for drugs of abuse.

  13. Mining in a sustainable world: program; bios and abstracts; commentaries:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Williams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This section contains three documents: Commentaries: which are short versions of papers that were presented at the Mining in a Sustainable World conference (UNE, 13 to 15 October 2013. The papers were submitted by authors for inclusion in the journal but not for peer review. Program of the Mining in a Sustainable World conference (UNE, 13 to 15 October 2013. Bios and Abstracts of presenters at the Mining in a Sustainable World conference (UNE, 13 to 15 October 2013.

  14. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  15. Quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems in noisy environments

    OpenAIRE

    Huelga S.F.; Plenio M.B.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss three different aspects of the quantum dynamics of bio-molecular systems and more generally complex networks in the presence of strongly coupled environments. Firstly, we make a case for the systematic study of fundamental structural elements underlying the quantum dynamics of these systems, identify such elements and explore the resulting interplay of quantum dynamics and environmental decoherence. Secondly, we critically examine some existing approaches to the numerical descripti...

  16. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  17. Direct reduction of nickel catalyst with model bio-compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, F; Dupont, V; Twigg, MV

    2017-01-01

    The effects of temperature and S/C on the reduction extent and kinetics of a steam reforming NiO/α-Al₂O₃ catalyst were systematically investigated using five bio-compounds commonly produced during the fermentation, pyrolysis and gasification processes of biomass (acetic acid, ethanol, acetone, furfural and glucose). Reduction was also performed with methane and hydrogen for comparison. Kinetic modelling was applied to the NiO conversion range of 0–50% using the Handcock and Sharp method. The ...

  18. Status of the AFRL/RW Bio-Sensors Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    identical counter-rotating NDFs; an internally designed ocellar stimulation rig (an automated Cardan arm with LED scene projection array, completing...automated Cardan arm. Facilities: The Bio-Sensors Lab (Dr Dennis Goldstein’s old Optics Lab where he did optical surface characterization of...eyes and ocelli (and stomatopod compound eye midband sensors). The automated Cardan arm with its movable LED array, described later in the

  19. Quantitative Estimates of Bio-Remodeling on Coastal Rock Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pappalardo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Remodeling of rocky coasts and erosion rates have been widely studied in past years, but not all the involved processes acting over rocks surface have been quantitatively evaluated yet. The first goal of this paper is to revise the different methodologies employed in the quantification of the effect of biotic agents on rocks exposed to coastal morphologic agents, comparing their efficiency. Secondly, we focus on geological methods to assess and quantify bio-remodeling, presenting some case studies in an area of the Mediterranean Sea in which different geological methods, inspired from the revised literature, have been tested in order to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects some biological covers exert over rocky platforms in tidal and supra-tidal environments. In particular, different experimental designs based on Schmidt hammer test results have been applied in order to estimate rock hardness related to different orders of littoral platforms and the bio-erosive/bio-protective role of Chthamalus ssp. and Verrucariaadriatica. All data collected have been analyzed using statistical tests to evaluate the significance of the measures and methodologies. The effectiveness of this approach is analyzed, and its limits are highlighted. In order to overcome the latter, a strategy combining geological and experimental–computational approaches is proposed, potentially capable of revealing novel clues on bio-erosion dynamics. An experimental-computational proposal, to assess the indirect effects of the biofilm coverage of rocky shores, is presented in this paper, focusing on the shear forces exerted during hydration-dehydration cycles. The results of computational modeling can be compared to experimental evidence, from nanoscopic to macroscopic scales.

  20. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  1. Harvesting microalgae by bio-flocculation and autoflocculation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Harvesting in commercial microalgae production plants is generally done by centrifugation, but this requires upto about 50% of the total energy gained from the microalgae. The energy needed for harvesting can be reduced considerably by pre-concentration of the microalgae prior to further dewatering. The focus of this thesis was on development of a controlled pre-concentration step in which bio-flocculation and autoflocculation using oleaginous microalgae is applied combined with gravity sedim...

  2. A bio-inspired software for segmenting digital images.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pernil, Daniel; Molina Abril, Helena; Real Jurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez Naranjo, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation in computer vision refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (sets of pixels). It has several features which make it suitable for techniques inspired by nature. It can be parallelized, locally solved and the input data can be easily encoded by bio-inspired representations. In this paper, we present a new software for performing a segmentation of 2D digital images based on Membrane Computing techniques.

  3. Classification of biological cells using bio-inspired descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bel Haj Ali, Wafa; Giampaglia, Dario; Barlaud, Michel; Piro, Paolo; Nock, Richard; Pourcher, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a novel automated approach for the categorization of cells in fluorescence microscopy images. Our supervised classification method aims at recognizing patterns of unlabeled cells based on an annotated dataset. First, the cell images need to be indexed by encoding them in a feature space. For this purpose, we propose tailored bio-inspired features relying on the distribution of contrast information. Then, a supervised learning algorithm is proposed f...

  4. Complex Learning in Bio-plausible Memristive Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Lei; Li, Guoqi; Deng, Ning; Dong WANG; Zhang, Ziyang; He, Wei; Li, Huanglong; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2015-01-01

    The emerging memristor-based neuromorphic engineering promises an efficient computing paradigm. However, the lack of both internal dynamics in the previous feedforward memristive networks and efficient learning algorithms in recurrent networks, fundamentally limits the learning ability of existing systems. In this work, we propose a framework to support complex learning functions by introducing dedicated learning algorithms to a bio-plausible recurrent memristive network with internal dynamic...

  5. BioLex. Database for interpretation of characteristics of biofuels and bioashes. Phase 1; BioLex. Database til fortolkning af karakteristika for biobraendsler og -asker. Fase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    BioLex is a danish data base containing information about solid biofuels and bioashes, e.g. chemical analysis. It has been of vital importance to provide background information about the tests behind the figures presented to the BioLex user. The data base is available on the internet in a temporary version. (BA)

  6. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft in animals: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, S; Stavropoulos, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no differences between the use of Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) applying the lateral window technique, as evaluated in animals. A MEDLINE (PubMed...

  7. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, Søren; Stavropoulos, Andreas;

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no differences in the implant treatment outcome when Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone is used as graft for the maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) applying the lateral window technique. Material ...

  8. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A; Kraiem, T; Naoui, S; Belayouni, H

    2014-01-01

    Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC-MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds...etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,...etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  9. Promotion of hydrogen-rich gas and phenolic-rich bio-oil production from green macroalgae Cladophora glomerata via pyrolysis over its bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Safari, Farid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Nejati, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as a Caspian Sea's green macroalgae into gaseous, liquid and solid products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for bio-oil and hydrogen-rich gas production for further industrial utilization. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for bio-oil production. The highest portion of bio-oil was retrieved at 500°C. The catalytic test was performed using the bio-char derived at 500°C as a catalyst. Effect of the addition of the algal bio-char on the composition of the bio-oil and also gaseous products was investigated. Pyrolysis derived bio-char was characterized by BET, FESEM and ICP method to show its surface area, porosity, and presence of inorganic metals on its surface, respectively. Phenols were increased from 8.5 to 20.76area% by the addition of bio-char. Moreover, the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen selectivity were also enhanced by the factors of 1.37, 1.59 respectively.

  10. Theoretical Considerations of Bio-guided Music Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B Miller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Music therapists rarely have the opportunity to consider a new model of music therapy and need to review prior models and theoretical approaches to make an informed determination regarding Bio-guided Music Therapy. While initially appearing to fall within the confines of Behavioral Music Therapy, technical advances in sound reproduction, physiological data acquisition methods, as well as innovative application techniques are argued to bring the bio-guided approach into the realm of in-the-moment improvisation. Bio-guided Music Therapy distinguishes itself from other music therapy models by virtue of the client's physiological data being presented in real-time either musically or visually back to the client or the therapist during the therapy session. This real-time data may be presented in key, scale and tempo for flexibility in musical interaction with the music therapist or group. General treatment areas include ADHD, Stress/anxiety, dementia, depression and addictions. The resulting charts and graphs document the impact of the music therapy session in the language of mainstream medicine, readily accessible to other medical professionals.

  11. Bio-hybrid cell-based actuators for microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rika Wright; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-15

    As we move towards the miniaturization of devices to perform tasks at the nano and microscale, it has become increasingly important to develop new methods for actuation, sensing, and control. Over the past decade, bio-hybrid methods have been investigated as a promising new approach to overcome the challenges of scaling down robotic and other functional devices. These methods integrate biological cells with artificial components and therefore, can take advantage of the intrinsic actuation and sensing functionalities of biological cells. Here, the recent advancements in bio-hybrid actuation are reviewed, and the challenges associated with the design, fabrication, and control of bio-hybrid microsystems are discussed. As a case study, focus is put on the development of bacteria-driven microswimmers, which has been investigated as a targeted drug delivery carrier. Finally, a future outlook for the development of these systems is provided. The continued integration of biological and artificial components is envisioned to enable the performance of tasks at a smaller and smaller scale in the future, leading to the parallel and distributed operation of functional systems at the microscale.

  12. Visualizing molecular profiles of glioblastoma with GBM-BioDP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orieta Celiku

    Full Text Available Validation of clinical biomarkers and response to therapy is a challenging topic in cancer research. An important source of information for virtual validation is the datasets generated from multi-center cancer research projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA. These data enable investigation of genetic and epigenetic changes responsible for cancer onset and progression, response to cancer therapies, and discovery of the molecular profiles of various cancers. However, these analyses often require bulk download of data and substantial bioinformatics expertise, which can be intimidating for investigators. Here, we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a data base called Glioblastoma Bio Discovery Portal (GBM-BioDP. GBM-BioDP is a free web-accessible resource that hosts a subset of the glioblastoma TCGA data and enables an intuitive query and interactive display of the resultant data. This resource provides visualization tools for the exploration of gene, miRNA, and protein expression, differential expression within the subtypes of GBM, and potential associations with clinical outcome, which are useful for virtual biological validation. The tool may also enable generation of hypotheses on how therapies impact GBM molecular profiles, which can help in personalization of treatment for optimal outcome. The resource can be accessed freely at http://gbm-biodp.nci.nih.gov (a tutorial is included.

  13. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  14. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanholme, Bartel; Desmet, Tom; Ronsse, Frederik; Rabaey, Korneel; Van Breusegem, Frank; De Mey, Marjan; Soetaert, Wim; Boerjan, Wout

    2013-01-01

    The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy toward sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green) and industrial (white) biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  15. Towards a carbon-negative sustainable bio-based economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartel eVanholme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The bio-based economy relies on sustainable, plant-derived resources for fuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed rather than on the evanescent usage of fossil resources. The cornerstone of this economy is the biorefinery, in which renewable resources are intelligently converted to a plethora of products, maximizing the valorization of the feedstocks. Innovation is a prerequisite to move a fossil-based economy towards sustainable alternatives, and the viability of the bio-based economy depends on the integration between plant (green and industrial (white biotechnology. Green biotechnology deals with primary production through the improvement of biomass crops, while white biotechnology deals with the conversion of biomass into products and energy. Waste streams are minimized during these processes or partly converted to biogas, which can be used to power the processing pipeline. The sustainability of this economy is guaranteed by a third technology pillar that uses thermochemical conversion to valorize waste streams and fix residual carbon as biochar in the soil, hence creating a carbon-negative cycle. These three different multidisciplinary pillars interact through the value chain of the bio-based economy.

  16. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University No.38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027, (China)

    2006-07-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H{sub 2} concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH{sub 4} is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  17. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  18. Processing and characterization of bio-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong

    Much research has focused on bio-based composites as a potential material to replace petroleum-based plastics. Considering the high price of Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), PHA/ Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) composite is a promising economical and high-performance biodegradable material. In this paper, we discuss the effect of DDGS on PHA composites in balancing cost with material performance. Poly (lactic acid) PLA/DDGS composite is another excellent biodegradable composite, although as a bio-based polymer its degradation time is relatively long. The goal of this research is therefore to accelerate the degradation process for this material. Both bio-based composites were extruded through a twin-screw microcompounder, and the two materials were uniformly mixed. The morphology of the samples was examined using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM); thermal stability was determined with a Thermal Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA); other thermal properties were studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and a Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA). Viscoelastic properties were also evaluated using a Rheometer.

  19. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-08-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices.

  20. Bio-inspired fluidic lens surgical camera for MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Frank S; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    We report a new type of surgical camera that will greatly improve minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The key enabling technology for this camera is a unique type of lens-bio-inspired fluidic lens, which is a bio-mimetic lens that can change its curvature, just like the way human crystalline lens can accommodate. Because of its curvature changing capability, it is now possible to design a new regime of optical systems where auto-focusing and optical zoom can be performed without moving the lens positions, as is done in typical cameras. Hence, miniaturized imaging system with high functionality can be achieved with such technology. MIS is a surgical technique where small incisions are made on the abdominal wall as opposed to a large cut in open surgery. This type of surgery ensures faster patient recovery. The key tool for MIS is its surgical camera, or laparoscope. Traditional laparoscope is long and rigid and limits the field of view. To further advance MIS technology, we utilized bio-inspired fluidic lens to design a highly versatile imager that is small, can change its field of view or zoom optically, works in low light conditions, and varies the viewing angles. The surgical camera prototype is small (total track<17 mm), possesses 3X optical zoom, operates with light emitting diode (LED) lighting, among many other unique features.

  1. Chemotaxis of bio-hybrid multiple bacteria-driven microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiang; Sitti, Metin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, in a bio-hybrid microswimmer system driven by multiple Serratia marcescens bacteria, we quantify the chemotactic drift of a large number of microswimmers towards L-serine and elucidate the associated collective chemotaxis behavior by statistical analysis of over a thousand swimming trajectories of the microswimmers. The results show that the microswimmers have a strong heading preference for moving up the L-serine gradient, while their speed does not change considerably when moving up and down the gradient; therefore, the heading bias constitutes the major factor that produces the chemotactic drift. The heading direction of a microswimmer is found to be significantly more persistent when it moves up the L-serine gradient than when it travels down the gradient; this effect causes the apparent heading preference of the microswimmers and is the crucial reason that enables the seemingly cooperative chemotaxis of multiple bacteria on a microswimmer. In addition, we find that their chemotactic drift velocity increases superquadratically with their mean swimming speed, suggesting that chemotaxis of bio-hybrid microsystems can be enhanced by designing and building faster microswimmers. Such bio-hybrid microswimmers with chemotactic steering capability may find future applications in targeted drug delivery, bioengineering, and lab-on-a-chip devices. PMID:27555465

  2. Production of bio-jet fuel from microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoraghy, Marian

    The increase in petroleum-based aviation fuel consumption, the decrease in petroleum resources, the fluctuation of the crude oil price, the increase in greenhouse gas emission and the need for energy security are motivating the development of an alternate jet fuel. Bio-jet fuel has to be a drop in fuel, technically and economically feasible, environmentally friendly, greener than jet fuel, produced locally and low gallon per Btu. Bic jet fuel has been produced by blending petro-based jet fuel with microalgae biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, or simply FAME). Indoor microalgae growth, lipids extraction and transetrification to biodiesel are energy and fresh water intensive and time consuming. In addition, the quality of the biodiesel product and the physical properties of the bio-jet fuel blends are unknown. This work addressed these challenges. Minimizing the energy requirements and making microalgae growth process greener were accomplished by replacing fluorescent lights with light emitting diodes (LEDs). Reducing fresh water footprint in algae growth was accomplished by waste water use. Microalgae biodiesel production time was reduced using the one-step (in-situ transestrification) process. Yields up to 56.82 mg FAME/g dry algae were obtained. Predicted physical properties of in-situ FAME satisfied European and American standards confirming its quality. Lipid triggering by nitrogen deprivation was accomplished in order to increase the FAME production. Bio-jet fuel freezing points and heating values were measured for different jet fuel to biodiesel blend ratios.

  3. Introducing BioSARN - an ecological niche model refinement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Marshall J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental niche modeling outputs a biological species' potential distribution. Further work is needed to arrive at a species' realized distribution. The Biological Species Approximate Realized Niche (BioSARN) application provides the ecological modeler with a toolset to refine Environmental niche models (ENMs). These tools include soil and land class filtering, niche area quantification and novelties like enhanced temporal corridor definition, and output to a high spatial resolution land class model. BioSARN is exemplified with a study on Fraser fir, a tree species with strong land class and edaphic correlations. Soil and land class filtering caused the potential distribution area to decline 17%. Enhanced temporal corridor definition permitted distinction of current, continuing, and future niches, and thus niche change and movement. Tile quantification analysis provided further corroboration of these trends. BioSARN does not substitute other established ENM methods. Rather, it allows the experimenter to work with their preferred ENM, refining it using their knowledge and experience. Output from lower spatial resolution ENMs to a high spatial resolution land class model is a pseudo high-resolution result. Still, it maybe the best that can be achieved until wide range high spatial resolution environmental data and accurate high precision species occurrence data become generally available.

  4. From bioethics to a sociology of bio-knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alan

    2013-12-01

    Growing recognition of bioethics' shortcomings, associated in large part with its heavy reliance on abstract principles, or so-called principlism, has led many scholars to propose that the field should be reformed or reconceptualised. Principlism is seen to de-contextualise the process of ethical decision-making, thus restricting bioethics' contributions to debate and policy on new and emergent biotechnologies. This article examines some major critiques of bioethics and argues for an alternative normative approach; namely, a sociology of bio-knowledge focussing on human rights. The article discusses the need for such an approach, including the challenges posed by the recent rise of 'the bio-economy'. It explores some potential alternative bases for a normative sociology of bio-knowledge, before presenting the elements of the proposed human rights-focused approach. This approach, it is argued, will benefit from the insights and concepts offered by various fields of critical scholarship, particularly the emergent sociology of human rights, science and technology studies, Foucaultian scholarship, and feminist bioethics.

  5. BioSWR--semantic web services registry for bioinformatics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Repchevsky

    Full Text Available Despite of the variety of available Web services registries specially aimed at Life Sciences, their scope is usually restricted to a limited set of well-defined types of services. While dedicated registries are generally tied to a particular format, general-purpose ones are more adherent to standards and usually rely on Web Service Definition Language (WSDL. Although WSDL is quite flexible to support common Web services types, its lack of semantic expressiveness led to various initiatives to describe Web services via ontology languages. Nevertheless, WSDL 2.0 descriptions gained a standard representation based on Web Ontology Language (OWL. BioSWR is a novel Web services registry that provides standard Resource Description Framework (RDF based Web services descriptions along with the traditional WSDL based ones. The registry provides Web-based interface for Web services registration, querying and annotation, and is also accessible programmatically via Representational State Transfer (REST API or using a SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language. BioSWR server is located at http://inb.bsc.es/BioSWR/and its code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/bioswr/under the LGPL license.

  6. Single particle multichannel bio-aerosol fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P. H.; Stanley, W. R.; Hirst, E.; Foot, E. V.; Baxter, K. L.; Barrington, S. J.

    2005-05-01

    We describe a prototype low-cost multi-channel aerosol fluorescence sensor designed for unattended deployment in medium to large area bio-aerosol detection networks. Individual airborne particles down to ~1μm in size are detected and sized by measurement of light scattered from a continuous-wave diode laser (660nm). This scatter signal is then used to trigger the sequential firing of two xenon sources which irradiate the particle with UV pulses at ~280 nm and ~370 nm, optimal for excitation of bio-fluorophores tryptophan and NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) respectively. For each excitation wavelength, fluorescence is detected across two bands embracing the peak emissions of the same bio-fluorophores. Current measurement rates are up to ~125 particles/s, corresponding to all particles for concentrations up to 1.3 x 104 particles/l. Developments to increase this to ~500 particles/s are in hand. Device sensitivity is illustrated in preliminary data recorded from aerosols of E.coli, BG spores, and a variety of non-biological materials.

  7. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, characterization, and applications of NPs with particular reference to their use as antimicrobial agents. Reviewed here is the synthesis of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs by a variety of biological forms and biomolecules as well as their effectiveness toward different fungal and bacterial pathogens. The use of gold NPs (bio-inspired by plants, fungi, and bacteria and AgNPs, synthesized by carbohydrates (of plant, animal, and microbial origin, plant parts (bark, callus, leaves, peels, and tubers, fungi, and bacteria have been highlighted. In addition, the use of zinc oxide NPs (although not bio-inspired as novel antimicrobial agents have also been discussed.

  8. Cyanobacteria: A Precious Bio-resource in Agriculture, Ecosystem, and Environmental Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay Shankar; Kumar, Arun; Rai, Amar N; Singh, Devendra P

    2016-01-01

    Keeping in view, the challenges concerning agro-ecosystem and environment, the recent developments in biotechnology offers a more reliable approach to address the food security for future generations and also resolve the complex environmental problems. Several unique features of cyanobacteria such as oxygenic photosynthesis, high biomass yield, growth on non-arable lands and a wide variety of water sources (contaminated and polluted waters), generation of useful by-products and bio-fuels, enhancing the soil fertility and reducing green house gas emissions, have collectively offered these bio-agents as the precious bio-resource for sustainable development. Cyanobacterial biomass is the effective bio-fertilizer source to improve soil physico-chemical characteristics such as water-holding capacity and mineral nutrient status of the degraded lands. The unique characteristics of cyanobacteria include their ubiquity presence, short generation time and capability to fix the atmospheric N2. Similar to other prokaryotic bacteria, the cyanobacteria are increasingly applied as bio-inoculants for improving soil fertility and environmental quality. Genetically engineered cyanobacteria have been devised with the novel genes for the production of a number of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel, bio-hydrogen, bio-methane, synga, and therefore, open new avenues for the generation of bio-fuels in the economically sustainable manner. This review is an effort to enlist the valuable information about the qualities of cyanobacteria and their potential role in solving the agricultural and environmental problems for the future welfare of the planet.

  9. Use of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of grease trap wastewater containing fat, oil, and grease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao L; Xie, Yuefeng F; Chen, Yen-Chih

    2012-11-01

    This research investigated the application of Bio-Amp, a commercial bio-additive for the treatment of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in a grease trap, and evaluated potential impacts of treated effluent on downstream collection system and treatment processes. Results show that after Bio-Amp treatment, FOG deposit formation was reduced by 40%, implicating a potential reduction of sewer line blockages. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total fatty acids were reduced by 39%, 33%, 56%, and 59%, respectively, which represents an overall loading reduction of 9% COD, 5% TN and 40% TP received by the treatment plant from all the dining halls. On the other hand, readily biodegradable COD fractions significantly increased, which implies a potential improvement on Bio-P removal. Overall, the results showed that application of Bio-Amp in grease trap provides potential reduction of sewer line blockages, and can also alleviate downstream treatment burden.

  10. Quantum Bio-Informatics II From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accardi, L.; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2009-02-01

    The problem of quantum-like representation in economy cognitive science, and genetics / L. Accardi, A. Khrennikov and M. Ohya -- Chaotic behavior observed in linea dynamics / M. Asano, T. Yamamoto and Y. Togawa -- Complete m-level quantum teleportation based on Kossakowski-Ohya scheme / M. Asano, M. Ohya and Y. Tanaka -- Towards quantum cybernetics: optimal feedback control in quantum bio informatics / V. P. Belavkin -- Quantum entanglement and circulant states / D. Chruściński -- The compound Fock space and its application in brain models / K. -H. Fichtner and W. Freudenberg -- Characterisation of beam splitters / L. Fichtner and M. Gäbler -- Application of entropic chaos degree to a combined quantum baker's map / K. Inoue, M. Ohya and I. V. Volovich -- On quantum algorithm for multiple alignment of amino acid sequences / S. Iriyama and M. Ohya --Quantum-like models for decision making in psychology and cognitive science / A. Khrennikov -- On completely positive non-Markovian evolution of a d-level system / A. Kossakowski and R. Rebolledo -- Measures of entanglement - a Hilbert space approach / W. A. Majewski -- Some characterizations of PPT states and their relation / T. Matsuoka -- On the dynamics of entanglement and characterization ofentangling properties of quantum evolutions / M. Michalski -- Perspective from micro-macro duality - towards non-perturbative renormalization scheme / I. Ojima -- A simple symmetric algorithm using a likeness with Introns behavior in RNA sequences / M. Regoli -- Some aspects of quadratic generalized white noise functionals / Si Si and T. Hida -- Analysis of several social mobility data using measure of departure from symmetry / K. Tahata ... [et al.] -- Time in physics and life science / I. V. Volovich -- Note on entropies in quantum processes / N. Watanabe -- Basics of molecular simulation and its application to biomolecules / T. Ando and I. Yamato -- Theory of proton-induced superionic conduction in hydrogen-bonded systems

  11. Production of Bio-gasoline by Co-cracking of Acetic Acid in Bio-oil and Ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树荣; 王誉蓉; 蔡勤杰; 郭祚刚

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid was selected as the model compound representing the carboxylic acids present in bio-oil. This work focuses the co-cracking of acetic acid with ethanol for bio-gasoline production. The influences of reac-tion temperature and pressure on the conversion of reactants as well as the selectivity and composition of the crude gasoline phase were investigated. It was found that increasing reaction temperature benefited the conversion of re-actants and pressurized cracking produced a higher crude gasoline yield. At 400 °C and 1 MPa, the conversion of the reactants reached over 99%and the selectivity of the gasoline phase reached 42.79%(by mass). The gasoline phase shows outstanding quality, with a hydrocarbon content of 100%.

  12. BioMEMS and Microimplants%BioMEMS和人体植入式生物微系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘菁; 赵建龙; 金庆辉

    2005-01-01

    MEMS技术在医药科学技术的一个重要应用是植入人体内的生物微系统(BioMEMS).该系统集微传感器、微驱动器、微流体系统、微光学系统及微机械元件于一体,用于体内器官的诊断、体内器官功能修复或替代,其治疗效果确切,已成为关系本世纪医学与人类健康进步的重要领域.本文介绍了近年来不同功能类别植入式BioMEMS的发展状况,说明了MEMS工艺、方法及材料在此领域的应用.

  13. [A study of coordinates transform iterative fitting method to extract bio-impedance model parameters bio-impedance model parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liming; Yang, Yuxing; Yuan, Shiying

    2006-02-01

    A new algorithm, the coordinates transform iterative optimizing method based on the least square curve fitting model, is presented. This arithmetic is used for extracting the bio-impedance model parameters. It is superior to other methods, for example, its speed of the convergence is quicker, and its calculating precision is higher. The objective to extract the model parameters, such as Ri, Re, Cm and alpha, has been realized rapidly and accurately. With the aim at lowering the power consumption, decreasing the price and improving the price-to-performance ratio, a practical bio-impedance measure system with double CPUs has been built. It can be drawn from the preliminary results that the intracellular resistance Ri increased largely with an increase in working load during sitting, which reflects the ischemic change of lower limbs.

  14. Bioelectronic platforms for optimal bio-anode of bio-electrochemical systems: From nano- to macro scopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongkyu; An, Junyeong; Fapyane, Deby; Chang, In Seop

    2015-11-01

    The current trend of bio-electrochemical systems is to improve strategies related to their applicability and potential for scaling-up. To date, literature has suggested strategies, but the proposal of correlations between each research field remains insufficient. This review paper provides a correlation based on platform techniques, referred to as bio-electronics platforms (BEPs). These BEPs consist of three platforms divided by scope scale: nano-, micro-, and macro-BEPs. In the nano-BEP, several types of electron transfer mechanisms used by electrochemically active bacteria are discussed. In the micro-BEP, factors affecting the formation of conductive biofilms and transport of electrons in the conductive biofilm are investigated. In the macro-BEP, electrodes and separators in bio-anode are debated in terms of real applications, and a scale-up strategy is discussed. Overall, the challenges of each BEP are highlighted, and potential solutions are suggested. In addition, future research directions are provided and research ideas proposed to develop research interest.

  15. MSU-Northern Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegel, Greg [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States); Windy Boy, Jessica [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Maglinao, Randy Latayan [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Montana State Univ. Northern, Havre, MT (United States). Bio-Energy Center of Excellence

    2017-03-02

    The goal of this project was to establish the Bio-Energy Center (the Center) of Montana State University Northern (MSUN) as a Regional Research Center of Excellence in research, product development, and commercialization of non-food biomass for the bio-energy industry. A three-step approach, namely, (1) enhance the Center’s research and testing capabilities, (2) develop advanced biofuels from locally grown agricultural crops, and (3) educate the community through outreach programs for public understanding and acceptance of new technologies was identified to achieve this goal. The research activities aimed to address the obstacles concerning the production of biofuels and other bio-based fuel additives considering feedstock quality, conversion process, economic viability, and public awareness. First and foremost in enhancing the capabilities of the Center is the improvement of its laboratories and other physical facilities for investigating new biomass conversion technologies and the development of its manpower complement with expertise in chemistry, engineering, biology, and energy. MSUN renovated its Auto Diagnostics building and updated its mechanical and electrical systems necessary to house the state-of-the-art 525kW (704 hp) A/C Dynamometer. The newly renovated building was designated as the Advanced Fuels Building. Two laboratories, namely Biomass Conversion lab and Wet Chemistry lab were also added to the Center’s facilities. The Biomass Conversion lab was for research on the production of advanced biofuels including bio-jet fuel and bio-based fuel additives while the Wet Chemistry lab was used to conduct catalyst research. Necessary equipment and machines, such as gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry, were purchased and installed to help in research and testing. With the enhanced capabilities of the Center, research and testing activities were very much facilitated and more precise. New biofuels derived from Camelina sativa (camelina), a locally

  16. Bio-oil Stabilization by Hydrogenation over Reduced Metal Catalysts at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Lee, Suh-Jane; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-30

    Biomass fast pyrolysis integrated with bio-oil upgrading represents a very attractive approach for converting biomass to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. However, the thermal and chemical instability of bio-oils presents significant problems when they are being upgraded, and development of effective approaches for stabilizing bio-oils is critical to the success of the technology. Catalytic hydrogenation to remove reactive species in bio-oil has been considered as one of the most efficient ways to stabilize bio-oil. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of hydrogenation of actual bio-oils over a Ru/TiO2 catalyst under conditions relevant to practical bio-oil hydrotreating processes. Bio-oil feed stocks, bio-oils hydrogenated to different extents, and catalysts have been characterized to provide insights into the chemical and physical properties of these samples and to understand the correlation of the properties with the composition of the bio-oil and catalysts. The results indicated hydrogenation of various components of the bio-oil, including sugars, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids, over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst and 120 to 160oC. Hydrogenation of these species significantly changed the chemical and physical properties of the bio-oil and overall improved its thermal stability, especially by reducing the carbonyl content, which represented the content of the most reactive species (i.e., sugar, aldehydes, and ketones). The change of content of each component in response to increasing hydrogen additions suggests the following bio-oil hydrogenation reaction sequence: sugar conversion to sugar alcohols, followed by ketone and aldehyde conversion to alcohols, followed by alkene and aromatic hydrogenation, and then followed by carboxylic acid hydrogenation to alcohols. Hydrogenation of bio-oil samples with different sulfur contents or inorganic material contents suggested that sulfur poisoning of the reduced Ru metal catalysts was

  17. Recent advances on the production and utilization trends of bio-fuels: A global perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirbas, M.F. [P. K. 216, 61035 Trabzon (Turkey); Balat, Mustafa [Polatoglu ap Kat 6, Besikduzu, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Bio-fuels are important because they replace petroleum fuels. There are many benefits for the environment, economy and consumers in using bio-fuels. Bio-oil can be used as a substitute for fossil fuels to generate heat, power and/or chemicals. Upgrading of bio-oil to a transportation fuel is technically feasible, but needs further development. Bio-fuels are made from biomass through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction and supercritical fluid extraction or biochemical. Biochemical conversion of biomass is completed through alcoholic fermentation to produce liquid fuels and anaerobic digestion or fermentation, resulting in biogas. In wood derived pyrolysis oil, specific oxygenated compounds are present in relatively large amounts. Basically, the recovery of pure compounds from the complex bio-oil is technically feasible but probably economically unattractive because of the high costs for recovery of the chemical and its low concentration in the oil. (author)

  18. On bio-diversity, complexity of M-CSF and its receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the development of science, the methods and the views of scientific research changed from analyses to syntheses. Recently, more attention has been paid to bio-diversity and complexity. According to the study on M-CSF and its receptor for years, the author suggests that, the multi-level of bio-diversity also appears at the bio-macromolecular level. Probability of bio-diversity is one of the bases for bio-complexity. Cellular sociology and topobiology are important aspects in bio-complexity, and should be developed. If taking Chinese traditional medicine together with the advantage from Reductionism, joining the study on complexity, Chinese scientist would make a chair in the international scientific society.

  19. The densification of bio-char: Effect of pyrolysis temperature on the qualities of pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qiang; Yang, Haiping; Yao, Dingding; Zhu, Danchen; Wang, Xianhua; Shao, Jingai; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    The densification of bio-chars pyrolyzed at different temperatures were investigated to elucidate the effect of temperature on the properties of bio-char pellets and determine the bonding mechanism of pellets. Optimized process conditions were obtained with 128MPa compressive pressure and 35% water addition content. Results showed that both the volume density and compressive strength of bio-char pellets initially decreased and subsequently increased, while the energy consumption increased first and then decreased, with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. The moisture adsorption of bio-char pellets was noticeably lower than raw woody shavings but had elevated than the corresponding char particles. Hydrophilic functional groups, particle size and binder were the main factors that contributed to the cementation of bio-char particles at different temperatures. The result indicated that pyrolysis of woody shavings at 550-650°C and followed by densification was suitable to form bio-char pellets for application as renewable biofuels.

  20. The effect of torrefaction on the chemistry of fast-pyrolysis bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jiajia; Park, Junyeong; Tilotta, David; Park, Sunkyu

    2012-05-01

    Fast pyrolysis was performed on torrefied loblolly pine and the collected bio-oils were analyzed to compare the effect of the torrefaction treatment on their quality. The results of the analyses show that bio-oils produced from torrefied wood have improved oxygen-to-carbon ratios compared to those from the original wood with the penalty of a decrease in bio-oil yield. The extent of this improvement depends on the torrefaction severity. Based on the GC/MS analysis of the pyrolysis bio-oils, bio-oils produced from torrefied biomass show different compositions compared to that from the original wood. Specifically, the former becomes more concentrated in pyrolytic lignin with less water content than the latter. It was considered that torrefaction could be a potential upgrading method to improve the quality of bio-oil, which might be a useful feedstock for phenolic-based chemicals.

  1. Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Ryu, Changkook; Suh, Dong Jin; Suh, Young-Woong; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The amount of waste furniture generated in Korea was over 2.4 million tons in the past 3 years, which can be used for renewable energy or fuel feedstock production. Fast pyrolysis is available for thermo-chemical conversion of the waste wood mostly into bio-oil. In this work, fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust was investigated under various reaction conditions (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, feed rate and flow rate of fluidizing medium) in a fluidized-bed reactor. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for increased yields of bio-oil was 450 degrees C. Excessively smaller or larger feed size negatively affected the production of bio-oil. Higher flow and feeding rates were more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not greatly affect the bio-oil yields within the tested ranges. The use of product gas as the fluidizing medium had a potential for increased bio-oil yields.

  2. A Bio-Inspired Robust Adaptive Random Search Algorithm for Distributed Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Chia-Shiang; Lin, Che

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired robust adaptive random search algorithm (BioRARSA), designed for distributed beamforming for sensor and relay networks, is proposed in this work. It has been shown via a systematic framework that BioRARSA converges in probability and its convergence time scales linearly with the number of distributed transmitters. More importantly, extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BioRARSA outperforms existing adaptive distributed beamforming schemes by as large as 29.8% on average. This increase in performance results from the fact that BioRARSA can adaptively adjust its sampling stepsize via the "swim" behavior inspired by the bacterial foraging mechanism. Hence, the convergence time of BioRARSA is insensitive to the initial sampling stepsize of the algorithm, which makes it robust against the dynamic nature of distributed wireless networks.

  3. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  4. Pyrolysis of Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temitope E. Odetoye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional agricultural residues such as Parinari polyandra Benth fruit shell (PPBFS are potential sources of biomass feedstock that have not been investigated for bio oil production. In this study, PPBFS was pyrolyzed via an intermediate pyrolysis process for the production of bio oil. The bio oils were obtained using a fixed bed reactor within a temperature range of 375–550 oC and were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. The most abundant organic compounds present were acetic acid, toluene, 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 2-furanmethanol, phenol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol. The bio-oil produced at 550 oC possessed a higher quantity of desirable compounds than those produced at lower temperatures. The presence of acetic acids in the bio-oil suggested the need to upgrade the bio-oil before utilization as a fuel source.

  5. Multiplication of bio-control agents on locally available organic media

    OpenAIRE

    Devakumar, N.; Shubha, S.; Rao, G.G.E.

    2014-01-01

    Multiplication of micro organisms used as bio control agents can be done by using locally available organic materials viz., compost extract, Jeevamrutha, Press mud, digested biogas slurry only. Performance of bio control agents was better with the combination of digested biogas slurry+ Panchagavya; Press mud + Panchagavya and digested biogas slurry + Press mud. Bio-control agents can be multiplied locally with low cost by adding Jaggery solution.

  6. Spatial and temporal distributions of migration in bio-retention systems

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yu-Qi; Wang Kai-Wen; Zhang Ke-Li; Zhou Ze-Wei; Yang Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Urban bio-retention system is meaningful in reducing rainfall runoff and enhancing infiltration capacity. But the moisture migration in bio-retention systems are not clear under climate change. The spatial and temporal distribution of moisture under different rainfall events in bio-retention systems are studied in this paper based on experimental data in Beijing. Richards model is introduced to simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of moisture incl...

  7. Bio-functionalization of silicon nitride-based piezo-resistive microcantilevers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin S Kale; Manoj Joshi; P Nageswara Rao; S Mukherji; V Ramgopal Rao

    2009-08-01

    Methods of bio-functionalize silicon nitride involve process steps to convert it into an oxynitride via plasma implantation techniques. Such methods can potentially damage microstructures such as cantilevers. In this paper, we report successful bio-functionalization of Hotwire CVD silicon nitride-based piezo-resistive cantilevers without any oxygen plasma treatment. Process to fabricate such structures and to bio-functionalize them is discussed in detail.

  8. PetroChina Inks Bio-Fuel Deal with the State Forestry Administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yunqiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ 11 January 2007, Beijing - PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina) signed a framework agreement with the State Forestry Administration (SFA) on the development of forest bio-fuel and officially kicked off the construction of the first batch of forest bio-fuel tree breeding bases in Yunnan and Sichuan, marking a substantial step forward in the cooperation of forest bio-fuel development between the two parties.

  9. Congestive heart failure patient monitoring using wearable Bio-impedance sensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seulki Lee; Squillace, Gabriel; Smeets, Christophe; Vandecasteele, Marianne; Grieten, Lars; de Francisco, Ruben; Van Hoof, Chris

    2015-08-01

    A new technique to monitor the fluid status of congestive heart failure (CHF) patients in the hospital is proposed and verified in a clinical trial with 8 patients. A wearable Bio-impedance (BioZ) sensor allows a continuous localized measurement which can be complement clinical tools in the hospital. Thanks to the multi-parametric approach and correlation analysis with clinical reference, BioZ is successfully shown as a promising parameter for continuous and wearable CHF patient monitoring application.

  10. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  11. Recent Advances in the Sound Insulation Properties of Bio-based Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Zhu; Birm-June Kim; Qingwen Wang; Qinglin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Many bio-based materials, which have lower environmental impact than traditional synthetic materials, show good sound absorbing and sound insulation performances. This review highlights progress in sound transmission properties of bio-based materials and provides a comprehensive account of various multiporous bio-based materials and multilayered structures used in sound absorption and insulation products. Furthermore, principal models of sound transmission are discussed in order to aid in an ...

  12. Les contrats de bio-prospection, des outils pour le développement durable ?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Urena, Hugo,

    2012-01-01

    6 pages.; International audience; Bio-prospection contracts are consensual legal instruments, in which the parties to the bio-prospection relationship define their rights and duties. These contracts are vaguely regulated by general principles established in the Biological Diversity Convention (International Law instrument). Currently there is much debate about the extent of these principles and about the perspectives for the development of these contracts.; Les contrats de bio-prospection son...

  13. Sludge Bulking Property of Membrane Bio-reactor in Albumen Wqastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Albumen wastewater was treated by Membrane Bio-reactor. Sludge bulking property of Membrane Bio-Reactor was investigated in this study through contrast research. When the sludge bulking appeared, the removal efficiency of COD in Membrane Bio-reactor increased slightly under the function of filamentous bacteria. However, the negative effects of the higher net water-head differential pressures,the higher block rate of membrane pore and the great quantity of filamentous bacteria at the externalsurface pres...

  14. Determining waste lipids stability and possible effects in bio diesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, L.; Ciudad, G.; Navia, R.

    2009-07-01

    Waste lipids are a sustainable raw material alternative for bio diesel production, avoiding excessive use of agricultural soil. However, this raw material can be degraded in a short time of storage, affecting bio diesel production process and quality. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible degradation of waste frying oil (WFO) and animal fat (AF), monitoring parameters that could affect the bio diesel quality. (Author)

  15. Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use in Composites and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    ARL-TR-7259 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use in Composites and...copyright notation hereon. ARL-TR-7259 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use in Composites and Coatings 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  16. Vegetarian bio-indicators for environmental monitoring; Bioindicatori vegetali per il monitoraggio ambientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leva, F.; Dapiaggi, M.; Cenci, R.M. [Centro Consune di Ricerca di Ispra (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The most common bio-indicators used for the evaluation of various contaminants, are reviewed. The aim has been to make clearly understood the difference between visual analysis (bio-indication) and bio-accumulation, by foccussing on practical aspects, the advantages and disadvantages in the use of bio-indicators. Some examples included in the review are the use of tobacco leaves for the evaluation of the presence of ozone, of lichens for the presence of SO{sub 2}, and of mosses for the determination of heavy metal concentration.

  17. Bio-oils from acidic, neutral and alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose: a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Sudong [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Centre for Environmental Engineering Research and Education, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary (Canada); Liu, Fang; Tan, Zhongchao [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a popular technology for the conversion of biomass to bio-oil. Although alkaline and neutral HTL have been widely studied in the literature so far, there are almost no data available in the literature on acidic HTL of biomass to bio-oil and on the differences between acidic and neutral/alkaline HTL of biomass to bio-oil. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate and compare acidic, neutral and alkaline HTL of cellulose to bio-oil, with respect to bio-oil compositions and yields in specific conditions. As the result found was that acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions clearly impact the HTL bio-oil compositions. There is a similar trend for high temperatures and long residence time to have negative effects on HTL bio-oil yields for acidic, neutral and alkaline HTL. However, the reaction mechanisms behind them are various. This study presents the highly different underlying chemistries and the HTL bio-oil compositions that were investigated. Further classification of HTL of biomass to bio-oil is therefore necessary.

  18. Finding of Correction Factor and Dimensional Error in Bio-AM Model by FDM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manmadhachary, Aiamunoori; Ravi Kumar, Yennam; Krishnanand, Lanka

    2016-06-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is the swift manufacturing process, in which input data can be provided from various sources like 3-Dimensional (3D) Computer Aided Design (CAD), Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and 3D scanner data. From the CT/MRI data can be manufacture Biomedical Additive Manufacturing (Bio-AM) models. The Bio-AM model gives a better lead on preplanning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. However manufacturing of the accurate Bio-AM model is one of the unsolved problems. The current paper demonstrates error between the Standard Triangle Language (STL) model to Bio-AM model of dry mandible and found correction factor in Bio-AM model with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) technique. In the present work dry mandible CT images are acquired by CT scanner and supplied into a 3D CAD model in the form of STL model. Further the data is sent to FDM machine for fabrication of Bio-AM model. The difference between Bio-AM to STL model dimensions is considered as dimensional error and the ratio of STL to Bio-AM model dimensions considered as a correction factor. This correction factor helps to fabricate the AM model with accurate dimensions of the patient anatomy. These true dimensional Bio-AM models increasing the safety and accuracy in pre-planning of oral and maxillofacial surgery. The correction factor for Dimension SST 768 FDM AM machine is 1.003 and dimensional error is limited to 0.3 %.

  19. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions.

  20. Bioética, Psicología y Hermenéutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Rodríguez Villamil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se pretende insinuar un conversatorio entre la Bioética y la Psicología a través de la hermenéutica como método, con una triple finalidad: en primer lugar hacer una aproximación a lo que se entiende por Bioética; en segundo lugar, establecer algunos nexos transdisciplinarios entre Bioética y Psicología, y en tercer lugar, mostrar los primeros intentos de una Bioética que desde la hermenéutica como método, proponga algunas estrategias que ayuden a transformar personas y colectividades.

  1. ENHANCING ASPHALT RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR AND AGING SUSCEPTIBILITY USING BIO-CHAR AND NANO-CLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renaldo C. Walters

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The life expectancy of Asphalt Binder (AB has been negatively impacted by the harsh bombardment of UV rays. UV rays cause asphalt to oxidize faster, which results in deterioration of asphalt rheological characteristics that can lead to pavement distresses. This study investigates the impact of bio-char and nano-clay of asphalt rheological properties. Two nano scale materials were used for this study were nano-clay and bio-char. Nano-clay (Cloisite 30B is a naturally occurring inorganic mineral. Bio-char is the waste product from bio-binder production. Bio-binder is produced from swine manure using a thermochemical conversion process. This process is then followed by a filtration procedure where the bio-char is produced. Chemical and physical properties of bio-char showed a significant presence of carbon which could in turn enhance asphalt flow properties and reduce the rate of asphalt oxidation. In this study several mixtures are designed and evaluated using Rotational Viscometer testing (RV and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. Nano-clay is blended at 2 and 4% by weight, with and without bio-binder (5% by weight of dry mass. Bio-char is grinded to nano scale and added to the virgin asphalt binder (PG 64-22 at 2, 5 and 10% by weight. The study results showed that introduction of nano-clay could be effective in reducing temperature susceptibility of asphalt binder.

  2. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  3. An experimental study on removal efficiency of bio-particles in an airtight decontamination chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yanju [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); National Biological Protection Engineering Center, Tianjin (China); Hao, Limei; Wang, Shuang; Hou, Lili; Zhang, Jinming; Qi, Jiancheng [National Biological Protection Engineering Center, Tianjin (China)

    2009-11-15

    Many bacteria and viruses lead to global dissemination of respiratory diseases, such as SARS, influenza, tuberculosis, pneumonia and asthma, by clinging to particles and transmission through aerosol. In this paper, an experiment was conducted to investigate the removal efficiency of bio-particles when exposed to ventilation in an airtight decontamination chamber made of stainless steel. After the bio-particles (Serratia marcescens) exposure condition was established in the chamber, the bio-particles removal efficiency was investigated. And a comparison experiment was then conducted with polystyrene latex spheres (PSL) as general particles under the same environmental condition. The comparison results indicate that the removal efficiency of bio-particles is lower than that of PSL during the first 300 s, but both removal efficiencies reached 90% almost at the same time. Furthermore, the differences between bio-particles and PSL, the influence of bio-particle size, environmental velocity, temperature and relative humidity on bio-particle removal efficiency were analyzed and discussed comprehensively. These data could not only underpin future numerical simulations of bio-particles, but also give information to aid in decisions for decreasing the risk of bio-particles pollution in a microbe exposure environment. (author)

  4. Bio-hydrogen production by dark fermentation from organic wastes and residues

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Dawei; Angelidaki, Irini; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong; Min, Booki

    2008-01-01

    Der er stigende opmærksomhed omkring biohydrogen. Ved hydrogen fermentering kan kun en lille del af det organiske materiale eller COD i affald omdannes til hydrogen. Der findes endnu ingen full-skala bio-hydrogen anlæg, eftersom effektive rentable teknologier ikke er udviklet endnu. En to-trins proces der kombinerer bio-hydrogen og bio-metan produktionen er en attraktiv mulighed til at øge det totale energi-udbytte af fermentering af organisk materiale. I en to-trins proces, med bio-hydrogen ...

  5. Upgrading of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of biomass over the rice husk ash catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, B.; Hidayat, A.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrolysis oils are complex mixtures of organic compounds that exhibit a wide spectrum of chemical functionality, and generally contain some water. Their direct use as fuels may present some difficulties due to their high viscosity, poor heating value, corrosiveness and instability. For possible future use as replacements for hydrocarbon chemical feedstocks and fuels, the liquids will require considerable upgrading to improve its characteristics. By esterification of the bio oil as the upgrading method, the properties of the bio-oil could be improved. In the paper, the upgrading of a bio-oil obtained by pyrolysis was studied over rice husk ash catalysts. The raw bio-oil was produced by pyrolysis of rice husk.From the experiment results, it can be concluded that the densities of upgraded bio-oil were reduced from 1.24 to 0.95 g.cm-3, and the higherheating value increased from 16.0 to 27.2 MJ/kg and the acidity of upgraded bio-oil was also alleviated from 2.3 to 4.4. The results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and FT-IR analysis showed that the ester compounds in the upgraded bio-oil increased. It is possible to improve the properties of bio-oil by esterifying the raw bio-oil.

  6. Study of fuel control strategy based on an fuel behavior model for starting conditions; Nenryo kyodo model ni motozuita shidoji no nenryo hosei hosho ni tsuite no kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Uchida, M.; Iwano, H.; Oba, H. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    We have applied a fuel behavior model to a fuel injection system which we call SOFIS (Sophisticated and Optimized Fuel Injection System) so that we get air/fuel ratio control accuracy and good driveability. However the fuel behavior under starting conditions is still not clear. To meet low emission rules and to get better driveability under starting conditions, better air/fuel ratio control is necessary. Now we have understood the ignition timing, injection timing, and injection pulse width required in such conditions. In former days, we analyzed the state of the air/fuel mixture under cold conditions and made a new fuel behavior model which considered fuel loss such as hydrocarbons and dissolution into oil and so on. Al this time, we have applied this idea to starting. We confirm this new model offers improved air/fuel ratio control. 6 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Bioenergy Status Document 2011; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.

    2011-03-15

    The Dutch status document on bio-energy has been updated with data for the year 2011. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets. The status document shows there has been a slight increase in the share of bio-energy in overall energy consumption as well as in the total amount of renewable energy generated (which now stands at a little over 4% of gross final consumption). The question, however, is whether this growth is sufficient to meet the European target of 14% renewables in 2020. The limited growth is due partly to the decrease in the amount of energy generated in the category 'other incineration'. In addition, there was a decline in the physical delivery of transport biofuels because certain types of fuel can be 'double-counted' in the records, although they do not contribute to the 14% target. This document provides an overview of the amount of energy derived from biomass, a description of the current bio-energy policy framework and a discussion of the extent to which the Netherlands is on track for securing European renewable energy targets [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2011 geeft de huidige status weer van bioenergie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken aan overheden en marktpartijen in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie. De kabinetsdoelstellingen voor hernieuwbare energie zijn conform de doelstellingen uit de richtlijn voor hernieuwbare energie (2009/28/EG), die is vastgesteld door de EC. In 2020 moet 14% van het nationale bruto finaal eindgebruik afkomstig zijn van hernieuwbare bronnen, de Nederlandse overheid schat dat dat overeenkomt met 300 PJ. Naar schatting is in 2011 ongeveer 88 PJ aan hernieuwbare energie geproduceerd, ongeveer evenveel

  8. Overview of the interactive task in BioCreative V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghua; S Abdul, Shabbir; Almeida, Lara; Ananiadou, Sophia; Balderas-Martínez, Yalbi I; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Campos, David; Chilton, Lucy; Chou, Hui-Jou; Contreras, Gabriela; Cooper, Laurel; Dai, Hong-Jie; Ferrell, Barbra; Fluck, Juliane; Gama-Castro, Socorro; George, Nancy; Gkoutos, Georgios; Irin, Afroza K; Jensen, Lars J; Jimenez, Silvia; Jue, Toni R; Keseler, Ingrid; Madan, Sumit; Matos, Sérgio; McQuilton, Peter; Milacic, Marija; Mort, Matthew; Natarajan, Jeyakumar; Pafilis, Evangelos; Pereira, Emiliano; Rao, Shruti; Rinaldi, Fabio; Rothfels, Karen; Salgado, David; Silva, Raquel M; Singh, Onkar; Stefancsik, Raymund; Su, Chu-Hsien; Subramani, Suresh; Tadepally, Hamsa D; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Vasilevsky, Nicole; Wang, Xiaodong; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Laulederkind, Stanley J F; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; McEntyre, Johanna; Orchard, Sandra; Pundir, Sangya; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Van Auken, Kimberly; Lu, Zhiyong; Schaeffer, Mary; Wu, Cathy H; Hirschman, Lynette; Arighi, Cecilia N

    2016-01-01

    Fully automated text mining (TM) systems promote efficient literature searching, retrieval, and review but are not sufficient to produce ready-to-consume curated documents. These systems are not meant to replace biocurators, but instead to assist them in one or more literature curation steps. To do so, the user interface is an important aspect that needs to be considered for tool adoption. The BioCreative Interactive task (IAT) is a track designed for exploring user-system interactions, promoting development of useful TM tools, and providing a communication channel between the biocuration and the TM communities. In BioCreative V, the IAT track followed a format similar to previous interactive tracks, where the utility and usability of TM tools, as well as the generation of use cases, have been the focal points. The proposed curation tasks are user-centric and formally evaluated by biocurators. In BioCreative V IAT, seven TM systems and 43 biocurators participated. Two levels of user participation were offered to broaden curator involvement and obtain more feedback on usability aspects. The full level participation involved training on the system, curation of a set of documents with and without TM assistance, tracking of time-on-task, and completion of a user survey. The partial level participation was designed to focus on usability aspects of the interface and not the performance per se In this case, biocurators navigated the system by performing pre-designed tasks and then were asked whether they were able to achieve the task and the level of difficulty in completing the task. In this manuscript, we describe the development of the interactive task, from planning to execution and discuss major findings for the systems tested.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org.

  9. Evolving BioAssay Ontology (BAO): modularization, integration and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyruwan, Saminda; Vempati, Uma D; Küçük-McGinty, Hande; Visser, Ubbo; Koleti, Amar; Mir, Ahsan; Sakurai, Kunie; Chung, Caty; Bittker, Joshua A; Clemons, Paul A; Brudz, Steve; Siripala, Anosha; Morales, Arturo J; Romacker, Martin; Twomey, David; Bureeva, Svetlana; Lemmon, Vance; Schürer, Stephan C

    2014-01-01

    The lack of established standards to describe and annotate biological assays and screening outcomes in the domain of drug and chemical probe discovery is a severe limitation to utilize public and proprietary drug screening data to their maximum potential. We have created the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) project (http://bioassayontology.org) to develop common reference metadata terms and definitions required for describing relevant information of low-and high-throughput drug and probe screening assays and results. The main objectives of BAO are to enable effective integration, aggregation, retrieval, and analyses of drug screening data. Since we first released BAO on the BioPortal in 2010 we have considerably expanded and enhanced BAO and we have applied the ontology in several internal and external collaborative projects, for example the BioAssay Research Database (BARD). We describe the evolution of BAO with a design that enables modeling complex assays including profile and panel assays such as those in the Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS). One of the critical questions in evolving BAO is the following: how can we provide a way to efficiently reuse and share among various research projects specific parts of our ontologies without violating the integrity of the ontology and without creating redundancies. This paper provides a comprehensive answer to this question with a description of a methodology for ontology modularization using a layered architecture. Our modularization approach defines several distinct BAO components and separates internal from external modules and domain-level from structural components. This approach facilitates the generation/extraction of derived ontologies (or perspectives) that can suit particular use cases or software applications. We describe the evolution of BAO related to its formal structures, engineering approaches, and content to enable modeling of complex assays and integration with other ontologies and

  10. Laser induced heat source distribution in bio-tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Fan, Shifu; Zhao, Youquan

    2006-09-01

    During numerical simulation of laser and tissue thermal interaction, the light fluence rate distribution should be formularized and constituted to the source term in the heat transfer equation. Usually the solution of light irradiative transport equation is given in extreme conditions such as full absorption (Lambert-Beer Law), full scattering (Lubelka-Munk theory), most scattering (Diffusion Approximation) et al. But in specific conditions, these solutions will induce different errors. The usually used Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is more universal and exact but has difficulty to deal with dynamic parameter and fast simulation. Its area partition pattern has limits when applying FEM (finite element method) to solve the bio-heat transfer partial differential coefficient equation. Laser heat source plots of above methods showed much difference with MCS. In order to solve this problem, through analyzing different optical actions such as reflection, scattering and absorption on the laser induced heat generation in bio-tissue, a new attempt was made out which combined the modified beam broaden model and the diffusion approximation model. First the scattering coefficient was replaced by reduced scattering coefficient in the beam broaden model, which is more reasonable when scattering was treated as anisotropic scattering. Secondly the attenuation coefficient was replaced by effective attenuation coefficient in scattering dominating turbid bio-tissue. The computation results of the modified method were compared with Monte Carlo simulation and showed the model provided reasonable predictions of heat source term distribution than past methods. Such a research is useful for explaining the physical characteristics of heat source in the heat transfer equation, establishing effective photo-thermal model, and providing theory contrast for related laser medicine experiments.

  11. Life and bios, keys to contemporary political thought / La vida y el bios, claves en el pensamiento político contemporáneo

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Pfeiffer

    2011-01-01

    Taking as a starting point Nancy’s qualifications of life as Signum and Chiffre, we’ll go through life metaphors in order to reach the body as the larger metaphor for bios. Bios as qualified life, as power, let us think power as potentiality of will. This place, that of the potentiality of will, is taken by Science, beloved daughter of Metaphysics. How can we speak of life then? Science has colonized bios and has expressed this colonization through the gene: substance without body, hypothesis...

  12. Preparation of alternate fuels by means of bio-methanization, pyrolysis and gasification; Preparation thermique de combustibles alternatifs par bio-methanisation, thermolyse et gazeification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, A.; Jung, C.G. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2003-06-01

    The paper gives a general description of wastes and their various components each of them depending on their behaviour during the beneficiation treatment: water, organic matters (bio-degradable and non bio-degradable), mineral matters and metals some examples are given. Various processes are available: compost production, bio-methanization and thermal processes. These thermal processes are incineration, gasification and pyrolysis, depending on the quantity (or absence) of air during the process. The paper gives a description of these processes as well as the type of equipment that are utilised. (authors)

  13. BioMEMS--bridging of biomedical diagnostics and treatments%BioMEMS--生物医学诊断和治疗的桥梁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓梅; 张大成

    2003-01-01

    生物微机电系统(BioMEMS)集微传感器、微驱动器、微流体系统、微光学系统及微机械元件于一体,广泛应用于生物学、医学和生物医学工程等领域,是一个新的交叉研究学科.本文概述了BioMEMS的研究内容和发展方向,给出了部分BioMEMS研究结果.

  14. Editorial: from plant biotechnology to bio-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöger, Eva

    2013-10-01

    From plant biotechnology to bio-based products - this Special Issue of Biotechnology Journal is dedicated to plant biotechnology and is edited by Prof. Eva Stöger (University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria). The Special Issue covers a wide range of topics in plant biotechnology, including metabolic engineering of biosynthesis pathways in plants; taking advantage of the scalability of the plant system for the production of innovative materials; as well as the regulatory challenges and society acceptance of plant biotechnology.

  15. Aspectos Bioéticos de los Cuidados Paliativos

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Artavia, Allan

    2012-01-01

    El presente ensayo busca dar a conocer los principales aspectos bioéticos relacionados con los cuidados paliativos. Con este fin,primeramente se hace un recorrido por la significancia de los conceptos, para luego analizar algunos aspectos relacionados con con la ética delos cuidados paliativos tales como el tratamiento apropiado, la nutrición e hidratación, y la posición frente a la eutanasia. Posteriormente discute algunos aspectos relacionados con la muerte digna y con el morir como acto hu...

  16. FDTD Modeling of Nano- and Bio-Photonic Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Tuchin, Valery; Pond, James

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the discussion of two recent unique applications of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) simulation method to the design and modeling of advanced nano- and bio-photonic problems. The approach that is adopted here focuses on the potential of the FDTD methodology...... to the modeling of biophotonics applications including Optical Phase Contrast Microscope (OPCM) imaging of cells containing gold nanoparticles (NPs) as well as its potential application as a modality for in vivo flow cytometry configurations....

  17. EV投巨资收购BioWare及Pandemic公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    全球第一大第三方游戏开发商、美国电子游戏巨鳄EA公司,最近正式宣布了与Elevation Partners投资公司联合收购VGHolding的协议,该公司也是另外两家第三方游戏开发商BioWare和Pandemic Studios(分别是《质量效应》和《雇佣兵2》的开发商)的母公司。

  18. Methanation of Bio-Syngas in a Bench Scale Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, M.; Biollaz, S.; Binkert, P.; Hottinger, P.; Marti, T.; Schneebeli, J.

    2004-03-01

    Contaminants are the main obstacle for the use of biomass derived synthesis gas (bio-syngas) in catalytic thermochemical conversion processes for the generation of biofuels. To avoid excessive preliminary purification the overall process has to be very tolerant towards these contaminants. A suitable catalyst was characterised and favourable process parameters were identified to perform a long-term experiment with a slip-stream from an industrial biomass gasifier. Via stepwise removing of the cleaning units the amount of contaminants was increased during the experiment. A set of process parameters was found, which allowed to run the system with a minimum of purification resulting in a chemical efficiency of ca. 85 %. (author)

  19. Hyper bio assembler for 3D cellular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Fumihito; Yamato, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Hyper Bio Assembler for Cellular Systems is the first book to present a new methodology for measuring and separating target cells at high speed and constructing 3D cellular systems in vitro. This book represents a valuable resource for biologists, biophysicists and robotic engineers, as well as researchers interested in this new frontier area, offering a better understanding of the measurement, separation, assembly, analysis and synthesis of complex biological tissue, and of the medical applications of these technologies. This book is the outcome of the new academic fields of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology’s Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Japan.

  20. BioSIGHT: Interactive Visualization Modules for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wee Ling

    1998-01-01

    Redefining science education to harness emerging integrated media technologies with innovative pedagogical goals represents a unique challenge. The Integrated Media Systems Center (IMSC) is the only engineering research center in the area of multimedia and creative technologies sponsored by the National Science Foundation. The research program at IMSC is focused on developing advanced technologies that address human-computer interfaces, database management, and high- speed network capabilities. The BioSIGHT project at IMSC is a demonstration technology project in the area of education that seeks to address how such emerging multimedia technologies can make an impact on science education. The scope of this project will help solidify NASA's commitment for the development of innovative educational resources that promotes science literacy for our students and the general population as well. These issues must be addressed as NASA marches towards the goal of enabling human space exploration that requires an understanding of life sciences in space. The IMSC BioSIGHT lab was established with the purpose of developing a novel methodology that will map a high school biology curriculum into a series of interactive visualization modules that can be easily incorporated into a space biology curriculum. Fundamental concepts in general biology must be mastered in order to allow a better understanding and application for space biology. Interactive visualization is a powerful component that can capture the students' imagination, facilitate their assimilation of complex ideas, and help them develop integrated views of biology. These modules will augment the role of the teacher and will establish the value of student-centered interactivity, both in an individual setting as well as in a collaborative learning environment. Students will be able to interact with the content material, explore new challenges, and perform virtual laboratory simulations. The BioSIGHT effort is truly cross

  1. Bio-based alkyds by direct enzymatic bulk polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hiep Dinh

    Alkyd coating systems have been largely used to preserve exterior wood applications as well as to provide them with a decorative appearance. In the current stage of sustainability concerns, there has been a stronger focus on development and production of bio-based coating components, heading toward....... Moreover, the studies on more sensitive monomers such as itaconic acid in enzymatic polymerization has showed that the method is useful in the production of alkyds from such building blocks, which could not be prepared by the corresponding classical boiling method at high temperature. Such systems...... that their functionalized surface markedly altered their solubility, but provided only moderate improvement in the mechanical properties of the alkyd....

  2. Mining in a sustainable world: program; bios and abstracts; commentaries:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Williams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This section contains three documents:Commentaries: which are short versions of papers that were presented at the Mining in a Sustainable World conference (UNE, 13 to 15 October 2013. The papers were submitted by authors for inclusion in the journal but not for peer review.Program of the Mining in a Sustainable World conference (UNE, 13 to 15 October 2013.Bios and Abstracts of presenters at the Mining in a Sustainable World conference (UNE, 13 to 15 October 2013.

  3. Aquaculture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS): Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, John M.

    2009-04-01

    A significant amount of research has been invested into understanding the effects of including fish culture in bio-regenerative life support systems (BLSS) for long duration space habitation. While the benefits of fish culture as a sub-process for waste treatment and food production continue to be identified, other pressing issues arise that affect the overall equivalent system mass associated with fish culture in a BLSS. This paper is meant to provide insight into several issues affecting fish culture in a BLSS that will require attention in the future if fish meant for consumption are to be cultured in a BLSS.

  4. Biophotonic imaging: lighting the way for chem/bio detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Steven; Jegier, Patricia; Lopes, Nicholas

    2009-05-01

    Biophotonic imaging is a versatile and powerful tool, that when combined with living microbial bioreporters, can be applied in diagnostic technologies for sensitive, nondestructive, real-time monitoring of chemical and biological targets. Bioreporters, consisting of bacteria as well as the viruses (bacteriophage) that infect them, can be genetically engineered to emit visible light upon interaction with a specific chemical or biological entity. By interfacing these bioreporters with imaging cameras or miniaturized integrated circuit microluminometers, fully standalone detection units are formed that can be deployed for intelligent distributed multi-target chem/bio monitoring.

  5. Special issue on organic electronic bio-devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsi, Luisa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present editorial is to briefly summarize the current scientific and technological accomplishments in the field of organic electronic biosensors as described in the articles published in this Special Issue. By definition, a biosensor is a robust analytical device that combines a biological recognition element (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, cells) with a transducer. Organic electronic bio-devices are considered as potentially reliable substitutes of conventional and rather expensive analytical techniques employed for several applications such as medical diagnosis, food safety and environment pollution monitoring. Some insights into the selection and immobilization of recognition elements, signal amplification, fabrication techniques and analytical performance of biosensing devices will be presented.

  6. Bio-based lubricants for numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupu, Dedi Rosa Putra; Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md; Osman, Kahar

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a programming code to provide numerical solution of elastohydrodynamic lubrication problem in line contacts which is modeled through an infinite cylinder on a plane to represent the application of roller bearing. In this simulation, vegetable oils will be used as bio-based lubricants. Temperature is assumed to be constant at 40°C. The results show that the EHL pressure for all vegetable oils was increasing from inlet flow until the center, then decrease a bit and rise to the peak pressure. The shapes of EHL film thickness for all tested vegetable oils are almost flat at contact region.

  7. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  8. Eco-Challenges of Bio-Based Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Grozdanov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years bio-based polymer composites have been the subject of many scientific and research projects, as well as many commercial programs. Growing global environmental and social concern, the high rate of depletion of petroleum resources and new environmental regulations have forced the search for new composites and green materials, compatible with the environment. The aim of this article is to present a brief review of the most suitable and commonly used biodegradable polymer matrices and NF reinforcements in eco-composites and nanocomposites, with special focus on PLA based materials.

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    Hydrothermal liquefaction experiments on Nannochloropsis salina and Spirulina platensis at subcritical and supercritical water conditions were carried out to explore the feasibility of extracting lipids from wet algae, preserving nutrients in lipid-extracted algae solid residue, and recycling...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  10. Protein hot spots at bio-nano interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald F. Audette

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has influenced the direction of research across the sciences, medicine, and engineering. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs and, more recently, protein nanotubes (PNTs and protein-inorganic nanocomposites have received considerable attention due to their unique nanostructures that can be utilized as a scaffold to house proteins or create nanowires. A shift towards protein-inorganic interactions has numerous applications from biosensors to biofuel cells and bio-based nanodevices. We examine several systems where protein hot spots, the active domains on proteins and the interactive dynamics in them, play a critical role in the interactions at the interface of these unique systems.

  11. Application of agro-wastes for bio-composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanian, Haroutioun; Novello, Ottavio; Coelho, Christian; Commereuc, Sophie; Verney, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    This work was devoted to study the potential of different agro-wastes as reinforcements for thermoplastics as an alternative to wood fibers. Olive pits flour, walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour was used as filler for polylactic acid. Thermal behaviour of the composites was studied to investigate the nucleation effect of the lignocellulosic flour. The effects of filler loading on the mechanical properties, as well as viscoelastic behavior were also studied. The results indicates that these agricultural by-products can be used as filler in production of bio-composites without any further treatment, especially in the case of walnut nutshells flour and cherry pits flour.

  12. Eigenvalue Expansion Approach to Study Bio-Heat Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M. A.; Nazir, Khalid

    2016-07-01

    A mathematical model based on Pennes bio-heat equation was formulated to estimate temperature profiles at peripheral regions of human body. The heat processes due to diffusion, perfusion and metabolic pathways were considered to establish the second-order partial differential equation together with initial and boundary conditions. The model was solved using eigenvalue method and the numerical values of the physiological parameters were used to understand the thermal disturbance on the biological tissues. The results were illustrated at atmospheric temperatures TA = 10∘C and 20∘C.

  13. UM olhar da bioética para a zooterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Luciane Fischer; Amanda Amorim Zanatta; Eliana Rezende Adami

    2016-01-01

    Los animales pueden auxiliar en innumerables actividades humanas, incluyendo terapias con los beneficios ya reconocidos, sin embargo con algunas cuestiones éticas. Luego, se genera el objetivo de contextualizar social y éticamente el uso de animales como co-terapeutas y reflexionar sobre la intervención de la Bioética en la regulación de un problema complejo, global y plural, que tiene como plano de fondo el estudio del caso relacionado con los tutores, animales y niños con trastornos mentale...

  14. Bio-Inspired Meta-Heuristics for Emergency Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Xia Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Emergency transportation plays a vital role in the success of disaster rescue and relief operations, but its planning and scheduling often involve complex objectives and search spaces. In this paper, we conduct a survey of recent advances in bio-inspired meta-heuristics, including genetic algorithms (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, ant colony optimization (ACO, etc., for solving emergency transportation problems. We then propose a new hybrid biogeography-based optimization (BBO algorithm, which outperforms some state-of-the-art heuristics on a typical transportation planning problem.

  15. Bio agricultural product market in Romania and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona BĂLĂŞESCU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The general objectives of this paper are to obtain an overview of the present market for organic agricultural products in Europe in general, and in Romania in particular. Organic agricultural production represents a small part of Romanian agricultural production and the development potential of organic agricultural production Romania is infinitely greater than what is done today. European consumers know little about the Romanian bio agriculture and even less about the huge potential of this sector. Organic food market is growing both in Europe and in Romania due to the increased interest of consumers to live healthier and improve the quality of life.

  16. Fluorinated bio-acceptable polymers via an ATRP macroinitiator approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Natanya Majbritt Louie; Haddletion, D.M.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Polymers derived from bio-acceptable poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA), and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) have been prepared via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) utilizing an initiator prepared from a fluoroalkoxy......-methanimine with the methacrylates MMA and PEGMA and 1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylene tetramine (HMTETA) with MEA. In all cases the use of the fluorinated initiator results in a lower apparent rate of propagation (k(p)(aPP)) as compared with the more conventional and nonfluorinated initiator, ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate...

  17. Mitsubishi chemistry: Spreading of carbon business in China; Kasseitan. Chugoku seisan wo kakudai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-28

    Mitsubishi chemistry strengthens the overseas development of activated carbon business. The matter that this rank worked from October is received, and activated carbon equipment of Shanshi expands global development. The policy that joint company establishment in China and the annual production that it hits present double as that part after 2001 build a system 10000 tons. The case that a headquarters area is secured in Asia recently is on the increase in activated carbon manufacturer. Regardless of the coconut tree shell and the coal, a reason is because it is favorable on the cost side. After having secured it, a production position is turned to the world market in China of the raw material location, and Mitsubishi chemistry works for the product extreme development. On the other hand, high value added development is taken about the domestic position, and a role assignment is defined. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Petroleum exploration and production in Japan; Nihon kokunai ni okeru sekiyu tanko to seisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, M.

    2000-02-01

    The production of crude oil was started even in Japan from the nineteenth century to the twentieth century beginning in Niigata Prefecture, and the real petroleum industry was produced. The production has been started even in Akita Prefecture in the age in Taisho and Showa. The petroleum industry in Japan developed from the comparatively old like this. However, it is not very much known generally. Because of the oil of output is fewer than an amount of import from foreign countries. This paper describes oil gas rice pad in Japan and the production situation. (NEDO)

  19. Leading research on next generation metal production technology; Jisedai kinzoku shigen seisan gijutsu no sendo kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The energy saving environment-friendly technology for low- grade difficult-to-process ores was researched focusing attention on the hydro-metallurgical process of non-ferrous metals. This research aims at development of both effective leaching system of metals, and separation/crystallization system recognizing the property difference between metal ions in solution. The leaching system allows the inexpensive molecular level control of electron transfer, mass transfer of metal ions and stabilization of leached metal ions in a solid/liquid interface. The system thus allows selective leaching of metals from various resources such as difficult- to-leach sulfide minerals to prepare concentrated solutions. The separation system can obtain high-purity solutions including each metal ion by advanced separation/concentration technology from the solutions. The crystallization technology (including electrolysis) is developed for preparing target metal materials by molecular level control of nucleation, particle growth, thin film formation and bulky metal formation processes. Overall energy consumption is reduced to 1/3 of that of the pyro-metallurgical method, aiming at zero emission. 15 refs., 14 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  1. Ética y Bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Valenzuela, Juliana

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Present-day ethics cannot be thought without a close link to bioethics. We are facing a situation characterized by radical changes, wherein techno-scientific advance cannot be stopped. Prohibitions can only be delaying attempts. Therefore, there is only a reasonable and ethically valid answer, namely to assume and master the historic change process, endowing it with ethical meaning, making it humane and rational. Bioethics calls for an elucidation of its ontological presuppositions. Current situation demands an ethics thanks towhich the changing process will keep a living face of humanitas.

    Sería imposible pensar la ética actual sin asociarla a la bio-ética. Nos encontramos en una situación de transformaciones radicales y el proceso tecnocientífico es irrefrenable. Las prohibiciones sólo tiene poder moratorio. Luego, no cabe más que una respuesta razonable y éticamente válida: asumir el cambio histórico y hacernos dueños del proceso, dotarlo de sentido ético, humanizarlo, racionalizarlo. La bioética requiere esclarecer sus presupuestos ontológicos. La situación presente exige una ética que contribuya a que el proceso transformador preserve vivo el rostro de la humanitas.

  2. A Modified Bio-Ecological Process for Rural Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited water resources and ensuring access to clean water are critical environmental challenges, especially for the developing world. In particular, rural domestic wastewater has become a significant source for the pollution of freshwater bodies. A modified bio-ecological A2O-wetland system for rural wastewater treatment consisting of a biological unit (anaerobic baffled reactor, anoxic tank and oxic unit, A2O and an ecological unit (horizontal flow constructed wetland was developed, and key performance indicators were identified. The bio-ecological treatment system showed high removal efficiency for pollutants, successfully achieving 91%, 85%, 78%, and 92% removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium (NH4–N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP, respectively. The concentrations of pollutants in the effluent from the system were lower than the Class 1 A regulated values of the Chinese National Standard GB18918-2002. The system offered high removal efficiency, simple operation, and low energy consumption. The A2O-wetland is a good alternative for rural wastewater treatment systems.

  3. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  4. Bio-barcode gel assay for microRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Jeong-Eun; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNA has been identified as a potential biomarker because expression level of microRNA is correlated with various cancers. Its detection at low concentrations would be highly beneficial for cancer diagnosis. Here, we develop a new type of a DNA-modified gold nanoparticle-based bio-barcode assay that uses a conventional gel electrophoresis platform and potassium cyanide chemistry and show this assay can detect microRNA at aM levels without enzymatic amplification. It is also shown that single-base-mismatched microRNA can be differentiated from perfectly matched microRNA and the multiplexed detection of various combinations of microRNA sequences is possible with this approach. Finally, differently expressed microRNA levels are selectively detected from cancer cells using the bio-barcode gel assay, and the results are compared with conventional polymerase chain reaction-based results. The method and results shown herein pave the way for practical use of a conventional gel electrophoresis for detecting biomolecules of interest even at aM level without polymerase chain reaction amplification.

  5. Chemical equilibria in bio sorption; Equilibrios quimicos en bioadsorcion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Ballester, A.; Blazquez, M. L.; Munoz, J.A.

    2007-07-01

    An experimental study of bio sorption was carried out using six different kinds of algae and five different heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc). Experimental data fitted very well to langmuir's model and this allowed to predict the behaviour of the biomass under specific working conditions. Using the equations of the model under different initial assumptions, a series of mathematical calculations were done for mono metallic, bimetallic and tri metallic systems. the most complicated calculation is that in which, knowing the initial metal concentration (C{sub 0}), it is necessary to calculate the conditions reached at the equilibrium, this is, q{sub e} and C{sub e}. This assumption is of great interest from the point of view of the actual applicability of the process. However, in this case, it is necessary to solve very complex mathematical equations which, for multi metallic systems, are of degree n+1, where n is the number of ions present in solution. The excellent correlation between experimental and theoretical data demonstrates that the bio sorption process can be modelling. (Author) 18 refs.

  6. An Integrative Bio-Psycho-Social Theory of Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Calum; Randell, Louise; Lawrie, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    The need for novel approaches to understanding and treating anorexia nervosa (AN) is well recognized. The aim of this paper is to describe an integrative bio-psycho-social theory of maintaining factors in AN. We took a triangulation approach to develop a clinically relevant theory with face validity and internal consistency. We developed theoretical ideas from our clinical practice and reviewed theoretical ideas within the eating disorders and wider bio-psycho-social literature. The synthesis of these ideas and concepts into a clinically meaningful framework is described here. We suggest eight key factors central to understanding the maintenance and treatment resistance of anorexia nervosa: genetic or experiential predisposing factors; dysfunctional feelings processing and regulation systems; excessive vulnerable feelings; 'feared self' beliefs; starvation as a maladaptive physiological feelings regulation mechanism; maladaptive psychological coping modes; maladaptive social behaviour; and unmet physical and psychological core needs. Each of these factors serves to maintain the disorder. The concept of universal physical and psychological core needs can provide an underpinning integrative framework for working with this distinctly physical and psychological disorder. This framework could be used within any treatment model. We suggest that treatments which help address the profound lack of trust, emotional security and self-acceptance in this patient group will in turn address unmet needs and improve well-being. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Carboxylic acid (bio)isosteres in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, Carlo; Huryn, Donna M; Smith, Amos B

    2013-03-01

    The carboxylic acid functional group can be an important constituent of a pharmacophore, however, the presence of this moiety can also be responsible for significant drawbacks, including metabolic instability, toxicity, as well as limited passive diffusion across biological membranes. To avoid some of these shortcomings while retaining the desired attributes of the carboxylic acid moiety, medicinal chemists often investigate the use of carboxylic acid (bio)isosteres. The same type of strategy can also be effective for a variety other purposes, for example, to increase the selectivity of a biologically active compound or to create new intellectual property. Several carboxylic acid isosteres have been reported, however, the outcome of any isosteric replacement cannot be readily predicted as this strategy is generally found to be dependent upon the particular context (i.e., the characteristic properties of the drug and the drug-target). As a result, screening of a panel of isosteres is typically required. In this context, the discovery and development of novel carboxylic acid surrogates that could complement the existing palette of isosteres remains an important area of research. The goal of this Minireview is to provide an overview of the most commonly employed carboxylic acid (bio)isosteres and to present representative examples demonstrating the use and utility of each isostere in drug design.

  8. Problemas bioéticos emergentes de la inteligencia artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Andrés Villalba Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo de revisión, relaciona de forma analítica los conceptos entre bioética e inteligencia artificial, identificando los elementos técnicofilosóficos tales como: transhumanismo, inteligencia artificial y bioética de la tecnología; cuyo orden transdisciplinar, evoluciona en cuestionamientos científicos basados en la evolución de la tecnociencia del siglo XXI. Se identificarán los referentes conceptuales de la relación entre transhumanismo (H+ e inteligencia artificial (IA, su génesis, enfoques, fundamentos disciplinares, así como los elementos básicos que hacen posible la arquitectura en un sistema de inteligencia artificial, precisando así el ambiente prospectivo en el que se consolida una “era” basada en la “singularidad tecnológica”, para finalmente concluir en una descripción de algunos problemas ético-filosóficos que emergen en la evolución de la inteligencia artificial.

  9. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  10. TMZ-BioShuttle – a reformulated Temozolomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Waldeck, Manfred Wiessler, Volker Ehemann, Ruediger Pipkorn, Herbert Spring, Juergen Debus, Bernd Didinger, Gabriele Mueller, Joerg Langowski, Klaus Braun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large number of effective cytotoxic drugs whose side effect profile, efficacy, and long-term use in man are well understood and documented over decades of use in clinical routine e.g. in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM and the hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC. Both cancers are insensitive against most chemotherapeutic interventions; they have low response rates and poor prognoses. Some cytotoxic agents can be significantly improved by using modern technology of drug delivery or formulation. We succeeded to enhance the pharmacologic potency with simultaneous reduction of unwanted adverse reactions of the highly efficient chemotherapeutic temozolomide (TMZ as an example. The TMZ connection to transporter molecules (TMZ-BioShuttle resulted in a much higher pharmacological effect in glioma cell lines while using reduced doses. This permits the conclusion that a suitable chemistry could realize the ligation of pharmacologically active, but sensitive and highly unstable pharmaceutical ingredients without functional deprivation. The re-formulation of TMZ to TMZ-BioShuttle achieved a nearly 10-fold potential of the established pharmaceutic TMZ far beyond the treatment of brain tumors cells and results in an attractive reformulated drug with enhanced therapeutic index.

  11. Solution processing of microcavity for BioMEMS application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Vu Nam; Ukita, Yoshiaki; Takamura, Yuzuru; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya; Dung Dang, Thi My; Chien Dang, Mau

    2014-09-01

    Compared to the conventional silicon-based technology, the solution process appears to be a revolution in the field of micro/nanofabrication due to its advantages of high efficiency in material and energy consumption and the use of low cost material. In this paper, we introduce a new approach to fabricate BioMEMS devices using this novel technology to make microcavity. Zirconium oxide patterns were formed on the silicon substrate simply by spin coating its precursor and thermal imprinting technique. We used poly-propylene carbonate (PPC) for the sacrificial material due to its unique pyrolysis property. The PPC was coated on the ZrO patterns and excess film was etched by oxygen plasma but retaining PPC structure between the lines of ZrO pattern. Then another ZrO layer was coated to encapsulate the PPC. The final microcavity structures were obtained by just baking the substrate by pyrolyzing the PPC. The obtained results show the approach’s prospect of becoming an ideal alternative for the current BioMEMS micro/nanofabrication technologies

  12. Electron optics of nanoplasmonic metamaterials in bio/opto theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, D. Keith; DeJarnette, Drew; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Dunklin, Jeremy; Berry, Keith; Jang, Gyoung G.; Lisunova, Milana; Blake, Phillip; Ahn, Wonmi

    2014-08-01

    Opto-electronic coupling of plasmonic nano-antennas in the near infrared water window in vitro and in vivo is of growing interest for imaging contrast agents, spectroscopic labels and rulers, biosensing, drug-delivery, and optoplasmonic ablation. Metamaterials composed of nanoplasmonic meta-atoms offer improved figures of merit in many applications across a broader spectral window. Discrete and coupled dipole approximations effectively describe localized and coupled resonance modes in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. From numeric and experimental results have emerged four design principles to guide fabrication and implementation of metamaterials in bio-related devices and systems. Resonance intensity and sensitivity are enhanced by surface-to-mass of meta-atoms and lattice constant. Fano resonant coupling is dependent on meta-atom polarizability and lattice geometry. Internal reflection in plasmonic metaatom- containing polymer films enhances dissipation rate. Dimensions of self-assembled meta-atoms depend on balancing electrochemical and surface forces. Examples of these principles from our lab compare computation with images and spectra from ordered metal-ceramic and polymeric nanocomposite metamaterials for bio/opto theranostic applications. These principles speed design and description of new architectures for nanoplasmonic metamaterials that show promise for bioapplications.

  13. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  14. Bio-ecology of Taxus Baccata l. in Kakheti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Nadiradze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the bio-ecology of Taxus baccata L. in Kakheti (eastern Georgia, particularly in Tsinandali Park. Yew (Taxus baccata L. preserved in Tsinandali Park (Telavi region, Georgia was chosen as an object for long-lasting observation over plant vegetation. Vegetation of 47 new specimens were studied during the period 2001-2010. It was observed the buds opening, the vegetation finishing, the cambium active periods beginning and finishing, the sprout stiffen process, the rate and time of growth. The period between 2001 and 2004 is distinguished by the relatively intensive growth of yew samples. In 2004-2010 growth period was shortened. It is suggested, that shortening often growth period in yew specimen is related to the deficit of water in soil due to frequent drought and snowless winters in Telavi region in the last decade.Observation conducted on the peculiarities of cambial growth confirms that yew has strong ability of frost-resistance. We consider that the bio-ecological studies of yew tree, as an endangered species, and its implementation in decorative gardening will contribute to its conservation

  15. Bio-char from treated and untreated oil palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati; Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The palm oil industry generates almost 94% of biomass in Malaysia, while other agricultural and forestry by-products contribute the remaining of 6%. Oil palm fronds (OPF) are estimated to be the highest available biomass amounting to 44.84 million tonnes in Malaysia. However, studies on OPF for thermochemical conversion technology which has good potential for energy conversion are still lacking. In this work, pyrolysis of OPF is conducted by using a fixed bed reactor. Samples were carbonized at slow pyrolysis temperature of around 300 to 500°C with heating rate of 10°C min-1. In addition, samples were treated for 20 min with distilled water at ambient temperature to reduce the ash content. Effectiveness of pre-treatment can be determined by observing the percentage of ash content reduction of each sample after undergoing washing pre-treatment. At 300°C, the char yields of the untreated OPF were slightly higher at 50.95% compared to the treated sample at 49.77%. Approximately all bio-char from the treated samples have better high heating value (HHV) of around 18-20 MJ kg-1 compared to the untreated samples. Besides that, all treated OPF char is more carbon rich and considered to be environmental friendly due to its low nitrogen content compared to the untreated OPF char. In this work, microscopic analysis of OPF bio-char were also studied by observing and evaluating their structure surface and morphology.

  16. Gold nanoparticles paper as a SERS bio-diagnostic platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Ying Hui; Then, Whui Lyn; Shen, Wei; Garnier, Gil

    2013-11-01

    Bioactive papers are usually challenged by four major limitations: sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity and strength (4S). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) treated paper has previously been demonstrated as a Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) active substrate, capable of addressing the 4S issues. In this study, AuNPs on paper substrate were functionalized by a series of biomolecules to develop a generic SERS platform for antibody-antigen detection. The functionalization steps were performed by taking advantage of the high affinity association between Streptomyces avidinii-derived protein, streptavidin, and biotin. Streptavidin was firstly bound onto the AuNPs treated paper using biotinylated-thiol. Subsequently, desired biotinylated-antibody was bound onto the streptavidin. SERS spectra of each functionalization step were obtained to ensure specific adsorption of the bio-molecules. The binding interaction of the antibody with its specific antigen was detected using SERS. Shifts of Raman band associated with α-helix and β-sheet structures indicated structural modification of the antibody upon interaction with its antigen. Predominant tryptophan and tyrosine residue bands were also detected, confirming the presence of antigen. Reproducible spectral features were quantified as AuNP papers were subjected to different concentrations of antigen; the spectra intensity increased as a function of the antigen concentration. The retention of AuNPs on paper remained constant after all the consecutive washing and functionalization steps. The feasibility of AuNPs paper as a low-cost and generic SERS platform for bio-diagnostic applications was demonstrated.

  17. Tackling regional climate change by leaf albedo bio-geoengineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy S; Hetherington, Alistair M; Valdes, Paul J

    2009-01-27

    The likelihood that continuing greenhouse-gas emissions will lead to an unmanageable degree of climate change has stimulated the search for planetary-scale technological solutions for reducing global warming ("geoengineering"), typically characterized by the necessity for costly new infrastructures and industries. We suggest that the existing global infrastructure associated with arable agriculture can help, given that crop plants exert an important influence over the climatic energy budget because of differences in their albedo (solar reflectivity) compared to soils and to natural vegetation. Specifically, we propose a "bio-geoengineering" approach to mitigate surface warming, in which crop varieties having specific leaf glossiness and/or canopy morphological traits are specifically chosen to maximize solar reflectivity. We quantify this by modifying the canopy albedo of vegetation in prescribed cropland areas in a global-climate model, and thereby estimate the near-term potential for bio-geoengineering to be a summertime cooling of more than 1 degrees C throughout much of central North America and midlatitude Eurasia, equivalent to seasonally offsetting approximately one-fifth of regional warming due to doubling of atmospheric CO(2). Ultimately, genetic modification of plant leaf waxes or canopy structure could achieve greater temperature reductions, although better characterization of existing intraspecies variability is needed first.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of bio-engineered cardiac pseudo tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Tao; Boland, Thomas [Department of Bioengineering, 420 Rhodes Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baicu, Catalin; Aho, Michael; Zile, Michael, E-mail: tboland@clemson.ed [Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    We report on fabricating functional three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using an inkjet based bio-prototyping method. With the use of modified inkjet printers, contractile cardiac hybrids that exhibit the forms of the 3D rectangular sheet and even the 'half heart' (with two connected ventricles) have been fabricated by arranging alternate layers of biocompatible alginate hydrogels and mammalian cardiac cells according to pre-designed 3D patterns. In this study, primary feline adult and H1 cardiomyocytes were used as model cardiac cells. Alginate hydrogels with controlled micro-shell structures were built by spraying cross-linkers in micro-drops onto un-gelled alginic acid. The cells remained viable in constructs as thick as 1 cm due to the programmed porosity. Microscopic and macroscopic contractile functions of these cardiomyocyte constructs were observed in vitro. These results suggest that the inkjet bio-prototyping method could be used for hierarchical design of functional cardiac pseudo tissues, balanced with porosity for mass transport and structural support.

  19. An elongation method for large systems toward bio-systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuriko; Gu, Feng Long

    2012-06-07

    The elongation method, proposed in the early 1990s, originally for theoretical synthesis of aperiodic polymers, has been reviewed. The details of derivation of the localization scheme adopted by the elongation method are described along with the elongation processes. The reliability and efficiency of the elongation method have been proven by applying it to various models of bio-systems, such as gramicidin A, collagen, DNA, etc. By means of orbital shift, the elongation method has been successfully applied to delocalized π-conjugated systems. The so-called orbital shift works in such a way that during the elongation process, some strongly delocalized frozen orbitals are assigned as active orbitals and joined with the interaction of the attacking monomer. By this treatment, it has been demonstrated that the total energies and non-linear optical properties determined by the elongation method are more accurate even for bio-systems and delocalized systems like fused porphyrin wires. The elongation method has been further developed for treating any three-dimensional (3D) systems and its applicability is confirmed by applying it to entangled insulin models whose terminal is capped by both neutral and zwitterionic sequences.

  20. The Application of Ultrasound in 3D Bio-Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2016-05-05

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an emerging and promising technology in tissue engineering to construct tissues and organs for implantation. Alignment of self-assembly cell spheroids that are used as bioink could be very accurate after droplet ejection from bioprinter. Complex and heterogeneous tissue structures could be built using rapid additive manufacture technology and multiple cell lines. Effective vascularization in the engineered tissue samples is critical in any clinical application. In this review paper, the current technologies and processing steps (such as printing, preparation of bioink, cross-linking, tissue fusion and maturation) in 3D bio-printing are introduced, and their specifications are compared with each other. In addition, the application of ultrasound in this novel field is also introduced. Cells experience acoustic radiation force in ultrasound standing wave field (USWF) and then accumulate at the pressure node at low acoustic pressure. Formation of cell spheroids by this method is within minutes with uniform size and homogeneous cell distribution. Neovessel formation from USWF-induced endothelial cell spheroids is significant. Low-intensity ultrasound could enhance the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Its use is at low cost and compatible with current bioreactor. In summary, ultrasound application in 3D bio-printing may solve some challenges and enhance the outcomes.