WorldWideScience

Sample records for bio nano-sensing probe

  1. Nanostructure characteristics of ferroics and bio-ferroics in relation to the design consideration of nano-sensing elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Madhuparna

    The shift of the epicenter in the field of science and technology to the nano-world has become evident over the past couple of decades with the emergence of areas likes nanoscience, nanotechnology, nano-biotechnology, etc. Though the size of the devices has decreased, the capability of devices has increased rendering it as 'multifunctional/smart' devices. However the design of smart devices using a single phase material has reached to its limit, hence to make further progress "smart materials" are required. Sensors/actuators are mostly fabricated with popular ferroic materials (ferroelectric/ ferromagnetic/ ferroelastic) or multiferroics (having more than one ferroic property). Multifunctionality can be the outcome of heterogeneous systems with cross-coupled properties, intrinsic as well as extrinsic, and hence modeling of smart materials with high figure of merit is also needed. Most ideas in smart sensing and actuation have been borrowed from the biological systems thus a step further is indeed to combine the engineering with the fundamental biological activities. Not only can we use multiferroic materials in artificial transplants, but we should also investigate ferroic activities in the biological samples. These fundamental issues, their possible solutions and their wide impact underlie the motivation of the current work in this thesis report. To achieve the ultimate goal, the steps outlined were followed: i. understanding the properties of sensing elements of inorganic and biomaterials at nanoscale level, ii. investigation of the multiferroicity, iii. modeling engineered material with better sensing capabilities iv. Finally exploiting the new concepts for device and biomedical applications. The findings of this thesis reports multiferroic behavior in a selected class of single crystals, thin films and bulk materials. Human nails and hair samples have been investigated for ferroelectricity and a comprehensive study concludes the presence of bio

  2. Spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe for bio-imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoong-Ta; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-03-01

    The three common methods to perform hyperspectral imaging are the spatial-scanning, spectral-scanning, and snapshot methods. However, only the spectral-scanning and snapshot methods have been configured to a hyperspectral imaging probe as of today. This paper presents a spatial-scanning (pushbroom) hyperspectral imaging probe, which is realized by integrating a pushbroom hyperspectral imager with an imaging probe. The proposed hyperspectral imaging probe can also function as an endoscopic probe by integrating a custom fabricated image fiber bundle unit. The imaging probe is configured by incorporating a gradient-index lens at the end face of an image fiber bundle that consists of about 50,000 individual fiberlets. The necessary simulations, methodology, and detailed instrumentation aspects that are carried out are explained followed by assessing the developed probe's performance. Resolution test targets such as United States Air Force chart as well as bio-samples such as chicken breast tissue with blood clot are used as test samples for resolution analysis and for performance validation. This system is built on a pushbroom hyperspectral imaging system with a video camera and has the advantage of acquiring information from a large number of spectral bands with selectable region of interest. The advantages of this spatial-scanning hyperspectral imaging probe can be extended to test samples or tissues residing in regions that are difficult to access with potential diagnostic bio-imaging applications.

  3. Nano Sensing and Energy Conversion Using Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltai (Isaac Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanophotonic technique has been attracting much attention in applications of nano-bio-chemical sensing and energy conversion of solar energy harvesting and enhanced energy transfer. One approach for nano-bio-chemical sensing is surface plasmon resonance (SPR imaging, which can detect the material properties, such as density, ion concentration, temperature, and effective refractive index in high sensitivity, label-free, and real-time under ambient conditions. Recent study shows that SPR can successfully detect the concentration variation of nanofluids during evaporation-induced self-assembly process. Spoof surface plasmon resonance based on multilayer metallo-dielectric hyperbolic metamaterials demonstrate SPR dispersion control, which can be combined with SPR imaging, to characterize high refractive index materials because of its exotic optical properties. Furthermore, nano-biophotonics could enable innovative energy conversion such as the increase of absorption and emission efficiency and the perfect absorption. Localized SPR using metal nanoparticles show highly enhanced absorption in solar energy harvesting. Three-dimensional hyperbolic metamaterial cavity nanostructure shows enhanced spontaneous emission. Recently ultrathin film perfect absorber is demonstrated with the film thickness is as low as ~1/50th of the operating wavelength using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ phenomena at the wavelength close to SPR. It is expected to provide a breakthrough in sensing and energy conversion applications using the exotic optical properties based on the nanophotonic technique.

  4. {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer probe of spin crossover thin films on a bio-membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Anil D.; Garcia, Yann, E-mail: yann.garcia@uclouvain.be [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    An illustrious complex [Fe(ptz){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} (ptz = 1-propyl-tetrazole) (1) which was produced in the form of submicron crystals and thin film on Allium cepa membrane was probed by {sup 57}Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy in order to follow its intrinsic spin crossover. In addition to a weak signal that corresponds to neat SCO compound significant amount of other iron compounds are found that could have morphed from 1 due to specific host-guest interaction on the lipid-bilayer of bio-membrane. Further complimentary information about biogenic role of membrane, was obtained from variable temperature Mossbauer spectroscopy on a {approx}5% enriched [{sup 57}Fe(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} salt on this membrane.

  5. Bio-analytical applications of mid-infrared spectroscopy using silver halide fiber-optic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, H.M.; Kuepper, L.; Butvina, L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Infrared-spectroscopy has proved to be a powerful method for the study of various biomedical samples, in particular for in-vitro analysis in the clinical laboratory and for non-invasive diagnostics. In general, the analysis of biofluids such as whole blood, urine, microdialysates and bioreactor broth media takes advantage of the fact that a multitude of analytes can be quantified simultaneously and rapidly without the need for reagents. Progress in the quality of infrared silver halide fibers enabled us to construct several flexible fiber-optic probes of different geometries, which are particularly suitable for the measurement of small biosamples. Recent trends show that dry film measurements by mid-infrared spectroscopy could revolutionize analytical tools in the clinical chemistry laboratory, and an example is given. Infrared diagnostic tools show a promising potential for patients, and minimal-invasive blood glucose assays or skin tissue pathology in particular cannot be left out using mid-infrared fiber-based probes. Other applications include the measurement of skin samples including penetration studies of vitamins and constituents of cosmetic cream formulations. A further field is the micro-domain analysis of biopsy samples from bog mummified corpses, and recent results on the chemistry of dermis and hair samples are reported. Another field of application, for which results are reported, is food analysis and bio-reactor monitoring

  6. Bio-polymer coatings on neural probe surfaces: Influence of the initial sample composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Winnie W.Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Herwik, Stanislav; Ruther, Patrick [Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg (Germany); Goethelid, Emmanuelle [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Oscarsson, Sven, E-mail: sven@svenoscarsson.com [Department of Organic Chemistry, Stockholm University, Arrhenius Laboratory, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of hyaluronic acid (HyA) coating on two structural materials, silicon oxide (dielectric) surface and platinum (Pt) surface used for fabrication of probes developed for neurological investigations in the framework of the EU-project NeuroProbes. The silicon-based neural probes consist of multiple Pt electrodes on the probe shafts for neural recording applications. HyA coatings were proposed to apply on the probe surfaces to enhance the biocompatibility. This study aims at understanding the influence of the initial composition of the probe surface on the structure and morphology of HyA coating. HyA was chemically functionalized by SS-pyridin using (N-Succinimidyl 3-[2-pyridyldithio]-propionate) (SPDP) and was immobilized on the surfaces via a covalent bond. The dielectric and Pt surfaces were derivatized by use of (3-mercaptopropyl) methyldimethoxysilane (MPMDMS). The silanol groups in MPMDMS bind to the dielectric surface, leaving the thiol groups at the uppermost surface and the thiol groups then bind covalently to the functionalized HyA. On the Pt surface, it is the thiol group which binds on the Pt surface. The coated surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A well-defined HyA layer was observed on both dielectric and Pt surfaces. The coating of two molecular weights (340 kDa and 1.3 MDa) of HyA was examined. The influence of the silanized layer on the HyA coating was also investigated.

  7. Fluorescent carbon nanoparticles derived from natural materials of mango fruit for bio-imaging probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan Jin; Roy, Arup Kumer; Kim, Sung Han; Lee, Jung-Eun; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCP) obtained from a single natural source, mango fruit, were developed as unique materials for non-toxic bio-imaging with different colors and particle sizes. The prepared FCPs showed blue (FCP-B), green (FCP-G) and yellow (FCP-Y) fluorescence, derived by the controlled carbonization method. The FCPs demonstrated hydrodynamic diameters of 5-15 nm, holding great promise for clinical applications. The biocompatible FCPs demonstrated great potential in biological fields through the results of in vitro imaging and in vivo biodistribution. Using intravenously administered FCPs with different colored particles, we precisely defined the clearance and biodistribution, showing rapid and efficient urinary excretion for safe elimination from the body. These findings therefore suggest the promising possibility of using natural sources for producing fluorescent materials.Water soluble fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (FCP) obtained from a single natural source, mango fruit, were developed as unique materials for non-toxic bio-imaging with different colors and particle sizes. The prepared FCPs showed blue (FCP-B), green (FCP-G) and yellow (FCP-Y) fluorescence, derived by the controlled carbonization method. The FCPs demonstrated hydrodynamic diameters of 5-15 nm, holding great promise for clinical applications. The biocompatible FCPs demonstrated great potential in biological fields through the results of in vitro imaging and in vivo biodistribution. Using intravenously administered FCPs with different colored particles, we precisely defined the clearance and biodistribution, showing rapid and efficient urinary excretion for safe elimination from the body. These findings therefore suggest the promising possibility of using natural sources for producing fluorescent materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04805a

  8. Nano-bio-optomechanics: nanoaperture tweezers probe single nanoparticles, proteins, and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reuven

    2015-09-01

    Nanoparticles in the single digit nanometer range can be easily isolated and studied with low optical powers using nanoaperture tweezers. We have studied individual proteins and their interactions with small molecules, DNA and antibodies. Recently, using the fluctuations of the trapped object, we have pioneered a new way to "listen" to the vibrations of nanoparticles in the 100 GHz - 1 THz range; the approach is called extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR). EAR gives unprecedented low frequency spectra of individual proteins in solution, allowing for identification and analysis, as well as probing their role in biological functions. We have also used EAR to study the elastic properties, shape and size of various individual nanoparticles.

  9. Lateral flow assay for rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) using a phage-displayed peptide as bio-recognition probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-06-01

    White spot disease caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a major socio-economic impact on shrimp farming in India. It has been realized that a field-usable diagnostic capable of rapid detection of WSSV can prevent huge economic losses in disease outbreaks. In this work, we explored the possibility of using a peptide as bio-recognition probe in a field-usable device for the detection of WSSV from infected shrimps and prawns. A commercially available random phage-display library was screened against rVP28 (a major structural protein of WSSV, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli). A bacteriophage clone VP28-4L was obtained, and its binding to purified rVP28 protein as well as WSSV from infected shrimp Litopaeneus vannamei tissue was confirmed by ELISA and western blot. The apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ,app) was calculated to be 810 nM. VP28-4L did not show cross-reactivity with any other shrimp viruses. A 12-mer peptide (pep28, with the sequence 'TFQAFDLSPFPS') displayed on the VP28-4L was synthesized, and its diagnostic potential was evaluated in a lateral flow assay (LFA). Visual detection of WSSV could be achieved using biotinylated-pep28 and streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles. In LFA, 12.5 μg/mL of the virus could be detected from L. vannamei gill tissue homogenate within 20 min. Pep28 thus becomes an attractive candidate in bio-recognition of WSSV in field-usable diagnostic platforms benefitting the aquaculture sector.

  10. Dispersible crystalline nanobundles of YPO{sub 4} and Ln (Eu, Tb)-doped YPO{sub 4}: rapid synthesis, optical properties and bio-probe applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majeed, Shafquat, E-mail: shafquatmajeed@gmail.com [Indian Institute of Science, Materials Research Centre (India); Bashir, Mohsin [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics (MRDG) (India); Shivashankar, S. A. [Indian Institute of Science, Materials Research Centre (India)

    2015-07-15

    Undoped and Ln{sup 3+} (Eu and Tb)-doped crystalline nanobundles of YPO{sub 4} were prepared by a facile microwave-assisted route with water as a solvent and without using any surfactant. TEM investigations reveal that the as-prepared powder consists of lenticular-shaped nanobundles (∼100 nm in diameter) made of very small nanorods with diameter less than 10 nm and length varying from 20 to 50 nm. Each nanorod in turn is single crystalline, as revealed by HRTEM imaging. The as-prepared nanobundles are easily dispersible in various solvents, especially water, without any surface functionalization, which is critical for various bio-probe applications like cell and tissue imaging. The Eu- and Tb-doped YPO{sub 4} nanobundles show good photoluminescence properties and were further evaluated for their use as fluorescent biolabels. Our results show that HeLa cells labelled with Eu- and Tb-doped YPO{sub 4} nanobundles show bright red (Eu) and green (Tb) intracellular luminescence under a confocal microscope. Concentration- and time-dependent MTT cell viability assays show that the nanobundles show low toxicity towards cells which makes them promising in bioimaging field.

  11. Electrospun nanofibers decorated with bio-sonochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as an ultrasensitive probe in amalgam-based mercury (II) detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaee, Zohreh

    2018-06-01

    In this study, bio-ultrasound-assisted synthesized gold nanoparticles using Gracilaria canaliculata algae have been immobilized on a polymeric support and used as a glassy probe chemosensor for detection and rapid removal of Hg 2+ ions. The function of the suggested chemosensor has been explained based on gold-amalgam formation and its catalytic role on the reaction of sodium borohydride and rhodamine B (RhB) with fluorescent and colorimetric sensing function. The catalyzed reduction of RhB by the gold amalgam led to a distinguished color change from red and yellow florescence to colorless by converting the amount of Hg 2+ deposited on Au-NPs. The detection limit of the colorimetric and fluorescence assays for Hg 2+ was 2.21 nM and 1.10 nM respectively. By exposing the mentioned colorless solution to air for at least 2 h, unexpectedly it was observed that the color and fluorescence of RhB were restored. Have the benefit of the above phenomenon a recyclable and portable glass-based sensor has been provided by immobilizing the Au-NPs and RB on the glass slide using electrospinning. Moreover, the introduced combinatorial membrane has facilitated the detection and removal of Hg 2+ ions in various Hg (II)-contaminated real water samples with efficiency of up to 99%. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Specialized nanowhisker probes for high-precision investigation of native bio-objects in liquid by means of atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov Kukhtevich, MV, IV; Komissarenko Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, FE, VI

    2017-11-01

    Fabrication and investigation of specialized Pt-C single nanowhisker probes are carried out for high-precision study of objects with organic and inorganic nature in liquids by atomic force microscopy. The best modes and buffered media were revealed on calibration lattice TGQ1 choosing as reference inorganic structure. Preliminary results of the study of the structure of bacteria E.Coli in the native state were received in the PBS liquid. Fixation of the bacteria was performed on agar-agar with a mass fraction of 1.8%. The significant improvement of image contrast and resolution was found when using nanowhisker probes compare to standard Si tips.

  13. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    ... based on capillary cooling.(3) CNT-based Bio-nano Sensor single walled CNT structures with FIB generated nanogaps have been used to probe single DNA strands, using DNA strands from known pathogens (4...

  14. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  15. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  16. Nano-bio-sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    This book examines state-of-the-art applications of nano-bio-sensing. It brings together researchers from nano-electronics and bio-technology, providing multidisciplinary content from nano-structures fabrication to bio-sensing applications.

  17. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  18. Bio-fuel barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    After a year of doubt and decline the consumption of bio-fuel resumed a growth in 2014 in Europe: +6.1% compared to 2013, to reach 14 millions tep (Mtep) that is just below the 2012 peak. This increase was mainly due to bio-diesel. By taking into account the energy content and not the volume, the consumption of bio-diesel represented 79.7% of bio-fuel consumption in 2014, that of bio-ethanol only 19.1% and that of biogas 1%. The incorporating rate of bio-fuels in fuels used for transport were 4.6% in 2013 and 4.9% in 2014. The trend is good and the future of bio-fuel seems clearer as the European Union has set a not-so-bad limit of 7% for first generation bio-fuels in order to take into account the CASI effect. The CASI effect shows that an increase of the consumption of first generation bio-fuels (it means bio-fuels produced from food crops like rape, soy, cereals, sugar beet,...) implies in fact a global increase in greenhouse gas release that is due to a compensation phenomenon. More uncultivated lands (like forests, grasslands, bogs are turned into cultivated lands in order to compensate lands used for bio-fuel production. In most European countries the consumption of bio-diesel increased in 2014 while it was a bad year for the European industry of ethanol because ethanol prices dropped by 16 %. Oil companies are now among the most important producers of bio-diesel in Europe.

  19. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning.......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...

  20. Gold nanoparticle-coated biomaterial as SERS micro-probes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report for the first time, on the utility of plant-based biomaterial as enhanced-Raman scattering probes. The bio-substrate used in this study are commonly found in plant extracts, and are cost-effective, mecha- nically robust, flexible and easily transportable. The probe was fabricated by coating the plant extract ...

  1. Gold nanoparticle-coated biomaterial as SERS micro-probes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and the ability to detect biomolecules are demonstrated herein. We envision these bio-probes as potential candidates for enhanced Raman sensing in chemical, environmental, and archaeological applications. By further engineering the shape, morphology, and surface chemistry of these micro-probes, we foresee their ...

  2. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  3. Counting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yuasa, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Tomoaki

    1976-01-01

    Electron counting method has been devised and experimented for the purpose of measuring electron temperature and density, the most fundamental quantities to represent plasma conditions. Electron counting is a method to count the electrons in plasma directly by equipping a probe with the secondary electron multiplier. It has three advantages of adjustable sensitivity, high sensitivity of the secondary electron multiplier, and directional property. Sensitivity adjustment is performed by changing the size of collecting hole (pin hole) on the incident front of the multiplier. The probe is usable as a direct reading thermometer of electron temperature because it requires to collect very small amount of electrons, thus it doesn't disturb the surrounding plasma, and the narrow sweep width of the probe voltage is enough. Therefore it can measure anisotropy more sensitively than a Langmuir probe, and it can be used for very low density plasma. Though many problems remain on anisotropy, computer simulation has been carried out. Also it is planned to provide a Helmholtz coil in the vacuum chamber to eliminate the effect of earth magnetic field. In practical experiments, the measurement with a Langmuir probe and an emission probe mounted to the movable structure, the comparison with the results obtained in reverse magnetic field by using a Helmholtz coil, and the measurement of ionic sound wave are scheduled. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Toxicity and Bio-Safety Evaluation of Magnetic Nanocrystals Designed for Nano-Medical Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheon, Jinwoo

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic nanocrystals exhibit unique superparamagnetic behaviors. When they get into bio-medical systems, these magnetic nanocrystals have the potential to be utilized as probes and vectors for next-generation diagnosis and therapy...

  5. Freely turning over palmitate in erythrocyte membrane proteins is not responsible for the anchoring of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton: a study with bio-orthogonal chemical probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciana, Annarita; Achilli, Cesare; Hannoush, Rami N; Risso, Angela; Balduini, Cesare; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2013-03-01

    Erythrocyte lipid rafts are anchored to the underlying spectrin membrane skeleton [A. Ciana, C. Achilli, C. Balduini, G. Minetti, On the association of lipid rafts to the spectrin skeleton in human erythrocytes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1808 (2011) 183-190]. The nature of this linkage and the molecules involved are poorly understood. The interaction is sensitive to the increase in pH and ionic strength induced by carbonate. Given the role of palmitoylation in modulating the partitioning of certain proteins between various sub-cellular compartments and the plasma membrane, we asked whether palmitoylation of p55, a peripheral protein located at the junctional complex between spectrin-actin-protein 4.1 that anchors the membrane skeleton to the lipid bilayer via the transmembrane protein glycophorin C, could contribute to the anchoring of lipid rafts to the membrane skeleton. We adopted a new, non-radioactive method for studying protein palmitoylation, based on bio-orthogonal chemical analogues of fatty acids, containing an omega-alkynyl group, to metabolically label cell proteins, which are then revealed by a "click chemistry" reaction of the alkynyl moiety with an azide-containing reporter tag. We show that the membrane localization and palmitoylation levels of p55 did not change after carbonate treatment. 2-bromopalmitate and cerulenin, two known palmitoylation inhibitors, completely inhibited p55 palmitoylation, and protein palmitoyl thioesterase-1 (PPT1) reduced it, without affecting the association between lipid rafts and membrane-skeleton, indicating, on the one hand, that p55 palmitoylation is enzymatic, and, on the other, that it is not involved in the modulation of the linkage of lipid rafts to the membrane-skeleton. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelino, J.

    1992-01-01

    The creation of DNA probes for detection of specific nucleotide segments differs from ligand detection in that it is a chemical rather than an immunological reaction. Complementary DNA or RNA is used in place of the antibody and is labelled with 32 P. So far, DNA probes have been successfully employed in the diagnosis of inherited disorders, infectious diseases, and for identification of human oncogenes. The latest approach to the diagnosis of communicable and parasitic infections is based on the use of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) probes. The genetic information of all cells is encoded by DNA and DNA probe approach to identification of pathogens is unique because the focus of the method is the nucleic acid content of the organism rather than the products that the nucleic acid encodes. Since every properly classified species has some unique nucleotide sequences that distinguish it from every other species, each organism's genetic composition is in essence a finger print that can be used for its identification. In addition to this specificity, DNA probes offer other advantages in that pathogens may be identified directly in clinical specimens

  7. Understanding bio-economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    New plants for production of bio-based fuels, chemicals or plastics are being set up at an accelerating pace. However, this transition towards bio-based fuels, feedstocks and chemicals has not come without consequences. Increased demand has pushed up prices of key agricultural products such as maize

  8. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Pollution Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  10. Probe specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1986-11-01

    Specificity and complementarity of hadron and electron probes must be systematically developed to answer three questions currently asked in intermediate energy nuclear physics: what is nucleus structure at short distances, what is nature of short range correlations, what is three body force nature [fr

  11. Bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources

  12. Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponganis, Paul J.

    2007-02-01

    Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.

  13. BioSentinel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems' (AES) BioSentinel project will develop, prototype, integrate, test, and prepare for the first spaceflight mission of a broadly...

  14. Bio-inspired networking

    CERN Document Server

    Câmara, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired techniques are based on principles, or models, of biological systems. In general, natural systems present remarkable capabilities of resilience and adaptability. In this book, we explore how bio-inspired methods can solve different problems linked to computer networks. Future networks are expected to be autonomous, scalable and adaptive. During millions of years of evolution, nature has developed a number of different systems that present these and other characteristics required for the next generation networks. Indeed, a series of bio-inspired methods have been successfully used to solve the most diverse problems linked to computer networks. This book presents some of these techniques from a theoretical and practical point of view. Discusses the key concepts of bio-inspired networking to aid you in finding efficient networking solutions Delivers examples of techniques both in theoretical concepts and practical applications Helps you apply nature's dynamic resource and task management to your co...

  15. BioHack*Kolding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Danielle

    Short Abstract BioHack*Kolding explores the potential of do-it-together biology to support community building in a town that lacks strong science representation, assisting participants to reflect on the bio-potential of their personal, social and political ecologies and to translate their ideas...... an important role in facilitating informed debate around the biological sciences. Yet they cannot reach everyone. BioHack*Kolding asks how community-focused biology initiatives can reach people in smaller towns that lack science representation, so that they too can join the debate and ensure that its...... and experiments inform emerging science to ensure that science is societally relevant? If so, how? Members of BioHack*Kolding gain knowledge through experience, discussion and practice in an evolving, responsive process. This approach is enabling us to gain deeper insights into what design can do to help...

  16. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  17. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  18. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  19. Forensic Analysis of BIOS Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershteyn, Pavel; Davis, Mark; Shenoi, Sujeet

    Data can be hidden in BIOS chips without hindering computer performance. This feature has been exploited by virus writers and computer game enthusiasts. Unused BIOS storage can also be used by criminals, terrorists and intelligence agents to conceal secrets. However, BIOS chips are largely ignored in digital forensic investigations. Few techniques exist for imaging BIOS chips and no tools are available specifically for analyzing BIOS data.

  20. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  1. National serum bio bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poli, F.; Facchiano, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Italian Bio bank is hosted at 'Ospedale Maggiore. Policlinico' of Milan. This structure occupies an area of 300 sq meters and includes laboratories and a cryogenic area. This facility has been built a in compliance with the standards defined by the Foundation for Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT) mostly related to adequacy of spaces, equipment and governmental and institutional policies for bio safety. The Cryogenic area follows written procedures in the event of an ambient disaster and for safety personnel and of the samples stored

  2. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  3. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  4. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor sign...... strength, analyte concentration, and analyte relative orientation on nanowire surface are illustrated. Wherever possible, a comparison to experimental data available in literature is given, displaying the potential of BioFETSIM for interpreting experimental results.......Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...

  5. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  6. Diamond bio electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Robert; Doering, Patrick; Linares, Bryant

    2009-01-01

    The use of diamond for advanced applications has been the dream of mankind for centuries. Until recently this dream has been realized only in the use of diamond for gemstones and abrasive applications where tons of diamonds are used on an annual basis. Diamond is the material system of choice for many applications, but its use has historically been limited due to the small size, high cost, and inconsistent (and typically poor) quality of available diamond materials until recently. The recent development of high quality, single crystal diamond crystal growth via the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) process has allowed physcists and increasingly scientists in the life science area to think beyond these limitations and envision how diamond may be used in advanced applications ranging from quantum computing, to power generation and molecular imaging, and eventually even diamond nano-bots. Because of diamond's unique properties as a bio-compatible material, better understanding of diamond's quantum effects and a convergence of mass production, semiconductor-like fabrication process, diamond now promises a unique and powerful key to the realization of the bio-electronic devices being envisioned for the new era of medical science. The combination of robust in-the-body diamond based sensors, coupled with smart bio-functionalized diamond devices may lead to diamond being the platform of choice for bio-electronics. This generation of diamond based bio-electronic devices would contribute substantially to ushering in a paradigm shift for medical science, leading to vastly improved patient diagnosis, decrease of drug development costs and risks, and improved effectiveness of drug delivery and gene therapy programs through better timed and more customized solutions.

  7. Proximal Probes Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Proximal Probes Facility consists of laboratories for microscopy, spectroscopy, and probing of nanostructured materials and their functional properties. At the...

  8. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    30% of the fossil fuel consumption, and including economic aspects it is much less. Moreover, an economic analysis shows that biomass will not be able compete in a liberal fuel market, i.e. we will need to subsidise it in one way or the other - and money is a limited resource as well. Therefore......, there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  9. Bio energy in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  10. BIOS Security Analysis and a Kind of Trusted BIOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenliu; Xu, Rongsheng

    The BIOS's security threats to computer system are analyzed and security requirements for firmware BIOS are summarized in this paper. Through discussion about TCG's trust transitivity, a new approach about CRTM implementation based on BIOS is developed. In this paper, we also put forward a new trusted BIOS architecture-UTBIOS which is built on Intel Framework for EFI/UEFI. The trustworthiness of UTBIOS is based on trusted hardware TPM. In UTBIOS, trust encapsulation and trust measurement are used to construct pre-OS trust chain. Performance of trust measurement is also analyzed in the end.

  11. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  12. A General Protocol for Temperature Calibration of MAS NMR Probes at Arbitrary Spinning Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xudong; Stark, Ruth E.

    2010-01-01

    A protocol using 207Pb NMR of solid lead nitrate was developed to determine the temperature of magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR probes over a range of nominal set temperatures and spinning speeds. Using BioMAS and fastMAS probes with typical sample spinning rates of 8 and 35 kHz, respectively, empirical equations were devised to predict the respective sample temperatures. These procedures provide a straightforward recipe for temperature calibration of any MAS probe. PMID:21036557

  13. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  14. Bio-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  15. Total factor productivity and Bio Economy effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper develops a new measure of total factor productivity growth in agricultural Production which incorporates Bio Economic components effects.The new measure is called the Bio Economic-Oriented Total Factor Productivity (BTFP) index, and incorporates components of Bio Economic as liquid biofuels. BTFP measure changes in Bio Economic efficiency and can be decomposed into bio economy efficiency change (BEC), and Bio Economic technological change (BTC) components.An empirical analysis, inv...

  16. THE ORNL ATOM PROBE

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, M.

    1986-01-01

    The ORNL Atom Probe is a microanalytical tool for studies in materials science. The instrument is a combination of a customized version of the vacuum system of the VG FIM-100 atom probe, an ORNL-designed microcomputer-controlled digital timing system, and a double curved CEMA Imaging Atom Probe detector. The atom probe combines four instruments into one - namely a field ion microscope, an energy compensated time-of-flight mass spectrometer, an imaging atom probe, and a pulsed laser atom probe.

  17. Mobile Game Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup Lynggaard, Aviaja

    2006-01-01

    This paper will examine how probes can be useful for game designers in the preliminary phases of a design process. The work is based upon a case study concerning pervasive mobile phone games where Mobile Game Probes have emerged from the project. The new probes are aimed towards a specific target...... group and the goal is to specify the probes so they will cover the most relevant areas for our project. The Mobile Game Probes generated many interesting results and new issues occurred, since the probes came to be dynamic and favorable for the process in new ways....

  18. HSP as bio dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  19. Bio-fuels; Les biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report presents an overview of the technologies which are currently used or presently developed for the production of bio-fuels in Europe and more particularly in France. After a brief history of this production since the beginning of the 20. century, the authors describe the support to agriculture and the influence of the Common Agricultural Policy, outline the influence of the present context of struggle against the greenhouse effect, and present the European legislative context. Data on the bio-fuels consumption in the European Union in 2006 are discussed. An overview of the evolution of the activity related to bio-fuels in France, indicating the locations of ethanol and bio-diesel production facilities, and the evolution of bio-fuel consumption, is given. The German situation is briefly presented. Production of ethanol by fermentation, the manufacturing of ETBE, the bio-diesel production from vegetable oils are discussed. Second generation bio-fuels are then presented (cellulose enzymatic processing), together with studies on thermochemical processes and available biomass resources.

  20. Production of bio-energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurtler, J.L.; Femenias, A.; Blondy, J.

    2009-01-01

    After having indicated the various possible origins of biomass, this paper considers the issue of bio-energies, i.e., energies produced with biomass related to forest or agriculture production. Some indicators are defined (share of renewable energies, share of biomass in the energy production and consumption, number of production units). Stake holders are identified. Then, major and emerging trends are identified and discussed. The major trends are: development and diversification of renewable energies, development of bio-fuels with the support of incentive policies, prevalence of the wood-energy sector on the whole renewable energies, increase of surfaces dedicated to bio-fuels since the end of the 1990's, a French biogas sector which is late with respect to other countries. The emerging trends are: the important role of oil price in the development of bio-fuels, a necessary public support for the development of biogas, mobilization of research and development of competitiveness poles for bio-industries. Some prospective issues are also discussed in terms of uncertainties (soil availabilities, environmental performance of bio-fuels, available biomass resource, need of a technological advance, and evolution of energy needs on a medium term, tax and public policy). Three hypotheses of bio-energy evolutions are discussed

  1. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  2. Electrical resistivity probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  3. 2010 World bio-energy conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After having evoked the bio-energy price awarded to a Brazilian for his works on the use of eucalyptus as energy source, this report proposes a synthesis of the highlights of the conference: discussions about sustainability, bio-energies as an opportunity for developing countries, the success of bio-energies in Sweden, and more particularly some technological advances in the field of biofuels: a bio-LPG by Biofuel-solution AB, catalysis, bio-diesel from different products in a Swedish farm, a second generation ethanol by the Danish company Inbicon, a large scale methanization in Goteborg, a bio-refinery concept in Sweden, bio-gases

  4. NIH NeuroBioBank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIH NeuroBioBank (NBB), supported by the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Eunice Kennedy...

  5. High temperature probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  6. Microneurosurgical water probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogády, P; Wurm, G

    2005-04-01

    When constructing the micro-neurosurgical water ball probe, the authors have simply combined the properties of a ball probe with an irrigational function and the supportive role of water current to form a new irrigating ball dissector. The micro-instrument has an outlet mechanism with which the surgeon can regulate the flow of physiological solution into the operational field. Its point has the properties of a ball probe, and the overall bayonet shape facilitates surgical interventions in deep tissues under microscopic control. The water probe therefore enables the surgeon to perform precise mechanical preparation supported by a regulated current of water and a targeted irrigation in the operational field. The physiological solution in the pressure infusion cuff is under minimal pressure and directly connected to the probe. Due to the fact that one device can be used for various purposes the water ball probe represents an advantageous alternative to conventional micro-neurosurgical preparation.

  7. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, C

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  8. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  9. Controlled Clustering of Gold Nanoparticles using Solid-support for Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Hyejin; Chae, Jinjoo; Jeong, Hong; Kang, Homan; Lee, Yoonsik

    2014-01-01

    We fabricated small clusters of gold nanoparticles by using solid-supported aggregation of gold nanoparticles. The fabricated Au nanoclusters consisting mainly of dimers showed homogeneous characteristics in cluster size and SERS intensity. The SERS enhancement of 4-ABT molecules in an effective area within 2-nm gap appeared to be approximately 10. Detachment process by ultrasonication was successively carried out in order to use the nanoclusters as SERS probes. The possibility of these clusters as SERS probe was proved in terms of signal and cluster size. Single molecule-level sensitivity of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was known approximately fifteen years ago. Ever since there have been many different applications benefiting from the ultra-high sensitivity such as single molecule detection, chemical sensing and bio-molecular probes. Especially, SERS has drawn much attention in bio-multiplexing probes owing to its unique optical characteristics claiming extremely narrow bandwidth, high sensitivity of light signals, and non-bleaching feature

  10. BioGlue iceball stabilization to minimize the risk of hemorrhage during laparoscopic renal cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mues, Adam C; Graversen, Joseph A; Truesdale, Matthew D; Casazza, Cristin; Landman, Jaime

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the application of a BioGlue adhesive shell to minimize iceball fracture. Iceball fracture and hemorrhage is common with laparoscopic cryoablation (LCA) of larger (>4 cm) renal tumors. Twenty large iceballs were created in porcine kidneys using 3 cryoablation probes in a nonsurvival study. Each kidney underwent an upper and lower pole ablation. One pole in each kidney was covered with 5 mL of BioGlue and the opposite pole served as a control. A double freeze-thaw cycle was performed (10 minutes freeze and 5 minutes active thaw) in both renal poles simultaneously. The probes were removed and the sites were monitored for 20 minutes under direct vision. Fracture length (mm), severity of fracture depth, severity of bleeding (absent, mild, moderate, severe), and estimated blood loss (EBL) (mL) were recorded. In the control group, the mean fracture length was 1.9 mm (range, 0-3 mm). Blood loss was absent in 10%, mild in 60%, and moderate in 30% of ablations. The mean EBL was 20.5 mL (range, 0-50 mL). For the BioGlue ablations, there were no parenchymal fractures. Blood loss was mild in 30% and absent in 70% of sites with an average EBL of 5 mL (range, 0-20). Two bleeding sites occurred as a result of subcapsular hematomas caused by initial probe placement. BioGlue application minimized the frequency and magnitude of renal fracture. EBL was lower with BioGlue application and most sites demonstrated no postablation bleeding. Further clinical study of the BioGlue shell should be performed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. From marine bio-corrosion to new bio-processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergel, A.; Dasilva, S.; Basseguy, R. [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Feron, D. [CEA Saclay (SCCME), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mollica, A. [CNR-ISMAR, Genova (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: From the middle of the last century it has been observed that the development of marine bio-films on the surface of stainless steels and different metallic materials induces the ennoblement of their free corrosion potential. A main step in deciphering the mechanisms of aerobic marine bio-corrosion has been achieved around 1976 with the demonstration that the potential ennoblement was due to the modification of the cathodic process. Since this date, the catalysis of oxygen reduction by marine bio-films has been the topic of numerous controversies, but it is now commonly agreed as a basic phenomena in aerobic corrosion. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fine mechanisms of the bio-film-catalysed reduction of oxygen: intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide, modification of the oxide layer on the stainless steel surface, involvement of manganese species and manganese oxidising bacteria, catalysis by proteins produced by the micro-organisms... Recent results may confirm the possible involvement of hemic enzymes or proteins. Whatever the mechanisms, very promising results have been obtained with the possible application of bio-film-catalysed oxygen reduction to conceive innovative biofuel cells with stainless steel electrodes. Actually, the catalysis of oxygen reduction is a key step that still drastically hinders the development of economically efficient hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. The current technology requires high amounts of platinum or platinum-based materials to catalyze oxygen reduction on the cathode of these cells. The prohibitive cost of platinum is a main obstacle to the commercialization of low-cost fuel cells. Unpublished results recently showed that adapting the enzyme-catalysed reaction that was assumed for bio-corrosion on the cathode of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells may lead to a significant decrease in the charge of platinum. Moreover, it was demonstrated on a laboratory-scale fuel cell pilot that

  12. From marine bio-corrosion to new bio-processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergel, A.; Dasilva, S.; Basseguy, R.; Feron, D.; Mollica, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: From the middle of the last century it has been observed that the development of marine bio-films on the surface of stainless steels and different metallic materials induces the ennoblement of their free corrosion potential. A main step in deciphering the mechanisms of aerobic marine bio-corrosion has been achieved around 1976 with the demonstration that the potential ennoblement was due to the modification of the cathodic process. Since this date, the catalysis of oxygen reduction by marine bio-films has been the topic of numerous controversies, but it is now commonly agreed as a basic phenomena in aerobic corrosion. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fine mechanisms of the bio-film-catalysed reduction of oxygen: intermediate formation of hydrogen peroxide, modification of the oxide layer on the stainless steel surface, involvement of manganese species and manganese oxidising bacteria, catalysis by proteins produced by the micro-organisms... Recent results may confirm the possible involvement of hemic enzymes or proteins. Whatever the mechanisms, very promising results have been obtained with the possible application of bio-film-catalysed oxygen reduction to conceive innovative biofuel cells with stainless steel electrodes. Actually, the catalysis of oxygen reduction is a key step that still drastically hinders the development of economically efficient hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells. The current technology requires high amounts of platinum or platinum-based materials to catalyze oxygen reduction on the cathode of these cells. The prohibitive cost of platinum is a main obstacle to the commercialization of low-cost fuel cells. Unpublished results recently showed that adapting the enzyme-catalysed reaction that was assumed for bio-corrosion on the cathode of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells may lead to a significant decrease in the charge of platinum. Moreover, it was demonstrated on a laboratory-scale fuel cell pilot that

  13. Noninvasive encapsulated fiber optic probes for interferometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboril, O.; Cubik, J.; Kepak, S.; Nedoma, J.; Fajkus, M.; Zavodny, P.; Vasinek, V.

    2017-10-01

    This article focuses on the sensitivity of encapsulated interferometric probes. These probes are used mainly for BioMed and security applications. Fiber-optic sensors are interesting for these applications, as they are resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and that also do not affect the surrounding medical and security equipment. Using a loop of the optical fiber with is not a suitable for these measurements. The optical fiber should be fixed to one position, and should not significantly bend. For these reasons, the optical fiber is encapsulated. Furthermore, it is necessary that the encapsulated measuring probes were flexible, inert, water resistant and not toxic. Fiber-optic sensors shouldn't be magnetically active, so they can be used for example, in magnetic resonance environments (MR). Probes meeting these requirements can be widely used in health care and security applications. Encapsulation of interferometric measuring arm brings changes in susceptibility of measurements in comparison with the optical fiber without encapsulation. To evaluate the properties of the encapsulated probes, series of probes made from different materials for encapsulation was generated, using two types of optical fibers with various degrees of protection. Comparison of the sensitivity of different encapsulated probes was performed using a series of measurements at various frequencies. The measurement results are statistically compared in the article and commented. Given the desired properties polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer has been proven the most interesting encapsulating material for further research.

  14. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  15. Bio-nanopatterning of Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBio-nanopatterning of surfaces is a very active interdisciplinary field of research at the interface between biotechnology and nanotechnology. Precise patterning of biomolecules on surfaces with nanometre resolution has great potential in many medical and biological applications ranging from molecular diagnostics to advanced platforms for fundamental studies of molecular and cell biology. Bio-nanopatterning technology has advanced at a rapid pace in the last few years with a variety of patterning methodologies being developed for immobilising biomolecules such as DNA, peptides, proteins and viruses at the nanoscale on a broad range of substrates. In this review, the status of research and development are described, with particular focus on the recent advances on the use of nanolithographic techniques as tools for biomolecule immobilisation at the nanoscale. Present strengths and weaknesses, as well future challenges on the different nanolithographic bio-nanopatterning approaches are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-01-01

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs

  17. Evaluation of Emissions Bio diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J. J.; Dorronsoro Arenal, J. L.; Rojas Garcia, E.; Perez Pastor, R.; Garcia Alonso, S.

    2007-09-27

    The generation of energy from vegetal products is one of the possibilities to our reach in order to reduce the atmospheric pollution. Particularly, the use of bio diesel in internal combustion engines can be one of the best options. The finest particles emitted by the combustion engines are easily breathable and on them different substances can be absorbed presumably toxic, between which it is possible to emphasize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by its demonstrated carcinogen character. In this work, it is studied on the one hand, the characteristics that can present the aerosol of emission in a diesel engine with a maximum power of 97 kW, working without load to 600 rpm, using as combustible mixtures of bio diesel and diesel in different proportions. On the other hand, the evolution that takes place in the concentration of PAHs in emission particles, according to the percentage of bio diesel used in the combustible mixture. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Bio politics - The bio-environment - bio-culture of the Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlavianos-Arvanitis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The bio-environment has been the single most important correlation in human history and can successfully promote international co-operational co-operation and understanding. With the construction of a network for collaboration, the 'Danube Countries' can come together in celebration of their culture and heritage. As the Danube flows from the Black Forest to the Black Sea, it carries messages of peace, hope and co-operation. Applying these messages to every endeavour can improve our quality of life and lead to a brighter future. Since its inception in 1985, the Bio politics International Organization (B.I.O.) has been labouring to raise awareness of the urgent need to instate a new system of norms and principles, compatible with sound environmental management and with the most important task of ensuring global literacy on environmental issues. Along with critically re-assessing the concept of profit, the goal is to adopt a system of bio centric values, where respect for the bio-environment will govern our every action and thought

  19. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessari...

  20. Array2BIO: from microarray expression data to functional annotation of co-regulated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasley Amy

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several isolated tools for partial analysis of microarray expression data. To provide an integrative, easy-to-use and automated toolkit for the analysis of Affymetrix microarray expression data we have developed Array2BIO, an application that couples several analytical methods into a single web based utility. Results Array2BIO converts raw intensities into probe expression values, automatically maps those to genes, and subsequently identifies groups of co-expressed genes using two complementary approaches: (1 comparative analysis of signal versus control and (2 clustering analysis of gene expression across different conditions. The identified genes are assigned to functional categories based on Gene Ontology classification and KEGG protein interaction pathways. Array2BIO reliably handles low-expressor genes and provides a set of statistical methods for quantifying expression levels, including Benjamini-Hochberg and Bonferroni multiple testing corrections. An automated interface with the ECR Browser provides evolutionary conservation analysis for the identified gene loci while the interconnection with Crème allows prediction of gene regulatory elements that underlie observed expression patterns. Conclusion We have developed Array2BIO – a web based tool for rapid comprehensive analysis of Affymetrix microarray expression data, which also allows users to link expression data to Dcode.org comparative genomics tools and integrates a system for translating co-expression data into mechanisms of gene co-regulation. Array2BIO is publicly available at http://array2bio.dcode.org.

  1. Driving forces for the adsorption of a His-tag Chagas antigen. A rational approach to design bio-functional surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Laura E; Smania, Andrea M; De Pauli, Carlos P; Giacomelli, Carla E

    2013-12-01

    In order to rationally design a bio-functional surface based on the adsorption of a His-tag antigen, three requirements have to be considered: the bio-recognition element, the driving forces for the adsorption process and the detection mode of the bio-recognition event. This work is focused on the study of the adsorption mechanism of the His-tag H49 Chagas antigen on Ni(II) modified substrates. In order to construct the bio-functional surface, the gen of the H49 Chagas antigen was modified to incorporate His6 moiety at the N-terminal (His6-H49). Then, its physical adsorption and bio-affinity interaction with the solid substrate was studied by reflectometry. Besides His-Ni(II) bio-affinity interactions, His6-H49 was also physically adsorbed on Ni(II) modified substrates, leading to randomly oriented antigens. These loosely attached bio-molecules were partially removed using conditions of electrostatic repulsion. On the other hand, bio-affinity interactions, resulting in site-oriented molecules on the substrate, were only removable by specific competitors for Ni(II) surface sites. Finally, the surface bio-activity was determined from the peak separations of voltammetry waves due to the change of the electron transfer kinetics of a redox probe through the bio-functional surface (working electrode). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Winterzwiebeln: Anbau IP oder Bio

    OpenAIRE

    Theiler, R.; Buser, Hp.; Ingold, U.; Schätti, P.; Hurni, M.; Koller, M.

    2003-01-01

    Bei der Sorte Radar führt das Stecken von «grossen» Steckzwiebeln zu einem höheren Ertrag in beiden Anbausystemen, IP und Bio. Auch wird der Anteil an grossen und Metzgerzwiebeln gesteigert, besonders ausgeprägt unter IP-Bedingungen. Dies ging einher mit einer leichten Zunahme (

  3. BioMagResBank.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, E.L.; Akutsu, H.; Doreleijers, J.; Harano, Y.; Ioannidis, Y.E.; Lin, J.; Livny, M.; Mading, S.; Maziuk, D.; Miller, Z.; Nakatani, E.; Schulte, C.F.; Tolmie, D.E.; Wenger, R.K.; Yao, H.; Markley, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    The BioMagResBank (BMRB: www.bmrb.wisc.edu) is a repository for experimental and derived data gathered from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies of biological molecules. BMRB is a partner in the Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB). The BMRB archive consists of four main data

  4. Bio-actives and Drug

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bio-actives. have an effect on or elicit a response from living tissue. Refer to a substance that can be acted upon by a living organism or by an extract from a living organism. are constituents in foods or dietary supplements, other than those needed to meet basic nutritional needs, that are responsible for changes in health ...

  5. Bio-mimetic Flow Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Haecheon

    2009-11-01

    Bio-mimetic engineering or bio-mimetics is the application of biological methods and systems found in nature to the study and design of engineering systems and modern technology (from Wikipedia). The concept itself is old, but successful developments have been made recently, especially in the research field of flow control. The objective of flow control based on the bio-mimetic approach is to develop novel concepts for reducing drag, increasing lift and enhancing aerodynamic performance. For skin friction reduction, a few ideas have been suggested such as the riblet from shark, compliant surface from dolphin, microbubble injection and multiple front-body curvature from penguin, and V-shaped protrusion from sailfish. For form drag reduction, several new attempts have been also made recently. Examples include the V-shaped spanwise grooves from saguaro cactus, overall shape of box fish, longitudinal grooves on scallop shell, bill of swordfish, hooked comb on owl wing, trailing-edge protrusion on dragonfly wing, and fillet. For the enhancement of aerodynamic performance, focuses have been made on the birds, fish and insects: e.g., double layered feather of landing bird, leading-edge serration of humpback-whale flipper, pectoral fin of flying fish, long tail on swallowtail-butterfly wing, wing flapping motion of dragonfly, and alula in birds. Living animals adapt their bodies to better performance in multi purposes, but engineering requires single purpose in most cases. Therefore, bio-mimetic approaches often produce excellent results more than expected. However, they are sometimes based on people's wrong understanding of nature and produce unwanted results. Successes and failures from bio-mimetic approaches in flow control will be discussed in the presentation.

  6. Neutrons as a probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizumi, Masashi

    1993-01-01

    As an introduction to the symposium a brief overview will be given about the features of neutrons as a probe. First it will be pointed out that the utilization of neutrons as a probe for investigating the structural and dynamical properties of condensed matters is a benign gift eventuated from the release of atomic energy initiated by Enrico Fermi exactly half century ago. Features of neutrons as a probe are discussed in accordance with the four basic physical properties of neutrons as an elementary particle; (1) no electric charge (the interaction with matter is nuclear), (2) the mass of neutron is 1 amu, (3) spin is 1/2 and (4) neutrons have magnetic dipole moment. Overview will be given on the uniqueness of neutrons as a probe and on the variety in the way they are used in the wide research area from the pure science to the industrial applications. (author)

  7. Integrated microcantilevers for high-resolution sensing and probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinxin; Lee, Dong-Weon

    2012-01-01

    This topical review is focused on microcantilever-based sensing and probing functions that are realized by integrating a mechanically compliant cantilever with self-sensing and self-actuating elements, specific sensing materials as well as functionalized nano-tips. Such integrated cantilever devices have shown great promise in ultra-sensitive applications such as on-the-spot portable bio/chemical detection and in situ micro/nanoscale surface analysis and manipulation. The technical details of this review will be given in a sequence of cantilever sensors and, then, cantilever-tip probes. For the integrated cantilever sensors, the frequency-output style dynamic cantilevers are described first, with the contents including optimized resonance modes, sensing-group-modified nanostructures for specific bio/chemical mass adsorption and nanoscale sensing effects, etc. Thereafter, the static cantilever sensors for surface-stress detection are described in the sequence of the sensing mechanism, surface modification of the sensitive molecule layer and the model of specific reaction-induced surface-energy variation. After technical description of the cantilever sensors, the emphasis of the review moves to functionalized nano-tip equipped cantilever-tip probing devices. The probing functions are not only integrated on the cantilever but also integrated at the sharp apex of the tip. After description of single integrated cantilever probes and their applications in surface scanning and imaging, arrayed cantilever-tip devices and their simultaneous parallel operation for high throughput imaging and nanomechanical data storage are also addressed. With cantilever-tip probes as key elements, micro-analysis instruments are introduced that can be widely used for macro/nanoscale characterizations. (topical review)

  8. Noninvasive ultrasonic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.R.; Galer, D.R.; Leard, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ultrasonic probe is described for insonifying the ascending aorta of a supine or reclining human patient from a location within the suprasternal notch of the patient. The probe comprises: a transducer head and an elongated handle; housing propagates ultrasonic energy and for intercept-frequency-shifted, reflected radiant energy; the handle has a proximate portion and a distal portion and a non-circular cross-sectional configuration with at least one longitudinal edge which furnishes a gripping surface; this facilitates tactile positioning of the probe; the transducer head is integral with the handle of the probe at the exposed end of the proximate portion; the transducer head has a generally arcuate cross-sectional configuration and a generally trapezoidal profile; the transducer head is oriented at right angles to the proximate portion of the handle and has an exposed, patient contacting end in which the transducer means are located; this facilitates the orientation of the transducer means housed in the head relative to the ascending aorta of the patient; and the distal end portion of the elongated probe handle is integral with and immovably oriented at a severe angle relative to the proximate end of that handle, and lies in the same plane as the proximate end of the handle; the transducer head of the probe is placed with facility within the suprasternal notch of the patient by an operator positioned behind the head of the patient

  9. Bio-batteries and bio-fuel cells: leveraging on electronic charge transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, A M; Renugopalakrishnan, V; Filipek, S; Li, P; Audette, G F; Munukutla, L

    2009-03-01

    Bio-fuel cells are alternative energy devises based on bio-electrocatalysis of natural substrates by enzymes or microorganisms. Here we review bio-fuel cells and bio-batteries based on the recent literature. In general, the bio-fuel cells are classified based on the type of electron transfer; mediated electron transfer and direct electron transfer or electronic charge transfer (ECT). The ECT of the bio-fuel cells is critically reviewed and a variety of possible applications are considered. The technical challenges of the bio-fuel cells, like bioelectrocatalysis, immobilization of bioelectrocatalysts, protein denaturation etc. are highlighted and future research directions are discussed leveraging on the use of electron charge transfer proteins. In addition, the packaging aspects of the bio-fuel cells are also analyzed and the found that relatively little work has been done in the engineering development of bio-fuel cells.

  10. Agriculture and bio-technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Hikoyuki

    1987-09-01

    The Japanese agriculture is going to be influenced by bio-technology. New style of production will be introduced through the entrance of other type of enterprises causing considerable change in agricultural fields. Bio-technology is a technology which utmost utilizes the functions of the living organism. Its practical target is to manifestate a new function by deliberately endowing it to an organism. Major technique is gene manipulation, tissue culture and utilization of microorganism and cells as well as the utilization of the biomass resources and a production means in the vegetable plant using nutricious solution. This report especially describes the following matters. Recombinant DNA (Super mouse, etc). Cell fusion (Monoclonal antigen, etc). Nucleus transplantation. Chromosome manipulation (Creation of tripoloid, etc). tissue culture (Growing of virus-free seedling, etc). Production of useful substances. Biomass (Forestry, Ocean, Livestock). (2 figs, 3 tabs, 12 refs)

  11. Types for BioAmbients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Capecchi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The BioAmbients calculus is a process algebra suitable for representing compartmentalization, molecular localization and movements between compartments. In this paper we enrich this calculus with a static type system classifying each ambient with group types specifying the kind of compartments in which the ambient can stay. The type system ensures that, in a well-typed process, ambients cannot be nested in a way that violates the type hierarchy. Exploiting the information given by the group types, we also extend the operational semantics of BioAmbients with rules signalling errors that may derive from undesired ambients' moves (i.e. merging incompatible tissues. Thus, the signal of errors can help the modeller to detect and locate unwanted situations that may arise in a biological system, and give practical hints on how to avoid the undesired behaviour.

  12. Model for resonant plasma probe.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Hebner, Gregory Albert; Jorgenson, Roy E.; Coats, Rebecca Sue

    2007-04-01

    This report constructs simple circuit models for a hairpin shaped resonant plasma probe. Effects of the plasma sheath region surrounding the wires making up the probe are determined. Electromagnetic simulations of the probe are compared to the circuit model results. The perturbing effects of the disc cavity in which the probe operates are also found.

  13. Bio-Research: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · Journals · Bio-Research · About · Log In · Register · Advanced Search · By Author · By Title. Issues. Current Issue · Archives · Open Journal Systems · Help. ISSN: 1596-7409. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  14. Convective heat flow probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  15. Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    .... Flexible micromanipulator probes developed for probing waveguides. (5) Doped nano-diamonds and nanoceramic lasers- optically transparent YAG were demonstrated, and yttrium aluminum perovskite (YAP...

  16. Multispectral imaging probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  17. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwong, K.; Kiatsiriroat, T.; Vorayos, N.; Thararax, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  18. Which future for aviation bio-fuels?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botti, Jean; Combarnous, Michel; Jarry, Bruno; Monsan, Pierre; Burzynski, Jean-Pierre; Jeuland, Nicolas; Porot, Pierre; Demoment, Pascale; Gillmann, Marc; Marchand, Philippe; Kuentzmann, Paul; Kurtsoglou, Nicolas; Lombaert-Valot, Isabelle; Pelegrin, Marc; Renvier, Jacques; Rousseau, Julien; Stadler, Thierry; Tremeau, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    This collective report proposes a detailed overview of the evolution of aviation fuels and bio-fuels from technological, regulatory and economic points of view. It also proposes a road-map for possible future evolutions, and outlines the different assessments between American and European countries regarding the predictions for the beginning of industrial production and use of bio-jet-fuel. After having recalled international objectives, an overview of European and French commitments for technological and operational advances, and a discussion of the role of bio-fuels in the carbon cycle, the report presents various technical constraints met in aircraft industry and describes the role bio-fuels may have. The next part proposes an overview of bio-fuels which are industrially produced in the world in 2013. The authors then focus on aviation bio-fuels (main production processes, thermo-chemical processes), discuss the political context, and examine obstacles, partnerships and the role of public authorities

  19. Bio-leaching and bio-remediation; Biolixiviation et bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morin, D. [BRGM, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-09-01

    There are only a few bio-technological applications in ore beneficiation, but many in the environmental domain. Economical, technical and technological factors as well as respective contexts in project development explain this difference. In both cases however, the problem is to utilize processes coming from the observation of natural phenomena and to stimulate a beneficial biological activity in a mineral context; it results similar applications with similar limitations. In this paper, the characteristics of both domains are outlined, on the basis of present practices in extractive metallurgy and degradation of organic pollutants respectively, pointing out their similarities and their differences. (author)

  20. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General ... Author Affiliations. Ashok Ambastha1. Joint In-Charge Udaipur Solar Observatory Physical Research laboratory P.O. Box No. 198 Udaipur 313 001, India ...

  1. Probing the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 3. Probing the Solar Interior Hearing the Heartbeats of the Sun. Ashok Ambastha. General Article Volume 3 Issue 3 March 1998 pp 18-31. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  3. One-Probe Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Östlin, Anna; Pagh, Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    We consider dictionaries that perform lookups by probing a single word of memory, knowing only the size of the data structure. We describe a randomized dictionary where a lookup returns the correct answer with probability 1 - e, and otherwise returns don't know. The lookup procedure uses an expan...

  4. Probing the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John

    2013-01-01

    Humans have always had the vision to one day live on other planets. This vision existed even before the first person was put into orbit. Since the early space missions of putting humans into orbit around Earth, many advances have been made in space technology. We have now sent many space probes deep into the Solar system to explore the planets and…

  5. Thermal conductivity probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navickas, J.

    1969-01-01

    Low-mass probe accurately measures the thermal conductivity of polyurethane foam /and other thermal insulating materials/ while exposed to either hydrogen of helium permeation in temperature ranges from ambient to cryogenic. The thermal conductivity of a specimen is determined from an experimentally determined increase in temperature.

  6. BioCreative V BioC track overview: collaborative biocurator assistant task for BioGRID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Chang, Christie S; Oughtred, Rose; Rust, Jennifer; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia; Matos, Sérgio; Santos, André; Campos, David; Oliveira, José Luís; Singh, Onkar; Jonnagaddala, Jitendra; Dai, Hong-Jie; Su, Emily Chia-Yu; Chang, Yung-Chun; Su, Yu-Chen; Chu, Chun-Han; Chen, Chien Chin; Hsu, Wen-Lian; Peng, Yifan; Arighi, Cecilia; Wu, Cathy H; Vijay-Shanker, K; Aydın, Ferhat; Hüsünbeyi, Zehra Melce; Özgür, Arzucan; Shin, Soo-Yong; Kwon, Dongseop; Dolinski, Kara; Tyers, Mike; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    BioC is a simple XML format for text, annotations and relations, and was developed to achieve interoperability for biomedical text processing. Following the success of BioC in BioCreative IV, the BioCreative V BioC track addressed a collaborative task to build an assistant system for BioGRID curation. In this paper, we describe the framework of the collaborative BioC task and discuss our findings based on the user survey. This track consisted of eight subtasks including gene/protein/organism named entity recognition, protein-protein/genetic interaction passage identification and annotation visualization. Using BioC as their data-sharing and communication medium, nine teams, world-wide, participated and contributed either new methods or improvements of existing tools to address different subtasks of the BioC track. Results from different teams were shared in BioC and made available to other teams as they addressed different subtasks of the track. In the end, all submitted runs were merged using a machine learning classifier to produce an optimized output. The biocurator assistant system was evaluated by four BioGRID curators in terms of practical usability. The curators' feedback was overall positive and highlighted the user-friendly design and the convenient gene/protein curation tool based on text mining.Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-1-bioc/. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Bio-methane & Bio-hydrogen. Status and perspectives of biological methane and hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Janssen, M.G.J.

    2003-01-01

    Eerst wordt het kader geschetst voor de potentiële rol van bio-methaan en bio-waterstof in de energiehuishouding en de invloeden daarop van de ontwikkeling van eindgebruikstechnologie en infrastructuur, en het energiebeleid. Daarna wordt uitvoerig ingegaan op de technieken voor bio-methaan en

  8. Profitable use of bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, Mats [Strateco Develoment AB, Vega (Sweden)], e-mail: mats.e@strateco.se

    2012-11-01

    Traditionally, the transportation industry has been opposed to any new legislation and when rather stringent emission legislation occurred, they objected just as they did when new fuels came on the agenda. On very short notice, Taxi Stockholm lost 20 % of their business when the County decided to award all public transportation contracts to a competitor. It was time to change plans instead of complaining and to take advantage of new opportunities - 'The first mover advantage'. Making the use of bio fuels into a profitable business takes a change of a standard 'business model' to do and there is still much room others to do the same. With a new CEO, an active marketing department and active individuals among the Board of Directors, Taxi Stockholm massaged a strategy where more business and private customers would be attracted by justifying the green leaf on every cab. All initiatives were publically announced and Taxi Stockholm broke new ice by putting a ban on spike tires - a decision which the vice Mayor made part of her ruling for the whole city. The Ban on gasoline and diesel cars were announced and such a statement attracted business from a loyalty point of view and from companies that had a 'Green Transport Policy' to live up to. Taxi Stockholm has seen growth and profitability grow since and credit the green policy on bio fuels such as bio gas and ethanol for most of it. Preem, Stockholm Transit, Volvo and other market driven operators have all seen markets grow from green initiatives.

  9. Nanoparticle based bio-bar code technology for trace analysis of aflatoxin B1 in Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yu-Yan; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Xuan; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Wang, Tong-Ying

    2018-04-01

    A novel and sensitive assay for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) detection has been developed by using bio-bar code assay (BCA). The method that relies on polyclonal antibodies encoded with DNA modified gold nanoparticle (NP) and monoclonal antibodies modified magnetic microparticle (MMP), and subsequent detection of amplified target in the form of bio-bar code using a fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) detection method. First, NP probes encoded with DNA that was unique to AFB1, MMP probes with monoclonal antibodies that bind AFB1 specifically were prepared. Then, the MMP-AFB1-NP sandwich compounds were acquired, dehybridization of the oligonucleotides on the nanoparticle surface allows the determination of the presence of AFB1 by identifying the oligonucleotide sequence released from the NP through FQ-PCR detection. The bio-bar code techniques system for detecting AFB1 was established, and the sensitivity limit was about 10 -8  ng/mL, comparable ELISA assays for detecting the same target, it showed that we can detect AFB1 at low attomolar levels with the bio-bar-code amplification approach. This is also the first demonstration of a bio-bar code type assay for the detection of AFB1 in Chinese herbs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Calibration Fixture For Anemometer Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charles R.; Nagel, Robert T.

    1993-01-01

    Fixture facilitates calibration of three-dimensional sideflow thermal anemometer probes. With fixture, probe oriented at number of angles throughout its design range. Readings calibrated as function of orientation in airflow. Calibration repeatable and verifiable.

  11. A terracotta bio-battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Folusho F; Weigele, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Terracotta pots were converted into simple, single chamber, air-cathode bio-batteries. This bio-battery design used a graphite-felt anode and a conductive graphite coating without added catalyst on the exterior as a cathode. Bacteria enriched from river sediment served as the anode catalyst. These batteries gave an average OCV of 0.56 V ± 0.02, a Coulombic efficiency of 21 ± 5%, and a peak power of 1.06 mW ± 0.01(33.13 mW/m(2)). Stable current was also produced when the batteries were operated with hay extract in salt solution. The bacterial community on the anode of the batteries was tested for air tolerance and desiccation resistance over a period ranging from 2 days to 2 weeks. The results showed that the anode community could survive complete drying of the electrolyte for several days. These data support the further development of this technology as a potential power source for LED-based lighting in off-grid, rural communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chemical equilibria in bio sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Ballester, A.; Blazquez, M. L.; Munoz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental study of bio sorption was carried out using six different kinds of algae and five different heavy metals (cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc). Experimental data fitted very well to langmuir's model and this allowed to predict the behaviour of the biomass under specific working conditions. Using the equations of the model under different initial assumptions, a series of mathematical calculations were done for mono metallic, bimetallic and tri metallic systems. the most complicated calculation is that in which, knowing the initial metal concentration (C 0 ), it is necessary to calculate the conditions reached at the equilibrium, this is, q e and C e . This assumption is of great interest from the point of view of the actual applicability of the process. However, in this case, it is necessary to solve very complex mathematical equations which, for multi metallic systems, are of degree n+1, where n is the number of ions present in solution. The excellent correlation between experimental and theoretical data demonstrates that the bio sorption process can be modelling. (Author) 18 refs

  13. Israel Marine Bio-geographic Database (ISRAMAR-BIO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greengrass, Eyal; Krivenko, Yevgeniya; Ozer, Tal; Ben Yosef, Dafna; Tom, Moshe; Gertman, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the space/time variations of species is the basis for any ecological investigations. While historical observations containing integral concentrations of biological parameters (chlorophyll, abundance, biomass…) are organized partly in ISRAMAR Cast Database, the taxon-specific data collected in Israel has not been sufficiently organized. This has been hindered by the lack of standards, variability of methods and complexity of biological data formalization. The ISRAMAR-BIO DB was developed to store various types of historical and future available information related to marine species observations and related metadata. Currently the DB allows to store biological data acquired by the following sampling devices such as: van veer grab, box corer, sampling bottles, nets (plankton, trawls and fish), quadrates, and cameras. The DB's logical unit is information regarding a specimen (taxa name, barcode, image), related attributes (abundance, size, age, contaminants…), habitat description, sampling device and method, time and space of sampling, responsible organization and scientist, source of information (cruise, project and publication). The following standardization of specimen and attributes naming were implemented: Taxonomy according to World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS: http://www.marinespecies.org). Habitat description according to Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standards (CMECS: http://www.cmecscatalog.org) Parameter name; Unit; Device name; Developmental stage; Institution name; Country name; Marine region according to SeaDataNet Vocabularies (http://www.seadatanet.org/Standards-Software/Common-Vocabularies). This system supports two types of data submission procedures, which support the above stated data structure. The first is a downloadable excel file with drop-down fields based on the ISRAMAR-BIO vocabularies. The file is filled and uploaded online by the data contributor. Alternatively, the same dataset can be assembled by

  14. Heavy ion beam probing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  15. Heavy ion beam probing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included

  16. BIO PROSPECTING IN NIGERIA: EVALUATING THE ADEQUACY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    produce biodegradable plastics.11. Genetic resources are unequally spread amongst nations of the world. No country is self-sufficient in terms of biological endowment. As a result, nations seek for bio-resources needs from other parts of the world.12 These bio resources comprise of staple foods and high value cash crops ...

  17. Bio-Conjugates for Nanoscale Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Klaus

    Bio-conjugates for Nanoscale Applications is the title of this thesis, which covers three different projects in chemical bio-conjugation research, namely synthesis and applications of: Lipidated fluorescent peptides, carbohydrate oxime-azide linkers and N-aryl O-R2 oxyamine derivatives. Lipidated...

  18. Biosecurity--The Bio-Link Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elaine A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes Bio-Link, the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Center for Biotechnology established with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). Reports that Bio-Link, headquartered at City College of San Francisco, has created a national network and resource base for community colleges, industry, and others interested in biotechnology…

  19. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging from India in this important and fascinating interdisci-.

  20. Bio-fuel production potential in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurentiu, F.; Silvian, F.; Dumitru, F.

    2006-01-01

    The paper is based on the ESTO Study: Techno- Economic Feasibility of Large-Scale Production of Bio-Fuels in EU-Candidate Countries. Bio-fuel production has not been taken into account significantly until now in Romania, being limited to small- scale productions of ethanol, used mostly for various industrial purposes. However the climatic conditions and the quality of the soil are very suitable in the country for development of the main crops (wheat, sugar-beet, sunflower and rape-seed) used in bio-ethanol and bio-diesel production. The paper intended to consider a pertinent discussion of the present situation in Romania's agriculture stressing on the following essential items in the estimation of bio-fuels production potential: availability of feed-stock for bio-fuel production; actual productions of bio-fuels; fuel consumption; cost assessment; SWOT approach; expected trends. Our analysis was based on specific agricultural data for the period 1996-2000. An important ethanol potential (due to wheat, sugar-beet and maize cultures), as well as bio-diesel one (due to sun-flower and rape-seed) were predicted for the period 2005-2010 which could be exploited with the support of an important financial and technological effort, mainly from EU countries

  1. Gravity Probe B Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The space vehicle Gravity Probe B (GP-B) is the relativity experiment developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. In this photograph, engineer Gary Reynolds is inspecting the inside of the probe neck during probe thermal repairs. GP-B is scheduled for launch in April 2004 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center. Development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University along with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation. (Image credit to Russ Leese, Gravity Probe B, Stanford University)

  2. Novel Eddycurrent Probe Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    oVCut MVc AVu inc F C -- -(1)(-jlOOO AZC (23)0 --2--M F1 (23) If the Thevenin source voltages, V0, are adjusted so that Vinc is the same for both the...as small as 1.2 cm. The differential probe assembly was spring loaded about a pivot post (see Figure 12) so it could scan noncircular or eccentric

  3. Induced current heating probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Ferguson, B.G.; Winstanley, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    An induced current heating probe is of thimble form and has an outer conducting sheath and a water flooded flux-generating unit formed from a stack of ferrite rings coaxially disposed in the sheath. The energising coil is made of solid wire which connects at one end with a coaxial water current tube and at the other end with the sheath. The stack of ferrite rings may include non-magnetic insulating rings which help to shape the flux. (author)

  4. Atom probe crystallography

    OpenAIRE

    Gault, Baptiste; Moody, Michael P.; Cairney, Julie M.; Ringer, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses new developments in the emerging area of “atom probe crystallography”, a materials characterization tool with the unique capacity to reveal both composition and crystallographic structure at the atomic scale. This information is crucial for the manipulation of microstructure for the design of both structural and functional materials with optimized mechanical, electric, optoelectronic, magnetic, or superconducting properties that will find application in, for example, nan...

  5. Probing gravitation with pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Radio pulsars are fascinating and extremely useful objects. Despite our on-going difficulties in understanding the details of their emission physics, they can be used as precise cosmic clocks in a wide-range of experiments - in particular for probing gravitational physics. While the reader should consult the contributions to these proceedings to learn more about this exciting field of discovering, exploiting and understanding pulsars, we will concentrate here on on the usage of pulsars as gravity labs.

  6. Nanoscale thermal probing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Yue

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale novel devices have raised the demand for nanoscale thermal characterization that is critical for evaluating the device performance and durability. Achieving nanoscale spatial resolution and high accuracy in temperature measurement is very challenging due to the limitation of measurement pathways. In this review, we discuss four methodologies currently developed in nanoscale surface imaging and temperature measurement. To overcome the restriction of the conventional methods, the scanning thermal microscopy technique is widely used. From the perspective of measuring target, the optical feature size method can be applied by using either Raman or fluorescence thermometry. The near-field optical method that measures nanoscale temperature by focusing the optical field to a nano-sized region provides a non-contact and non-destructive way for nanoscale thermal probing. Although the resistance thermometry based on nano-sized thermal sensors is possible for nanoscale thermal probing, significant effort is still needed to reduce the size of the current sensors by using advanced fabrication techniques. At the same time, the development of nanoscale imaging techniques, such as fluorescence imaging, provides a great potential solution to resolve the nanoscale thermal probing problem.

  7. Einstein Inflationary Probe (EIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Gary

    2004-01-01

    I will discuss plans to develop a concept for the Einstein Inflation Probe: a mission to detect gravity waves from inflation via the unique signature they impart to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. A sensitive CMB polarization satellite may be the only way to probe physics at the grand-unified theory (GUT) scale, exceeding by 12 orders of magnitude the energies studied at the Large Hadron Collider. A detection of gravity waves would represent a remarkable confirmation of the inflationary paradigm and set the energy scale at which inflation occurred when the universe was a fraction of a second old. Even a strong upper limit to the gravity wave amplitude would be significant, ruling out many common models of inflation, and pointing to inflation occurring at much lower energy, if at all. Measuring gravity waves via the CMB polarization will be challenging. We will undertake a comprehensive study to identify the critical scientific requirements for the mission and their derived instrumental performance requirements. At the core of the study will be an assessment of what is scientifically and experimentally optimal within the scope and purpose of the Einstein Inflation Probe.

  8. Bio-Matematik ved Roskilde Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.

    2010-01-01

    Ved Institut for Natur, Systemer og Modeller ved Roskilde Universitet finder man en velkonsolideret gruppe af forskere, BioMath-gruppen, der beskæftiger sig med Bio-Matematik og Bio-Medicinsk Modellering. Faktisk startede BioMath-gruppen på det tidligere Institut for Studiet af Matematik og Fysik...... findes i monografierne "Applied Mathematical Models in Human Physiology", "Mathematical Modeling in Medicine", og i "The Biomedical Engineering Handbook".   Arbejdet med at udvikle anæstesisimulatorerne satte gang i en mængde "sundhedsmatematik" på instituttet og i dag huser instituttet desuden phd......-programmet "Mathematical modeling and its mathematical prerequisites" ledet af undertegnet. Programmet er associeret med den nationale phd-skole "Research School for Mathematics and Applications".   BioMath-gruppens fokusområder er bl.a. 1) Kardiovaskulær fysiologi og dets kontrolmekanismer; 2) Fluiddynamik og klapløse...

  9. Improved RNA extraction method using the BioMasher and BioMasher power-plus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takuji; Nakashima, Kentaro; Maruta, Yukio; Kiriyama, Tomomi; Sasaki, Michi; Sugiyama, Shunpei; Suzuki, Kana; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Sasaki, Jun; Kaku-Ushiki, Yuko; Tanida, Masatoshi; Irie, Shinkichi; Hattori, Shunji

    2012-12-01

    The BioMasher is a disposable homogenizer that was developed to homogenize bovine brain tissue for bovine spongiform encephalopathy diagnosis. Capable of preventing the biohazard risk from infectious samples, it also prevents cross-contamination among samples. The BioMasher is thus widely used in biochemical research, especially for RNA extraction. Here, we tested a novel BioMasher application for RNA extraction from animal and plant tissues. We also developed a grinding machine specific for the BioMasher, named the BioMasher Power-Plus. We developed RNA extraction protocols using the BioMasher combined with the BioMasher Power-Plus. We compared RNA extraction efficiency of the BioMasher with that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer. Though the RNA extraction efficiency by the BioMasher was nearly equivalent to that of the FastPrep and the glass homogenizer, sample preparation time was shorter for the BioMasher. The utility of RNA extraction by the BioMasher was examined in mouse, rat, and tomato tissue samples. In the rodent tissues, the highest extraction efficiency of total RNA was from liver, with lowest efficiency from fibrous tissues such as muscle. The quality of extracted total RNA was confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis which produced highly visible clear bands of 18S and 28S rRNAs. Reproducibility among different operators in RNA extraction from tomato roots was improved by using the BioMasher Power-Plus. The BioMasher and BioMasher Power-Plus provide an effective and easy homogenization method for total RNA extraction from some rodent and plant tissues.

  10. Nine New Fluorescent Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-I.; Jovanovic, Misa V.; Dowben, Robert M.

    1989-06-01

    Absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic studies are reported here for nine new fluorescent probes recently synthesized in our laboratories: four pyrene derivatives with substituents of (i) 1,3-diacetoxy-6,8-dichlorosulfonyl, (ii) 1,3-dihydroxy-6,8-disodiumsulfonate, (iii) 1,3-disodiumsulfonate, and (iv) l-ethoxy-3,6,8-trisodiumsulfonate groups, and five [7-julolidino] coumarin derivatives with substituents of (v) 3-carboxylate-4-methyl, (vi) 3- methylcarboxylate, (vii) 3-acetate-4-methyl, (viii) 3-propionate-4-methyl, and (ix) 3-sulfonate-4-methyl groups. Pyrene compounds i and ii and coumarin compounds v and vi exhibit interesting absorbance and fluorescence properties: their absorption maxima are red shifted compared to the parent compound to the blue-green region, and the band width broadens considerably. All four blue-absorbing dyes fluoresce intensely in the green region, and the two pyrene compounds emit at such long wavelengths without formation of excimers. The fluorescence properties of these compounds are quite environment-sensitive: considerable spectral shifts and fluorescence intensity changes have been observed in the pH range from 3 to 10 and in a wide variety of polar and hydrophobic solvents with vastly different dielectric constants. The high extinction and fluorescence quantum yield of these probes make them ideal fluorescent labeling reagents for proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cellular organelles. The pH and hydrophobicity-dependent fluorescence changes can be utilized as optical pH and/or hydrophobicity indicators for mapping environmental difference in various cellular components in a single cell. Since all nine probes absorb in the UV, but emit at different wavelengths in the visible, these two groups of compounds offer an advantage of utilizing a single monochromatic light source (e.g., a nitrogen laser) to achieve multi-wavelength detection for flow cytometry application. As a first step to explore potential application in

  11. Development of Mackintosh Probe Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Noor Khazanah A.; Kaamin, Masiri; Suwandi, Amir Khan; Sahat, Suhaila; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic probing is a continuous soil investigation technique, which is one of the simplest soil penetration test. It basically consist of repeatedly driving a metal tipped probe into the ground using a drop weight of fixed mass and travel. Testing was carried out continuously from ground level to the final penetration depth. Once the soil investigation work done, it is difficult to pull out the probe rod from the ground, due to strong soil structure grip against probe cone and prevent the probe rod out from the ground. Thus, in this case, a tool named Extracting Probe was created to assist in the process of retracting the probe rod from the ground. In addition, Extracting Probe also can reduce the time to extract the probe rod from the ground compare with the conventional method. At the same time, it also can reduce manpower cost because only one worker involve to handle this tool compare with conventional method used two or more workers. From experiment that have been done we found that the time difference between conventional tools and extracting probe is significant, average time difference is 155 minutes. In addition the extracting probe can reduce manpower usage, and also labour cost for operating the tool. With all these advantages makes this tool has the potential to be marketed.

  12. The formate bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yishai, Oren; Lindner, Steffen N; Gonzalez de la Cruz, Jorge; Tenenboim, Hezi; Bar-Even, Arren

    2016-12-01

    In this review we discuss the concept of the formate bio-economy: formate can be produced efficiently from various available resources and can be consumed by microbes as the sole carbon source for the production of value-added chemicals, directly addressing major challenges in energy storage and chemical production. We show that the formate assimilation pathways utilized by natural formatotrophs are either inefficient or are constrained to organisms that are difficult to cultivate and engineer. Instead, adapting model industrial organisms to formatotrophic growth using synthetic, specially tailored formate-assimilation routes could prove an advantageous strategy. Several studies have started to tackle this challenge, but a fully active synthetic pathway has yet to be established, leaving room for future undertakings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  14. Mobile Probing Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Probing Kit is a low tech and low cost methodology for obtaining inspiration and insights into user needs, requirements and ideas in the early phases of a system's development process. The methodology is developed to identify user needs, requirements and ideas among knowledge workers...... characterized as being highly nomadic and thus potential users of mobile and ubiquitous technologies. The methodology has been applied in the 1ST MAGNET Beyond project in order to obtain user needs and requirements in the process of developing pilot services. We report on the initial findings from applying...... this methodology in the early phases of this large scale research and development process....

  15. Validation of ALK/ROS1 Dual Break Apart FISH Probe probe in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Min; Chang, Hyun; Cha, Yoon Jin; Liang, Shile; Tai, Yan Chin; Li, Gu; Pestova, Ekaterina; Policht, Frank; Perez, Thomas; Soo, Ross A; Park, Won Young; Kim, Hye Ryun; Shim, Hyo Sup; Cho, Byoung Chul

    2017-09-01

    ALK and ROS1 gene rearrangements are distinct molecular subsets of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and they are strong predictive biomarkers of response to ALK/ROS1 inhibitors, such as crizotinib. Thus, it is clinically important to develop an effective screening strategy to detect patients who will benefit from such treatment. In this study, we aimed to validate analytical performance of Vysis ALK/ROS1 Dual Break Apart Probe Kit (RUO) in NSCLC. Study population composed of three patient cohorts with histologically confirmed lung adenocarcinoma (patients with ALK rearrangement, patients with ROS1 rearrangement and patients with wild-type ALK and ROS1). Specimens consisted of 12 ALK-positive, 8 ROS1-positive and 21 ALK/ROS1-wild type formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples obtained from surgical resection or excisional biopsy. ALK rearrangement was previously assessed by Vysis ALK Break Apart FISH Probe Kit (Abbott Molecular, Abbot Park, IL, USA) and ROS1 rearrangement was previously assessed by ZytoLight ® SPEC ROS1 Break Apart Probe (ZytoVision, GmbH). All specimens were re-evaluated by Vysis ALK/ROS1 Dual Break Apart Probe Kit. FISH images were scanned on BioView AllegroPlus system and interpreted via BioView SoloWeb remotely. For a total of 41 patient samples, the concordance of the results by Vysis ALK/ROS1 Dual Break Apart Probe Kit was evaluated and compared to the known ALK and ROS1 rearrangement status of the specimen. Of the 12 ALK-positive cases, hybridization with Vysis ALK/ROS1 Dual Break Apart Probe Kit was successful in 10 cases (success rate 10/12, 83%) and of these 10 cases, all showed ALK rearrangement (100% concordance with the results of Vysis ALK Break Apart FISH Probe Kit). Two of the ALK+ cases were excluded due to weak ROS1 signals that could not be enumerated. Of the 8 ROS1-positive cases, 6 cases were successfully evaluated using Vysis ALK/ROS1 Dual Break Apart Probe Kit. The success rate was 75% (6/8), and of these 6 cases, all

  16. High spatial resolution Kelvin probe force microscopy with coaxial probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M; Satzinger, Kevin J

    2012-01-01

    Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) is a widely used technique to measure the local contact potential difference (CPD) between an AFM probe and the sample surface via the electrostatic force. The spatial resolution of KPFM is intrinsically limited by the long range of the electrostatic interaction, which includes contributions from the macroscopic cantilever and the conical tip. Here, we present coaxial AFM probes in which the cantilever and cone are shielded by a conducting shell, confining the tip–sample electrostatic interaction to a small region near the end of the tip. We have developed a technique to measure the true CPD despite the presence of the shell electrode. We find that the behavior of these probes agrees with an electrostatic model of the force, and we observe a factor of five improvement in spatial resolution relative to unshielded probes. Our discussion centers on KPFM, but the field confinement offered by these probes may improve any variant of electrostatic force microscopy. (paper)

  17. The fairy tale of bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverloo, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    Agricultural products can be converted into bio-ethanol. Proponents of the bio-ethanol production however use inaccurate arguments with regard to the comparison of the prices per liter for bio-ethanol and petrol instead of using the net heating value of the fuels. Also their basic assumptions concerning the energy efficiency or the energy balances or the carbon dioxide emissions are incorrect. The production of biomass for energy does not serve any other societal interest than subsidized employment for agricultural farmers. 4 tabs., 9 refs

  18. BioBlend.objects: metacomputing with Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Simone; Pireddu, Luca; Cuccuru, Gianmauro; Lianas, Luca; Soranzo, Nicola; Afgan, Enis; Zanetti, Gianluigi

    2014-10-01

    BioBlend.objects is a new component of the BioBlend package, adding an object-oriented interface for the Galaxy REST-based application programming interface. It improves support for metacomputing on Galaxy entities by providing higher-level functionality and allowing users to more easily create programs to explore, query and create Galaxy datasets and workflows. BioBlend.objects is available online at https://github.com/afgane/bioblend. The new object-oriented API is implemented by the galaxy/objects subpackage. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. The 3rd DBCLS BioHackathon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katayama, Toshiaki; Wilkinson, Mark D; Micklem, Gos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: BioHackathon 2010 was the third in a series of meetings hosted by the Database Center for Life Sciences (DBCLS) in Tokyo, Japan. The overall goal of the BioHackathon series is to improve the quality and accessibility of life science research data on the Web by bringing...... for analysis and visualization. CONCLUSION: We provide a meeting report from BioHackathon 2010, in which we describe the discussions, decisions, and breakthroughs made as we moved towards compliance with Semantic Web technologies - from source provider, through middleware, to the end-consumer....

  20. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  1. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  2. Ammonia separation in novel bio filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hahne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently used bio filters are suited for odor reduction in livestock keeping but not for ammonia separation. Therefore it was the objective to develop a novel bio filter system which was able to ensure a high and long-lasting ammonia separation. This novel bio filter, which is equipped with a pH control in a water swamp beneath the filter layer and a conductivity control for water discharge, was investigated in terms of ammonia separation and nitrogen disposition over several months under practical conditions. The results show a stable ammonia separation of more than 88 % if certain consecutively described operating conditions are kept.

  3. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  4. BioPen: direct writing of functional materials at the point of care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yu Long; Hu, Jie; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and precise patterning of functional biomaterials is desirable for point-of-care (POC) tissue engineering and diagnostics. However, existing technologies such as dip-pen nanolithography and inkjet printing are currently unsuitable for POC applications due to issues of cost and portability. Here, we report the development of ‘BioPen', a portable tool for continuous, defined and scalable deposition of functional materials with micrometer spatial resolution and nanolitre volumetric resolution. BioPen is based upon the ballpoint pen but with multiple “ink sources” (functional material solutions) and with an apparatus that can be optimized for writing living cells, proteins, nucleic acids, etc. We demonstrate POC detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleic acid by writing on paper with BioPen using “ink” consisting of nucleic acid probes and nucleic acid-modified gold nanoparticles. We also demonstrate POC tissue engineering by writing a continuous pattern of living, functional, interconnected cells with a defined extracellular environment. Because it is simple, accurate, inexpensive and portable, BioPen has broad potential for POC detection of diagnostic biomarkers, and for POC engineering of tissues for a range of healing applications. PMID:24799039

  5. Cognitive bio-radar: The natural evolution of bio-signals measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Daniel; Oliveira, Beatriz; Ferreira, Pedro; Varum, Tiago; Vieira, José; Tomé, Ana

    2016-10-01

    In this article we discuss a novel approach to Bio-Radar, contactless measurement of bio-signals, called Cognitive Bio-Radar. This new approach implements the Bio-Radar in a Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform in order to obtain awareness of the environment where it operates. Due to this, the Cognitive Bio-Radar can adapt to its surroundings in order to have an intelligent usage of the radio frequency spectrum to improve its performance. In order to study the feasibility of such implementation, a SDR based Bio-Radar testbench was developed and evaluated. The prototype is shown to be able to acquire the heartbeat activity and the respiratory effort. The acquired data is compared with the acquisitions from a Biopac research data acquisition system, showing coherent results for both heartbeat and breathing rate.

  6. Sustainable development and bioeconomic prosperity in Africa: Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... guidelines concerning significant issues like bio-risks, bio-safety, and bio-security that impinge on daily human existence and welfare. High–cost fossil fuel prices and national security concerns have sparked interest in bio-fuels in continental Africa. In brief, Africa is taking the lead in creating its own.

  7. Bio-politics Reflexes” or something about what happens with Bio-politics today

    OpenAIRE

    Viorella Manolache

    2013-01-01

    Under the pressure dictated by Western modernity movements, life finally enters within strategic (long term) relationships circuit. The present study establishes that, bio-politics and bio-power denounces the paradigm of politicization of the biological life. Foucaults late writings confirm the subordination of bio-politics to the technologies of power, which integrate / reduce life to biological continuity of the species, to the objectification of individual body or investigation of self-tec...

  8. [Preface for special issue on bio-based materials (2016)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yunxuan

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based materials are new materials or chemicals with renewable biomass as raw materials such as grain, legume, straw, bamboo and wood powder. This class of materials includes bio-based polymer, biobased fiber, glycotechnology products, biobased rubber and plastics produced by biomass thermoplastic processing and basic biobased chemicals, for instance, bio-alcohols, organic acids, alkanes, and alkenes, obtained by bio-synthesis, bio-processing and bio-refinery. Owing to its environmental friendly and resource conservation, bio-based materials are becoming a new dominant industry taking the lead in the world scientific and technological innovation and economic development. An overview of bio-based materials development is reported in this special issue, and the industrial status and research progress of the following aspects, including biobased fiber, polyhydroxyalkanoates, biodegradable mulching film, bio-based polyamide, protein based biomedical materials, bio-based polyurethane, and modification and processing of poly(lactic acid), are introduced.

  9. SCR at bio fuel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Odenbrand, I.; Andersson, L.H.

    1998-10-01

    In this project the cause for and the extent of catalyst deactivation has been investigated when using 100 % wood as fuel. The trend of deactivation has been studied as a function of the flue gas temperature, the type of catalyst and the type of combustion technique used. The field tests have been performed in the CFB boiler in Norrkoeping, firing forest residues, and in the boiler in Jordbro, firing pulverized wood (PC). Samples of four different commercial catalyst types have been exposed to flue gas in a test rig connected to the convection section of the boiler. The samples have been analysed at even time intervals. The results after 2 100 hours show a large difference in deactivation trend between the two plants; when using a conventional honeycomb catalyst 80 % of the original activity remains in the CFB boiler but only 20 % remains in the PC boiler. The deactivation in the CFB boiler is about 3 - 4 times faster than what is expected for a conservative design for a coal fired boiler. The results show that the general deactivation trend is similar for the plate and the honeycomb catalyst types. With a catalyst optimised for bio fuels the deactivation rate was about 2/3 compared with a conventional catalyst. At an operating temperature of 315 deg C the deactivation was not as rapid as at 370 deg C. The amount of easily dissolved potassium increases on the surface of the catalyst, especially in the PC boiler, and this is probably the reason for the deactivation. The total amount of potassium in the flue gas is about 5 times higher in the CFB boiler compared with the PC boiler. This indicates that only a certain form of potassium attacks the catalyst and that the total alkali content of the fuel is not a good indicator of the deactivation tendency. The potassium on the catalyst dissolves easily in both water and sulphuric acid. A wash of deactivated catalyst samples with water resulted in higher activity than for the fresh samples if the washing was supplemented

  10. Wireless MEMs BioSensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  11. 2nd generation biogas. BioSNG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwart, R.W.R.

    2008-11-01

    The substitution of natural gas by a renewable equivalent is an interesting option to reduce the use of fossil fuels and the accompanying greenhouse gas emissions, as well as from the point of view of security of supply. The renewable alternative for natural gas is green natural gas, i.e. gaseous energy carriers produced from biomass comprising both biogas and Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG). Via this route can be benefited from all the advantages of natural gas, like the existing dense infrastructure, trade and supply network, and natural gas applications. In this presentation attention is paid to the differences between first generation biogas and second generation bioSNG; the market for bioSNG: grid injection vs. transportation fuel; latest update on the lab- and pilot-scale bioSNG development at ECN; and an overview is given of ongoing bioSNG activities worldwide

  12. Catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, R.; Dahl, S.; Skjøth-Rasmussen, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way through steam reforming (SR) of bio-oil and this review presents the state-of-the-art of SR of bio-oil and model compounds hereof. The possible reactions, which can occur in the SR process and the influe......Hydrogen and synthesis gas can be produced in an environmentally friendly and sustainable way through steam reforming (SR) of bio-oil and this review presents the state-of-the-art of SR of bio-oil and model compounds hereof. The possible reactions, which can occur in the SR process...... and the influence of operating conditions will be presented along with the catalysts and processes investigated in the literature.Several catalytic systems with Ni, Ru, or Rh can achieve good performance with respect to initial conversion and yield of hydrogen, but the main problem is that the catalysts...

  13. BioSampling Data from LHP Cruises

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes separate bioSampling logs from each LHP Bottomfishing cruise both within and outside of the Main Hawaiian Islands, as well as a master file...

  14. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  15. Wireless MEMs BioSensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crossfield is proposing to develop a low cost, single chip plant bio-monitor using an embedded MEMs based infrared (IR) spectroscopy gas sensor for carbon dioxide...

  16. Generator Inspection Report: Bio - Lab, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains report from Georgia Department of Natural Resources of July 21, 1999 inspection of the Bio - Lab Incorporated Plant 4 in Conyers, Rockdale County, Georgia, reporting that no violations were observed.

  17. Bio-fuels of the first generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-04-01

    After having briefly recalled the objective of use of renewable energies and the role bio-fuels may play, this publication briefly presents various bio-fuels: bio-diesel (from colza, soybean or sunflower oil), and ethanol (from beet, sugar cane, wheat or corn). Some key data regarding bio-fuel production and use in France are briefly commented. The publication outlines strengths (a positive energy assessment, a decreased dependency on imported fossil fuels and a higher supply safety, a diversification of agriculture revenues and prospects, a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and weaknesses (uncertainty regarding the evolution of soil use, an environmental impact related to farming methods) of this sector. Actions undertaken by the ADEME in collaboration with other agencies and institutions are briefly overviewed

  18. Bio-methane. Challenges and technical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaisonneau, Laurent; Carlu, Elieta; Feuillette, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    Among the new energy sectors in development, biogas has many benefits: several valorization possibilities (bio-methane, electricity and heat), continuous production, easy storage. In Europe, and particularly in France, the bio-methane market will be in the next years a driver for the improvement of the economic, environmental and social performance of the actors of the value chain of biogas. ENEA releases a report on the current state of the bio-methane market in Europe. This publication mainly describes: An outlook of the market evolution and the corresponding stakes for the actors of this sector, the technical and economic characteristics, maturity level and specificities of each biogas upgrading process, An analysis of the French regulatory framework for bio-methane injection into the grid

  19. Negated bio-events: analysis and identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz Raheel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Negation occurs frequently in scientific literature, especially in biomedical literature. It has previously been reported that around 13% of sentences found in biomedical research articles contain negation. Historically, the main motivation for identifying negated events has been to ensure their exclusion from lists of extracted interactions. However, recently, there has been a growing interest in negative results, which has resulted in negation detection being identified as a key challenge in biomedical relation extraction. In this article, we focus on the problem of identifying negated bio-events, given gold standard event annotations. Results We have conducted a detailed analysis of three open access bio-event corpora containing negation information (i.e., GENIA Event, BioInfer and BioNLP’09 ST, and have identified the main types of negated bio-events. We have analysed the key aspects of a machine learning solution to the problem of detecting negated events, including selection of negation cues, feature engineering and the choice of learning algorithm. Combining the best solutions for each aspect of the problem, we propose a novel framework for the identification of negated bio-events. We have evaluated our system on each of the three open access corpora mentioned above. The performance of the system significantly surpasses the best results previously reported on the BioNLP’09 ST corpus, and achieves even better results on the GENIA Event and BioInfer corpora, both of which contain more varied and complex events. Conclusions Recently, in the field of biomedical text mining, the development and enhancement of event-based systems has received significant interest. The ability to identify negated events is a key performance element for these systems. We have conducted the first detailed study on the analysis and identification of negated bio-events. Our proposed framework can be integrated with state-of-the-art event

  20. The Galaxy Evolution Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  1. Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....

  2. Exploring Artificial Intelligence Utilizing BioArt

    OpenAIRE

    Simou , Panagiota; Tiligadis , Konstantinos; Alexiou , Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Part 15: First Workshop on Ethics and Philosophy in Artificial Intelligence (EPAI 2013); International audience; While artificial intelligence combined with Bioinformatics and Nanotechnology offers a variety of improvements and a technological and healthcare revolution, Bioartists attempt to replace the traditional artistic medium with biological materials, bio-imaging techniques, bioreactors and several times to treat their own body as an alive canvas. BioArt seems to play the role of a new ...

  3. A Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....

  4. [Development and perspective of bio-based chemical fiber industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengjun

    2016-06-25

    Bio-based fiber is environment friendly, reproducible, easily biodegradable. Therefore, rapid development of bio-based fiber industry is an obvious in progress to replace petrochemical resources, develop sustainable economy, build resource saving and environment friendly society. This article describes the current development of bio-based fiber industry, analyzes existing problems, indicates the trends and objectives of bio-based fiber materials technology innovation and recommends developing bio-based fibers industry of our country.

  5. Round table on bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    The French ministers of agriculture and of industry have organized a meeting with the main French actors of agriculture, petroleum industry, car making and accessories industry and with professionals of agriculture machines to encourage the development of bio-fuels in France. This meeting took place in Paris in November 21, 2005. Its aim was to favor the partnerships between the different actors and the public authorities in order to reach the ambitious goals of the government of 5.75% of bio-fuels in fossil fuels by 2008, 7% by 2010 and 10% by 2015. The main points discussed by the participants were: the compatibility of automotive fuel standards with the objectives of bio-fuel incorporation, the development of direct incorporation of methanol in gasoline, the ethanol-ETBE partnership, the question of the lower calorific value of ETBE (ethyl tertio butyl ether), the development of new bio-fuels, the development of bio-diesel and the specific case of pure vegetal oils, and the fiscal framework of bio-fuels. This meeting has permitted to reach important improvements with 15 concrete agreements undertaken by the participants. (J.S.)

  6. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-12-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi-cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  7. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Julia; Norppa, Hannu

    2017-01-01

    Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi­cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues. PMID:29194367

  8. Bio-fuels barometer; Barometre biocarburants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-07-15

    European Union bio-fuel use for transport reached 12 million tonnes of oil equivalent (mtoe) threshold during 2009. The slowdown in the growth of European consumption deepened again. Bio-fuel used in transport only grew by 18.7% between 2008 and 2009, as against 30.3% between 2007 and 2008 and 41.8% between 2006 and 2007. The bio-fuel incorporation rate in all fuels used by transport in the E.U. is unlikely to pass 4% in 2009. We can note that: -) the proportion of bio-fuel in the German fuels market has plummeted since 2007: from 7.3% in 2007 to 5.5% in 2009; -) France stays on course with an incorporation rate of 6.25% in 2009; -) In Spain the incorporation rate reached 3.4% in 2009 while it was 1.9% in 2008. The European bio-diesel industry has had another tough year. European production only rose by 16.6% in 2009 or by about 9 million tonnes which is well below the previous year-on-year growth rate recorded (35.7%). France is leading the production of bio-ethanol fuels in Europe with an output of 1250 million liters in 2009 while the total European production reached 3700 million litters and the world production 74000 million liters. (A.C.)

  9. Bio diesel, v. 15(59)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubitsa

    2007-01-01

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  10. Bio diesel, v. 15(58)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicheva, Ljubitsa

    2007-01-01

    The history of bio-fuels/bio-diesel is more political and economical than it is technological. The technology of the production is the same as it was 200 years ago. The economy closed the usage of bio-fuels in the middies of the 20 Th century and put it back on the agenda of the world economy at the beginning of the 21 st century. With price of more then 70 US$ per barrel of grudge oil, production and usage of bio-fuels becomes more economical category rather than political and ecological. If we, additionally, add secondary, yet nowadays very important factors, as ecological protection, recycling the emission of poisonous gasses, exploitation of agro sector, then the reincarnation of bio-fuels is very interesting, and for Macedonia a potentially strategic category. The basics of the biography is to follow in the article paying special attention on the characteristics, standards, production, processing and usage of the bio-diesel fuel as well as the blended B20 and B5. (Author)

  11. Safety Aspects of Bio-Based Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Catalán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving towards a bio-based and circular economy implies a major focus on the responsible and sustainable utilization of bio-resources. The emergence of nanotechnology has opened multiple possibilities, not only in the existing industrial sectors, but also for completely novel applications of nanoscale bio-materials, the commercial exploitation of which has only begun during the last few years. Bio-based materials are often assumed not to be toxic. However, this pre-assumption is not necessarily true. Here, we provide a short overview on health and environmental aspects associated with bio-based nanomaterials, and on the relevant regulatory requirements. We also discuss testing strategies that may be used for screening purposes at pre-commercial stages. Although the tests presently used to reveal hazards are still evolving, regarding modifi­cations required for nanomaterials, their application is needed before the upscaling or commercialization of bio-based nanomaterials, to ensure the market potential of the nanomaterials is not delayed by uncertainties about safety issues.

  12. Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.

  13. Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Brett; Furukawa, Brian; Tanner, Nichole T

    2014-12-01

    Convex probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) is a minimally invasive diagnostic technique that allows real-time sampling of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes and central pulmonary lesions. Its utility in diagnosing both malignant and nonmalignant diseases has led to an increased uptake and use by pulmonologists over the past decade. Because of the robust evidence supporting its safety and diagnostic yield, EBUS is now the first guideline recommended test for staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). It has also a role in providing tissue for molecular analysis, thereby guiding in the selection of agents in the new era of personalized chemotherapies in the treatment of NSCLC. The following review highlights the evidence for EBUS in diagnosing mediastinal pathology and addresses technique, training, and competency and future directions for this technology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  15. Non-inductive current probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl

    1977-01-01

    The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is......The current probe described is a low-cost, shunt resistor for monitoring current pulses in e.g., pulsed lasers. Rise time is...

  16. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  17. The Problem of Bio-Concepts: Biopolitics, Bio-Economy and the Political Economy of Nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-01-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies--and no doubt other fields--have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new "bio-concepts." While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous--and therefore…

  18. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  19. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard...... or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application....... silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear...

  20. Water cooled static pressure probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagen, Nicholas T. (Inventor); Eves, John W. (Inventor); Reece, Garland D. (Inventor); Geissinger, Steve L. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An improved static pressure probe containing a water cooling mechanism is disclosed. This probe has a hollow interior containing a central coolant tube and multiple individual pressure measurement tubes connected to holes placed on the exterior. Coolant from the central tube symmetrically immerses the interior of the probe, allowing it to sustain high temperature (in the region of 2500 F) supersonic jet flow indefinitely, while still recording accurate pressure data. The coolant exits the probe body by way of a reservoir attached to the aft of the probe. The pressure measurement tubes are joined to a single, larger manifold in the reservoir. This manifold is attached to a pressure transducer that records the average static pressure.

  1. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Fought, Eric R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  2. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  3. Wearable probes for service design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullane, Aaron; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Svanæs, Dag

    2014-01-01

    by service employees in reflecting on the delivery of a service. In this paper, we present the ‘wearable probe’, a probe concept that captures sensor data without distracting service employees. Data captured by the probe can be used by the service employees to reflect and co-reflect on the service journey......Probes are used as a design method in user-centred design to allow end-users to inform design by collecting data from their lives. Probes are potentially useful in service innovation, but current probing methods require users to interrupt their activity and are consequently not ideal for use......, helping to identify opportunities for service evolution and innovation....

  4. tmBioC: improving interoperability of text-mining tools with BioC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Mao, Yuqing; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    The lack of interoperability among biomedical text-mining tools is a major bottleneck in creating more complex applications. Despite the availability of numerous methods and techniques for various text-mining tasks, combining different tools requires substantial efforts and time owing to heterogeneity and variety in data formats. In response, BioC is a recent proposal that offers a minimalistic approach to tool interoperability by stipulating minimal changes to existing tools and applications. BioC is a family of XML formats that define how to present text documents and annotations, and also provides easy-to-use functions to read/write documents in the BioC format. In this study, we introduce our text-mining toolkit, which is designed to perform several challenging and significant tasks in the biomedical domain, and repackage the toolkit into BioC to enhance its interoperability. Our toolkit consists of six state-of-the-art tools for named-entity recognition, normalization and annotation (PubTator) of genes (GenNorm), diseases (DNorm), mutations (tmVar), species (SR4GN) and chemicals (tmChem). Although developed within the same group, each tool is designed to process input articles and output annotations in a different format. We modify these tools and enable them to read/write data in the proposed BioC format. We find that, using the BioC family of formats and functions, only minimal changes were required to build the newer versions of the tools. The resulting BioC wrapped toolkit, which we have named tmBioC, consists of our tools in BioC, an annotated full-text corpus in BioC, and a format detection and conversion tool. Furthermore, through participation in the 2013 BioCreative IV Interoperability Track, we empirically demonstrate that the tools in tmBioC can be more efficiently integrated with each other as well as with external tools: Our experimental results show that using BioC reduces >60% in lines of code for text-mining tool integration. The tmBioC toolkit

  5. The problem of bio-concepts: biopolitics, bio-economy and the political economy of nothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Kean

    2017-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies—and no doubt other fields—have increasingly drawn on Michel Foucault's concept of biopolitics to theorize a variety of new `bio-concepts'. While there might be some theoretical value in such exercises, many of these bio-concepts have simply replaced more rigorous—and therefore time-consuming—analytical work. This article provides a (sympathetic) critique of these various bio-concepts, especially as they are applied to the emerging `bio-economy'. In so doing, the article seeks to show that the analysis of the bio-economy could be better framed as a political economy of nothing. This has several implications for science education, which are raised in the article.

  6. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Transient Astrophysics Probe Team

    2018-01-01

    The Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP) is a wide-field multi-wavelength transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. The mission instruments include unique “Lobster-eye” imaging soft X-ray optics that allow a ~1600 deg2 FoV; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope; a 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of 8 NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP’s most exciting capability will be the observation of tens per year of X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes and neutron stars detected by LIGO/Virgo/KAGRA/LIGO-India, and possibly several per year X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays. TAP will also discover hundreds of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruption events, supernova shock breakouts, and Gamma-Ray Bursts from the epoch of reionization.

  7. Steerable Doppler transducer probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidel, H.F.; Greenwood, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    An ultrasonic diagnostic probe is described which is capable of performing ultrasonic imaging and Doppler measurement consisting of: a hollow case having an acoustic window which passes ultrasonic energy and including chamber means for containing fluid located within the hollow case and adjacent to a portion of the acoustic window; imaging transducer means, located in the hollow case and outside the fluid chamber means, and oriented to direct ultrasonic energy through the acoustic window toward an area which is to be imaged; Doppler transducer means, located in the hollow case within the fluid chamber means, and movably oriented to direct Doppler signals through the acoustic window toward the imaged area; means located within the fluid chamber means and externally controlled for controllably moving the Doppler transducer means to select one of a plurality of axes in the imaged area along which the Doppler signals are to be directed; and means, located external to the fluid chamber means and responsive to the means for moving, for providing an indication signal for identifying the selected axis

  8. Pakistan's Approach Towards Cem-Bio Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. A.; Iqbal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pakistan ratified the BWC and CWC as a non-possessive state at that time when international environment were fraught with uncertainties about Chem-Bio threat. The geographical location of Pakistan faces a serious multidimensional WMD threat which includes threat from, non-state actors and her neighbours especially after declaration of chemical weapons during process of ratification of CWC. Pakistan never pursued such chem-bio program with the aim to use it as a mean of deterrence in overall context of security policy and always encouraged any move regarding strengthening of national/international institutional efforts to counter potential misuse of chem-bio technology. Pakistan's position has consistently been positive, pragmatic and supportive. For better implementation of BWC and CWC in Pakistan, comprehensive policies have been formulated and National Authority has been established to work as National point of contact on CWC affairs. Pakistan CWC Act 2000, Pakistan Bio Safety Rules 2005 and Pakistan Export Control Act 2004 are the evidences of Pakistan's sincerity to the implementation of CWC and BWC. Pakistan has declared 15 industries involved with chemicals, out of which 06 have already been inspected by OPCW Inspectors. Pakistan has declared its national protective program and pursuing all possible measures to enhance the national capacity and potential to guard against chem-bio threats. Pakistan has proved that it is committed to the principles of disarmament, which could serve as confidence building measures and may help reducing distrust and regional tension.(author)

  9. Probing Bio-Nano Interactions between Blood Proteins and Monolayer-Stabilized Graphene Sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gan, Shiyu; Zhong, Lijie; Han, Dongxue

    2015-01-01

    Meeting proteins is regarded as the starting event for nanostructures to enter biological systems. Understanding their interactions is thus essential for a newly emerging field, nanomedicine. Chemically converted graphene (CCG) is a wonderful two-dimesional (2D) material for nanomedecine, but its...

  10. Fiber-Optic Bio-sniffer (Biochemical Gas Sensor) Using Reverse Reaction of Alcohol Dehydrogenase for Exhaled Acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iitani, Kenta; Chien, Po-Jen; Suzuki, Takuma; Toma, Koji; Arakawa, Takahiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2018-02-23

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) exhaled in breath have huge potential as indicators of diseases and metabolisms. Application of breath analysis for disease screening and metabolism assessment is expected since breath samples can be noninvasively collected and measured. In this research, a highly sensitive and selective biochemical gas sensor (bio-sniffer) for gaseous acetaldehyde (AcH) was developed. In the AcH bio-sniffer, a reverse reaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) was employed for reducing AcH to ethanol and simultaneously consuming a coenzyme, reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The concentration of AcH can be quantified by fluorescence detection of NADH that was consumed by reverse reaction of ADH. The AcH bio-sniffer was composed of an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) as an excitation light source, a photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a fluorescence detector, and an optical fiber probe, and these three components were connected with a bifurcated optical fiber. A gas-sensing region of the fiber probe was developed with a flow-cell and an ADH-immobilized membrane. In the experiment, after optimization of the enzyme reaction conditions, the selectivity and dynamic range of the AcH bio-sniffer were investigated. The AcH bio-sniffer showed a short measurement time (within 2 min) and a broad dynamic range for determination of gaseous AcH, 0.02-10 ppm, which encompassed a typical AcH concentration in exhaled breath (1.2-6.0 ppm). Also, the AcH bio-sniffer exhibited a high selectivity to gaseous AcH based on the specificity of ADH. The sensor outputs were observed only from AcH-contained standard gaseous samples. Finally, the AcH bio-sniffer was applied to measure the concentration of AcH in exhaled breath from healthy subjects after ingestion of alcohol. As a result, a significant difference of AcH concentration between subjects with different aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) phenotypes was observed. The AcH bio-sniffer can be

  11. Probing the Probes: Fitness Factors For Small Molecule Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Workman, Paul; Collins, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Chemical probes for interrogating biological processes are of considerable current interest. Cell permeable small molecule tools have a major role in facilitating the functional annotation of the human genome, understanding both physiological and pathological processes, and validating new molecular targets. To be valuable, chemical tools must satisfy necessary criteria and recent publications have suggested objective guidelines for what makes a useful chemical probe. Although recognizing that...

  12. Bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsens, Carolus; Rastogi, Sanjay; Dutch Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    The reported thin-film polymerization has been used as a screening method in order to find bio-based liquid crystalline polyesters with convenient melting temperatures for melt-processing purposes. An in depth study of the structural, morphological and chemical changes occurring during the ongoing polycondensation reactions of these polymers have been performed. Structural and conformational changes during polymerization for different compositions have been followed by time resolved X-ray and Infrared spectroscopy. In this study, bio-based monomers such as vanillic acid and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid are successfully incorporated in liquid crystalline polyesters and it is shown that bio-based liquid crystalline polymers with high aromatic content and convenient processing temperatures can be synthesized. Special thanks to the Dutch Polymer Institute for financial support

  13. Performance of bio fuels in diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez I, Manuel L; Prada V, Laura P

    2007-01-01

    This paper shows the preliminary results of pilot plant tests developed in oil catalytic hydrotreating process, where the crude palm oil or a mixture of crude palm oil and mineral diesel is treated with an injection of 99% pure hydrogen flux, in a fixed bed reactor at high pressures and temperatures, in a presence of Nickel Molybdenum catalyst supported on alumina bed. The main product of this process is a fuel (bio diesel) which has the same or better properties than the diesel obtained by petroleum refining. It has been made some performance fuel tests in diesel engine? with good results in terms of power, torque and fuel consumption, without any changes in engine configuration. Considering the characteristics of the Catalytic hydrotreated bio diesel compare to conventional diesel, both fuels have similar distillation range? however, bio diesel has better flash point, cetane index and thermal stability. Gas fuels (methane, ethane, and propane) CO 2 and water are the secondary products of the process.

  14. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  15. Bio-Manufacturing to market pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressen, Tiffaney [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    The Bio-Manufacturing to Market pilot project was a part of the AMJIAC, the Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge grant. This internship program set out to further define and enhance the talent pipeline from the University and local Community Colleges to startup culture in East Bay Area, provide undergraduate STEM students with opportunities outside academia, and provide startup companies with much needed talent. Over the 4 year period of performance, the Bio-Manufacturing to Market internship program sponsored 75 undergraduate STEM students who were able to spend anywhere from one to six semesters working with local Bay Area startup companies and DOE sponsored facilities/programs in the biotech, bio-manufacturing, and biomedical device fields.

  16. Equivalence and Discretisation in Bio-PEPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpin, Vashti; Hillston, Jane

    Bio-PEPA is a process algebra for modelling biological systems. An important aspect of Bio-PEPA is the ability it provides to discretise concentrations resulting in a smaller, more manageable state space. The discretisation is based on a step size which determines the size of each discrete level and also the maximum number of levels. This paper considers the relationship between two discretisations of the same Bio-PEPA model that differ only in the step size and hence the maximum number of levels, by using the idea of equivalence from concurrency and process algebra. We present a novel behavioural semantic equivalence, compression bisimulation, that equates two discretisations of the same model and we show that this equivalence is a congruence with respect to the synchronisation operator.

  17. Pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust: Characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralı, Uğur; Yavuzel, Nazan; Şensöz, Sevgi

    2016-12-01

    Slow pyrolysis of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) sawdust was performed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. The operational variables were as follows: pyrolysis temperature (400-600°C), heating rate (10-50°Cmin -1 ) and nitrogen flow rate (50-150cm 3 min -1 ). Physicochemical and thermogravimetric characterizations of hornbeam sawdust were performed. The characteristics of bio-oil and bio-char were analyzed on the basis of various spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, 1H NMR, SEM, BET. Higher heating value, density and kinematic viscosity of the bio-oil with maximum yield of 35.28% were 23.22MJkg -1 , 1289kgm -3 and 0.6mm 2 s -1 , respectively. The bio-oil with relatively high fuel potential can be obtained from the pyrolysis of the hornbeam sawdust and the bio-char with a calorific value of 32.88MJkg -1 is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications that also contributes to the preservation of the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  19. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  20. Probing oxygen consumption in epileptic brain slices with QDs-based FRET sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunfeng; Ingram, Justin; Schiff, Steven; Xu, Jian; Xiao, Min

    2011-02-01

    We developed ratiometric optical oxygen sensors to probe the oxygen consumption during epileptic events in rat brain slices. The oxygen sensors consist of the sensing part of phosphorescence dyes (Platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone) and reference part of nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs) embedded in polymer blends, with pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from NQDs to the oxygen sensitive dyes (OSDs). The ratiometric FRET sensors with fast temporal response and excellent bio-compatibility are suitable for real time quantitative dissolved oxygen (D.O.) probes in biological microenvironment. Coating the sensors onto the micro-pipettes, we performed simultaneous oxygen probes at pyramidal and oriens layers in rat hippocampal CA1. Different spatiotemporal patterns with maximum D.O. decreases of 9.9+/-1.1 mg/L and 4.9+/-0.7 mg/L during seizure events were observed in pyramidal and oriens layers, respectively.

  1. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ektessabi, A. M.

    1995-05-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α, Al 2O 3+α) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxyapatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate.

  2. Context Dependent Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    BioAmbients is a derivative of mobile ambients that has shown promise of describing interesting features of the behaviour of biological systems. The technical contribution of this paper is to extend the Flow Logic approach to static analysis with a couple of new techniques in order to give precise...... information about the behaviour of systems written in BioAmbients. Applying the development to a simple model of a cell releasing nutrients from food compunds we illustrate how the proposed analysis does indeed improve on previous efforts....

  3. State and parameter estimation in bio processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, M.; Roux, G.; Dahhou, B. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France)]|[Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    A major difficulty in monitoring and control of bio-processes is the lack of reliable and simple sensors for following the evolution of the main state variables and parameters such as biomass, substrate, product, growth rate, etc... In this article, an adaptive estimation algorithm is proposed to recover the state and parameters in bio-processes. This estimator utilizes the physical process model and the reference model approach. Experimentations concerning estimation of biomass and product concentrations and specific growth rate, during batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation processes are presented. The results show the performance of this adaptive estimation approach. (authors) 12 refs.

  4. Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Bio-engineering in the Baltic Sea – value of water quality improvements & risk perceptions Dr. Marianne Zandersen1 Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University Abstract The Baltic Sea is heavily eutrofied and the trend has gone from bad to worse. The hypoxic zone has increased about 4...... of the water column to the bottom waters/deepwater. The expected effects include a slowing down of the sediment release from the bottom and improvement of the possibilities for aerobic bacterial decomposition and over time for the establishment of fauna. The projects test a bio-engineered approach to speeding...

  5. Monitoring probe for groundwater flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, B.B.; Ballard, S.

    1994-08-23

    A monitoring probe for detecting groundwater migration is disclosed. The monitor features a cylinder made of a permeable membrane carrying an array of electrical conductivity sensors on its outer surface. The cylinder is filled with a fluid that has a conductivity different than the groundwater. The probe is placed in the ground at an area of interest to be monitored. The fluid, typically saltwater, diffuses through the permeable membrane into the groundwater. The flow of groundwater passing around the permeable membrane walls of the cylinder carries the conductive fluid in the same general direction and distorts the conductivity field measured by the sensors. The degree of distortion from top to bottom and around the probe is precisely related to the vertical and horizontal flow rates, respectively. The electrical conductivities measured by the sensors about the outer surface of the probe are analyzed to determine the rate and direction of the groundwater flow. 4 figs.

  6. A three dimensional probe positioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrator, T.; Sun, X.; Furno, I.; Dorf, L.; Lapenta, G.

    2008-01-01

    In order to sort out the physics that is important in many plasma experiments, data in three dimensions (3D) are becoming necessary. Access to the usual cylindrical vacuum vessel is typically restricted to radially or axially insertable probes that can pivot. The space that can be explored usually has significant restrictions either because probe travel must be along a travel path, or a 'wobbly' probe positioner requires one to map between a moveable coordinate system and a preferred laboratory coordinate system. This could for example introduce errors in measurements of vector quantities such as magnetic field or flow. We describe the design and implementation of a 3D probe positioner that slides in two dimensions on a double O-ring seal and radially inserts along the third dimension. The net result is that a 3D space can be explored in a laboratory Cartesian reference frame.

  7. Pneumatic probe with laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Improvements to upgrade the accuracy of Rotacon probes by a complete redesign of probe to include a Michelson interferometer to replace the existing long-range capacity transducer are described. This has resulted in a compact and interchangeable probe cartridge with a 3 μin. resolution and accuracy; the cartridge can be installed and replaced in the Rotacon gauge with the minimum of realignment, which should reduce our dependence on operator skill. In addition, the stylus contact force can be reduced to 750 mg for the contacting types, but an alternative feature, which we are still developing, will use a gas jet cushion in place of the stylus to provide a noncontacting version of the same basic probe cartridge. This device is very sensitive to external vibration effects because it is virtually frictionless

  8. PLA/Bio-PE blends: effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity rheological properties; Blendas de PLA / Bio-PE: efeito do teor de Bio-PE na cristalinidade e propriedades reologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Aylanna P.M. de; Agrawal, Pankaj; Cavalcanti, Shirley N.; Alves, Amanda M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de, E-mail: pankaj@ig.com.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Brito, Gustavo F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity and rheological properties of PLA/Bio-PE blend. The blends containing 05 and 15% of Bio-PE were prepared by extrusion followed by injection molding and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and rheological properties at low and high shear rates. XRD results indicated that the PLA present low crystallinity and this behavior was not changed with the addition of Bio-PE, regardless of Bio-PE content. Rheological properties results indicated that at low shear rates the viscosity of the PLA/Bio-PE increased with the increase in the Bio-PE content while at high shear rates the viscosities where almost similar, which may be ascribed to the orientation of Bio-PE particles in the flow direction or by the viscous dissipation. (author)

  9. Palladium catalyzed hydrogenation of bio-oils and organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Hart, Todd R [Kennewick, WA; Neuenschwander, Gary G [Burbank, WA

    2008-09-16

    The invention provides palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of bio-oils and certain organic compounds. Experimental results have shown unexpected and superior results for palladium-catalyzed hydrogenations of organic compounds typically found in bio-oils.

  10. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H. (Nestle Research Centre, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-06-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an {alpha}-{sup 32}P-labeled probe.

  11. DNA probe for lactobacillus delbrueckii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delley, M.; Mollet, B.; Hottinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    From a genomic DNA library of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, a clone was isolated which complements a leucine auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli strain (GE891). Subsequent analysis of the clone indicated that it could serve as a specific DNA probe. Dot-blot hybridizations with over 40 different Lactobacillus strains showed that this clone specifically recognized L. delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii, bulgaricus, and lactis. The sensitivity of the method was tested by using an α- 32 P-labeled probe

  12. DIGITAL CONTACT POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE PROBE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. U. Pantsialeyeu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the technique of analog contact potential difference probes well developed. Due to the influence of various parasitic factors, analog probes has substantial errors. The integration time for automatic CPD compensation should be at least several seconds to achieve high accuracy measurements. The speed and the accuracy are essential, for example, for Scanning Kelvin Probes. The purpose of this paper is to develop a digital contact potential difference probe, with a higher accuracy and speed of measurements as compared to analog probe. The digital probe made on base of 32-bit microprocessor with a Cortex M4 core. Measuring cycle consists of at least two successive determinations of the output signal amplitude at different compensation voltage generated by the microcontroller. It allows synchronizing of the generated oscillations and reading of the measuring signals. Data arrays processed in real time of the Digital Signal Processing by microprocessor. In this case is possible computation of the root mean square value or determination of the desired spectral line of the signal after fast Fourier transformation. Both methods permit eliminate of random noise and spurious harmonics. The method provides the digital contact potential difference probe operation in large signal mode and with a large signal/noise ratio. This eliminates the error associated with the zero signal finding. Also the integration time for automatic CPD compensation of the measured value is not necessary, which significantly reduces the measurement time and eliminates errors of compensation and DAC. In addition, the microcontroller could control the movement of the probe during scanning and transfer data to the host computer on interface USB, etc.

  13. All-natural bio-plastics using starch-betaglucan composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnelli, Domenico; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Giosafatto, Concetta Valeria L; Ogrodowicz, Natalia; Kruczała, Krzysztof; Mikkelsen, Mette S; Maigret, Jean-Eudes; Lourdin, Denis; Mortensen, Kell; Blennow, Andreas

    2017-09-15

    Grain polysaccharides represent potential valuable raw materials for next-generation advanced and environmentally friendly plastics. Thermoplastic starch (TPS) is processed using conventional plastic technology, such as casting, extrusion, and molding. However, to adapt the starch to specific functionalities chemical modifications or blending with synthetic polymers, such as polycaprolactone are required (e.g. Mater-Bi). As an alternative, all-natural and compostable bio-plastics can be produced by blending starch with other polysaccharides. In this study, we used a maize starch (ST) and an oat β-glucan (BG) composite system to produce bio-plastic prototype films. To optimize performing conditions, we investigated the full range of ST:BG ratios for the casting (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100 BG). The plasticizer used was glycerol. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) as a spin probe, showed that the composite films with high BG content had a flexible chemical environment. They showed decreased brittleness and improved cohesiveness with high stress and strain values at the break. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction displayed a decrease in crystallinity at high BG content. Our data show that the blending of starch with other natural polysaccharides is a noteworthy path to improve the functionality of all-natural polysaccharide bio-plastics systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective individual primary cell capture using locally bio-functionalized micropores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Solid-state micropores have been widely employed for 6 decades to recognize and size flowing unlabeled cells. However, the resistive-pulse technique presents limitations when the cells to be differentiated have overlapping dimension ranges such as B and T lymphocytes. An alternative approach would be to specifically capture cells by solid-state micropores. Here, the inner wall of 15-µm pores made in 10 µm-thick silicon membranes was covered with antibodies specific to cell surface proteins of B or T lymphocytes. The selective trapping of individual unlabeled cells in a bio-functionalized micropore makes them recognizable just using optical microscopy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We locally deposited oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN and ODN-conjugated antibody probes on the inner wall of the micropores by forming thin films of polypyrrole-ODN copolymers using contactless electro-functionalization. The trapping capabilities of the bio-functionalized micropores were validated using optical microscopy and the resistive-pulse technique by selectively capturing polystyrene microbeads coated with complementary ODN. B or T lymphocytes from a mouse splenocyte suspension were specifically immobilized on micropore walls functionalized with complementary ODN-conjugated antibodies targeting cell surface proteins. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed that locally bio-functionalized micropores can isolate target cells from a suspension during their translocation throughout the pore, including among cells of similar dimensions in complex mixtures.

  15. Diffraction-based BioCD biosensor for point-of-care diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, H.; Chang, C.; Savran, C.; Nolte, D.

    2018-02-01

    The BioCD platform technology uses spinning-disk interferometry to detect molecular binding to target molecular probes in biological samples. Interferometric configurations have included differential phase contrast and in-line quadrature detection. For the detection of extremely low analyte concentrations, nano- or microparticles can enhance the signal through background-free diffraction detection. Diffraction signal measurements on BioCD biosensors are achieved by forming gratings on a disc surface. The grating pattern was printed with biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA) and streptavidin coated beads were deployed. The diameter of the beads was 1 micron and strong protein bonding occurs between BSA and streptavidin-coated beads at the printed location. The wavelength for the protein binding detection was 635 nm. The periodic pattern on the disc amplified scattered light into the first-order diffraction position. The diffracted signal contains Mie scattering and a randomly-distributed-bead noise contributions. Variation of the grating pattern periodicity modulates the diffraction efficiency. To test multiple spatial frequencies within a single scan, we designed a fan-shaped grating to perform frequency filter multiplexing on a diffraction-based BioCD.

  16. Specificity tests of an oligonucleotide probe against food-outbreak salmonella for biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-H.; Horikawa, S.; Xi, J.; Wikle, H. C.; Barbaree, J. M.; Chin, B. A.

    2017-05-01

    Phage based magneto-elastic (ME) biosensors have been shown to be able to rapidly detect Salmonella in various food systems to serve food pathogen monitoring purposes. In this ME biosensor platform, the free-standing strip-shaped magneto-elastic sensor is the transducer and the phage probe that recognizes Salmonella in food serves as the bio-recognition element. According to Sorokulova et al. at 2005, a developed oligonucleotide probe E2 was reported to have high specificity to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. In the report, the specificity tests were focused in most of Enterobacterace groups outside of Salmonella family. Here, to understand the specificity of phage E2 to different Salmonella enterica serotypes within Salmonella Family, we further tested the specificity of the phage probe to thirty-two Salmonella serotypes that were present in the major foodborne outbreaks during the past ten years (according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The tests were conducted through an Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) format. This assay can mimic probe immobilized conditions on the magnetoelastic biosensor platform and also enable to study the binding specificity of oligonucleotide probes toward different Salmonella while avoiding phage/ sensor lot variations. Test results confirmed that this oligonucleotide probe E2 was high specific to Salmonella Typhimurium cells but showed cross reactivity to Salmonella Tennessee and four other serotypes among the thirty-two tested Salmonella serotypes.

  17. Bioenergy Status Document 2012; Statusdocument Bio-energie 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, M.; Schepers, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Bergsma, G.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    In addition to a review and characterisation of the current situation, the report contains an update on government policies on bio-energy and a review of the sources and sustainability of the biomass used in the Netherlands [Dutch] Het statusdocument bio-energie 2012 geeft de huidige status weer van bio-energie in Nederland, inclusief trends en verwachtingen voor de toekomst. Het doel van dit document is inzicht verstrekken in de ontwikkelingen van bio-energie, voor overheden en marktpartijen.

  18. A high brightness probe of polymer nanoparticles for biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sirong; Zhu, Jiarong; Li, Yaping; Feng, Liheng

    2018-03-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) with high brightness in long wavelength region were prepared by the nano-precipitation method. Based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) mechanism, the high brightness property of the CPNs was realized by four different emission polymers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displayed that the CPNs possessed a spherical structure and an average diameter of 75 nm. Analysis assays showed that the CPNs had excellent biocompatibility, good photostability and low cytotoxicity. The CPNs were bio-modified with a cell penetrating peptide (Tat, a targeted element) through covalent link. Based on the entire wave fluorescence emission, the functionalized CPNs1-4 can meet multichannel and high throughput assays in cell and organ imaging. The contribution of the work lies in not only providing a new way to obtain a high brightness imaging probe in long wavelength region, but also using targeted cell and organ imaging.

  19. Concilier cantine bio et agriculture locale, les voies possibles

    OpenAIRE

    Aubry, Christine

    2012-01-01

    revue en ligne; Les cantines bio peinent souvent à concilier produits bio et circuits courts. Face au risque de « dilution de l’esprit pionnier », des expériences récentes montrent que le recours à des intermédiaires dans la chaîne agroalimentaire peut constituer une voie de diffusion du bio dans les cantines.

  20. Sustainable bio-based materials: opportunities and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Research in the area of bio-based materials aims to achieve breakthroughs in bio-based materials development. A novel way is presented to organise bio-based materials research with a value chain approach in which sustainability research is integrated in the research program. This research approach

  1. Bio-diesel: A candidate for a Nigeria energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, T.; Dim, L. A.; Funtua, I. I.; Oladipo, M. O. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a review of bio-diesel development and economic potentials. The basics of biodiesel and its production technology are described. Attention is given to development potential, challenges and prospests of bio-diesel in Nigeria with ground facts on bio-diesel production feasibility in Nigeria highlighted.

  2. Challenges for bio-based products in sustainable value chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardon, L.; Lin, J.W.; De Groote, M.; Ragaert, K.; Kopecka, J.A.; Koster, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns studies related to strategic development of products in which bio-based plastics are or will be applied, referred to as bio-based products. The studies cover (1) current and potential benefits of bio-based products in extended value chains including activities after end-of-life of

  3. Application of bio-marker to study on tumor radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanfeng; Ding Guirong; Han Liangfu

    2001-01-01

    To definite tumor radiosensitivity is important for applying the schedules of individualization of patient radiotherapy. Many laboratories were carrying on the research which predict the tumor radiosensitivity with one bio-marker or/and multi-bio-marker in various levels. At present has not witnessed the specific bio-marker, but it provides an excellent model for predicting tumor radiosensitivity

  4. Boron brings big benefits to bio-based blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    The solution to the problems with bio-based lubrication can be approached by a combination of blending and additive strategies. However, many additives do not show efficacy when used in bio-based lubricants. Additive addition also lowers the bio-based content of the blend, which in turn limits the a...

  5. Upgrading biomass pyrolysis bio-oil to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a process that can convert woody biomass to a crude bio-oil (pyrolysis oil). However, some of these compounds : contribute to bio-oil shelf life instability and difficulty in refining. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the bio-o...

  6. PLA/Bio-PE blends: effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity rheological properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Aylanna P.M. de; Agrawal, Pankaj; Cavalcanti, Shirley N.; Alves, Amanda M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. de; Brito, Gustavo F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of the Bio-PE content on the crystallinity and rheological properties of PLA/Bio-PE blend. The blends containing 05 and 15% of Bio-PE were prepared by extrusion followed by injection molding and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and rheological properties at low and high shear rates. XRD results indicated that the PLA present low crystallinity and this behavior was not changed with the addition of Bio-PE, regardless of Bio-PE content. Rheological properties results indicated that at low shear rates the viscosity of the PLA/Bio-PE increased with the increase in the Bio-PE content while at high shear rates the viscosities where almost similar, which may be ascribed to the orientation of Bio-PE particles in the flow direction or by the viscous dissipation. (author)

  7. Bio-optofluidics and Bio-photonics: Programmable Phase Optics activities at DTU Fotonik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Palima, Darwin; Pedersen, Finn

    We present ongoing research and development activities for constructing a compact next generation BioPhotonics Workstation and a Bio-optofluidic Cell Sorter (cell-BOCS) for all-optical micromanipulation platforms utilizing low numerical aperture beam geometries. Unlike conventional high NA optical...... tweezers, the BioPhotonics workstation is e.g. capable of long range 3D manipulation. This enables a variety of biological studies such as manipulation of intricate microfabricated assemblies or for automated and parallel optofluidic cell sorting. To further reduce its overhead, we propose ways of making...... the BioPhotonics Workstation platform more photon efficient by studying the 3D distribution of the counter propagating beams and utilizing the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method for illuminating the applied spatial light modulators....

  8. Bio-politics Reflexes” or something about what happens with Bio-politics today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorella Manolache

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Under the pressure dictated by Western modernity movements, life finally enters within strategic (long term relationships circuit. The present study establishes that, bio-politics and bio-power denounces the paradigm of politicization of the biological life. Foucault’s late writings confirm the subordination of bio-politics to the technologies of power, which integrate / reduce life to biological continuity of the species, to the objectification of individual body or investigation of self-techniques, that would allow (beyond the corset of the institutional, the (re affirmation of subjectivity as a force or a form of resistance. The present reactivation of the bio model establishes that we cannot evade Foucault’s view, in which, the biology- meeting – politics confirms that, none of the terms no longer retains its original meaning.

  9. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Verchot, L.; Franken, Y.J.; Mathijs, E.; Singh, V.P.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied

  10. Immersive Protein Gaming for Bio Edutainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yiyu; Lu, Baifang; Zheng, Jianmin; Li, Lin

    2006-01-01

    Games have long been used as a tool for teaching important subject matter, from concept building to problem solving. Through fun learning, students may further develop their curiosities and interest in their study. This article addresses the issue of learning biomolecular structures by virtual reality gaming. A bio edutainment solution featuring…

  11. 2450-IJBCS-Article-Ridwane Bio Oure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    php/ijbcs http://indexmedicus.afro.who.int. Inventaire, structure morpho-métrique et importance des varans sacrés de. Kandi (Nord-Est Bénin). Ridwane BIO ..... Durant la saison des amours, les varans femelles s'accouplent avec plusieurs mâles.

  12. Spatial Analysis of BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Programming language technology can contribute to the development and understanding of Systems Biology by providing formal calculi for specifying and analysing the dynamic behaviour of biological systems. Our focus is on BioAmbients, a variation of the ambient calculi developed for modelling...

  13. Droplet microfluidics in (bio) chemical analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basova, E. Y.; Foret, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 1 (2015), s. 22-38 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP206/12/G014 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : droplet chemistry * bio analysis * microfluidics * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2015

  14. Bio Psycho Social Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, KM; van de Wiel, Henricus

    2017-01-01

    This book will assist the reader by providing individually tailored, high-quality bio-psycho-social care to patients with a wide range of problems within the fields of obstetrics, gynaecology, fertility, oncology, and sexology. Each chapter addresses a particular theme, issue, or situation in a

  15. Towards a Plant Bio-Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nichele, Stefano; Risi, Sebastian; Tufte, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    as a proof of concept that sensing capabilities of plants are a viable option for the development of plant bio-machines. Different future scenarios (some speculative) are discussed. The work herein is carried out as a collaboration between the EU project Flora Robotica and the EU project NASCENCE....

  16. Bio-ethanol production from waste potatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpimaa, S.; Kuokkanen, T., Lassi, U. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Chemistry (Finland)). email: toivo.kuokkanen@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    Ethanol can be used as an alternative fuel to gasoline. Bio-ethanol can be produced by fermentation from several renewable sources, such as from potatoes and corn. Globally, there is a growing interest for the production of ecologically sustainable bio-fuels. The target in the European Union is to compensate 5.75% of the fossil fuels which is used by traffic with biomass-based fuel by the year 2010 and 20% by the year 2020. The goal of United Nations climate conference in Bali is that industrial countries have to decrease total carbon dioxide effluents 30% by the year 2020. Potato-based bio-ethanol production utilizes waste potatoes as a raw material. Waste potatoes are produced as by-products in potato cultivation. The quality of waste potatoes is high enough for food production but the size is incorrect. In food potato industry a lot of solid potato mash is also formed which can be considered as raw material in bio-ethanol production

  17. Control Flow Analysis for BioAmbients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Priami, C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a static analysis for investigating properties of biological systems specified in BioAmbients. We exploit the control flow analysis to decode the bindings of variables induced by communications and to build a relation of the ambients that can interact with each other. We...... eventually apply our analysis to an example of gene regulation by positive feedback taken from the literature....

  18. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    eminent inorganic chemist, who suddenly passed away in Hyderabad on 21 March 2004. The topics covered in this special issue – porphyrin chemistry, supramolecular chemistry and photochemistry – were dear to. Prof Maiya's heart. In addition to his significant contributions to the field of bio-inorganic chemistry, Prof.

  19. Design of pyrolysis reactor for production of bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Andi; Alwi, Ratna Surya; Syarif, Takdir

    2017-05-01

    The residues from the wood industry are the main contributors to biomass waste in Indonesia. The conventional pyrolysis process, which needs a large energy as well as to produce various toxic chemical to the environment. Therefore, a pyrolysis unit on the laboratory scale was designed that can be a good alternative to achieve zero-waste and low energy cost. In this paper attempts to discuss design and system of pyrolysis reactor to produce bio-oil and bio-char simultaneously.

  20. IVVS probe mechanical concept design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.rossi@enea.it; Neri, Carlo; De Collibus, Mario Ferri; Mugnaini, Giampiero; Pollastrone, Fabio; Crescenzi, Fabio

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA designed, developed and tested a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS). • IVVS mechanical design has been revised from 2011 to 2013 to meet ITER requirements. • Main improvements are piezoceramic actuators and a step focus system. • Successful qualification activities validated the concept design for ITER environment. - Abstract: ENEA has been deeply involved in the design, development and testing of a laser based In Vessel Viewing System (IVVS) required for the inspection of ITER plasma-facing components. The IVVS probe shall be deployed into the vacuum vessel, providing high resolution images and metrology measurements to detect damages and possible erosion. ENEA already designed and manufactured an IVVS probe prototype based on a rad-hard concept and driven by commercial micro-step motors, which demonstrated satisfying viewing and metrology performances at room conditions. The probe sends a laser beam through a reflective rotating prism. By rotating the axes of the prism, the probe can scan all the environment points except those present in a shadow cone and the backscattered light signal is then processed to measure the intensity level (viewing) and the distance from the probe (metrology). During the last years, in order to meet all the ITER environmental conditions, such as high vacuum, gamma radiation lifetime dose up to 5 MGy, cumulative neutron fluence of about 2.3 × 10{sup 17} n/cm{sup 2}, temperature of 120 °C and magnetic field of 8 T, the probe mechanical design was significantly revised introducing a new actuating system based on piezo-ceramic actuators and improved with a new step focus system. The optical and mechanical schemes have been then modified and refined to meet also the geometrical constraints. The paper describes the mechanical concept design solutions adopted in order to fulfill IVVS probe functional performance requirements considering ITER working environment and geometrical constraints.

  1. Bio-oil and bio-char production from biomass and their structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Murat; Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe E.; Pütün, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    Energy demand is increasing day by day because of the rapid developments in the population, industrialization and urbanisation. Since, fossil fuels will be at the verge of getting extinct, researches are mostly focused on the renewable sources, such as biomass, in recent years. This paper provides an environmentally friendly process to convert waste biomass samples to bio-oil and bio-char by pyrolysis. For this purpose, pyrolysis characteristics of pomegranate peels under inert atmosphere were studied by using both TGA to analysis decomposition behaviour and a batch reactor to investigate product yields and properties. The properties of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated by different analytical techniques such as GC-MS, FT-IR, SEM, He pycnometry and elemental analysis. As a consequence, it is possible to obtain bio-oil, which has similar properties like petroleum hydrocarbons, and to obtain bio-char, which can be further used as a solid fuel or a carbonaceous adsorbent material via pyrolysis process. (full text)

  2. Development of production technology for bio diesel fuel and feasibility test of bio diesel engine (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Y.J.; Ju, U.S.; Park, Y.C. [National Kyung Sang University (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-02-01

    At the beginning of the 21 st century two urgent tasks which our global countries would face with could be the security of the alternative energy source as a preparation against the fossil energy exhaustion and the development of the clean energy source to protect the environment from pollution. The above two problems should be solved together. The bio diesel oil which is made by methylesterfication of bio oil has very low sulfur content than does the diesel oil. Therefore, there is a great possibility to solve the pollution problem caused by the exhaust gas from diesel engine vehicles. So, bio oil has been attracted with attentions as an alternative and clean energy source. Advanced countries began early to develop the bio diesel oil suitable to their respective conditions. Recently their production stage have reached to the commercial level partially. The sudden increase of energy demand followed by a rapid growth of industry and the serious situation about the environmental pollution caused by the exhaust has from diesel engine vehicles occupying 42% of distribution among all vehicles have called attention of our government to consider the importance of alternative and clean energy sources for the future on the national scale. This study is consisted of three main parts; - The development of production technology for bio diesel oil. - The development of the atomization improvement method and nozzle for high viscous vegetable oils. - Feasibility test of bio diesel engine. (author) 119 refs., 52 tabs., 88 figs.

  3. Alkaline phosphatase immobilization onto Bio-Gide(R) and Bio-Oss(R) for periodontal and bone regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Plachokova, A.S.; Geenen, C.; Meijer, G.J.; Walboomers, X.F.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) immobilization onto Bio-Gide((R)) in vitro, and to study the in vivo performance of ALP-enriched Bio-Gide((R)) and/or Bio-Oss((R)) with the purpose to enhance periodontal regeneration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alkaline phosphatase ALP was

  4. Entrained flow gasification of coal/bio-oil slurries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ping; Lin, Weigang; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2016-01-01

    Coal/bio-oil slurry (CBS) is a new partial green fuel for bio-oil utilization. CBS reacts with gasification agents at high temperatures and converts into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. This paper provides a feasibility study for the gasification of CBS in an atmospheric entrained flow reactor...... with steam/carbon ratio of 5, the syngas components are similar with that in equilibrium. A synergistic effect exists between coal and bio-oil in coal/bio-oil slurry gasification which might be caused by the catalysis effect of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals in bio-oil....

  5. Bio-methane via fast pyrolysis of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Görling, Martin; Larsson, Mårten; Alvfors, Per

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis gases can efficiently be upgraded to bio-methane. ► The integration can increase energy efficiency and provide a renewable vehicle fuel. ► The biomass to bio-methane conversion efficiency is 83% (HHV). ► The efficiency is higher compared to bio-methane produced via gasification. ► Competitive alternative to other alternatives of bio-oil upgrading. - Abstract: Bio-methane, a renewable vehicle fuel, is today produced by anaerobic digestion and a 2nd generation production route via gasification is under development. This paper proposes a poly-generation plant that produces bio-methane, bio-char and heat via fast pyrolysis of biomass. The energy and material flows for the fuel synthesis are calculated by process simulation in Aspen Plus®. The production of bio-methane and bio-char amounts to 15.5 MW and 3.7 MW, when the total inputs are 23 MW raw biomass and 1.39 MW electricity respectively (HHV basis). The results indicate an overall efficiency of 84% including high-temperature heat and the biomass to bio-methane yield amounts to 83% after allocation of the biomass input to the final products (HHV basis). The overall energy efficiency is higher for the suggested plant than for the gasification production route and is therefore a competitive route for bio-methane production

  6. Bio fuels. A comparative analysis; Biokraftstoffe. Eine vergleichende Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Norbert; Henke, Jan; Klepper, Gernot

    2009-07-01

    The market for bio fuels is subject to very high dynamics worldwide. Due to the extreme rise of the prices of raw materials as well as due to the retrogressive tax reductions for bio fuels in Germany one hardly invests in bio fuels. Substantial changes are experienced in the markets for fossil raw materials. The prices for agrarian raw material used in this contribution originate from the years 2006 and 2007. The effects of clearly higher oil prices on the bio fuel market are described. The investigation under consideration also deals with criteria of sustainability. The contribution of the individual bio fuels to the reduction of greenhouse gases is analyzed. The costs resulting from this are numerated. This enables a well-established comparison in which less representative bio fuels such as bio methane, BtL fuels and cellulose ethanol also are included.

  7. All-Fiber Raman Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunetti, Anna Chiara

    to perform real-time measurements with little or no sample preparation, Raman spectroscopy is now considered an invaluable analytical tool, finding application in several fields including medicine, defense and process control. When combined with fiber optics technology, Raman spectroscopy allows......The design and development of an all-in-fiber probe for Raman spectroscopy are presented in this Thesis. Raman spectroscopy is an optical technique able to probe a sample based on the inelastic scattering of monochromatic light. Due to its high specificity and reliability and to the possibility...... for the realization of flexible and minimally-invasive devices, able to reach remote or hardly accessible samples, and to perform in-situ analyses in hazardous environments. The work behind this Thesis focuses on the proof-of-principle demonstration of a truly in-fiber Raman probe, where all parts are realized...

  8. Gamma-ray imaging probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    External nuclear medicine diagnostic imaging of early primary and metastatic lung cancer tumors is difficult due to the poor sensitivity and resolution of existing gamma cameras. Nonimaging counting detectors used for internal tumor detection give ambiguous results because distant background variations are difficult to discriminate from neighboring tumor sites. This suggests that an internal imaging nuclear medicine probe, particularly an esophageal probe, may be advantageously used to detect small tumors because of the ability to discriminate against background variations and the capability to get close to sites neighboring the esophagus. The design, theory of operation, preliminary bench tests, characterization of noise behavior and optimization of such an imaging probe is the central theme of this work

  9. Spaser as a biological probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Weingold, Robert; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nolan, Jacqueline; Harrington, Walter; Kuchyanov, Alexander S.; Parkhomenko, Roman G.; Watanabe, Fumiya; Nima, Zeid; Biris, Alexandru S.; Plekhanov, Alexander I.; Stockman, Mark I.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2017-06-01

    Understanding cell biology greatly benefits from the development of advanced diagnostic probes. Here we introduce a 22-nm spaser (plasmonic nanolaser) with the ability to serve as a super-bright, water-soluble, biocompatible probe capable of generating stimulated emission directly inside living cells and animal tissues. We have demonstrated a lasing regime associated with the formation of a dynamic vapour nanobubble around the spaser that leads to giant spasing with emission intensity and spectral width >100 times brighter and 30-fold narrower, respectively, than for quantum dots. The absorption losses in the spaser enhance its multifunctionality, allowing for nanobubble-amplified photothermal and photoacoustic imaging and therapy. Furthermore, the silica spaser surface has been covalently functionalized with folic acid for molecular targeting of cancer cells. All these properties make a nanobubble spaser a promising multimodal, super-contrast, ultrafast cellular probe with a single-pulse nanosecond excitation for a variety of in vitro and in vivo biomedical applications.

  10. Radioactive Probes on Ferromagnetic Surfaces

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On the (broad) basis of our studies of nonmagnetic radioactive probe atoms on magnetic surfaces and at interfaces, we propose to investigate the magnetic interaction of magnetic probe atoms with their immediate environment, in particular of rare earth (RE) elements positioned on and in ferromagnetic surfaces. The preparation and analysis of the structural properties of such samples will be performed in the UHV chamber HYDRA at the HMI/Berlin. For the investigations of the magnetic properties of RE atoms on surfaces Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) measurements and Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS) in the UHV chamber ASPIC (Apparatus for Surface Physics and Interfaces at CERN) are proposed.

  11. Probing nuclear matter with dileptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-06-01

    Dileptons are shown to be of interest in helping probe extreme conditions of temperature and density in nuclear matter. The current state of experimental knowledge about dileptons is briefly described, and their use in upcoming experiments with light ions at CERN SPS are reviewed, including possible signatures of quark matter formation. Use of dileptons in an upcoming experiment with a new spectrometer at Berkeley is also discussed. This experiment will probe the nuclear matter equation of state at high temperature and density. 16 refs., 8 figs

  12. Advances in Bio-Imaging From Physics to Signal Understanding Issues State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Racoceanu, Daniel; Gouaillard, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Imaging Devices and Image processing stem from cross-fertilization between many fields of research such as Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences. This BioImaging Community feel the urge to integrate more intensively its various results, discoveries and innovation into ready to use tools that can address all the new exciting challenges that Life Scientists (Biologists, Medical doctors, ...) keep providing, almost on a daily basis. Devising innovative chemical probes, for example, is an archetypal goal in which image quality improvement must be driven by the physics of acquisition, the image processing and analysis algorithms and the chemical skills in order to design an optimal bioprobe. This book offers an overview of the current advances in many research fields related to bioimaging and highlights the current limitations that would need to be addressed in the next decade to design fully integrated BioImaging Device.

  13. Clinical and radiographic evaluation of Bio-Gen with biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of class II furcation defects: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niloofar Jenabian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Treatment of furcation defects are thought to be challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic parameters of Bio-Gen with Biocollagen compared with Bio-Gen with connective tissue in the treatment of Class II furcation defects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this clinical trial, 24 patients with Class II furcation defect on a buccal or lingual mandibular molar were recruited. After oral hygiene instruction, scaling and root planing and achievement of acceptable plaque control, the patients were randomly chosen to receive either connective tissue and Bio-Gen (case group or Biocollagen and Bio-Gen (control group. The following parameters were recorded before the first and re-entry surgery (six months later: vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL, gingival index (GI, plaque index (PI, horizontal probing depth (HPD, vertical probing depth (VPD, gingival recession (GR, furcation vertical component (FVC, furcation to alveolar crest (FAC, fornix to base of defect (FBD, and furcation horizontal component (FHC were calculated at the time of first surgery and during re-entry. A digital periapical radiograph was taken in parallel before first surgery and re-entry. The radiographs were then analyzed by digital subtraction. The differences with p value <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Only the mean changes of FAC, FHC, mean of FHC, FBD in re-entry revealed statistically significant differences between the two groups. HPD, VPD, FBD, FAC, and FHC showed statistically significant differences after 6 months in the case group. However, in the control group, statistically significant differences were found in GR and HPD. We did not observe any significant difference in radiographic changes among the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this trial indicate that better clinical outcomes can be obtained with connective tissue grafts in combination with bone material compared with a resorbable barrier with bone

  14. Ion beam processing of bio-ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ektessabi, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Thin films of bio-inert (TiO 2+α , Al 2 O 3+α ) and bio-active (compounds of calcium and phosphorus oxides, hydroxy-apatite) were deposited on the most commonly used implant materials such as titanium and stainless steel, using a dual-ion-beam deposition system. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was carried out for quantitative measurement of the interfacial atomic mixing and the composition of the elements. The experimental results show that by controlling the ion beam energy and current, thin films with very good mechanical properties are obtained as a result of the ion beam mixing within the film and at the interface of the film and substrate. (orig.)

  15. High performance bio-integrated devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Lee, Jongha; Park, Minjoon

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, personalized electronics for medical applications, particularly, have attracted much attention with the rise of smartphones because the coupling of such devices and smartphones enables the continuous health-monitoring in patients' daily life. Especially, it is expected that the high performance biomedical electronics integrated with the human body can open new opportunities in the ubiquitous healthcare. However, the mechanical and geometrical constraints inherent in all standard forms of high performance rigid wafer-based electronics raise unique integration challenges with biotic entities. Here, we describe materials and design constructs for high performance skin-mountable bio-integrated electronic devices, which incorporate arrays of single crystalline inorganic nanomembranes. The resulting electronic devices include flexible and stretchable electrophysiology electrodes and sensors coupled with active electronic components. These advances in bio-integrated systems create new directions in the personalized health monitoring and/or human-machine interfaces.

  16. Bio-fuels: European Communities fiscal initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrand, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the influence that European Communities fiscal policies have had in the past on the development of more environmentally compatible fuels such as unleaded gasoline. It then discusses which directions fiscal policy makers should take in order to create appropriate financial incentives encouraging the production and use of biomass derived fuels - methanol, ethanol and pure and transesterified vegetable oils. An assessment is made of the efficacy of a recent European Communities proposal which calls for the application of excise tax reductions on bio-fuels. Attention is given to the net effects due to reduced sulfur and carbon dioxide emissions characterizing bio-fuels and the increased use of fertilizers necessary to produce biomass fuels

  17. Rethinking Value in the Bio-economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Current debates in science and technology studies emphasize that the bio-economy—or, the articulation of capitalism and biotechnology—is built on notions of commodity production, commodification, and materiality, emphasizing that it is possible to derive value from body parts, molecular and cellular tissues, biological processes, and so on. What is missing from these perspectives, however, is consideration of the political-economic actors, knowledges, and practices involved in the creation and management of value. As part of a rethinking of value in the bio-economy, this article analyzes three key political-economic processes: financialization, capitalization, and assetization. In doing so, it argues that value is managed as part of a series of valuation practices, it is not inherent in biological materialities. PMID:28458406

  18. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references). This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  19. Feasibility Study for BioLEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Ghithan, S.; Schuh, S.

    2017-01-01

    The biomedical community asked CERN to investigate the possibility to transform the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) accelerator into a multidisciplinary, biomedical research facil- ity (BioLEIR) that could provide ample, high-quality beams of a range of light ions suitable for clinically oriented fundamental research on cell cultures and for radiation instrumenta- tion development. BioLEIR would be operated when LEIR is not providing heavy ions for the CERN physics programme. The study group was mandated to write a Feasibility Study Report, using high-level engineering estimates based on previous experience, with the aim to: – collect the requirements for such a facility from the biomedical community in close collaboration with the International Strategy Committee for CERN Medical Applica- tions; – determine a coherent set of beam parameters, based on the requirements; – explore whether the beam requirements can be met throughout the facility, from the source to the biomedical end-stations; – perf...

  20. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  1. The White Paper on bio-methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint Jouan, Cedric de

    2016-01-01

    After a presentation of the France Biomethane think tank, this publication indicates its main proposals for the development of the bio-methane sector. Then, it details these proposals which are classified under three main axes: to facilitate the procurement of administrative authorisations and plant exploitation, to strengthen the confidence of financial actors in order to facilitate the achievement of installations, and to promote the use of biomethane as biofuel

  2. Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, August 1993). 11 Jim Monke , Agroterrorism...Six Legs,” The Boston Globe, October 21, 2007. 15 Monke . 50 Bio-inspired innovation and national security1 BioloGical WarFare: a WarFiGHtinG...Scientists and Tibetan Buddhists Examine Human Nature (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). 50 L. Tickle-Degnan and R. Rosenthal, “The Nature of

  3. Panorama 2011: Water and bio-fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorne, D.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, water is seen as a major sustainability criterion for bio-energies. Although the biofuels being produced by food crops are subject to the same risks as the farming sector as far as water resources are concerned, future sectors have a significant potential to reduce these risks, and this potential needs to be better understood in order for biofuels as a resource and their related technologies to develop properly. (authors)

  4. Environmental Bio Economic Impact in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Orozco, Napoleón Vicente; Zuniga Gonzalez, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article the Bio economy of power plants connected to the national interconnected system of Nicaragua is analyzed, through the study of environmental effects of greenhouse gases emissions from the use of solid biomass from sugarcane bagasse and oil to generate electricity. In addition, an analysis of Cost - Benefit of investments to the electricity generation using fossil fuel and bagasse is done. The Methodology EX-Ante Carbon-balance Tool (EX-ACT) was used; this methodology was propo...

  5. Potential of Bio-Enhanced DNAPL Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J. M.; Kitanidis, P. K.; McCarty, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    DNAPL contamination is one of most challenging environmental problems. According to EPA's estimation, the total number of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) impacted sites in the U.S. could range from 15,000 to 25,000. It has been generally believed that promoting biological reactions that transform contaminants in DNAPL source zones can increase mass transfer rates, thereby shortening source longevity and total cleanup time. Use of bioremediation to enhance residual DNAPL dissolution, therefore, has potential as an economical and effective approach to accelerate DNAPL cleanup. While promising, some biological processes, such as biomass growth and gas production (CO2 and CH4), may occur together with biodegradation in source zones and adversely affect dissolution enhancement. In addition, the toxic effects of DNAPL compounds and transformation products produced by microorganisms may also adversely affect microbial activity and the extent of the bio-active zones. An understanding of how such factors control the efficiency of bio-enhanced dissolution is of great importance in helping to predict the potential benefits of DNAPL bioremediation. In this presentation, we will integrate the results of experimental and theoretical studies over the past six years on bio-enhanced tetrachloroethene (PCE) DNAPL dissolution to illustrate the effects on dissolution enhancement. Specifically, we will discuss the significance of our theoretical work on: (1) how biomass accumulation can affect dissolution enhancement for a PCE DNAPL pool and (2) the evolution of a bio-active zone in a residual DNAPL area under the influence of DNAPL toxicity. In addition, we will show the interplay between various groups of microorganisms within and around PCE DNAPL source zones as well as how our experimental work can help better understand the toxic effects of PCE and its transformation products on the activity of PCE dehalogenating bacteria. Finally, the presentation will highlight

  6. ¿Bioética latinoamericana o bioética en Latinoamérica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de la Bioética en Latinoamérica ha enfrentado un problema que la Filosofía afrontó hacia mediados del siglo XX: la originalidad de pensamiento. En el trabajo se recuerdan la visión pesimista de Salazar Bondy y la optimista de Zea respecto a la filosofía, como marco antecedente para presentar posturas contemporáneas optimistas y pesimistas en relación con una "Bioética latinoamericana". Se destacan paralelismos entre filósofos pesimistas y bioeticistas pesimistas a través de metáforas como el trasplante de ideas. Posteriormente se hace un recorrido sobre los estudios sociales de la ciencia y algunas extensiones que podrían hacerse hacia la Filosofía y la Bioética. Se finaliza considerando que no hay una propuesta "autóctona" de "Bioética latinoamericana", y que lo que realmente puede elaborarse es una "Bioética en Latinoamérica".

  7. Utilization of palm oil sludge through pyrolysis for bio-oil and bio-char production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Al-Nadheri, Wail Mohammed Ahmed; Jegarajan, Dinesh; Sahu, J N; Mubarak, N M; Nizamuddin, S

    2015-02-01

    In this study, pyrolysis technique was utilized for converting palm oil sludge to value added materials: bio-oil (liquid fuel) and bio-char (soil amendment). The bio-oil yield obtained was 27.4±1.7 wt.% having a heating value of 22.2±3.7 MJ/kg and a negligible ash content of 0.23±0.01 wt.%. The pH of bio-oil was in alkaline region. The bio-char yielded 49.9±0.3 wt.%, which was further investigated for sorption efficiency by adsorbing metal (Cd(2+) ions) from water. The removal efficiency of Cd(2+) was 89.4±2%, which was almost similar to the removal efficiency of a commercial activated carbon. The adsorption isotherm was well described by Langmuir model. Therefore, pyrolysis is proved as an efficient tool for palm oil sludge management, where the waste was converted into valuable products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chitosan: An undisputed bio-fabrication material for tissue engineering and bio-sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Anupriya; Kumar, Ashutosh; Priyadharshini, A; Oggu, Gopi Suresh; Bhatnagar, Ira; Srivastava, Ananya; Chandra, Pranjal

    2018-04-15

    Biopolymers have been serving the mankind in various ways since long. Over the last few years, these polymers have found great demand in various domains which includes bio medicine, tissue engineering, bio sensor fabrications etc. because of their excellent bio compatibility. In this context, chitosan has found global attention due to its environmentally benign nature, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and ease of availability. In last one decade or so, extensive research in active biomaterials, like chitosan has led to the development of novel delivery systems for drugs, genes, and biomolecules; and regenerative medicine. Additionally, chitosan has also witnessed its usage in functionalization of biocompatible materials, nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, and immobilization of various bio-recognition elements (BREs) to form active bio-surfaces with great ease. Keeping these aspects in mind, we have written a comprehensive review which aims to acquaint its readers with the exceptional properties of chitosan and its usage in the domain of biomedicine, tissue engineering, and biosensor fabrication. Herein, we have briefly explained various aspects of direct utilization of chitosan and then presented vivid strategies towards formulation of chitosan based nanocomposites for biomedicine, tissue engineering, and biosensing applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nano technologies for Biosensor and Bio chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.M.; Park, T.J.; Paskaleva, E.E.; Sun, F.; Seo, J.W.; Mehta, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    The bio sensing devices are characterized by their biological receptors, which have specificity to their corresponding analytes. These analytes are a vast and diverse group of biological molecules, DNAs, proteins (such as antibodies), fatty acids, or entire biological systems, such as pathogenic bacteria, viruses, cancerous cells, or other living organisms. A main challenge in the development of biosensor applications is the efficient recognition of a biological signal in a low signal-to-noise ratio environment, and its transduction into an electrochemical, optical, or other signals. The advent of nano material technology greatly increased the potential for achieving exquisite sensitivity of such devises, due to the innate high surface-to-volume ratio and high reactivity of the nano material. The second major challenge facing the biosensor application, that of sca lability, is addressed by multiplexing and miniaturizing of the biosensor devises into a bio chip. In recent years, biosensor and bio chip technologies have made significant progress by taking advantages of diverse kinds of nano materials that are derived from nano technology

  10. Bio-diesel fuels production: Feasibility studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabasso, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the efforts being made by Italy's national government and private industry to develop diesel engine fuels derived from vegetable oils, in particular, sunflower seed oil. These fuels are being promoted in Italy from the environmental protection stand-point in that they don't contain any sulfur, the main cause of acid rain, and from the agricultural stand-point in that they provide Italian farmers, whose food crop production capacity is limited due to European Communities agreements, with the opportunity to use their set-aside land for the production of energy crops. This paper provides brief notes on the key performance characteristics of bio-diesel fuels, whose application doesn't require any modifications to diesel engines, apart from minor adjustments to the air/fuel mix regulating system, and assesses commercialization prospects. Brief mention is made of the problems being encountered by the Government in the establishing fair bio-fuel production tax rebates which are compatible with the marketing practices of the petroleum industry. One of the strategies being considered is to use the bio-fuels as additives to be mixed with conventional fuel oils so as to derive a fuel which meets the new European air pollution standards

  11. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  12. Bio-fuels are not so green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarchand, F.

    2007-01-01

    Today there is an unrelenting trend for bio-fuels but some scientists question their utility. Some surveys show that the environmental balance sheet for bio-fuels is strongly positive for instance it is assessed that the production of 1 MJ of ethanol from beet roots of wheat requires only 0.49 MJ of fossil energy, interesting figure when compared to the 1.14 MJ of fossil energy needed to produce 1 MJ of gasoline. Other studies are less optimistic, all depends strongly on the basic data used and on the approach followed. Some scientists wonder whether all the pollutants generated in the transformation processes are well taken into account. In fact the environment benefit of the first generation of bio-fuels is mild because scientists do not know how to use efficiently the wood-cellulose by-products of plants. There is a notably exception to that, it is the sugar cane in Brazil, this plant has a good energy conversion rate and its by-products are completely and efficiently used in industry. A way to valorize cellulose by-products is to transform them in ethanol and hydrogen through the use of mushroom enzymes. (A.C.)

  13. Bio-Based Coatings for Paper Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhore Kumar Rastogi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The barrier resistance and wettability of papers are commonly controlled by the application of petroleum-based derivatives such as polyethylene, waxes and/or fluor- derivatives as coating. While surface hydrophobicity is improved by employing these polymers, they have become disfavored due to limitations in fossil-oil resources, poor recyclability, and environmental concerns on generated waste with lack of biodegradation. Alternatively, biopolymers including polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and polyesters can be used to formulate new pathways for fully bio-based paper coatings. However, difficulties in processing of most biopolymers may arise due to hydrophilicity, crystallization behavior, brittleness or melt instabilities that hinder a full exploitation at industrial scale. Therefore, blending with other biopolymers, plasticizers and compatibilizers is advantageous to improve the coating performance. In this paper, an overview of barrier properties and processing of bio-based polymers and their composites as paper coating will be discussed. In particular, recent technical advances in nanotechnological routes for bio-based nano- composite coatings will be summarized, including the use of biopolymer nanoparticles, or nanofillers such as nanoclay and nanocellulose. The combination of biopolymers along with surface modification of nanofillers can be used to create hierarchical structures that enhance hydrophobicity, complete barrier protection and functionalities of coated papers.

  14. Bio-Oil dari Limbah Padat Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Saputra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar minyak merupakan sumber energi terpenting untuk kehidupan manusia. Produksi bahan bakar minyak yang berasal dari bahan bakar fosil semakin hari semakin menurun. Untuk itu diperlukan suatu alternatif sumber energi yang dapat diperbaharui dalam menggantikan bahan bakar fosil, salah satunya adalah mengkonversikan biomas menjadi biooil. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan limbah padat sawit, yaitu batang dan tandan kosong sawit dengan ukuran partikel 2-6 dan 6-10 mesh. Proses yang digunakan untuk mengkonversikan limbah padat sawit pada penelitian ini yaitu slow pyrolysis. Proses ini dilakukan pada reaktor pipa stainless steel dengan diameter 3,81 cm dan panjang 60 cm, pada kisaran temperatur 450-600oC yang dialiri gas nitrogen. Hasil yield tertinggi dicapai pada suhu 500oC dengan diameter partikel 2-6 mesh. Produk bio-oil dilakukan analisa dengan menggunakan GC HP 5890 II. Pada produk bio-oil juga teridentifikasi adanya etanol, benzena, toluena dan xylen. Kata kunci: bio-oil, limbah padat sawit, pyrolysis

  15. SUB-SLAB PROBE INSTALLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sub-slab sampling has become an integral part of vapor intrusion investigations. It is now recommended in guidance documents developed by EPA and most states. A method for sub-slab probe installation was devised in 2002, presented at conferences through 2005, and finally docume...

  16. Resolution analysis by random probing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, Andreas; van Leeuwen, T.

    2015-01-01

    We develop and apply methods for resolution analysis in tomography, based on stochastic probing of the Hessian or resolution operators. Key properties of our methods are (i) low algorithmic complexity and easy implementation, (ii) applicability to any tomographic technique, including full‐waveform

  17. Seismic probing of Fennoscandian lithosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, G.; Achauer, U.; Alinaghi, A.; Ansorge, J.; Bruneton, M.; Friederich, W.; Grad, M.; Guterch, A.; Hjelt, S. E.; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 50 (2001), s. 621, 628-629 ISSN 0096-3941 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3012908 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : seismic probing * lithosphere * Fennoscandia * SVEKALAPKO * Europrobe Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  18. [Bio-oil production from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dengxiang; Cai, Tengyue; Ai, Ning; Yu, Fengwen; Jiang, Hongtao; Ji, Jianbing

    2011-03-01

    In order to investigate the effects of pyrolysis conditions on bio-oil production from biomass in molten salt, experiments of biomass pyrolysis were carried out in a self-designed reactor in which the molten salt ZnCl2-KCl (with mole ratio 7/6) was selected as heat carrier, catalyst and dispersion agent. The effects of metal salt added into ZnCl2-KCl and biomass material on biomass pyrolysis were discussed, and the main compositions of bio-oil were determined by GC-MS. Metal salt added into molten salt could affect pyrolysis production yields remarkably. Lanthanon salt could enhance bio-oil yield and decrease water content in bio-oil, when mole fraction of 5.0% LaCl3 was added, bio-oil yield could reach up to 32.0%, and water content of bio-oil could reduce to 61.5%. The bio-oil and char yields were higher when rice straw was pyrolysed, while gas yield was higher when rice husk was used. Metal salts showed great selectivity on compositions of bio-oil. LiCl and FeCl2 promoted biomass to pyrolyse into smaller molecular weight compounds. CrCl3, CaCl2 and LaCl3 could restrain second pyrolysis of bio-oil. The research provided a scientific reference for production of bio-oil from biomass pyrolysis in molten salt.

  19. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  20. Unraveling Dutch citizens' perceptions on the bio-based economy : The case of bioplastics, bio-jetfuels and small-scale bio-refineries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, Durwin H J; Klaassen, Pim; Broerse, Jacqueline E W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about how citizens perceive the transition towards a bio-based economy (BBE), despite the fact that they are one of the most important actors in this transition. Citizens' perceptions of bio-based innovations can support policy-makers to improve the quality of decision-making and the

  1. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, M.; Habib, U.; Khan, A.U.; Rehman, Z.U.; Zeb, A.; Moeed, A.; Pasha, M.K.; Memon, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG). Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 Degree C at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG), Elemental Analyzer (E.A) and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV) largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis) spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 Degree C (53 and 37wt percentage bio-oil from wheat and barley SG). Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460 Degree C, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals. (author)

  2. Bio-Chemicals Derived from Waste: Building on the Concept of a Bio-Refinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddasar Habib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here has looked into the thermal-conversion of wheat and barley spent grains (SG. Wheat fermentation was carried in the laboratory to get a mashed product while barley grain residues were sourced from a local brewing company. Pyrolysis carried at 460, 520 and 540 oC at ambient conditions of pressure in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor resulted in producing bio-oil, charcoal and non-condensable gases. These products were characterized by using the Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS, Differential Thermo-glavemetric Analysis (DTG, Elemental Analyzer (E.A and a Bomb Calorimeter. The final pyrolysis product analysis revealed that the bio-oil production yields and Higher Heating Value (HHV largely depended on the pyrolysis temperature and the sample type. In comparison with original raw grain samples, the analysis of thermally treated (pyrolysis spent grains revealed the presence of high carbon and low oxygen contents. Results gathered in this work have shown that high bio-crude-oil production yields can be obtained at 520 oC (53 and 37wt% bio-oil from wheat and barley SG. Pyrolysis of wheat and barley SG resulted in giving a Higher Heating Value (HHV of 21.80 and 21.86 MJ/kg at 540 and 460oC, which is considerably more in comparison to their virgin counterparts. This suggested route thus has a potential for further up-gradation of waste bio-mass for use as an intermediate fuel or as a raw material source for producing other bio-chemicals.

  3. Limits to the potential of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearman, Graeme I.

    2013-01-01

    This document examines bio-physical limits of bio-fuels and bio-sequestration of carbon by examining available solar radiation and observed efficiencies with which natural ecosystems and agricultural systems convert that energy to biomass. It compares these energy/carbon exchanges with national levels of energy use and carbon emissions for Australia, Brazil, China, Japan, Republic of Korea, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States. Globally primary energy consumption (related carbon emissions) is currently equivalent to ∼0.06% of the incident solar energy, and 43% of the energy (carbon) captured by photosynthesis. The nations fall into three categories. Those with primary energy consumption that is: 1–10% (Japan, Korea and Singapore); ∼0.1% (China, UK and the US) and; 0.1–0.01% (Australia, Brazil, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Sweden) of incident solar radiation. The percentage of energy captured in biomass follows this pattern, but generally lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. The energy content of traded wheat, corn and rice represents conversion efficiencies of solar radiation of 0.08–0.17% and for sugar close to 1%, ignoring energy use in production and conversion of biomass to fuels. The study implies that bio-fuels or bio-sequestration can only be a small part of an inclusive portfolio of actions towards a low carbon future and minimised net emissions of carbon to the atmosphere. - Highlights: • Global energy consumption is ∼0.06% of solar; 43% of net primary production. • 11 nations studied fall into 3 groups: consumption/solar=1–10%; ∼0.1%; 0.1–0.01%. • % of energy captured in biomass is lower by ∼3 orders of magnitude. • Crops and natural ecosystems capture 0.1–0.3% and sugar 1% of solar energy. • Significant bio-energy/carbon sequestration via biomass is unrealistic

  4. Optimizing Clinical Drug Product Performance: Applying Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Paul A; Kesisoglou, Filippos; Flanagan, Talia; Martinez, Marilyn N; Mistry, Hitesh B; Crison, John R; Polli, James E; Cruañes, Maria T; Serajuddin, Abu T M; Müllertz, Anette; Cook, Jack A; Selen, Arzu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of Biopharmaceutics Risk Assessment Roadmap (BioRAM) and the BioRAM Scoring Grid is to facilitate optimization of clinical performance of drug products. BioRAM strategy relies on therapy-driven drug delivery and follows an integrated systems approach for formulating and addressing critical questions and decision-making (J Pharm Sci. 2014,103(11): 3777-97). In BioRAM, risk is defined as not achieving the intended in vivo drug product performance, and success is assessed by time to decision-making and action. Emphasis on time to decision-making and time to action highlights the value of well-formulated critical questions and well-designed and conducted integrated studies. This commentary describes and illustrates application of the BioRAM Scoring Grid, a companion to the BioRAM strategy, which guides implementation of such an integrated strategy encompassing 12 critical areas and 6 assessment stages. Application of the BioRAM Scoring Grid is illustrated using published literature. Organizational considerations for implementing BioRAM strategy, including the interactions, function, and skillsets of the BioRAM group members, are also reviewed. As a creative and innovative systems approach, we believe that BioRAM is going to have a broad-reaching impact, influencing drug development and leading to unique collaborations influencing how we learn, and leverage and share knowledge. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...... of complex terms appearing in the text sources. Along with logical propositions, the system applies a semantic graph representation facilitating calculation of bio-pathways. More generally, the system aords means of query answering appealing to general and domain specic inference rules....

  6. Bio aerosol Generation at wastewater treatment plants: Identification of main bio aerosols sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Monedero, M. A.; Aguilar, M. I.; Fenoll, R.; Roig, A.

    2009-01-01

    Typical operations taking place at wastewater treatment plants, especially those involving aeration and mechanical agitation of raw wastewater, represent one of the main sources of bio aerosols that, if inhaled, could pose a biologic hazard to site workers and local residents. Six different wastewater treatment plants from southeast Spain were monitories in order to identify the main bio aerosol sources and to evaluate the airborne microorganisms levels to which workers may be exposed to. Air samples were taken from selected locations by using a single stage impactor. (Author)

  7. BioRuby: bioinformatics software for the Ruby programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Naohisa; Prins, Pjotr; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Bonnal, Raoul; Aerts, Jan; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2010-10-15

    The BioRuby software toolkit contains a comprehensive set of free development tools and libraries for bioinformatics and molecular biology, written in the Ruby programming language. BioRuby has components for sequence analysis, pathway analysis, protein modelling and phylogenetic analysis; it supports many widely used data formats and provides easy access to databases, external programs and public web services, including BLAST, KEGG, GenBank, MEDLINE and GO. BioRuby comes with a tutorial, documentation and an interactive environment, which can be used in the shell, and in the web browser. BioRuby is free and open source software, made available under the Ruby license. BioRuby runs on all platforms that support Ruby, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. And, with JRuby, BioRuby runs on the Java Virtual Machine. The source code is available from http://www.bioruby.org/. katayama@bioruby.org

  8. Bio diesel- the Clean, Green Fuel for Diesel Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkareish, S.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Natural, renewable resources such as vegetable oils, animal fats and recycled restaurant greases can be chemically transformed into clean burning bio diesel fuels (1). Just like petroleum diesel, bio diesel operates in combustion-ignition engines. Blends of up to 20% bio diesel (mixed with petroleum diesel fuels) can be used in nearly all diesel equipment and are compatible with most storage and distribution equipment. Using bio diesel in a conventional diesel engine substantially reduces emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulphates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. The use of bio diesel has grown dramatically during the last few years. Egypt has a promising experiment in promoting forestation by cultivation of Jatropha plant especially in luxor and many other sites of the country. The first production of the Egyptian Jatropha seeds oil is now under evaluation to produce a cost-competitive bio diesel fuel

  9. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2013-04-30

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  10. Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

    2014-04-29

    A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

  11. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal...... muscles of rats. Light microscopic evaluation revealed no osteoinduction or osteoconduction in connection with sintered or unsintered Bio-Oss. A foreign body reaction was observed around both forms....

  12. INVESTIGATIONS ON SEWAGE TREATMENT PROCESS USING COMBINED BIO-OXIDIZERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Jaromsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations on process of aerobic waste water treatment with combined bio-oxidizers at milk processing enterprises. It has been shown that attached biocenosis, free-floating biocenosis and also bio-module rotation frequency  have exerted a significant influence on the process of an aerobic sewage treatment. It has been established that combined bio-oxidizers can be used for cleaning high concentrated waste water at the enterprises of food industry.

  13. Upgrading of bio-oil via acid-catalyzed reactions in alcohols : a mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Gunawan, R.; Mourant, D.; Mahmudul Hasan, M.D.; Wu, L.; Song, Y.; Lievens, C.; Li, C.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Bio-oil is a condensable liquid produced from the pyrolysis of biomass, which can be upgraded to biofuels. Bio-oil is corrosive as it contains significant amounts of carboxylic acids, creating difficulties in handling of bio-oil and applications of bio-oil. Acid-treatment of bio-oil in alcohols is

  14. Where do pulse oximeter probes break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crede, S; Van der Merwe, G; Hutchinson, J; Woods, D; Karlen, W; Lawn, J

    2014-06-01

    Pulse oximetry, a non-invasive method for accurate assessment of blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), is an important monitoring tool in health care facilities. However, it is often not available in many low-resource settings, due to expense, overly sophisticated design, a lack of organised procurement systems and inadequate medical device management and maintenance structures. Furthermore medical devices are often fragile and not designed to withstand the conditions of low-resource settings. In order to design a probe, better suited to the needs of health care facilities in low-resource settings this study aimed to document the site and nature of pulse oximeter probe breakages in a range of different probe designs in a low to middle income country. A retrospective review of job cards relating to the assessment and repair of damaged or faulty pulse oximeter probes was conducted at a medical device repair company based in Cape Town, South Africa, specializing in pulse oximeter probe repairs. 1,840 job cards relating to the assessment and repair of pulse oximeter probes were reviewed. 60.2 % of probes sent for assessment were finger-clip probes. For all probes, excluding the neonatal wrap probes, the most common point of failure was the probe wiring (>50 %). The neonatal wrap most commonly failed at the strap (51.5 %). The total cost for quoting on the broken pulse oximeter probes and for the subsequent repair of devices, excluding replacement components, amounted to an estimated ZAR 738,810 (USD $98,508). Improving the probe wiring would increase the life span of pulse oximeter probes. Increasing the life span of probes will make pulse oximetry more affordable and accessible. This is of high priority in low-resource settings where frequent repair or replacement of probes is unaffordable or impossible.

  15. Probe-based recording technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naberhuis, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) prompted researchers to contemplate whether such technology could be used as the basis for the storage and retrieval of information. With magnetic data storage technology facing limits in storage density due to the thermal instability of magnetic bits, the super-paramagnetic limit, the heir-apparent for information storage at higher densities appeared to be variants of the STM or similar probe-based storage techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Among these other techniques that could provide replacement technology for magnetic storage, near-field optical scanning optical microscopy (NSOM or SNOM) has also been investigated. Another alternative probe-based storage technology called atomic resolution storage (ARS) is also currently under development. An overview of these various technologies is herein presented, with an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages inherent in each particularly with respect to reduced device dimensions. The role of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) is emphasized

  16. High efficient conversion of CO2-rich bio-syngas to CO-rich bio-syngas using biomass char: a useful approach for production of bio-methanol from bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Ye, Tong-qi; Qiu, Song-bai; Ning, Shen; Gong, Fei-yan; Liu, Yong; Li, Quan-xin

    2011-05-01

    A novel approach for high efficient conversion of the CO(2)-rich bio-syngas into the CO-rich bio-syngas was carried out by using biomass char and Ni/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, which was successfully applied for production of bio-methanol from bio-oil. After the bio-syngas conditioning, the CO(2)/CO ratio prominently dropped from 6.33 to 0.01-0.28. The maximum CO yield in the bio-syngas conditioning process reached about 1.96 mol/(mol CO(2)) with a nearly complete conversion of CO(2) (99.5%). The performance of bio-methanol synthesis was significantly improved via the conditioned bio-syngas, giving a maximum methanol yield of 1.32 kg/(kg(catalyst)h) with a methanol selectivity of 99%. Main reaction paths involved in the bio-syngas conditioning process have been investigated in detail by using different model mixture gases and different carbon sources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electro-active bio-films: formation, characterization and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parot, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    Some bacteria, which are able to exchange electrons with a conductive material without mediator form on conductive surfaces electro-active bio-films. This bacterial property has been recently discovered (2001). Objectives of this work are to develop electro-active bio-films in various natural environments from indigenous flora, then through complementary electrochemical techniques (chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry), to evaluate electro-activity of isolates coming from so-formed bio-films and to characterize mechanisms of electron transfer between bacteria and materials. First, electro-active bio-films have been developed under chrono-amperometry in garden compost and in water coming from Guyana mangrove. These bio-films were respectively able to use an electrode as electron acceptor (oxidation) or as electron donor (reduction). In compost, results obtained in chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry suggest a two-step electron transfer: slow substrate consumption, then rapid electron transfer between bacteria and the electrode. Thereafter, the ability to reduce oxygen was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry for facultative aerobic isolates from compost bio-films (Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and for aerobic isolates obtained from marine electro-active bio-films (Roseobacter spp. in majority). Finally, bio-films inducing current increase in chrono-amperometry were developed in bioreactor with synthetic medium from a pure culture of isolates. Hence, for the first time, electro-activity of several anaerobic strains of Geobacter bremensis isolated from compost bio-films was highlighted. (author) [fr

  18. Exploring Creativity in the Bio-Inspired Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggakara, K.; Aksdal, T.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the of field bio-inspired design has been driven by the acknowledgement that inspiration from nature can serve as a valuable source of innovation. As an emerging approach, there has been a focus on building a principled methodology to address the challenges that arise...... in the application of the practice. This article investigates ways in which the understanding of creativity can support the application of bio-inspired design. By observing the bio-inspired design approach using a macro-orientational framework of creativity, we identify the role of creativity in bio-inspired design...

  19. Bio-assessment of water pollution in coal belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Water pollution in coal belt has attracted attention of scientists as well as general people. Implication of water pollution on bio-system is still a more important issue and a lot of information has been accumulated. Apart from conventional methods of pollution monitoring, bio-monitoring is comparatively a new approach and a proper methodology is still in pipeline. The present study reviews various methods of bio-monitoring and compare various methodologies suggested at population level with conventional methods. The results indicated that the bio-assessment methodology can be a tool and hence be developed. (author)

  20. Bio-sorption of Tl-201 radionuclide on olive pomace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yapici, Sinan; Eroglu, Hayrettin; Varoglu, Erhan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an investigation on the bio-sorption of Tl-201 radionuclide used in nuclear medicine on olive pomace. The experimental parameters were chosen as temperature, the initial pH of the solution, stirring speed, bio-sorbent dose and nominal particle size of bio-sorbent. The initial pH of the solution was found to be the most effective parameter. Thermodynamic analysis gave negative values for ΔG and ΔH. The kinetics of the bio-sorption process fitted very well to the pseudo-second order rate model.

  1. bio-fuels 2010: which uses for lands in France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The arable land resource in France could allow to fulfill the French objective of incorporating 7 percent of bio-fuels in the transportation sector in 2010 while preserving the capacity to respond to domestic alimentation requirements and maintain cereal exportations at their same level. These bio-fuel 2010 objectives are detailed (2.62 million tonnes of bio-diesel, 0.74 million tonnes of bio-ethanol) and explained at the light of various hypothesis scenarios (surfaces, agriculture yield, etc.)

  2. Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseeva, Svetlana V; Bünzli, Jean-Claude G

    2010-01-01

    Recent startling interest for lanthanide luminescence is stimulated by the continuously expanding need for luminescent materials meeting the stringent requirements of telecommunication, lighting, electroluminescent devices, (bio-)analytical sensors and bio-imaging set-ups. This critical review describes the latest developments in (i) the sensitization of near-infrared luminescence, (ii) "soft" luminescent materials (liquid crystals, ionic liquids, ionogels), (iii) electroluminescent materials for organic light emitting diodes, with emphasis on white light generation, and (iv) applications in luminescent bio-sensing and bio-imaging based on time-resolved detection and multiphoton excitation (500 references).

  3. BioC implementations in Go, Perl, Python and Ruby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanli; Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Kwon, Dongseop; Marques, Hernani; Rinaldi, Fabio; Wilbur, W John; Comeau, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    As part of a communitywide effort for evaluating text mining and information extraction systems applied to the biomedical domain, BioC is focused on the goal of interoperability, currently a major barrier to wide-scale adoption of text mining tools. BioC is a simple XML format, specified by DTD, for exchanging data for biomedical natural language processing. With initial implementations in C++ and Java, BioC provides libraries of code for reading and writing BioC text documents and annotations. We extend BioC to Perl, Python, Go and Ruby. We used SWIG to extend the C++ implementation for Perl and one Python implementation. A second Python implementation and the Ruby implementation use native data structures and libraries. BioC is also implemented in the Google language Go. BioC modules are functional in all of these languages, which can facilitate text mining tasks. BioC implementations are freely available through the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Database URL: http://bioc.sourceforge.net/ Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Distance probes of dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A. G.; Padmanabhan, N.; Aldering, G.; Allen, S. W.; Baltay, C.; Cahn, R. N.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Dalal, N.; Dawson, K. S.; Denney, K. D.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Finley, D. A.; Freedman, W. L.; Ho, S.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kent, S. M.; Kessler, R.; Kuhlmann, S.; Linder, E. V.; Martini, P.; Nugent, P. E.; Perlmutter, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Riess, A. G.; Rubin, D.; Sako, M.; Suntzeff, N. V.; Suzuki, N.; Thomas, R. C.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Woosley, S. E.

    2015-03-01

    This document presents the results from the Distances subgroup of the Cosmic Frontier Community Planning Study (Snowmass 2013). We summarize the current state of the field as well as future prospects and challenges. In addition to the established probes using Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations, we also consider prospective methods based on clusters, active galactic nuclei, gravitational wave sirens and strong lensing time delays.

  5. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  6. A computerized Langmuir probe system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilling, L. S.; Bydder, E. L.; Carnegie, D. A.

    2003-07-01

    For low pressure plasmas it is important to record entire single or double Langmuir probe characteristics accurately. For plasmas with a depleted high energy tail, the accuracy of the recorded ion current plays a critical role in determining the electron temperature. Even for high density Maxwellian distributions, it is necessary to accurately model the ion current to obtain the correct electron density. Since the electron and ion current saturation values are, at best, orders of magnitude apart, a single current sensing resistor cannot provide the required resolution to accurately record these values. We present an automated, personal computer based data acquisition system for the determination of fundamental plasma properties in low pressure plasmas. The system is designed for single and double Langmuir probes, whose characteristics can be recorded over a bias voltage range of ±70 V with 12 bit resolution. The current flowing through the probes can be recorded within the range of 5 nA-100 mA. The use of a transimpedance amplifier for current sensing eliminates the requirement for traditional current sensing resistors and hence the need to correct the raw data. The large current recording range is realized through the use of a real time gain switching system in the negative feedback loop of the transimpedance amplifier.

  7. Bio-objects and the media: the role of communication in bio-objectification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeseele, Pieter; Allgaier, Joachim; Martinelli, Lucia

    2013-06-01

    The representation of biological innovations in and through communication and media practices is vital for understanding the nature of "bio-objects" and the process we call "bio-objectification." This paper discusses two ideal-typical analytical approaches based on different underlying communication models, ie, the traditional (science- and media-centered) and media sociological (a multi-layered process involving various social actors in defining the meanings of scientific and technological developments) approach. In this analysis, the latter is not only found to be the most promising approach for understanding the circulation, (re)production, and (re)configuration of meanings of bio-objects, but also to interpret the relationship between media and science. On the basis of a few selected examples, this paper highlights how media function as a primary arena for the (re)production and (re)configuration of scientific and biomedical information with regards to bio-objects in the public sphere in general, and toward decision-makers, interest groups, and the public in specific.

  8. Computing Pathways in Bio-Models Derived from Bio-Science Text Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a system, OntoScape, serving to accomplish complex inference tasks on knowledge bases and bio-models derived from life-science text corpora. The system applies so-called natural logic, a form of logic which is readable for humans. This logic affords ontological representations...

  9. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  10. Bio energy: Bio energy in the Energy System of the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finden, Per; Soerensen, Heidi; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 7, the final chapter, of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Factors leading to changes in the energy systems, (2) The energy systems of the future, globally, (3) The future energy system in Norway and (4) Norwegian energy policy at the crossroads

  11. Influence of probe geometry on the response of an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Torben; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1999-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe is examined with reference to the probe geometry. The study involves the evaluation of the probe lambda function, from which response-related characteristic parameters can be derived. These parameters enable the probe detection sensitivity Se and spatial...

  12. Bio-Terrorism Threat and Casualty Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NOEL,WILLIAM P.

    2000-01-01

    The bio-terrorism threat has become the ''poor man's'' nuclear weapon. The ease of manufacture and dissemination has allowed an organization with only rudimentary skills and equipment to pose a significant threat with high consequences. This report will analyze some of the most likely agents that would be used, the ease of manufacture, the ease of dissemination and what characteristics of the public health response that are particularly important to the successful characterization of a high consequence event to prevent excessive causalities.

  13. Bioraffinerie and Knowledge Based BioEconomy

    OpenAIRE

    Nieddu, Martino

    2016-01-01

    La question de la transition vers un paradigme de l′usage des ressources renouvelables se traduit par des efforts particuliers de mobilisation de la recherche ; cette mobilisation se déploie dans des domaines divers (énergie solaire, éolienne, substituts du carbone fossile par du carbone renouvelable en énergie, production de carburants liquides et chimie). La volonté de substitution liée à cet effort de production de carbone renouvelable conduit à s′intéresser au domaine spécifique de la bio...

  14. Multitracer - preparation, feature and bio-application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Ryohei

    2003-01-01

    Multitracer (MT) is a solution containing many radionuclides together for tracing simultaneously the behavior of these elements in various systems. Basic principles, wide applications and new progresses of MT are presented. We suppose that MT is a versatile and powerful tool for movement- and fate-screening among related plural elements, and MT sometimes gives us the breakthrough in studying some confronted themes. Our recent progresses on the bio-behavior of trace elements in brain are described as typical examples. The future perspectives of the MT will also be outlined. (author)

  15. Sustainability, polysaccharide science, and bio-economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Bos, René; van Dam, Jan E G

    2013-03-01

    At the opening of the 2nd EPNOE conference the role and responsibility of polysaccharide scientists was reflected upon and placed in the context of actual global issues like the transition process towards "sustainable bio-economy". Difficulties in the chain of communication between the different parties involved and towards the wider public was addressed. The need for change in the relations between science and the public and to go beyond the horizon of the specialization was discussed. It was stated that polysaccharide science is one of the key sciences in those transitions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  17. Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanostructures for Bio-Imaging and Bio-Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravets, Vira V.

    Kravets, Vira V. (Ph.D., Physics). Optical properties of plasmonic nanostructures for bio-imaging and bio-sensing applications. Dissertation directed by Associate Professor Anatoliy Pinchuk. ABSTRACT. This dissertation explores the physics of free electron excitations in gold nanoparticle chains, silver nanoparticle colloids, and thin gold films. Electron excitations in nanostructures (surface plasmons, SP) are responsible for unique optical properties, which are applied in bio-sensing and bio-imaging applications. For gold nanoparticle chains, the effect of SP on resonance light absorption was studied experimentally and theoretically. Mainly, how the spectral position of the absorption peak depends on inter-particle distances. This dependence is used in “molecular rulers”, providing spatial resolution below the Rayleigh limit. The underlying theory is based on particle interaction via scattered dipole fields. Often in literature only the near-field component of the scattered field is considered. Here, I show that middle and far fields should not be neglected for calculation of extinction by particle chains. In silver nanoparticles, SP excitations produce two independent effects: (a) the intrinsic fluorescence of the particles, and (b) the enhancement of a molecule’s fluorescence by a particle’s surface. The mechanism of (a) is deduced by studying how fluorescence depends on particle size. For (b), I show that fluorescence of a dye molecule on the surface of a nanoparticle is enhanced, when compared to that of the free-standing dye. I demonstrate that the dye’s fluorescent quantum yield is dependent on the particle’s size, making labeled silver nanoparticles attractive candidates as bio-imaging agents. Labeled nanoparticles are applied to cell imaging, and their bio-compatibility with two cell lines is evaluated here. Finally, in gold films under attenuated total internal reflection (ATR) conditions, the SP create a propagating wave (SP-polariton, SPP

  18. Subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction of cattle manure to bio-oil: Effects of conversion parameters on bio-oil yield and characterization of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sudong; Dolan, Ryan; Harris, Matt; Tan, Zhongchao

    2010-05-01

    In this study, cattle manure was converted to bio-oil by subcritical hydrothermal liquefaction in the presence of NaOH. The effects of conversion temperature, process gas, initial conversion pressure, residence time and mass ratio of cattle manure to water on the bio-oil yield were studied. The bio-oil was characterized in terms of elemental composition, higher heating value, ultraviolet-visible (UV/Vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results showed that the bio-oil yield depended on the conversion temperature and the process gas. Higher initial conversion pressure, longer residence time and larger mass ratio of cattle manure to water, however, had negative impacts on the bio-oil yield. The higher heating value of bio-oil was 35.53MJ/kg on average. The major non-polar components of bio-oil were toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, which are components of crude oil, gasoline and diesel. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Energy transfer in (bio)molecular systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milder, Maaike Theresia Wilhelmina

    This thesis reports, using a variety of optical techniques, the energy transfer pathways in different potential building blocks for molecular electronic devices, namely an antenna, a molecular wire and fluorescent switches. Using pump-probe spectroscopy the time constants of these transfer processes

  20. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  1. [HPV contamination of endocavity vaginal ultrasound probes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, I; Favre, M

    2015-02-01

    While the use of endovaginal ultrasound probes is increasing, the risk of contamination of women with endocavity vaginal probes was not assessed. In particular, the clinical significance of detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, the most common sexually transmitted viral infection, on endovaginal ultrasound probes is uncertain. The recommendations of good practice for decontamination of these probes developed by the High Council for Public Health and the Academy of Medicine have not been evaluated. The objective of this article was to review recent publications concluding to the detection of HPV and human cellular DNA after gynecological examination and disinfection of vaginal ultrasound probes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Probe Selection in Multiprobe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Fan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2014-01-01

    is costly, so finding ways to limit the number of probes while still reproducing the target channels accurately could make the test system both cheaper and simpler to implement. Several probe selection algorithms are presented in this paper to address this issue. The proposed techniques provide a probe...... selection framework for the channel emulation techniques published in the literature. Simulation results show that good channel emulation accuracy can be achieved with the selected subset of probes for the considered target channel models. The probe selection algorithm is further supported by measurement...... results in a practical multiprobe setup...

  3. Zero voltage mass spectrometry probes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Wleklinski, Michael Stanley; Bag, Soumabha; Li, Yafeng

    2017-10-10

    The invention generally relates to zero volt mass spectrometry probes and systems. In certain embodiments, the invention provides a system including a mass spectrometry probe including a porous material, and a mass spectrometer (bench-top or miniature mass spectrometer). The system operates without an application of voltage to the probe. In certain embodiments, the probe is oriented such that a distal end faces an inlet of the mass spectrometer. In other embodiments, the distal end of the probe is 5 mm or less from an inlet of the mass spectrometer.

  4. Research on the best measurement situation between optical probe and tissue surfaces in non-invasive detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuyao; Liu, Rong; Yu, Hui; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Xu, Kexin

    2016-11-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is often used for the non-invasive detection of composition in the human body, such as that of blood glucose and haemoglobin, due to its high penetration depth into tissues. Although it is feasible to position the optical probe precisely, contact situation between probe and human tissues is a difficult problem to determine because of physiological tremor and mechanical performance of bio-soft tissue. Here, we proposed a novel estimation method for the situation between the optical probe and tissue surfaces based on the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and radar chart. The diffuse reflectance spectra from the left palm of 4 healthy volunteers were collected while the optical probe gradually approached and pressed bio-tissues with a custom-design controlling device. 2DCOS in the wavelength with lower absorption (1000-1400 nm) was calculated under the perturbation of relative-distance and contact pressure between the optical probe and tissue surface. The synchronous 2DCOS showed that the surface reflection and diffuse reflectance were greatly affected by the contact conditions in 1100 nm, 1220 nm, and 1300 nm. Then the dynamic auto-correlation matrix of 2DCOS was established for the adjacent spectra, and the significant difference wavelengths were used to build radar charts to determine the critical contact situation visually. Results showed that the maximum variations of dynamic auto-correlation matrix appeared at near 1300 nm, and the relative distance between the probe and tissue corresponding to the critical contact state can be easily observed with radar charts with 0.25 mm uncertainty, which was consistent with the self-feeling of each volunteer. So this method can be applied to exactly determine the optimal measurement status for the non-invasive body composition detection in vivo. It is important for the design of human-machine interface and the accuracy improvement of body

  5. Gold and magnetic oxide/gold core/shell nanoparticles as bio-functional nanoprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, I-Im S; Njoki, Peter N; Wang, Lingyan; Mott, Derrick; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Park, Hye-Young; Wang Xin

    2008-01-01

    The ability to create bio-functional nanoprobes for the detection of biological reactivity is important for developing bioassay and diagnostic methods. This paper describes the findings of an investigation of the surface functionalization of gold (Au) and magnetic nanoparticles coated with gold shells (M/Au) by proteins and spectroscopic labels for the creation of nanoprobes for use in surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assays. Highly monodispersed Au nanoparticles and M/Au nanoparticles with two types of magnetic nanoparticle cores (Fe 2 O 3 and MnZn ferrite) were studied as model systems for the bio-functionalization and Raman labeling. Comparison of the SERS intensities obtained with different particle sizes (30-100 nm) and samples in solution versus on solid substrates have revealed important information about the manipulation of the SERS signals. In contrast to the salt-induced uncontrollable and irreversible aggregation of nanoparticles, the ability to use a centrifugation method to control the formation of stable small clustering sizes of nanoparticles was shown to enhance SERS intensities for samples in solution as compared with samples on solid substrates. A simple method for labeling protein-capped Au nanoparticles with Raman-active molecules was also described. The functionalized Au and M/Au nanoparticles are shown to exhibit the desired functional properties for the detection of SERS signals in the magnetically separated reaction products. These results are discussed in terms of the interparticle distance dependence of 'hot-spot' SERS sites and the delineation of the parameters for controlling the core-shell reactivity of the magnetic functional nanocomposite materials in bio-separation and spectroscopic probing

  6. BioMe: biologically relevant metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tus, Alan; Rakipović, Alen; Peretin, Goran; Tomić, Sanja; Šikić, Mile

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce BioMe (biologically relevant metals), a web-based platform for calculation of various statistical properties of metal-binding sites. Users can obtain the following statistical properties: presence of selected ligands in metal coordination sphere, distribution of coordination numbers, percentage of metal ions coordinated by the combination of selected ligands, distribution of monodentate and bidentate metal-carboxyl, bindings for ASP and GLU, percentage of particular binuclear metal centers, distribution of coordination geometry, descriptive statistics for a metal ion–donor distance and percentage of the selected metal ions coordinated by each of the selected ligands. Statistics is presented in numerical and graphical forms. The underlying database contains information about all contacts within the range of 3 Å from a metal ion found in the asymmetric crystal unit. The stored information for each metal ion includes Protein Data Bank code, structure determination method, types of metal-binding chains [protein, ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), water and other] and names of the bounded ligands (amino acid residue, RNA nucleotide, DNA nucleotide, water and other) and the coordination number, the coordination geometry and, if applicable, another metal(s). BioMe is on a regular weekly update schedule. It is accessible at http://metals.zesoi.fer.hr. PMID:22693222

  7. Bio THELYS: A new sludge reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauzy, Julien; Cretenot, Didier; Patria, Lucie; Fernandes, Paulo; Sauvegrain, Patrick; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2003-07-01

    New technologies for reducing the sludge production of municipal or industrial WWTP have been appeared during the last few years. One of these innovative processes, Bio THELYS, consists in enhancing the biodegradability of sludge by a stage of thermal hydrolysis. The hydrolysed sludge could then be sent upstream to a biological step either aerobic or anaerobic. The objective is to increase the global mineralisation of the pollution entering the WWTP in order to decrease the waste leaving it, i.e. mainly the sludge. A 2500 population equivalent prototype was installed on a WWTP, in Champagne - France. Thermal hydrolysis is carried out under a temperature of 150-185{sup o}C, a pressure of 10-15 bar with an hydraulic retention time of 30-60 minutes. Thermal hydrolysis is implemented on a secondary recycling loop on the biological basin. Trials started in 1999 and are still on operation. A close monitoring of the WWTP was set up focusing especially on sludge characteristics, treated water quality, yield of sludge production reduction and plant operation. Bio THELYS could achieve a reduction in sludge production up to 70% on the plant. (author)

  8. Inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Globally, bio-based business is often perceived as sustainable, because its renewable production can potentially lower carbon and greenhouse emissions by substituting fossil-fuel-based production, reduce environmental sourcing problems, and create turnover and jobs. However, bio-based business

  9. Rust-Bio: a fast and safe bioinformatics library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Köster (Johannes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe present Rust-Bio, the first general purpose bioinformatics library for the innovative Rust programming language. Rust-Bio leverages the unique combination of speed, memory safety and high-level syntax offered by Rust to provide a fast and safe set of bioinformatics algorithms and data

  10. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 40; Issue 2. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent casting method ... alpha cellulose (AC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were prepared to investigate the effect of the bio-fillers on the properties of PHB by a solvent casting method.

  11. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture ...

  12. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...

  13. Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate and bio-fillers by solvent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biocomposites from polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and some bio-fillers such as lignin (L), alpha cellulose (AC) and cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were prepared to investigate the effect of the bio-fillers on the properties of PHB by a solvent casting method. The thermal properties by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA–DTG and ...

  14. Kinetic models of cell growth, substrate utilization and bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bio-decolorization kinetic studies of distillery effluent in a batch culture were conducted using Aspergillus fumigatus. A simple model was proposed using the Logistic Equation for the growth, Leudeking-Piret kinetics for bio-decolorization, and also for substrate utilization. The proposed models appeared to provide a suitable ...

  15. Sustainable development and bioeconomic prosperity in Africa: Bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and bio-security that impinge on daily human existence and welfare. High–cost fossil fuel prices and national security concerns have sparked interest in bio-fuels in continental Africa. In brief, Africa is taking the lead in creating its own biotechnology agenda and roadmap to socioeconomic and sustainable development.

  16. Opportunity and development of bio-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong Cai; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2005-01-01

    Our forests are a naturally renewable resource that has been used as a principal source of bio-energy and building materials for centuries. The rapid growth of world population has now resulted in substantial increases in demand and in consumption of all raw materials. This now provides a unique opportunity of developing new bio-based composites. The 100-year history...

  17. determination of bio-energy potential of palm kernel shell

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    88888888

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Keywords: palm kernel shell, bioenergy, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis, gasification ... tain higher energy density fuels. Fast Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass for bio-char, bio- oil and combustible gas production in the absence of ... Calorific Value of Coal and Coke) was used for the.

  18. Bio-energy and the environment: land of possible misunderstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncada P C, Pietro; Grassi, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a point of view that bio-energy could assume sustainable environmental features for our future. The principal arguments of this paper are: bio-energy system and carbon emission -including confrontation of CO 2 emissions between electricity closed system and a coal-based electric generation system - soil erosion, fertilizer use, pesticide use, and biodiversity. (author)

  19. Exploring the bio-psychosocial effects of renal replacement therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Governmental support for holistic kidney disease treatment and careful teaming of key role players to reduce the severity and far-reaching bio-psychosocial effects of HD and CAPD treatment are recommended. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n kwalitatiewe studie wat die bio-psigososiale effekte van niervervangingsterapie op ...

  20. Alveolar ridge augmentation in rats by Bio-Oss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Bang, G; Haanaes, H R

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if Bio-Oss initiated osteoinduction or osteoconduction when implanted into rats. Sintered and unsintered granules of the anorganic bovine bone Bio-Oss was implanted subperiosteally for alveolar ridge augmentation purposes and heterotopically in the abdominal...

  1. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by.

  2. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  3. Weiterentwicklung der Nationalen Forschungsstrategie Bioökonomie 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Braun, Joachim; Lang, Christine; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    Im Jahr 2017 endet die erste Phase der „Nationalen Forschungsstrategie Bioökonomie 2030“. Der Bio-ökonomierat begleitet die Weiterentwicklung des Forschungsprogramms aktiv. Viele richtige Weichenstellungen sind erfolgt, nun gilt es mit ungebrochenem Engagement und Zielbewusstsein die Forschung zur...

  4. Steam Reforming of Bio-oil Model Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst.......The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst....

  5. Bio fuels price; El precio de los biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.

    2008-07-01

    he process of producing ethanol from corn is very expensive. The best bio-fuel is very far from the service stations and the farmers show difficulties to change his work methods. Really have we a suitable technology to produce bio-fuels?.

  6. Building pathway graphs from BioPAX data in R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benis, N.; Schokker, D.; Kramer, F.; Smits, Mari; Suarez-Diez, M.

    2016-01-01


    Biological pathways are increasingly available in the BioPAX format which uses an RDF model for data storage. One can retrieve the information in this data model in the scripting language R using the package rBiopaxParser, which converts the BioPAX format to one readable in R. It also has a

  7. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  8. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  9. BAAT AS BIO-ETIEK SONDER GRENSE: 'N GEREFORMEERD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BAAT AS BIO-ETIEK SONDER. GRENSE: 'N GEREFORMEERD-. ETIESE BEOORDELING VAN. ARTIKEL 4 VAN DIE UNIVERSELE. DEKLARASIE VIR BIO-ETIEK EN. MENSEREGTE VAN UNESCO. ABSTRACT. Article 4 of the UNESCO Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights (2005) is explained as being an ethical ...

  10. Public Perception of Bio fuels; Percepcion Publica de los Biocombustibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltra, C.; Priolo, V.

    2011-11-10

    The deployment of bio fuels has generated a significant controversy in the energy, agricultural and environmental fields. Governments and promoters around the world have advocated for developing bio fuels based on their potential contribution to emissions reduction and energy security. But opposition to bio fuels has growth in the last years. Environmental NGO's and other stake holders have called for a review of the environmental and social sustainability of energy crops. This controversy has characterized the public debate around bio fuels. In this context, and given the need to improve public involvement in energy technologies, this article reports an investigation of Spanish citizens' perceptions about bio fuels. The study investigated the perceptions of informed citizens and the reasoning basis underlying beliefs and attitudes. The study finds an initial positive association of bio fuels to a clean and natural fuel that is mitigated by participants' concerns on the practical usage of bio fuels and the social and environmental impacts. Study participants' reactions show the need to differentiate among the diverse groups of publics holding differing views and a different reaction to information on the benefits and costs of bio fuels. (Author) 9 refs.

  11. IA of bio-economic projects in Region Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge; Palsberg, Aske

    Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts.......Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts....

  12. A Cognitively Oriented Psychologist Looks at Bio-feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Richard S.

    1975-01-01

    It is advocated that bio-feedback research be approached within the larger context of emotion and adaption and oriented to the wide variety of mediators that affect the reaction pattern, rather than be treated as a special or unique kind of process limited to the bio-feedback laboratory. (EH)

  13. Design and manufacturing of bio-based sandwich structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, Maya J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available techniques for manufacture of sandwich panels are documented in detail. Bio-based sandwich panels are prepared by using bio-based skins (either a natural fiber skin impregnated with a thermoset resin or biopolymer skin bonded to the core with adhesives...

  14. BioCapacitor--a novel category of biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanashi, Takuya; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Tsugawa, Wakako; Ferri, Stefano; Nakayama, Daisuke; Tomiyama, Masamitsu; Ikebukuro, Kazunori; Sode, Koji

    2009-03-15

    This research reports on the development of an innovative biosensor, known as BioCapacitor, in which biological recognition elements are combined with a capacitor functioning as the transducer. The analytical procedure of the BioCapacitor is based on the following principle: a biocatalyst, acting as a biological recognition element, oxidizes or reduces the analyte to generate electric power, which is then charged into a capacitor via a charge pump circuit (switched capacitor regulator) until the capacitors attains full capacity. Since the charging rate of the capacitor depends on the biocatalytic reaction of the analyte, the analyte concentration can be determined by monitoring the time/frequency required for the charge/discharge cycle of the BioCapacitor via a charge pump circuit. As a representative model, we constructed a BioCapacitor composed of FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FADGDH) as the anodic catalyst, and attempted a glucose measurement. Charge/discharge frequency of the BioCapacitor increased with the increasing glucose concentration, exhibiting good correlation with glucose concentration. We have also constructed a wireless sensing system using the BioCapacitor combined with an infrared light emitting diode (IRLED), an IR phototransistor system. In the presence of glucose, the IRLED signal was observed due to the discharge of the BioCapacitor and detected by an IR phototransistor in a wireless receiver. Therefore, a BioCapacitor employing FADGDH as its anodic catalyst can be operated as a self-powered enzyme sensor.

  15. Inter-organizational collaboration in bio-based business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuhoff-Isakhanyan, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Globally, bio-based business is often perceived as sustainable, because its renewable production can potentially lower carbon and greenhouse emissions by substituting fossil-fuel-based production, reduce environmental sourcing problems, and create turnover and jobs. However, bio-based business can

  16. The environmentally friendly technology for bio fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekers, M.; Danilevics, A.; Guriniece, E.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Bio fuel production and use have been discussed this time in EC and in Latvia as alternative energy sources. The national resources allow producing liquid fuels - bio diesel and bi oethanol from rape seeds and grain correspondingly. Liquid bio fuels can be recommended especially for auto transport in big towns to reduce the pollution of air. A system for environmentally friendly production of bio fuel from agricultural raw materials has been developed, which permit a complex utilization of byproducts an wastes for obtaining of valuable food-stuffs and industrial products, providing the agricultural production requirements and supporting with local mineral fertilizers. Such a bio fuel production includes the agricultural and industrial productions in a united biotechnological system. Production objects of system interact: the products, by-products and wastes from one object are used as raw materials, auxiliary materials or heat carriers in other system's objects. This integrated agro-industrial production system would allow the production of feeds and chemical products, along with bio fuels. In this work, a model of a system for a conventional administrative rural region is presented, exemplified with the case of Latvia. The model is developed for three forms of bio fuel production, i.e. ethanol, bio diesel and biogas as local energy source. Bio diesel is produced using ethanol as transesterifying agent of rape-seed oil fatty acids. This bio diesel is a blend of rape-seed oil fatty acid ethyl esters (REE) and consists solely from renewable raw materials. The capacity of distillery of system is 40 million litters per year and bio diesel 35000 ton. Important for agriculture is protein reach press cakes the byproduct from bio diesel production (66000 t/y). This byproduct can be exported as well. Biogas reactors of system can be used for utilization of wastes from town if necessary. Recommended bio system occupates up to 150.000 ha of agriculture lands

  17. Soft QGP probes with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil

    2016-01-01

    In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of $\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}$ femtoscopy is also presented.

  18. Bio-functionalization of conductive textile materials with redox enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahoush, M.; Behary, N.; Cayla, A.; Nierstrasz, V.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, immobilization of oxidoreductase enzymes on electrically conductive materials has played an important role in the development of sustainable bio-technologies. Immobilization process allows the re-use of these bio-catalysts in their final applications. In this study, different methods of immobilizing redox enzymes on conductive textile materials were used to produce bio-functionalized electrodes. These electrodes can be used for bio-processes and bio-sensing in eco-designed applications in domains such as medicine and pollution control. However, the main challenge facing the stability and durability of these electrodes is the maintenance of the enzymatic activity after the immobilization. Hence, preventing the enzyme’s denaturation and leaching is a critical factor for the success of the immobilization processes.

  19. Status and potential of bio-methane fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document first indicates and describes the various bio-methane production processes which can be implemented on a short term (use of organic wastes or effluents), on a medium term (from energetic crops) and on a longer term (gasification). It discusses and assesses the potential production of bio-methane fuel from different sources and processes. It describes the steps of the production of bio-methane fuel from biogas, with notably biogas refinement to produce bio-methane through three processes (de-carbonation, desulfurization, dehydration). Cost productions are assessed. Expected technology advances are evoked. Finally, the authors outline the contribution of bio-methane in the limitation of greenhouse gas emissions in the transport sector

  20. Advancements in Bio-radar Speech Signal Detection Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Fuming

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Speech signal acquisition is of great significance for human communication. Bio-radar technology has many advantages, such as it is noncontact, noninvasive, safe, highly directional, highly sensitivity, immune to strong acoustical disturbance and penetrable. This technology has important applications in the field of speech detection. In this paper, we first review the developmental history of speech detection technology, and then summarize the status of bio-radar speech detection technology. The basic principles of a bio-radar in detecting speech signals are given, and the performance of three types of bio-radar speech detection systems are compared in this paper. Finally, the potential applications of bio-radar speech signal detection technology are prospected.

  1. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morici, Elisabetta [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  2. Quercetin as natural stabilizing agent for bio-polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morici, Elisabetta; Arrigo, Rossella; Dintcheva, Nadka Tzankova

    2014-05-01

    The introduction of antioxidants in polymers is the main way to prevent or delay the degradation process. In particular natural antioxidants receive attention in the food industry also because of their presumed safety. In this work bio-polymers, i.e. a commercial starch-based polymer (Mater-Bi®) and a bio-polyester (PLA), and a bio-polyether (PEO) were additivated with quercetin, a natural flavonoid antioxidants, in order to formulate bio-based films for ecosustainable packaging and outdoor applications. The photo-oxidation behavior of unstabilized and quercetin stabilized films was analyzed and compared with the behavior of films additivated with a commercial synthetic light stabilizer. The quercetin is able to slow down the photo-degradation rate of all bio-polymeric films investigated in similar way to the synthetic stabilizer.

  3. BioMet Toolbox: genome-wide analysis of metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvijovic, M.; Olivares Hernandez, Roberto; Agren, R.

    2010-01-01

    standardized simulations. Model files for various model organisms (fungi and bacteria) are included. Overall, the BioMet Toolbox serves as a valuable resource for exploring the capabilities of these metabolic networks. BioMet Toolbox is freely available at www.sysbio.se/BioMet/....... models. Systematic analysis of biological processes by means of modelling and simulations has made the identification of metabolic networks and prediction of metabolic capabilities under different conditions possible. For facilitating such systemic analysis, we have developed the BioMet Toolbox, a web......-based resource for stoichiometric analysis and for integration of transcriptome and interactome data, thereby exploiting the capabilities of genome-scale metabolic models. The BioMet Toolbox provides an effective user-friendly way to perform linear programming simulations towards maximized or minimized growth...

  4. Bio-robots automatic navigation with electrical reward stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Zhang, Xinlu; Zheng, Nenggan; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2012-01-01

    Bio-robots that controlled by outer stimulation through brain computer interface (BCI) suffer from the dependence on realtime guidance of human operators. Current automatic navigation methods for bio-robots focus on the controlling rules to force animals to obey man-made commands, with animals' intelligence ignored. This paper proposes a new method to realize the automatic navigation for bio-robots with electrical micro-stimulation as real-time rewards. Due to the reward-seeking instinct and trial-and-error capability, bio-robot can be steered to keep walking along the right route with rewards and correct its direction spontaneously when rewards are deprived. In navigation experiments, rat-robots learn the controlling methods in short time. The results show that our method simplifies the controlling logic and realizes the automatic navigation for rat-robots successfully. Our work might have significant implication for the further development of bio-robots with hybrid intelligence.

  5. Analysis of the nitrifying bacterial community in BioCube sponge media using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and microelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Kyu-Jung; Rameshwar, T; Jang, Am; Kim, Sung H; Kim, In S

    2008-09-01

    There is growing interest in the development of more cost-effective and retrofit technologies for the upgrade and expansion of existing wastewater treatment plants with extreme space constraints. A free-floating sponge media (BioCube) process, using a 24 L lab scale reactor, was operated to study the nitrification profiles and microbial community. The COD removal efficiencies were maintained, at an average of 95%, with the mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) inside the BioCube sponge media maintained at 12,688 mg/L. The nitrification removal efficiencies were between 92% and 100%, with an average value of 99%. From the results of microelectrode measurements, the ammonium ion concentration was found to rapidly decrease from the surface of the BioCube sponge media to a depth of 2mm due to chemical reactions carried out by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) species. Multi-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been used to investigate the spatial distributions of various microbial activities within reactors. Microbial communities were targeted using different oligonucleotide probes specific to AOB and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). There were a large number of AOB populations, but these were not uniformly distributed in the biofilm compared to the NOB populations.

  6. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  7. Soil moisture calibration of TDR multilevel probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrarens Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR probes are increasingly used for field estimation of soil water content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multilevel TDR probe under field conditions. For this purpose, eight such TDR probes were installed in small plots that were seeded with beans and sorghum. Data collection from the probes was such that soil moisture readings were automated and logged using a standalone field unit. Neutron probe measurements were used to calibrate the TDR probes. Soil-probe contact and soil compaction were critical to the accuracy of the TDR, especially when a number of TDR probes are combined for a single calibration curve. If each probe is calibrated individually, approximate measurement errors were between 0.005 and 0.015 m³ m-3. However, measurement errors doubled to approximately 0.025 to 0.03 m³ m-3, when TDR probes were combined to yield a single calibration curve.

  8. Por una bioética sin adjetivos II. Bioética, interdisciplinariedad y sociedad plural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guerra L.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad reconocemos la necesidad de articular el discurso bioético no solo como una propuesta racional, argumentada y fundada con rigor, sino además con verdadera capacidad de ponerse en escena e interactuar con diversas cosmovisiones. La bioética necesita legitimarse como una propuesta racional y razonable en el espacio público. Si bien cada bioética está inscrita en una cierta visión, esto no debe significar que sea imposible mostrar a la bioética como saber riguroso, como ciencia estricta. Si esto no fuera posible, la pretensión de verdad que esta posee se desplomaría. En el presente artículo el autor reconoce la necesidad de superar la controversia de una bioética católica vs. una bioética laica y describe cinco elementos fundamentales para desarrollar una “bioética sin adjetivos”. Estos elementos son: concebir la bioética como saber principalmente filosófico y de metodología interdisciplinar; acompañado de una rigurosa biofilosofía; con apertura al dato revelado y la teología; y constitutivamente orientado por una antropología personalista.

  9. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Murillo L; Saeki, Margarida J.; Telling, Mark T. F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatm...

  10. How big is the bio-business? Notes on measuring the size of the Dutch bio-economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the size of the Dutch bio-economy. With the help of consolidated input-output tables, the size of the bio-economy in terms of value added is estimated for the years 2008-2012. It appears that in the Netherlands, during the period indicated, its share in national production

  11. The Future of Bio-technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Hosts of technologies, most notably in electronics, have been on the path of miniaturization for decades and in 2005 they have crossed the threshold of the nano-scale. Crossing the nano-scale threshold is a milestone in miniaturization, setting impressive new standards for component-packing densities. It also brings technology to a scale at which quantum effects and fault tolerance play significant roles and approaches the feasible physical limit form many conventional "top-down" manufacturing methods. I will suggest that the most formidable manufacturing problems in nanotechnology will be overcome and major breakthroughs will occur in a host of technologies, when nanotechnology converges with bio-technology; i.e. I will argue that the future of bio-technology is in nanotechnology. In 2005, methods in molecular biology, microscopy, bioinformatics, biochemistry, and genetic engineering have focused considerable attention on the nano-scale. On this scale, biology is a kind of recursive chemistry in which molecular recognition, self-assembly, self-organization and self-referencing context-control lead to the emergence of the complexity of structures and processes that are fundamental to all life forms. While we are still far from understanding this complexity, we are on the threshold of being able to use at least some of these biological properties for .technology. I will discuss the use of biomolecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins as "tools" for the bio-technologist of the future. More specifically, I will present in some detail an example of how we are using a genetically engineered 60-kDa protein (HSP60) from an organism living in near boiling sulfuric acid to build nano-scale templates for arranging metallic nanoparticles. These "extremophile" HSP60s self-assemble into robust double-ring structures called "chaperonins," which further assemble into filaments and arrays with nanometer accuracy. I will discuss our efforts to use chaperonins to organize quantum

  12. Eddy current flaw detecting probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuo; Harada, Yutaka; Shimone, Junri; Maeda, Kotaro

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides an eddy current-flaw detection probe facilitating quantitative evaluation, which is used for maintenance and inspection of metal fine tubes of a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, the probe comprises a substantially cylindrical or columnar flow detection main body to be inserted to a metal tube. Wires are wound on the circumferential surface of the flaw detection main body substantially uniformly and in parallel to form a solenoid portion having a predetermined width. Magnetic sensors are disposed on the lateral center of the solenoid portion. With such a constitution, the solenoid portion forms eddy current in the circumferential direction. The eddy current is substantially in parallel having the same intensity at the lateral central portion of the solenoid. Accordingly, the quantitative evaluation for the shape and the size of cracks in the axial direction of the tube can be conducted by the magnetic sensors disposed to the portion. In addition, since the eddy current is substantially uniform, parameters upon reverse analysis can be reduced upon determination of the shape of flaws. (I.S.)

  13. The Gravity Probe B Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This presentation briefly describes the Gravity Probe B (GP-B) Experiment which is designed to measure parts of Einstein's general theory of relativity by monitoring gyroscope orientation relative to a distant guide star. To measure the miniscule angles predicted by Einstein's theory, it was necessary to build near-perfect gyroscopes that were approximately 50 million times more precise than the best navigational gyroscopes. A telescope mounted along the central axis of the dewar and spacecraft provided the experiment's pointing reference to a guide star. The telescope's image divide precisely split the star's beam into x-axis and y-axis components whose brightness could be compared. GP-B's 650-gallon dewar, kept the science instrument inside the probe at a cryogenic temperature for 17.3 months and also provided the thruster propellant for precision attitude and translation control. Built around the dewar, the GP-B spacecraft was a total-integrated system, comprising both the space vehicle and payload, dedicated as a single entity to experimentally testing predictions of Einstein's theory.

  14. Portal monitor incorporating smart probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, D.; Constantin, F.; Guta, T.

    2003-01-01

    Portal monitors are intended for detection of radioactive and special nuclear materials in vehicles, pedestrians, luggage, as well as for prevention of illegal traffic of radioactive sources. Monitors provide audio and visual alarms when radioactive and/or special nuclear materials are detected. They can be recommended to officers of customs, border guard and emergency services, civil defense, fire brigades, police and military departments or nuclear research or energetic facilities. The portal monitor developed by us consists in a portal frame, which sustains five intelligent probes having long plastic scintillator (0.5 liters each). The probes communicate, by serial transmission, with a Central Unit constructed on the basis of the 80552 microcontroller. This one manages the handshake, calculates the background, establishes the measuring time, starts and stops each measurement and makes all the other decisions. Sound signals and an infrared sensor monitor the passing through the portal and the measuring procedure. For each measurement the result is displayed on a LCD device contaminated/uncontaminated; for the contaminated case a loud and long sound signal is also issued. An RS 232 serial interface is provided in order to further developments or custom made devices. As a result, the portal monitor detects 1 μ Ci 137 Cs, spread all over a human body, in a 20 μR/h gamma background for a measuring time of 1.5 or 10 seconds giving a 99% confidence factor. (authors)

  15. ReseqChip: Automated integration of multiple local context probe data from the MitoChip array in mitochondrial DNA sequence assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spang Rainer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 is an oligonucleotide tiling array for the resequencing of the human mitochondrial (mt genome. For each of 16,569 nucleotide positions of the mt genome it holds two sets of four 25-mer probes each that match the heavy and the light strand of a reference mt genome and vary only at their central position to interrogate all four possible alleles. In addition, the MitoChip v2.0 carries alternative local context probes to account for known mtDNA variants. These probes have been neglected in most studies due to the lack of software for their automated analysis. Results We provide ReseqChip, a free software that automates the process of resequencing mtDNA using multiple local context probes on the MitoChip v2.0. ReseqChip significantly improves base call rate and sequence accuracy. ReseqChip is available at http://code.open-bio.org/svnweb/index.cgi/bioperl/browse/bioperl-live/trunk/Bio/Microarray/Tools/. Conclusions ReseqChip allows for the automated consolidation of base calls from alternative local mt genome context probes. It thereby improves the accuracy of resequencing, while reducing the number of non-called bases.

  16. Influence of probe motion on laser probe temperature in circulating blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehrlein, C; Splinter, R; Littmann, L; Tuntelder, J R; Tatsis, G P; Svenson, R H

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of probe motion on laser probe temperature in various blood flow conditions. Laser probe temperatures were measured in an in vitro blood circulation model consisting of 3.2 nm-diameter plastic tubes. A 2.0 mm-diameter metal probe attached to a 300 microns optical quartz fiber was coupled to an argon laser. Continuous wave 4 watts and 8 watts of laser power were delivered to the fiber tip corresponding to a 6.7 +/- 0.5 and 13.2 +/- 0.7 watts power setting at the laser generator. The laser probe was either moved with constant velocity or kept stationary. A thermocouple inserted in the lateral portion of the probe was used to record probe temperatures. Probe temperature changes were found with the variation of laser power, probe velocity, blood flow, and duration of laser exposure. Probe motion significantly reduced probe temperatures. After 10 seconds of 4 watts laser power the probe temperature in stagnant blood decreased from 303 +/- 18 degrees C to 113 +/- 17 degrees C (63%) by moving the probe with a velocity of 5 cm/sec. Blood flow rates of 170 ml/min further decreased the probe temperature from 113 +/- 17 degrees C to 50 +/- 8 degrees C (56%). At 8 watts of laser power a probe temperature reduction from 591 +/- 25 degrees C to 534 +/- 36 degrees C (10%) due to 5 cm/sec probe velocity was noted. Probe temperatures were reduced to 130 +/- 30 degrees C (78%) under the combined influence of 5 cm/sec probe velocity and 170 ml/min blood flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Microneedle, bio-microneedle and bio-inspired microneedle: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guojun; Wu, Chengwei

    2017-04-10

    Microneedles (MNs) are micro-scale needles used for drug delivery and other targets. Micro-scale size endows them with many advantages over hypodermic needles, including painlessness, minimal invasiveness and convenient operation, but it may also lead to risk of mechanical failures, which should be prevented in the clinical applications of MNs. The objective of this review is mainly to introduce studies on the mechanics problems with respect to MNs. Firstly, the basic knowledge of MNs is introduced in brief, so that readers can understand the basic characteristics of MNs. Secondly, researches on inserting behavior and mechanical performances of MNs are discussed. Thirdly, literatures on the drug delivery and the pain resulted from the insertion of MNs are overviewed. Finally, some bio-microneedles and bio-inspired MNs are introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Amphiphilic Bio-molecules/ZnO Interface: Enhancement of Bio-affinity and Dispersibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiu-Qing; Fang Yun-Zhang; Wu Feng-Min

    2012-01-01

    The dispersibility of bio-molecules such as lecithins on the surface of ZnO nanowires are investigated for biosensor applications. Lecithins can be absorbed on an as-synthesized ZnO nanowire surface in the form of sub-micro sized clusters, while scattering well on those annealed under oxygen atmosphere. Wettability analysis reveals that the as-synthesized ZnO nanowires bear a super-hydrophobic surface, which convents to superhydrophilic after oxygen annealing. First-principles calculations indicate that the adsorption energy of ZnO with water is about 0.2 eV at a distance of 2 Å when it is superhydrophilic, suggesting that lecithin can be absorbed on the hydrophilic surface stably at this distance and the bio-affinity can be enhanced under this condition. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  19. LivBioSig: development of a toolbox for online bio-signals processing and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrain, T; Niazi, I K; Thibergien, O; Jiang, N; Farina, D

    2011-01-01

    Various research fields, such as brain computer interface, requires online acquisition and analysis of biological data to validate assumptions or to help obtaining insights into the physiological processes of the human body. In this paper we introduce the LivBioSig toolbox for online bio-signals processing and experimentation. This open source and modularized MATLAB toolbox allows performing various experiment paradigms involving online signal processing. These currently include synchronous and asynchronous BCI experiments, and event related stimulation experiments. The use of Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) makes the system suitable even for beginner Matlab users, and the experiments easily configurable. The modularized structure allows advanced users to develop the toolbox further to adapt it to the needs of the research fields.

  20. Bio-electrosprays: from bio-analytics to a generic tool for the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Suwan N

    2011-03-07

    Electrosprays or electrospraying is a process by which an aerosol is generated between two charged electrodes. This aerosol generation methodology has been known for well over a century, and has undergone exploration in aerosol and materials sciences, to many other areas of research and development. In one such exploration, electrosprays were partnered with mass spectrometry for the accurate characterisation of molecules. This technology now widely referred to as electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI MS) significantly contributes to molecular analysis and cancer biology to name a few. In fact these findings were recognised by the Chemistry Nobel Committee in 2002, and have catapulted electrosprays to many areas of research and development. In this review, the author wishes to introduce and discuss another such recent discovery, where electrosprays have been investigated for directly handling living cells and whole organisms. Over the past few years these electrosprays now referred to as "bio-electrosprays" have undergone rigorous developmental studies both in terms of understanding all the associate physical, chemical and biological sciences for completely assessing their effects, if any on the direct handling of living biological materials. Therefore, the review will bring together all the work that has contributed to fully understanding that bio-electrosprays are an inert technology for directly handling living biological materials, while elucidating some unique features they possess over competing technologies. Hence, demonstrating this approach as a flexible methodology for a wide range of applications spanning bio-analytics, diagnostics to the possible creation of synthetic tissues, for repairing and replacing damaged/ageing tissues, to the targeted and controlled delivery of personalised medicine through experimental and/or medical cells and/or genes. Therefore, elucidating the far reaching ramifications bio-electrosprays have to our health sciences

  1. Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Marcos, Vanesa; Leigh, David A

    2018-02-26

    The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines-which by and large function as switches-and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform more sophisticated tasks than is possible with any individual switch. Should we try to make molecular machines of greater complexity by trying to mimic machines from the macroscopic world or instead apply unfamiliar (and no doubt have to discover or invent currently unknown) mechanisms utilized by biological machines? Here we try to answer that question by exploring some of the advances made to date using bio-inspired machine mechanisms.

  2. Springer handbook of bio-/neuroinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The Springer Handbook of Bio-/Neuro-Informatics is the first published book in one volume that explains together the basics and the state-of-the-art of two major science disciplines in their interaction and mutual relationship, namely: information sciences, bioinformatics and neuroinformatics. Bioinformatics is the area of science which is concerned with the information processes in biology and the development and applications of methods, tools and systems for storing and processing of biological information thus facilitating new knowledge discovery. Neuroinformatics is the area of science which is concerned with the information processes in biology and the development and applications of methods, tools and systems for storing and processing of biological information thus facilitating new knowledge discovery. The text contains 62 chapters organized in 12 parts, 6 of them covering topics from information science and bioinformatics, and 6 cover topics from information science and neuroinformatics. Each chapter ...

  3. Radiation application for upgrading of bio resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Young Il; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lee, Sang Jae; Kim, Yeon Ku; Chang, Hwa Hyoung; Song, In Geun; Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Gab Jin

    2000-04-01

    To degrade lignin which is the most difficult fraction to be degraded in cellulosic bio resources and reuse as valuable formats, the improved strains of edible mushroom with more highly ligno cellulolytic activity were induced by γ-ray radiation and analysed their physiological and genetical characteristics. Mnp, Lac gene related to be the above were cloned. From the base sequence analysis, it seemed that there could be specific radiation-sensitive spots on the gene of mutants. anti mutagenicity, glyceollin elicitation activity and synergistic effects with indole acetic acid were found promisingly from the extracts of their cultural byproducts. And also were the byproducts expected to be useful for the candidate of subsidiary animal feed. By the radiation mutation, it seemed to be possible to induce the improved strains of antifungal activity, too. (author)

  4. Radiation application for upgrading of bio resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Young Il; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lee, Sang Jae; Kim, Yeon Ku; Chang, Hwa Hyoung; Song, In Geun; Lee, Ki Sung; Ko, Dong Kyu; Lee, Sung Ho; Han, Gab Jin

    2000-04-01

    To degrade lignin which is the most difficult fraction to be degraded in cellulosic bio resources and reuse as valuable formats, the improved strains of edible mushroom with more highly ligno cellulolytic activity were induced by {gamma}-ray radiation and analysed their physiological and genetical characteristics. Mnp, Lac gene related to be the above were cloned. From the base sequence analysis, it seemed that there could be specific radiation-sensitive spots on the gene of mutants. anti mutagenicity, glyceollin elicitation activity and synergistic effects with indole acetic acid were found promisingly from the extracts of their cultural byproducts. And also were the byproducts expected to be useful for the candidate of subsidiary animal feed. By the radiation mutation, it seemed to be possible to induce the improved strains of antifungal activity, too. (author)

  5. HSP as bio dosemeters; HSP como biodosimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R. [Grupo Academico de Radiobiologia, UAZ, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    A review of the more important passages for the field of the radiological protection, from the discovery, beginnings of the utilization of the radiations emitting, passing to the legislation proposals and the transformations that had been suffer to establish the international standards of radiological protection. The paradigms on the effects and chronologically the emanated discoveries of the cellular research and the measurement of cellular products in the species and the diverse alive beings making emphasis in evaluating the expression of the heat-shock proteins caused by low doses of gamma radiation, these are used as radiation bio monitors and of other agents that cause cellular stress and lastly a prospective of the future of the radiobiology. (Author)

  6. Bio-inspired photonic crystals with superwettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Minxuan; Wang, Jingxia; Jiang, Lei

    2016-12-21

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted enormous research interest due to their unique light manipulation and potential applications in sensing, catalysts, detection, displays, solar cells and other fields. In particular, many novel applications of PCs are derived from their surface wettability. Generally, the wettability of PCs is determined by a combination of its surface geometrical structures and surface chemical compositions. This review focuses on the recent developments in the mechanism, fabrication and application of bio-inspired PCs with superwettability. It includes information on constructing superwetting PCs based on designing the topographical structure and regulating the surface chemical composition, and information on extending the practical applications of superwetting PCs in humidity/oil/solvent sensing, actuating, anti-fouling and liquid-impermeable surface, chemical detection, etc.

  7. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  8. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Arami-Niya, Arash; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.; Noor, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  9. Nano-sensing of the orientation of fluorescing molecules with active coated nano-particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arslanagic, Samel; Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using active coated nano-particles to determine the orientation of fluorescing molecules is reported. By treating each fluorescing molecule as an electric Hertzian dipole, single and multiple fluorescing molecules emitting coherently and incoherently in various orientations...... are considered in the presence of active coated nano-particles. It is demonstrated that in addition to offering a means to determine the orientation of a single molecule or the over-all orientation of the molecules surrounding it, the nature of the far-field response from the active coated nano-particles...

  10. Bio-indicators for radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1990-12-01

    In nuclear facilities, such as Chalk River Laboratories, dose to the atomic radiation workers (ARWs) is assessed routinely by using physical dosimeters and bioassay procedures in accordance with regulatory recommendations. However, these procedures may be insufficient in some circumstances, e.g., in cases where the reading of the physical dosimeters is questioned, in cases of radiation accidents where the person(s) in question was not wearing a dosimeter, or in the event of a radiation emergency when an exposure above the dose limits is possible. The desirability of being able to assess radiation dose on the basis of radio-biological effects has prompted the Dosimetric Research Branch to investigate the suitability of biological devices and techniques that could be used for this purpose. Current biological dosimetry concepts suggest that there does not appear to be any bio-indicator that could reliably measure the very low doses that are routinely measured by the physical devices presently in use. Nonetheless, bio-indicators may be useful in providing valuable supplementary information in cases of unusual radiation exposures, such as when the estimated body doses are doubtful because of lack of proper physical measurements, or in cases where available results need to be confirmed for medical treatment plannings. This report evaluates the present state of biological dosimetry and, in particular, assesses the efficiency and limits of individual indicators. This has led to the recommendation of a few promising research areas that may result in the development of appropriate biological dosimeters for operational and emergency needs at Chalk River

  11. Extraction of Bio-oils from Microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooney, Michael; Young, Greg; Nagle, Nick

    2009-12-01

    A wide variety of terrestrial biomass feed stocks have been identified as suitable candidates for fractionation and conversion into biofuels. In particular, microalgae have been promoted as a future source of transportation fuels primarily because of their stated potential to produce up to 10 times more oil per acre than traditional biofuel crops. Their ability to grow relatively fast, be harvested on a daily basis, and grown in earthen ponds or closed photobioreactors that occupy marginal or poor crop lands using salt or brackish water, are often referenced. When these attractive traits are coupled with the potential to concomitantly harvest valuable co-products such as biopolymers, proteins, and animal feeds, one can see why microalgae are often touted as biotechnology's “green gold”. The development of large-scale microalgae farms, however, has been slowed by limitations in downstream processing technology. For example, traditional methods to dewater, extract, and recover bio-oil from oil-seeds possess little utility for microalgae. The extreme requirement of dewatering poses tremendous hurdles for any technology processing biofuels from microalgae. To further complicate matters, identifying the most appropriate paths for appropriate extraction technology depends heavily on the microalgal species and its cultivation status, both of which are highly characterized for higher plants as compared to microalgae. In this review we discuss existing extraction methodologies as they have and can be applied to microalgae. Commentary is provided on their potential as a unit operation that exists within the framework of an industrial-scale microalgal cultivation process that extends from the production of biomass in photobioreactors to the fractionation of the recovered bio-oil.

  12. Four principles of bio-musicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2015-03-19

    As a species-typical trait of Homo sapiens, musicality represents a cognitively complex and biologically grounded capacity worthy of intensive empirical investigation. Four principles are suggested here as prerequisites for a successful future discipline of bio-musicology. These involve adopting: (i) a multicomponent approach which recognizes that musicality is built upon a suite of interconnected capacities, of which none is primary; (ii) a pluralistic Tinbergian perspective that addresses and places equal weight on questions of mechanism, ontogeny, phylogeny and function; (iii) a comparative approach, which seeks and investigates animal homologues or analogues of specific components of musicality, wherever they can be found; and (iv) an ecologically motivated perspective, which recognizes the need to study widespread musical behaviours across a range of human cultures (and not focus solely on Western art music or skilled musicians). Given their pervasiveness, dance and music created for dancing should be considered central subcomponents of music, as should folk tunes, work songs, lullabies and children's songs. Although the precise breakdown of capacities required by the multicomponent approach remains open to debate, and different breakdowns may be appropriate to different purposes, I highlight four core components of human musicality--song, drumming, social synchronization and dance--as widespread and pervasive human abilities spanning across cultures, ages and levels of expertise. Each of these has interesting parallels in the animal kingdom (often analogies but in some cases apparent homologies also). Finally, I suggest that the search for universal capacities underlying human musicality, neglected for many years, should be renewed. The broad framework presented here illustrates the potential for a future discipline of bio-musicology as a rich field for interdisciplinary and comparative research.

  13. Process attributes in bio-ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade André Q

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical processes can provide essential information about the (mal- functioning of an organism and are thus frequently represented in biomedical terminologies and ontologies, including the GO Biological Process branch. These processes often need to be described and categorised in terms of their attributes, such as rates or regularities. The adequate representation of such process attributes has been a contentious issue in bio-ontologies recently; and domain ontologies have correspondingly developed ad hoc workarounds that compromise interoperability and logical consistency. Results We present a design pattern for the representation of process attributes that is compatible with upper ontology frameworks such as BFO and BioTop. Our solution rests on two key tenets: firstly, that many of the sorts of process attributes which are biomedically interesting can be characterised by the ways that repeated parts of such processes constitute, in combination, an overall process; secondly, that entities for which a full logical definition can be assigned do not need to be treated as primitive within a formal ontology framework. We apply this approach to the challenge of modelling and automatically classifying examples of normal and abnormal rates and patterns of heart beating processes, and discuss the expressivity required in the underlying ontology representation language. We provide full definitions for process attributes at increasing levels of domain complexity. Conclusions We show that a logical definition of process attributes is feasible, though limited by the expressivity of DL languages so that the creation of primitives is still necessary. This finding may endorse current formal upper-ontology frameworks as a way of ensuring consistency, interoperability and clarity.

  14. Bio and health informatics meets cloud : BioVLab as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Heejoon; Jung, Inuk; Lee, Hyungro; Marru, Suresh; Lee, Seong-Whan; Kim, Sun

    2013-01-01

    The exponential increase of genomic data brought by the advent of the next or the third generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and the dramatic drop in sequencing cost have driven biological and medical sciences to data-driven sciences. This revolutionary paradigm shift comes with challenges in terms of data transfer, storage, computation, and analysis of big bio/medical data. Cloud computing is a service model sharing a pool of configurable resources, which is a suitable workbench to address these challenges. From the medical or biological perspective, providing computing power and storage is the most attractive feature of cloud computing in handling the ever increasing biological data. As data increases in size, many research organizations start to experience the lack of computing power, which becomes a major hurdle in achieving research goals. In this paper, we review the features of publically available bio and health cloud systems in terms of graphical user interface, external data integration, security and extensibility of features. We then discuss about issues and limitations of current cloud systems and conclude with suggestion of a biological cloud environment concept, which can be defined as a total workbench environment assembling computational tools and databases for analyzing bio/medical big data in particular application domains.

  15. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Junliang; Yu, Xiong

    2012-01-01

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts. (topical review)

  16. Bio-degradable highly fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles for bio-medical imaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenko, Tatjana; Rix, Anne; Ludwanowski, Simon; Go, Dennis; Kiessling, Fabian; Lederle, Wiltrud; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2017-09-07

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles exhibit strong fluorescence and have been applied for biological fluorescence imaging in cell culture and in small animals. However, conjugated polymer particles are hydrophobic and often chemically inert materials with diameters ranging from below 50 nm to several microns. As such, conjugated polymer nanoparticles cannot be excreted through the renal system. This drawback has prevented their application for clinical bio-medical imaging. Here, we present fully conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on imidazole units. These nanoparticles can be bio-degraded by activated macrophages. Reactive oxygen species induce scission of the conjugated polymer backbone at the imidazole unit, leading to complete decomposition of the particles into soluble low molecular weight fragments. Furthermore, the nanoparticles can be surface functionalized for directed targeting. The approach opens a wide range of opportunities for conjugated polymer particles in the fields of medical imaging, drug-delivery, and theranostics.Conjugated polymer nanoparticles have been applied for biological fluorescence imaging in cell culture and in small animals, but cannot readily be excreted through the renal system. Here the authors show fully conjugated polymer nanoparticles based on imidazole units that can be bio-degraded by activated macrophages.

  17. Directional neutronometric probe; Kierunkowa sonda neutronometryczna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strzelecki, M.; Owczarczyk, A.; Wieclaw, B.; Szpilowwski, S.

    1991-11-04

    The neutronometric probe for direction and rate of groundwater flow measurements has been designed. The probe consists in collimated proportional neutron counter and also collimated and shielded neutron source. The neutron source can be disconnected from the detection part of the probe and transported separately in especially designed container. In the place of measurement the source can be easily joined to the detection part. 1 fig.

  18. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy

  19. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid

  20. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  1. Gravity Probe B orbit determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shestople, P; Ndili, A; Parkinson, B W; Small, H; Hanuschak, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite was equipped with a pair of redundant Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers used to provide navigation solutions for real-time and post-processed orbit determination (OD), as well as to establish the relation between vehicle time and coordinated universal time. The receivers performed better than the real-time position requirement of 100 m rms per axis. Post-processed solutions indicated an rms position error of 2.5 m and an rms velocity error of 2.2 mm s −1 . Satellite laser ranging measurements provided independent verification of the GPS-derived GP-B orbit. We discuss the modifications and performance of the Trimble Advance Navigation System Vector III GPS receivers. We describe the GP-B precision orbit and detail the OD methodology, including ephemeris errors and the laser ranging measurements. (paper)

  2. Nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear experiments which probe the parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries and lepton-number conservation are reviewed. The P-violating NN interaction, studied in the NN system and in light nuclei, provides an unique window on ΔS=0 hadronic weak processes. Results are in accord with expectations. Sensitive searches for T-violation via detailed balance, T-odd correlations in γ and β-decay, and a possible neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are discussed. No T-violation is observed. The EDM limit is almost good enough to eliminate one of the leading theoretical explanations for CP violation. Experimental studies of double β-decay are reviewed. Although ββ nu nu decay has been convincingly detected in geochemical experiments there is no evidence for the lepton number violating ββ decay mode

  3. Nuclear reactions as structure probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Bernard; Cugnon, Joseph; Roussel-Chomaz, Patricia; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc; Oliveira Santos, Francois de; Bauge, Eric; Poves, Alfredo; Keeley, Nicholas; Simenel, Cedric; Avez, Benoit; Lacroix, Denis; Baye, Daniel; Cortina-Gil, Dolores; Pons, Alexandre

    2007-09-01

    This publication gathers courses which aim at giving a view on new experiments which are performed by using radioactive beams, notably low intensity beams, in different accelerators, and allow the structure of very exotic nuclei to be characterized. Experimental as well as theoretical aspects are thus addressed. The contributions propose: a brief history of nuclear reactions and of instruments used to study them from the discovery of nucleus to the DWBA (Distorted Wave Born Approximation); an overview of nuclear reactions; experimental techniques; the theory of collisions at low energy; resonant elastic scattering, inelastic scattering and astrophysical reactions; to probe nuclear structure with nucleons; shell model and spectroscopic factors; analysis of transfer reactions and determination of spectroscopic factors; microscopic approaches of nuclear dynamics; theoretical aspects of dissociation reactions; experimental aspects of knockout reactions; research in oenology with the chemical characterisation of defective ageing of dry white wines

  4. Pitfalls in Kelvin probe measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, Oliver M.; Melzer, Christian; Seggern, Heinz von

    2009-01-01

    We report on the interpretation of thickness-dependent surface potential profiles in insulators on metal substrates measured by Kelvin probe method. The electrical potentials are calculated within a self-consistent model taking both the conductive substrate and the insulator into account. It is shown that interpreting the Kelvin potentials for different layer thicknesses as the prevailing potential profile of a thick insulator film is generally wrong. Even more controversially, the reconstruction of the potential profile in a thick insulator layer on the basis of layer-thickness-dependent Kelvin measurements alone is per se impossible. This will be demonstrated exemplarily on the basis of doped and undoped organic films on conductive substrates.

  5. Real-time multimodal sensing in nano/bio environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo

    As a sensing device in nano-scale, scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a powerful tool for exploring nano world. Nevertheless two fundamental problems tackle the development and application of SPM based imaging and measurement: slow imaging/measurement speed and inaccuracy of motion or position control. Usually, SPM imaging/properties measuring speed is too slow to capture a dynamic observation on sample surface. In addition, Both SPM imaging and properties measurement always experience positioning inaccuracy problems caused by hysteresis and creep of the piezo scanner. This dissertation will try to solve these issues and proposed a SPM based real-time multimodal sensing system which can be used in nano/bio environment. First, a compressive sensing based video rate fast SPM imaging system is shown as an efficient method to dynamically capture the sample surface change with the imaging speed 1.5 frame/s with the scan size of 500 nm * 500 nm. Besides topography imaging, a new additional modal of SPM: vibration mode, will be introduced, and it is developed by us to investigate the subsurface mechanical properties of the elastic sample such as cells and bacteria. A followed up study of enzymatic hydrolysis will demonstrate the ability of in situ observation of single molecule event using video rate SPM. After that we will introduce another modal of this SPM sensing system: accurate electrical properties measurement. In this electrical properties measurement mode, a compressive feedbacks based non-vector space control approach is proposed in order to improve the accuracy of SPM based nanomanipulations. Instead of sensors, the local images are used as both the input and feedback of a non-vector space closed-loop controller. A followed up study will also be introduced to shown the important role of non-vector space control in the study of conductivity distribution of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. At the end of this dissertation, some future work will be also proposed to

  6. The Oxford Probe: an open access five-hole probe for aerodynamic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, B F; Povey, T

    2017-01-01

    The Oxford Probe is an open access five-hole probe designed for experimental aerodynamic measurements. The open access probe can be manufactured by the end user via additive manufacturing (metal or plastic). The probe geometry, drawings, calibration maps, and software are available under a creative commons license. The purpose is to widen access to aerodynamic measurement techniques in education and research environments. There are many situations in which the open access probe will allow results of comparable accuracy to a well-calibrated commercial probe. We discuss the applications and limitations of the probe, and compare the calibration maps for 16 probes manufactured in different materials and at different scales, but with the same geometrical design. (paper)

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-oil to Fuel for Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard

    The incitement for decreasing the modern society's dependency on fossil based fuel and energy is both environmentally and politically driven. Development of biofuels could be part of the future solution. The combination of ash pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of the produced bio-oil has been...... identied as a prospective route to bio-fuels. The upgrading is most favorably done by hydrodeoxygenation (HDO), producing bio-fuels at a quality equivalent to conventional fossil fuels. The topic of this Ph.D. thesis has been the development of active and stable catalysts for this reaction. In the search...

  8. Bio-objects’ political capacity: a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeseele, Pieter; Hendrickx, Kim; Pavone, Vincenzo; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the merits of foregrounding the dichotomy of politicization vs de-politicization for our understanding of bio-objects in order to study their production, circulation, and governance in European societies. By asking how bio-objects are configured in science, policy, public, and media discourses and practices, we focus on the role of socio-technical configurations in generating political relations. The bio-object thereby serves as an entry point to approach and conceptualize “the political” in an innovative way. PMID:23630150

  9. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  10. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  11. Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft in animals: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Schou, S; Stavropoulos, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no differences between the use of Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone as graft for maxillary sinus floor augmentation (MSFA) applying the lateral window technique, as evaluated in animals. A MEDLINE (Pub...... of the graft improved significantly with increased proportion of Bio-Oss. Bone regeneration, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), biomechanical implant test values, and biodegradation of Bio-Oss after MSFA with Bio-Oss or Bio-Oss mixed with autogenous bone have never been compared within the same study in animals...

  12. Retrofitting hetrotrophically cultivated algae biomass as pyrolytic feedstock for biogas, bio-char and bio-oil production encompassing biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Omprakash; Agarwal, Manu; Naresh Kumar, A; Venkata Mohan, S

    2015-02-01

    Algal biomass grown hetrotrophically in domestic wastewater was evaluated as pyrolytic feedstock for harnessing biogas, bio-oil and bio-char. Freshly harvested microalgae (MA) and lipid extracted microalgae (LEMA) were pyrolysed in packed bed reactor in the presence and absence of sand as additive. MA (without sand additive) depicted higher biogas (420 ml/g; 800 °C; 3 h) and bio-oil (0.70 ml/g; 500 °C; 3 h). Sand addition enhanced biogas production (210 ml/g; 600 °C; 2 h) in LEMA operation. The composition of bio-gas and bio-oil was found to depend on the nature of feedstock as well as the process conditions viz., pyrolytic-temperature, retention time and presence of additive. Sand additive improved the H2 composition while pyrolytic temperature increment caused a decline in CO2 fraction. Bio-char productivity increased with increasing temperature specifically with LEMA. Integration of thermo-chemical process with microalgae cultivation showed to yield multiple resources and accounts for environmental sustainability in the bio-refinery framework. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The TORE SUPRA fast reciprocating RF probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, C.E. Jr.; Harris, J.H.; Haste, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    A fast reciprocating ICRF (Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies) probe was installed and operated on TORE SUPRA during 1992/1993. The body of the probe was originally used on the ATF experiment at ORNL. The probe was adapted for use on TORE SUPRA, and mounted on one of the two fast reciprocating probe mounts. The probe consists of two orthogonal single-turn wire loops, mounted so that one loop senses toroidal RF magnetic fields and the other senses poloidal RF magnetic fields. The probe began operation in June, 1993. The probe active area is approximately 5 cm long by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm by 2 cm, and the reciprocating mount has a slow stroke (5 cm/sec) of 30 cm and a fast stroke (1.5 m/sec) of about 10 cm. The probe was operated at distances from the plasma edge ranging from 30 cm to -5 cm (i.e., inside the last closed flux surface). The probe design, electronics, calibration, data acquisition and data processing are discussed. First data from the probe are presented as a function of ICRF power, distance from the plasma, loop orientation, and other plasma parameters. Initial data shows parametric instabilities do not play an important role for ICRF in the TORE SUPRA edge and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas. Additionally it is observed that the probe signal has little or no dependence on position in the SOL/plasma edge

  14. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  15. Finding abbreviations in biomedical literature: three BioC-compatible modules and four BioC-formatted corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islamaj Doğan, Rezarta; Comeau, Donald C; Yeganova, Lana; Wilbur, W John

    2014-01-01

    BioC is a recently created XML format to share text data and annotations, and an accompanying input/output library to promote interoperability of data and tools for natural language processing of biomedical text. This article reports the use of BioC to address a common challenge in processing biomedical text information-that of frequent entity name abbreviation. We selected three different abbreviation definition identification modules, and used the publicly available BioC code to convert these independent modules into BioC-compatible components that interact seamlessly with BioC-formatted data, and other BioC-compatible modules. In addition, we consider four manually annotated corpora of abbreviations in biomedical text: the Ab3P corpus of 1250 PubMed abstracts, the BIOADI corpus of 1201 PubMed abstracts, the old MEDSTRACT corpus of 199 PubMed(®) citations and the Schwartz and Hearst corpus of 1000 PubMed abstracts. Annotations in these corpora have been re-evaluated by four annotators and their consistency and quality levels have been improved. We converted them to BioC-format and described the representation of the annotations. These corpora are used to measure the three abbreviation-finding algorithms and the results are given. The BioC-compatible modules, when compared with their original form, have no difference in their efficiency, running time or any other comparable aspects. They can be conveniently used as a common pre-processing step for larger multi-layered text-mining endeavors. Database URL: Code and data are available for download at the BioC site: http://bioc.sourceforge.net. Published by Oxford University Press 2014. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. BioTfueL Project: Targeting the Development of Second-Generation Bio-diesel and Bio-jet Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguie, J.C.; Ullrich, N.; Porot, P.; Bournay, L.; Hecquet, M.; Rousseau, J.

    2013-01-01

    2. generation biofuels will have an important part to take in the energy transition as far as fuels are concerned. Using non edible biomass, they will avoid any direct competition with food usage. Within second generation biofuels, the BTL route consists in the production of middle distillates (Diesel and jet fuel) via gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. These fuels are called 'drop in' fuels; this means that to be used they technically do not request any modification in the vehicle whatever the blending rate with conventional fuels. This route is currently at the pre-industrial phase where demonstration is required. This article presents the BioTfueL project which has been created by Axens, CEA, IFP Energies Nouvelles, Sofiproteol, ThyssenKrupp Uhde and Total. This project is focused on the original concept of co-processing (biomass can be gasified together with fossil feedstock) and proposes to develop and demonstrate a full process chain to be commercialized worldwide via licensing. (authors)

  17. A probe for Eddy current inspection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface probe for Eddy current inspection devices. According to the invention, said probe comprises two magnetic core windings, with their axes in parallel relationship and at right angles to the surface of the part to be inspected. This can be applied to the nondestructive inspection of reactor components [fr

  18. Inspecting Friction Stir Welding using Electromagnetic Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, David G.

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the use of advanced electromagnetic probes to measure the dimensions, the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, and related other properties of friction stir welds (FSWs) between parts made of the same or different aluminum alloy(s). The probes are of the type described in in another Tech Brief. To recapitulate: A probe of this type is essentially an eddy-current probe that includes a primary (driver) winding that meanders and multiple secondary (sensing) windings that meander along the primary winding. Electrical conductivity is commonly used as a measure of heat treatment and tempering of aluminum alloys, but prior to the development of these probes, the inadequate sensitivity and limited accuracy of electrical-conductivity probes precluded such use on FSWs between different aluminum alloys, and the resolution of those probes was inadequate for measurement of FSW dimensions with positions and metallurgical properties. In contrast, the present probes afford adequate accuracy and spatial resolution for the purposes of measuring the dimensions of FSW welds and correlating spatially varying electrical conductivities with metallurgical properties, including surface defects.

  19. Automatic kelvin probe compatible with ultrahigh vacuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baikie, I.D.; van der Werf, Kees; Oerbekke, H.; Broeze, J.; van Silfhout, Arend

    1989-01-01

    This article describes a new type of in situ ultrahigh‐vacuum compatible kelvin probe based on a voice‐coil driving mechanism. This design exhibits several advantages over conventional mechanical feed‐through and (in situ) piezoelectric devices in regard to the possibility of multiple probe

  20. Surface charge measurement using an electrostatic probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1998-01-01

    During the 1960s, the first measurements of charge on dielectric surfaces using simple electrostatic probes were reported. However it is only within the last 10 years that a proper understanding of the probe response has been developed. This situation arose as a consequence of the earlier studies...

  1. Quality of the neutron probe calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libardi, Paulo Leonel; Moraes, Sergio Oliveira

    1997-01-01

    An experiment of neutron probe calibration has been performed, involving various volume size samples and collected at various distances from the access tubes. The experiment aimed to give some answers to questions such as suitable sample physical volume, always use of the same volume and sample distance from the neutron probe access tube

  2. Bio-based polyurethane foams from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanzione, M.; Russo, V.; Sorrentino, A.; Tesser, R.; Lavorgna, M.; Oliviero, M.; Di Serio, M.; Iannace, S.; Verdolotti, L.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, bio-derived natural materials, such as vegetable oils, polysaccharides and biomass represent a rich source of hydroxyl precursors for the synthesis of polyols which can be potentially used to synthesize "greener" polyurethane foams. Herein a bio-based precursor (obtained from succinic acid) was used as a partial replacement of conventional polyol to synthesize PU foams. A mixture of conventional and bio-based polyol in presence of catalysts, silicone surfactant and diphenylmethane di-isocyanate (MDI) was expanded in a mold and cured for two hours at room temperature. Experimental results highlighted the suitability of this bio-precursor to be used in the production of flexible PU foams. Furthermore the chemo-physical characterization of the resulting foams show an interesting improvement in thermal stability and elastic modulus with respect to the PU foams produced with conventional polyol.

  3. BioLandMani sünd kontrolli all

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Euroopa Liidu haridusprogrammide Socrates, Leonardo ja Youth keskuse ekspertide külaskäigust Eesti Põllumajandusülikooli, et kontrollida Baltimaade ühise magistriprogrammi BioLandMan ettevalmistamist

  4. Bio-signal based control in assistive robots: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Janet Rechy-Ramirez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, bio-signal based control has been gradually deployed in biomedical devices and assistive robots for improving the quality of life of disabled and elderly people, among which electromyography (EMG and electroencephalography (EEG bio-signals are being used widely. This paper reviews the deployment of these bio-signals in the state of art of control systems. The main aim of this paper is to describe the techniques used for (i collecting EMG and EEG signals and diving these signals into segments (data acquisition and data segmentation stage, (ii dividing the important data and removing redundant data from the EMG and EEG segments (feature extraction stage, and (iii identifying categories from the relevant data obtained in the previous stage (classification stage. Furthermore, this paper presents a summary of applications controlled through these two bio-signals and some research challenges in the creation of these control systems. Finally, a brief conclusion is summarized.

  5. A review on bio-cooperative control in gait rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Alexander; Omlin, Ximena; Novak, Domen; Riener, Robert

    2011-01-01

    While gait rehabilitation robots have become increasingly common to automate treadmill training, their efficacy is still controversial. Current robots lack the ability to react compliantly to the user's voluntary effort and cognitive intention. Bio-cooperative control concepts allow integrating the patient into the control loop as part of the plant rather than seeing him as a source of disturbance. Closed loop control is thereby performed on a physiological and psychological level. In this paper, we review the concept of bio-cooperative control implemented with neurological patients during robot-assisted gait rehabilitation. We highlight its clinical importance and review our work on control strategies that allow bio-cooperative control. We finish by discussing the future potential of bio-cooperative control in rehabilitation robotics. © 2011 IEEE

  6. Bio-Nanotechnology Infrastructure and Technology Oriented Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, W. K

    2008-01-01

    .... Five projects were supported: next generation information storage devices-both three-dimensional magnetic and protein-based, high power cold cathodes for microwave generators, carbon nanotube-based bio-sensors, silicon/polymer...

  7. Comparison between different bio-treatments of a hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramya

    2011-10-31

    Rad DNA Engine® Peltier Thermal Cycler (Bio-Rad. Laboratories, Mexico, North America) and PCR amplicons were analysed on a 2% agarose gel by electrophoresis. The thermocycling condition used for 341FGC and 518R ...

  8. Envirobiosens. New trends in bio-sensing for environmental applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, S. [Cranfield Biothechnology Centre, Cranfield University (United Kingdom); Cosnier, S. [Universite Joseph-Fourier, Grenoble I, Lab. d' Electrochimie Organique et de Photochimie Redox, UMR CNRS 5630, 38 (France); Magner, E. [Limerick University, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Sciences (Ireland)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The development of useful sensor systems to monitor multiple pollutants is needed for many environmental applications like the pollution monitoring and processing. The advantages of chemical sensors, bio-sensors and bio-mimetic systems should be exploited to fill specific niche applications in environmental engineering. Sensors offer particular advantages as they can be used for rapid field assessment of pollution risks, including the effects of pollutant mixtures. This conference reviews the current state of the art for bio-sensors operating in the environment and in environmental processes to develop bio-sensors practical applications in the environmental technology. The papers are presented in three parts: enzymatic sensors for environmental monitoring; affinity sensors for environmental application; cell and tissue sensors for environmental analysis, future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  9. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

      During emergency response use of wired bio-sensors create problems for the response workers. It is difficult to transport patients and checking of data requires you to be next to the patient. We will report on work in progress regarding development of a wireless bio-monitor system that supports...... distribution and use by all involved parties of bio-sensor data during emergency response. The system is being developed in close cooperation between doctors, paramedics and IT specialists using qualitative methods including ethnographically inspired field work and simulations of future work. The system...... evaluations have already demonstrated the usefulness of being able to move patients without having to take care of wires and being able to inspect bio-sensor data without being next to the patient. However, new problems have also emerged when no wires connect a patient to a display. E.g. how do you know whose...

  10. Bio- ja geenitehnoloogia keskus on loodud / Erkki Truve

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Truve, Erkki, 1965-

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli nõukogu otsustas ümber kujundada senise materjaliteaduse ja geeni/biotehnoloogia keskuse kaheks uueks keskuseks: bio- ja geenitehnolooogia keskuseks ning materjaliteaduse keskuseks

  11. Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — BioGRID is an online interaction repository with data on raw protein and genetic interactions from major model organism species. All interaction data are freely...

  12. Liquid Bio fuels: Vegetable Oils and Bi oethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J. M.; Navarro, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Bio fuels (vegetable oils and bio ethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for bio fuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use bio fuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs

  13. Households And Bio-Resources In Plateau State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasogot, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines household dynamics as variables for bio-resource or biomass resource potentials and utilisation. Information was collected from 250 randomly selected households in five villages of the State, mainly using questionnaire administered on household heads, and a direct measurement/observation about what households have, do or say concerning the study problem. It was shown that insignificant quantity were utilised for various purposes like cooking and heating, but the bio-resources generated met both domestic and income needs of the households. It was concluded that beneficial use (compost, biogas or generation of electricity) should be found for the largely unused bio-resources and household dynamics should be integrated into bio-resource energy planning

  14. Pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to upgrade woody biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into transportation fuels by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation : (HDO) using nanospring (NS) supported catalyst via the following research objectives: (1) develop nanospring-based : catalysts (nan...

  15. BioMatriX: Sequence analysis, structure visualization, phylogenetics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bmx-biomatrix.blogspot.com) developed for biological science community to augment scientific research regarding genomics, proteomics, phylogenetics and linkage analysis in one platform. BioMatriX offers multi-functional services to perform ...

  16. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  17. Bambusa vulgaris : determination of mechanical strength as bio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    composite material. The manufactured bio-composite was made from combinations of two materials, which are bamboo scientifically named as Bambusa Vulgaris and a polymer named HDPE. The main objective of this paper is to expose the ...

  18. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  19. Neutron-based portable drug probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P. C.; Vourvopoulos, G.; Ball Howard, J.; Paschal, J.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous measurements, a probe prototype for contraband detection utilizing the neutron technique of Pulsed Fast-Thermal Neutron Analysis (PFTNA) is being constructed. The prototype weighs less than 45 kg and is composed of a probe (5 cm diameter), a power pack and a data acquisition and display system. The probe is designed to be inserted in confined spaces such as the boiler of a ship or a tanker truck filled with liquid. The probe provides information on a) the elemental content, and b) the density variations of the interrogated object. By measuring elemental content, the probe can differentiate between innocuous materials and drugs. Density variations can be found through fast neutron transmission. In all cases, hidden drugs are identified through the measurement of the elemental content of the object, and the comparison of expected and measured elemental ratios

  20. Molecular Imaging Probe Development using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kan; Wang, Ming-Wei; Lin, Wei-Yu; Phung, Duy Linh; Girgis, Mark D.; Wu, Anna M.; Tomlinson, James S.; Shen, Clifton K.-F.

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the latest advancement of microfluidics in molecular imaging probe development. Due to increasing needs for medical imaging, high demand for many types of molecular imaging probes will have to be met by exploiting novel chemistry/radiochemistry and engineering technologies to improve the production and development of suitable probes. The microfluidic-based probe synthesis is currently attracting a great deal of interest because of their potential to deliver many advantages over conventional systems. Numerous chemical reactions have been successfully performed in micro-reactors and the results convincingly demonstrate with great benefits to aid synthetic procedures, such as purer products, higher yields, shorter reaction times compared to the corresponding batch/macroscale reactions, and more benign reaction conditions. Several ‘proof-of-principle’ examples of molecular imaging probe syntheses using microfluidics, along with basics of device architecture and operation, and their potential limitations are discussed here. PMID:22977436

  1. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebed, S.; Tolmachov, M.; Kukharenko, O.; Veselov, O.

    2009-06-01

    The modified Van de Graaff accelerator with proton beam energy W ⩽ 3 MeV has been installed and put into operation at the TMM laboratory in Kiev. The laboratory incorporates the nuclear probe (NP) beam line, coupled to this accelerator. A short version of an optimized probe-forming system (PFS) has been developed for the Kiev NP. The system is based on divided triplet of the magnetic quadrupole lenses (MQLs). This PFS has two working regimes for the probe operations. The results of numerical calculations of the geometrical and ion-optical parameters of the PFS are presented. It is shown that this versatile PFS is a promising design for a modern nuclear nano-probe. A new precision adjustable MQL has been designed. Three lenses, the slit systems and target chamber are manufactured and installed at the Kiev probe beam line. Also a new data acquisition system for the Kiev NP is being developed.

  2. Recent status of the Kiev nuclear probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebed, S. [Research Laboratory ' Spectra' , TMM Ltd., ul. Chaadaeva 2b, 03148, Kiev (Ukraine)], E-mail: salmp1@ukr.net; Tolmachov, M.; Kukharenko, O.; Veselov, O. [Research Laboratory ' Spectra' , TMM Ltd., ul. Chaadaeva 2b, 03148, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The modified Van de Graaff accelerator with proton beam energy W {<=} 3 MeV has been installed and put into operation at the TMM laboratory in Kiev. The laboratory incorporates the nuclear probe (NP) beam line, coupled to this accelerator. A short version of an optimized probe-forming system (PFS) has been developed for the Kiev NP. The system is based on divided triplet of the magnetic quadrupole lenses (MQLs). This PFS has two working regimes for the probe operations. The results of numerical calculations of the geometrical and ion-optical parameters of the PFS are presented. It is shown that this versatile PFS is a promising design for a modern nuclear nano-probe. A new precision adjustable MQL has been designed. Three lenses, the slit systems and target chamber are manufactured and installed at the Kiev probe beam line. Also a new data acquisition system for the Kiev NP is being developed.

  3. Produktionsunderlag för fixtur till BioProcessramar

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is made on behalf of General Electric Healthcare Bio-Sciences AB in Umea. GE Healthcare is a company that produces health care products. One of these products is BioProcess which is used in medical research and the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals. The product often have to be modified since itis soldcustomer modified. There are two different frame sizes. The frames are often tilted 90 degrees to make the modification areas easier to access. The modifications made is most...

  4. Silicon nanocrystals: from bio-imager to erbium sensitizer

    OpenAIRE

    Prtljaga, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been centred on the light emitting properties of silicon nanocrystals and the possible applications of this particular material platform to various topics ranging from bio-imaging to erbium ion sensitization. Silicon nanocrystals as bio-imaging agent have been investigated by employing colloidal dispersion of individual silicon nanocrystals where surface properties could be controlled to a great extent. By using a suitable functionalization scheme, high quality hyd...

  5. Bio-Mechatronics: From Insects to In-Vivo Mechatronics

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidyanathan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Automatic Control & Systems Engineering is pleased to announce the following seminar: Bio-Mechatronics: From Insects to In-Vivo Mechatronics Dr Ravi Vaidyanathan Department of Mechanical Engineering Imperial College Wednesday, 25th September 2013 at 14:00, LT02, Sir Henry Stephenson Building Mechatronics is the synergistic combination of precision engineering, electronic control, and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes. Bio-Mechatron...

  6. Opportunities for a bio-based economy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.; Hoeven, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries) and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities. (author)

  7. Bio-power, Agamben, and emerging nursing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jane M

    2008-01-01

    This philosophical article posits that an emerging theme in contemporary nursing epistemology is bio-power and proposes the use of philosopher Giorgio Agamben's perspectives as a useful approach for the future investigation of bio-power in nursing knowledge. Building upon Meleis' characterization of diversity as the most recent "milestone" of contemporary theoretical development of the nursing discipline, selected recent texts from the nursing literature are analyzed, and implications for future nursing knowledge in the context of Agamben's work are explored.

  8. Advancements in Bio-radar Speech Signal Detection Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Fuming; Li Sheng; An Qiang; Zhang Ziqi; Wang Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    Speech signal acquisition is of great significance for human communication. Bio-radar technology has many advantages, such as it is noncontact, noninvasive, safe, highly directional, highly sensitivity, immune to strong acoustical disturbance and penetrable. This technology has important applications in the field of speech detection. In this paper, we first review the developmental history of speech detection technology, and then summarize the status of bio-radar speech detection technolog...

  9. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  10. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    bioactive glasses is about 35 GPa, hence implants from these materials are stiffer than cortical bone (15–25 GPa). Main disadvantages of the bio-active glasses are their poor mechanical properties. The fracture toughness of bio-active glass ceramics (1⋅2–2⋅25 MN/m3/2) is lower than that of cortical bone (2⋅2–5⋅7 ...

  11. Opportunities for a Bio-based Economy in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sanders

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities.

  12. Multi-culture solar heated bio-shelter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A rooftop greenhouse (bio-shelter) that is heated with active and passive solar systems is presented. The intent of the greenhouse is to grow vegetables hydroponically the year-round using a nutrient flow technique; and to growth the giant tropical Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a recycling raceway water system heated with solar power. The produce grown was continuously monitored and the harvests weighed in order to estimate the year-round production potential of the bio-shelter greenhouse.

  13. Radiotracer experiments with biopolymers and bio-compatible polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, D.

    2007-01-01

    The applications of biopolymer and biocompatible polymer employing radiotracers have been reviewed. Two different aspects have been studied. Environmentally benign methodologies for the removal, immobilization, separation or speciation of heavy, toxic elements and clinically important radionuclides have been developed using biopolymer and bio-compatible polymer as well. The complex formation ability of a bio-compatible polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with clinically important radionuclides have been tested which have tremendous importance in radiopharmaceutical sciences. (author)

  14. Brucella BioR Regulator Defines a Complex Regulatory Mechanism for Bacterial Biotin Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Zhang, Huimin; Srinivas, Swaminath

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme cofactor biotin (vitamin H or B7) is an energetically expensive molecule whose de novo biosynthesis requires 20 ATP equivalents. It seems quite likely that diverse mechanisms have evolved to tightly regulate its biosynthesis. Unlike the model regulator BirA, a bifunctional biotin protein ligase with the capability of repressing the biotin biosynthetic pathway, BioR has been recently reported by us as an alternative machinery and a new type of GntR family transcriptional factor that can repress the expression of the bioBFDAZ operon in the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, quite unusually, a closely related human pathogen, Brucella melitensis, has four putative BioR-binding sites (both bioR and bioY possess one site in the promoter region, whereas the bioBFDAZ [bio] operon contains two tandem BioR boxes). This raised the question of whether BioR mediates the complex regulatory network of biotin metabolism. Here, we report that this is the case. The B. melitensis BioR ortholog was overexpressed and purified to homogeneity, and its solution structure was found to be dimeric. Functional complementation in a bioR isogenic mutant of A. tumefaciens elucidated that Brucella BioR is a functional repressor. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that the four predicted BioR sites of Brucella plus the BioR site of A. tumefaciens can all interact with the Brucella BioR protein. In a reporter strain that we developed on the basis of a double mutant of A. tumefaciens (the ΔbioR ΔbioBFDA mutant), the β-galactosidase (β-Gal) activity of three plasmid-borne transcriptional fusions (bioBbme-lacZ, bioYbme-lacZ, and bioRbme-lacZ) was dramatically decreased upon overexpression of Brucella bioR. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed that the expression of bioBFDA and bioY is significantly elevated upon removal of bioR from B. melitensis. Together, we conclude that Brucella BioR is not only a negative autoregulator but also a repressor of

  15. Quantum Bio-Informatics:From Quantum Information to Bio-Informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Freudenberg, W; Ohya, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this volume is examine bio-informatics and quantum information, which are growing rapidly at present, and to attempt to connect the two, with a view to enumerating and solving the many fundamental problems they entail. To this end, we look for interdisciplinary bridges in mathematics, physics, and information and life sciences. In particular, research into a new paradigm for information science and life science on the basis of quantum theory is emphasized. Sample Chapter(s). Markov Fields on Graphs (599 KB). Contents: Markov Fields on Graphs (L Accardi & H Ohno); Some Aspects of

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  17. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Algieri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported.

  18. Future bio-energy potential under various natural constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Vliet, Jasper van; Stehfest, Elke

    2009-01-01

    Potentials for bio-energy have been estimated earlier on the basis of estimates of potentially available land, excluding certain types of land use or land cover (land required for food production and forests). In this paper, we explore how such estimates may be influenced by other factors such as land degradation, water scarcity and biodiversity concerns. Our analysis indicates that of the original bio-energy potential estimate of 150, 80 EJ occurs in areas classified as from mild to severe land degradation, water stress, or with high biodiversity value. Yield estimates were also found to have a significant impact on potential estimates. A further 12.5% increase in global yields would lead to an increase in bio-energy potential of about 50%. Changes in bio-energy potential are shown to have a direct impact on bio-energy use in the energy model TIMER, although the relevant factor is the bio-energy potential at different cost levels and not the overall potential.

  19. Programming cell fate on bio-functionalized silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premnath, Priyatha; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    Controlling the growth of cells on the surface of silicon without an additive layer or topographical modification is unexplored. This research article delineates the discovery of unique properties of a bio-functionalized silicon substrate, programmed to repel or control cells, generated by ultrafast femtosecond pulse interaction with silicon. Remarkably, bio-functionalization in any shape or size without change in topology or morphology is observed indicating only sub-surface phase transformations. Material characterization reveals the presence of a unique mixture of phases of SiO2 and Si. Consequently, these variations in phase alter the physicochemical characteristics on the surface of silicon resulting in its bio-functionalization. The culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts shows unique adhesion characteristics on these bio-functionalized silicon surfaces that include cell controlling, cell trapping, and cell shaping. Furthermore, the directionality of fibroblasts is restrained parallel to bio-functionalized zones as evidenced by changes in cytoskeleton. The controlling of proliferation, migration and adhesion of cells is attributed to unique phase bio-functionalization. This method presents considerable promise in a myriad of applications such as tissue engineering, MEMS, and lab-on-a-chip devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. investigación en Bioética.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meneses Carmona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito esboza cuestiones acerca del lugar y el problema de la Bioética, tanto como preguntas que no tienen respuestas pre-establecidas y, como tal, exigen investigación. Como lugar, en Bioética se heredan las transformaciones de la racionalidad, la Epistemología y la Ética ocurridas en las interacciones sociales asumidas como contexto; la "Bioética" no tiene un lugar establecido y propio, se sitúa en un campo que se configura sólo al asumir la pregunta por la vida y por lo vivo. Propongo la tesis siguiente: La Bioética se constituye en la acción de introducir la vida como problema en lo cotidiano; esto conlleva la creación de nuevas sensibilidades a lo aún no sentido, lo aún no pensado, lo aún no valorado. De esta manera, el lugar de la Bioética se muestra como un juego de figuras diversas en y con las que se crean opciones de otras vidas aún no vividas y que remite a los aprendizajes como exposición al cambio y a las narrativas en las que éstos ocurren y son posibles. Esta tesis se perfila, en la perspectiva de la Bioética, como el conocimiento de cómo usar el conocimiento.

  1. BioCMOS Interfaces and Co-Design

    CERN Document Server

    Carrara, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    The application of CMOS circuits and ASIC VLSI systems to problems in medicine and system biology has led to the emergence of Bio/CMOS Interfaces and Co-Design as an exciting and rapidly growing area of research. The mutual inter-relationships between VLSI-CMOS design and the biophysics of molecules interfacing with silicon and/or onto metals has led to the emergence of the interdisciplinary engineering approach to Bio/CMOS interfaces. This new approach, facilitated by 3D circuit design and nanotechnology, has resulted in new concepts and applications for VLSI systems in the bio-world. This book offers an invaluable reference to the state-of-the-art in Bio/CMOS interfaces. It describes leading-edge research in the field of CMOS design and VLSI development for applications requiring integration of biological molecules onto the chip. It provides multidisciplinary content ranging from biochemistry to CMOS design in order to address Bio/CMOS interface co-design in bio-sensing applications.

  2. Bio-Mimetic Sensors Based on Molecularly Imprinted Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algieri, Catia; Drioli, Enrico; Guzzo, Laura; Donato, Laura

    2014-01-01

    An important challenge for scientific research is the production of artificial systems able to mimic the recognition mechanisms occurring at the molecular level in living systems. A valid contribution in this direction resulted from the development of molecular imprinting. By means of this technology, selective molecular recognition sites are introduced in a polymer, thus conferring it bio-mimetic properties. The potential applications of these systems include affinity separations, medical diagnostics, drug delivery, catalysis, etc. Recently, bio-sensing systems using molecularly imprinted membranes, a special form of imprinted polymers, have received the attention of scientists in various fields. In these systems imprinted membranes are used as bio-mimetic recognition elements which are integrated with a transducer component. The direct and rapid determination of an interaction between the recognition element and the target analyte (template) was an encouraging factor for the development of such systems as alternatives to traditional bio-assay methods. Due to their high stability, sensitivity and specificity, bio-mimetic sensors-based membranes are used for environmental, food, and clinical uses. This review deals with the development of molecularly imprinted polymers and their different preparation methods. Referring to the last decades, the application of these membranes as bio-mimetic sensor devices will be also reported. PMID:25196110

  3. Direct Bio-printing with Heterogeneous Topology Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Amm Nazmul; Xie, Ruinan; Khoda, Bashir

    2017-01-01

    Bio-additive manufacturing is a promising tool to fabricate porous scaffold structures for expediting the tissue regeneration processes. Unlike the most traditional bulk material objects, the microstructures of tissue and organs are mostly highly anisotropic, heterogeneous, and porous in nature. However, modelling the internal heterogeneity of tissues/organs structures in the traditional CAD environment is difficult and oftentimes inaccurate. Besides, the de facto STL conversion of bio-models introduces loss of information and piles up more errors in each subsequent step (build orientation, slicing, tool-path planning) of the bio-printing process plan. We are proposing a topology based scaffold design methodology to accurately represent the heterogeneous internal architecture of tissues/organs. An image analysis technique is used that digitizes the topology information contained in medical images of tissues/organs. A weighted topology reconstruction algorithm is implemented to represent the heterogeneity with parametric functions. The parametric functions are then used to map the spatial material distribution. The generated information is directly transferred to the 3D bio-printer and heterogeneous porous tissue scaffold structure is manufactured without STL file. The proposed methodology is implemented to verify the effectiveness of the approach and the designed example structure is bio-fabricated with a deposition based bio-additive manufacturing system.

  4. Briquetting mechanism and waterproof performance of bio-briquette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, G.; Chen, L.; Cao, J. [Henen Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo (China)

    2008-07-15

    Maize stalk and bio-briquette binder made from it were studied comparatively by FTIR and the microstructure of bio-briquette was observed and analyzed by microscopy. It was found that a large amount of unreacted biomass fibers exist in the binder. These form a multi-level network structure inside the bio-briquette and could make fine coal particles connect together. The multi-level network structure would be still present after the bio-briquettes are immersed in water for 24 hours. On the other hand, stalk materials could be partly degraded after treatment and, with other liquid ingredients in the binder, the degradation products could form a viscous fluid which would work as a bonding ingredient inside the bio-briquette and could improve the waterproofing ability of the binder after solidification. Therefore, the multi-level network structure of the biomaterial and the presence of viscous fluid are very important to the shaping and the improvement of the waterproofing ability of bio-briquettes. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Social Science Insights for the BioCCS Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maree Dowd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BioCCS is a technology gaining support as a possible emissions reduction policy option to address climate change. The process entails the capture, transport and storage of carbon dioxide produced during energy production from biomass. Globally, the most optimistic energy efficiency scenarios cannot avoid an average temperature increase of +2 °C without bioCCS. Although very much at the commencement stage, bioCCS demonstration projects can provide opportunity to garner knowledge, achieve consensus and build support around the technology’s properties. Yet many challenges face the bioCCS industry, including no guarantee biomass will always be from sustainable sources or potentially result in carbon stock losses. The operating environment also has no or limited policies, regulations and legal frameworks, and risk and safety concerns abound. Some state the key problem for bioCCS is cultural, lacking in a ‘community of support’, awareness and credibility amongst its own key stakeholders and the wider public. Therefore, the industry can benefit from the growing social science literature, drawing upon other energy and resource based industries with regard to social choice for future energy options. To this end, the following scoping review was conducted in order to ascertain gaps in existing public perception and acceptance research focusing on bioCCS.

  6. Bio-Based Polymers with Potential for Biodegradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Garrison

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of renewable starting materials, such as sugars and polysaccharides, vegetable oils, lignin, pine resin derivatives, and proteins, have so far been investigated for the preparation of bio-based polymers. Among the various sources of bio-based feedstock, vegetable oils are one of the most widely used starting materials in the polymer industry due to their easy availability, low toxicity, and relative low cost. Another bio-based plastic of great interest is poly(lactic acid (PLA, widely used in multiple commercial applications nowadays. There is an intrinsic expectation that bio-based polymers are also biodegradable, but in reality there is no guarantee that polymers prepared from biorenewable feedstock exhibit significant or relevant biodegradability. Biodegradability studies are therefore crucial in order to assess the long-term environmental impact of such materials. This review presents a brief overview of the different classes of bio-based polymers, with a strong focus on vegetable oil-derived resins and PLA. An entire section is dedicated to a discussion of the literature addressing the biodegradability of bio-based polymers.

  7. Heidegger para a Bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cabrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del actual panorama de crisis global, se intenta poner en discusión la propuesta del filósofo Martin Heidegger, que puede modificar la formulación de una buena parte de las cuestiones bioéticas. El filósofo presenta una nueva noción de lo humano, no solo como “persona” o “agente racional”. Según el concepto del Dasein, la modernidad fue construida en torno a tres ideas: el sujeto como centro y fundamento, la ciencia como criterio único de verdad en el progreso y su consecuente tecnificación del mundo; habría que liberar un espacio para otro tipo de creación que no excluya la técnica, pero que tampoco la exalte hasta el punto de que lo demás desaparezca. Heidegger puede ser extremadamente instigante en cuanto a la distinción salud-enfermedad y problemas como la medicalización, en el intento de obtener una noción existencial de estos conceptos, superando su visión metafísica tradicional. La salud entonces deja de ser un acontecimiento objetivo para transformarse en un proyecto existencial.

  8. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  9. Photochromic crystalline systems mimicking bio-functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kingo; Nishimura, Ryo; Hatano, Eri; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Yokojima, Satoshi

    2018-01-31

    Photoresponsive crystalline systems mimicking bio-functions are prepared using photochromic diarylethenes. Upon UV irradiation to a diarylethene crystal, the self-aggregated and needle-shaped crystals of photogenerated colored closed-ring isomer were generated on the surface. The rough surface showed the superhydrophobic lotus effect. By controlling the heating procedures, UV irradiation processes, and molecular structural modification, rose-petal effects of wetting, anti-reflective moth eye effect, and double-roughness structure mimicking the surface of lotus leaf were observed. By changing the molecular structure, superhydrophilic surface mimicking snail shell was photogenerated. We also found a derivative to form hollow crystals by sublimation. The crystals showed photosalient effect and the photo-response similar to impatiens was observed after small beads were packed in the hollow. These photoresponsive functions are unique, and they demonstrate a macroscopic response by assembling microscopic molecular movement of light. In the future, such a molecular assembly system will be a promising candidate for fabricating photoresponsive architectures and soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Imaging probe for tumor malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Hasahiro

    2009-02-01

    Solid tumors possess unique microenvironments that are exposed to chronic hypoxic conditions ("tumor hypoxia"). Although more than half a century has passed since it was suggested that tumor hypoxia correlated with poor treatment outcomes and contributed to cancer recurrence, a fundamental solution to this problem has yet to be found. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) is the main transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to hypoxia. It induces various genes whose functions are strongly associated with malignant alteration of the entire tumor. The cellular changes induced by HIF-1 are extremely important targets of cancer therapy, particularly in therapy against refractory cancers. Imaging of the HIF-1-active microenvironment is therefore important for cancer therapy. To image HIF-1activity in vivo, we developed a PTD-ODD fusion protein, POHA, which was uniquely labeled with near-infrared fluorescent dye at the C-terminal. POHA has two functional domains: protein transduction domain (PTD) and VHL-mediated protein destruction motif in oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of the alpha subunit of HIF-1 (HIF-1α). It can therefore be delivered to the entire body and remain stabilized in the HIF-1-active cells. When it was intravenously injected into tumor-bearing mice, a tumor-specific fluorescence signal was detected in the tumor 6 h after the injection. These results suggest that POHA can be used an imaging probe for tumor malignancy.

  11. The Gravity Probe B gyroscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchman, S; Lipa, J A; Keiser, G M; Muhlfelder, B; Turneaure, J P

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B (GP-B) gyroscope, a unique cryogenically operated mechanical sensor, was used on-orbit to independently test two predictions of general relativity (GR). Here, we describe the development and performance of the GP-B gyroscope, its geometry and fabrication, spin-up and vacuum approach, magnetic considerations, and static charge management. The history of electrically suspended gyroscopes puts the current work in context. Fabrication and ground testing of the GP-B gyroscope are detailed, followed by a review of on-orbit initialization, calibration, operation, and performance. We find that the performance was degraded relative to the mission goals, but was still sufficient to provide excellent new tests of GR. The degradation is partially due to the existence of gyroscope torques due to an unanticipated interaction between patch potentials on the rotor and the housing. We discuss these patch potentials and describe the effect of related torques on gyro drift. It was essential to include models for the effects due to the patch potentials in the complete data analysis model to yield determinations of the two GR effects. (paper)

  12. Probing the string winding sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín [G. Física CAB-CNEA and CONICET, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atómico Bariloche,Av. Bustillo 9500, Bariloche (Argentina); Nuñez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (CONICET-UBA),C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Física, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires,C.C. 67 - Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-03-17

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O(n,n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  13. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  14. Integrated cosmological probes: concordance quantified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicola, Andrina; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre, E-mail: andrina.nicola@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: adam.amara@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: alexandre.refregier@phys.ethz.ch [Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    Assessing the consistency of parameter constraints derived from different cosmological probes is an important way to test the validity of the underlying cosmological model. In an earlier work [1], we computed constraints on cosmological parameters for ΛCDM from an integrated analysis of CMB temperature anisotropies and CMB lensing from Planck, galaxy clustering and weak lensing from SDSS, weak lensing from DES SV as well as Type Ia supernovae and Hubble parameter measurements. In this work, we extend this analysis and quantify the concordance between the derived constraints and those derived by the Planck Collaboration as well as WMAP9, SPT and ACT. As a measure for consistency, we use the Surprise statistic [2], which is based on the relative entropy. In the framework of a flat ΛCDM cosmological model, we find all data sets to be consistent with one another at a level of less than 1σ. We highlight that the relative entropy is sensitive to inconsistencies in the models that are used in different parts of the analysis. In particular, inconsistent assumptions for the neutrino mass break its invariance on the parameter choice. When consistent model assumptions are used, the data sets considered in this work all agree with each other and ΛCDM, without evidence for tensions.

  15. Bio-flex obtained from pyrolysis of biomass as fuel; Bio-flex obtido da pirolise de biomassa como combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Viltre Rodriguez, Roberto Alfonso; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Samaniego, Manuel Raul Pelaez [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the BIOWARE experience in the bio fuel production from biomass residues. Fast pyrolysis of a mixture of sugar cane trash and elephant grass carried out in a fluidized bed reactor with capacity of 200 kg/h dry feed (12% w/w). The co-products particulate charcoal, acid extract, and bio-oil were obtained. The fast pyrolysis pilot plant PPR-200 belonged to UNICAMP and is operated by BIOWARE personnel. This paper presents the chemical rote to bio-flex production (a kind of bio diesel from acid esterification) from pyrolytic carboxylic acids. Both ethanol and methanol were used as reactant but higher yields were found with methanol. (author)

  16. Development and characterization of a new bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Murillo L., E-mail: murillolongo@gmail.com [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Saeki, Margarida Juri [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Telling, Mark T.F. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Parra, Joao P.R.L.L. [Instituto de Biociências – Universidade Estadual Paulista – CP 510, 18618-970 Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Landsgesell, Sven [Helmholtz–Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Smith, Ron I. [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot OX11 OQX (United Kingdom); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • We synthesized a magnetic bio-NCP with potential to be used against breast cancer. • The magnetic nanoparticles have an inverted spinel structure. • The coating with chitosan does not cause changes to the particle microstructure. • The hydration level of bio-NCP is crucial to the surface modification with apatite. • Bio-NCP with narrow size distribution and high magnetic response was obtained. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is a public health problem throughout the world. Moreover, breast cancer cells have a great affinity for hydroxyapatite, leading to a high occurrence of bone metastasis. In this work we developed a bio-nanocomposite (bio-NCP) in order to use such affinity in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. The bio-NCP consists of magnetic nanoparticles of Mn and Zn ferrite inside a polymeric coating (chitosan) modified with nanocrystals of apatite. The materials were characterized with synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD), Time-of-Flight Neutron Powder Diffraction (NPD), Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and magnetic measurement with a Physical Property Measurement System (PPMS). We obtained ferrite nanoparticles with a high inversion degree of the spinel structure regarding the Fe and Mn, but with all the Zn in the A site. The coating of such nanoparticles with chitosan had no notable effects to the ferrite microstructure. In addition, the polymeric surface can be easily modified with apatite nanocrystals since the hydration of the bio-NCP during synthesis can be controlled. The resulting bio-NCP presents a spherical shape with a narrow size distribution and high magnetic response at room temperature and is a very promising material for early diagnosis of breast cancer and its treatment.

  17. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Meier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the development of nuclear spin polarization enhanced (hyperpolarized molecular probes has opened up new opportunities for studying the inner workings of living cells in real time. The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ, introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments.

  18. Development and application of DNA molecular probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Vizzini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of DNA probes started from 1950's for diagnostic purposes and it is still growing. DNA probes are applied in several fields such as food, medical, veterinary, environment and security, with the aim of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The use of DNA probes permits microorganism identification, including pathogen detection, and their quantification when used in specific systems. Various techniques obtained success by the utilization of specific DNA probes, that allowed the obtainment of rapid and specific results. From PCR, qPCR and blotting techniques that were first used in well equipped laboratories to biosensors such as fiber optic, surface plasmon resonance (SPR, electrochemical, and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM biosensors that use different transduction systems. This review describes i the design and production of primers and probes, and their utilization from the traditional techniques to the new emerging techniques like biosensors used in current applications; ii the possibility to use labelled-free probes and probes labelled with an enzyme/fluorophore, etc.; iii the different sensitivity obtained by using specific systems; and iv the advantage obtained by using biosensors.

  19. Overview of Key Saturn Probe Mission Trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kowalkowski, Theresa; Folkner, Bill

    2007-01-01

    Ongoing studies, performed at NASA/JPL over the past two years in support of NASA's SSE Roadmap activities, proved the feasibility of a NF class Saturn probe mission. I. This proposed mission could also provide a good opportunity for international collaboration with the proposed Cosmic Vision KRONOS mission: a) With ESA contributed probes (descent modules) on a NASA lead mission; b) Early 2017 launch could be a good programmatic option for ESA-CV/NASA-NF. II. A number of mission architectures could be suitable for this mission: a) Probe Relay based architecture with short flight time (approx. 6.3-7 years); b) DTE probe telecom based architecture with long flight time (-11 years), and low probe data rate, but with the probes decoupled from the carrier, allowing for polar trajectories I orbiter. This option may need technology development for telecom; c) Orbiter would likely impact mission cost over flyby, but would provide significantly higher science return. The Saturn probes mission is expected to be identified in NASA's New Frontiers AO. Thus, further studies are recommended to refine the most suitable architecture. International collaboration is started through the KRONOS proposal work; further collaborated studies will follow once KRONOS is selected in October under ESA's Cosmic Vision Program.

  20. Paracoccus denitrificans possesses two BioR homologs having a role in regulation of biotin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youjun; Kumar, Ritesh; Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Zhang, Huimin

    2015-08-01

    Recently, we determined that BioR, the GntR family of transcription factor, acts as a repressor for biotin metabolism exclusively distributed in certain species of α-proteobacteria, including the zoonotic agent Brucella melitensis and the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, the scenario is unusual in Paracoccus denitrificans, another closely related member of the same phylum α-proteobacteria featuring with denitrification. Not only does it encode two BioR homologs Pden_1431 and Pden_2922 (designated as BioR1 and BioR2, respectively), but also has six predictive BioR-recognizable sites (the two bioR homolog each has one site, whereas the two bio operons (bioBFDAGC and bioYB) each contains two tandem BioR boxes). It raised the possibility that unexpected complexity is present in BioR-mediated biotin regulation. Here we report that this is the case. The identity of the purified BioR proteins (BioR1 and BioR2) was confirmed with LC-QToF-MS. Phylogenetic analyses combined with GC percentage raised a possibility that the bioR2 gene might be acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Gel shift assays revealed that the predicted BioR-binding sites are functional for the two BioR homologs, in much similarity to the scenario seen with the BioR site of A. tumefaciens bioBFDAZ. Using the A. tumefaciens reporter system carrying a plasmid-borne LacZ fusion, we revealed that the two homologs of P. denitrificans BioR are functional repressors for biotin metabolism. As anticipated, not only does the addition of exogenous biotin stimulate efficiently the expression of bioYB operon encoding biotin transport/uptake system BioY, but also inhibits the transcription of the bioBFDAGC operon resembling the de novo biotin synthetic pathway. EMSA-based screening failed to demonstrate that the biotin-related metabolite is involved in BioR-DNA interplay, which is consistent with our former observation with Brucella BioR. Our finding defined a complex regulatory network for biotin

  1. Bio-Chemo-Opto-Mechanical (BioCOM) Sensors for Real-Time Characterization for D and D Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thundat, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Basic and applied research will be conducted to develop simple to use chemical and biological sensor chips utilizing bio-chemo-mechanics for real-time, in-situ, detection of technetium, mercury, uranium, and beryllium for deactivation and decommissioning applications. The bio-chemo-opto-mechanical (Bio-COM) chip involves properly fashioned arrays of micromachined silicon cantilevers containing embedded deformable diffraction gratings functionalized with chemically selective coatings. Adsorption of specific molecules on the cantilever array leads to bending, which changes the diffraction of light from the array. The bio-chemo-opto-mechanical (BioCOM) chips will be designed to contain an array of pixels, with each pixel containing an array of microcantilever springs in which one surface is derivatized with either an antibody coating or a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coating for detecting Hg, Be, U(VI), or TcO4-. The BioCOM sensor platform also offers the advantage of simultaneous measurement of many analytes using a single chip. The readout mechanism can be a reflected laser beam, producing a diffraction pattern, or in an ideal case the diffraction of daylight resulting in a change of color. In the latter case the proposed sensors would not require any external power, external or on-board electronics, or fluorescent dyes and associated optics, which will keep its fabrication and operation costs low while making it simple to use for real-time environmental monitoring

  2. Transmit-receive eddy current probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Sullivan, S.P.; Cecco, V.S.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, due to increased inspection demands, eddy current instrumentation has advanced from single-frequency, single-output instruments to multifrequency, computer-aided systems. This has significantly increased the scope of eddy current testing, but, unfortunately, it has also increased the cost and complexity of inspections. In addition, this approach has not always improved defect detectability or signal-to-noise. Most eddy current testing applications are still performed with impedance probes, which have well known limitations. However, recent research at AECL has led to improved eddy current inspections through the design and development of transmit-receive (T/R) probes. T/R eddy current probes, with laterally displaced transmit and receive coils, present a number of advantages over impedance probes. They have improved signal-to-noise ratio in the presence of variable lift-off compared to impedance probes. They have strong directional properties, permitting probe optimization for circumferential or axial crack detection, and possess good phase discrimination to surface defects. They can significantly increase the scope of eddy current testing permitting reliable detection and sizing of cracks in heat exchanger tubing as well as in welded areas of both ferritic and non-ferromagnetic components. This presentation will describe the operating principles of T/R probes with the help of computer-derived normalized voltage diagrams. We will discuss their directional properties and analyze the advantages of using single and multiple T/R probes over impedance probes for specific inspection cases. Current applications to surface and tube testing and some typical inspection results will be described. (author)

  3. Nuclear borehole probes - theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.L.; Korsbech, U.; Gynther Nielsen, K.; Oelgaard, P.L.

    1985-06-01

    The report gives a summary of the theoretical and expeimental work on borehole probes that has been performed since 1971 at The Department of Electrophysics, The Technical University of Denmark. The first part of the report concerns the use of a spectral natural gamma-ray probe (SNG-probe), which is used for measurements of the spectral distribution of the gamma-rays of the geological strata around a borehole. In general the spectrum is divided into three parts - the gamma-rays from potassium-40, from thorium-232 and daughters, and from uranium-238 and daughters. A set of curves showing the intensities of the gamm-radiation from K, Th, and U versus depth is called a SNG-log. If proper calibrated, the SNG-log gives the concentration of Th, U, and K in the formation surrounding the borehole. Initially the basis for an interpretation of SNG-logs is discussed. Then follows a description og some SNG-problems designed and built by The Department of Electrophysics, and a discussion of the calibration of SNG-probes. Some examples of SNG-logs are presented, and some general comments on the use of SNG-logs are given. The second part of the report concerns mainly the development of theoretical models for neutron-neutron probes, gamma-gamma probes, and pulsed-neutron probes. The purpose of this work has been to examine how well the models correlate with measured results and - where reasonable agreement is found - to use the models in studies of the factors that affect the probe responses in interpretation of experimental results and in probe design. (author)

  4. Cone penetrometer moisture probe acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.

    1996-04-23

    This Acceptance Test Report (ATR) documents the results of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 (Prototype Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure) and WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 (Cone Penetrometer Moisture Probe Acceptance Test Procedure). The master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-145 can be found in Appendix A and the master copy of WHC-SD-WM-ATP-146 can be found in Appendix B. Also included with this report is a matrix showing design criteria of the cone penetrometer moisture probe and the verification method used (Appendix C).

  5. Advanced ultrasound probes for medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildes, Douglas G.; Smith, L. Scott

    2012-05-01

    New medical ultrasound probe architectures and materials build upon established 1D phased array technology and provide improved imaging performance and clinical value. Technologies reviewed include 1.25D and 1.5D arrays for elevation slice thickness control; electro-mechanical and 2D array probes for real-time 3D imaging; catheter probes for imaging during minimally-invasive procedures; single-crystal piezoelectric materials for greater frequency bandwidth; and cMUT arrays using silicon MEMS in place of piezo materials.

  6. Differently Environment Stable Bio-Silver Nanoparticles: Study on Their Optical Enhancing and Antibacterial Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Yekkuni L.; Girija, Shanmugam; Selvakumar, Rajendran; Tongpim, Saowanit; Gutleb, Arno C.; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajeyakesavalu

    2013-01-01

    Generally, limited research is extended in studying stability and applicational properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by adopting ‘green chemistry’ protocol. In this work, we report on the synthesis of stable Ag NPs using plant-derived materials such as leaf extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) and biopolymer pectin from apple peel. In addition, the applicational properties of Ag NPs such as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and antibacterial efficiencies were also investigated. As-synthesized nanoparticles (NPs) were characterized using various instrumentation techniques. Both the plant materials (leaf extract and biopolymer) favored the synthesis of well-defined NPs capped with biomaterials. The NPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size between 14-27 nm. These bio-NPs exhibited colloidal stability in most of the suspended solutions such as water, electrolyte solutions (NaCl; NaNO3), biological solution (bovine serum albumin), and in different pH solutions (pH 7; 9) for a reasonable time period of 120 hrs. Both the bio-NPs were observed to be SERS active through displaying intrinsic SERS signals of the Raman probe molecule (Nile blue A). The NPs were effective against the Escherichia coli bacterium when tested in nutrient broth and agar medium. Scanning and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (SEM and HRTEM) images confirmed cellular membrane damage of nanoparticle treated E. coli cells. These environmental friendly template Ag NPs can be used as an antimicrobial agent and also for SERS based analytical applications. PMID:24130832

  7. Information processing through a bio-based redox capacitor: signatures for redox-cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Kim, Eunkyoung; White, Ian M; Bentley, William E; Payne, Gregory F

    2014-08-01

    Redox-cycling compounds can significantly impact biological systems and can be responsible for activities that range from pathogen virulence and contaminant toxicities, to therapeutic drug mechanisms. Current methods to identify redox-cycling activities rely on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and employ enzymatic or chemical methods to detect ROS. Here, we couple the speed and sensitivity of electrochemistry with the molecular-electronic properties of a bio-based redox-capacitor to generate signatures of redox-cycling. The redox capacitor film is electrochemically-fabricated at the electrode surface and is composed of a polysaccharide hydrogel with grafted catechol moieties. This capacitor film is redox-active but non-conducting and can engage diffusible compounds in either oxidative or reductive redox-cycling. Using standard electrochemical mediators ferrocene dimethanol (Fc) and Ru(NH3)6Cl3 (Ru(3+)) as model redox-cyclers, we observed signal amplifications and rectifications that serve as signatures of redox-cycling. Three bio-relevant compounds were then probed for these signatures: (i) ascorbate, a redox-active compound that does not redox-cycle; (ii) pyocyanin, a virulence factor well-known for its reductive redox-cycling; and (iii) acetaminophen, an analgesic that oxidatively redox-cycles but also undergoes conjugation reactions. These studies demonstrate that the redox-capacitor can enlist the capabilities of electrochemistry to generate rapid and sensitive signatures of biologically-relevant chemical activities (i.e., redox-cycling). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Electrostatic Probe with Shielded Probe Insulator Tube for Low Disturbing Plasma Measurements in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staack, D.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2003-01-01

    Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters of the quasi-neutral plasma in Hall thrusters and similar ExB electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In Hall thrusters, probe-induced perturbations can produce changes in the discharge current and plasma parameters on the order of their steady state values. These perturbations are explored by varying the material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. A possible cause of these perturbations appears to be the secondary electron emission, induced by energetic plasma electrons, from insulator ceramic tubes in which the probe wire is inserted. A new probe in which a low secondary electron emission material, such as metal, shields the probe ceramic tube, is shown to function without producing such large perturbations. A segmentation of this shield further prevents probe -induced perturbations, by not shortening the plasma through the conductive shield. In a set of experiments with a segmented shield probe, the thruster was operated in the input power range of 500-2.5 kW and discharge voltages of 200-500 V, while the probe-induced perturbations of the discharge current were below 4% of its steady state value in the region in which 90% of the voltage drop takes place

  9. Full information acquisition in scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen; Belianinov, Alex; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Somnath, Suhas

    2017-04-04

    Apparatus and methods are described for scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy based on acquisition of full probe response. The full probe response contains valuable information about the probe-sample interaction that is lost in traditional scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy methods. The full probe response is analyzed post data acquisition using fast Fourier transform and adaptive filtering, as well as multivariate analysis. The full response data is further compressed to retain only statistically significant components before being permanently stored.

  10. Peptide nucleic acid probes with charged photocleavable mass markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Rachel J; Green, Philip S; Gale, Nittaya; Langley, G John

    2010-01-01

    Halogen-labelled peptide organic acid (HPOA) monomers have been synthesised and incorporated into sequence-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes. Three different types of probe have been prepared; the unmodified PNA probe, the PNA probe with a mass marker, and the PNA probe with photocleavable mass marker. All three types of probe have been used in model studies to develop a mass spectrometry-based hybridisation assay for detection of point mutations in DNA. PMID:21687524

  11. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses.

  12. What is life? Bio-physical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, G P

    2009-01-01

    Life arises and develops in gravitationally bound atomic systems, under certain conditions, in the presence of the inflow of energy. A condition of structural dynamic reactivity to the energy inflow qualifies what are anthropomorphically considered as "alive objects". Alive objects, in this perspective, include such rudimentary animate atomic structures as the retinal molecule C20H28o to the herpes simplex virus C102H152N26o29 to the human being, a twenty-six element atomic structure, which can be quantified further as thermodynamic quasi-closed supramolecular systems, which are part of natural open systems. These systems appear and evolve in periodic conditions near to internal equilibrium. This systems attribute of dynamic life can be understood further by the determination and use of mathematical "state functions", which are functions that quantify the state of a system defined by the ensemble of physical quantities: temperature, pressure, composition, etc., which characterize the system, but neither by its surroundings nor by its history. In this view, the phenomenon of a life is easily understood as a general consequence of the laws of the universe, in particular, the laws of thermodynamics, which in the geocentric perspective translate to a formulation of "hierarchical thermodynamics" and a "principle of substance stability". The formation of living thermodynamic structures, in short, arises on the nanolevel by a constantly varying environment that causes variety of living forms. The definition of a life as the bio-chemical-physical phenomenon can thus be given on the basis of the exact sciences, i. e. chemistry, physics, and thermodynamics, without mention of numerous private attributes of a living substance and without physically baseless models of mathematical modeling, such as Prigoginean thermodynamics.

  13. Market survey Hungary. Bio-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Basic characteristics of the market for bioenergy (biomass, biogas and biofuels) in Hungary and consequences for business environment are summarized, based on a SWOT analysis. RES is the priority issue to which a lot of attention is paid both at governmental and private level; private investors should view RES as a new niche for their business activities. Standard approach based on a thoroughly done preparation of the project in terms of profitability and risk assessment is necessary in order to avoid potential financial losses due to changed market conditions or differences between assumptions and business reality. Some recommendations for entry on the Hungarian bio energy market are presented: (1) Generally, look for success stories in the Netherlands first and then look for places where such proved and time-tested technologies could be used in Hungary with respect to local specifics. In such way, you can find market niches where investment can be made or new products can be launched; (2) For retail selling it is appropriate to establish business contacts with existing dealers and associations and offer own products through their distribution network. This scheme has the advantage of low initial costs as well as risks involved; (3) In the case of large investments into equipment complexes using RES it seems more appropriate to refer directly either to municipal authorities on whose cadastre the investment should take place or to specialized consultancy agencies that can support the plan with additional information on legal requirements, national programmes supporting RES or available technology. Of course, direct collaboration with well-established local partner can be beneficial for both sides too; (4) If you want to receive up-to-date information on particular aspects of the biomass market in Hungary, you can refer to some governmental organisations associations referred in the key contact addresses

  14. BioMart – biological queries made easy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorisson Gudmundur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists need to perform complex queries, often across a variety of databases. Typically, each data resource provides an advanced query interface, each of which must be learnt by the biologist before they can begin to query them. Frequently, more than one data source is required and for high-throughput analysis, cutting and pasting results between websites is certainly very time consuming. Therefore, many groups rely on local bioinformatics support to process queries by accessing the resource's programmatic interfaces if they exist. This is not an efficient solution in terms of cost and time. Instead, it would be better if the biologist only had to learn one generic interface. BioMart provides such a solution. Results BioMart enables scientists to perform advanced querying of biological data sources through a single web interface. The power of the system comes from integrated querying of data sources regardless of their geographical locations. Once these queries have been defined, they may be automated with its "scripting at the click of a button" functionality. BioMart's capabilities are extended by integration with several widely used software packages such as BioConductor, DAS, Galaxy, Cytoscape, Taverna. In this paper, we describe all aspects of BioMart from a user's perspective and demonstrate how it can be used to solve real biological use cases such as SNP selection for candidate gene screening or annotation of microarray results. Conclusion BioMart is an easy to use, generic and scalable system and therefore, has become an integral part of large data resources including Ensembl, UniProt, HapMap, Wormbase, Gramene, Dictybase, PRIDE, MSD and Reactome. BioMart is freely accessible to use at http://www.biomart.org.

  15. Immediate catalytic upgrading of soybean shell bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, Melisa; Sedran, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of soybean shell and the immediate catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over an equilibrium FCC catalyst was studied in order to define its potential as a source for fuels and chemicals. The experiments of pyrolysis and immediate catalytic upgrading were performed at 550 °C during 7 min with different catalysts to oil relationships in an integrated fixed bed pyrolysis-conversion reactor. The results were compared under the same conditions against those from pine sawdust, which is a biomass source commonly used for the production of bio-oil. In the pyrolysis the pine sawdust produced more liquids (61.4%wt.) than the soybean shell (54.7%wt.). When the catalyst was presented, the yield of hydrocarbons increased, particularly in the case of soybean shell, which was four time higher than in the pyrolysis. The bio-oil from soybean shell produced less coke (between 3.1 and 4.3%wt.) in its immediate catalytic upgrading than that from pine sawdust (between 5 and 5.8%wt.), due to its lower content of phenolic and other high molecular weight compounds (three and five times less, respectively). Moreover, soybean shell showed a higher selectivity to hydrocarbons in the gasoline range, with more olefins and less aromatic than pine sawdust. - Highlights: • Soybean shell is a possible source of fuels with benefits as compared to pine sawdust. • Bio-oils upgraded over FCC catalyst in an integrated pyrolysis-conversion reactor. • Pine sawdust bio-oil had more phenols than soybean shell bio-oil. • Soybean shell bio-oil produced more hydrocarbons in gasoline range and less coke.

  16. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  17. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  18. Quantum dot bio-conjugate: as a western blot probe for highly sensitive detection of cellular proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Sonia; Kale, Anup; Gholap, Haribhau; Rana, Abhimanyu; Desai, Rama; Banpurkar, Arun; Ogale, Satishchandra; Shastry, Padma

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we report a quantum dot (QD)-tailored western blot analysis for a sensitive, rapid and flexible detection of the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Highly luminescent CdTe and (CdTe)ZnS QDs are synthesized by aqueous method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the properties of the quantum dots. The QDs are functionalized with antibodies of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and β actin to specifically bind with the proteins localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells, respectively. The QD-conjugated antibodies are used to overcome the limitations of conventional western blot technique. The sensitivity and rapidity of protein detection in QD-based approach is very high, with detection limits up to 10 pg of protein. In addition, these labels provide the capability of enhanced identification and localization of marker proteins in intact cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  19. Quantum dot bio-conjugate: as a western blot probe for highly sensitive detection of cellular proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Sonia [Agharkar Research Institute (India); Kale, Anup [University of Alabama, Center for Materials for Information Technology (United States); Gholap, Haribhau; Rana, Abhimanyu [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Desai, Rama [National Centre for Cell Science (India); Banpurkar, Arun [University of Pune, Department of Physics (India); Ogale, Satishchandra, E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science (India)

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we report a quantum dot (QD)-tailored western blot analysis for a sensitive, rapid and flexible detection of the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Highly luminescent CdTe and (CdTe)ZnS QDs are synthesized by aqueous method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the properties of the quantum dots. The QDs are functionalized with antibodies of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and {beta} actin to specifically bind with the proteins localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells, respectively. The QD-conjugated antibodies are used to overcome the limitations of conventional western blot technique. The sensitivity and rapidity of protein detection in QD-based approach is very high, with detection limits up to 10 pg of protein. In addition, these labels provide the capability of enhanced identification and localization of marker proteins in intact cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  20. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.