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Sample records for bio inspired ga

  1. Implementation of an Innovative Bio Inspired GA and PSO Algorithm for Controller design considering Steam GT Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivakumar, R

    2010-01-01

    The Application of Bio Inspired Algorithms to complicated Power System Stability Problems has recently attracted the researchers in the field of Artificial Intelligence. Low frequency oscillations after a disturbance in a Power system, if not sufficiently damped, can drive the system unstable. This paper provides a systematic procedure to damp the low frequency oscillations based on Bio Inspired Genetic (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms. The proposed controller design is based on formulating a System Damping ratio enhancement based Optimization criterion to compute the optimal controller parameters for better stability. The Novel and contrasting feature of this work is the mathematical modeling and simulation of the Synchronous generator model including the Steam Governor Turbine (GT) dynamics. To show the robustness of the proposed controller, Non linear Time domain simulations have been carried out under various system operating conditions. Also, a detailed Comparative study has been don...

  2. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...... that modulates the parameters of the locomotor central pattern generators. We present phonotactic performance results of the simulated lizard-salamander hybrid robot....

  3. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  4. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  5. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  6. BioAir: Bio-Inspired Airborne Infrastructure Reconfiguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    UAV ) in order to autonomously form and maintain a dynamic communication network. This system draws upon inspirations from biological cell...presents the BioAIR system for autonomous communication , command and control of a swarm of UAVs . The idea is to form a communication network comprised of...deployment, yet maintaining communications should not interfere with the primary tasks of these entities. The BioAIR system was developed to coordinate

  7. Bio-inspired variable structural color materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanjin; Xie, Zhuoying; Gu, Hongcheng; Zhu, Cun; Gu, Zhongze

    2012-04-21

    Natural structural color materials, especially those that can undergo reversible changes, are attracting increasing interest in a wide variety of research fields. Inspired by the natural creatures, many elaborately nanostructured photonic materials with variable structural colors were developed. These materials have found important applications in switches, display devices, sensors, and so on. In this critical review, we will provide up-to-date research concerning the natural and bio-inspired photonic materials with variable structural colors. After introducing the variable structural colors in natural creatures, we will focus on the studies of artificial variable structural color photonic materials, including their bio-inspired designs, fabrications and applications. The prospects for the future development of these fantastic variable structural color materials will also be presented. We believe this review will promote the communications among biology, bionics, chemistry, optical physics, and material science (196 references).

  8. Bio-inspired dynamic robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alan S.; Wax, Steven G.; Christodoulou, Leo

    2003-09-01

    The unique performance of biological systems across a wide spectrum of phylogenetic species has historically provided inspirations for roboticists in new designs and fabrication of new robotic platforms. Of particular interest to a number of important applications is to create dynamic robots able to adapt to a change in their world, unplanned events that are sometimes unexpected, and sometimes unstable, harsh conditions. It is likely that the exploring dynamics in biological systems will continue to provide rich solutions to attaining robots capable of more complex tasks for this purpose. This is because the long-term design process of evolution utilizes a natural selection process that responds to such changes. Recently, there have been significant advances across a number of interdisciplinary efforts that have generated new capabilities in biorobotics. Whole body dynamics that capture the force dynamics and functional stability of legged systems over rough terrain have been elucidated and applied in legged robotic systems. Exploying the force dynamics of flapping winged insect flight has provided key discoveries and enabled the fabrication of new micro air vehicles. New classes of materials are being developed that emulate the ability of natural muscle, capturing the compliant and soft subtle movement and performance of biological appendages. In addition, classes of new multifunctional materials are being developed to enable the design of biorobotics with the structural and functional efficiency of living organisms. Optical flow and other sensors based on the principles of invertebrate vision have been implemented on robotic platforms for autonomous robotic guidance and control. These fundamental advances have resulted in the emergence of a new generation of bioinspired dynamic robots which show significant performance improvements in early prototype testing and that could someday be useful in a number of significant applications such as search and rescue and

  9. Bio-Inspired Meta-Heuristics for Emergency Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Xia Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Emergency transportation plays a vital role in the success of disaster rescue and relief operations, but its planning and scheduling often involve complex objectives and search spaces. In this paper, we conduct a survey of recent advances in bio-inspired meta-heuristics, including genetic algorithms (GA, particle swarm optimization (PSO, ant colony optimization (ACO, etc., for solving emergency transportation problems. We then propose a new hybrid biogeography-based optimization (BBO algorithm, which outperforms some state-of-the-art heuristics on a typical transportation planning problem.

  10. Aurelia aurita bio-inspired tilt sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin; Villanueva, Alex; Priya, Shashank

    2012-10-01

    The quickly expanding field of mobile robots, unmanned underwater vehicles, and micro-air vehicles urgently needs a cheap and effective means for measuring vehicle inclination. Commonly, tilt or inclination has been mathematically derived from accelerometers; however, there is inherent error in any indirect measurement. This paper reports a bio-inspired tilt sensor that mimics the natural balance organ of jellyfish, called the ‘statocyst’. Biological statocysts from the species Aurelia aurita were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the morphology and size of the natural sensor. An artificial tilt sensor was then developed by using printed electronics that incorporates a novel voltage divider concept in conjunction with small surface mount devices. This sensor was found to have minimum sensitivity of 4.21° with a standard deviation of 1.77°. These results open the possibility of developing elegant tilt sensor architecture for both air and water based platforms.

  11. Tough, bio-inspired hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munch, Etienne; Launey, Maximimilan E.; Alsem, Daan H.; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2008-10-06

    The notion of mimicking natural structures in the synthesis of new structural materials has generated enormous interest but has yielded few practical advances. Natural composites achieve strength and toughness through complex hierarchical designs extremely difficult to replicate synthetically. Here we emulate Nature's toughening mechanisms through the combination of two ordinary compounds, aluminum oxide and polymethylmethacrylate, into ice-templated structures whose toughness can be over 300 times (in energy terms) that of their constituents. The final product is a bulk hybrid ceramic material whose high yield strength and fracture toughness ({approx}200 MPa and {approx}30 MPa{radical}m) provide specific properties comparable to aluminum alloys. These model materials can be used to identify the key microstructural features that should guide the synthesis of bio-inspired ceramic-based composites with unique strength and toughness.

  12. Bio-inspired odor-based navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maynard J., III; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    The ability of many insects, especially moths, to locate either food or a member of the opposite sex is an amazing achievement. There are numerous scenarios where having this ability embedded into ground-based or aerial vehicles would be invaluable. This paper presents results from a 3-D computer simulation of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) autonomously tracking a chemical plume to its source. The simulation study includes a simulated dynamic chemical plume, 6-degree of freedom, nonlinear aircraft model, and a bio-inspired navigation algorithm. The emphasis of this paper is the development and analysis of the navigation algorithm. The foundation of this algorithm is a fuzzy controller designed to categorize where in the plume the aircraft is located: coming into the plume, in the plume, exiting the plume, or out of the plume.

  13. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-01-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top–down manufacturing. PMID:28008930

  14. Bio-inspired self-shaping ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargardi, Fabio L.; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Libanori, Rafael; Studart, André R.

    2016-12-01

    Shaping ceramics into complex and intricate geometries using cost-effective processes is desirable in many applications but still remains an open challenge. Inspired by plant seed dispersal units that self-fold on differential swelling, we demonstrate that self-shaping can be implemented in ceramics by programming the material's microstructure to undergo local anisotropic shrinkage during heat treatment. Such microstructural design is achieved by magnetically aligning functionalized ceramic platelets in a liquid ceramic suspension, subsequently consolidated through an established enzyme-catalysed reaction. By fabricating alumina compacts exhibiting bio-inspired bilayer architectures, we achieve deliberate control over shape change during the sintering step. Bending, twisting or combinations of these two basic movements can be successfully programmed to obtain a myriad of complex shapes. The simplicity and the universality of such a bottom-up shaping method makes it attractive for applications that would benefit from low-waste ceramic fabrication, temperature-resistant interlocking structures or unusual geometries not accessible using conventional top-down manufacturing.

  15. Bio-Inspired Political Systems. Opening a Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mezza-Garcia, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the scopes of engineering bio-inspired political systems, which are political systems based on the properties of life that self-organize the increasing complexity of human social systems. We describe bio-inspired political systems and conjecture about various ways to get to them, most notably, metaheuristics, modeling and simulation and complexified topologies. Bio-inspired political systems operate with nature-based dynamics, inspired on the knowledge that has been acquired about complexity from natural social systems and life. Bio-inspired political systems are presented as the best alternative for organizing human sociopolitical interactions as computation and microelectronics-based technology profoundly modify the ways in which humans decide. Therefore, weakening classical political systems. For instance, dwindling top-down power structures, modifying the notion of geographical spatiality and augmenting the political granularity. We also argue that, more than a new theoretical p...

  16. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  17. Bio-inspired computational techniques based on advanced condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liangcheng; He Shan; Li Xiaoli; Li Xinglin

    2011-01-01

    The application of bio-inspired computational techniques to the field of condition monitoring is addressed.First, the bio-inspired computational techniques are briefly addressed; the advantages and disadvantages of these computational methods are made clear. Then, the roles of condition monitoring in the predictive maintenance and failures prediction and the development trends of condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, a case study on the condition monitoring of grinding machine is described, which shows the application of bio-inspired computational technique to a practical condition monitoring system.

  18. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  19. Human Factors Issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    subtle leaders of fish schools. Pheromone trails also suggest a way to support human interaction as has been explored to a limited extent... Human Factors issues for Interaction with Bio-Inspired Swarms Michael Lewis*, Michael Goodrich**, Katia Sycara+, Mark Steinberg++ * School of...Enabling a human to control such bio-inspired systems is a considerable challenge due to the limitations of each individual robot and the sheer

  20. Bio-Inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0287 Bio - Inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization Alireza Entezari UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Bio - inspired Sampling and Reconstruction Framework for Scientific Visualization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550...invariant representation, one can increase the quality of signal reconstruction. Moreover, the computational cost of the reconstruction process is

  1. Exploring Creativity in the Bio-Inspired Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggakara, K.; Aksdal, T.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in the of field bio-inspired design has been driven by the acknowledgement that inspiration from nature can serve as a valuable source of innovation. As an emerging approach, there has been a focus on building a principled methodology to address the challenges that arise...

  2. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  3. A bio-inspired software for segmenting digital images.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Pernil, Daniel; Molina Abril, Helena; Real Jurado, Pedro; Gutiérrez Naranjo, Miguel Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation in computer vision refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments (sets of pixels). It has several features which make it suitable for techniques inspired by nature. It can be parallelized, locally solved and the input data can be easily encoded by bio-inspired representations. In this paper, we present a new software for performing a segmentation of 2D digital images based on Membrane Computing techniques.

  4. Bio Inspired Algorithms in Single and Multiobjective Reliability Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Albeanu, Grigore; Burtschy, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Non-traditional search and optimization methods based on natural phenomena have been proposed recently in order to avoid local or unstable behavior when run towards an optimum state. This paper describes the principles of bio inspired algorithms and reports on Migration Algorithms and Bees...

  5. BioMAV: bio-inspired intelligence for autonomous flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerke, P.K.; Langevoort, J.; Lagarde, S.; Bax, L.; Grootswagers, T.; Drenth, R.-J.; Slieker, V.; Vuurpijl, L.; Haselager, P.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.; Van Otterlo, M.; De Croon, G.C.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to research on biologically inspired micro air vehicles in two ways: (i) it explores a novel repertoire of behavioral modules which can be controlled through finite state machines (FSM) and (ii) elementary movement detectors (EMD) are combined with a center/surround edge

  6. BioMAV: bio-inspired intelligence for autonomous flight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerke, P.K.; Langevoort, J.E.; Lagarde, S.; Bax, L.; Grootswagers, T.; Drenth, R.; Slieker, V.M.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Haselager, W.F.G.; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Otterlo, M. van; Croon, G.C.H.E. de

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to research on biologically inspired micro air vehicles in two ways: (i) it explores a novel repertoire of behavioral modules which can be controlled through finite state machines (FSM) and (ii) elementary movement detectors (EMD) are combined with a center/ surround ed

  7. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  8. Bio-inspired Ant Algorithms: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Roy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ant Algorithms are techniques for optimizing which were coined in the early 1990’s by M. Dorigo. The techniques were inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants in the nature. The focus of ant algorithms is to find approximate optimized problem solutions using artificial ants and their indirect decentralized communications using synthetic pheromones. In this paper, at first ant algorithms are described in details, then transforms to computational optimization techniques: the ACO metaheuristics and developed ACO algorithms. A comparative study of ant algorithms also carried out, followed by past and present trends in AAs applications. Future prospect in AAs also covered in this paper. Finally a comparison between AAs with well-established machine learning techniques were focused, so that combining with machine learning techniques hybrid, robust, novel algorithms could be produces for outstanding result in future.

  9. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  10. Classification of biological cells using bio-inspired descriptors

    OpenAIRE

    Bel Haj Ali, Wafa; Giampaglia, Dario; Barlaud, Michel; Piro, Paolo; Nock, Richard; Pourcher, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a novel automated approach for the categorization of cells in fluorescence microscopy images. Our supervised classification method aims at recognizing patterns of unlabeled cells based on an annotated dataset. First, the cell images need to be indexed by encoding them in a feature space. For this purpose, we propose tailored bio-inspired features relying on the distribution of contrast information. Then, a supervised learning algorithm is proposed f...

  11. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, characterization, and applications of NPs with particular reference to their use as antimicrobial agents. Reviewed here is the synthesis of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs by a variety of biological forms and biomolecules as well as their effectiveness toward different fungal and bacterial pathogens. The use of gold NPs (bio-inspired by plants, fungi, and bacteria and AgNPs, synthesized by carbohydrates (of plant, animal, and microbial origin, plant parts (bark, callus, leaves, peels, and tubers, fungi, and bacteria have been highlighted. In addition, the use of zinc oxide NPs (although not bio-inspired as novel antimicrobial agents have also been discussed.

  12. Bio-inspired fluidic lens surgical camera for MIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Frank S; Johnson, Daniel; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Arianpour, Ashkan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    We report a new type of surgical camera that will greatly improve minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The key enabling technology for this camera is a unique type of lens-bio-inspired fluidic lens, which is a bio-mimetic lens that can change its curvature, just like the way human crystalline lens can accommodate. Because of its curvature changing capability, it is now possible to design a new regime of optical systems where auto-focusing and optical zoom can be performed without moving the lens positions, as is done in typical cameras. Hence, miniaturized imaging system with high functionality can be achieved with such technology. MIS is a surgical technique where small incisions are made on the abdominal wall as opposed to a large cut in open surgery. This type of surgery ensures faster patient recovery. The key tool for MIS is its surgical camera, or laparoscope. Traditional laparoscope is long and rigid and limits the field of view. To further advance MIS technology, we utilized bio-inspired fluidic lens to design a highly versatile imager that is small, can change its field of view or zoom optically, works in low light conditions, and varies the viewing angles. The surgical camera prototype is small (total track<17 mm), possesses 3X optical zoom, operates with light emitting diode (LED) lighting, among many other unique features.

  13. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  14. Bio-Inspired Autonomous Communications Systems with Anomaly Detection Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate BioComm, a bio-inspired autonomous communications system (ACS) aimed at dynamically reconfiguring and redeploying autonomous...

  15. Spontaneous water filtration of bio-inspired membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-11-01

    Water is one of the most important elements for plants, because it is essential for various metabolic activities. Thus, water management systems of vascular plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this view point, bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. However, most of the underlying biophysical features of the optimized water management systems remain unsolved In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration phenomena in the roots of mangrove are experimentally investigated. To understand water-filtration features of the mangrove, the morphological structures of its roots are analyzed. The electrokinetic properties of the root surface are also examined. Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, filtration of sodium ions in the roots are visualized. Motivated by this mechanism, spontaneous desalination mechanism in the root of mangrove is proposed by combining the electrokinetics and hydrodynamic transportation of ions. This study would be helpful for understanding the water-filtration mechanism of the roots of mangrove and developing a new bio-inspired desalination technology. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract Grant Number: 2008-0061991).

  16. Autonomous UAV persistent surveillance using bio-inspired strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2012-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara, the Army Research Laboratory, the Engineer Research and Development Center, and IBM UK is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bioinspired techniques for autonomous search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data from heterogeneous sensor networks. The bio-inspired algorithm is based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. Field tests of a bio-inspired system that routed UAVs were conducted in June 2011 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that such a system can autonomously detect and locate the source of terrestrial events with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In June 2011, field tests of the system were completed and include the use of multiple autonomously controlled UAVs, detection and disambiguation of multiple acoustic events occurring in short time frames, optimal sensor placement based on local phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA) Sensor Network Fabric. The system demonstrated TRL 6 performance in the field at Camp Roberts.

  17. Heterogeneous sensor networks: a bio-inspired overlay architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Klein, Daniel; Isaacs, Jason; Venkateswaran, Sriram; Pham, Tien

    2010-04-01

    Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Army Research Lab are developing technologies for automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous sensor networks through the Institute for Collaborative Biotechnologies (ICB). Unmanned air vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous data-driven collection routes. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data across heterogeneous sensors. A fast and accurate method has been developed for routing UAVs and localizing an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs; it leverages a bio-inspired technique based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. The system was implemented and successfully tested using a high level simulation environment using a flight simulator to emulate a UAV. A field test was also conducted in November 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA using a UAV provided by AeroMech Engineering. The field test results showed that the system can detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with an accuracy of about 3 meters average circular error.

  18. Confined swimming of bio-inspired microrobots in rectangular channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Yesilyurt, Serhat

    2015-02-02

    Controlled swimming of bio-inspired microrobots in confined spaces needs to be understood well for potential use in medical applications in conduits and vessels inside the body. In this study, experimental and computational studies are performed for analysis of swimming modes of a bio-inspired microrobot in rectangular channels at low Reynolds number. Experiments are performed on smooth and rough surfaces using a magnetic helical swimmer (MHS), having 0.5 mm diameter and 2 mm length, with left-handed helical tail and radially polarized magnetic head within rotating magnetic field obtained by two electromagnetic coil pairs. Experiments indicate three motion modes of the MHS with respect to the rotation frequency: (i) lateral motion under the effect of a perpendicular force such as gravity and the surface traction at low frequencies, (ii) lateral motion under the effect of fluid forces and gravity at transition frequencies, and (iii) circular motion under the effect of fluid forces at high frequencies. Observed modes of motion for the MHS are investigated with computational fluid dynamics simulations by calculating translational and angular velocities and studying the induced flow fields for different radial positions inside the channel. Results indicate the importance of rotation frequency, surface roughness and flow field on the swimming modes and behaviour of the MHS inside the rectangular channel.

  19. Bio-inspired motion estimation – From modelling to evaluation, can biology be a source of inspiration?

    OpenAIRE

    Tlapale, Émilien; Kornprobst, Pierre; Masson, Guillaume; Faugeras, Olivier; Bouecke, Jan,; Neumann, Heiko

    2010-01-01

    We propose a bio-inspired approach to motion estimation based on recent neuroscience findings concerning the motion pathway. Our goal is to identify the key biological features in order to reach a good compromise between bio-inspiration and computational efficiency. Here we choose the neural field formalism which provides a sound mathematical framework to describe the model at a macroscopic scale. Within this framework we define the cortical activity as coupled integro-differential equations ...

  20. SABRE: a bio-inspired fault-tolerant electronic architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, P; Liu, Y; Samie, M; Dragffy, G; Pipe, A G; Tempesti, G; Timmis, J; Tyrrell, A M

    2013-03-01

    As electronic devices become increasingly complex, ensuring their reliable, fault-free operation is becoming correspondingly more challenging. It can be observed that, in spite of their complexity, biological systems are highly reliable and fault tolerant. Hence, we are motivated to take inspiration for biological systems in the design of electronic ones. In SABRE (self-healing cellular architectures for biologically inspired highly reliable electronic systems), we have designed a bio-inspired fault-tolerant hierarchical architecture for this purpose. As in biology, the foundation for the whole system is cellular in nature, with each cell able to detect faults in its operation and trigger intra-cellular or extra-cellular repair as required. At the next level in the hierarchy, arrays of cells are configured and controlled as function units in a transport triggered architecture (TTA), which is able to perform partial-dynamic reconfiguration to rectify problems that cannot be solved at the cellular level. Each TTA is, in turn, part of a larger multi-processor system which employs coarser grain reconfiguration to tolerate faults that cause a processor to fail. In this paper, we describe the details of operation of each layer of the SABRE hierarchy, and how these layers interact to provide a high systemic level of fault tolerance.

  1. Editorial:Mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials%Editorial: Mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohua Jia

    2012-01-01

    The field of mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials underwent an exciting development over the past several years,which made it stand at the cutting edge of both engineering mechanics and biomechanics.As an intriguing interdisciplinary research field,it aims at elucidating the fundamental principles in nature's design of strong,multi-functional and smart Materials by focusing on the assembly,deformation,stability and failure of the materials.These principles should have wide applications in not only material sciences and mechanical engineering but also biomedical engineering.For instance,the knowledge in Mechanical principles of biological materials is very helpful for addressing some major challenges in material sciences and engineering.They also have the potential to provide quantitative understanding about how forces and deformation affect human being's health,diseases and treatment at tissue,cellular and molecular levels.This special subject on "mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials" collects a few studies on recent development by leading scientists in this field.The biological materials or systems in these studies include cell,cytoskeleton (e.g.,microtubulus,intermediate filaments),lipid molecules and composite system of lipid and nanoparticle,tissue,and biological attachment systems,etc.

  2. Performance of a bio-inspired spider web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Li, Rui; Wang, Xiaojie; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate dynamic properties and the total energy change of a bio-inspired spider web. To better understand performance, the effects of preload, radial and spiral string stiffness and damping ratio on the natural frequency and total energy of the web are theoretically examined. Different types of web materials and configurations, such as damaged webs are investigated. It is demonstrated that the pretension, stiffness and damping ratio of the web's strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and total energy of the full and damaged webs. In addition, it is shown that by increasing the pretension in the radial strings one can compensate for the damaged strings and increase the capability of the damaged web to reach that of the full web.

  3. Bio-inspired artificial iriodphores based on capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2011-03-01

    Many marine organisms have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control that allow them to drastically change their visual appearance. In particular, cephalopods have developed especially effective dynamic color control mechanism based on the mechanical actuation of the micro-scale optical structures, which produce either variable degrees of area coverage by a given color (chromatophores) or variations in spatial orientation of the reflective and diffractive surfaces (iridophores). In this work we describe bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on electrowetting-controlled capillary origami. We describe the developed microfabrication approach, characterize mechanical and optical properties of the obtained microstructures and discuss their electrowetting-based actuation. The obtained experimental results are in good agreement with a simple theoretical model based on electrocapillarity and elasticity theory. The results of the work can enable a broad range of novel optical devices.

  4. An introduction to bio-inspired artificial neural network architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasel, B

    2003-03-01

    In this introduction to artificial neural networks we attempt to give an overview of the most important types of neural networks employed in engineering and explain shortly how they operate and also how they relate to biological neural networks. The focus will mainly be on bio-inspired artificial neural network architectures and specifically to neo-perceptions. The latter belong to the family of convolutional neural networks. Their topology is somewhat similar to the one of the human visual cortex and they are based on receptive fields that allow, in combination with sub-sampling layers, for an improved robustness with regard to local spatial distortions. We demonstrate the application of artificial neural networks to face analysis--a domain we human beings are particularly good at, yet which poses great difficulties for digital computers running deterministic software programs.

  5. Optimal Design of a Bio-Inspired Anthropocentric Shoulder Rehabilitator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a bio-inspired anthropocentric 7-DOF wearable robotic arm for the purpose of stroke rehabilitation. The proposed arm rehabilitator synergistically utilizes the human arm structure with non-invasive kinematically under-deterministic cable-driven mechanisms to form a completely deterministic structure. It offers the advantages of being lightweight and having high dexterity. Adopting an anthropocentric design concept also allows it to conform to the human anatomical structure. The focus of this paper is on the analysis and design of the 3-DOF-shoulder module, called the shoulder rehabilitator. The design methodology is divided into three main steps: (1 performance evaluation of the cable-driven shoulder rehabilitator, (2 performance requirements of the shoulder joint based on its physiological characteristics and (3 design optimization of the shoulder rehabilitator based on shoulder joint physiological limitations. The aim is to determine a suitable configuration for the development of a shoulder rehabilitator prototype.

  6. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G. [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia); Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia); Bennett, John W. [Centre for Nuclear Applications, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights 2234, NSW (Australia); Ellis, Amanda V., E-mail: Amanda.Ellis@flinders.edu.au [Flinders Centre for Nanoscale Science and Technology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, Sturt Road, Bedford Park, Adelaide 5042, SA (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Natural zeolites were modified with bio-inspired polydopamine. • A 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity was observed. • Atomic absorption and neutron activation analysis gave corroborative results. • Neutron activation analysis was used to provide accurate information on 30+ elements. • Approximately 90% of the adsorbed copper could be recovered by 0.1 M HCl treatment. - Abstract: Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2–5.5), PDA treatment time (3–24 h), contact time (0 to 24 h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500 mg dm{sup −3}) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93 mg g{sup −1} for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58 mg g{sup −1} for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01 M or 0.1 M) of either acid or base.

  7. Bio-inspired Autonomic Structures: a middleware for Telecommunications Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzalini, Antonio; Minerva, Roberto; Moiso, Corrado

    Today, people are making use of several devices for communications, for accessing multi-media content services, for data/information retrieving, for processing, computing, etc.: examples are laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, digital cameras, mp3 players, smart cards and smart appliances. One of the most attracting service scenarios for future Telecommunications and Internet is the one where people will be able to browse any object in the environment they live: communications, sensing and processing of data and services will be highly pervasive. In this vision, people, machines, artifacts and the surrounding space will create a kind of computational environment and, at the same time, the interfaces to the network resources. A challenging technological issue will be interconnection and management of heterogeneous systems and a huge amount of small devices tied together in networks of networks. Moreover, future network and service infrastructures should be able to provide Users and Application Developers (at different levels, e.g., residential Users but also SMEs, LEs, ASPs/Web2.0 Service roviders, ISPs, Content Providers, etc.) with the most appropriate "environment" according to their context and specific needs. Operators must be ready to manage such level of complication enabling their latforms with technological advanced allowing network and services self-supervision and self-adaptation capabilities. Autonomic software solutions, enhanced with innovative bio-inspired mechanisms and algorithms, are promising areas of long term research to face such challenges. This chapter proposes a bio-inspired autonomic middleware capable of leveraging the assets of the underlying network infrastructure whilst, at the same time, supporting the development of future Telecommunications and Internet Ecosystems.

  8. A bio-inspired image coder with temporal scalability

    CERN Document Server

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel bio-inspired and dynamic coding scheme for static images. Our coder aims at reproducing the main steps of the visual stimulus processing in the mammalians retina taking into account its time behavior. The main novelty of this work is to show how to exploit the time behavior of the retina cells to ensure, in a simple way, scalability and bit allocation. To do so, our main source of inspiration will be the biologically plausible retina model called Virtual Retina. Following a similar structure, our model has two stages. The first stage is an image transform which is performed by the outer layers in the retina. Here it is modelled by filtering the image with a bank of difference of Gaussians with time-delays. The second stage is a time-dependent analog-to-digital conversion which is performed by the inner layers in the retina. Thanks to its conception, our coder enables scalability and bit allocation across time. Also, compared to the JPEG standards, our decoded images do not show annoying art...

  9. Parallel Processing and Bio-inspired Computing for Biomedical Image Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ioan Bejinariu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image Registration (IR is an optimization problem computing optimal parameters of a geometric transform used to overlay one or more source images to a given model by maximizing a similarity measure. In this paper the use of bio-inspired optimization algorithms in image registration is analyzed. Results obtained by means of three different algorithms are compared: Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA, Genetic Algorithm (GA and Clonal Selection Algorithm (CSA. Depending on the images type, the registration may be: area based, which is slow but more precise, and features based, which is faster. In this paper a feature based approach based on the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT is proposed. Finally, results obtained using sequential and parallel implementations on multi-core systems for area based and features based image registration are compared.

  10. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  11. A bio-inspired test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dai-Hua; Xu, Lei; Fu, Qiang; Yuan, Gang

    2013-04-01

    Recently, prosthetic knees in the developing stage are usually tested by installing them on amputees' stumps directly or on above-knee prostheses (AKPs) test platforms. Although amputees can fully provide the actual motion state of the thigh, immature prosthetic knees may hurt amputees. For AKPs test platforms, it just can partly simulate the actual motion state of the thigh with limitation of the motion curve of the thigh, the merits or demerits of newly developed bionic above-knee prosthetic knees cannot be accessed thoroughly. Aiming at the defects of two testing methods, this paper presents a bio-inspired AKPs test system for bionic above-knee prosthetic knees. The proposed bio-inspired AKPs test system is composed of a AKPs test platform, a control system, and a bio-inspired system. The AKPs test platform generates the motion of the thigh simulation mechanism (TSM) via two screw pairs with servo motors. The bio-inspired system includes the tester and the bio-inspired sensor wore by the tester. The control system, which is inspired by the bio-inspired system, generates the control command signal to move the TSM of the AKPs test platform. The bio-inspired AKPs test system is developed and experimentally tested with a commercially available prosthetic knee. The research results show that the bio-inspired AKPs test system can not only ensure the safety of the testers, but also track all kinds of the actual motion state of the thigh of the testers in real time.

  12. Bio-inspired Nanomaterials for Biosensing and Cell Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Molly

    2012-02-01

    This talk will provide an overview of our recent developments in bio-inspired nanomaterials for tissue regeneration and sensing. Bio-responsive nanomaterials are of growing importance with potential applications including drug delivery, diagnostics and tissue engineering [1]. DNA-, protein- or peptide-functionalised nanoparticle (NP) aggregates are particularly useful systems since triggered changes in their aggregation states may be readily monitored. Our recent simple conceptually novel approaches to real-time monitoring of protease, lipase and kinase enzyme action using modular peptide functionalized NPs will be presented [2,3,4]. The highly interdisciplinary field of Tissue Engineering (TE) can also benefit from advances in the design of bio-responsive nanomaterials. TE involves the development of artificial scaffold structures on which new cells are encouraged to grow. The ability to control topography and chemistry at the nanoscale offers exciting possibilities for stimulating growth of new tissue through the development of novel nanostructured scaffolds that mimic the nanostructure of the tissues in the body [1,5,6]. Recent developments in this context will be discussed as well as novel approaches to in vivo tissue regeneration of large volumes of highly vascularised and hierarchically organized tissue [7,8,9]. [4pt] [1] MM Stevens, J George. Science 310:1135-1138 (2005)[0pt] [2] A Laromaine, L Koh, M Murugesan, RV Ulijn, MM Stevens. Journal of the American Chemical Society 129:4156-4157 (2007)[0pt] [3] J Ghadiali, MM Stevens. Advanced Materials 20: 4359-4363 (2008); J Ghadiali et al, ACS Nano 4:4915-4919 (2010)[0pt] [4] D Aili, M Mager, D Roche, MM Stevens. Nano Letters 11:1401-1405 (2011) [0pt] [5] E Place, ND Evans, MM Stevens. Nature Materials 8:457-470 (2009)[0pt] [6] MD Mager, V LaPointe, MM Stevens. Nature Chemistry 3:582-589 (2011)[0pt] [7] MM Stevens et. al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:11450-11455 (2005)[0pt] [8] E Gentleman et al. Nature

  13. Copper removal using bio-inspired polydopamine coated natural zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Shapter, Joseph G; Popelka-Filcoff, Rachel; Bennett, John W; Ellis, Amanda V

    2014-05-30

    Herein, for the first time, natural clinoptilolite-rich zeolite powders modified with a bio-inspired adhesive, polydopamine (PDA), have been systematically studied as an adsorbent for copper cations (Cu(II)) from aqueous solution. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed successful grafting of PDA onto the zeolite surface. The effects of pH (2-5.5), PDA treatment time (3-24h), contact time (0 to 24h) and initial Cu(II) ion concentrations (1 to 500mgdm(-3)) on the adsorption of Cu(II) ions were studied using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The adsorption behavior was fitted to a Langmuir isotherm and shown to follow a pseudo-second-order reaction model. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(II) were shown to be 14.93mgg(-1) for pristine natural zeolite and 28.58mgg(-1) for PDA treated zeolite powders. This impressive 91.4% increase in Cu(II) ion adsorption capacity is attributed to the chelating ability of the PDA on the zeolite surface. Furthermore studies of recyclability using NAA showed that over 50% of the adsorbed copper could be removed in mild concentrations (0.01M or 0.1M) of either acid or base.

  14. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Zawatil Isqi Zakaria

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers’ performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied.

  15. Optical properties of bio-inspired peptide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-04-01

    Supramolecular self-assembled bio-inspired peptide nanostructures are favorable to be implemented in diverse nanophotonics applications due to their superior physical properties such as wideband optical transparency, high second-order nonlinear response, waveguiding properties and more. Here, we focus on the optical properties found in di-phenylalanine peptide nano-architectures, with special emphasize on their linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding effects. Using both simulation and experiments, we show their ability to passively guide light at both fundamental and second-harmonic frequencies. In addition, we show that at elevated temperatures, 140-180°C, these native supramolecular structures undergo irreversible thermally induced transformation via re-assembling into completely new thermodynamically stable phase having nanofiber morphology similar to those of amyloid fibrils. In this new phase, the peptide nanofibers lose their second-order nonlinear response, while exhibit profound modification of optoelectronic properties followed by the appearance of visible (blue and green) photoluminescence (PL). Our study propose a new generation of multifunctional optical waveguides with variety of characteristics, which self-assembled into 1D-elongated nanostructures and could be used as building blocks of many integrated photonic devices.

  16. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Absolute Pressure Sensor Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yue; Li, Yu-Hung; Guo, Zhiqiang; Kim, Kyunglok; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Wang, Shan X

    2016-01-02

    A bio-inspired absolute pressure sensor network has been developed. Absolute pressure sensors, distributed on multiple silicon islands, are connected as a network by stretchable polyimide wires. This sensor network, made on a 4'' wafer, has 77 nodes and can be mounted on various curved surfaces to cover an area up to 0.64 m × 0.64 m, which is 100 times larger than its original size. Due to Micro Electro-Mechanical system (MEMS) surface micromachining technology, ultrathin sensing nodes can be realized with thicknesses of less than 100 µm. Additionally, good linearity and high sensitivity (~14 mV/V/bar) have been achieved. Since the MEMS sensor process has also been well integrated with a flexible polymer substrate process, the entire sensor network can be fabricated in a time-efficient and cost-effective manner. Moreover, an accurate pressure contour can be obtained from the sensor network. Therefore, this absolute pressure sensor network holds significant promise for smart vehicle applications, especially for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  17. Electrowetting-controlled bio-inspired artificial iridophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Taylor, J. Ashley; Krupenkin, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Many marine organisms have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control that allow them to drastically change their visual appearance. In particular, cephalopods have developed especially effective dynamic color control mechanism based on the mechanical actuation of the micro-scale optical structures, which produce either variable degrees of area coverage by a given color (chromatophores) or variations in spatial orientation of the reflective and diffractive surfaces (iridophores). In this work we describe the design, fabrication and characterization of electrowetting-controlled bio-inspired artificial iridophores. The developed iridophores geometrically resemble microflowers with flexible reflective petals. The microflowers are fabricated on a silicon substrate using surface micromachining techniques. After fabrication a small droplet of conductive liquid is deposited at the center of each microflower. This causes the flower petals to partially wrap around the droplet forming a structure similar to capillary origami. The dynamic control over the degree of wrapping is achieved by applying a voltage differential between the conductive core of the petals and the droplet. The applied voltage causes dynamic contact angle change between the droplet and each of the petals due to the electrowetting effect. We have characterized mechanical and optical properties of the microstructures and discuss their electrowetting-based actuation. These experimental results are in good agreement with a 3D theoretical model based on electrocapillarity and elasticity theory. This work forms the basis for a broad range of novel optical devices.

  18. Bio-inspired Self-Adaptive Agents in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro SATOH

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} This paper proposes a bio-inspired middleware for selfadaptive software agents on distributed systems. It is unique to other existing approaches for software adaptation because it introduces the notions of differentiation, dedifferentiation, and cellular division in cellular slime molds, e.g., dictyostelium discoideum, into real distributed systems. When an agent delegates a function to another agent coordinating with it, if the former has the function, this function becomes lessdeveloped and the latter’s function becomes welldeveloped.

  19. Bio-inspired color sketch for eco-friendly printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonov, Ilia V.; Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Rychagov, Michael N.; Lee, Hokeun; Kim, Sang Ho; Choi, Donchul

    2012-01-01

    Saving of toner/ink consumption is an important task in modern printing devices. It has a positive ecological and social impact. We propose technique for converting print-job pictures to a recognizable and pleasant color sketches. Drawing a "pencil sketch" from a photo relates to a special area in image processing and computer graphics - non-photorealistic rendering. We describe a new approach for automatic sketch generation which allows to create well-recognizable sketches and to preserve partly colors of the initial picture. Our sketches contain significantly less color dots then initial images and this helps to save toner/ink. Our bio-inspired approach is based on sophisticated edge detection technique for a mask creation and multiplication of source image with increased contrast by this mask. To construct the mask we use DoG edge detection, which is a result of blending of initial image with its blurred copy through the alpha-channel, which is created from Saliency Map according to Pre-attentive Human Vision model. Measurement of percentage of saved toner and user study proves effectiveness of proposed technique for toner saving in eco-friendly printing mode.

  20. Bio-inspired Self-Adaptive Agents in Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro SATOH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} This paper proposes a bio-inspired middleware for selfadaptive software agents on distributed systems. It is unique to other existing approaches for software adaptation because it introduces the notions of differentiation, dedifferentiation, and cellular division in cellular slime molds, e.g., dictyostelium discoideum, into real distributed systems. When an agent delegates a function to another agent coordinating with it, if the former has the function, this function becomes lessdeveloped and the latter’s function becomes welldeveloped.

  1. Robust, Self-Contained and Bio-Inspired Shear Sensor Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is a robust, bio-inspired, and self-contained sensor array for the measurement of shear stress. The proposed system uses commercially...

  2. 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krömer, Pavel; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2013, the 4th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2013 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference is to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2013 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  3. Compressive Sensing Based Bio-Inspired Shape Feature Detection CMOS Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A CMOS imager integrated circuit using compressive sensing and bio-inspired detection is presented which integrates novel functions and algorithms within a novel hardware architecture enabling efficient on-chip implementation.

  4. Bio-Inspired Clustering of Complex Products Structure based on DSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clustering plays an important role in the decomposition of complex products structure. Different clustering algorithms may achieve different effects of the decomposition. This paper aims to proposes a bio-inspired genetic algorithm that is implemented based on its reliable fitness function and design structure matrix (DSM for clustering analysis of complex products. This new bio-inspired genetic algorithm captures the features of DSM, which is base on the biological evolution theory. Examples of these products include motorcycle engines that are presented for clustering. The five cluster alternatives are obtained from the regular clustering algorithm and the bio-inspired genetic algorithm, while the best cluster alternative comes from the bio-inspired genetic algorithm. The results show that this algorithm is well adaptable, especially when the product elements have complicated and asymmetric connections.

  5. Fifth International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Snášel, Václav

    2014-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at IBICA2014, the 5th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-inspired Computing and Applications. The aim of IBICA 2014 was to provide a platform for world research leaders and practitioners, to discuss the full spectrum of current theoretical developments, emerging technologies, and innovative applications of Bio-inspired Computing. Bio-inspired Computing remains to be one of the most exciting research areas, and it is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The main driving force of the conference was to further explore the intriguing potential of Bio-inspired Computing. IBICA 2014 was held in Ostrava, Czech Republic and hosted by the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.

  6. A new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallavollita, P.; Cimini, F.; Balsi, M.; Esposito, S.; Jankowski, S.

    This work, after a preliminary feasibility study using a Matlab environment simulation, defines the design and the real hardware testing of a new bio-inspired decision chain for UAV sense-and-avoid applications. Relying on a single and cheap visible camera sensor, computer vision, bio-inspired and automatic decision algorithms have been adopted and implemented on a specific ARM embedded platform through C++/OpenCV coding. A first data set processing, really captured on flight, has been presented.

  7. 7th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Pramod; Deep, Kusum; Pant, Millie; Nagar, Atulya

    2013-01-01

    The book is a collection of high quality peer reviewed research papers presented in Seventh International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing (BIC-TA 2012) held at ABV-IIITM Gwalior, India. These research papers provide the latest developments in the broad area of "Computational Intelligence". The book discusses wide variety of industrial, engineering and scientific applications of nature/bio-inspired computing and presents invited papers from the inventors/originators of novel computational techniques.

  8. Principle of bio-inspired insect wing rotational hinge design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Fan

    A principle for designing and fabricating bio-inspired miniature artificial insect flapping wing using flexure rotational hinge design is presented. A systematic approach of selecting rotational hinge stiffness value is proposed. Based on the understanding of flapping wing aerodynamics, a dynamic simulation is constructed using the established quasi-steady model and the wing design. Simulations were performed to gain insight on how different parameters affect the wing rotational response. Based on system resonance a model to predict the optimal rotational hinge stiffness based on given wing parameter and flapping wing kinematic is proposed. By varying different wing parameters, the proposed method is shown to be applicable to a wide range of wing designs with different sizes and shapes. With the selected hinge stiffness value, aspects of the rotational joint design is discussed and an integrated wing-hinge structure design using laminated carbon fiber and polymer film is presented. Manufacturing process of such composite structure is developed to achieve high accuracy and repeatability. The yielded hinge stiffness is verified by measurements. To validate the proposed model, flapping wing experiments were conducted. A flapping actuation set up is built using DC motor and a controller is implemented on a microcontroller to track desired wing stroke kinematic. Wing stroke and rotation kinematic were extracted using a high speed camera and the lift generation is evaluated. A total of 49 flapping experiments were presented, experimental data shows good correlation with the model's prediction. With the wing rotational hinge stiffness designed so that the rotational resonant frequency is twice as the stroke frequency, the resulting wing rotation generates near optimal lift. With further simulation, the proposed model shows low sensitivity to wing parameter variation. As a result, giving a design parameter of a flapping wing robot platform, the proposed principle can

  9. A Bio-Inspired Robust Adaptive Random Search Algorithm for Distributed Beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, Chia-Shiang; Lin, Che

    2010-01-01

    A bio-inspired robust adaptive random search algorithm (BioRARSA), designed for distributed beamforming for sensor and relay networks, is proposed in this work. It has been shown via a systematic framework that BioRARSA converges in probability and its convergence time scales linearly with the number of distributed transmitters. More importantly, extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed BioRARSA outperforms existing adaptive distributed beamforming schemes by as large as 29.8% on average. This increase in performance results from the fact that BioRARSA can adaptively adjust its sampling stepsize via the "swim" behavior inspired by the bacterial foraging mechanism. Hence, the convergence time of BioRARSA is insensitive to the initial sampling stepsize of the algorithm, which makes it robust against the dynamic nature of distributed wireless networks.

  10. Bio-inspired polymeric patterns with enhanced wear durability for microsystem applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R. Arvind; Siyuan, L.; Satyanarayana, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Kustandi, T.S. [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A-STAR, 3 Research Link, Singapore 117602 (Singapore); Sinha, Sujeet K., E-mail: mpesks@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2011-10-10

    At micro/nano-scale, friction force dominates at the interface between bodies moving in relative motion and severely affects their smooth operation. This effect limits the performance of microsystem devices such as micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). In addition, friction force also leads to material removal or wear and thereby reduces the durability i.e. the useful operating life of the devices. In this work, we fabricated bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications. Inspired by the surface features on lotus leaves namely, the protuberances and wax, SU-8 polymeric films spin-coated on silicon wafers were topographically and chemically modified. For topographical modification, micro-scale patterns were fabricated using nanoimprint lithography and for chemical modification, the micro-patterns were coated with perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Tribological investigation of the bio-inspired patterns revealed that the friction coefficients reduced significantly and the wear durability increased by several orders. In order to enhance the wear durability much further, the micro-patterns were exposed to argon/oxygen plasma and were subsequently coated with the perfluoropolyether nanolubricant. Bio-inspired patterns with enhanced wear durability, such as the ones investigated in the current work, have potential tribological applications in MEMS/Bio-MEMS actuator-based devices. Highlights: {yields}Bio-inspired polymeric patterns for tribological applications in microsystems. {yields}Novel surface modification for the patterns to enhance tribological properties. {yields}Patterns show low friction properties and extremely high wear durability.

  11. Development of a bio-inspired UAV perching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pu

    of animals and human arms approaching to a fixed or moving target for grasping or capturing. The autonomous flight control was also implemented through a PID controller. Autonomous flight performance was proved through simulation in SimMechanics. Finally, the prototyping of our designs were conducted in different generations of our bio-inspired UAV perching system, which include the leg prototype, gripper prototype, and system prototype. Both the machined prototype and 3D printed prototype were tried. The performance of these prototypes was tested through experiments.

  12. Protocols for Bio-Inspired Resource Discovery and Erasure Coded Replication in P2P Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sabu M

    2010-01-01

    Efficient resource discovery and availability improvement are very important issues in unstructured P2P networks. In this paper, a bio-inspired resource discovery scheme inspired by the principle of elephants migration is proposed. A replication scheme based on Q-learning and erasure codes is also introduced. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes significantly increases query success rate and availability, and reduces the network traffic as the resources are effectively distributed to well-performing nodes.

  13. UMD Workshop on Distributed Sensing, Actuation, and Control for Bio-Inspired Soft Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    engineering with soft robotics ); ethics (public opinion, policy); engineering (control aspects,                      mobility, sensors, fluid dynamics...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The UMD Workshop on Distributed Sensing, Actuation, and Control for Bio­inspired Soft Robotics was held at the...and Control for Bio-inspired Soft Robotics The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not

  14. Autonomic networking-on-chip bio-inspired specification, development, and verification

    CERN Document Server

    Cong-Vinh, Phan

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-on-chip (ANoC) technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The FIRST Book to Assess Research Results, Opportunities, & Trends in ""BioChipNets"" The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent re

  15. Towards Bio-Inspired Chromatic Behaviours in Surveillance Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Karutaa Gnaniar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of Robotics is ever growing at the same time as posing enormous challenges. Numerous works has been done in biologically inspired robotics emulating models, systems and elements of nature for the purpose of solving traditional robotics problems. Chromatic behaviours are abundant in nature across a variety of living species to achieve camouflage, signaling, and temperature regulation. The ability of these creatures to successfully blend in with their environment and communicate by changing their colour is the fundamental inspiration for our research work. In this paper, we present dwarf chameleon inspired chromatic behaviour in the context of an autonomous surveillance robot, “PACHONDHI”. In our experiments, we successfully validated the ability of the robot to autonomously change its colour in relation to the terrain that it is traversing for maximizing detectability to friendly security agents and minimizing exposure to hostile agents, as well as to communicate with fellow cooperating robots.

  16. Bio-inspired algorithms applied to molecular docking simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlé, G; de Azevedo, W F

    2011-01-01

    Nature as a source of inspiration has been shown to have a great beneficial impact on the development of new computational methodologies. In this scenario, analyses of the interactions between a protein target and a ligand can be simulated by biologically inspired algorithms (BIAs). These algorithms mimic biological systems to create new paradigms for computation, such as neural networks, evolutionary computing, and swarm intelligence. This review provides a description of the main concepts behind BIAs applied to molecular docking simulations. Special attention is devoted to evolutionary algorithms, guided-directed evolutionary algorithms, and Lamarckian genetic algorithms. Recent applications of these methodologies to protein targets identified in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome are described.

  17. 3D printed bio-inspired angular acceleration sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiem, van Joël; Groenesteijn, Jarno; Sanders, Remco; Krijnen, Gijs

    2015-01-01

    We present a biomimetic angular acceleration sensor inspired by the vestibular system, as found e.g. in mammals and fish. The sensor consist of a fluid filled circular channel. When exposed to angular accelerations the fluid flows relative to the channel. Read-out is based on electromagnetic flow se

  18. Bio-Inspired Intelligent Sensing Materials for Fly-by-Feel Autonomous Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Method of Approach Ni nanoparticles • Magnetoelectric composite induces strain in Ni nanoparticles • E=0 produces superparamagnetic behavior • E...AFOSR-MURI Bio-inspired Sensory Network current strain Change in resistance and gauge factor K under uniaxial tensile strain . Measured...Effects Ambient temperature, humidity . moisture….. State field distribution -Temperature -Pressure - Air-flow - Strain - Structural damage

  19. Bio-Inspired Energy-Aware Protocol Design for Cooperative Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, Gian Paolo; Anggraeni, Puri Novelti; Wardana, Satya Ardhy;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, bio-inspired cooperation rules are applied to wireless communication networks. The main goal is to derive cooperative behaviour rules to improve the energy consumption of each mobile device. A medium access control (MAC) protocol particularly designed for peer-to-peer communication ...

  20. Bio-inspired Iron Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Oxidations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Que, Jr., Lawrence [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-03-22

    Stereoselective oxidation of C–H and C=C bonds are catalyzed by nonheme iron enzymes. Inspired by these bioinorganic systems, our group has been exploring the use of nonheme iron complexes as catalysts for the oxidation of hydrocarbons using H2O2 as an environmentally friendly and atom-efficient oxidant in order to gain mechanistic insights into these novel transformations. In particular, we have focused on clarifying the nature of the high-valent iron oxidants likely to be involved in these transformations.

  1. Bio-inspired nano-sensor-enhanced CNN visual computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porod, Wolfgang; Werblin, Frank; Chua, Leon O; Roska, Tamas; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel; Roska, Botond; Fay, Patrick; Bernstein, Gary H; Huang, Yih-Fang; Csurgay, Arpad I

    2004-05-01

    Nanotechnology opens new ways to utilize recent discoveries in biological image processing by translating the underlying functional concepts into the design of CNN (cellular neural/nonlinear network)-based systems incorporating nanoelectronic devices. There is a natural intersection joining studies of retinal processing, spatio-temporal nonlinear dynamics embodied in CNN, and the possibility of miniaturizing the technology through nanotechnology. This intersection serves as the springboard for our multidisciplinary project. Biological feature and motion detectors map directly into the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN for target recognition, image stabilization, and tracking. The neural interactions underlying color processing will drive the development of nanoscale multispectral sensor arrays for image fusion. Implementing such nanoscale sensors on a CNN platform will allow the implementation of device feedback control, a hallmark of biological sensory systems. These biologically inspired CNN subroutines are incorporated into the new world of analog-and-logic algorithms and software, containing also many other active-wave computing mechanisms, including nature-inspired (physics and chemistry) as well as PDE-based sophisticated spatio-temporal algorithms. Our goal is to design and develop several miniature prototype devices for target detection, navigation, tracking, and robotics. This paper presents an example illustrating the synergies emerging from the convergence of nanotechnology, biotechnology, and information and cognitive science.

  2. Cochlear outer hair cell bio-inspired metamaterial with negative effective parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fuyin; Wu, Jiu Hui; Huang, Meng; Zhang, Siwen

    2016-05-01

    Inspired by periodical outer hair cells (OHCs) and stereocilia clusters of mammalian cochlear, a type of bio-inspired metamaterial with negative effective parameters based on the OHC structure is proposed. With the structural parameters modified and some common engineering materials adopted, the bio-inspired structure design with length scales of millimeter and lightweight is presented, and then, a bending wave bandgap in a favorable low-frequency with width of 55 Hz during the interval 21-76 or 116 Hz during the interval 57-173 Hz is obtained, i.e., the excellent low-frequency acoustic performance turns up. Compared with the local resonance unit in previous literatures, both the size and weight are greatly reduced in our bio-inspired structure. In addition, the lower edge of low-frequency bandgap is reduced by an order of magnitude, almost to the lower limit frequency of the hearing threshold as well, which achieves an important breakthrough on the aspect of low-frequency and great significance on the noise and vibration reduction in low-frequency range.

  3. How flexibility and dynamic ground effect could improve bio-inspired propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Swimming animals use complex fin motions to reach remarkable levels of efficiency, maneuverability, and stealth. Propulsion systems inspired by these motions could usher in a new generation of advanced underwater vehicles. Two aspects of bio-inspired propulsion are discussed here: flexibility and near-boundary swimming. Experimental work on flexible propulsors shows that swimming efficiency depends on wake vortex timing and boundary layer attachment, but also on fluid-structure resonance. As a result, flexible vehicles or animals could potentially improve their performance by tracking their resonance properties. Bio-inspired propulsors were also found to produce more thrust with no loss in efficiency when swimming near a solid boundary. Higher lift-to-drag ratios for near-ground fixed-wing gliders is commonly known as ground effect. This newly observed "dynamic ground effect" suggests that bio-inspired vehicles and animals could save energy by harnessing the performance gains associated with near-boundary swimming. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research (MURI N00014-08-1-0642, Program Director Dr. Bob Brizzolara) and the National Science Foundation (DBI-1062052, PI Lisa Fauci; EFRI-0938043, PI George Lauder).

  4. A Bio-Inspired QoS-Oriented Handover Model in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bio-inspired model for making handover decision in heterogeneous wireless networks. It is based on an extended attractor selection model, which is biologically inspired by the self-adaptability and robustness of cellular response to the changes in dynamic environments. The goal of the proposed model is to guarantee multiple terminals’ satisfaction by meeting the QoS requirements of those terminals’ applications, and this model also attempts to ensure the fairness of network resources allocation, in the meanwhile, to enable the QoS-oriented handover decision adaptive to dynamic wireless environments. Some numerical simulations are preformed to validate our proposed bio-inspired model in terms of adaptive attractor selection in different noisy environments. And the results of some other simulations prove that the proposed handover scheme can adapt terminals’ network selection to the varying wireless environment and benefits the QoS of multiple terminal applications simultaneously and automatically. Furthermore, the comparative analysis also shows that the bio-inspired model outperforms the utility function based handover decision scheme in terms of ensuring a better QoS satisfaction and a better fairness of network resources allocation in dynamic heterogeneous wireless networks.

  5. Bio-Inspired Controller on an FPGA Applied to Closed-Loop Diaphragmatic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrzeski, Adeline; Bornat, Yannick; Hillen, Brian; Siu, Ricardo; Abbas, James; Jung, Ranu; Renaud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury can disrupt connections between the brain respiratory network and the respiratory muscles which can lead to partial or complete loss of ventilatory control and require ventilatory assistance. Unlike current open-loop technology, a closed-loop diaphragmatic pacing system could overcome the drawbacks of manual titration as well as respond to changing ventilation requirements. We present an original bio-inspired assistive technology for real-time ventilation assistance, implemented in a digital configurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The bio-inspired controller, which is a spiking neural network (SNN) inspired by the medullary respiratory network, is as robust as a classic controller while having a flexible, low-power and low-cost hardware design. The system was simulated in MATLAB with FPGA-specific constraints and tested with a computational model of rat breathing; the model reproduced experimentally collected respiratory data in eupneic animals. The open-loop version of the bio-inspired controller was implemented on the FPGA. Electrical test bench characterizations confirmed the system functionality. Open and closed-loop paradigm simulations were simulated to test the FPGA system real-time behavior using the rat computational model. The closed-loop system monitors breathing and changes in respiratory demands to drive diaphragmatic stimulation. The simulated results inform future acute animal experiments and constitute the first step toward the development of a neuromorphic, adaptive, compact, low-power, implantable device. The bio-inspired hardware design optimizes the FPGA resource and time costs while harnessing the computational power of spike-based neuromorphic hardware. Its real-time feature makes it suitable for in vivo applications.

  6. Superparamagnetic tunnel junctions for bio-inspired computing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grollier, Julie; Torrejon, Jacob; Riou, Mathieu; Cros, Vincent; Querlioz, Damien; Tsunegi, Sumito; Fukushima, Akio; Kubota, Hitoshi; Yuasa, Shinji; Stiles, Mark D.; Khalsa, Guru

    2016-10-01

    The brain displays many features typical of non-linear dynamical networks, such as synchronization or chaotic behaviour. These observations have inspired a whole class of models that harness the power of complex non-linear dynamical networks for computing. In this framework, neurons are modeled as non-linear oscillators, and synapses as the coupling between oscillators. These abstract models are very good at processing waveforms for pattern recognition or at generating precise time sequences useful for robotic motion. However there are very few hardware implementations of these systems, because large numbers of interacting non-linear oscillators are indeed. In this talk, I will show that coupled spin-torque nano-oscillators are very promising for realizing cognitive computing at the nanometer and nanosecond scale, and will present our first results in this direction.

  7. Fast nastic motion of plants and bio-inspired structures

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Qiaohang; Han, Xiaomin; Xie, Stephen; Chao, Eric; Chen, Zi

    2015-01-01

    The capability to sense and respond to external mechanical stimuli at various timescales is essential to many physiological aspects in plants, including self-protection, intake of nutrients, and reproduction. Remarkably, some plants have evolved the ability to react to mechanical stimuli within a few seconds despite a lack of muscles and nerves. The fast movements of plants in response to mechanical stimuli have long captured the curiosity of scientists and engineers, but the mechanisms behind these rapid thigmonastic movements still are not understood completely. In this article, we provide an overview of such thigmonastic movements in several representative plants, including Dionaea, Utricularia, Aldrovanda, Drosera, and Mimosa. In addition, we review a series of studies that present biomimetic structures inspired by fast moving plants. We hope that this article will shed light on the current status of research on the fast movements of plants and bioinspired structures and also promote interdisciplinary stu...

  8. Bio-Inspired Extreme Wetting Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications, such as self-cleaning fabrics, anti-fog windows, anti-corrosive coatings, drag-reduction systems, and efficient water transportation. In particular, the engineering of surface wettability by manipulating chemical properties and structure opens emerging biomedical applications ranging from high-throughput cell culture platforms to biomedical devices. This review describes design and fabrication methods for artificial extreme wetting surfaces. Next, we introduce some of the newer and emerging biomedical applications using extreme wetting surfaces. Current challenges and future prospects of the surfaces for potential biomedical applications are also addressed.

  9. Demonstrations of bio-inspired perching landing gear for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Mindy; Michael, Duncan M.; Pflueger, Jeffery B.; Sethi, Manik S.; Shimazu, Kelli N.; Anthony, Tatiana M.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2016-04-01

    Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and performance of two concepts of biologically-inspired landing-gear systems that enable bird-sized, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) to land, perch, and take-off from branchlike structures and/or ledges. The first concept follows the anatomy of birds that can grasp ahold of a branch and perch as tendons in their legs are tensioned. This design involves a gravity-activated, cable-driven, underactuated, graspingfoot mechanism. As the UAV lands, its weight collapses a four-bar linkage pulling a cable which curls two opposing, multi-segmented feet to grasp the landing target. Each foot is a single, compliant mechanism fabricated by simultaneouly 3D-printing a flexible thermo-plastic and a stiffer ABS plastic. The design is optimized to grasp structures over a range of shapes and sizes. Quasi-static and flight tests of this landing gear affixed to RC rotorcraft (24 cm to 550 cm in diameter) demonstrate that the aircraft can land, perch, and take-off from a tree branch, rectangular wood board, PVC pipe, metal hand rail, chair armrest, and in addition, a stone wall ledge. Stability tests show that perching is maintained under base and wind disturbances. The second design concept, inspired by roosting bats, is a two-material, 3D-printed hooking mechanism that enables the UAV to stably suspend itself from a wire or small-diameter branch. The design balances structural stiffness for support and flexibility for the perching process. A flight-test demonstrates the attaching and dis-engaging of a small, RC quadcopter from a suspended line.

  10. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  11. A bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Yi, Sijia; Wang, Yongzhong; Pan, Kang; Zhong, Qixin; Zhang, Mingjun

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the strong adhesive produced by English ivy, this paper proposes an in situ synthesis approach for fabricating tunable nanoparticle enhanced adhesives. Special attention was given to tunable features of the adhesive produced by the biological process. Parameters that may be used to tune properties of the adhesive will be proposed. To illustrate and validate the proposed approach, an experimental platform was presented for fabricating tunable chitosan adhesive enhanced by Au nanoparticles synthesized in situ. This study contributes to a bio-inspired approach for in situ synthesis of tunable nanocomposite adhesives by mimicking the natural biological processes of ivy adhesive synthesis.

  12. Bio-inspired tactile sensor with arrayed structures based on electroactive polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sato, Hiroshi; Taya, Minoru

    2009-03-01

    We reported some work on flexible tactile sensors based on Flemion ionic polymer metal composites previously. In this work, we compared the signals in both voltage and current with the signals obtained from a giant nerve fiber reported previously by other researchers. We found some similarities between the artificial tactile sensor and the nerve fiber, in both of which ionic movement play a very important role. This bio-inspired Flemion based ionic polymer metal composites would be a good candidate for bio-related sensors especially for prosthetic limb socket interface applications.

  13. Nanophotonics of Chloroplasts for Bio-Inspired Solar Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Gourley, Cheryl R.

    2011-03-01

    In the search for new energy sources, lessons can be learned from chloroplast photonics. The nano-architecture of chloroplasts is remarkably well-adapted to mediate sunlight interactions for efficient energy conversion. We carried out experiments with chloroplasts isolated from spinach and leaf lettuce to elucidate the relationship between nano-architecture, biomolecular composition and photonic properties. We obtained high-resolution microscopic images of single chloroplasts to identify geometries of chloroplasts and interior grana. We performed micro-spectroscopy to identify strengths of absorption and fluorescence transitions and related them to broadband reflectance and transmittance spectra of whole leaf structures. Finally, the nonlinear optical properties were investigated with nanolaser spectroscopy by placing chloroplasts into micro-resonators and optically pumping. These spectra reveal chloroplast photonic modes and allow measurement of single chloroplast light scattering cross section, polarizability, and refractive index. The nanolaser spectra recorded at increasing pump powers enabled us to observe non-linear optics, photon dynamics, and stimulated emission from single chloroplasts. All of these experiments provide insight into plant photonics and inspiration of paradigms for synthetic biomaterials to harness sunlight in new ways.

  14. Programmable snapping composites with bio-inspired architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, Jascha U; Le Ferrand, Hortense; Ermanni, Paolo; Studart, André R; Arrieta, Andres F

    2017-03-13

    The development of programmable self-shaping materials enables the onset of new and innovative functionalities in many application fields. Commonly, shape adaptation is achieved by exploiting diffusion-driven swelling or nano-scale phase transition, limiting the change of shape to slow motion predominantly determined by the environmental conditions and/or the materials specificity. To address these shortcomings, we report shape adaptable programmable shells that undergo morphing via a snap-through mechanism inspired by the Dionaea muscipula leaf, known as the Venus fly trap. The presented shells are composite materials made of epoxy reinforced by stiff anisotropic alumina micro-platelets oriented in specific directions. By tailoring the microstructure via magnetically-driven alignment of the platelets, we locally tune the pre-strain and stiffness anisotropy of the composite. This novel approach enables the fabrication of complex shapes showing non-orthotropic curvatures and stiffness gradients, radically extending the design space when compared to conventional long-fibre reinforced multi-stable composites. The rare combination of large stresses, short actuation times and complex shapes, results in hinge-free artificial shape adaptable systems with large design freedom for a variety of morphing applications.

  15. Colloidal-based additive manufacturing of bio-inspired composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studart, Andre R.

    Composite materials in nature exhibit heterogeneous architectures that are tuned to fulfill the functional demands of the surrounding environment. Examples range from the cellulose-based organic structure of plants to highly mineralized collagen-based skeletal parts like bone and teeth. Because they are often utilized to combine opposing properties such as strength and low-density or stiffness and wear resistance, the heterogeneous architecture of natural materials can potentially address several of the technical limitations of artificial homogeneous composites. However, current man-made manufacturing technologies do not allow for the level of composition and fiber orientation control found in natural heterogeneous systems. In this talk, I will present two additive manufacturing technologies recently developed in our group to build composites with exquisite architectures only rivaled by structures made by living organisms in nature. Since the proposed techniques utilize colloidal suspensions as feedstock, understanding the physics underlying the stability, assembly and rheology of the printing inks is key to predict and control the architecture of manufactured parts. Our results will show that additive manufacturing routes offer a new exciting pathway for the fabrication of biologically-inspired composite materials with unprecedented architectures and functionalities.

  16. 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Ajith; Krömer, Pavel; Pant, Millie; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    This Volume contains the papers presented during the 6th International Conference on Innovations in Bio-Inspired Computing and Applications IBICA 2015 which was held in Kochi, India during December 16-18, 2015. The 51 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The 6th International Conference IBICA 2015 has been organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues in the growing research field of Bio-inspired Computing which is currently one of the most exciting research areas, and is continuously demonstrating exceptional strength in solving complex real life problems. The Volume will be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  17. Overcoming the brittleness of glass through bio-inspiration and micro-architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkhalaf, M.; Dastjerdi, A. Khayer; Barthelat, F.

    2014-01-01

    Highly mineralized natural materials such as teeth or mollusk shells boast unusual combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness currently unmatched by engineering materials. While high mineral contents provide stiffness and hardness, these materials also contain weaker interfaces with intricate architectures, which can channel propagating cracks into toughening configurations. Here we report the implementation of these features into glass, using a laser engraving technique. Three-dimensional arrays of laser-generated microcracks can deflect and guide larger incoming cracks, following the concept of ‘stamp holes’. Jigsaw-like interfaces, infiltrated with polyurethane, furthermore channel cracks into interlocking configurations and pullout mechanisms, significantly enhancing energy dissipation and toughness. Compared with standard glass, which has no microstructure and is brittle, our bio-inspired glass displays built-in mechanisms that make it more deformable and 200 times tougher. This bio-inspired approach, based on carefully architectured interfaces, provides a new pathway to toughening glasses, ceramics or other hard and brittle materials.

  18. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  19. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J D; Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G; Wilcox, M

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  20. A bio-inspired apposition compound eye machine vision sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J D [Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas, 10000 Burnet Rd, Austin, TX 78757 (United States); Barrett, S F; Wright, C H G [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wyoming, Dept 3295 1000 E. University Ave, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Wilcox, M, E-mail: steveb@uwyo.ed [Department of Biology, United States Air Force Academy, CO 80840 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Wyoming Information, Signal Processing, and Robotics Laboratory is developing a wide variety of bio-inspired vision sensors. We are interested in exploring the vision system of various insects and adapting some of their features toward the development of specialized vision sensors. We do not attempt to supplant traditional digital imaging techniques but rather develop sensor systems tailor made for the application at hand. We envision that many applications may require a hybrid approach using conventional digital imaging techniques enhanced with bio-inspired analogue sensors. In this specific project, we investigated the apposition compound eye and its characteristics commonly found in diurnal insects and certain species of arthropods. We developed and characterized an array of apposition compound eye-type sensors and tested them on an autonomous robotic vehicle. The robot exhibits the ability to follow a pre-defined target and avoid specified obstacles using a simple control algorithm.

  1. Multibody system dynamics for bio-inspired locomotion: from geometric structures to computational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Frédéric; Porez, Mathieu

    2015-03-26

    This article presents a set of generic tools for multibody system dynamics devoted to the study of bio-inspired locomotion in robotics. First, archetypal examples from the field of bio-inspired robot locomotion are presented to prepare the ground for further discussion. The general problem of locomotion is then stated. In considering this problem, we progressively draw a unified geometric picture of locomotion dynamics. For that purpose, we start from the model of discrete mobile multibody systems (MMSs) that we progressively extend to the case of continuous and finally soft systems. Beyond these theoretical aspects, we address the practical problem of the efficient computation of these models by proposing a Newton-Euler-based approach to efficient locomotion dynamics with a few illustrations of creeping, swimming, and flying.

  2. Optic flow estimation on trajectories generated by bio-inspired closed-loop flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Patrick A; Hyslop, Andrew M; Humbert, J Sean

    2011-05-01

    We generated panoramic imagery by simulating a fly-like robot carrying an imaging sensor, moving in free flight through a virtual arena bounded by walls, and containing obstructions. Flight was conducted under closed-loop control by a bio-inspired algorithm for visual guidance with feedback signals corresponding to the true optic flow that would be induced on an imager (computed by known kinematics and position of the robot relative to the environment). The robot had dynamics representative of a housefly-sized organism, although simplified to two-degree-of-freedom flight to generate uniaxial (azimuthal) optic flow on the retina in the plane of travel. Surfaces in the environment contained images of natural and man-made scenes that were captured by the moving sensor. Two bio-inspired motion detection algorithms and two computational optic flow estimation algorithms were applied to sequences of image data, and their performance as optic flow estimators was evaluated by estimating the mutual information between outputs and true optic flow in an equatorial section of the visual field. Mutual information for individual estimators at particular locations within the visual field was surprisingly low (less than 1 bit in all cases) and considerably poorer for the bio-inspired algorithms that the man-made computational algorithms. However, mutual information between weighted sums of these signals and comparable sums of the true optic flow showed significant increases for the bio-inspired algorithms, whereas such improvement did not occur for the computational algorithms. Such summation is representative of the spatial integration performed by wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in the third optic ganglia of flies.

  3. An experimental study on adhesive or antiadhesiveand strong bio-inspired nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Lepore, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    This experimental PhD thesis presents the results of research performed in five different facilities: in the Laboratory of Bio-inspired Nanomechanics "Giuseppe Maria Pugno" at the Politecnico of Torino, the "Nanofacility Piemonte" at the INRIM Institute in Torino, the Division of Dental Sciences and Biomaterials of the Department of Biomedicine at the University of Trieste, the Physics Department of the Politecnico of Torino, the Toscano- Buono Veterinary Surgery in Torino and the Department ...

  4. Feasibility Study of a Bio-inspired Artificial Pancreas in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Monika; Herrero, Pau; El Sharkawy, Mohamed; Pesl, Peter; Jugnee, Narvada; Thomson, Hazel; Pavitt, Darrell; Toumazou, Christofer; Johnston, Desmond; Georgiou, Pantelis; Oliver, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study assesses proof of concept and safety of a novel bio-inspired artificial pancreas (BiAP) system in adults with type 1 diabetes during fasting, overnight, and postprandial conditions. In contrast to existing glucose controllers in artificial pancreas systems, the BiAP uses a control algorithm based on a mathematical model of β-cell physiology. The algorithm is implemented on a miniature silicon microchip within a portable hand-held device that interfaces the components of...

  5. Limited Bandwidth Recognition of Collective Behaviors in Bio-Inspired Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-09

    UAV path planning and applies to some constant-speed, non-holonomic ground robots [5]. Similar to the Couzin model of biological swarms [3] and the...BEHAVIORS IN BIO-INSPIRED SWARMS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62788F 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel S. Brown (AFRL... swarming and modes of controlling them are numerous; however, to date swarm researchers have mostly ignored a fundamental problem that impedes

  6. Bio-inspired optimization algorithms for optical parameter extraction of dielectric materials: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghulam Saber, Md; Arif Shahriar, Kh; Ahmed, Ashik; Hasan Sagor, Rakibul

    2016-10-01

    Particle swarm optimization (PSO) and invasive weed optimization (IWO) algorithms are used for extracting the modeling parameters of materials useful for optics and photonics research community. These two bio-inspired algorithms are used here for the first time in this particular field to the best of our knowledge. The algorithms are used for modeling graphene oxide and the performances of the two are compared. Two objective functions are used for different boundary values. Root mean square (RMS) deviation is determined and compared.

  7. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mi Jeong Kim; Sung Joon Maeng; Yong Soo Cho

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity...

  8. Bio-inspired homogeneous multi-scale place recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zetao; Lowry, Stephanie; Jacobson, Adam; Hasselmo, Michael E; Milford, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Robotic mapping and localization systems typically operate at either one fixed spatial scale, or over two, combining a local metric map and a global topological map. In contrast, recent high profile discoveries in neuroscience have indicated that animals such as rodents navigate the world using multiple parallel maps, with each map encoding the world at a specific spatial scale. While a number of theoretical-only investigations have hypothesized several possible benefits of such a multi-scale mapping system, no one has comprehensively investigated the potential mapping and place recognition performance benefits for navigating robots in large real world environments, especially using more than two homogeneous map scales. In this paper we present a biologically-inspired multi-scale mapping system mimicking the rodent multi-scale map. Unlike hybrid metric-topological multi-scale robot mapping systems, this new system is homogeneous, distinguishable only by scale, like rodent neural maps. We present methods for training each network to learn and recognize places at a specific spatial scale, and techniques for combining the output from each of these parallel networks. This approach differs from traditional probabilistic robotic methods, where place recognition spatial specificity is passively driven by models of sensor uncertainty. Instead we intentionally create parallel learning systems that learn associations between sensory input and the environment at different spatial scales. We also conduct a systematic series of experiments and parameter studies that determine the effect on performance of using different neural map scaling ratios and different numbers of discrete map scales. The results demonstrate that a multi-scale approach universally improves place recognition performance and is capable of producing better than state of the art performance compared to existing robotic navigation algorithms. We analyze the results and discuss the implications with respect to

  9. Bio-inspired step-climbing in a hexapod robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ya-Cheng; Yu, Wei-Shun; Huang, Ke-Jung; Lin, Pei-Chun

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the observation that the cockroach changes from a tripod gait to a different gait for climbing high steps, we report on the design and implementation of a novel, fully autonomous step-climbing maneuver, which enables a RHex-style hexapod robot to reliably climb a step up to 230% higher than the length of its leg. Similar to the climbing strategy most used by cockroaches, the proposed maneuver is composed of two stages. The first stage is the 'rearing stage,' inclining the body so the front side of the body is raised and it is easier for the front legs to catch the top of the step, followed by the 'rising stage,' maneuvering the body's center of mass to the top of the step. Two infrared range sensors are installed on the front of the robot to detect the presence of the step and its orientation relative to the robot's heading, so that the robot can perform automatic gait transition, from walking to step-climbing, as well as correct its initial tilt approaching posture. An inclinometer is utilized to measure body inclination and to compute step height, thus enabling the robot to adjust its gait automatically, in real time, and to climb steps of different heights and depths successfully. The algorithm is applicable for the robot to climb various rectangular obstacles, including a narrow bar, a bar and a step (i.e. a bar of infinite width). The performance of the algorithm is evaluated experimentally, and the comparison of climbing strategies and climbing behaviors in biological and robotic systems is discussed.

  10. Correction: Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel K; James, Elle D; Bis, Dana M; Karty, Jonathan A; Lane, Amy L; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2015-09-21

    Correction for 'Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis' by Norah Alqahtani et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 7177-7192.

  11. Bio-inspired dental multilayers: effects of layer architecture on the contact-induced deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Niu, X; Rahbar, N; Soboyejo, W

    2013-02-01

    The ceramic crown structures under occlusal contact are idealized as flat multilayered structures that are deformed under Hertzian contact loading. Those multilayers consist of a crown-like ceramic top layer, an adhesive layer and the dentin-like substrate. Bio-inspired design of the adhesive layer proposed functionally graded multilayers (FGM) that mimic the dentin-enamel junction in natural teeth. This paper examines the effects of FGM layer architecture on the contact-induced deformation of bio-inspired dental multilayers. Finite element modeling was used to explore the effects of thickness and architecture on the contact-induced stresses that are induced in bio-inspired dental multilayers. A layered nanocomposite structure was then fabricated by the sequential rolling of micro-scale nanocomposite materials with local moduli that increase from the side near the soft dentin-like polymer composite foundation to the side near the top ceramic layer. The loading rate dependence of the critical failure loads is shown to be well predicted by a slow crack growth model, which integrates the actual mechanical properties that are obtained from nanoindentation experiments.

  12. Vision-based bio-inspired guidance law for small aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhengjie; Huang Weilin; Yan Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    During predation, a flying insect can form a stealth flight path. This behavior is called motion camouflage. Based on the study results of this behavior, the perception and neurology of flying insects, a novel bio-inspired guidance law is proposed for the terminal guidance for small aer-ial vehicle with charge-coupled device imaging seekers. The kinematics relationship between a small aerial vehicle and target is analyzed, and a two-dimensional guidance law model is established by using artificial neural networks. To compare with the proportional guidance law, the numerical sim-ulations are carried out in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. The simulation results show that the ballistic of the small aerial vehicle is straighter and the normal acceleration is smaller by using the bio-inspired guidance law than by using the proportional guidance law. That is to say, the bio-inspired guidance law just uses the information of the target from the imaging seeker, but the performance of it can be better than that of the proportional guidance law.

  13. Vision-based bio-inspired guidance law for small aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhengjie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available During predation, a flying insect can form a stealth flight path. This behavior is called motion camouflage. Based on the study results of this behavior, the perception and neurology of flying insects, a novel bio-inspired guidance law is proposed for the terminal guidance for small aerial vehicle with charge-coupled device imaging seekers. The kinematics relationship between a small aerial vehicle and target is analyzed, and a two-dimensional guidance law model is established by using artificial neural networks. To compare with the proportional guidance law, the numerical simulations are carried out in the vertical plane and in the horizontal plane respectively. The simulation results show that the ballistic of the small aerial vehicle is straighter and the normal acceleration is smaller by using the bio-inspired guidance law than by using the proportional guidance law. That is to say, the bio-inspired guidance law just uses the information of the target from the imaging seeker, but the performance of it can be better than that of the proportional guidance law.

  14. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities.

  15. Bio-inspired Trajectory Generation for UAV Perching Movement Based on Tau Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a bio-inspired trajectory generation method for UAV/MAV perching (i.e., the final approach to, and landing on, a target. The method is based on tau theory, which was established based on the study of the natural motion patterns of animals (including humans when they approach a fixed or moving object for perching or capturing prey. In our research, tau theory is applied to the trajectory generation problem of an air vehicle for perching on a target object. Three bio-inspired strategies, namely the tau in the action gap strategy, the tau coupling strategy and the intrinsic tau gravity strategy are studied for perching tasks. A key parameter of the method inspired by biological systems is discussed. Two perching scenarios, one from a flight state (with non-zero initial velocity and one from a hovering state (with zero initial velocity, are studied. Numerical simulations with a rotary vehicle are presented as examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the resulting flight trajectories meet all the desired requirements for the vehicle in perching on an object.

  16. Performance Characteristics of Bio-Inspired Metal Nanostructures as Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattered (SERS) Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areizaga-Martinez, Hector I; Kravchenko, Ivan; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Sepaniak, Michael J; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P; De Jesús, Marco A

    2016-09-01

    The fabrication of high-performance plasmonic nanomaterials for bio-sensing and trace chemical detection is a field of intense theoretical and experimental research. The use of metal-silicon nanopillar arrays as analytical sensors has been reported with reasonable results in recent years. The use of bio-inspired nanocomposite structures that follow the Fibonacci numerical architecture offers the opportunity to develop nanostructures with theoretically higher and more reproducible plasmonic fields over extended areas. The work presented here describes the nanofabrication process for a series of 40 µm × 40 µm bio-inspired arrays classified as asymmetric fractals (sunflower seeds and romanesco broccoli), bilaterally symmetric (acacia leaves and honeycombs), and radially symmetric (such as orchids and lily flowers) using electron beam lithography. In addition, analytical capabilities were evaluated using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The substrate characterization and SERS performance of the developed substrates as the strategies to assess the design performance are presented and discussed.

  17. Bio-Inspired Principles Applied to the Guidance, Navigation and Control of UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Strydom

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This review describes a number of biologically inspired principles that have been applied to the visual guidance, navigation and control of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS. The current limitations of UAS systems are outlined, such as the over-reliance on GPS, the requirement for more self-reliant systems and the need for UAS to have a greater understanding of their environment. It is evident that insects, even with their small brains and limited intelligence, have overcome many of the shortcomings of the current state of the art in autonomous aerial guidance. This has motivated research into bio-inspired systems and algorithms, specifically vision-based navigation, situational awareness and guidance.

  18. A bio-inspired approach for the reduction of left ventricular workload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niema M Pahlevan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of optimization criteria in the design and development of mammalians cardiovascular systems. Similarities in mammalian arterial wave reflection suggest there are certain design criteria for the optimization of arterial wave dynamics. Inspired by these natural optimization criteria, we investigated the feasibility of optimizing the aortic waves by modifying wave reflection sites. A hydraulic model that has physical and dynamical properties similar to a human aorta and left ventricle was used for a series of in-vitro experiments. The results indicate that placing an artificial reflection site (a ring at a specific location along the aorta may create a constructive wave dynamic that could reduce LV pulsatile workload. This simple bio-inspired approach may have important implications for the future of treatment strategies for diseased aorta.

  19. Book Titled Autonomic Networking-on-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Cong Vinh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing mainstream importance and unique advantages of autonomic networking-onchip (ANoC technology, Autonomic Networking-On-Chip: Bio-Inspired Specification, Development, and Verification is among the first books to evaluate research results on formalizing this emerging NoC paradigm, which was inspired by the human nervous system. The third book in the Embedded Multi-Core Systems series from CRC Press, this is an advanced technical guide and reference composed of contributions from prominent researchers in industry and academia around the world. A response to the critical need for a global information exchange and dialogue, it is written for engineers, scientists, practitioners, and other researchers who have a basic understanding of NoC and are now ready to learn how to specify, develop, and verify ANoC using rigorous approaches.

  20. Multi-AUV Hunting Algorithm Based on Bio-inspired Neural Network in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-AUV hunting problem is one of the key issues in multi-robot system research. In order to hunt the target efficiently, a new hunting algorithm based on a bio-inspired neural network has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, the AUV’s working environment can be represented, based on the biological-inspired neural network model. There is one-to-one correspondence between each neuron in the neural network and the position of the grid map in the underwater environment. The activity values of biological neurons then guide the AUV’s sailing path and finally the target is surrounded by AUVs. In addition, a method called negotiation is used to solve the AUV’s allocation of hunting points. The simulation results show that the algorithm used in the paper can provide rapid and highly efficient path planning in the unknown environment with obstacles and non-obstacles.

  1. Bio-inspired UAV routing, source localization, and acoustic signature classification for persistent surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry; Hespanha, Joao; Madhow, Upamanyu; Pham, Tien

    2011-06-01

    A team consisting of Teledyne Scientific Company, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the Army Research Laboratory* is developing technologies in support of automated data exfiltration from heterogeneous battlefield sensor networks to enhance situational awareness for dismounts and command echelons. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) provide an effective means to autonomously collect data from a sparse network of unattended ground sensors (UGSs) that cannot communicate with each other. UAVs are used to reduce the system reaction time by generating autonomous collection routes that are data-driven. Bio-inspired techniques for search provide a novel strategy to detect, capture and fuse data. A fast and accurate method has been developed to localize an event by fusing data from a sparse number of UGSs. This technique uses a bio-inspired algorithm based on chemotaxis or the motion of bacteria seeking nutrients in their environment. A unique acoustic event classification algorithm was also developed based on using swarm optimization. Additional studies addressed the problem of routing multiple UAVs, optimally placing sensors in the field and locating the source of gunfire at helicopters. A field test was conducted in November of 2009 at Camp Roberts, CA. The field test results showed that a system controlled by bio-inspired software algorithms can autonomously detect and locate the source of an acoustic event with very high accuracy and visually verify the event. In nine independent test runs of a UAV, the system autonomously located the position of an explosion nine times with an average accuracy of 3 meters. The time required to perform source localization using the UAV was on the order of a few minutes based on UAV flight times. In June 2011, additional field tests of the system will be performed and will include multiple acoustic events, optimal sensor placement based on acoustic phenomenology and the use of the International Technology Alliance (ITA

  2. [Total synthesis of biologically active alkaloids using bio-inspired indole oxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    Many tryptophan-based dimeric diketopiperazine (DKP) alkaloids including WIN 64821 and ditryptophenaline, which exhibit fascinating biological activities, have been isolated from fungi. These alkaloids possess a unique architecture; therefore several total syntheses of these compounds have been accomplished via bio-inspired reactions. Despite these elegant strategies, we were convinced that a more direct bio-inspired solution for the preparation of tryptophan-based DKP alkaloids was possible because in a true biosynthesis, direct dimerization of tryptophan occurs in aqueous media without incorporation of a protecting group on the substrates. Thus we developed direct bio-inspired dimerization reactions in aqueous, acidic media, along with a novel biomimetic pathway, to provide C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric compounds from commercially available amine-free tryptophan derivatives using Mn(OAc)3, VOF3, and V2O5 as one-electron oxidants. In addition, concise two-pot or three-step syntheses of the naturally occurring dimeric DKP alkaloids (+)-WIN 64821, (-)-ditryptophenaline, and (+)-naseseazine B were accomplished with total yields of 20%, 13%, and 20%, respectively. The present synthesis has several noteworthy features: 1) the tryptophan-based C2-symmetric and non-symmetric dimeric key intermediates can be prepared on a multigram scale in one step; 2) the developed oxidation reaction was carried out in aqueous, acidic solution without deactivation of the metal oxidants; 3) protection of the primary amine can be avoided by salt formation in aqueous acid; 4) for the total two-pot operation, the reaction media are environmentally friendly water and ethanol; 5) satisfactory total yields are obtained compared with previously reported syntheses.

  3. 8th International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing : Theories and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Linqiang; Fang, Xianwen

    2013-01-01

    International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA) is one of the flagship conferences on Bio-Computing, bringing together the world’s leading scientists from different areas of Natural Computing. Since 2006, the conferences have taken place at Wuhan (2006), Zhengzhou (2007), Adelaide (2008), Beijing (2009), Liverpool & Changsha (2010), Malaysia (2011) and India (2012). Following the successes of previous events, the 8th conference is organized and hosted by Anhui University of Science and Technology in China. This conference aims to provide a high-level international forum that researchers with different backgrounds and who are working in the related areas can use to present their latest results and exchange ideas. Additionally, the growing trend in Emergent Systems has resulted in the inclusion of two other closely related fields in the BIC-TA 2013 event, namely Complex Systems and Computational Neuroscience. These proceedings are intended for researchers in the fiel...

  4. Quantum design of photosynthesis for bio-inspired solar-energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Elisabet; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-03-15

    Photosynthesis is the natural process that converts solar photons into energy-rich products that are needed to drive the biochemistry of life. Two ultrafast processes form the basis of photosynthesis: excitation energy transfer and charge separation. Under optimal conditions, every photon that is absorbed is used by the photosynthetic organism. Fundamental quantum mechanics phenomena, including delocalization, underlie the speed, efficiency and directionality of the charge-separation process. At least four design principles are active in natural photosynthesis, and these can be applied practically to stimulate the development of bio-inspired, human-made energy conversion systems.

  5. Bio-inspiring cyber security and cloud services trends and innovations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Tai-Hoon; Kacprzyk, Janusz; Awad, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This volume presents recent research in cyber security, and reports how organizations can gain competitive advantages by applying the different security techniques in real-world scenarios. The volume provides reviews of cutting–edge technologies, algorithms, applications and insights for bio-inspiring cyber security-based systems. The book will be a valuable companion and comprehensive reference for both postgraduate and senior undergraduate students who are taking a course in cyber security. The volume is organized in self-contained chapters to provide greatest reading flexibility.  

  6. Nanoparticles assembly-induced special wettability for bio-inspired materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuai Yang; Xu Jin; Kesong Liu; Lei Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Through billions of years of evolution,nature has optimized the programmed assembly of the nano-and micro-scale structures of biological materials.Nanoparticle assembly provides an avenue for mimicking these multiscale functional structures.Bio-inspired surfaces with special wettability have attracted much attention for both fundamental research and practical applications,tn this review,we focus on recent progress in nanoparticle assembly-induced special wettability,including superhydrophilic surfaces,superhydrophobic surfaces,superamphiphobic surfaces,stimuli-responsive surfaces,and selfhealing surfaces.A brief summary and an outlook of the future of this research field are also provided.

  7. Quantum design of photosynthesis for bio-inspired solar-energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Elisabet; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; van Grondelle, Rienk

    2017-03-01

    Photosynthesis is the natural process that converts solar photons into energy-rich products that are needed to drive the biochemistry of life. Two ultrafast processes form the basis of photosynthesis: excitation energy transfer and charge separation. Under optimal conditions, every photon that is absorbed is used by the photosynthetic organism. Fundamental quantum mechanics phenomena, including delocalization, underlie the speed, efficiency and directionality of the charge-separation process. At least four design principles are active in natural photosynthesis, and these can be applied practically to stimulate the development of bio-inspired, human-made energy conversion systems.

  8. Bio-inspired artificial iridophores based on capillary origami: Fabrication and device characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakasettharn, Supone; Ashley Taylor, J.; Krupenkin, Tom N.

    2011-10-01

    Cephalopods have evolved complex optical mechanisms of dynamic skin color control based on mechanical actuation of micro-scale optical structures such as iridophores and chromatophores. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of bio-inspired artificial iridophores, which resemble microflowers with flexible reflective petals, based on capillary origami microstructures. Two methods of petal actuation have been demonstrated—one based on the electrowetting process and the other by volume change of the liquid droplet. These results were in good agreement with a model derived to characterize the actuation dynamics.

  9. A Bio-Inspired Method for the Constrained Shortest Path Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Wang

    2014-01-01

    optimization, crew scheduling, network routing and so on. It is an open issue since it is a NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose an innovative method which is based on the internal mechanism of the adaptive amoeba algorithm. The proposed method is divided into two parts. In the first part, we employ the original amoeba algorithm to solve the shortest path problem in directed networks. In the second part, we combine the Physarum algorithm with a bio-inspired rule to deal with the CSP. Finally, by comparing the results with other method using an examples in DCLC problem, we demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Gyu Bae

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Engineering complex extracellular matrix (ECM is an important challenge for cell and tissue engineering applications as well as for understanding fundamental cell biology. We developed the methodology for fabrication of precisely controllable multiscale hierarchical structures using capillary force lithography in combination with original wrinkling technique for the generation of well-defined native ECM-like platforms by culturing fibroblast cells on the multiscale substrata [1]. This paper provides information on detailed characteristics of polyethylene glycol-diacrylate multiscale substrata. In addition, a possible model for guided extracellular matrix formation from fibroblast cells cultured on bio-inspired configurable multiscale substrata is proposed.

  11. New development thoughts on the bio-inspired intelligence based control for unmanned combat aerial vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bio-inspired intelligence is in the spotlight in the field of international artificial intelligence,and unmanned combat aerial vehicle(UCAV),owing to its potential to perform dangerous,repetitive tasks in remote and hazardous,is very promising for the technological leadership of the nation and essential for improving the security of society.On the basis of introduction of bioinspired intelligence and UCAV,a series of new development thoughts on UCAV control are proposed,including artificial brain based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,swarm intelligence based cooperative control for multiple UCAVs,hy-brid swarm intelligence and Bayesian network based situation assessment under complicated combating environments, bio-inspired hardware based high-level autonomous control for UCAV,and meta-heuristic intelligence based heterogeneous cooperative control for multiple UCAVs and unmanned combat ground vehicles(UCGVs).The exact realization of the proposed new development thoughts can enhance the effectiveness of combat,while provide a series of novel breakthroughs for the intelligence,integration and advancement of future UCAV systems.

  12. Final Report for Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2012-09-01

    This report records the work and contributions of the NITRD-funded Bio-Inspired Approaches to Moving-Target Defense Strategies project performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory under the technical guidance of the National Security Agency’s R6 division. The project has incorporated a number of bio-inspired cyber defensive technologies within an elastic framework provided by the Digital Ants. This project has created the first scalable, real-world prototype of the Digital Ants Framework (DAF)[11] and integrated five technologies into this flexible, decentralized framework: (1) Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD), (2) Behavioral Indicators, (3) Bioinformatic Clas- sification, (4) Moving-Target Reconfiguration, and (5) Ambient Collaboration. The DAF can be used operationally to decentralize many such data intensive applications that normally rely on collection of large amounts of data in a central repository. In this work, we have shown how these component applications may be decentralized and may perform analysis at the edge. Operationally, this will enable analytics to scale far beyond current limitations while not suffering from the bandwidth or computational limitations of centralized analysis. This effort has advanced the R6 Cyber Security research program to secure digital infrastructures by developing a dynamic means to adaptively defend complex cyber systems. We hope that this work will benefit both our client’s efforts in system behavior modeling and cyber security to the overall benefit of the nation.

  13. Bio-Inspired Control of an Arm Exoskeleton Joint with Active-Compliant Actuation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Folgheraiter

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology followed on the design of a multi-contact point haptic interface that uses a bio-inspired control approach and a novel actuation system. The combination of these components aims at creating a system that increases the operability of the target, and, at the same time, enables an intuitive and safe tele-operation of any complex robotic system of any given morphology. The novelty lies on the combination of a thoughtful kinematic structure driven by an active-compliant actuation system and a bio-inspired paradigm for its regulation. Due to the proposed actuation approach, the final system will achieve the condition of wearable system. On that final solution, each joint will be able to change its stiffness depending on the task to be executed, and on the anatomical features of each individual. Moreover, the system provides a variety of safety mechanisms at different levels to prevent causing any harm to the operator. In future, the system should allow the complete virtual immersion of the user within the working scenario.

  14. A bio-inspired force control for cyclic manipulation of prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciancio, A L; Barone, R; Zollo, L; Carpino, G; Davalli, A; Sacchetti, R; Guglielmelli, E

    2015-01-01

    The human hand is considered as the highest example of dexterous system capable of interacting with different objects and adapting its manipulation abilities to them. The control of poliarticulated prosthetic hands represents one important research challenge, typically aiming at replicating the manipulation capabilities of the natural hand. For this reason, this paper wants to propose a bio-inspired learning architecture based on parallel force/position control for prosthetic hands, capable of learning cyclic manipulation capabilities. To this purpose, it is focused on the control of a commercial biomechatronic hand (the IH2 hand) including the main features of recent poliarticulated prosthetic hands. The training phase of the hand was carried out in simulation, the parallel force/position control was tested in simulation whereas preliminary tests were performed on the real IH2 hand. The results obtained in simulation and on the real hand provide an important evidence of the applicability of the bio-inspired neural control to real biomechatronic hand with the typical features of a hand prosthesis.

  15. Gas barrier properties of bio-inspired Laponite-LC polymer hybrid films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritschler, Ulrich; Zlotnikov, Igor; Fratzl, Peter; Schlaad, Helmut; Grüner, Simon; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-05-26

    Bio-inspired Laponite (clay)-liquid crystal (LC) polymer composite materials with high clay fractions (>80%) and a high level of orientation of the clay platelets, i.e. with structural features similar to the ones found in natural nacre, have been shown to exhibit a promising behavior in the context of reduced oxygen transmission. Key characteristics of these bio-inspired composite materials are their high inorganic content, high level of exfoliation and orientation of the clay platelets, and the use of a LC polymer forming the organic matrix in between the Laponite particles. Each single feature may be beneficial to increase the materials gas barrier property rendering this composite a promising system with advantageous barrier capacities. In this detailed study, Laponite/LC polymer composite coatings with different clay loadings were investigated regarding their oxygen transmission rate. The obtained gas barrier performance was linked to the quality, respective Laponite content and the underlying composite micro- and nanostructure of the coatings. Most efficient oxygen barrier properties were observed for composite coatings with 83% Laponite loading that exhibit a structure similar to sheet-like nacre. Further on, advantageous mechanical properties of these Laponite/LC polymer composites reported previously give rise to a multifunctional composite system.

  16. Distinct failure modes in bio-inspired 3D-printed staggered composites under non-aligned loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesarenko, Viacheslav; Kazarinov, Nikita; Rudykh, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    The superior mechanical properties of biological materials originate in their complex hierarchical microstructures, combining stiff and soft constituents at different length scales. In this work, we employ a three-dimensional multi-materials printing to fabricate the bio-inspired staggered composites, and study their mechanical properties and failure mechanisms. We observe that bio-inspired staggered composites with inclined stiff tablets are able to undergo two different failure modes, depending on the inclination angle. We find that such artificial structure demonstrates high toughness only under loading applied at relatively small angle to the tablets stacking direction, while for higher angles the composites fail catastrophically. This aspect of the failure behavior was captured experimentally as well as by means of the finite element analysis. We show that even a relatively simple failure model with a strain energy limiter, can be utilized to qualitatively distinguish these two different modes of failure, occurring in the artificial bio-inspired composites.

  17. Bio-inspired multinuclear copper complexes covalently immobilized on reduced graphene oxide as efficient electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yue-Ting; Wei, Ping-Jie; Wang, Ru-Chun; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2015-05-01

    Inspired by the multicopper active site of laccase, which efficiently catalyzes the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), herein we report a novel bio-inspired ORR catalyst composed of a multinuclear copper complex that was immobilized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) via the covalently grafted triazole-dipyridine (TADPy) dinucleating ligand. This rGO-TADPyCu catalyst exhibited high ORR activity and superior long-term stability compared to Pt/C in alkaline media.

  18. Optimizing the design of bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chang; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Due to elastic modulus mismatch between the different layers in all-ceramic dental restorations, high tensile stress concentrates at the interface between the ceramic core and cement. In natural tooth structure, stress concentration is reduced by the functionally graded structure of dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) which interconnects enamel and dentin. Inspired by DEJ, the aim of this study was to explore the optimum design of a bio-inspired functionally graded material (FGM) layer in all-ceramic dental restorations to achieve excellent stress reduction and distribution. Three-dimensional finite element model of a multi-layer structure was developed, which comprised bilayered ceramic, bio-inspired FGM layer, cement, and dentin. Finite element method and first-order optimization technique were used to realize the optimal bio-inspired FGM layer design. The bio-inspired FGM layer significantly reduced stress concentration at the interface between the crown and cement, and stresses were evenly distributed in FGM layer. With the optimal design, an elastic modulus distribution similar to that in DEJ occurred in the FGM layer.

  19. Segmentation algorithm via Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network: implementation on Bio-inspired hardware platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Fethullah; Vecchio, Pietro; Grassi, Giuseppe

    2011-12-01

    The Bio-inspired (Bi-i) Cellular Vision System is a computing platform consisting of sensing, array sensing-processing, and digital signal processing. The platform is based on the Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network (CNN) paradigm. This article presents the implementation of a novel CNN-based segmentation algorithm onto the Bi-i system. Each part of the algorithm, along with the corresponding implementation on the hardware platform, is carefully described through the article. The experimental results, carried out for Foreman and Car-phone video sequences, highlight the feasibility of the approach, which provides a frame rate of about 26 frames/s. Comparisons with existing CNN-based methods show that the conceived approach is more accurate, thus representing a good trade-off between real-time requirements and accuracy.

  20. Bio-inspired design strategies for central pattern generator control in modular robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Carrón, F; Rodríguez, F B; Varona, P

    2011-03-01

    New findings in the nervous system of invertebrates have shown how a number of features of central pattern generator (CPG) circuits contribute to the generation of robust flexible rhythms. In this paper we consider recently revealed strategies that living CPGs follow to design CPG control paradigms for modular robots. To illustrate them, we divide the task of designing an example CPG for a modular robot into independent problems. We formulate each problem in a general way and provide a bio-inspired solution for each of them: locomotion information coding, individual module control and inter-module coordination. We analyse the stability of the CPG numerically, and then test it on a real robot. We analyse steady state locomotion and recovery after perturbations. In both cases, the robot is able to autonomously find a stable effective locomotion state. Finally, we discuss how these strategies can result in a more general design approach for CPG-based locomotion.

  1. Towards a Bio-inspired Security Framework for Mission-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Song, Jun; Ma, Zhao; Huang, Shiyong

    Mission-critical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been found in numerous promising applications in civil and military fields. However, the functionality of WSNs extensively relies on its security capability for detecting and defending sophisticated adversaries, such as Sybil, worm hole and mobile adversaries. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired security framework to provide intelligence-enabled security mechanisms. This scheme is composed of a middleware, multiple agents and mobile agents. The agents monitor the network packets, host activities, make decisions and launch corresponding responses. Middleware performs an infrastructure for the communication between various agents and corresponding mobility. Certain cognitive models and intelligent algorithms such as Layered Reference Model of Brain and Self-Organizing Neural Network with Competitive Learning are explored in the context of sensor networks that have resource constraints. The security framework and implementation are also described in details.

  2. Multi-Locomotion Robotic Systems New Concepts of Bio-inspired Robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Toshio; Sekiyama, Kosuke; Aoyama, Tadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, multiple attention have been paid on a robot working in the human living environment, such as in the field of medical, welfare, entertainment and so on. Various types of researches are being conducted actively in a variety of fields such as artificial intelligence, cognitive engineering, sensor- technology, interfaces and motion control. In the future, it is expected to realize super high functional human-like robot by integrating technologies in various fields including these types of researches. The book represents new developments and advances in the field of bio-inspired robotics research introducing the state of the art, the idea of multi-locomotion robotic system to implement the diversity of animal motion. It covers theoretical and computational aspects of Passive Dynamic Autonomous Control (PDAC), robot motion control, multi legged walking and climbing as well as brachiation focusing concrete robot systems, components and applications. In addition, gorilla type robot systems are described as...

  3. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilization of resources with effecting performance of services being delivered to end users. In this work, a bio-inspired resource allocation approach is proposed with the aim to improve utilization and hence the energy efficiency of the cloud infrastructure. The proposed approach makes use of Cuckoo search for power and performance aware allocation of resources to the services hired by the end users. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim. The simulation results have shown approximately 12% saving in energy consumption.

  4. INVESTIGATING PECTORAL SHAPES AND LOCOMOTIVE STRATEGIES FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGNING BIO-INSPIRED ROBOTIC FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. MAINONG

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance analysis of a conceptual bio-inspired robotic fish design, which is based on the morphology similar to the boxfish (Ostracion melagris. The robotic fish prototype is driven by three micro servos; two on the pectoral fins, and one on the caudal fin. Two electronic rapid prototyping boards were employed; one for the movement of robotic fish, and one for the force sensors measurements. The robotic fish were built using fused deposition modeling (FDM, more popularly known as the 3D printing method. Several designs of pectoral fins (rectangular, triangular and quarter-ellipse with unchanging the value of aspect ratio (AR employed to measure the performance of the prototype robotic fish in terms of hydrodynamics, thrust and maneuvering characteristics. The analysis of the unmanned robotic system performance is made experimentally and the results show that the proposed bioinspired robotic prototype opens up the possibility of design optimization research for future work.

  5. Bio-inspired design strategies for central pattern generator control in modular robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Carron, F; Rodriguez, F B; Varona, P, E-mail: fernando.herrero@uam.es, E-mail: f.rodriguez@uam.es, E-mail: pablo.varona@uam.es [Grupo de Neurocomputacion Biologica (GNB), Departamento de Ingenieria Informatica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Calle Francisco Tomas y Valiente, 11, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    New findings in the nervous system of invertebrates have shown how a number of features of central pattern generator (CPG) circuits contribute to the generation of robust flexible rhythms. In this paper we consider recently revealed strategies that living CPGs follow to design CPG control paradigms for modular robots. To illustrate them, we divide the task of designing an example CPG for a modular robot into independent problems. We formulate each problem in a general way and provide a bio-inspired solution for each of them: locomotion information coding, individual module control and inter-module coordination. We analyse the stability of the CPG numerically, and then test it on a real robot. We analyse steady state locomotion and recovery after perturbations. In both cases, the robot is able to autonomously find a stable effective locomotion state. Finally, we discuss how these strategies can result in a more general design approach for CPG-based locomotion.

  6. Bio-inspired synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic particles; Sintese e caracterizacao bioinspirada de particulas superparamagneticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Vinicius F., E-mail: vfc_mg@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Alvaro A.A. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Estudos e Inovacao em Materiais Biofuncionais Avancados

    2012-08-15

    This paper discusses the bio-inspired synthesis of type YFeAl ferrites encapsulated into polyglycerol dendrimers (PGLD) generation 3. The structure and morphological properties of the system YFeAl/PGLD was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The magnetic properties were studied through the techniques of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetization. The cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles encapsulated in dendrimers PGLD G3 at the cell membrane was studied against mammalian cell line CHO.K1 measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released by the cell damage. Microscopy TEM and XRD analysis indicate that spherical nanoparticles were obtained highly crystalline and monodisperse with size 20 nm

  7. Bio-inspired Methods for Dynamic Network Analysis in Science Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Soos, Sandor

    2011-01-01

    We apply bio-inspired methods for the analysis of different dynamic bibliometric networks (linking papers by citation, authors, and keywords, respectively). Biological species are clusters of individuals defined by widely different criteria and in the biological perspective it is natural to (1) use different categorizations on the same entities (2) to compare the different categorizations and to analyze the dissimilarities, especially as they change over time. We employ the same methodology to comparisons of bibliometric classifications. We constructed them as analogs of three species concepts: cladistic or lineage based, similarity based, and "biological species" (based on co-reproductive ability). We use the Rand and Jaccard indexes to compare classifications in different time intervals. The experiment is aimed to address the classic problem of science mapping, as to what extent the various techniques based on different bibliometric indicators, such as citations, keywords or authors are able to detect conve...

  8. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Jeong; Maeng, Sung Joon; Cho, Yong Soo

    2015-07-28

    In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA)-based wireless mesh network (WMN) with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  9. Distributed Synchronization Technique for OFDMA-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Using a Bio-Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jeong Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a distributed synchronization technique based on a bio-inspired algorithm is proposed for an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA-based wireless mesh network (WMN with a time difference of arrival. The proposed time- and frequency-synchronization technique uses only the signals received from the neighbor nodes, by considering the effect of the propagation delay between the nodes. It achieves a fast synchronization with a relatively low computational complexity because it is operated in a distributed manner, not requiring any feedback channel for the compensation of the propagation delays. In addition, a self-organization scheme that can be effectively used to construct 1-hop neighbor nodes is proposed for an OFDMA-based WMN with a large number of nodes. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated with regard to the convergence property and synchronization success probability using a computer simulation.

  10. Bio-inspired catechol chemistry: a new way to develop a re-moldable and injectable coacervate hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon Jeong; Cho, Il Hwan; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Ki-Jung; Lee, Hyukjin; Park, Sung Young

    2012-12-18

    A new way is demonstrated to develop a bio-inspired coacervate hydrogel by following catechol chemistry showing injectable and re-moldable physical properties. The formed coacervate shows potential long-term stability under water. Depending on pH, formation of the coacervate has been verified which is confirmed by XPS and zeta potential measurements.

  11. A compact bio-inspired visible/NIR imager for image-guided surgery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shengkui; Garcia, Missael; Edmiston, Chris; York, Timothy; Marinov, Radoslav; Mondal, Suman B.; Zhu, Nan; Sudlow, Gail P.; Akers, Walter J.; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Liang, Rongguang; Pepino, Marta; Achilefu, Samuel; Gruev, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    Inspired by the visual system of the morpho butterfly, we have designed, fabricated, tested and clinically translated an ultra-sensitive, light weight and compact imaging sensor capable of simultaneously capturing near infrared (NIR) and visible spectrum information. The visual system of the morpho butterfly combines photosensitive cells with spectral filters at the receptor level. The spectral filters are realized by alternating layers of high and low dielectric constant, such as air and cytoplasm. We have successfully mimicked this concept by integrating pixelated spectral filters, realized by alternating silicon dioxide and silicon nitrate layers, with an array of CCD detectors. There are four different types of pixelated spectral filters in the imaging plane: red, green, blue and NIR. The high optical density (OD) of all spectral filters (OD>4) allow for efficient rejections of photons from unwanted bands. The single imaging chip weighs 20 grams with form factor of 5mm by 5mm. The imaging camera is integrated with a goggle display system. A tumor targeted agent, LS301, is used to identify all spontaneous tumors in a transgenic PyMT murine model of breast cancer. The imaging system achieved sensitivity of 98% and selectivity of 95%. We also used our imaging sensor to locate sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer using indocyanine green tracer. The surgeon was able to identify 100% of SLNs when using our bio-inspired imaging system, compared to 93% when using information from the lymphotropic dye and 96% when using information from the radioactive tracer.

  12. LINEBACKER: LINE-speed Bio-inspired Analysis and Characterization for Event Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehmen, Christopher S.; Bruillard, Paul J.; Matzke, Brett D.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Star, Keith T.; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Nordwall, Douglas J.; Thompson, Seth R.; Peterson, Elena S.

    2016-08-04

    The cyber world is a complex domain, with digital systems mediating a wide spectrum of human and machine behaviors. While this is enabling a revolution in the way humans interact with each other and data, it also is exposing previously unreachable infrastructure to a worldwide set of actors. Existing solutions for intrusion detection and prevention that are signature-focused typically seek to detect anomalous and/or malicious activity for the sake of preventing or mitigating negative impacts. But a growing interest in behavior-based detection is driving new forms of analysis that move the emphasis from static indicators (e.g. rule-based alarms or tripwires) to behavioral indicators that accommodate a wider contextual perspective. Similar to cyber systems, biosystems have always existed in resource-constrained hostile environments where behaviors are tuned by context. So we look to biosystems as an inspiration for addressing behavior-based cyber challenges. In this paper, we introduce LINEBACKER, a behavior-model based approach to recognizing anomalous events in network traffic and present the design of this approach of bio-inspired and statistical models working in tandem to produce individualized alerting for a collection of systems. Preliminary results of these models operating on historic data are presented along with a plugin to support real-world cyber operations.

  13. Bio-inspired annelid robot: a dielectric elastomer actuated soft robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Chen, Han-Qing; Zou, Jiang; Dong, Wan-Ting; Gu, Guo-Ying; Zhu, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Yang

    2017-01-31

    Biologically inspired robots with inherent softness and body compliance increasingly attract attention in the field of robotics. Aimed at solving existing problems with soft robots, regarding actuation technology and biological principles, this paper presents a soft bio-inspired annelid robot driven by dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) that can advance on flat rigid surfaces. The DEA, a kind of soft functional actuator, is designed and fabricated to mimic the axial elongation and differential friction of a single annelid body segment. Several (at least three) DEAs are connected together into a movable multi-segment robot. Bristles are attached at the bottom of some DEAs to achieve differential friction for imitating the setae of annelids. The annelid robot is controlled by periodic square waves, propagating from the posterior to the anterior, which imitate the peristaltic waves of annelids. Controlled by these waves, each DEA, one-by-one from tail to head, anchors to the ground by circumferential distention and pushes the front DEAs forward by axial elongation, enabling the robot to advance. Preliminary tests demonstrate that a 3-segment robot can reach an average speed of 5.3 mm s(-1) (1.871 body lengths min(-1)) on flat rigid surfaces and can functionally mimic the locomotion of annelids. Compared to the existing robots that imitate terrestrial annelids our annelid robot shows advantages in terms of speed and bionics.

  14. Novel bio-inspired smart control for hazard mitigation of civil structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeesock; Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a new bio-inspired controller is proposed for vibration mitigation of smart structures subjected to ground disturbances (i.e. earthquakes). The control system is developed through the integration of a brain emotional learning (BEL) algorithm with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and a semiactive inversion (Inv) algorithm. The BEL algorithm is based on the neurologically inspired computational model of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm, a seismically excited building structure equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated. The performance of the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm is compared with that of passive, PID, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and BEL control systems. In the simulation, the robustness of the hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm in the presence of modeling uncertainties as well as external disturbances is investigated. It is shown that the proposed hybrid BEL-PID-Inv control algorithm is effective in improving the dynamic responses of seismically excited building structure-MR damper systems.

  15. Bio-inspired classifier for road extraction from remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawei; Wang, Ruisheng; Yue, Shigang

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive approach for road extraction inspired by the mechanism of primary visual cortex (V1) is proposed. The motivation is originated by the characteristics in the receptive field from V1. It has been proved that human or primate visual systems can distinguish useful cues from real scenes effortlessly while traditional computer vision techniques cannot accomplish this task easily. This idea motivates us to design a bio-inspired model for road extraction from remote sensing imagery. The proposed approach is an improved support vector machine (SVM) based on the pooling of feature vectors, using an improved Gaussian radial basis function (RBF) kernel with tuning on synaptic gains. The synaptic gains comprise the feature vectors through an iterative optimization process representing the strength and width of Gaussian RBF kernel. The synaptic gains integrate the excitation and inhibition stimuli based on internal connections from V1. The summation of synaptic gains contributes to pooling of feature vectors. The experimental results verify the correlation between the synaptic gain and classification rules, and then show better performance in comparison with hidden Markov model, SVM, and fuzzy classification approaches. Our contribution is an automatic approach to road extraction without prelabeling and postprocessing work. Another apparent advantage is that our method is robust for images taken even under complex weather conditions such as snowy and foggy weather.

  16. Functional architectures based on self-assembly of bio-inspired dipeptides: Structure modulation and its photoelectronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chengjun; Liu, Kai; Li, Junbai; Yan, Xuehai

    2015-11-01

    Getting inspiration from nature and further developing functional architectures provides an effective way to design innovative materials and systems. Among bio-inspired materials, dipeptides and its self-assembled architectures with functionalities have recently been the subject of intensive studies. However, there is still a great challenge to explore its applications likely due to the lack of effective adaptation of their self-assembled structures as well as a lack of understanding of the self-assembly mechanisms. In this context, taking diphenylalanine (FF, a core recognition motif for molecular self-assembly of the Alzheimer's β-amyloid polypeptides) as a model of bio-inspired dipeptides, recent strategies on modulation of dipeptide-based architectures were introduced with regard to both covalent (architectures modulation by coupling functional groups) and non-covalent ways (controlled architectures by different assembly pathways). Then, applications are highlighted in some newly emerging fields of innovative photoelectronic devices and materials, such as artificial photosynthetic systems for renewable solar energy storage and renewable optical waveguiding materials for optoelectronic devices. At last, the challenges and future perspectives of these bio-inspired dipeptides are also addressed.

  17. Aerodynamics of a bio-inspired flexible flapping-wing micro air vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, T; Liu, H; Tanaka, Y; Nishihashi, N; Wang, X; Sato, A

    2011-12-01

    MAVs (micro air vehicles) with a maximal dimension of 15 cm and nominal flight speeds of around 10 m s⁻¹, operate in a Reynolds number regime of 10⁵ or lower, in which most natural flyers including insects, bats and birds fly. Furthermore, due to their light weight and low flight speed, the MAVs' flight characteristics are substantially affected by environmental factors such as wind gust. Like natural flyers, the wing structures of MAVs are often flexible and tend to deform during flight. Consequently, the aero/fluid and structural dynamics of these flyers are closely linked to each other, making the entire flight vehicle difficult to analyze. We have recently developed a hummingbird-inspired, flapping flexible wing MAV with a weight of 2.4-3.0 g and a wingspan of 10-12 cm. In this study, we carry out an integrated study of the flexible wing aerodynamics of this flapping MAV by combining an in-house computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method and wind tunnel experiments. A CFD model that has a realistic wing planform and can mimic realistic flexible wing kinematics is established, which provides a quantitative prediction of unsteady aerodynamics of the four-winged MAV in terms of vortex and wake structures and their relationship with aerodynamic force generation. Wind tunnel experiments further confirm the effectiveness of the clap and fling mechanism employed in this bio-inspired MAV as well as the importance of the wing flexibility in designing small flapping-wing MAVs.

  18. Bio-inspired evolutionary oral tract shape modeling for physical modeling vocal synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Tyrrell, Andy M; Murphy, Damian T; Cooper, Crispin; Mullen, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Physical modeling using digital waveguide mesh (DWM) models is an audio synthesis method that has been shown to produce an acoustic output in music synthesis applications that is often described as being "organic," "warm," or "intimate." This paper describes work that takes its inspiration from physical modeling music synthesis and applies it to speech synthesis through a physical modeling mesh model of the human oral tract. Oral tract shapes are found using a computational technique based on the principles of biological evolution. Essential to successful speech synthesis using this method is accurate measurements of the cross-sectional area of the human oral tract, and these are usually derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, such images are nonideal, because of the lengthy exposure time (relative to the time of articulation of speech sounds) required, the local ambient acoustic noise associated with the MRI machine itself and the required supine position for the subject. An alternative method is described where a bio-inspired computing technique that simulates the process of evolution is used to evolve oral tract shapes. This technique is able to produce appropriate oral tract shapes for open vowels using acoustic and excitation data from two adult males and two adult females, but shapes for close vowels that are less appropriate. This technique has none of the drawbacks associated with MRI, because all it requires from the subject is an acoustic and electrolaryngograph (or electroglottograph) recording. Appropriate oral tract shapes do enable the model to produce excellent quality synthetic speech for vowel sounds, and sounds that involve dynamic oral tract shape changes, such as diphthongs, can also be synthesized using an impedance mapped technique. Efforts to improve performance by reducing mesh quantization for close vowels had little effect, and further work is required.

  19. Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotic hand with massive sensorial input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascari, Luca; Bertocchi, Ulisse; Corradi, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo

    2009-02-01

    The capability of grasping and lifting an object in a suitable, stable and controlled way is an outstanding feature for a robot, and thus far, one of the major problems to be solved in robotics. No robotic tools able to perform an advanced control of the grasp as, for instance, the human hand does, have been demonstrated to date. Due to its capital importance in science and in many applications, namely from biomedics to manufacturing, the issue has been matter of deep scientific investigations in both the field of neurophysiology and robotics. While the former is contributing with a profound understanding of the dynamics of real-time control of the slippage and grasp force in the human hand, the latter tries more and more to reproduce, or take inspiration by, the nature's approach, by means of hardware and software technology. On this regard, one of the major constraints robotics has to overcome is the real-time processing of a large amounts of data generated by the tactile sensors while grasping, which poses serious problems to the available computational power. In this paper a bio-inspired approach to tactile data processing has been followed in order to design and test a hardware-software robotic architecture that works on the parallel processing of a large amount of tactile sensing signals. The working principle of the architecture bases on the cellular nonlinear/neural network (CNN) paradigm, while using both hand shape and spatial-temporal features obtained from an array of microfabricated force sensors, in order to control the sensory-motor coordination of the robotic system. Prototypical grasping tasks were selected to measure the system performances applied to a computer-interfaced robotic hand. Successful grasps of several objects, completely unknown to the robot, e.g. soft and deformable objects like plastic bottles, soft balls, and Japanese tofu, have been demonstrated.

  20. Viscous-Inviscid Methods in Unsteady Aerodynamic Analysis of Bio-Inspired Morphing Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhruv, Akash V.

    Flight has been one of the greatest realizations of human imagination, revolutionizing communication and transportation over the years. This has greatly influenced the growth of technology itself, enabling researchers to communicate and share their ideas more effectively, extending the human potential to create more sophisticated systems. While the end product of a sophisticated technology makes our lives easier, its development process presents an array of challenges in itself. In last decade, scientists and engineers have turned towards bio-inspiration to design more efficient and robust aerodynamic systems to enhance the ability of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to be operated in cluttered environments, where tight maneuverability and controllability are necessary. Effective use of UAVs in domestic airspace will mark the beginning of a new age in communication and transportation. The design of such complex systems necessitates the need for faster and more effective tools to perform preliminary investigations in design, thereby streamlining the design process. This thesis explores the implementation of numerical panel methods for aerodynamic analysis of bio-inspired morphing wings. Numerical panel methods have been one of the earliest forms of computational methods for aerodynamic analysis to be developed. Although the early editions of this method performed only inviscid analysis, the algorithm has matured over the years as a result of contributions made by prominent aerodynamicists. The method discussed in this thesis is influenced by recent advancements in panel methods and incorporates both viscous and inviscid analysis of multi-flap wings. The surface calculation of aerodynamic coefficients makes this method less computationally expensive than traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solvers available, and thus is effective when both speed and accuracy are desired. The morphing wing design, which consists of sequential feather-like flaps installed

  1. Bio-Inspired Molecular Catalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation and Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Ming-Hsun; Chen, Shentan; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dupuis, Michel; Bullock, R. Morris; Raugei, Simone

    2013-06-03

    Recent advances in Ni-based bio-inspired catalysts obtained in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, demonstrated the possibility of cleaving H2 or generating H2 heterolytically with turnover frequencies comparable or superior to those of hydrogenase enzymes. In these catalysts the transformation between H2 and protons proceeds via an interplay between proton, hydride and electron transfer steps and involves the interaction of a dihydrogen molecule with both a Ni(II) center and with pendant amine bases incorporated in a six-membered ring, which act as proton relays. These catalytic platforms are well designed in that when protons are correctly positioned (endo) toward the Raugei-ACS-Books.docxPrinted 12/18/12 2 metal center, catalysis proceeds at very high rates. We will show that the proton removal (for H2 oxidation) and proton delivery (for H2 production) are often the rate determining steps. Furthermore, the presence of multiple protonation sites gives rise to reaction intermediates with protons not correctly positioned (exo relative to the metal center). These isomers are easily accessible kinetically and are detrimental to catalysis because of the slow isomerization processes necessary to convert them to the catalytically competent endo isomers. In this chapter we will review the major findings of our computational investigation on the role of proton relays for H2 chemistry and provide guidelines for the design of new catalysts. This research was carried out in the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Battelle. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a Raugei-Bio-Inspired Molecular-Catalysts-for-Hydrogen- Oxidation

  2. Integration of bio-inspired, control-based visual and olfactory data for the detection of an elusive target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Duong, Nghi; Le, Duong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an integration technique using a bio-inspired, control-based visual and olfactory receptor system to search for elusive targets in practical environments where the targets cannot be seen obviously by either sensory data. Bio-inspired Visual System is based on a modeling of extended visual pathway which consists of saccadic eye movements and visual pathway (vertebrate retina, lateral geniculate nucleus and visual cortex) to enable powerful target detections of noisy, partial, incomplete visual data. Olfactory receptor algorithm, namely spatial invariant independent component analysis, that was developed based on data of old factory receptor-electronic nose (enose) of Caltech, is adopted to enable the odorant target detection in an unknown environment. The integration of two systems is a vital approach and sets up a cornerstone for effective and low-cost of miniaturized UAVs or fly robots for future DOD and NASA missions, as well as for security systems in Internet of Things environments.

  3. An Experimental Investigation on Bio-inspired Icephobic Coatings for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Li, Haixing; Waldman, Rye

    2016-11-01

    By leveraging the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT), a series of experimental investigations were conducted to elucidate the underlying physics pertinent to aircraft icing phenomena. A suite of advanced flow diagnostic techniques, which include high-speed photographic imaging, digital image projection (DIP), and infrared (IR) imaging thermometry, were developed and applied to quantify the transient behavior of water droplet impingement, wind-driven surface water runback, unsteady heat transfer and dynamic ice accreting process over the surfaces of airfoil/wing models. The icephobic performance of various bio-inspired superhydrophobic coatings were evaluated quantitatively at different icing conditions. The findings derived from the icing physics studies can be used to improve current icing accretion models for more accurate prediction of ice formation and accretion on aircraft wings and to develop effective anti-/deicing strategies for safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather. The research work is partially supported by NASA with Grant Number NNX12AC21A and National Science Foundation under Award Numbers of CBET-1064196 and CBET-1435590.

  4. B-iTRS: A Bio-Inspired Trusted Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingchuan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In WSNs, routing algorithms need to handle dynamical changes of network topology, extra overhead, energy saving, and other requirements. Therefore, routing in WSNs is an extremely interesting and challenging issue. In this paper, we present a novel bio-inspired trusted routing scheme (B-iTRS based on ant colony optimization (ACO and Physarum autonomic optimization (PAO. For trust assessment, B-iTRS monitors neighbors’ behavior in real time, receives feedback from Sink, and then assesses neighbors’ trusts based on the acquired information. For routing scheme, each node finds routes to the Sink based on ACO and PAO. In the process of path finding, B-iTRS senses the load and trust value of each node and then calculates the link load and link trust of the found routes to support the route selection. Moreover, B-iTRS also assesses the route based on PAO to maintain the route table. Simulation results show how B-iTRS can achieve the effective performance compared to existing state-of-the-art algorithms.

  5. Artificial Roughness Encoding with a Bio-inspired MEMS-based Tactile Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Maria Oddo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A compliant 2x2 tactile sensor array was developed and investigated for roughness encoding. State of the art cross shape 3D MEMS sensors were integrated with polymeric packaging providing in total 16 sensitive elements to external mechanical stimuli in an area of about 20 mm2, similarly to the SA1 innervation density in humans. Experimental analysis of the bio-inspired tactile sensor array was performed by using ridged surfaces, with spatial periods from 2.6 mm to 4.1 mm, which were indented with regulated 1N normal force and stroked at constant sliding velocity from 15 mm/s to 48 mm/s. A repeatable and expected frequency shift of the sensor outputs depending on the applied stimulus and on its scanning velocity was observed between 3.66 Hz and 18.46 Hz with an overall maximum error of 1.7%. The tactile sensor could also perform contact imaging during static stimulus indentation. The experiments demonstrated the suitability of this approach for the design of a roughness encoding tactile sensor for an artificial fingerpad.

  6. Bio-inspired patterned networks (BIPS) for development of wearable/disposable biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLamore, E. S.; Convertino, M.; Hondred, John; Das, Suprem; Claussen, J. C.; Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.

    2016-05-01

    Here we demonstrate a novel approach for fabricating point of care (POC) wearable electrochemical biosensors based on 3D patterning of bionanocomposite networks. To create Bio-Inspired Patterned network (BIPS) electrodes, we first generate fractal network in silico models that optimize transport of network fluxes according to an energy function. Network patterns are then inkjet printed onto flexible substrate using conductive graphene ink. We then deposit fractal nanometal structures onto the graphene to create a 3D nanocomposite network. Finally, we biofunctionalize the surface with biorecognition agents using covalent bonding. In this paper, BIPS are used to develop high efficiency, low cost biosensors for measuring glucose as a proof of concept. Our results on the fundamental performance of BIPS sensors show that the biomimetic nanostructures significantly enhance biosensor sensitivity, accuracy, response time, limit of detection, and hysteresis compared to conventional POC non fractal electrodes (serpentine, interdigitated, and screen printed electrodes). BIPs, in particular Apollonian patterned BIPS, represent a new generation of POC biosensors based on nanoscale and microscale fractal networks that significantly improve electrical connectivity, leading to enhanced sensor performance.

  7. Bio-inspired online variable recruitment control of fluidic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Tyler E.; Chapman, Edward M.; Bryant, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    This paper details the creation of a hybrid variable recruitment control scheme for fluidic artificial muscle (FAM) actuators with an emphasis on maximizing system efficiency and switching control performance. Variable recruitment is the process of altering a system’s active number of actuators, allowing operation in distinct force regimes. Previously, FAM variable recruitment was only quantified with offline, manual valve switching; this study addresses the creation and characterization of novel, on-line FAM switching control algorithms. The bio-inspired algorithms are implemented in conjunction with a PID and model-based controller, and applied to a simulated plant model. Variable recruitment transition effects and chatter rejection are explored via a sensitivity analysis, allowing a system designer to weigh tradeoffs in actuator modeling, algorithm choice, and necessary hardware. Variable recruitment is further developed through simulation of a robotic arm tracking a variety of spline position inputs, requiring several levels of actuator recruitment. Switching controller performance is quantified and compared with baseline systems lacking variable recruitment. The work extends current variable recruitment knowledge by creating novel online variable recruitment control schemes, and exploring how online actuator recruitment affects system efficiency and control performance. Key topics associated with implementing a variable recruitment scheme, including the effects of modeling inaccuracies, hardware considerations, and switching transition concerns are also addressed.

  8. Optimization of PID Controller for Brushless DC Motor by using Bio-inspired Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kr. Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the use and comparison of various bio-inspired algorithms for optimizing the response of a PID controller for a Brushless DC Motor in contrast to the conventional methods of tuning. For the optimization of the PID controllers Genetic Algorithm, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing have been used. PID controller tuning with soft-computing algorithms comprises of obtaining the best possible outcome for the three PID parameters for improving the steady state characteristics and performance indices like overshoot percentage, rise time and settling time. For the calculation and simulation of the results the Brushless DC Motor model, Maxon EC 45 flat ф 45 mm with Hall Sensors Motor has been used. The results obtained the optimization using Genetic Algorithms, Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing is compared with the ones derived from the Ziegler-Nichols method and the MATLAB SISO Tool. And it is observed that comparatively better results are obtained by optimization using Simulated Annealing offering better steady state response.

  9. Adhesive Contact in Animal: Morphology, Mechanism and Bio-Inspired Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aihong Ji; Longbao Han; Zhendong Dai

    2011-01-01

    Many animals possess adhesive pads on their feet,which are able to attach to various substrates while controlling adhesive forces during locomotion.This review article studies the morphology of adhesive devices in animals,and the physical mechanisms of wet adhesion and dry adhesion.The adhesive pads are either ‘smooth' or densely covered with special adhesive setae.Smooth pads adhere by wet adhesion,which is facilitated by fluid secreted from the pads,whereas hairy pads can adhere by dry adhesion or wet adhesion.Contact area,distance between pad and substrate,viscosity and surface tension of the liquid filling the gap between pad and substrate are the most important factors which determine the wet adhesion.Dry adhesion was found only in hairy pads,which occurs in geckos and spiders.It was demonstrated that van der Waals interaction is the dominant adhesive force in geckos' adhesion.The bio-inspired applications derived from adhesive pads are also reviewed.

  10. Boundary layer drag reduction research hypotheses derived from bio-inspired surface and recent advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuehao; Yuan, Lu; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jianshe

    2015-12-01

    Nature has supplied the inexhaustible resources for mankind, and at the same time, it has also progressively developed into the school for scientists and engineers. Through more than four billions years of rigorous and stringent evolution, different creatures in nature gradually exhibit their own special and fascinating biological functional surfaces. For example, sharkskin has the potential drag-reducing effect in turbulence, lotus leaf possesses the self-cleaning and anti-foiling function, gecko feet have the controllable super-adhesion surfaces, the flexible skin of dolphin can accelerate its swimming velocity. Great profits of applying biological functional surfaces in daily life, industry, transportation and agriculture have been achieved so far, and much attention from all over the world has been attracted and focused on this field. In this overview, the bio-inspired drag-reducing mechanism derived from sharkskin is explained and explored comprehensively from different aspects, and then the main applications in different fluid engineering are demonstrated in brief. This overview will inevitably improve the comprehension of the drag reduction mechanism of sharkskin surface and better understand the recent applications in fluid engineering.

  11. Bio-Inspired Vision-Based Leader-Follower Formation Flying in the Presence of Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Oyekan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Flocking starlings at dusk are known for the mesmerizing and intricate shapes they generate, as well as how fluid these shapes change. They seem to do this effortlessly. Real-life vision-based flocking has not been achieved in micro-UAVs (micro Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to date. Towards this goal, we make three contributions in this paper: (i we used a computational approach to develop a bio-inspired architecture for vision-based Leader-Follower formation flying on two micro-UAVs. We believe that the minimal computational cost of the resulting algorithm makes it suitable for object detection and tracking during high-speed flocking; (ii we show that provided delays in the control loop of a micro-UAV are below a critical value, Kalman filter-based estimation algorithms are not required to achieve Leader-Follower formation flying; (iii unlike previous approaches, we do not use external observers, such as GPS signals or synchronized communication with flock members. These three contributions could be useful in achieving vision-based flocking in GPS-denied environments on computationally-limited agents.

  12. The tubercles on humpback whales' flippers: application of bio-inspired technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Frank E; Weber, Paul W; Murray, Mark M; Howle, Laurens E

    2011-07-01

    The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is exceptional among the large baleen whales in its ability to undertake aquabatic maneuvers to catch prey. Humpback whales utilize extremely mobile, wing-like flippers for banking and turning. Large rounded tubercles along the leading edge of the flipper are morphological structures that are unique in nature. The tubercles on the leading edge act as passive-flow control devices that improve performance and maneuverability of the flipper. Experimental analysis of finite wing models has demonstrated that the presence of tubercles produces a delay in the angle of attack until stall, thereby increasing maximum lift and decreasing drag. Possible fluid-dynamic mechanisms for improved performance include delay of stall through generation of a vortex and modification of the boundary layer, and increase in effective span by reduction of both spanwise flow and strength of the tip vortex. The tubercles provide a bio-inspired design that has commercial viability for wing-like structures. Control of passive flow has the advantages of eliminating complex, costly, high-maintenance, and heavy control mechanisms, while improving performance for lifting bodies in air and water. The tubercles on the leading edge can be applied to the design of watercraft, aircraft, ventilation fans, and windmills.

  13. Bio-Inspired Aggregation Control of Carbon Nanotubes for Ultra-Strong Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Zhang, Xiaohua; Yu, Xueping; Zhao, Jingna; Li, Shan; Liu, Feng; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhao, Tong; Li, Qingwen

    2015-01-01

    High performance nanocomposites require well dispersion and high alignment of the nanometer-sized components, at a high mass or volume fraction as well. However, the road towards such composite structure is severely hindered due to the easy aggregation of these nanometer-sized components. Here we demonstrate a big step to approach the ideal composite structure for carbon nanotube (CNT) where all the CNTs were highly packed, aligned, and unaggregated, with the impregnated polymers acting as interfacial adhesions and mortars to build up the composite structure. The strategy was based on a bio-inspired aggregation control to limit the CNT aggregation to be sub 20–50 nm, a dimension determined by the CNT growth. After being stretched with full structural relaxation in a multi-step way, the CNT/polymer (bismaleimide) composite yielded super-high tensile strengths up to 6.27–6.94 GPa, more than 100% higher than those of carbon fiber/epoxy composites, and toughnesses up to 117–192 MPa. We anticipate that the present study can be generalized for developing multifunctional and smart nanocomposites where all the surfaces of nanometer-sized components can take part in shear transfer of mechanical, thermal, and electrical signals. PMID:26098627

  14. Light Manipulation for Organic Optoelectronics Using Bio-inspired Moth's Eye Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Ou, Qing-Dong; Chen, Jing-De; Shen, Su; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Yan-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2014-02-01

    Organic-based optoelectronic devices, including light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and solar cells (OSCs) hold great promise as low-cost and large-area electro-optical devices and renewable energy sources. However, further improvement in efficiency remains a daunting challenge due to limited light extraction or absorption in conventional device architectures. Here we report a universal method of optical manipulation of light by integrating a dual-side bio-inspired moth's eye nanostructure with broadband anti-reflective and quasi-omnidirectional properties. Light out-coupling efficiency of OLEDs with stacked triple emission units is over 2 times that of a conventional device, resulting in drastic increase in external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to 119.7% and 366 cd A-1 without introducing spectral distortion and directionality. Similarly, the light in-coupling efficiency of OSCs is increased 20%, yielding an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 9.33%. We anticipate this method would offer a convenient and scalable way for inexpensive and high-efficiency organic optoelectronic designs.

  15. Bio-inspired adaptive feedback error learning architecture for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Silvia; Vanegas, Mauricio; Luque, Niceto R; Garrido, Jesús A; Ros, Eduardo

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive control architecture based on an accurate regression method called Locally Weighted Projection Regression (LWPR) and on a bio-inspired module, such as a cerebellar-like engine. This hybrid architecture takes full advantage of the machine learning module (LWPR kernel) to abstract an optimized representation of the sensorimotor space while the cerebellar component integrates this to generate corrective terms in the framework of a control task. Furthermore, we illustrate how the use of a simple adaptive error feedback term allows to use the proposed architecture even in the absence of an accurate analytic reference model. The presented approach achieves an accurate control with low gain corrective terms (for compliant control schemes). We evaluate the contribution of the different components of the proposed scheme comparing the obtained performance with alternative approaches. Then, we show that the presented architecture can be used for accurate manipulation of different objects when their physical properties are not directly known by the controller. We evaluate how the scheme scales for simulated plants of high Degrees of Freedom (7-DOFs).

  16. Medical Image Registration by means of a Bio-Inspired Optimization Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariton Costin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical imaging mainly treats and processes missing, ambiguous, complementary, redundant and distorted data. Biomedical image registration is the process of geometric overlaying or alignment of two or more 2D/3D images of the same scene, taken at different time slots, from different angles, and/or by different acquisition systems. In medical practice, it is becoming increasingly important in diagnosis, treatment planning, functional studies, computer-guided therapies, and in biomedical research. Technically, image registration implies a complex optimization of different parameters, performed at local or/and global levels. Local optimization methods frequently fail because functions of the involved metrics with respect to transformation parameters are generally nonconvex and irregular. Therefore, global methods are often required, at least at the beginning of the procedure. In this paper, a new evolutionary and bio-inspired approach -- bacterial foraging optimization -- is adapted for single-slice to 3-D PET and CT multimodal image registration. Preliminary results of optimizing the normalized mutual information similarity metric validated the efficacy of the proposed method by using a freely available medical image database.

  17. Bio-Inspired Supramolecular Chemistry Provides Highly Concentrated Dispersions of Carbon Nanotubes in Polythiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the first observation, through X-ray diffraction, of noncovalent uracil–uracil (U–U dimeric π-stacking interactions in carbon nanotube (CNT–based supramolecular assemblies. The directionally oriented morphology determined using atomic force microscopy revealed highly organized behavior through π-stacking of U moieties in a U-functionalized CNT derivative (CNT–U. We developed a dispersion system to investigate the bio-inspired interactions between an adenine (A-terminated poly(3-adeninehexyl thiophene (PAT and CNT–U. These hybrid CNT–U/PAT materials interacted through π-stacking and multiple hydrogen bonding between the U moieties of CNT–U and the A moieties of PAT. Most importantly, the U···A multiple hydrogen bonding interactions between CNT–U and PAT enhanced the dispersion of CNT–U in a high-polarity solvent (DMSO. The morphology of these hybrids, determined using transmission electron microscopy, featured grape-like PAT bundles wrapped around the CNT–U surface; this tight connection was responsible for the enhanced dispersion of CNT–U in DMSO.

  18. Interactions of Bio-Inspired Membranes with Peptides and Peptide-Mimetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Sebastiano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Via Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD and implicit solvent coarse-grained (CG Molecular Dynamics (MD we examine the interaction of an amphiphilic cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE and its synthetic counterpart with a bio-inspired membrane. We use the DPD technique to investigate the interaction of peptide-mimetic nanoparticles, or nanopins, with a three-component membrane. The CG MD approach is used to investigate the interaction of a cell-penetrating peptide PMLKE with single-component membrane. We observe the spontaneous binding and subsequent insertion of peptide and nanopin in the membrane by using CG MD and DPD approaches, respectively. In addition, we find that the insertion of peptide and nanopins is mainly driven by the favorable enthalpic interactions between the hydrophobic components of the peptide, or nanopin, and the membrane. Our study provides insights into the mechanism underlying the interactions of amphiphilic peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a membrane. The result of this study can be used to guide the functional integration of peptide and peptide-mimetic nanoparticles with a cell membrane.

  19. Bio-inspired device: a novel smart MR spring featuring tendril structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluvan, Suresh; Park, Chun-Yong; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    Smart materials such as piezoelectric patches, shape memory alloy, electro and magneto rheological fluid, magnetostrictive materials, etc are involved by far to design intelligent and high performance smart devices like injectors, dental braces, dampers, actuators and sensors. In this paper, an interesting smart device is proposed by inspiring on the structure of the bio climber plant. The key enabling concept of this proposed work is to design the smart spring damper as a helical shaped tendril structure using magneto-rheological (MR) fluid. The proposed smart spring consists of a hollow helical structure filled with MR fluid. The viscosity of the MR fluid decides the damping force of helical shaped smart spring, while the fluid intensity in the vine decides the strength of the tendril in the climber plant. Thus, the proposed smart spring can provide a new concept design of the damper which can be applicable to various damping system industries with tuneable damping force. The proposed smart spring damper has several advantageous such as cost effective, easy implementation compared with the conventional damper. In addition, the proposed spring damper can be easily designed to adapt different damping force levels without any alteration.

  20. Bio-inspired Miniature Suction Cups Actuated by Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Bing-shan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Wall climbing robots using negative pressure suction always employ air pumps which have great noise and large volume. Two prototypes of bio-inspired miniature suction cup actuated by shape memory alloy (SMA are designed based on studying characteristics of biologic suction apparatuses, and the suction cups in this paper can be used as adhesion mechanisms for miniature wall climbing robots without air pumps. The first prototype with a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME extension TiNi spring imitates the piston structure of the stalked sucker; the second one actuated by a one way SMA actuator with a bias has a basic structure of stiff margin, guiding element, leader and elastic element. Analytical model of the second prototype is founded considering the constitutive model of the SMA actuator, the deflection of the thin elastic plate under compound load and the thermo-dynamic model of the sealed air cavity. Experiments are done to test their suction characteristics, and the analytical model of the second prototype is simulated on Matlab/simulink platform and validated by experiments.

  1. Research on one Bio-inspired Jumping Locomotion Robot for Search and Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunwen Wei

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Jumping locomotion is much more effective than other locomotion means in order to tackle the unstructured and complex environment in research and rescue. Here, a bio-inspired jumping robot with a closed-chain mechanism is proposed to achieve the power amplification during taking-off. Through actuating one variable transmission mechanism to change the transmission ratio, the jumping robot reveals biological characteristics in the phase of posture adjustment when adjusting the height and distance of one jump. The kinematics and dynamics of the simplified jumping mechanism model in one jumping cycle sequence are analysed. A compliant contact model considering nonlinear damping is investigated for jumping performance under different terrain characteristics. The numerical simulation algorithm with regard to solving the dynamical equation is described and simulation results are discussed. Finally, one primary prototype and experiment are described. The experimental results show the distance of jumping in the horizontal direction increases with the increasing gear ratio, while the height of jumping decreases in reverse. The jumping robot can enhance the capability to adapt to unknown cluttered environments, such as those encountered in research and rescue, using this strategy.

  2. Bio-inspired benchmark generator for extracellular multi-unit recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-González, Sirenia Lizbeth; Burguière, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of multi-unit extracellular recordings of brain activity has led to the development of numerous tools, ranging from signal processing algorithms to electronic devices and applications. Currently, the evaluation and optimisation of these tools are hampered by the lack of ground-truth databases of neural signals. These databases must be parameterisable, easy to generate and bio-inspired, i.e. containing features encountered in real electrophysiological recording sessions. Towards that end, this article introduces an original computational approach to create fully annotated and parameterised benchmark datasets, generated from the summation of three components: neural signals from compartmental models and recorded extracellular spikes, non-stationary slow oscillations, and a variety of different types of artefacts. We present three application examples. (1) We reproduced in-vivo extracellular hippocampal multi-unit recordings from either tetrode or polytrode designs. (2) We simulated recordings in two different experimental conditions: anaesthetised and awake subjects. (3) Last, we also conducted a series of simulations to study the impact of different level of artefacts on extracellular recordings and their influence in the frequency domain. Beyond the results presented here, such a benchmark dataset generator has many applications such as calibration, evaluation and development of both hardware and software architectures. PMID:28233819

  3. A bio-inspired device for drag reduction on a three-dimensional model vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongri; Lee, Hoon; Yi, Wook; Choi, Haecheon

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce a bio-mimetic device for the reduction of the drag force on a three-dimensional model vehicle, the Ahmed body (Ahmed et al 1984 SAE Technical Paper 840300). The device, called automatic moving deflector (AMD), is designed inspired by the movement of secondary feathers on bird's wing suction surface: i.e., secondary feathers pop up when massive separation occurs on bird's wing suction surface at high angles of attack, which increases the lift force at landing. The AMD is applied to the rear slanted surface of the Ahmed body to control the flow separation there. The angle of the slanted surface considered is 25° at which the drag coefficient on the Ahmed body is highest. The wind tunnel experiment is conducted at Re H  = 1.0 × 10(5)-3.8 × 10(5), based on the height of the Ahmed body (H) and the free-stream velocity (U ∞). Several AMDs of different sizes and materials are tested by measuring the drag force on the Ahmed body, and showed drag reductions up to 19%. The velocity and surface-pressure measurements show that AMD starts to pop up when the pressure in the thin gap between the slanted surface and AMD is much larger than that on the upper surface of AMD. We also derive an empirical formula that predicts the critical free-stream velocity at which AMD starts to operate. Finally, it is shown that the drag reduction by AMD is mainly attributed to a pressure recovery on the slanted surface by delaying the flow separation and suppressing the strength of the longitudinal vortices emanating from the lateral edges of the slanted surface.

  4. Superhydro-oleophobic bio-inspired polydimethylsiloxane micropillared surface via FDTS coating/blending approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zihe; Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fut K.; Zhao, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    In this work we render superhydro-oleophobic properties to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer through bio-inspired micropillar surface and chemical modification with a fluorosilane polymer, trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (FDTS). Two different chemical modification approaches were applied on both flat and micropillar PDMS: (1) vapor deposition of FDTS on cured PDMS surface, and (2) blending FDTS with the liquid PDMS precursor before curing. Comparative studies of the water and oil contact angles on the neat and FDTS-modified PDMS (both flat and micropillar) indicated that superhydro-oleophobicity was delivered by a combination of FDTS chemistry and micropillar geometry. FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar displayed better oleophobicity with an oil contact angle of ∼141° than FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar (∼115°). In contrast to the smooth surface of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar, rough surface with some structure defects were found on the FDTS-coated micropillar surface caused by the vapor deposition process; the surface defects might be responsible for the observed low oleophobicity of FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar. Superhydrophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar in terms of water contact angles was found to be independent of the quantity of FDTS. However, the oleophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar was found to be dependent of the quantity of FDTS; with the increased weight concentration of FDTS in PDMS, the oils contact angle first increased and then leveled out at a finite concentration. FTIR and XPS were applied to analyze surface chemistry information suggesting the blended FDTS segregated from bulk PDMS and enriched at the surface to reduce surface tension so as to make surface super-oleophobic.

  5. A bio-inspired real-time capable artificial lateral line system for freestream flow measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abels, C; Qualtieri, A; De Vittorio, M; Megill, W M; Rizzi, F

    2016-06-03

    To enhance today's artificial flow sensing capabilities in aerial and underwater robotics, future robots could be equipped with a large number of miniaturized sensors distributed over the surface to provide high resolution measurement of the surrounding fluid flow. In this work we show a linear array of closely separated bio-inspired micro-electro-mechanical flow sensors whose sensing mechanism is based on a piezoresistive strain-gauge along a stress-driven cantilever beam, mimicking the biological superficial neuromasts found in the lateral line organ of fishes. Aiming to improve state-of-the-art flow sensing capability in autonomously flying and swimming robots, our artificial lateral line system was designed and developed to feature multi-parameter freestream flow measurements which provide information about (1) local flow velocities as measured by the signal amplitudes from the individual cantilevers as well as (2) propagation velocity, (3) linear forward/backward direction along the cantilever beam orientation and (4) periodicity of pulses or pulse trains determined by cross-correlating sensor signals. A real-time capable cross-correlation procedure was developed which makes it possible to extract freestream flow direction and velocity information from flow fluctuations. The computed flow velocities deviate from a commercial system by 0.09 m s(-1) at 0.5 m s(-1) and 0.15 m s(-1) at 1.0 m s(-1) flow velocity for a sampling rate of 240 Hz and a sensor distance of 38 mm. Although experiments were performed in air, the presented flow sensing system can be applied to underwater vehicles as well, once the sensors are embedded in a waterproof micro-electro-mechanical systems package.

  6. Simultaneous size control and surface functionalization of titania nanoparticles through bioadhesion-assisted bio-inspired mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Jiafu; Yang Dong; Jiang Zhongyi, E-mail: zhyjiang@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Jiang Yanjun [Hebei University of Technology, Department of Bioengineering, School of Chemical Engineering (China); Liang Yanpeng; Zhu Yuanyuan; Wang Xiaoli; Wang Huihui [Tianjin University, Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China)

    2012-09-15

    Simultaneous size control and surface functionalization of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are often desired for their efficient applications in (bio)catalysis, drug and/or DNA delivery, and photonics, etc. In this study, a novel strategy 'bioadhesion-assisted bio-inspired mineralization (BABM)' was put forward to prepare titania nanoparticles (TiNPs) with tunable particle size and multiple surface functionality. Specifically, the initial formation and subsequent growth of TiNPs were enabled by arginine via bio-inspired mineralization, while the mineralization process was terminated through the addition of the pre-polymerized dopa (oligodopa). By adjusting the addition time of oligodopa, the size of TiNPs could be facilely tailored from ca. 30-350 nm; meanwhile, the surface of TiNPs could be functionalized by oligodopa through metal-catechol coordination interaction (a typical bioadhesion phenomenon). In other words, oligodopa coating could not only exquisitely control the size of TiNPs, but also render TiNPs surface multifunctional groups for secondary treatment such as conjugating proteins through amine-catechol adduct formation. Hopefully, this BABM approach will construct a versatile platform for green and facile synthesis of inorganic NPs, in particular transition metal oxide NPs.

  7. Investigation of Bio-Inspired Hybrid Materials through Polymer Infiltration of Thermal Spray Formed Ceramic Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Katherine Claire

    certain degree of porosity (up to approximately 20%). Often, porosity is interconnected and is controlled by varying processing parameters. Through the introduction of an appropriate polymer at the porosity interface, it may be possible to achieve synergistic benefits in terms of both strength and toughness of the sprayed material. This dissertation will focus on the fabrication and evaluation of property enhancements of bio-inspired materials based on ceramic thermally sprayed scaffolds through post deposition polymer impregnation.

  8. Bio-Inspired Photon Absorption and Energy Transfer for Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsi, Komal

    Nature's solar energy harvesting system, photosynthesis, serves as a model for photon absorption, spectra broadening, and energy transfer. Photosynthesis harvests light far differently than photovoltaic cells. These differences offer both engineering opportunity and scientific challenges since not all of the natural photon absorption mechanisms have been understood. In return, solar cells can be a very sensitive probe for the absorption characteristics of molecules capable of transferring charge to a conductive interface. The objective of this scientific work is the advancement of next generation photovoltaics through the development and application of natural photo-energy transfer processes. Two scientific methods were used in the development and application of enhancing photon absorption and transfer. First, a detailed analysis of photovoltaic front surface fluorescent spectral modification and light scattering by hetero-structure was conducted. Phosphor based spectral down-conversion is a well-known laser technology. The theoretical calculations presented here indicate that parasitic losses and light scattering within the spectral range are large enough to offset any expected gains. The second approach for enhancing photon absorption is based on bio-inspired mechanisms. Key to the utilization of these natural processes is the development of a detailed scientific understanding and the application of these processes to cost effective systems and devices. In this work both aspects are investigated. Dye type solar cells were prepared and tested as a function of Chlorophyll (or Sodium-Copper Chlorophyllin) and accessory dyes. Forster has shown that the fluorescence ratio of Chlorophyll is modified and broadened by separate photon absorption (sensitized absorption) through interaction with nearby accessory pigments. This work used the dye type solar cell as a diagnostic tool by which to investigate photon absorption and photon energy transfer. These experiments shed

  9. On the Fracture Toughness and Crack Growth Resistance of Bio-Inspired Thermal Spray Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Michael Murray

    Nature has presented a remarkable bill of materials which show excellent mechanical properties. Among those which have been extensively studied are wood, bone, rocks, spider silk, nacre etc. Interestingly all of these materials are primarily known to have great fracture resistance and present excellent example of natural and layer-by-layer evolution of materials. These materials have inspired the current research society to synthesize new generation materials with mechanical properties beyond the conventional materials such as metal, ceramic and polymers. Nacre, one of the most researched natural materials, is present in particular sea-shells and shows a layered brick-and-mortar structure. Designing nacre-like structures has been a goal of many researchers due to the combination of its high strength and toughness. Thermal spray, a melt deposition process, has the ability to produce similar structures which can exhibit mechanical behavior similar to nacre. With an appropriate selection of process conditions, a nacreous brick-&-mortar structure can be synthesized. The structure is consisting of 95 vol% of CaCO 3 tablets with a brick wall arrangement with 5vol% of bio-polymer serving as a mortar between tables. Although, there have been several attempts by other researchers in the past, many other attempts have been made to synthesize such a material, they remain limited to a laboratory scale dimensions and are challenging to be scalable. While thermal spray, a readily scalable and industrially adapted process, shows no limitations with the development of nacre-like structures over a large surface area. Previous work down by the group has produced such a nacre-like structure using a flame spray process, one of the variant of thermal spray which uses rod as a feed, resulted in similar mechanical behavior to that of nacre. The work demonstrated that these templates along with the introduction of a polymeric epoxy, the fracture toughness and strength can be raised up to

  10. AER synthetic generation in hardware for bio-inspired spiking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Barranco, Alejandro; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe; Jimenez-Moreno, Gabriel; Civit-Balcells, Anton

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate 'events' according to their activity levels. More active neurons generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. When building multi-chip muti-layered AER systems it is absolutely necessary to have a computer interface that allows (a) to read AER interchip traffic into the computer and visualize it on screen, and (b) convert conventional frame-based video stream in the computer into AER and inject it at some point of the AER structure. This is necessary for test and debugging of complex AER systems. This paper addresses the problem of converting, in a computer, a conventional frame-based video stream into the spike event based representation AER. There exist several proposed software methods for synthetic generation of AER for bio-inspired systems. This paper presents a hardware implementation for one method, which is based on Linear-Feedback-Shift-Register (LFSR) pseudo-random number generation. The sequence of events generated by this hardware, which follows a Poisson distribution like a biological neuron, has been reconstructed using two AER integrator cells. The error of reconstruction for a set of images that produces different traffic loads of event in the AER bus is used as evaluation criteria. A VHDL description of the method, that includes the Xilinx PCI Core, has been implemented and tested using a general purpose PCI-AER board. This PCI-AER board has been developed by authors, and uses

  11. Constrained VPH+: a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired crawling robot with customized ultrasonic scanning sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Akshay; Elara, Mohan Rajesh; Elangovan, Karthikeyan

    This paper aims to develop a local path planning algorithm for a bio-inspired, reconfigurable crawling robot. A detailed description of the robotic platform is first provided, and the suitability for deployment of each of the current state-of-the-art local path planners is analyzed after an extensive literature review. The Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram algorithm is described and reformulated to better fit the requirements of the platform. The algorithm is deployed on the robotic platform in crawling configuration and favorably compared with other state-of-the-art local path planning algorithms.

  12. The neuroscience of vision-based grasping: a functional review for computational modeling and bio-inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Eris; Del Pobil, Angel P

    2009-06-01

    The topic of vision-based grasping is being widely studied in humans and in other primates using various techniques and with different goals. The fundamental related findings are reviewed in this paper, with the aim of providing researchers from different fields, including intelligent robotics and neural computation, a comprehensive but accessible view on the subject. A detailed description of the principal sensorimotor processes and the brain areas involved is provided following a functional perspective, in order to make this survey especially useful for computational modeling and bio-inspired robotic applications.

  13. Multiple Decoupled CPGs with Local Sensory Feedback for Adaptive Locomotion Behaviors of Bio-inspired Walking Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker Barikhan, Subhi; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    Walking animals show versatile locomotion. They can also adapt their movement according to the changes of their morphology and the environmental conditions. These emergent properties are realized by biomechanics, distributed central pattern generators (CPGs), local sensory feedback, and their int...... of the front legs, to deal with morphological change, and to synchronize its movement with another robot during a collaborative task....... and the environment through local sensory feedback of each leg. Simulation results show that this bio-inspired approach generates self-organizing emergent locomotion allowing the robot to adaptively form regular patterns, to stably walk while pushing an object with its front legs or performing multiple stepping...

  14. Analytical development of a binuclear oxo-manganese complex bio-inspired on oxidase enzyme for doping control analysis of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machini, Wesley B S; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2016-05-15

    A bio-inspired electrochemical sensor using a binuclear oxo-manganese complex was evaluated and applied in the detection of a substance associated with doping in sports: acetazolamide (ACTZ). Investigation was made of the influence of different experimental variables on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ACTZ by the bio-inspired sensor, such as pH and interfering species. The bio-inspired sensor showed the best response in the range from 5.00×10(-9) to 7.00×10(-8) mol L(-1) ACTZ, with a linear range from 5.00×10(-9) to 2.50×10(-8) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 4.76×10(-9) mol L(-1). The sensor exhibited characteristics similar to the Michaelis-Menten model of an enzymatic electrode, due to the use of a multinucleated complex of manganese with μ-oxo units, which was able to mimic the properties of enzymes with manganese as a cofactor in their composition, such as Mn-containing oxidase. The determination of ACTZ with the bio-inspired sensor was evaluated using three different synthetic biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine), demonstrating its viability for use with real samples. The analysis of ACTZ in real urine samples using the bio-inspired sensor, simulating the method adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which revealed viable, suggesting a new and promising platform to be used in these analysis.

  15. Control of Flow Structure on Non-Slender Delta Wing: Bio-inspired Edge Modifications, Passive Bleeding, and Pulsed Blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mehmet Metin; Celik, Alper; Cetin, Cenk

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, different flow control approaches including bio-inspired edge modifications, passive bleeding, and pulsed blowing are introduced and applied for the flow over non-slender delta wing. Experiments are conducted in a low speed wind tunnel for a 45 degree swept delta wing using qualitative and quantitative measurement techniques including laser illuminated smoke visualization, particle image velocimety (PIV), and surface pressure measurements. For the bio-inspired edge modifications, the edges of the wing are modified to dolphin fluke geometry. In addition, the concept of flexion ratio, a ratio depending on the flexible length of animal propulsors such as wings, is introduced. For passive bleeding, directing the free stream air from the pressure side of the planform to the suction side of the wing is applied. For pulsed blowing, periodic air injection through the leading edge of the wing is performed in a square waveform with 25% duty cycle at different excitation frequencies and compared with the steady and no blowing cases. The results indicate that each control approach is quite effective in terms of altering the overall flow structure on the planform. However, the success level, considering the elimination of stall or delaying the vortex breakdown, depends on the parameters in each method.

  16. Operant conditioning: a minimal components requirement in artificial spiking neurons designed for bio-inspired robot's controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, André; Boukadoum, Mounir; Thériault, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the operant conditioning (OC) learning process within a bio-inspired paradigm, using artificial spiking neural networks (ASNN) to act as robot brain controllers. In biological agents, OC results in behavioral changes learned from the consequences of previous actions, based on progressive prediction adjustment from rewarding or punishing signals. In a neurorobotics context, virtual and physical autonomous robots may benefit from a similar learning skill when facing unknown and unsupervised environments. In this work, we demonstrate that a simple invariant micro-circuit can sustain OC in multiple learning scenarios. The motivation for this new OC implementation model stems from the relatively complex alternatives that have been described in the computational literature and recent advances in neurobiology. Our elementary kernel includes only a few crucial neurons, synaptic links and originally from the integration of habituation and spike-timing dependent plasticity as learning rules. Using several tasks of incremental complexity, our results show that a minimal neural component set is sufficient to realize many OC procedures. Hence, with the proposed OC module, designing learning tasks with an ASNN and a bio-inspired robot context leads to simpler neural architectures for achieving complex behaviors.

  17. Bio-inspired, subwavelength surface structures to control reflectivity, transmission, and scattering in the infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora Gonzalez, Federico

    Controlling the reflection of visible and infrared (IR) light at interfaces is extremely important to increase the power efficiency and performance of optics, electro-optical and (thermo)photovoltaic systems. The eye of the moth has evolved subwavelength protuberances that increase light transmission into the eye tissue and prevent reflection. The subwavelength protuberances effectively grade the refractive index from that of air (n=1) to that of the tissue (n=1.4), making the interface gradual, suppressing reflection. In theory, the moth-eye (ME) structures can be implemented with any material platform to achieve an antireflectance effect by scaling the pitch and size of protuberances for the wavelength range of interest. In this work, a bio-inspired, scalable and substrate-independent surface modification protocol was developed to realize broadband antireflective structures based on the moth-eye principle. Quasi-ordered ME arrays were fabricated in IR relevant materials using a colloidal lithography method to achieve highly efficient, omni-directional transmission of mid and far infrared (IR) radiation. The effect of structure height and aspect ratio on transmittance and scattering is explored, with discussion on experimental techniques and effective medium theory (EMT). The highest aspect ratio structures (AR = 9.4) achieved peak single-side transmittance of 98%, with >85% transmission for lambda = 7--30 microns. A detailed photon balance constructed by transmission, forward scattering, specular reflection and diffuse reflection measurements to quantify optical losses due to near-field effects will be discussed. In addition, angle-dependent transmission measurements showed that moth-eye structures provide superior antireflective properties compared to unstructured interfaces over a wide angular range (0--60° incidence). Finally, subwavelength ME structures are incorporated on a Si substrate to enhance the absorption of near infrared (NIR) light in PtSi films to

  18. Obstacle traversal and self-righting of bio-inspired robots reveal the physics of multi-modal locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    Most animals move in nature in a variety of locomotor modes. For example, to traverse obstacles like dense vegetation, cockroaches can climb over, push across, reorient their bodies to maneuver through slits, or even transition among these modes forming diverse locomotor pathways; if flipped over, they can also self-right using wings or legs to generate body pitch or roll. By contrast, most locomotion studies have focused on a single mode such as running, walking, or jumping, and robots are still far from capable of life-like, robust, multi-modal locomotion in the real world. Here, we present two recent studies using bio-inspired robots, together with new locomotion energy landscapes derived from locomotor-environment interaction physics, to begin to understand the physics of multi-modal locomotion. (1) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired legged robot traversing grass-like beam obstacles reveals that, with a terradynamically ``streamlined'' rounded body like that of the insect, robot traversal becomes more probable by accessing locomotor pathways that overcome lower potential energy barriers. (2) Our experiment of a cockroach-inspired self-righting robot further suggests that body vibrations are crucial for exploring locomotion energy landscapes and reaching lower barrier pathways. Finally, we posit that our new framework of locomotion energy landscapes holds promise to better understand and predict multi-modal biological and robotic movement.

  19. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eHernandez Bennetts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators or algorithms that control the behaviour of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odour plume. In particular the task of tracking an odour plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behaviour of moths, dungbeetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro drone in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is at the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behaviour of animals, can be usefully translated into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically-inspired algorithms.

  20. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms.

  1. Bio-inspired computational design of iron catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinzheng

    2015-08-25

    Inspired by the active site structure of monoiron hydrogenase, a series of iron complexes are built using experimentally ready-made acylmethylpyridinol and aliphatic PNP pincer ligands. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the newly designed iron complexes are very promising to catalyze the formation of formic acid from H2 and CO2.

  2. Recent developments in bio-inspired sensors fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijs J.M.; Sanders, Remco G.P.

    2017-01-01

    In our work on micro-fabricated hair-sensors, inspired by the flow-sensitive sensors found on crickets, we have made great progress. Initially delivering mediocre performance compared to their natural counter parts they have evolved into capable sensors with thresholds roughly a factor of 30 larger

  3. Parametric amplification and stochastic resonance in bio-inspired hair flow sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, H.; Krijnen, G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by crickets and its perception for flow phenomena, artificial hair flow sensors have been developed successfully in our group. The realization of array structures and improvement of fabrication methodologies have led to better performance, making it possible to detect and measure flow veloc

  4. Closer to nature – bio-inspired patterns by transforming latent lithographic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giselbrecht, Stefan; Reinhardt, Martina; Mappes, Timo; Börner, Martin; Gottwald, Eric; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Saile, Volker; Truckenmüller, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by nature, a new strategy to create three-dimensional organic structures spanning orders of magnitude by using a combination of deep UV or X-ray direct lithography with a solid-state forming process. The stored latent lithographic image is transferred to three-dimensional curvilinear surfac

  5. Implementation of a cellular neural network-based segmentation algorithm on the bio-inspired vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabiber, Fethullah; Grassi, Giuseppe; Vecchio, Pietro; Arik, Sabri; Yalcin, M. Erhan

    2011-01-01

    Based on the cellular neural network (CNN) paradigm, the bio-inspired (bi-i) cellular vision system is a computing platform consisting of state-of-the-art sensing, cellular sensing-processing and digital signal processing. This paper presents the implementation of a novel CNN-based segmentation algorithm onto the bi-i system. The experimental results, carried out for different benchmark video sequences, highlight the feasibility of the approach, which provides a frame rate of about 26 frame/sec. Comparisons with existing CNN-based methods show that, even though these methods are from two to six times faster than the proposed one, the conceived approach is more accurate and, consequently, represents a satisfying trade-off between real-time requirements and accuracy.

  6. A new bio-inspired stimulator to suppress hyper-synchronized neural firing in a cortical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Masoud; Amiri, Mahmood; Nazari, Soheila; Faez, Karim

    2016-12-07

    Hyper-synchronous neural oscillations are the character of several neurological diseases such as epilepsy. On the other hand, glial cells and particularly astrocytes can influence neural synchronization. Therefore, based on the recent researches, a new bio-inspired stimulator is proposed which basically is a dynamical model of the astrocyte biophysical model. The performance of the new stimulator is investigated on a large-scale, cortical network. Both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are also considered in the simulated spiking neural network. The simulation results show that the new stimulator has a good performance and is able to reduce recurrent abnormal excitability which in turn avoids the hyper-synchronous neural firing in the spiking neural network. In this way, the proposed stimulator has a demand controlled characteristic and is a good candidate for deep brain stimulation (DBS) technique to successfully suppress the neural hyper-synchronization.

  7. Supramolecular self-assembly of biopolymers with carbon nanotubes for biomimetic and bio-inspired sensing and actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luhua; Chen, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Biopolymers are important natural multifunctional macromolecules for biomimetic and bio-inspired advanced functional material design. They are not only simple dispersants for carbon nanotube stabilization as they have been found to have specific interactions with carbon nanotubes. Their molecular activity, orientation and crystallization are influenced by the CNTs, which endow their composites with a variety of novel sensing and actuation performances. This review focuses on the progress in supramolecular self-assembly of biopolymers with carbon nanotubes, and their advances in sensing and actuation. To promote the development of advanced biopolymer/CNT functional materials, new electromechanical characteristics of biopolymer/CNT composites are discussed in detail based on the relationship between the microscopic biopolymer structures and the macroscopic composite properties.

  8. Architecture for persistent surveillance using mast and UAS-based autonomous sensing with bio-inspired technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    A sophisticated real time architecture for capturing relevant battlefield information of personnel and terrestrial events from a network of mast based imaging and unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with target detection, tracking, classification and visualization is presented. Persistent surveillance of personnel and vehicles is achieved using a unique spatial and temporally invariant motion detection and tracking algorithm for mast based cameras in combination with aerial remote sensing to autonomously monitor unattended ground based sensor networks. UAS autonomous routing is achieved using bio-inspired algorithms that mimic how bacteria locate nutrients in their environment. Results include field test data, performance and lessons learned. The technology also has application to detecting and tracking low observables (manned and UAS), counter MANPADS, airport bird detection and search and rescue operations.

  9. Extensive Investigations on Bio-Inspired Trust and Reputation Model over Hops Coefficient Factor in Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Verma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Resource utilization requires a substantial consideration for a trust and reputation model to be deployed within a wireless sensor network (WSN. In the evaluation, our attention is focused on the effect of hops coefficient factor estimation on WSN with bio-inspired trust and reputation model (BTRM. We present the state-of-the-art system level evaluation of accuracy and path length of sensor node operations for their current and average scenarios. Additionally, we emphasized over the energy consumption evaluation for static, dynamic and oscillatory modes of BTRM-WSN model. The performance of the hops coefficient factor for our proposed framework is evaluated via analytic bounds and numerical simulations.

  10. 桥梁设计过程中仿生理念的应用研究%Application research of bio-inspired concept in bridge design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翠芳

    2014-01-01

    对桥梁设计中的仿生理念,微观仿生和宏观仿生三方面的内容进行了详细的分析和探讨,论述了仿生理念在我国桥梁工程设计工作中的具体应用情况,指出在桥梁设计中应用仿生理念,解决了设计过程中存在的问题,提升了桥梁设计方案的创新性。%The paper analyzes and explores bridge design contents including bio-inspired concept,micro-bio-inspired and macro-bio-inspired method,discusses its specific application conditions in domestic bridge engineering design,and points out that:the bio-inspired concept applica-tion in bridge design both solves the design problems and improves creativity of bridge design scheme.

  11. A two-dimensional iterative panel method and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Christopher J.; Dhruv, Akash; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2014-03-01

    The increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has created a continuous demand for improved flight capabilities and range of use. During the last decade, engineers have turned to bio-inspiration for new and innovative flow control methods for gust alleviation, maneuverability, and stability improvement using morphing aircraft wings. The bio-inspired wing design considered in this study mimics the flow manipulation techniques performed by birds to extend the operating envelope of UAVs through the installation of an array of feather-like panels across the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces while replacing the trailing edge flap. Each flap has the ability to deflect into both the airfoil and the inbound airflow using hinge points with a single degree-of-freedom, situated at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the chord. The installation of the surface flaps offers configurations that enable advantageous maneuvers while alleviating gust disturbances. Due to the number of possible permutations available for the flap configurations, an iterative constant-strength doublet/source panel method has been developed with an integrated boundary layer model to calculate the pressure distribution and viscous drag over the wing's surface. As a result, the lift, drag and moment coefficients for each airfoil configuration can be calculated. The flight coefficients of this numerical method are validated using experimental data from a low speed suction wind tunnel operating at a Reynolds Number 300,000. This method enables the aerodynamic assessment of a morphing wing profile to be performed accurately and efficiently in comparison to Computational Fluid Dynamics methods and experiments as discussed herein.

  12. Bio-inspired Artificial Intelligence: А Generalized Net Model of the Regularization Process in MLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanimir Surchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many objects and processes inspired by the nature have been recreated by the scientists. The inspiration to create a Multilayer Neural Network came from human brain as member of the group. It possesses complicated structure and it is difficult to recreate, because of the existence of too many processes that require different solving methods. The aim of the following paper is to describe one of the methods that improve learning process of Artificial Neural Network. The proposed generalized net method presents Regularization process in Multilayer Neural Network. The purpose of verification is to protect the neural network from overfitting. The regularization is commonly used in neural network training process. Many methods of verification are present, the subject of interest is the one known as Regularization. It contains function in order to set weights and biases with smaller values to protect from overfitting.

  13. Achieving Small World Properties using Bio-Inspired Techniques in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Rachit; Gauthier, Vincent; Becker, Monique; Yeo, Chai Kiat; Lee, Bu Sung

    2011-01-01

    Self-Organization properties of the nodes play an important role in an autonomous wireless sensor environment in achieving network wide characteristics. Self-Organization can be used to achieve small world characteristics in a network. In real networks, however, where there is non-uniform distribution of nodes and overall connectivity of the network is less, achieving small world properties while increasing connectivity must be studied. We believe that network connectivity can be increased and small world properties can be achieved with the help of beamforming, biologically inspired algorithms and using local information. Most of the researches performed in direction of achieving above mentioned goals in wireless networks assume knowledge of network with either heterogeneous or hybrid uniform deployment. We propose that without the knowledge of the global environment or introduction of any special features in the network, we can achieve our goal with the help of inspirations from the nature in a non-uniform n...

  14. Investigation of bio-inspired flow channel designs for bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloess, Jason P.; Wang, Xia; Liu, Joan; Shi, Zhongying; Guessous, Laila

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance is directly related to the flow channel design on bipolar plates. Power gains can be found by varying the type, size, or arrangement of channels. The objective of this paper is to present two new flow channel patterns: a leaf design and a lung design. These bio-inspired designs combine the advantages of the existing serpentine and interdigitated patterns with inspiration from patterns found in nature. Both numerical simulation and experimental testing have been conducted to investigate the effects of two new flow channel patterns on fuel cell performance. From the numerical simulation, it was found that there is a lower pressure drop from the inlet to outlet in the leaf or lung design than the existing serpentine or interdigitated flow patterns. The flow diffusion to the gas diffusion layer was found be to more uniform for the new flow channel patterns. A 25 cm 2 fuel cell was assembled and tested for four different flow channels: leaf, lung, serpentine and interdigitated. The polarization curve has been obtained under different operating conditions. It was found that the fuel cell with either leaf or lung design performs better than the convectional flow channel design under the same operating conditions. Both the leaf and lung design show improvements over previous designs by up to 30% in peak power density.

  15. Investigation of bio-inspired flow channel designs for bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloess, Jason P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wang, Xia; Shi, Zhongying; Guessous, Laila [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Liu, Joan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Olin College of Engineering, MA (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell performance is directly related to the flow channel design on bipolar plates. Power gains can be found by varying the type, size, or arrangement of channels. The objective of this paper is to present two new flow channel patterns: a leaf design and a lung design. These bio-inspired designs combine the advantages of the existing serpentine and interdigitated patterns with inspiration from patterns found in nature. Both numerical simulation and experimental testing have been conducted to investigate the effects of two new flow channel patterns on fuel cell performance. From the numerical simulation, it was found that there is a lower pressure drop from the inlet to outlet in the leaf or lung design than the existing serpentine or interdigitated flow patterns. The flow diffusion to the gas diffusion layer was found be to more uniform for the new flow channel patterns. A 25 cm{sup 2} fuel cell was assembled and tested for four different flow channels: leaf, lung, serpentine and interdigitated. The polarization curve has been obtained under different operating conditions. It was found that the fuel cell with either leaf or lung design performs better than the convectional flow channel design under the same operating conditions. Both the leaf and lung design show improvements over previous designs by up to 30% in peak power density. (author)

  16. Bio-inspired micro-nano structured surface with structural color and anisotropic wettability on Cu substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Shuyi; Niu, Shichao; Cao, Xiaowen; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by the unique creatures in the nature, the femtosecond laser technology has been usually used to fabricate the periodic microstructures due to its advantages of rapidness, simplicity, ease of large-area fabrication, and simultaneously offering dual micro/nano-scale structures simply via one-step process for a wide variety of materials. By changing the experimental conditions, multi-functional surfaces which possess superhydrophobicity and structural colors could be achieved on copper substrate. In addition, the apparent contact angle can reach 144.3° without any further modification, which also exhibits the anisotropic wettability. Moreover, it can be inferred that higher laser fluence can lead to a larger CA within a certain range. At the same time, due to the change of laser processing parameters, the obtained surfaces present different structural colors. This study may expand the applications of bio-inspired functional materials because multiple colors and hydrophobicity are both important features in the real life and industrial applications, such as display, decoration, and anti-counterfeiting technology etc.

  17. Fluorimetric Mercury Test Strips with Suppressed “Coffee Stains” by a Bio-inspired Fabrication Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Yuchun; Shang, Jizhen; Li, Shuying; Feng, Luping; Jiang, Yao; Duan, Zhiqiang; Lv, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Chunxian; Yao, Tiantian; Dong, Zhichao; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Hua

    2016-11-01

    A fluorimetric Hg2+ test strip has been developed using a lotus-inspired fabrication method for suppressing the “coffee stains” toward the uniform distribution of probe materials through creating a hydrophobic drying pattern for fast solvent evaporation. The test strips were first loaded with the model probes of fluorescent gold-silver nanoclusters and then dried in vacuum on the hydrophobic pattern. On the one hand, here, the hydrophobic constraining forces from the lotus surface-like pattern could control the exterior transport of dispersed nanoclusters on strips leading to the minimized “coffee stains”. On the other hand, the vacuum-aided fast solvent evaporation could boost the interior Marangoni flow of probe materials on strips to expect the further improved probe distribution on strips. High aqueous stability and enhanced fluorescence of probes on test strips were realized by the hydrophilic treatment with amine-derivatized silicane. A test strips-based fluorimetry has thereby been developed for probing Hg2+ ions in wastewater, showing the detection performances comparable to the classic instrumental analysis ones. Such a facile and efficient fabrication route for the bio-inspired suppression of “coffee stains” on test strips may expand the scope of applications of test strips-based “point-of-care” analysis methods or detection devices in the biomedical and environmental fields.

  18. A Local Pursuit Strategy for Bio-Inspired Optimal Control with Partially-Constrained Final State

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Roumeliotis and G.A. Bekey. Distributed multi- robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 18(5):781–795, 2002. [14] C. Shao and D...robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 15(5):918– 933, 1999. [17] H. Yamaguchi and J.W. Burdick. Asymptotic

  19. Local Pursuit as a Bio-Inspired Computational Optimal Control Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    15] S.I. Roumeliotis and G.A. Bekey. Distributed multi- robot localization. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 18(5):781–795, 2002. [16...Wagner, M. Lindenbaum, and A.M. Bruckstein. Distributed covering by ant-robots using evaporating traces. IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 15(5):918– 933, 1999. 10

  20. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a ``mechanical hand'' to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  1. Carbon-Nanotube-Supported Bio-Inspired Nickel Catalyst and Its Integration in Hybrid Hydrogen/Air Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentil, Solène [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Lalaoui, Noémie [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Dutta, Arnab [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Current address: Chemistry Department, IIT Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382355 India; Nedellec, Yannig [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Cosnier, Serge [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France; Shaw, Wendy J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99532 USA; Artero, Vincent [Laboratoire de Chimie et Biologie des Métaux, Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS UMR5249, CEA, 38000 Grenoble France; Le Goff, Alan [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, DCM UMR 5250, 38000 Grenoble France

    2017-01-12

    A biomimetic nickel bis-diphosphine complex incorporating the amino-acid arginine in the outer coordination sphere, was immobilized on modified single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through electrostatic interactions. The sur-face-confined catalyst is characterized by a reversible 2-electron/2-proton redox process at potentials close to the equibrium potential of the H+/H2 couple. Consequently, the functionalized redox nanomaterial exhibits reversible electrocatalytic activity for the H2/2H+ interconversion over a broad range of pH. This system exhibits catalytic bias, analogous to hydrogenases, resulting in high turnover frequencies at low overpotentials for electrocatalytic H2 oxida-tion between pH 0 and 7. This allowed integrating such bio-inspired nanomaterial together with a multicopper oxi-dase at the cathode side in a hybrid bioinspired/enzymatic hydrogen fuel cell. This device delivers ~2 mW cm–2 with an open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V at room temperature and pH 5, which sets a new efficiency record for a bio-related hydrogen fuel cell with base metal catalysts.

  2. A Bio-Inspired, Heavy-Metal-Free, Dual-Electrolyte Liquid Battery towards Sustainable Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2016-04-04

    Wide-scale exploitation of renewable energy requires low-cost efficient energy storage devices. The use of metal-free, inexpensive redox-active organic materials represents a promising direction for environmental-friendly, cost-effective sustainable energy storage. To this end, a liquid battery is designed using hydroquinone (H2BQ) aqueous solution as catholyte and graphite in aprotic electrolyte as anode. The working potential can reach 3.4 V, with specific capacity of 395 mA h g(-1) and stable capacity retention about 99.7% per cycle. Such high potential and capacity is achieved using only C, H and O atoms as building blocks for redox species, and the replacement of Li metal with graphite anode can circumvent potential safety issues. As H2BQ can be extracted from biomass directly and its redox reaction mimics the bio-electrochemical process of quinones in nature, using such a bio-inspired organic compound in batteries enables access to greener and more sustainable energy-storage technology.

  3. Improved Bio-inspired Artificial Gecko Adhesive by Using Hierarchical Fibrillar Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    Geckos are well known for being rapid climbers that have long existed in nature. The reversible and reusable adhesive on their feet intrigues scientists to explore a bio-mimetic adhesive, which inherits the adhesion properties of the gecko’s adhesives. Recent advances in electron microscopy reveal the secret of gecko’s climbing ability: there are hierarchical fibrillar structures branching from the skin of their climbing feet. Sizes of these hierarchical fibrils range from micrometer to nanom...

  4. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-inspired Robotic Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ziyu Ren; Kainan Hu; Tianmiao Wang; Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphol...

  5. Linear and nonlinear optical waveguiding in bio-inspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Apter, Boris; Turko, Nir; Rosenman, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Unique linear and nonlinear optical properties of bioinspired peptide nanostructures such as wideband transparency and high second-order nonlinear optical response, combined with elongated tubular shape of variable size and rapid self-assembly fabrication process, make them promising for diverse bio-nano-photonic applications. This new generation of nanomaterials of biological origin possess physical properties similar to those of biological structures. Here, we focus on new specific functionality of ultrashort peptide nanotubes to guide light at fundamental and second-harmonic generation (SHG) frequency in horizontal and vertical peptide nanotubes configurations. Conducted simulations and experimental data show that these self-assembled linear and nonlinear optical bio-waveguides provide strong optical power confinement factor, demonstrate pronounced directionality of SHG and high conversion efficiency of SHG ∼10(-5). Our study gives new insight on physics of light propagation in nanostructures of biological origin and opens the avenue towards new and unexpected applications of these waveguiding effects in bio-nanomaterials both for biomedical nonlinear microscopy imaging recognition and development of novel integrated nanophotonic devices.

  6. VLSI Implementation of a Bio-inspired Olfactory Spiking Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hung-Yi; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2011-11-01

    This paper proposes a VLSI circuit implementing a low power, high-resolution spiking neural network (SNN) with STDP synapses, inspired by mammalian olfactory systems. By representing mitral cell action potential by a step function, the power consumption and the chip area can be reduced. By cooperating sub-threshold oscillation and inhibition, the network outputs can be distinct. This circuit was fabricated using the TSMC 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process. Post-layout simulation results are reported.

  7. Design of a bio-inspired controller for dynamic soaring in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barate, Renaud; Doncieux, Stéphane; Meyer, Jean-Arcady

    2006-09-01

    This paper is inspired by the way birds such as albatrosses are able to exploit wind gradients at the surface of the ocean for staying aloft for very long periods while minimizing their energy expenditure. The corresponding behaviour has been partially reproduced here via a set of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy rules controlling a simulated glider. First, the rules were hand-designed. Then, they were optimized with an evolutionary algorithm that improved their efficiency at coping with challenging conditions. Finally, the robustness properties of the controller generated were assessed with a view to its applicability to a real platform.

  8. A bio-inspired memory device based on interfacing Physarum polycephalum with an organic semiconductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Romeo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of devices able to detect and record ion fluxes is a crucial point in order to understand the mechanisms that regulate communication and life of organisms. Here, we take advantage of the combined electronic and ionic conduction properties of a conducting polymer to develop a hybrid organic/living device with a three-terminal configuration, using the Physarum polycephalum Cell (PPC slime mould as a living bio-electrolyte. An over-oxidation process induces a conductivity switch in the polymer, due to the ionic flux taking place at the PPC/polymer interface. This behaviour endows a current-depending memory effect to the device.

  9. A bio-inspired memory device based on interfacing Physarum polycephalum with an organic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeo, Agostino; Dimonte, Alice; Tarabella, Giuseppe; D’Angelo, Pasquale, E-mail: dangelo@imem.cnr.it, E-mail: iannotta@imem.cnr.it; Erokhin, Victor; Iannotta, Salvatore, E-mail: dangelo@imem.cnr.it, E-mail: iannotta@imem.cnr.it [IMEM-CNR, Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism-National Research Council, Parma 43124 (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The development of devices able to detect and record ion fluxes is a crucial point in order to understand the mechanisms that regulate communication and life of organisms. Here, we take advantage of the combined electronic and ionic conduction properties of a conducting polymer to develop a hybrid organic/living device with a three-terminal configuration, using the Physarum polycephalum Cell (PPC) slime mould as a living bio-electrolyte. An over-oxidation process induces a conductivity switch in the polymer, due to the ionic flux taking place at the PPC/polymer interface. This behaviour endows a current-depending memory effect to the device.

  10. Bio-Inspired Polarized Skylight-Based Navigation Sensors: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zaleha M. Diah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal senses cover a broad range of signal types and signal bandwidths and have inspired various sensors and bioinstrumentation devices for biological and medical applications. Insects, such as desert ants and honeybees, for example, utilize polarized skylight pattern-based information in their navigation activities. They reliably return to their nests and hives from places many kilometers away. The insect navigation system involves the dorsal rim area in their compound eyes and the corresponding polarization sensitive neurons in the brain. The dorsal rim area is equipped with photoreceptors, which have orthogonally arranged small hair-like structures termed microvilli. These are the specialized sensors for the detection of polarized skylight patterns (e-vector orientation. Various research groups have been working on the development of novel navigation systems inspired by polarized skylight-based navigation in animals. Their major contributions are critically reviewed. One focus of current research activities is on imitating the integration path mechanism in desert ants. The potential for simple, high performance miniaturized bioinstrumentation that can assist people in navigation will be explored.

  11. Enhanced Mechanical Performance of Bio-Inspired Hybrid Structures Utilising Topological Interlocking Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djumas, Lee; Molotnikov, Andrey; Simon, George P.; Estrin, Yuri

    2016-05-01

    Structural composites inspired by nacre have emerged as prime exemplars for guiding materials design of fracture-resistant, rigid hybrid materials. The intricate microstructure of nacre, which combines a hard majority phase with a small fraction of a soft phase, achieves superior mechanical properties compared to its constituents and has generated much interest. However, replicating the hierarchical microstructure of nacre is very challenging, not to mention improving it. In this article, we propose to alter the geometry of the hard building blocks by introducing the concept of topological interlocking. This design principle has previously been shown to provide an inherently brittle material with a remarkable flexural compliance. We now demonstrate that by combining the basic architecture of nacre with topological interlocking of discrete hard building blocks, hybrid materials of a new type can be produced. By adding a soft phase at the interfaces between topologically interlocked blocks in a single-build additive manufacturing process, further improvement of mechanical properties is achieved. The design of these fabricated hybrid structures has been guided by computational work elucidating the effect of various geometries. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study that combines the advantages of nacre-inspired structures with the benefits of topological interlocking.

  12. Design and Analysis of a Bio-Inspired Wire-Driven Multi-Section Flexible Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a bio‐inspired wire‐driven multi‐section flexible robot. It is inspired by the snake skeleton and octopus arm muscle arrangements. The robot consists of three sections and each section is made up of several identical vertebras, which are articulated by both spherical joints and a flexible backbone. Each section is driven by two groups of wires, controlling the bending motion in X and Y directions. This design integrates the serpentine robots’ structure and the continuum robots’ actuation. As a result, it is more compact than traditional serpentine robots and has a higher positioning accuracy than typical continuum soft robots, such as OctArm V. A Kinematics model and a workspace model of the robot are developed based on the piece wise constant curvature assumption. To evaluate the design, a prototype is built and experiments are carried out. The average distal end positioning error is less than 4%. Characteristics of the wire‐driven robot are also discussed, including the leverage effect and the manipulability under constraint. These features makes the proposed robot well suited to confined spaces, especially for working in minimally invasive surgery, nuclear reactor pipelines, disaster debris, etc.

  13. Advances in sensor adaptation to changes in ambient light: a bio-inspired solution - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Stephen F

    2010-01-01

    Fly-inspired sensors have been shown to have many interesting qualities such as hyperacuity (or an ability to achieve movement resolution beyond the theoretical limit), extreme sensitivity to motion, and (through software simulation) image edge extraction, motion detection, and orientation and location of a line. Many of these qualities are beyond the ability of traditional computer vision sensors such as charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays. To obtain these characteristics, a prototype fly-inspired sensor has been built and tested in a laboratory environment and shows promise. Any sophisticated visual system, whether man made or natural, must adequately adapt to lighting conditions; therefore, light adaptation is a vital milestone in getting the fly eye vision sensor prototype working in real-world conditions. A design based on the common house fly, Musca domestica, was suggested in a paper presented to RMBS 2009 and showed an ability to remove 72-86% of effects due to ambient light changes. In this paper, a more advanced version of this design is discussed. This new design is able to remove 97-99% of the effects due to changes in ambient light, by more accurately approximating the light adaptation process used by the common house fly.

  14. Biologically inspired growth of hydroxyapatite crystals on bio-organics-defined scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunrong, E-mail: milkhoney3@163.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Fujian University of Technology, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Li, Yuli; Nan, Kaihui [Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325027 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Petal-like crystals were observed to form on the surface of the BG/COL/ChS scaffolds. Highlights: ► Porous scaffolds were prepared using bioglass, collagen and chondroitin sulfate. ► Highly oriented HA crystals were grown on scaffolds using simulated body fluids ► The microstructure and orientation of HA were explained by molecular configuration. - Abstract: Several bio-organics-defined composite scaffolds were prepared using 58s-bioglass (BG), collagen (Col) and chondroitin sulfate (ChS). These scaffolds possess highly porous structure. X-ray diffraction of these scaffolds strongly indicated that hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals formed on their surfaces in simulated body fluids within 3 d, and similar formation process of crystals could be obtained on BG/Col and BG/Col/ChS scaffolds. The morphology and structure of the crystals were further examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained indicate that an apatite with petal-like structure similar to that found on BG/Col scaffolds can be produced on BG/Col/ChS scaffolds through biomimetic synthesis, while that on BG/ChS scaffolds took place differently. The differences could be explained by self-assembly processes and the different macromolecular configurations of the Col and ChS fibrils which self-assemble spontaneously into their fibers. On the other hand, the bio-organics-defined composites have good cell biocompability. The results may be applicable to develop tailored biomaterials for peculiar bone substitute.

  15. Anti-fouling properties of microstructured surfaces bio-inspired by rice leaves and butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D; Theiss, Andrew; Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Stephen C

    2014-04-01

    Material scientists often look to biology for new engineering solutions to materials science problems. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (antifouling) and lotus leaf (self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study antifouling properties of four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography and hot embossing techniques. Anti-biofouling effectiveness is determined with bioassays using Escherichia coli whilst inorganic fouling with simulated dirt particles. Antifouling data are presented to understand the role of surface geometrical features resistance to fouling. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel antifouling surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields.

  16. Bio-Inspired Structural Colors Produced via Self-Assembly of Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ming; Li, Yiwen; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Yue, Xiujun; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Shawkey, Matthew D; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-05-26

    Structural colors arising from interactions of light with submicron scale periodic structures have been found in many species across all taxa, serving multiple biological functions including sexual signaling, camouflage, and aposematism. Directly inspired by the extensive use of self-assembled melanosomes to produce colors in avian feathers, we set out to synthesize and assemble polydopamine-based synthetic melanin nanoparticles in an effort to fabricate colored films. We have quantitatively demonstrated that synthetic melanin nanoparticles have a high refractive index and broad absorption spanning across the UV-visible range, similar to natural melanins. Utilizing a thin-film interference model, we demonstrated the coloration mechanism of deposited films and showed that the unique optical properties of synthetic melanin nanoparticles provide advantages for structural colors over other polymeric nanoparticles (i.e., polystyrene colloidal particles).

  17. Bio-Inspired Composite Interfaces: Controlling Hydrogel Mechanics via Polymer-Nanoparticle Coordination Bond Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2015-03-01

    In soft nanocomposite materials, the effective interaction between polymer molecules and inorganic nanoparticle surfaces plays a critical role in bulk mechanical properties. However, controlling these interfacial interactions remains a challenge. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry in mussel threads, we present a novel approach to control composite mechanics via polymer-particle interfacial dynamics; by incorporating iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) into a catechol-modified polymer network the resulting hydrogels are crosslinked via reversible coordination bonds at Fe3O4 NP surfaces thereby providing a dynamic gel network with robust self-healing properties. By studying the thermally activated composite network relaxation processes we have found that the polymer-NP binding energy can be controlled by engineering both the organic and inorganic side of the interface.

  18. Bio-inspired photonic-crystal microchip for fluorescent ultratrace detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Zhang, Huacheng; Yang, Qiang; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

    2014-06-02

    Ultratrace detection attracts great interest because it is still a challenge to the early diagnosis and drug testing. Enriching the targets from highly diluted solutions to the sensitive area is a promising method. Inspired by the fog-collecting structure on Stenocara beetle's back, a photonic-crystal (PC) microchip with hydrophilic-hydrophobic micropattern was fabricated by inkjet printing. This device was used to realize high-sensitive ultratrace detection of fluorescence analytes and fluorophore-based assays. Coupled with the fluorescence enhancement effect of a PC, detection down to 10(-16) mol L(-1) was achieved. This design can be combined with biophotonic devices for the detection of drugs, diseases, and pollutions of the ecosystem.

  19. PhysarumSpreader: A New Bio-Inspired Methodology for Identifying Influential Spreaders in Complex Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Wang

    Full Text Available Identifying influential spreaders in networks, which contributes to optimizing the use of available resources and efficient spreading of information, is of great theoretical significance and practical value. A random-walk-based algorithm LeaderRank has been shown as an effective and efficient method in recognizing leaders in social network, which even outperforms the well-known PageRank method. As LeaderRank is initially developed for binary directed networks, further extensions should be studied in weighted networks. In this paper, a generalized algorithm PhysarumSpreader is proposed by combining LeaderRank with a positive feedback mechanism inspired from an amoeboid organism called Physarum Polycephalum. By taking edge weights into consideration and adding the positive feedback mechanism, PhysarumSpreader is applicable in both directed and undirected networks with weights. By taking two real networks for examples, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing with other standard centrality measures.

  20. A review of compliant transmission mechanisms for bio-inspired flapping-wing micro air vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Rossi, C

    2017-02-15

    Flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FWMAVs) are a class of unmanned aircraft that imitate flight characteristics of natural organisms such as birds, bats, and insects, in order to achieve maximum flight efficiency and manoeuvrability. Designing proper mechanisms for flapping transmission is an extremely important aspect for FWMAVs. Compliant transmission mechanisms have been considered as an alternative to rigid transmission systems due to their lower the number of parts, thereby reducing the total weight, lower energy loss thanks to little or practically no friction among parts, and at the same time, being able to store and release mechanical power during the flapping cycle. In this paper, the state-of-the-art research in this field is dealt upon, highlighting open challenges and research topics. An optimization method for designing compliant transmission mechanisms inspired by the thoraxes of insects is also introduced.

  1. A Theoretical Characterization of Curvature Controlled Adhesive Properties of Bio-Inspired Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afferante, Luciano; Heepe, Lars; Casdorff, Kirstin;

    2016-01-01

    Some biological systems, such as the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, and the bush-cricket, Tettigonia viridissima, have developed the ability to control adhesion by changing the curvature of their pads. Active control systems of adhesion inspired by these biological models can be very attractive...... for the development of devices with controllable adhesive properties. In this paper, we present a theory describing the adhesive behavior of an artificial system consisting of an inflatable membrane clamped to a metallic cylinder and filled with air. In such a system, by controlling the internal pressure acting...... on the membrane, it is possible to modulate the adhesive strength. In particular, an increase of the internal pressure and, hence, the curvature of the membrane, results in a decrease of the pull-off force. Results predicted by the theoretical model are in good agreement with experimental data. The model explains...

  2. Performance assessment of bio-inspired systems: flow sensing MEMS hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droogendijk, H; Casas, J; Steinmann, T; Krijnen, G J M

    2014-12-19

    Despite vigorous growth in biomimetic design, the performance of man-made devices relative to their natural templates is still seldom quantified, a procedure which would however significantly increase the rigour of the biomimetic approach. We applied the ubiquitous engineering concept of a figure of merit (FoM) to MEMS flow sensors inspired by cricket filiform hairs. A well known mechanical model of a hair is refined and tailored to this task. Five criteria of varying importance in the biological and engineering fields are computed: responsivity, power transfer, power efficiency, response time and detection threshold. We selected the metrics response time and detection threshold for building the FoM to capture the performance in a single number. Crickets outperform actual MEMS on all criteria for a large range of flow frequencies. Our approach enables us to propose several improvements for MEMS hair-sensor design.

  3. A Shape Memory Alloy-Actuated Bio-inspired Mesoscale Jumping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanhtam Ho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jumping may be considered to be quite a useful means of mobile robot locomotion, but acquiring a stable landing has been a difficult problem. This paper reports on the design, analysis, simulation and experiments of a mesoscale jumping robot that is capable of stable landing. A jumping mechanism inspired by jumping insects is introduced and an actuation scheme using only one shape memory alloy (SMA spring is described. Experimental results show that a robot with a 17 gram weight and 13 cm diameter can jump forward as far as 1.2 times its body diameter and vertically as high as 1.5 times its body diameter. In addition, the robot is able to land in a stable manner and recover its initial posture after landing.

  4. Anti-icing property of bio-inspired micro-structure superhydrophobic surfaces and heat transfer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xinlin; Jin, Jingfu; Liu, Jiaan; Yan, Yuying; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2017-04-01

    Ice accumulation is a thorny problem which may inflict serious damage even disasters in many areas, such as aircraft, power line maintenance, offshore oil platform and locators of ships. Recent researches have shed light on some promising bio-inspired anti-icing strategies to solve this problem. Inspired by typical plant surfaces with super-hydrophobic character such as lotus leaves and rose petals, structured superhydrophobic surface are prepared to discuss the anti-icing property. 7075 Al alloy, an extensively used materials in aircrafts and marine vessels, is employed as the substrates. As-prepared surfaces are acquired by laser processing after being modified by stearic acid for 1 h at room temperature. The surface morphology, chemical composition and wettability are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The morphologies of structured as-prepared samples include round hump, square protuberance and mountain-range-like structure, and that the as-prepared structured surfaces shows an excellent superhydrophobic property with a WCA as high as 166 ± 2°. Furthermore, the anti-icing property of as-prepared surfaces was tested by a self-established apparatus, and the crystallization process of a cooling water on the sample was recorded. More importantly, we introduced a model to analyze heat transfer process between the droplet and the structured surfaces. This study offers an insight into understanding the heat transfer process of the superhydrophobic surface, so as to further research about its unique property against ice accumulation.

  5. A Bio-inspired Collision Avoidance Model Based on Spatial Information Derived from Motion Detectors Leads to Common Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Olivier J N; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Avoiding collisions is one of the most basic needs of any mobile agent, both biological and technical, when searching around or aiming toward a goal. We propose a model of collision avoidance inspired by behavioral experiments on insects and by properties of optic flow on a spherical eye experienced during translation, and test the interaction of this model with goal-driven behavior. Insects, such as flies and bees, actively separate the rotational and translational optic flow components via behavior, i.e. by employing a saccadic strategy of flight and gaze control. Optic flow experienced during translation, i.e. during intersaccadic phases, contains information on the depth-structure of the environment, but this information is entangled with that on self-motion. Here, we propose a simple model to extract the depth structure from translational optic flow by using local properties of a spherical eye. On this basis, a motion direction of the agent is computed that ensures collision avoidance. Flying insects are thought to measure optic flow by correlation-type elementary motion detectors. Their responses depend, in addition to velocity, on the texture and contrast of objects and, thus, do not measure the velocity of objects veridically. Therefore, we initially used geometrically determined optic flow as input to a collision avoidance algorithm to show that depth information inferred from optic flow is sufficient to account for collision avoidance under closed-loop conditions. Then, the collision avoidance algorithm was tested with bio-inspired correlation-type elementary motion detectors in its input. Even then, the algorithm led successfully to collision avoidance and, in addition, replicated the characteristics of collision avoidance behavior of insects. Finally, the collision avoidance algorithm was combined with a goal direction and tested in cluttered environments. The simulated agent then showed goal-directed behavior reminiscent of components of the navigation

  6. Comparative Study of Effect of Fin Arrangement on Propulsion Performance of Bio-inspired Underwater Vehicles with Multiple SMA Fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-hui He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A biologically inspired underwater vehicle (BIUV was built using multiple lightweight bio inspired shape memory alloy (SMA fins. An unsteady 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD method using an unstructured, grid-based, and unsteady Navier-Stokes solver with automatic adaptive re-meshing was adopted to compute unsteady flow. The hydrodynamics of multiple fins at a certain Reynolds number (Re = Uc/ν, where U is the upstream flow velocity, c is the chord length, and ν is the kinematic viscosity was studied and simulated using CFD to estimate hydrodynamic forces and characterize flow and vortex patterns created by the fins. Two common arrangements of multiple fins on the BIUV were considered: a posterior fin that is parallel to the anterior fins (case 1 and a posterior fin that is perpendicular to the anterior fins (case 2. First, the influence of the distance between two anterior undulating fins on the propulsion performance of both arrangements of multiple fins on the BIUV was investigated. The effect of the distance between the anterior undulating fins and the posterior oscillating fin was also analysed. The length of the posterior oscillating fin was varied and the fin surface area was held constant (24 mm2 to illustrate the influence of this parameter. Finally, the effect of frequency, amplitude, and wave number of anterior undulating fins on the non-dimensional drag coefficient of the posterior oscillating fin was investigated. Based on the flow structures, the reasons for the different performances of the BIUV are discussed. BIUV performances largely depend on the arrangements of multiple fins and the gap between the fins. Dimension and kinematic parameters also affect the performance of the BIUV. The results provide a physical insight into the understanding of fin interaction in fish or BIUVs that are propelled by multiple fins.

  7. Mechanics ofadhesion and contact self-cleaning of bio-inspired microfiberadhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusomwan, Uyiosa Anthony

    The remarkable attachment system of geckos has inspired the development of dry microfiber adhesives through the last two decades. Some of the notable characteristics of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives include: strong, directional, and controllable adhesion to smooth and rough surfaces in air, vacuum, and under water; ability to maintain strong adhesion during repeated use; anti-fouling and self-cleaning after contamination. Given these outstanding qualities, fibrillar adhesives promise an extensive range of use in industrial, robotic, manufacturing, medical, and consumer products. Significant advancements have been made in the design of geckoinspired microfiber adhesives with the characteristic properties listed above, with the exception of the anti-fouling and self-cleaning features. The self-cleaning mechanism of the gecko's adhesion system plays an important role to its ability to remain sticky in various environments. Similarly, enabling self-cleaning capability for synthetic microfiber adhesives will lead to robust performance in various areas of application. Presently, the practical use of fibrillar adhesives is restricted mainly to clean environments, where they are free from contaminants. The goal of this thesis is to conduct a detailed study of the mechanisms and mechanics of contact-based self-cleaning of gecko-inspired microfiber adhesives. This work focuses on contact self-cleaning mechanisms, as a more practical approach to cleaning. Previous studies on the cleaning of microfiber adhesives have mostly focused on mechanisms that involve complete removal of the contaminants from the adhesive. In this thesis, a second cleaning process is proposed whereby particles are removed from the tip of the microfibers and embedded between adjacent microfibers or in grooves patterned onto the adhesive, where they are no longer detrimental to the performance of the adhesive. In this work, a model of adhesion for microfiber adhesives that take the deformation of the

  8. Design and Implementation of a Remote Control System for a Bio-inspired Jumping Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a remote control system for a bio‐ inspired jumping robot. The system is composed of a server, a gateway, and a jumping robot. The proposed remote control system is used to monitor the posture of the jumping robot and control it in remote places. A three‐axis accelerometer is used to detect the tilts of the robot. A compass is used to sense the azimuth of the robot. The calibrations of the accelerometer and the compass are conducted. The sensor data of the robot can be sent to the server through a ZigBee wireless sensor network (WSN. An algorithm is designed to calculate the posture of the robot from the sensor data. The posture of the robot can be displayed on the human‐computer interface of the server using the virtual reality technology of OpenGL. The robots can be controlled by the operator through the interface. Two experiments have been done to verify the posture detection method and test the performance of the system.

  9. A Flexible Fin with Bio-Inspired Stiffness Profile and Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Salum(a)e; M. Kruusmaa

    2011-01-01

    Biological evidence suggests that fish use mostly anterior muscles for steady swimming while the caudal part of the body is passive and,acting as a carrier of energy,transfers the momentum to the surrounding water.Inspired by those findings we hypothesize that certain swimming patterns can be achieved without copying the distributed actuation mechanism of fish but rather using a single actuator at the anterior part to create the travelling wave.To test the hypothesis a pitching flexible fin made of silicone rubber and silicone foam was designed by copying the stiffness distribution profile and geometry of a rainbow trout.The kinematics of the fin was compared to that of a steadily swimming trout.Fin's propulsive wave length and tail-beat amplitude were determined while it was actuated by a single servo motor.Results showed that the propulsive wave length and tail-beat amplitude of a steadily swimming 50 cm rainbow trout was achieved with our biomimetic fin while stimulated using certain actuation parameters (frequency 2.31 Hz and amplitude 6.6 degrees).The study concluded that fish-like swimming can be achieved by mimicking the stiffness and geometry of a rainbow trout and disregarding the details of the actuation mechanism.

  10. Bio-inspired Self-healing Composite Hydrogel with Iron Oxide Nanoparticle as Coordination Crosslinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaochu; Barret, Devin G.; Messersmith, Phillip B.; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2014-03-01

    Polymer-nanoparticle (NP) composites have attracted renewed attention due to enhanced mechanical strength combined with various functionalities, but controlling the interfacial chemistry between NPs and polymer matrix, which is crucial for the composite's mechanical behavior, remains a major challenge. Inspired by the adhesion chemistry of mussel fibers, we investigated a novel approach to incorporate Fe3O4 NPs into hydrogel matrix. A polyethylene glycol polymer is designed with both ends conjugated by catechol groups, which have strong coordination affinity to Fe. The polymer network is crosslinked via coordination bonding at the surface of Fe3O4 NPs, yielding a stiff nanocomposite hydrogel. Due to the reversible nature of coordination bonding, the hydrogel presents self-healing behavior. Oscillatory rheology allows comparative kinetic studies of self-healing driven by catechol bonding at Fe3O4 NP interfaces and by catechol-Fe3+ coordination complexes. Furthermore, the superparamagnetic property of Fe3O4 NP is preserved after gelation, allowing for response to external stimuli. This gelation motif can serve as a versatile platform for tuning functional and mechanical properties for future polymer nanocomposite materials.

  11. Bio-Inspired Controller for a Robot Cheetah with a Neural Mechanism Controlling Leg Muscles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wang; Mantian Li; Pengfei Wang; Wei Guo; Lining Sun

    2012-01-01

    The realization of a high-speed running robot is one of the most challenging problems in developing legged robots.The excellent performance of cheetahs provides inspiration for the control and mechanical design of such robots.This paper presents a three-dimensional model of a cheetah that predicts the locomotory behaviors of a running cheetah.Applying biological knowledge of the neural mechanism,we control the muscle flexion and extension during the stance phase,and control the positions of the joints in the flight phase via a PD controller to minimize complexity.The proposed control strategy is shown to achieve similar locomotion of a real cheetah.The simulation realizes good biological properties,such as the leg retraction,ground reaction force,and spring-like leg behavior.The stable bounding results show the promise of the controller in high-speed locomotion.The model can reach 2.7 m·s- 1 as the highest speed,and can accelerate from 0 to 1.5 m·s -1 in one stride cycle.A mechanical structure based on this simulation is designed to demonstrate the control approach,and the most recently developed hindlimb controlled by the proposed controller is presented in swinging-leg experiments and jump-force experiments.

  12. Towards a bio-inspired leg design for high-speed running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, Arvind; Azadi, Mojtaba; Kim, Sangbae

    2012-12-01

    High-speed terrestrial locomotion inevitably involves high acceleration and extensive loadings on the legs. This imposes a challenging trade-off between weight and strength in leg design. This paper introduces a new design paradigm for a robotic leg inspired by musculoskeletal structures. The central hypothesis is that employing a tendon-bone co-location architecture not only provides compliance in the leg, but can also reduce bone stresses caused by bending on structures. This hypothesis is applied to a leg design, and verified by simulations and the experiments on a prototype. In addition, we also present an optimization scheme to maximize the strength to weight ratio. Using the tendon-bone co-location architecture, the stress on the bone during a stride is reduced by up to 59%. A new foam-core prototyping technique enables creating structural characteristics similar to mammalian bones in the robotic leg. This method allows us to use lighter polymeric structures that are cheaper and quicker to fabricate than conventional fabrication methods, and can eventually greatly shorten the design iteration cycle time.

  13. Controlling Hydrogel Mechanics via Bio-Inspired Polymer-Nanoparticle Bond Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiaochu; Barrett, Devin G; Messersmith, Phillip B; Holten-Andersen, Niels

    2016-01-26

    Interactions between polymer molecules and inorganic nanoparticles can play a dominant role in nanocomposite material mechanics, yet control of such interfacial interaction dynamics remains a significant challenge particularly in water. This study presents insights on how to engineer hydrogel material mechanics via nanoparticle interface-controlled cross-link dynamics. Inspired by the adhesive chemistry in mussel threads, we have incorporated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) into a catechol-modified polymer network to obtain hydrogels cross-linked via reversible metal-coordination bonds at Fe3O4 NP surfaces. Unique material mechanics result from the supra-molecular cross-link structure dynamics in the gels; in contrast to the previously reported fluid-like dynamics of transient catechol-Fe(3+) cross-links, the catechol-Fe3O4 NP structures provide solid-like yet reversible hydrogel mechanics. The structurally controlled hierarchical mechanics presented here suggest how to develop hydrogels with remote-controlled self-healing dynamics.

  14. A Bio-Inspired Approach to the Realization of Sustained Humanoid Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miomir Vukobratović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews some author’s biomechanical inspiration for the development of an approach which enables the realization of bipedal artificial motion. First, we introduce the notion of dynamic balance, which is a basic prerequisite for the realization of any task by humanoids. Then, as ground reference points, important indicators of a humanoid’s state were introduced and discussed. Particular attention was paid to ZMP, which is the most important indicator of robot dynamic balance. Issues of modelling of the complex mechanical systems (humanoids belonging to this class were also discussed. Such software should allow humanoid modelling, either without any contact with the environment (such as flying freely in space, for example, during jumping or having contact with ground or any other supporting object. It also should be enough general to cover different humanoids’ structures, postures, and allow the calculation of all relevant dynamic characteristics. Some examples are presented in this paper (e.g., the modelling of a goalkeeper catching a ball, the replication of human motion trying to re‐establish posture and dynamic balance where jeopardized by perturbation.

  15. Bio-inspired Actuating System for Swimming Using Shape Memory Alloy Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Tao; Yuan-Chang Liang; Minoru Taya

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the designs of a caudal peduncle actuator, which is able to furnish a thrust for swimming of a robotic fish. The caudal peduncle actuator is based on concepts of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) composite and hybrid mechanism that can provide a fast response and a strong thrust. The caudal peduncle actuator was inspired by Scomber Scombrus which utilises thunniform mode swimming, which is the most efficient locomotion mode evolved in the aquatic environment, where the thrust is generated by the lift-based method, allowing high cruising speeds to be maintained for a long period of time. The morphology of an average size Scomber Scombrus (length in 310 mm) was investigated, and a 1:1 scale caudal peduncle actuator prototype was modelled and fabricated. The propulsive wave characteristics of the fish at steady speeds were employed as initial design objectives. Some key design parameters are investigated, i.e. aspect ratio (AR) (AR = 3.49), Reynolds number (Re = 429 649), reduced frequency (σ = 1.03), Strouhal number (St = 0.306) and the maximum strain of the bent tail was estimated at ε = 1.11% which is in the range of superelasticity. The experimental test of the actuator was carried out in a water tank. By applying 7 V and 2.5 A, the actuator can reach the tip-to-tip rotational angle of 85° at 4 Hz.

  16. Design and Dynamics Analysis of a Bio-inspired Intermittent Hopping Robot for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Bai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A small, bio‐inspired and minimally actuated intermittent hopping robot for planetary surface exploration is proposed in this paper. The robot uses a combined‐geared six‐bar linkage/spring mechanism, which has a possible rich trajectory and metamorphic characteristics and, due to this, the robot is able to recharge, lock/release and jump by using just a micro‐ power motor as the actuator. Since the robotic system has a closed‐chain structure and employs underactuated redundant motion, the constrained multi‐body dynamics are derived with time‐varying driving parameters and ground unilateral constraint both taken into consideration. In addition, the established dynamics equations, mixed of higher order differential and algebraic expressions, are solved by the immediate integration algorithm. A prototype is implemented and experiments are carried out. The results show that the robot, using a micro‐power motor as the actuator and solar cells as the power supply, can achieve a biomimetic multi‐body hopping stance and a nonlinearly increasing driving force. Typically, the robot can jump a horizontal distance of about 1 m and a vertical height of about 0.3 m, with its trunk and foot moving stably during takeoff. In addition, the computational and experimental results are consistent as regards the hopping performance of the robot, which suggests that the proposed dynamics model and its solution have general applicability to motion prediction and the performance analysis of intermittent hopping robots.

  17. Electrochemical properties of large-sized pouch-type lithium ion batteries with bio-inspired organic cathode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jae-Seong; Yoo, Eun-Ji; Ha, Sang-Hyeon; Cheong, Dong-Ik; Cho, Sung-Baek

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility of scaling up bio-inspired organic materials as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries, large-sized pouch cells are successfully prepared via tape casting using lumichrome with an alloxazine structure and aqueous styrene butadiene rubber-carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR-CMC) binders. A battery module with a two-in-series, six-in-parallel (2S6P) configuration is also successfully fabricated and is able to power blue LEDs (850 mW). Lumichrome shows no structural changes during the fabrication processes used to produce the positive electrode. The large-sized pouch cells show two sets of cathodic and anodic peaks with average potentials of 2.58 V and 2.26 V vs. Li/Li+, respectively. The initial discharge capacities are 142 mAh g-1 and 148 mAh g-1 for ethylene carbonate-dimethyl carbonate (EC-DMC) and tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) electrolytes, respectively, similar to that of a coin cell (149 mAh g-1). The EC-DMC-injected pouch cells exhibit higher rate performance and cyclability than the TEGDME-injected ones. The TEGDME electrolyte is not suitable for lithium metal anodes because of electrolyte decomposition and subsequent cell swelling.

  18. Fabricating bio-inspired micro/nano-particles by polydopamine coating and surface interactions with blood platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Qiang, E-mail: shiqiang@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Hou, Jianwen; Gao, Jian; Li, Chunming; Jin, Jing; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua, E-mail: yinjh@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: The particles or particle aggregations activate the blood platelets and provide the physical adhesive sites for platelets adhesion. - Highlights: • Particles with varied sizes and surface properties were fabricated by facile polydopamine (PDA) coating on polystyrene microsphere. • The direct interaction between PDA particles and blood platelets was qualitatively investigated. • The knowledge on platelet–particle interactions provided the basic principle to select biocompatible micro/nano-particles in biomedical field. - Abstract: Although bio-inspired polydopamine (PDA) micro/nano-particles show great promise for biomedical applications, the knowledge on the interactions between micro/nano-particles and platelets is still lacking. Here, we fabricate PDA-coated micro/nano-particles and investigate the platelet–particle surface interactions. Our strategy takes the advantage of facile PDA coating on polystyrene (PS) microsphere to fabricate particles with varied sizes and surface properties, and the chemical reactivity of PDA layers to immobilize fibrinogen and bovine serum albumin to manipulate platelet activation and adhesion. We demonstrate that PS particles activate the platelets in the size-dependent manner, but PDA nanoparticles have slight effect on platelet activation; PS particles promote platelet adhesion while PDA particles reduce platelet adhesion on the patterned surface; Particles interact with platelets through activating the glycoprotein integrin receptor of platelets and providing physical sites for initial platelet adhesion. Our work sheds new light on the interaction between platelets and particles, which provides the basic principle to select biocompatible micro/nano-particles in biomedical field.

  19. Improvement of water-repellent and hydrodynamic drag reduction properties on bio-inspired surface and exploring sharkskin effect mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuehao; Liu, Yufei; Anderson, James; Li, Xiang; Li, Yuanyue

    2015-07-01

    Bio-inspired/biomimetic surface technologies focusing on sharkskin, lotus leaf, gecko feet, and others have attracted so lots of attentions from all over the world; meanwhile, they have also brought great advantages and profits for mankind. Sharkskin drag-reducing/low-resistance surface is the imperative consequence of nature selection and self-evolution in the long history, which can enable itself accommodate the living environments perfectly. Generally speaking, sharkskin effect can become transparent only in some certain velocity scope. How to expand its application range and enhance the drag reduction function further has developed into the urgent issue. In this article, the water-repellent and hydrodynamic drag-reducing effects are improved by adjusting sharkskin texture. The experimental results show that contact angle of more than 150° is achieved, and drag-reducing property is improved to some extent. In addition, the drag-reducing mechanism is explored and generalized from different aspects adopting the numerical simulation, which has important significance to comprehend sharkskin effect.

  20. Experimental study of surface pattern effects on the propulsive performance and wake of a bio-inspired pitching panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Justin; Kumar, Rajeev; Green, Melissa

    2016-11-01

    Force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the propulsive performance and wake structure of rigid, bio-inspired trapezoidal pitching panels. In the literature, it has been demonstrated that quantities such as thrust coefficient and propulsive efficiency are affected by changes in the surface characteristics of a pitching panel or foil. More specifically, the variation of surface pattern produces significant changes in wake structure and dynamics, especially in the distribution of vorticity in the wake. Force measurements and PIV data were collected for multiple surface patterns chosen to mimic fish surface morphology over a Strouhal number range of 0.17 to 0.56. Performance quantities are compared with the three-dimensional vortex wake structure for both the patterned and smooth panels to determine the nature and magnitude of surface pattern effects in terms of thrust produced, drag reduced, and wake vortices reshaped and reorganized. This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research under ONR Award No. N00014-14-1-0418.

  1. Mimicking the cell membrane: bio-inspired simultaneous functions with monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Liu, Huimin; Tang, Kaini; Jin, Yali; Pan, Jiefeng; der Bruggen, Bart Van; Shen, Jiangnan; Gao, Congjie

    2016-11-01

    A new bio-inspired method was applied in this study to simultaneously improve the monovalent anion selectivity and antifouling properties of anion exchange membranes (AEMs). Three-layer architecture was developed by deposition of polydopamine (PDA) and electro-deposition of N-O-sulfonic acid benzyl chitosan (NSBC). The innermost and outermost layers were PDA with different deposition time. The middle layer was prepared by NSBC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that PDA and NSBC were successfully modified on the surfaces of AEMs. The contact angle of the membranes indicated an improved hydrophilicity of the modified membranes. A series of electrodialysis experiments in which Cl‑/SO42‑ separation was studied, demonstrating the monovalent anion selectivity of the samples. The Cl‑/SO42‑ permselectivity of the modified membranes can reach up to 2.20, higher than that of the commercial membrane (only 0.78) during 90 minutes in electrodialysis (ED). The increase value of the resistance of the membranes was also measured to evaluate the antifouling properties. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) was used as the fouling material in the ED process and the membrane area resistance of modified membrane increase value of was only 0.08 Ωcm2 30 minutes later.

  2. A low-cost bio-inspired integrated carbon counter electrode for high conversion efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Meng, Fanning; Wu, Mingxing; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Tonghua; Qiu, Jieshan; Ma, Tingli

    2013-09-14

    A novel bio-inspired Pt- and FTO-free integrated pure carbon counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been designed and fabricated using a porous carbon sheet as a conducting substrate and ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) as the catalytic layer. A rigid, crustose lichen-like, integrated carbon-carbon composite architecture with a catalytic layer rooted in a porous conducting substrate was formed by a process of polymer precursor spin coating, infiltration and pyrolysis. The integrated pure carbon CE shows very low series resistance (R(s)), owing to the high conductivity of the carbon sheet (sheet resistance of 488 mΩ □(-1)) and low charge-transfer resistance (R(ct)), due to the large specific surface area of the OMC layer that is accessible to the redox couple. The values of R(s) and R(ct) are much lower than those of a platinized fluorine-doped thin oxide glass (Pt/FTO) electrode. Cells with this CE show high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies (8.11%), comparable to that of Pt/FTO based devices (8.16%).

  3. A Bio-Inspired Model-Based Approach for Context-Aware Post-WIMP Tele-Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor López-Jaquero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tele-rehabilitation is one of the main domains where Information and Communication Technologies (ICT have been proven useful to move healthcare from care centers to patients’ home. Moreover, patients, especially those carrying out a physical therapy, cannot use a traditional Window, Icon, Menu, Pointer (WIMP system, but they need to interact in a natural way, that is, there is a need to move from WIMP systems to Post-WIMP ones. Moreover, tele-rehabilitation systems should be developed following the context-aware approach, so that they are able to adapt to the patients’ context to provide them with usable and effective therapies. In this work a model-based approach is presented to assist stakeholders in the development of context-aware Post-WIMP tele-rehabilitation systems. It entails three different models: (i a task model for designing the rehabilitation tasks; (ii a context model to facilitate the adaptation of these tasks to the context; and (iii a bio-inspired presentation model to specify thoroughly how such tasks should be performed by the patients. Our proposal overcomes one of the limitations of the model-based approach for the development of context-aware systems supporting the specification of non-functional requirements. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate how this proposal can be put into practice to design a real world rehabilitation task.

  4. Bio-inspired green synthesis of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles using watermelon rinds and their catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Ch.; Gangadhara, S.; Venkateswarlu, P.

    2016-08-01

    Novel and bio-inspired magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using watermelon rinds (WR) which are nontoxic and biodegradable. Watermelon rind extract was used as a solvent and capping and reducing agent in the synthesis. The Fe3o4 MNPs were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques (VSM). XRD studies revealed a high degree of crystalline and monophasic Fe nanoparticles of face-centered cubic stricture. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process in an excellent candidate for the synthesis of iron nanoparticles that is simple, easy to execute, pollutant free and inexpensive. A practical and convenient method for the synthesis of highly stable and small-sized iron nanoparticles with a narrow distribution from 2 to 20 nm is reported. Also, the MNPs present in higher saturation magnetization (Ms) of 14.2 emu/g demonstrate tremendous magnetic response behavior. However, the synthesized iron nanoparticles were used as a catalyst for the preparation of biologically interesting 2-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives in high yields. These results exhibited that the synthesized Fe3O4 MNPs could be used as a catalyst in organic synthesis.

  5. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-28

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature's far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings' 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs.

  6. Bio-inspired Plasmonic Nanoarchitectured Hybrid System Towards Enhanced Far Red-to-Near Infrared Solar Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Runyu; Chen, Min; Zhou, Han; Liu, Tian; Tang, Xingwei; Zhang, Ke; Zhu, Hanxing; Ye, Jinhua; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Solar conversion to fuels or to electricity in semiconductors using far red-to-near infrared (NIR) light, which accounts for about 40% of solar energy, is highly significant. One main challenge is the development of novel strategies for activity promotion and new basic mechanisms for NIR response. Mother Nature has evolved to smartly capture far red-to-NIR light via their intelligent systems due to unique micro/nanoarchitectures, thus motivating us for biomimetic design. Here we report the first demonstration of a new strategy, based on adopting nature’s far red-to-NIR responsive architectures for an efficient bio-inspired photocatalytic system. The system is constructed by controlled assembly of light-harvesting plasmonic nanoantennas onto a typical photocatalytic unit with butterfly wings’ 3D micro/nanoarchitectures. Experiments and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations demonstrate the structural effects on obvious far red-to-NIR photocatalysis enhancement, which originates from (1) Enhancing far red-to-NIR (700~1200 nm) harvesting, up to 25%. (2) Enhancing electric-field amplitude of localized surface plasmon (LSPs) to more than 3.5 times than that of the non-structured one, which promotes the rate of electron-hole pair formation, thus substantially reinforcing photocatalysis. This proof-of-concept study provides a new methodology for NIR photocatalysis and would potentially guide future conceptually new NIR responsive system designs.

  7. Bio-inspired nano-photodiode for Low Light, High Resolution and crosstalk-free CMOS image sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-05-01

    Previous attempts have been devoted to mimic biological vision intelligence at the architectural system level. In this paper, a novel imitation of biological visual system intelligence is suggested, at the device level with the introduction of novel photodiode morphology. The proposed bio-inspired nanorod photodiode puts the depletion region length on the path of the incident photon instead of on its width, as the case is with the planar photodiodes. The depletion region has a revolving volume to increase the photodiode responsivity, and thus its photosensitivity. In addition, it can virtually boost the pixel fill factor (FF) above the 100% classical limit due to decoupling of its vertical sensing area from its limited planar circuitry area. Furthermore, the suggested nanorod photodiode photosensitivity is analytically proven to be higher than that of the planar photodiode. We also show semi-empirically that the responsivity of the suggested device varies linearly with its height; this important feature has been confirmed using Sentaurus simulation. The proposed nano-photorod is believed to meet the increasingly stringent High-Resolution-Low-Light (HRLL) detection requirements of the camera-phone and biomedical imaging markets. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. Enhancing thermal reliability of fiber-optic sensors for bio-inspired applications at ultra-high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Donghoon; Kim, Heon-Young; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2014-07-01

    The rapid growth of bio-(inspired) sensors has led to an improvement in modern healthcare and human-robot systems in recent years. Higher levels of reliability and better flexibility, essential features of these sensors, are very much required in many application fields (e.g. applications at ultra-high temperatures). Fiber-optic sensors, and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors in particular, are being widely studied as suitable sensors for improved structural health monitoring (SHM) due to their many merits. To enhance the thermal reliability of FBG sensors, thermal sensitivity, generally expressed as αf + ξf and considered a constant, should be investigated more precisely. For this purpose, the governing equation of FBG sensors is modified using differential derivatives between the wavelength shift and the temperature change in this study. Through a thermal test ranging from RT to 900 °C, the thermal sensitivity of FBG sensors is successfully examined and this guarantees thermal reliability of FBG sensors at ultra-high temperatures. In detail, αf + ξf has a non-linear dependence on temperature and varies from 6.0 × 10-6 °C-1 (20 °C) to 10.6 × 10-6 °C-1 (650 °C). Also, FBGs should be carefully used for applications at ultra-high temperatures due to signal disappearance near 900 °C.

  9. A Bio-Inspired Model-Based Approach for Context-Aware Post-WIMP Tele-Rehabilitation †

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jaquero, Víctor; Rodríguez, Arturo C.; Teruel, Miguel A.; Montero, Francisco; Navarro, Elena; Gonzalez, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    Tele-rehabilitation is one of the main domains where Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been proven useful to move healthcare from care centers to patients’ home. Moreover, patients, especially those carrying out a physical therapy, cannot use a traditional Window, Icon, Menu, Pointer (WIMP) system, but they need to interact in a natural way, that is, there is a need to move from WIMP systems to Post-WIMP ones. Moreover, tele-rehabilitation systems should be developed following the context-aware approach, so that they are able to adapt to the patients’ context to provide them with usable and effective therapies. In this work a model-based approach is presented to assist stakeholders in the development of context-aware Post-WIMP tele-rehabilitation systems. It entails three different models: (i) a task model for designing the rehabilitation tasks; (ii) a context model to facilitate the adaptation of these tasks to the context; and (iii) a bio-inspired presentation model to specify thoroughly how such tasks should be performed by the patients. Our proposal overcomes one of the limitations of the model-based approach for the development of context-aware systems supporting the specification of non-functional requirements. Finally, a case study is used to illustrate how this proposal can be put into practice to design a real world rehabilitation task. PMID:27754371

  10. BATMAV - A Bio-Inspired Micro-Aerial Vehicle for Flapping Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe

    The main objective of the BATMAV project is the development of a biologically-inspired Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. While flapping flight in MAV has been previously studied and a number of models were realized they usually had unfoldable wings actuated with DC motors and mechanical transmission to achieve flapping motion. This approach limits the system to a rather small number of degrees of freedom with little flexibility and introduces an additional disadvantage of a heavy flight platform. The BATMAV project aims at the development of a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings with smart materials-based flexible joints and artificial muscles, which has the potential to closely mimic the kinematics of the real mammalian flyer. The bat-like flight platform was selected after an extensive analysis of morphological and aerodynamic flight parameters of small birds, bats and large insects characterized by a superior maneuverability and wind gust rejection. Morphological and aerodynamic parameters were collected from existing literature and compared concluding that bat wing present a suitable platform that can be actuated efficiently using artificial muscles. Due to their wing camber variation, the bat species can operate effectively at a large range of speeds and exhibit a remarkably maneuverable and agile flight. Although numerous studies were recently investigated the flapping flight, flexible and foldable wings that reproduce the natural intricate and efficient flapping motion were not designed yet. A comprehensive analysis of flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg (Norberg, 1976) and the engineering theory of robotic manipulators resulted in a 2 and 3-DOF models which managed to mimic the wingbeat cycle of the natural flyer. The flexible joints of the 2 and 2-DOF models were replicated using smart materials like superelastic Shape Memory Alloys (SMA). The results of these kinematic

  11. Adaptive Bio-Inspired Wireless Network Routing for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard I.; Lee, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Wireless mobile networks suffer connectivity loss when used in a terrain that has hills, and valleys when line of sight is interrupted or range is exceeded. To resolve this problem and achieve acceptable network performance, we have designed an adaptive, configurable, hybrid system to automatically route network packets along the best path between multiple geographically dispersed modules. This is very useful in planetary surface exploration, especially for ad-hoc mobile networks, where computational devices take an active part in creating a network infrastructure, and can actually be used to route data dynamically and even store data for later transmission between networks. Using inspiration from biological systems, this research proposes to use ant trail algorithms with multi-layered information maps (topographic maps, RF coverage maps) to determine the best route through ad-hoc network at real time. The determination of best route is a complex one, and requires research into the appropriate metrics, best method to identify the best path, optimizing traffic capacity, network performance, reliability, processing capabilities and cost. Real ants are capable of finding the shortest path from their nest to a food source without visual sensing through the use of pheromones. They are also able to adapt to changes in the environment using subtle clues. To use ant trail algorithms, we need to define the probability function. The artificial ant is, in this case, a software agent that moves from node to node on a network graph. The function to calculate the fitness (evaluate the better path) includes: length of the network edge, the coverage index, topology graph index, and pheromone trail left behind by other ant agents. Each agent modifies the environment in two different ways: 1) Local trail updating: As the ant moves between nodes it updates the amount of pheromone on the edge; and 2) Global trail updating: When all ants have completed a tour the ant that found the

  12. Investigation of Fish Caudal Fin Locomotion Using a Bio-inspired Robotic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyu Ren

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to its advantages of realizing repeatable experiments, collecting data and isolating key factors, the bio-robotic model is becoming increasingly important in the study of biomechanics. The caudal fin of fish has long been understood to be central to propulsion performance, yet its contribution to manoeuverability, especially for homocercal caudal fin, has not been studied in depth. In the research outlined in this paper, we designed and fabricated a robotic caudal fin to mimic the morphology and the three-dimensional (3D locomotion of the tail of the Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus. We applied heave and pitch motions to the robot to model the movement of the caudal peduncle of its biological counterpart. Force measurements and 2D and 3D digital particle image velocimetry were then conducted under different movement patterns and flow speeds. From the force data, we found the addition of the 3D caudal fin locomotion significantly enhanced the lift force magnitude. The phase difference between the caudal fin ray and peduncle motion was a key factor in simultaneously controlling the thrust and lift. The increased flow speed had a negative impact on the generation of lift force. From the average 2D velocity field, we observed that the vortex wake directed water both axially and vertically, and formed a jet like structure with notable wake velocity. The 3D instantaneous velocity field at 0.6 T indicated the 3D motion of the caudal fin may result in asymmetry wake flow patterns relative to the mid-sagittal plane and change the heading direction of the shedding vortexes. Based on these results, we hypothesized that live fish may actively tune the movement between the caudal fin rays and the peduncle to change the wake structure behind the tail and hence obtain different thrust and lift forces, which contributes to its high manoeuvrability.

  13. Multilayer impedance pump: a bio-inspired valveless pump with medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loumes, Laurence

    This thesis introduces the concept of multilayer impedance pump, a novel pumping mechanism inspired from the embryonic heart structure.The multilayer impedance pump is a composite two-layer fluid-filled elastic tube featuring a thick, gelatin-like internal layer similar in nature to the embryonic cardiac jelly, and that is used to amplify longitudinal elastic waves. Pumping is based on the impedance pumping mechanism. Elastic waves are generated upon small external periodic compressions of the elastic tube. They propagate along the tube's walls, reflect at the tube's extremities and drive the flow in a preferential direction. This fully coupled fluid-structure interaction problem is solved for the flow and the structure using the finite element method over a relevant range of frequencies of excitation. Results show that the two-layer configuration can be an efficient wave propagation combination, and that it allows the pump to produce significant flow for small excitations. The multilayer impedance pump is a complex system in which flow and structure exhibit a resonant behavior. At resonance, a constructive elastic wave interaction coupled with a most efficient energy transmission between the elastic walls and the fluid is responsible for the maximum exit flow. The pump efficiency reaches its highest at resonance, highlighting furthermore the concept of resonance pumping.Using the proposed multilayer impedance pump model, we are able to bring an additional proof on the impedance nature of the embryonic heart by comparing a peristaltic and an impedance multilayer pump both excited in similar fashion to the one observed in the embryonic heart.The gelatin layer that models the embryonic cardiac jelly occupies most of the tube walls and is essential to the propagation of elastic waves. A comparison between the exact same impedance pump with and without the additional gelatin layer sheds light on the dynamic role of the cardiac jelly in the embryonic heart and on nature

  14. 生物启发计算研究现状与发展趋势%Research Status and Development Trends of the Bio-inspired Computation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱云龙; 申海; 陈瀚宁; 吕赐兴; 张丁一

    2016-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation aims to study the biology function,characteristic and mechanism of the various levels of nature,from biological individual,population,colony until ecosystem,and set up a relevant model and computing method,so as to serve the scientific research and engineering application of human society.It is not only the inheritance and development of artificial intelligence,but also from a new point to understand and grasp the intelligent intrinsic.First,we introduce the bio-inspired computation theoretical origin,invol-ving the biological evolutionism theory,the symbiosis evolution theory and the complex adaptive system theo-ry.Then,we review algorithm research progress and discuss about application research progress from three aspects including optimal plan,optimal analysis and optimal control.Based on comprehensive analysis and summarize existing bio-inspired optimization algorithms,a bio-inspired computation unified framework model is proposed.Finally,a few future directions and research challenges are presented,such as parallel bio-in-spired computation,bio-inspired computation with reasoning and knowledge,bio-inspired dynamics computa-tion,bio-inspired computation based on quorum sensing,artificial brain,evolutionary hardware,big data, swarm robot,virtual biological,cloud computing,etc.%生物启发计算的宗旨是研究自然界生物个体、群体、群落乃至生态系统不同层面的功能、特点和作用机制,建立相应的模型与计算方法,从而服务于人类社会的科学研究与工程应用。它既是人工智能的继承与发展,同时也是从新的角度理解和把握智能本质的方法。本文阐述了生物启发计算所涉及的生物进化论、共生进化论和复杂适应系统的理论起源。在对生物启发计算进行分析、归纳和总结的基础上,介绍了现有生物启发计算算法研究成果,并从最优设计、最优分析和最优控制3个方面对生物启发计算的

  15. Bio-Inspired/-Functional Colloidal Core-Shell Polymeric-Based NanoSystems: Technology Promise in Tissue Engineering, Bioimaging and NanoMedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyad S. Haidar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern breakthroughs in the fields of proteomics and DNA micro-arrays have widened the horizons of nanotechnology for applications with peptides and nucleic acids. Hence, biomimetic interest in the study and formulation of nanoscaled bio-structures, -materials, -devices and -therapeutic agent delivery vehicles has been recently increasing. Many of the currently–investigated functionalized bio-nanosystems draw their inspiration from naturally-occurring phenomenon, prompting the integration of molecular signals and mimicking natural processes, at the cell, tissue and organ levels. Technologically, the ability to obtain spherical nanostructures exhibiting combinations of several properties that neither individual material possesses on its own renders colloidal core-shell architectured nanosystems particularly attractive. The three main developments presently foreseen in the nanomedicine sub-arena of nanobiotechnology are: sensorization (biosensors/ biodetection, diagnosis (biomarkers/bioimaging and drug, protein or gene delivery (systemic vs. localized/targeted controlled–release systems. Advances in bio-applications such as cell-labelling/cell membrane modelling, agent delivery and targeting, tissue engineering, organ regeneration, nanoncology and immunoassay strategies, along the major limitations and potential future and advances are highlighted in this review. Herein, is an attempt to address some of the most recent works focusing on bio-inspired and -functional polymeric-based core-shell nanoparticulate systems aimed for agent delivery. It is founded, mostly, on specialized research and review articles that have emerged during the last ten years.

  16. BIO-INSPIRED SELF-ADAPTIVE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM CONTROL ARCHITECTURE%类生物化自适应制造系统控制结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 唐敦兵; 万敏; 袁伟东; 许美健

    2009-01-01

    未来的制造系统需要应对多变的不可预测环境的干扰,因此要求制造系统的控制结构具有较好的自适应性、自组织性、敏捷性、智能性和鲁棒性.而具有这些生物行为特征的类生物化制造系统能够很好的满足这一要求.因此,借鉴生物系统的组织结构、控制机理和运行模式,从一个全新角度提出了有机制造单元的概念,并结合基于激素分泌调节的超短反馈机制,建立了类生物化生产系统自适应控制模型;基于神经-内分泌-免疫系统调节机制,建立了类生物化自适应制造系统控制结构模型.最后,通过一个基于信息素通信机制的实例表明:整个系统具有较强的鲁棒性.%Future manufacturing systems need to cope with frequent changes and disturbances, therefore their control architectures require constant adaptability, agility, stability, self-organization, intelligence, and robustness. Bio-inspired manufacturing system can well satisfy these requirements. For this purpose, by referencing the biological organization structure and the mechanism, a bio-inspired manufacturing cell is presented from a novel view, and then a bio-inspired self-adaptive manufacturing model is established based on the ultra-short feedback mechanism of the neuro-endocrine system. A bio-inspired self-adaptive manufacturing system coordinated model is also established based on the neuro-endocrine-immunity system (NEIS). Finally, an example based on pheromone communication mechanism indicates that the robustness of the whole manufacturing system is improved by bio-inspired technologies.

  17. Coaxial electrospinning of WO3 nanotubes functionalized with bio-inspired Pd catalysts and their superior hydrogen sensing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seon-Jin; Chattopadhyay, Saptarshi; Kim, Jae Jin; Kim, Sang-Joon; Tuller, Harry L.; Rutledge, Gregory C.; Kim, Il-Doo

    2016-04-01

    Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition, catalytic Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using bio-inspired protein cages, i.e., apoferritin, and uniformly dispersed within the shell solution and subsequently on the WO3 NTs. The resulting Pd functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs were demonstrated to be high performance hydrogen (H2) sensors. In particular, Pd-functionalized macroporous WO3 NTs exhibited a very high H2 response (Rair/Rgas) of 17.6 at 500 ppm with a short response time. Furthermore, the NTs were shown to be highly selective for H2 compared to other gases such as carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and methane (CH4). The results demonstrate a new synthetic method to prepare highly porous nanotubular structures with well-dispersed nanoscale catalysts, which can provide improved microstructures for chemical sensing.Macroporous WO3 nanotubes (NTs) functionalized with nanoscale catalysts were fabricated using coaxial electrospinning combined with sacrificial templating and protein-encapsulated catalysts. The macroporous thin-walled nanotubular structures were obtained by introducing colloidal polystyrene (PS) particles to a shell solution of W precursor and poly(vinylpyrrolidone). After coaxial electrospinning with a core liquid of mineral oil and subsequent calcination, open pores with an average diameter of 173 nm were formed on the surface of WO3 NTs due to decomposition of the PS colloids. In addition

  18. Space-time computational analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenji; Kostov, Nikolay; Puntel, Anthony; Henicke, Bradley; Tezduyar, Tayfun E.

    2012-12-01

    We present a detailed computational analysis of bio-inspired flapping-wing aerodynamics of a micro aerial vehicle (MAV). The computational techniques used include the Deforming-Spatial-Domain/Stabilized Space-Time (DSD/SST) formulation, which serves as the core computational technique. The DSD/SST formulation is a moving-mesh technique, and in the computations reported here we use the space-time version of the residual-based variational multiscale (VMS) method, which is called "DSD/ SST-VMST." The motion and deformation of the wings are based on data extracted from the high-speed, multi-camera video recordings of a locust in a wind tunnel. A set of special space-time techniques are also used in the computations in conjunction with the DSD/SST method. The special techniques are based on using, in the space-time flow computations, NURBS basis functions for the temporal representation of the motion and deformation of the wings and for the mesh moving and remeshing. The computational analysis starts with the computation of the base case, and includes computations with increased temporal and spatial resolutions compared to the base case. In increasing the temporal resolution, we separately test increasing the temporal order, the number of temporal subdivisions, and the frequency of remeshing. In terms of the spatial resolution, we separately test increasing the wing-mesh refinement in the normal and tangential directions and changing the way node connectivities are handled at the wingtips. The computational analysis also includes using different combinations of wing configurations for the MAV and investigating the beneficial and disruptive interactions between the wings and the role of wing camber and twist.

  19. Forage alternatif dual de régolithe extra-terrestre : évolution d’une solution bio-inspirée

    OpenAIRE

    Gouache, Thibault

    2011-01-01

    Identifier des traces de vie sur la Lune ou sur Mars requiert des forages. Les contraintes très fortes sur les systèmes spatiaux et les environnements à faible gravité nuisent aux performances des foreuses rotatives. Une solution innovante a été identifiée chez un insecte qui creuse dans le bois pour déposer ses oeufs. Des tests ont montré la faisabilité d’imiter cet insecte pour creuser sans force ou appui extérieur. Ce doctorat poursuit le développement du concept de forage bio-inspiré s...

  20. Quality-of-service sensitivity to bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods for intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc multimedia sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortos, William S.

    2012-06-01

    In the author's previous work, a cross-layer protocol approach to wireless sensor network (WSN) intrusion detection an identification is created with multiple bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods applied to the functions of the protocol layers, a single method to each layer, to improve the intrusion-detection performance of the protocol over that of one method applied to only a single layer's functions. The WSN cross-layer protocol design embeds GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layer, respectively. The construct neglects to assess the net effect of the combined bioinspired methods on the quality-of-service (QoS) performance for "normal" data streams, that is, streams without intrusions. Analytic expressions of throughput, delay, and jitter, coupled with simulation results for WSNs free of intrusion attacks, are the basis for sensitivity analyses of QoS metrics for normal traffic to the bio-inspired methods.

  1. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    fossil fuels to biofuels. In many ways biomass is a unique renewable resource. It can be stored and transported relatively easily in contrast to renewable options such as wind and solar, which create intermittent electrical power that requires immediate consumption and a connection to the grid. This thesis presents two different models for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks. This work compares the performance and solutions obtained by two types of metaheuristic approaches; genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. Compared to rigorous mathematical optimization methods or iterative algorithms, metaheuristics do not guarantee that a global optimal solution can be found on some class of problems. Problems with similar characteristics to the one presented in this thesis have been previously solved using linear programming, integer programming and mixed integer programming methods. However, depending on the type of problem, these mathematical or complete methods might need exponential computation time in the worst-case. This often leads to computation times too high for practical purposes. Therefore, this thesis develops two types of metaheuristic approaches for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system considering multiple types of feedstocks and shows that metaheuristics are highly suitable to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems such as the one addressed in this research work.

  2. 面向电力行业的生物启发计算的最优潮流优化方法研究%OPF Bio-Inspired Computing for the Power Industry Optimization Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢敏敏

    2014-01-01

    OPF problem is for power system operation to strike its node voltage and power distribution, an effective method to assess the stability of the power system, aiming at optimal power flow problem, based on bio-inspired computing methods were designed based on GA, PSO and AI optimization of three bio-inspired technology. Firstly, a needle-based coding method using real number of chromosomes, the genetic algorithm into OPF problem, the first of IEEE14 bus system analysis, the results indicate that the model proposed algorithm can quickly converge to the global or approximate Global Solutions, in addition, operating results and Matpower classic model of this algorithm to compare, can achieve better optimization results. Secondly, this paper has designed an optimal power flow calculation based on particle swarm optimization based on optimal power flow optimization and artificial immune computing, then analyzes the pros and cons of the three algorithms to get a conclusion.%最优潮流问题是针对电力系统运行状态,根据其节点电压和功率分布计算信息,所采取的一种有效的评估电力系统稳定性的方法,针对最优潮流问题,基于生物启发计算方法分别设计了基于GA、PSO和AI三种生物启发技术的优化方法。首先提出了一种针基于采用实数染色体编码法,将遗传算法引入到最优潮流问题中,以IEEE14节点系统为算例进行分析,分析结果印证了所提出模型的有效性,能快速地收敛到全局或近似全局最优解。同时,将模型的运行结果与Matpower的经典求解算法进行比较,能取得较好的优化结果。其次,又设计了一种基于粒子群计算的最优潮流优化和基于人工免疫计算的最优潮流优化,分析三种算法的优劣,得出结论。

  3. eDNA: A Bio-Inspired Reconfigurable Hardware Cell Architecture Supporting Self-organisation and Self-healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of a biological inspired reconfigurable hardware cell architecture which supports self-organisation and self-healing. Two fundamental processes in biology, namely fertilization-to-birth and cell self-healing have inspired the development of this cell architecture....... In biology as well as in our hardware cell architecture it is the DNA which enables these processes. We propose a platform based on the electronic DNA (eDNA) and show through simulation, its capabilities as a new generation of robust reconfigurable hardware platforms. We have created a Java based simulator...

  4. Goal-directed imitation for robots: A bio-inspired approach to action understanding and skill learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erlhagen, W.; Mukovskiy, A.; Bicho, E.; Panin, G.; Kiss, C.; Knoll, A.; Schie, H.T. van; Bekkering, H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a robot control architecture for learning by imitation which takes inspiration from recent discoveries in action observation/execution experiments with humans and other primates. The architecture implements two basic processing principles: (1) imitation is primarily directed

  5. A Bio-Inspired Two-Layer Sensing Structure of Polypeptide and Multiple-Walled Carbon Nanotube to Sense Small Molecular Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine.

  6. Bio-inspired approach of the fluorescence emission properties in the scarabaeid beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera): Modeling by transfer-matrix optical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooijdonk, Eloise; Berthier, Serge; Vigneron, Jean-Pol

    2012-12-01

    Scales of the scarabaeid beetle Hoplia coerulea (Coleoptera) contain fluorescent molecules embedded in a multilayer structure. The consequence of this source confinement is a modification of the fluorescence properties, i.e., an enhancement or inhibition of the emission of certain wavelengths. In this work, we propose a bio-inspired approach to this problem. In other words, we use numerical simulations based on the one-dimensional transfer-matrix formalism to investigate the influence of a Hoplia-like system on emission characteristics and, from the results, we deduce potential technical applications. We reveal that depending on the choice of some parameters (layer thickness, dielectric constant, and position of the emitting source in the structure), it is possible to enhance or inhibit the fluorescence emission for certain wavelengths. This observation could be of great interest to design new optical devices in the field of optoelectronic, solar cells, biosensors, etc.

  7. Light and colour as analytical detection tools: a journey into the periodic table using polyamines to bio-inspired systems as chemosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Carlos; Capelo, José Luis; Mejuto, Juan Carlos; Oliveira, Elisabete; Santos, Hugo M; Pedras, Bruno; Nuñez, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This critical review describes some developments on the chemistry of fluorescent and colorimetric molecular probes or chemosensors, based on polyamines and associated compounds having oxygen and/or sulfur as donor atoms. The reported systems are essentially based on some selected published work in this field in the last five years, and in the work developed by the authors from 2000 onwards. Some interesting properties beyond sensing molecules, ions or/and cations by fluorescence, colorimetry as well as by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry can arise from these systems. A short brief on different examples activated by PET (photoinduced electron transfer), ICT (internal charge transfer) and EET (electronic energy transfer) phenomena will be provided. Finally the introduction of bio-inspired compounds derived from emissive amino acid or short peptide systems and nanoparticle devices to detect metal ions will be reviewed (202 references).

  8. A bio-inspired, computational model suggests velocity gradients of optic flow locally encode ordinal depth at surface borders and globally they encode self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudies, Florian; Ringbauer, Stefan; Neumann, Heiko

    2013-09-01

    Visual navigation requires the estimation of self-motion as well as the segmentation of objects from the background. We suggest a definition of local velocity gradients to compute types of self-motion, segment objects, and compute local properties of optical flow fields, such as divergence, curl, and shear. Such velocity gradients are computed as velocity differences measured locally tangent and normal to the direction of flow. Then these differences are rotated according to the local direction of flow to achieve independence of that direction. We propose a bio-inspired model for the computation of these velocity gradients for video sequences. Simulation results show that local gradients encode ordinal surface depth, assuming self-motion in a rigid scene or object motions in a nonrigid scene. For translational self-motion velocity, gradients can be used to distinguish between static and moving objects. The information about ordinal surface depth and self-motion can help steering control for visual navigation.

  9. Bio-Inspired Concepts: Studies of Biological Response to External Electric Fields for Cellular Manipulation and Diagnostics - Modeling and Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-03

    Dielectric Spectroscopy," IEEE trans. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation 8, 253 (2001). 8. M. Smoluchowski, "Drei vortrage uber diffusion...Intensity Electric Fields," IEEE Conf. On Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation (Bio- Electrics Workshop), Cancun, Mexico , Oct. 2002 (invited

  10. Biomechanical model of batoid (skates and rays) pectoral fins predicts the influence of skeletal structure on fin kinematics: implications for bio-inspired design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, R S; Blemker, S S; Fish, F E; Bart-Smith, H

    2015-06-16

    Growing interest in the development of bio-inspired autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) has motivated research in understanding the mechanisms behind the propulsion systems of marine animals. For example, the locomotive behavior of rays (Batoidea) by movement of the pectoral fins is of particular interest due to their superior performance characteristics over contemporary AUV propulsion systems. To better understand the mechanics of pectoral fin propulsion, this paper introduces a biomechanical model that simulates how batoid skeletal structures function to achieve the swimming locomotion observed in nature. Two rays were studied, Dasyatis sabina (Atlantic ray), and Rhinoptera bonasus (cownose ray). These species were selected because they exhibit very different swimming styles (undulation versus oscillation), but all use primarily their pectoral fins for propulsion (unlike electric rays or guitarfishes). Computerized tomography scans of each species were taken to image the underlying structure, which reveal a complex system of cartilaginous joints and linkages. Data collected from these images were used to quantify the complete skeletal morphometry of each batoid fin. Morphological differences were identified in the internal cartilage arrangement between each species including variations in the orientation of the skeletal elements, or radials, and the joint patterns between them, called the inter-radial joint pattern. These data were used as the primary input into the biomechanical model to couple a given ray skeletal structure with various swimming motions. A key output of the model is an estimation of the uniaxial strain that develops in the skeletal connective tissue in order for the structure to achieve motions observed during swimming. Tensile load tests of this connective tissue were conducted to further investigate the implications of the material strain predictions. The model also demonstrates that changes in the skeletal architecture (e.g., joint

  11. Damage-free top-down processes for fabricating two-dimensional arrays of 7 nm GaAs nanodiscs using bio-templates and neutral beam etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuanyu; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Tsukamoto, Rikako; Samukawa, Seiji [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Mortemousque, Pierre-Andre; Itoh, Kohei M; Ohno, Yuzo, E-mail: samukawa@ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan)

    2011-09-07

    The first damage-free top-down fabrication processes for a two-dimensional array of 7 nm GaAs nanodiscs was developed by using ferritin (a protein which includes a 7 nm diameter iron core) bio-templates and neutral beam etching. The photoluminescence of GaAs etched with a neutral beam clearly revealed that the processes could accomplish defect-free etching for GaAs. In the bio-template process, to remove the ferritin protein shell without thermal damage to the GaAs, we firstly developed an oxygen-radical treatment method with a low temperature of 280 deg. C. Then, the neutral beam etched the defect-free nanodisc structure of the GaAs using the iron core as an etching mask. As a result, a two-dimensional array of GaAs quantum dots with a diameter of {approx} 7 nm, a height of {approx} 10 nm, a high taper angle of 88 deg. and a quantum dot density of more than 7 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} was successfully fabricated without causing any damage to the GaAs.

  12. Classifying continuous, real-time e-nose sensor data using a bio-inspired spiking network modelled on the insect olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, A; Schmuker, M; Berna, A Z; Trowell, S; Nowotny, Thomas

    2016-02-18

    In many application domains, conventional e-noses are frequently outperformed in both speed and accuracy by their biological counterparts. Exploring potential bio-inspired improvements, we note a number of neuronal network models have demonstrated some success in classifying static datasets by abstracting the insect olfactory system. However, these designs remain largely unproven in practical settings, where sensor data is real-time, continuous, potentially noisy, lacks a precise onset signal and accurate classification requires the inclusion of temporal aspects into the feature set. This investigation therefore seeks to inform and develop the potential and suitability of biomimetic classifiers for use with typical real-world sensor data. Taking a generic classifier design inspired by the inhibition and competition in the insect antennal lobe, we apply it to identifying 20 individual chemical odours from the timeseries of responses of metal oxide sensors. We show that four out of twelve available sensors and the first 30 s (10%) of the sensors' continuous response are sufficient to deliver 92% accurate classification without access to an odour onset signal. In contrast to previous approaches, once training is complete, sensor signals can be fed continuously into the classifier without requiring discretization. We conclude that for continuous data there may be a conceptual advantage in using spiking networks, in particular where time is an essential component of computation. Classification was achieved in real time using a GPU-accelerated spiking neural network simulator developed in our group.

  13. Accumulation of nanoparticles in “jellyfish” mucus: a bio-inspired route to decontamination of nano-waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwa, Amit; Thiéry, Alain; Lombard, Fabien; Lilley, Martin K. S.; Boisset, Claire; Bramard, Jean-François; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Barthélémy, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The economic and societal impacts of nano-materials are enormous. However, releasing such materials in the environment could be detrimental to human health and the ecological biosphere. Here we demonstrate that gold and quantum dots nanoparticles bio-accumulate into mucus materials coming from natural species such as jellyfish. One strategy that emerges from this finding would be to take advantage of these trapping properties to remove nanoparticles from contaminated water.

  14. Haltere Mechanics and Mechanical Logic for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Scale Bio-inspired Navigation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    need for vacuum packaging . Wu et al. demonstrated a bio-mimetic, angular rate sensor (ARS) that can detect angular rates of 1 rad/s and are 5-mm in...IMUs) that are capable of measuring roll-pitch-yaw for large scale platforms exist; however, these devices are large, power hungry, require vacuum ... packaging , and fundamentally fail at the smaller sizes as they would cripple the entire mobile microsystem. Coupling the capability developed under this

  15. Biomimetic bio-inspired biomorph sustainable? An attempt to classify and clarify biology-derived technical developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Olga; Speck, David; Horn, Rafael; Gantner, Johannes; Sedlbauer, Klaus Peter

    2017-01-24

    Over the last few decades, the systematic approach of knowledge transfer from biological concept generators to technical applications has received increasing attention, particularly because marketable bio-derived developments are often described as sustainable. The objective of this paper is to rationalize and refine the discussion about bio-derived developments also with respect to sustainability by taking descriptive, normative and emotional aspects into consideration. In the framework of supervised learning, a dataset of 70 biology-derived and technology-derived developments characterised by 9 different attributes together with their respective values and assigned to one of 17 classes was created. On the basis of the dataset a decision tree was generated which can be used as a straightforward classification tool to identify biology-derived and technology-derived developments. The validation of the applied learning procedure achieved an average accuracy of 90.0%. Additional extraordinary qualities of technical applications are generally discussed by means of selected biology-derived and technology-derived examples with reference to normative (contribution to sustainability) and emotional aspects (aesthetics and symbolic character). In the context of a case study from the building sector, all aspects are critically discussed.

  16. Bio-Inspired Design and Fabrication of Micro/Nano-Brush Dual Structural Surfaces for Switchable Oil Adhesion and Antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao; Ma, Shuanhong; Pei, Xiaowei; Wang, Shutao; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The underwater superoleophobic surfaces play a significant role in anti-oil contamination, marine antifouling, etc. Inspired by the Gecko's feet and its self-cleaning property, a hierarchical structure composed of poly (acrylic acid) gel micro-brushes is designed by the liquid-infused method. This surface exhibits underwater superoleophobicity with very low oil adhesion. It is then modified with stimuli-responsive polymer nano-brushes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization from the embedded initiator. The micro/nano-brush dual structural surfaces can switch the underwater oil adhesion between low and high while keeping the superoleophobicity. The antifouling properties against algae attachment under different mediums are also investigated to show a strong link between oleophobicity and antibiofouling property. The model surface will be very useful in directing the design of marine self-cleaning coatings to both living and non-living species.

  17. Bio-inspired hierarchical self-assembly of nanotubes into multi-dimensional and multi-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Gao, Yuan; Lu, Qinghua; Zhou, Yongfeng; Yan, Deyue

    2011-12-01

    As inspired from nature's strategy to prepare collagen, herein we report a hierarchical solution self-assembly method to prepare multi-dimensional and multi-scale supra-structures from the building blocks of pristine titanate nanotubes (TNTs) around 10 nm. With the help of amylose, the nanotubes was continuously self-assembled into helically wrapped TNTs, highly aligned fibres, large bundles, 2D crystal facets and 3D core-shell hybrid crystals. The amyloses work as the glue molecules to drive and direct the hierarchical self-assembly process extending from microscopic to macroscopic scale. The whole self-assembly process as well as the self-assembly structures were carefully characterized by the combination methods of 1H NMR, CD, Hr-SEM, AFM, Hr-TEM, SAED pattern and EDX measurements. A hierarchical self-assembly mechanism was also proposed.As inspired from nature's strategy to prepare collagen, herein we report a hierarchical solution self-assembly method to prepare multi-dimensional and multi-scale supra-structures from the building blocks of pristine titanate nanotubes (TNTs) around 10 nm. With the help of amylose, the nanotubes was continuously self-assembled into helically wrapped TNTs, highly aligned fibres, large bundles, 2D crystal facets and 3D core-shell hybrid crystals. The amyloses work as the glue molecules to drive and direct the hierarchical self-assembly process extending from microscopic to macroscopic scale. The whole self-assembly process as well as the self-assembly structures were carefully characterized by the combination methods of 1H NMR, CD, Hr-SEM, AFM, Hr-TEM, SAED pattern and EDX measurements. A hierarchical self-assembly mechanism was also proposed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Characterization of the A/TNTs and TNT crystals. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr11151e

  18. 仿生自修复硬件多层结构模型%Multi-layer structural architecture for bio-inspired self-healing hardware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王南天; 钱彦岭; 李岳

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the circulatory secretion and paracrine of hormone,aimed at solving the problems such as low efficiency and complexity during the cellular communicating,a four-layer structural architecture for bio-inspired self-healing hardware based on NoC (network on chip)and neighborhood connections was proposed.A self-healing hardware realizing an FIR (finite impulse response)filter based on the architecture was brought in to explain the architecture in detail.The hardware shows flexible routing ability and good fault-tolerant ability.It indicates that the structural architecture provides a new approach to design a self-healing hardware with high reliability.%针对仿生自修复硬件细胞间信号传输复杂、效率低等问题,借鉴内分泌系统中激素的传输方式,提出基于片上网络和近邻连接的4层仿生自修复硬件结构模型,并以实现有限脉冲响应滤波器为例,对模型进行详细论述。基于该模型的自修复硬件,具有灵活的布线能力与良好的容错能力,表明该模型为高可靠性自修复硬件设计提供了新途径。

  19. Characterization of anthocyanin based dye-sensitized organic solar cells (DSSC) and modifications based on bio-inspired ion mobility improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyin, Jose Amador

    The worldwide electrical energy consumption will increase from currently 10 terawatts to 30 terawatts by 2050. To decrease the current atmospheric CO2 would require our civilization to develop a 20 terawatts non-greenhouse emitting (renewable) electrical power generation capability. Solar photovoltaic electric power generation is thought to be a major component of proposed renewable energy-based economy. One approach to less costly, easily manufactured solar cells is the Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) introduced by Greatzel and others. This dissertation describes the work focused on improving the performance of DSSC type solar cells. In particular parameters affecting dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on anthocyanin pigments extracted from California blackberries (Rubus ursinus) and bio-inspired modifications were analyzed and solar cell designs optimized. Using off-the-shelf materials DSSC were constructed and tested using a custom made solar spectrum simulator and photoelectric property characterization. This equipment facilitated the taking of automated I-V curve plots and the experimental determination of parameters such as open circuit voltage (V OC), short circuit current (JSC), fill factor (FF), etc. This equipment was used to probe the effect of various modifications such as changes in the annealing time and composition of the of the electrode counter-electrode. Solar cell optimization schemes included novel schemes such as solar spectrum manipulation to increase the percentage of the solar spectrum capable of generating power in the DSSC. Solar manipulation included light scattering and photon upconversion. Techniques examined here focused on affordable materials such as silica nanoparticles embedded inside a TiO2 matrix. Such materials were examined for controlled scattering of visible light and optimize light trapping within the matrix as well as a means to achieve photon up-energy-conversion using the Raman effect in silica nano-particles (due

  20. Bio-inspired swing leg control for spring-mass robots running on ground with unexpected height disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejdani, H R; Blum, Y; Daley, M A; Hurst, J W

    2013-12-01

    We proposed three swing leg control policies for spring-mass running robots, inspired by experimental data from our recent collaborative work on ground running birds. Previous investigations suggest that animals may prioritize injury avoidance and/or efficiency as their objective function during running rather than maintaining limit-cycle stability. Therefore, in this study we targeted structural capacity (maximum leg force to avoid damage) and efficiency as the main goals for our control policies, since these objective functions are crucial to reduce motor size and structure weight. Each proposed policy controls the leg angle as a function of time during flight phase such that its objective function during the subsequent stance phase is regulated. The three objective functions that are regulated in the control policies are (i) the leg peak force, (ii) the axial impulse, and (iii) the leg actuator work. It should be noted that each control policy regulates one single objective function. Surprisingly, all three swing leg control policies result in nearly identical subsequent stance phase dynamics. This implies that the implementation of any of the proposed control policies would satisfy both goals (damage avoidance and efficiency) at once. Furthermore, all three control policies require a surprisingly simple leg angle adjustment: leg retraction with constant angular acceleration.

  1. Evaluating the Fin-ray Trajectory Tracking of Bio-inspired Robotic Undulating Fins via an Experimental-numerical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojia Xiang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, biomimetic undulating fin propulsion has been one of the main topics considered by scientists and researchers in the field of robotic fish. This technology is inspired by the biological wave-like propulsion of ribbon-finned fish. The swimming modes have aquatic application potentials with greater manoeuvrability, less detectable noise or wake and better efficiency at low speeds. The present work concentrates on the evaluation of fin-ray trajectory tracking of biorobotic undulating fins at the levels of kinematics and hydrodynamics by using an experimental-numerical approach. Firstly, fin-ray tracking inconsistence between the desired and actual undulating trajectories is embodied with experimental data of the fin prototype. Next, the dynamics' nonlinearity is numerically and analytically unveiled by using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD method, from the viewpoint of vortex shedding and the hydro-effect. The evaluation of fin-ray tracking performance creates a good basis for control design to improve the fin-ray undulation of prototypes.

  2. Bio-inspired Construction of Advanced Fuel Cell Cathode with Pt Anchored in Ordered Hybrid Polymer Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhangxun; Wang, Suli; Jiang, Luhua; Sun, Hai; Liu, Shuang; Fu, Xudong; Zhang, Bingsen; Sheng Su, Dang; Wang, Jianqiang; Sun, Gongquan

    2015-01-01

    The significant use of platinum for catalyzing the cathodic oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) has hampered the widespread use of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The construction of well-defined electrode architecture in nanoscale with enhanced utilization and catalytic performance of Pt might be a promising approach to address such barrier. Inspired by the highly efficient catalytic processes in enzymes with active centers embedded in charge transport pathways, here we demonstrate for the first time a design that allocates platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) at the boundaries with dual-functions of conducting both electrons by aid of polypyrrole and protons via Nafion® ionomer within hierarchical nanoarrays. By mimicking enzymes functionally, an impressive ORR activity and stability is achieved. Using this brand new electrode architecture as the cathode and the anode of a PEMFC, a high mass specific power density of 5.23 W mg−1Pt is achieved, with remarkable durability. These improvements are ascribed to not only the electron decoration and the anchoring effects from the Nafion® ionomer decorated PPy substrate to the supported Pt NPs, but also the fast charge and mass transport facilitated by the electron and proton pathways within the electrode architecture. PMID:26537781

  3. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    CERN Document Server

    Mehrabani, Homayun; Tse, Kyle; Evangelista, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g. Antarctic anchor ice), or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g. plants, intertidal) begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We screened biological and artifical samples for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. It appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe featur...

  4. Slippery liquid-infused porous surface bio-inspired by pitcher plant for marine anti-biofouling application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Dun; Lu, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Marine biofouling, caused by the adhesion of microorganism, is a worldwide problem in marine systems. In this research work, slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS), inspired by Nepenthes pitcher plant, was constructed over aluminum for marine anti-biofouling application. The as-fabricated SLIPS was characterized with SEM, AFM, and contact angle meter. Its anti-biofouling performance was evaluated with settlement experiment of a typical marine biofouling organism Chlorella vulgaris in both static and dynamic conditions. The effect of solid substrate micro-structure on anti-biofouling property of SLIPS was studied. It was suggested that the micro-structure with low length scale and high degree of regularity should be considered for designing stable SLIPS with exceptional anti-biofouling property. The liquid-like property is proven to be the main contributor for the exceptional anti-biofouling performance of SLIPS in both static and dynamic conditions. The low roughness, which facilitates removing the settled C. vulgaris under shear force, is also a main contributor for the anti-biofouling performance of SLIPS in dynamic condition.

  5. Surface modification of aramid fibers by bio-inspired poly(dopamine) and epoxy functionalized silane grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Rina; Yan, Yan; Wei, Zhenhai; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Wencai; Tian, Ming

    2014-12-10

    A novel biomimetic surface modification method for meta-aramid (MPIA) fibers and the improvement on adhesion with rubber matrix was demonstrated. Inspired by the composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, we used dopamine (DOPA) self-polymerization to form thin, surface-adherent poly(dopamine) (PDA) films onto the surface of MPIA fibers simply by immersing MPIA fibers in a dopamine solution at room temperature. An epoxy functionalized silane (KH560) grafting was then carried out on the surface of the poly(dopamine)-coated MPIA, either by a "one-step" or "two-step" method, to introduce an epoxy group onto the MPIA fiber surface. The surface composition and microstructure of the modified MPIA was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated successful grafting of KH560 on the PDA-coated MPIA surface. A single-fiber pull-out test was applied to evaluate the adhesion of MPIA fibers with the rubber matrix. Compared with the untreated MPIA fibers, the adhesion strength between the modified MPIA fibers by "one step" method with rubber matrix has an increase of 62.5%.

  6. Bio-Inspired Fluoro-polydopamine Meets Barium Titanate Nanowires: A Perfect Combination to Enhance Energy Storage Capability of Polymer Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-03-01

    Rapid evolution of energy storage devices expedites the development of high-energy-density materials with excellent flexibility and easy processing. The search for such materials has triggered the development of high-dielectric-constant (high-k) polymer nanocomposites. However, the enhancement of k usually suffers from sharp reduction of breakdown strength, which is detrimental to substantial increase of energy storage capability. Herein, the combination of bio-inspired fluoro-polydopamine functionalized BaTiO3 nanowires (NWs) and a fluoropolymer matrix offers a new thought to prepare polymer nanocomposites. The elaborate functionalization of BaTiO3 NWs with fluoro-polydopamine has guaranteed both the increase of k and the maintenance of breakdown strength, resulting in significantly enhanced energy storage capability. The nanocomposite with 5 vol % functionalized BaTiO3 NWs discharges an ultrahigh energy density of 12.87 J cm(-3) at a relatively low electric field of 480 MV m(-1), more than three and a half times that of biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm(-3) at 600 MV m(-1)). This superior energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed some reported advanced nanoceramics-based materials at 500 MV m(-1). This new strategy permits insights into the construction of polymer nanocomposites with high energy storage capability.

  7. Folic acid bio-inspired route for facile synthesis of AuPt nanodendrites as enhanced electrocatalysts for methanol and ethanol oxidation reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Ju, Ke-Jian; Zhang, Qian-Li; Song, Pei; Wei, Jie; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2016-09-01

    Folic acid (FA), as an important biomolecule in cell division and growth, is firstly employed as the structure director and stabilizing agent for controlled synthesis of uniform Au65Pt35 nanodendrites (NDs) by a one-pot wet-chemical bio-inspired route at room temperature. No pre-seed, template, organic solvent, polymer, surfactant or complex instrument is involved. The products are mainly characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The architectures have enlarged electrochemically active surface area (60.6 m2 gPt-1), enhanced catalytic activity and durability for methanol and ethanol oxidation in contrast with commercial Pt black and the other AuPt alloys by tuning the molar ratios of Au to Pt (e.g., Au31Pt69 and Au82Pt18 nanoparticles). This strategy would be applied to fabricate other bimetallic nanocatalysts in fuel cells.

  8. Concepts and Development of Bio-Inspired Distributed Embedded Wired/Wireless Sensor Array Architectures for Acoustic Wave Sensing in Integrated Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Anindya; Prosser, William H.; Kirikera, Goutham; Schulz, Mark J.; Hughes, Derke J.; Orisamolu, Wally

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the modeling of acoustic emissions in plate structures and their sensing by embedded or surface bonded piezoelectric sensor arrays. Three different modeling efforts for acoustic emission (AE) wave generation and propagation are discussed briefly along with their advantages and disadvantages. Continuous sensors placed at right angles on a plate are being discussed as a new approach to measure and locate the source of acoustic waves. Evolutionary novel signal processing algorithms and bio-inspired distributed sensor array systems are used on large structures and integrated aerospace vehicles for AE source localization and preliminary results are presented. These systems allow for a great reduction in the amount of data that needs to be processed and also reduce the chances of false alarms from ambient noises. It is envisioned that these biomimetic sensor arrays and signal processing techniques will be useful for both wireless and wired sensor arrays for real time health monitoring of large integrated aerospace vehicles and earth fixed civil structures. The sensor array architectures can also be used with other types of sensors and for other applications.

  9. Laser-Sintered Constructs with Bio-inspired Porosity and Surface Micro/Nano-Roughness Enhance Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Cohen, David J; Boyan, Barbara D; Schwartz, Zvi

    2016-12-01

    Direct metal laser sintering can produce porous Ti-6Al-4V orthopedic and dental implants. The process requires reduced resources and time and can provide greater structural control than machine manufacturing. Implants in bone are colonized by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which can differentiate into osteoblasts and contribute to osseointegration. This study examined osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization of human MSCs cultured on laser-sintered Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity and at different time scales. 2D solid disks and low, medium and high porosity (LP, MP, and HP) 3D constructs based on a human trabecular bone template were laser sintered from Ti-6Al-4V powder and further processed to have micro- and nanoscale roughness. hMSCs exhibited greater osteoblastic differentiation and local factor production on all 3D porous constructs compared to 2D surfaces, which was sustained for 9 days without use of exogenous factors. hMSCs cultured for 8 weeks on MP constructs in osteogenic medium (OM), OM supplemented with BMP2 or collagen-coated MP constructs in OM exhibited bone-like extracellular matrix mineralization. Use of bio-inspired porosity for the 3D architecture of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs beyond surface roughness alone. This study suggests that a 3D architecture may enhance the osseointegration of orthopedic and dental implants in vivo.

  10. Bio-inspired cofacial Fe porphyrin dimers for efficient electrocatalytic CO2 to CO conversion: Overpotential tuning by substituents at the porphyrin rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Zaki N.; Mohamed, Eman A.; Naruta, Yoshinori

    2016-04-01

    Efficient reduction of CO2 into useful carbon resources particularly CO is an essential reaction for developing alternate sources of fuels and for reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2. The binuclear Ni, Fe-containing carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODHs) efficiently catalyzes the reduction of CO2 to CO. The location of Ni and Fe at proper positions allows their cooperation for CO2 to CO conversion through a push-pull mechanism. Bio-inspired from CODHs, we used several cofacial porphyrin dimers with different substituents as suitable ligands for holding two Fe ions with suitable Fe-Fe separation distance to efficiently and selectively promote CO2 to CO conversion with high turnover frequencies, TOFs. The substituents on the porphyrin rings greatly affect the catalysis process. By introducing electron-withdrawing/-donating groups, e.g. electron-withdrawing perfluorophenyl, at all meso positions of the porphyrin rings, the catalysis overpotential, η was minimized by ≈0.3 V compared to that obtained by introducing electron-donating mesityl groups. The Fe porphyrin dimers among reported catalysts are the most efficient ones for CO2 to CO conversion. Control experiments indicate that the high performance of the current CO2 to CO conversion catalysts is due to the presence of binuclear Fe centers at suitable Fe-Fe separation distance.

  11. Bio-inspired Fault-tolerant Approach for Sobel Operator%一种基于仿生原理的Sobel算子容错方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕启; 窦勇; 徐佳庆; 冯雪

    2012-01-01

    提出一种基于仿生原理的Sobel算子容错方法.通过对蛋白质标记与识别、同类细胞替换、干细胞分化和异类细胞转换4种生物机制的模仿,设计了电子组织的结构,该结构具有层次化自修复的能力.用MPI编程的方式实现了根据Sobel算子定制的电子组织,并且通过故障注入实验验证了该方法对Sobel算子容错的可行性.%A bio-inspired fault-tolerant approach for Sobel operator was described in this paper. By imitating four biological principles,namely,match-based recognition in protein sorting,substitution among homogeneous cells,differentiation of stem cells,and conversion between heterogeneous cells, we designed the architecture of electronic tissue (eTis-sue), which supports hierarchical self-healing. We then implemented the eTissue architecture which is specific to Sobel operator by programming with MPL Our fault-injection experiments prove the feasibility of this fault-tolerant approach.

  12. A new numerical approach to solve Thomas-Fermi model of an atom using bio-inspired heuristics integrated with sequential quadratic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Zameer, Aneela; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Wazwaz, Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel bio-inspired computing approach is developed to analyze the dynamics of nonlinear singular Thomas-Fermi equation (TFE) arising in potential and charge density models of an atom by exploiting the strength of finite difference scheme (FDS) for discretization and optimization through genetic algorithms (GAs) hybrid with sequential quadratic programming. The FDS procedures are used to transform the TFE differential equations into a system of nonlinear equations. A fitness function is constructed based on the residual error of constituent equations in the mean square sense and is formulated as the minimization problem. Optimization of parameters for the system is carried out with GAs, used as a tool for viable global search integrated with SQP algorithm for rapid refinement of the results. The design scheme is applied to solve TFE for five different scenarios by taking various step sizes and different input intervals. Comparison of the proposed results with the state of the art numerical and analytical solutions reveals that the worth of our scheme in terms of accuracy and convergence. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated through consistently getting optimal values of statistical performance indices calculated for a sufficiently large number of independent runs to establish its significance.

  13. Research on Evolvable Repairing Ability of Bio-inspired Fault-tolerance System%仿生容错系统演化修复能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨政权; 满梦华; 褚杰; 常小龙

    2012-01-01

    基于演化硬件技术构建一种仿生容错系统,通过不同模式、数量的故障注入对其演化修复能力进行研究,得到系统故障状况与演化修复能力间的关系:(1)随着故障数量的增加,系统演化修复能力的主要影响因素从演化算法的效率逐步向演化修复过程中的故障“躲避”概率转移;(2)系统的演化修复能力与故障数量符合指数衰减规律.%Based on the Evolvable Hardware EH W) technique, a bio-inspired fault-tolerance system is design and constructed, and the evolvable repairing ability is researched under the different fault modes and quantities. This paper obtains some relations between the faults and the evolvable repairing ability through analyzing the measured data. And there are two most valuable results: (l)With the increase of the quantity of faults, the main influence factors of the evolvable repairing ability are shift from the efficiency of evolution strategy to the probability of the fault avoided; (2)The evolvable repairing ability and the fault quantity are in accord with the exponential decay law.

  14. Synergism between genome sequencing, tandem mass spectrometry and bio-inspired synthesis reveals insights into nocardioazine B biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Norah; Porwal, Suheel K; James, Elle D; Bis, Dana M; Karty, Jonathan A; Lane, Amy L; Viswanathan, Rajesh

    2015-07-14

    Marine actinomycete-derived natural products continue to inspire chemical and biological investigations. Nocardioazines A and B (3 and 4), from Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232, are structurally unique alkaloids featuring a 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) core functionalized with indole C3-prenyl as well as indole C3- and N-methyl groups. The logic of their assembly remains cryptic. Bioinformatics analyses of the Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 draft genome afforded the noz cluster, split across two regions of the genome, and encoding putative open reading frames with roles in nocardioazine biosynthesis, including cyclodipeptide synthase (CDPS), prenyltransferase, methyltransferase, and cytochrome P450 homologs. Heterologous expression of a twelve gene contig from the noz cluster in Streptomyces coelicolor resulted in accumulation of cyclo-l-Trp-l-Trp DKP (5). This experimentally connected the noz cluster to indole alkaloid natural product biosynthesis. Results from bioinformatics analyses of the noz pathway along with challenges in actinomycete genetics prompted us to use asymmetric synthesis and mass spectrometry to determine biosynthetic intermediates in the noz pathway. The structures of hypothesized biosynthetic intermediates 5 and 12-17 were firmly established through chemical synthesis. LC-MS and MS-MS comparison of these synthetic compounds with metabolites present in chemical extracts from Nocardiopsis sp. CMB-M0232 revealed which of these hypothesized intermediates were relevant in the nocardioazine biosynthetic pathway. This established the early and mid-stages of the biosynthetic pathway, demonstrating that Nocardiopsis performs indole C3-methylation prior to indole C3-normal prenylation and indole N1'-methylation in nocardioazine B assembly. These results highlight the utility of merging bioinformatics analyses, asymmetric synthetic approaches, and mass spectrometric metabolite profiling in probing natural product biosynthesis.

  15. Bio-inspired design of ice-retardant devices based on benthic marine invertebrates: the effect of surface texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayun Mehrabani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth of ice on surfaces poses a challenge for both organisms and for devices that come into contact with liquids below the freezing point. Resistance of some organisms to ice formation and growth, either in subtidal environments (e.g., Antarctic anchor ice, or in environments with moisture and cold air (e.g., plants, intertidal begs examination of how this is accomplished. Several factors may be important in promoting or mitigating ice formation. As a start, here we examine the effect of surface texture alone. We tested four candidate surfaces, inspired by hard-shelled marine invertebrates and constructed using a three-dimensional printing process. We examined sub-polar marine organisms to develop sample textures and screened them for ice formation and accretion in submerged conditions using previous methods for comparison to data for Antarctic organisms. The sub-polar organisms tested were all found to form ice readily. We also screened artificial 3-D printed samples using the same previous methods, and developed a new test to examine ice formation from surface droplets as might be encountered in environments with moist, cold air. Despite limitations inherent to our techniques, it appears surface texture plays only a small role in delaying the onset of ice formation: a stripe feature (corresponding to patterning found on valves of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, or on the spines of the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri slowed ice formation an average of 25% compared to a grid feature (corresponding to patterning found on sub-polar butterclams, Saxidomas nuttalli. The geometric dimensions of the features have only a small (∼6% effect on ice formation. Surface texture affects ice formation, but does not explain by itself the large variation in ice formation and species-specific ice resistance observed in other work. This suggests future examination of other factors, such as material elastic properties and surface coatings, and their

  16. Bio-inspired transition metal-organic hydride conjugates for catalysis of transfer hydrogenation: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSkimming, Alex; Chan, Bun; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Ball, Graham E; Colbran, Stephen B

    2015-02-09

    Taking inspiration from yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (yADH), a benzimidazolium (BI(+) ) organic hydride-acceptor domain has been coupled with a 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) metal-binding domain to afford a novel multifunctional ligand (L(BI+) ) with hydride-carrier capacity (L(BI+) +H(-) ⇌L(BI) H). Complexes of the type [Cp*M(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ]2 (M=Rh, Ir) have been made and fully characterised by cyclic voltammetry, UV/Vis spectroelectrochemistry, and, for the Ir(III) congener, X-ray crystallography. [Cp*Rh(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ]2 catalyses the transfer hydrogenation of imines by formate ion in very goods yield under conditions where the corresponding [Cp*Ir(L(BI) )Cl][PF6 ] and [Cp*M(phen)Cl][PF6 ] (M=Rh, Ir) complexes are almost inert as catalysts. Possible alternatives for the catalysis pathway are canvassed, and the free energies of intermediates and transition states determined by DFT calculations. The DFT study supports a mechanism involving formate-driven RhH formation (90 kJ mol(-1) free-energy barrier), transfer of hydride between the Rh and BI(+) centres to generate a tethered benzimidazoline (BIH) hydride donor, binding of imine substrate at Rh, back-transfer of hydride from the BIH organic hydride donor to the Rh-activated imine substrate (89 kJ mol(-1) barrier), and exergonic protonation of the metal-bound amide by formic acid with release of amine product to close the catalytic cycle. Parallels with the mechanism of biological hydride transfer in yADH are discussed.

  17. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF FLOW AROUND A BIO-INSPIRED AIRFOIL AT REYNOLDS NUMBER 2.0×103

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Sheng-xian; LIU Ying-zheng; CHEN Jian-min

    2012-01-01

    The fluid flow around a bio-iuspired airfoil with corrugated surfaces and its smooth counterpart at chord Reynolds number Re =2.0× 103 and different Angle-Of-Attack (AOA =0°,4°,8° and 12°) were measured by using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).The global characteristics of the fluid flow around two airfoils were analyzed by ensemble-averaged velocity field,distribution of reverse flow intennittency,and time-series flow visualizations.At AOA =0°,no significant variation of the global flow patterns was recognized for both configurations.The statistical results of reverse flow intermittency results demonstrated that the protruding peaks of the corrugated airfoil delay flow separation occur at AOA =4°.At large AOAs (8° and 12°),however,the flow is massively separated in both configurations,the combination of large separation bubble above the corrugated airfoil and small reeirculation zones in the upstream upper valley results in earlier separation of the flow.At AOA=g°,the wake region behind the corrugated airfoil is considerably shortened in comparison to the smooth one,indicating a remarkable reduction of the time-mean lift and drag forces,however,at AOA =12°,the wake region behind the corrugated one is slightly larger than that behind the smooth one.For the case of AOA - 8° and 12°,the time-series flow visualizations demonstrate the intensified vortex shedding process of the corrugated airfoil,which would give rise to enhanced dynamic loading.Due to the fact that dragonfly wing is practically flexible,it is speculated that the wing structure of a gliding dragonfly might be sophisticatedly deformed in response to the periodic loading to reduce the drag.

  18. Research on the bio-inspired micro jumping robot%微型仿生跳跃机器人的研究与发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈大竞; 朱丹华; 刘伟庭; 陈裕泉

    2008-01-01

    对比了仿生跳跃机器人较轮式、履带式等其他类型机器人在复杂地形下运动的特定优势.根据生物界不同物种间相对运动速度的对比验证了尺度效应.引入弗劳德系数论证了跳跃方式在小型物体运动中的优势.介绍了日本、美国、意大利等国研究机构有关跳跃机器人的设计方案、研制现状及应用前景.分析了跳跃机器人所涉及的关键技术,提出了微型仿生跳跃机器人的设计方案,包括动力提供、储能和释放、稳定性维持、障碍探测、传感器集成等问题.对跳跃机器人应用领域做了分析和展望.%This paper presents a review over bio-inspired concept of jumping robot for locomotion on uneven terrains.First,scale effect is proved by comparison of different speeds of animals and Froude number is introduced to demonstrate the higher effectiveness of jumping mode:in the small robots.The worldwide development of design and application of jumping robots in Japan,USA.Italy,etc,is introduced.Also,description over key techniques used in the robot is given about locomotion,energy storing and releasing,stabilization,sensor integration and obstacle detection.The prospect of the application area is discussed in the end.

  19. 电磁防护仿生技术研究的进展与展望%Research progress and prospect on study of Bio-inspired electromagnetic protection technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常小龙; 赵国亮; 武翠霞; 满梦华

    2013-01-01

    In order to acquire the thoughts from the biology and design electronic system with high reliability using mechanism from biology, the development of bio-inspired electromagnetic protection is summarized newly appeared these years. The content of investigation about bio-inspired electromagnetic protection is illustrated and the fruits having been obtained are displayed. Biological neural system is a high complicated information processing and controlling system with the characteristic of self-organization and self-adaptatioa And neural system is very robust for its ability of fault tolerance. So a novel thought to study bio-inspired electromagnetic protection is discussed based on the way of neural information processing and coding, as well as implementation by integrated circuit.%为了从生物中汲取灵感,进而设计抗干扰能力强、可靠性高的电子系统,对近些年新兴的电磁防护仿生技术的发展脉络进行了详细总结.阐述了电磁防护仿生技术主要研究内容,并展示了现阶段电磁防护仿生研究已取得的成果.生物的神经系统是高度复杂的信息处理和控制系统,具有自组织和自适应的优良特性,同时也具有很高的容错能力.因此,结合神经信息处理方式、编码特点和集成电路实现,进一步探讨和分析了进行电磁防护仿生研究的新思路.

  20. Comparing Neuromorphic Solutions in Action: Implementing a Bio-Inspired Solution to a Benchmark Classification Task on Three Parallel-Computing Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Alan; Nowotny, Thomas; Schmuker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neuromorphic computing employs models of neuronal circuits to solve computing problems. Neuromorphic hardware systems are now becoming more widely available and "neuromorphic algorithms" are being developed. As they are maturing toward deployment in general research environments, it becomes important to assess and compare them in the context of the applications they are meant to solve. This should encompass not just task performance, but also ease of implementation, speed of processing, scalability, and power efficiency. Here, we report our practical experience of implementing a bio-inspired, spiking network for multivariate classification on three different platforms: the hybrid digital/analog Spikey system, the digital spike-based SpiNNaker system, and GeNN, a meta-compiler for parallel GPU hardware. We assess performance using a standard hand-written digit classification task. We found that whilst a different implementation approach was required for each platform, classification performances remained in line. This suggests that all three implementations were able to exercise the model's ability to solve the task rather than exposing inherent platform limits, although differences emerged when capacity was approached. With respect to execution speed and power consumption, we found that for each platform a large fraction of the computing time was spent outside of the neuromorphic device, on the host machine. Time was spent in a range of combinations of preparing the model, encoding suitable input spiking data, shifting data, and decoding spike-encoded results. This is also where a large proportion of the total power was consumed, most markedly for the SpiNNaker and Spikey systems. We conclude that the simulation efficiency advantage of the assessed specialized hardware systems is easily lost in excessive host-device communication, or non-neuronal parts of the computation. These results emphasize the need to optimize the host-device communication architecture for

  1. Comparing neuromorphic solutions in action: implementing a bio-inspired solution to a benchmark classification task on three parallel-computing platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eDiamond

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuromorphic computing employs models of neuronal circuits to solve computing problems. Neuromorphic hardware systems are now becoming more widely available and neuromorphic algorithms are being developed. As they are maturing towards deployment in general research environments, it becomes important to assess and compare them in the context of the applications they are meant to solve. This should encompass not just task performance, but also ease of implementation, speed of processing, scalability and power efficiency.Here, we report our practical experience of implementing a bio-inspired, spiking network for multivariate classification on three different platforms: the hybrid digital/analogue Spikey system, the digital spike-based SpiNNaker system, and GeNN, a meta-compiler for parallel GPU hardware. We assess performance using a standard hand-written digit classification task.We found that whilst a different implementation approach was required for each platform, classification performances remained in line. This suggests that all three implementations were able to exercise the model’s ability to solve the task rather than exposing inherent platform limits, although differences emerged when capacity was approached.With respect to execution speed and power consumption, we found that for each platform a large fraction of the computing time was spent outside of the neuromorphic device, on the host machine. Time was spent in a range of combinations of preparing the model, encoding suitable input spiking data, shifting data and decoding spike-encoded results. This is also where a large proportion of the total power was consumed, most markedly for the SpiNNaker and Spikey systems. We conclude that the simulation efficiency advantage of the assessed specialized hardware systems is easily lost in excessive host-device communication, or non-neuronal parts of the computation. These results emphasize the need to optimize the host-device communication

  2. Improvement to the pattern of control rods of the equilibrium cycle of 18 months for the CLV using bio-inspired algorithms; Mejora del patron de barras de control del ciclo de equilibrio de 18 meses para la CLV empleando algoritmos bio-inspirados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Montes, J.L. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: rpc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2003-07-01

    Nowadays in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are carried out studies with some bio-inspired optimization techniques to improve the performance of the fuel cycles of the boiling water reactors of the Laguna Verde power plant (CLV). In the present work two bio-inspired techniques were applied with the purpose of improving the performance of a balance cycle of 18 months developed for the CLV: genetic algorithms (AG) and systems based on ants colonies (SCH). The design of the reference cycle it represents in several aspects an optimal cycle proposed starting from the experience of several operation decades with the boiling water reactors (BWR initials for Boiling Water Reactor) in the world. To try to improve their performance is beforehand a difficult challenge and it puts on test the feasibility of the optimization methods in the reloads design. The study of the bio-inspired techniques was centered exclusively on the obtaining of the control rod patterns (PBC) trying to overcome the capacity factor reached in the design of the reference cycle. It was fixed the cycle length such that the decrease of the coast down period would represent an increase of the capacity factor of the cycle; so that, it diminishes the annual cost associated with the capital cost of the plant. As consequence of the study, was found that the algorithm based on the ants colonies reaches to diminish the coast down period in five and half days respect to the original balance cycle, what represents an annual saving of $US 74,000. Since the original cycle was optimized, the above-mentioned, shows the ability of the SCH for the optimization of the cycle design. With the AG it was reach to approach to the original balance cycle with a coast down period greater in seven days estimating an annual penalization of $US 130,000. (Author)

  3. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  4. Cartilage-inspired superelastic ultradurable graphene aerogels prepared by the selective gluing of intersheet joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Yong; Yun, Sol; Wie, Jeong Jae; Zhang, Xu; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Kong, Jing; Park, Ho Seok

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a cartilage-inspired superelastic and ultradurable nanocomposite strategy for the selective inclusion of viscoelastic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) into graphene sheet junctions to create effective stress-transfer pathways within three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogels (GAs). Inspired by the joint architectures in the human body, where small amounts of soft cartilage connect stiff (or hard) but hollow (and thus lightweight) bones, the 3D internetworked GA@PDMS achieves synergistic toughening. The resulting GA@PDMS nanocomposites exhibit fully reversible structural deformations (99.8% recovery even at a 90% compressive strain) and high compressive mechanical strength (448.2 kPa at a compressive strain of 90%) at repeated compression cycles. Owing to the combination of excellent mechanical and electrical properties, the GA@PDMS nanocomposites are used as signal transducers for strain sensors, showing very short response and recovery times (in the millisecond range) with reliable sensitivity and extreme durability. Furthermore, the proposed system is applied to electronic scales with a large detectable weight of about 4600 times greater than its own weight. Such bio-inspired cartilage architecture opens the door to fabricate new 3D multifunctional and mechanically durable nanocomposites for emerging applications, which include sensors, actuators, and flexible devices.In this study, we demonstrate a cartilage-inspired superelastic and ultradurable nanocomposite strategy for the selective inclusion of viscoelastic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) into graphene sheet junctions to create effective stress-transfer pathways within three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogels (GAs). Inspired by the joint architectures in the human body, where small amounts of soft cartilage connect stiff (or hard) but hollow (and thus lightweight) bones, the 3D internetworked GA@PDMS achieves synergistic toughening. The resulting GA@PDMS nanocomposites exhibit fully

  5. Modified bio-inspired algorithm based on membrane computing and application in gasoline blending%改进的膜计算仿生优化算法及在汽油调和中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵进慧; 柴天佑; 周平

    2012-01-01

    为提高膜计算仿生优化算法在求解流程工业复杂优化问题的计算性能,提出一种改进的膜计算仿生优化算法.该算法采用一个新的不确定性提取规则取代改进前的提取规则.4个有约束标准测试函数被用于检验该算法的计算性能,计算结果及对比显示了改进算法在鲁棒性和效率等方面优于改进前算法.改进算法应用于汽油调和优化问题,更高利润的配方及算法的计算效率证实了改进算法的优越性和实用性.%Aiming at improving the computational performance of bio-inspired algorithm based on membrane computing (BIAMC) in solving complex optimization problems in process manufacturing, a modified bio-inspired algorithm based on membrane computing (MBIAMC) is proposed. In MBIAMC, a new indeterministic abstraction rule is applied which substitutes the abstraction rule of BIAMC, and the algorithmic framework and other rules are inherited from BIAMC. For solving constrained optimization problems, the quadratic penalty function method is introduced in MBIAMC. Four constrained benchmark functions are used to evaluate computational performance of MBIAMC. The results and comparison with other two algorithms handling constraints problems reveal that MBIAMC is efficiency and superiority to BIAMC in accuracy and robustness. As a case study, MBIAMC is used to solve gasoline blending optimization problem, the better recipes and its lower computational cost validate its higher efficiency and more practicability.

  6. Inspired Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Carol Frederick

    2011-01-01

    In terms of teacher quality, Steele believes the best teachers have reached a stage she terms inspired, and that teachers move progressively through the stages of unaware, aware, and capable until the most reflective teachers finally reach the inspired level. Inspired teachers have a wide repertoire of teaching and class management techniques and…

  7. The design of an analog module for sensor adaptation to changes in ambient light: a bio-inspired solution - biomed 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Brian; Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F

    2009-01-01

    Fly inspired vision sensors have been shown to have many interesting qualities such as hyperacuity (or an ability to achieve movement resolution beyond the theoretical limit), extreme sensitivity to motion, and (through software simulation) image edge extraction, motion detection, and orientation and location of a line. Many of these qualities are beyond the ability of traditional computer vision sensors such as charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays. To obtain these characteristics, a prototype fly inspired sensor has been built and tested in a laboratory environment and shows promise. Any sophisticated visual system, whether man made or natural, must adequately adapt to lighting conditions, therefore light adaptation is a vital milestone in getting the afore mentioned prototype working in real-world conditions. By studying how the common house fly, Musca domestica, achieves this adaptation it was possible to design an analog solution to this problem. The solution utilizes instrumentation amplifiers and an additional sensor to sense the ambient light. This paper will examine this circuitry in greater detail and will explore the characterization and limitations of this solution.

  8. The Path Planning of AUV Based on D-S Information Fusion Map Building and Bio-inspired Neural Network in Unknown Dynamic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a biologically inspired neural dynamics and map planning based approach are simultaneously proposed for AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle path planning and obstacle avoidance in an unknown dynamic environment. Firstly the readings of an ultrasonic sensor are fused into the map using the D-S (Dempster-Shafer inference rule and a two-dimensional occupancy grid map is built. Secondly the dynamics of each neuron in the topologically organized neural network is characterized by a shunting equation. The AUV path is autonomously generated from the dynamic activity landscape of the neural network and previous AUV location. Finally, simulation results show high quality path optimization and obstacle avoidance behaviour for the AUV.

  9. Bio-Inspired Wide-Angle Broad-Spectrum Cylindrical Lens Based on Reflections from Micro-Mirror Array on a Cylindrical Elastomeric Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chieh Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a wide-angle, broad-spectrum cylindrical lens based on reflections from an array of three-dimensional, high-aspect-ratio micro-mirrors fabricated on a cylindrical elastomeric substrate, functionally inspired by natural reflecting superposition compound eyes. Our device can perform one-dimensional focusing and beam-shaping comparable to conventional refraction-based cylindrical lenses, while avoiding chromatic aberration. The focal length of our cylindrical lens is 1.035 mm, suitable for micro-optical systems. Moreover, it demonstrates a wide field of view of 152° without distortion, as well as modest spherical aberrations. Our work could be applied to diverse applications including laser diode collimation, barcode scanning, holography, digital projection display, microlens arrays, and optical microscopy.

  10. Bio-inspired 2-line ferrihydrite as a high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Ukita, Masahiro; Sakuma, Ryo; Nakanishi, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuo; Imanishi, Nobuyuki; Takada, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A high-capacity and high-rate-capability anode material for lithium-ion batteries, silicon-doped iron oxyhydroxide or 2-line ferrihydrite (2Fh), was prepared by mixing iron nitrate powder, tetraethyl orthosilicate, 2-propanol, and ammonium hydrogen carbonate powder at room temperature. The design of this material was inspired by a bacteriogenic product, a nanometric amorphous iron-based oxide material containing small amounts of structural Si. The atomistic structure of the prepared Si-doped 2Fh was strongly affected by the Si molar ratio [x = Si/(Fe + Si)]. Its crystallinity gradually decreased as the Si molar ratio increased, with a structural variation from nanocrystalline to amorphous at x = 0.25. The sample with x = 0.20 demonstrated the best Li storage performance. The developed material exhibited a high capacity of ∼400 mAh g-1 at the 25th cycle in the voltage range of 0.3-3.0 V and at a current rate of 9 A g-1, which was three times greater than that of the Si-free 2Fh. This indicates that Si-doping into the 2Fh structure realizes good rate capability, which are presumably because of the specific nanocomposite structure of iron-based electrochemical centers embedded in the Si-based amorphous matrix, generated by reversible Li insertion/deinsertion process.

  11. A bio-inspired strategy for the interfacial assembly of graphene oxide with in situ generated Ag/AgCl: designing sustainable hybrid photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Thuniki Naveen; Begum, Gousia; Rana, Rohit Kumar

    2017-03-15

    Herein, we report a polyamine-mediated assembly to integrate graphene oxide (GO) sheets with Ag/AgCl to fabricate a hybrid nanocomposite (GO-Ag/AgCl) at nearly neutral pH and ambient temperature. Inspired by the role of polyamines in the excellent integration of components to generate hierarchical nanostructures in biominerals such as diatoms, we showed that our strategy enabled the fabrication of GO-semiconductor composites with a well-integrated structure. The polyamines not only facilitated the in situ generation of Ag/AgCl, but also simultaneously allowed their interaction with GO suitable for visible light active photocatalysis, as revealed by the detailed characterization of the synthesized materials. Consequently, the GO-Ag/AgCl exhibited nearly 5 times higher photocatalytic activity and better photostability than Ag/AgCl under visible light irradiation. The nanocomposite reached its highest activity at the graphene content of 4.16 wt%. Thus, the assembly process represented an effective way to design hybrid composites. Moreover, as a sustainable photocatalyst, it facilitates effective separation of the photogenerated charge carriers at the interface, thereby improving activity and stability.

  12. Direct Comparison of the Performance of a Bio-inspired Synthetic Nickel Catalyst and a [NiFe]-Hydrogenase, Both Covalently Attached to Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Macia, Patricia; Dutta, Arnab; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Shaw, Wendy J.; Rudiger, Olaf

    2015-10-12

    The active site of hydrogenases has been a source of inspiration for the development of molecular catalysts. However, direct comparisons between molecular catalysts and enzymes have not been possible because different techniques are used to evaluate both types of catalysts, minimizing our ability to determine how far we’ve come in mimicking the impressive enzymatic performance. Here we directly compare the catalytic properties of the [Ni(PCy2NGly2)2]2+ complex with the [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Desulfobivrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (DvMF) immobilized to a functionalized electrode under identical conditions. At pH=7, the enzyme has higher performance in both activity and overpotential, and is more stable, while at low pH, the molecular catalyst outperforms the enzyme in all respects. The Ni complex also has increased tolerance to CO. This is the first direct comparison of enzymes and molecular complexes, enabling a unique understanding of the benefits and detriments of both systems, and advancing our understanding of the utilization of these bioinspired complexes in fuel cells. AD and WJS acknowledge the Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the US Department of Energy (US DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US DOE.

  13. A nanoscale bio-inspired light-harvesting system developed from self-assembled alkyl-functionalized metallochlorin nano-aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Ocakoǧlu, Kasim

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C 18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The transparent Zn-chlorin nano-aggregates inside the alkyl-TiO2 modified AAO nano-channels have a diameter of ∼120 nm in a 60 μm length channel. UV-Vis studies and fluorescence emission spectra further confirm the formation of the supramolecular ZnChl aggregates from monomer molecules inside the alkyl-functionalized nano-channels. Our results prove that the novel and unique method can be used to produce efficient and stable light-harvesting assemblies for effective solar energy capture through transparent and stable nano-channel ceramic materials modified with bio-mimetic molecular self-assembled nano-aggregates. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

  14. Derivation of the stress-strain behavior of the constituents of bio-inspired layered TiO2/PE-nanocomposites by inverse modeling based on FE-simulations of nanoindentation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasko, G; Schäfer, I; Burghard, Z; Bill, J; Schmauder, S; Weber, U; Galler, D

    2013-03-01

    Owing to the apparent simple morphology and peculiar properties, nacre, an iridescent layer, coating of the inner part of mollusk shells, has attracted considerable attention of biologists, material scientists and engineers. The basic structural motif in nacre is the assembly of oriented plate-like aragonite crystals with a 'brick' (CaCO3 crystals) and 'mortar' (macromolecular components like proteins) organization. Many scientific researchers recognize that such structures are associated with the excellent mechanical properties of nacre and biomimetic strategies have been proposed to produce new layered nanocomposites. During the past years, increasing efforts have been devoted towards exploiting nacre's structural design principle in the synthesis of novel nanocomposites. However, the direct transfer of nacre's architecture to an artificial inorganic material has not been achieved yet. In the present contribution we report on laminated architecture, composed of the inorganic oxide (TiO2) and organic polyelectrolyte (PE) layers which fulfill this task. To get a better insight and understanding concerning the mechanical behaviour of bio-inspired layered materials consisting of oxide ceramics and organic layers, the elastic-plastic properties of titanium dioxide and organic polyelectrolyte phase are determined via FE-modelling of the nanoindentation process. With the use of inverse modeling and based on numerical models which are applied on the microscopic scale, the material properties of the constituents are derived.

  15. A nanoscale bio-inspired light-harvesting system developed from self-assembled alkyl-functionalized metallochlorin nano-aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocakoglu, Kasim; Joya, Khurram S.; Harputlu, Ersan; Tarnowska, Anna; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The transparent Zn-chlorin nano-aggregates inside the alkyl-TiO2 modified AAO nano-channels have a diameter of ~120 nm in a 60 μm length channel. UV-Vis studies and fluorescence emission spectra further confirm the formation of the supramolecular ZnChl aggregates from monomer molecules inside the alkyl-functionalized nano-channels. Our results prove that the novel and unique method can be used to produce efficient and stable light-harvesting assemblies for effective solar energy capture through transparent and stable nano-channel ceramic materials modified with bio-mimetic molecular self-assembled nano-aggregates.Self-assembled supramolecular organization of nano-structured biomimetic light-harvesting modules inside solid-state nano-templates can be exploited to develop excellent light-harvesting materials for artificial photosynthetic devices. We present here a hybrid light-harvesting system mimicking the chlorosomal structures of the natural photosynthetic system using synthetic zinc chlorin units (ZnChl-C6, ZnChl-C12 and ZnChl-C18) that are self-aggregated inside the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nano-channel membranes. AAO nano-templates were modified with a TiO2 matrix and functionalized with long hydrophobic chains to facilitate the formation of supramolecular Zn-chlorin aggregates. The

  16. 3D printed, bio-inspired prototypes and analytical models for structured suture interfaces with geometrically-tuned deformation and failure behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Erica; Li, Yaning; Ortiz, Christine; Boyce, Mary C.

    2014-12-01

    Geometrically structured interfaces in nature possess enhanced, and often surprising, mechanical properties, and provide inspiration for materials design. This paper investigates the mechanics of deformation and failure mechanisms of suture interface designs through analytical models and experiments on 3D printed polymer physical prototypes. Suture waveforms with generalized trapezoidal geometries (trapezoidal, rectangular, anti-trapezoidal, and triangular) are studied and characterized by several important geometric parameters: the presence or absence of a bonded tip region, the tip angle, and the geometry. It is shown that a wide range (in some cases as great as an order of magnitude) in stiffness, strength, and toughness is achievable dependent on tip bonding, tip angle, and geometry. Suture interfaces with a bonded tip region exhibit a higher initial stiffness due to the greater load bearing by the skeletal teeth, a double peak in the stress-strain curve corresponding to the failure of the bonded tip and the failure of the slanted interface region or tooth, respectively, and an additional failure and toughening mechanism due to the failure of the bonded tip. Anti-trapezoidal geometries promote the greatest amplification of properties for suture interfaces with a bonded tip due the large tip interface area. The tip angle and geometry govern the stress distributions in the teeth and the ratio of normal to shear stresses in the interfacial layers, which together determine the failure mechanism of the interface and/or the teeth. Rectangular suture interfaces fail by simple shearing of the interfaces. Trapezoidal and triangular suture interfaces fail by a combination of shear and tensile normal stresses in the interface, leading to plastic deformation, cavitation events, and subsequent stretching of interface ligaments with mostly elastic deformation in the teeth. Anti-trapezoidal suture interfaces with small tip angles have high stress concentrations in the teeth

  17. eTissue: An Adaptive Reconfigurable Bio-Inspired Hardware Architecture%电子组织:一种具有自适应能力的可重构仿生硬件结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳庆; 窦勇; 吕启; 冯雪

    2012-01-01

    In the field of fault tolerance, adaptive bio-inspired hardware is springing up in recent years. The robustness of human blood system is derived from substitution among homogeneous cells mechanism, differentiation of adult stem cells mechanism, and conversion between heterogeneous cells mechanism. Illumined by the mechanisms mentioned above, this paper presents a bio-inspired adaptive reconfigurable hardware architecture named electronic tissue (eTissue). Different from existing multicellular array, eTissue recognizes and processes data based on data tag, which loosely couples operations and processing elements, consequently equips eTissue with flexible cell replacement capability. We implement substitution among homogeneous cells, differentiation of adult stem cells, and conversion between heterogeneous cells based on this flexible cell replacement capability. These mechanisms compose the hierarchical self-healing of eTissue, and the self-evolution of eTissue is derived from differentiation of adult stem cells and conversion between heterogeneous cells. We implement the eTissue prototype system in FPGA, and conduct fault-injection experiments to attest to its self-healing and self-evolution capability. Finally, we analyze and discuss the robustness of eTissue.%具有自适应能力的仿生硬件是容错领域一个新兴的研究方向.同类细胞替换、成体干细胞分化和异类细胞转化等生物机制是人体血液组织健壮性的重要来源.受这些生物机制的启发,提出了一种名为电子组织的自适应可重构多细胞阵列结构.该结构采用了基于标记与识别的数据处理方式,解除了传统多细胞阵列结构中操作与细胞单元间的严格绑定的数据处理方式,使得电子组织具备了更为灵活的细胞单元替换能力,并在此基础上实现了同类细胞替换、成体干细胞分化和异类细胞转化3种仿生机制.这3种机制使电子组织具备了层次化的自我修复能力;成

  18. Research on Key Technologies of Self-adaptive Immune Monitoring of Bio-inspired Manufacturing System%类生物化制造系统自适应免疫监控关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐敦兵; 郑堃; 顾文斌; 汤定山

    2011-01-01

    利用生物免疫机制及人工免疫系统的相关算法,结合类生物化制造系统模型,建立了一套制造系统免疫监控系统,并运用层次分析模型给出了该免疫监控系统健康评估的策略.对模拟实验的结果进行了分析,结果表明,所设计的免疫监控系统对制造系统的内外环境干扰具有良好的自适应性,对系统的健康状态评估也与系统的实际状况相符,从而证明了该免疫监控系统的有效性.%Combining the control model of bio-inspired manufacturing system (BIMS) with the algorithms of artificial immune system (ALS), this paper established an immune monitoring system (IMS). Besides, this paper proposed the strategies of health assessment of manufacturing system with the help of analytic hierarchy process(AHP) model. Finally,a simulation experiment was carried out based on the IMS proposed herein, and the results show that the system has a good adaptability for the changes of internal and external environments of manufacturing system. It can also give a reasonable evaluation of the manufacturing system which can match the actual state very well.Therefore, the proposed IMS has good effectiveness and reliability.

  19. Research on a Bio-Inspired Multidimensional Network Security Model and Its Implementation Mode%生物启发的多维网络安全模型及实现模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑瑞娟; 王慧强; 徐东

    2006-01-01

    在多变的生态环境中,生物系统的安全机制展示了非凡的适应性和鲁棒性.当前网络安全面临巨大挑战,生物启发理论为该问题的解决提供一条新思路,但当前该领域的研究仅停留在人体内部系统--免疫系统上,无法建立完整的空间模型.首次依据生物系统安全机制的层次性、系统性和多网并行等特征,综合子网类型、群体规模和时序阶段3个角度提出了基于"三网并行(three-net parallel, TNP)"结构的生物启发多维网络安全模型(bio-inspired multidimensional network security model, BMNSM).首先提取网络与生物系统安全运行机制的拟合点,建立BMNSM概念模型;然后在状态分析抽象的基础上,证明模型的线性状态空间特性,验证其完备性、可行性;最后依据Markov平稳分布理论,定量比较 TNP结构优化实现模式的平稳性,验证了BMNSM的优良性能.

  20. Bio-Inspired Innovation and National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    War II in North Africa. Despite a shortage of penicillin , the decision was made to use it to treat soldiers infected with venereal disease in order to...illnesses such as pneumonia did not receive the penicillin they needed, and, in some cases, they died as a result of their injuries/illnesses.5 Military...cause by the stress involved in war. Combat fatigue has a number of characteristics including hypersensitivity to noises, movement, and lights, easy

  1. Bio-Inspired Flexible Cellular Actuating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    Volterra transform v(t, y) = w(t, y)− ∫ y L k(y, x)w(t, x)dx (12) and the v-dynamics vtt −bvtyy − avyy = Mv − bpvt − apv, v(t, L) = 0, p > 0. (13) Note...L− y)2 − (L− x)2))√ p((L− y)2 − (L− x)2) . (17) Proof: We can derive expressions for vtt and vyy from (12) vtt = wtt − ∫ y L k(y, x)wtt (x)dx = bwty y

  2. Bio-inspired color image enhancement model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2009-05-01

    Human being can perceive natural scenes very well under various illumination conditions. Partial reasons are due to the contrast enhancement of center/surround networks and opponent analysis on the human retina. In this paper, we propose an image enhancement model to simulate the color processes in the human retina. Specifically, there are two center/surround layers, bipolar/horizontal and ganglion/amacrine; and four color opponents, red (R), green (G), blue (B), and yellow (Y). The central cell (bipolar or ganglion) takes the surrounding information from one or several horizontal or amacrine cells; and bipolar and ganglion both have ON and OFF sub-types. For example, a +R/-G bipolar (red-center- ON/green-surround-OFF) will be excited if only the center is illuminated, or inhibited if only the surroundings (bipolars) are illuminated, or stay neutral if both center and surroundings are illuminated. Likewise, other two color opponents with ON-center/OFF-surround, +G/-R and +B/-Y, follow the same rules. The yellow (Y) channel can be obtained by averaging red and green channels. On the other hand, OFF-center/ON-surround bipolars (i.e., -R/+G and -G/+R, but no - B/+Y) are inhibited when the center is illuminated. An ON-bipolar (or OFF-bipolar) only transfers signals to an ONganglion (or OFF-ganglion), where amacrines provide surrounding information. Ganglion cells have strong spatiotemporal responses to moving objects. In our proposed enhancement model, the surrounding information is obtained using weighted average of neighborhood; excited or inhibited can be implemented with pixel intensity increase or decrease according to a linear or nonlinear response; and center/surround excitations are decided by comparing their intensities. A difference of Gaussian (DOG) model is used to simulate the ganglion differential response. Experimental results using natural scenery pictures proved that, the proposed image enhancement model by simulating the two-layer center/surrounding retinal networks can effectively enhance color images in terms of color contrast and image details.

  3. Novel Bio-inspired Aquatic Flow Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    hot - wire elements to detect changes in flow [19- 21]. Specifically, these thermal flow sensors work by using thermal anemometry , which...correlates the convective heat transfer from the hot wire to the flow rate. As a result of this property, they can also be utilized as temperature sensors...A.  E.  Perry  and  P.  A.  Libby,  " Hot -­‐ Wire   Anemometry ,"  Journal  of  Applied  Mechanics,   vol.  50,

  4. Bio-Inspired Micromechanical Directional Acoustic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, William; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    Conventional directional sound sensors employ an array of spatially separated microphones and the direction is determined using arrival times and amplitudes. In nature, insects such as the Ormia ochracea fly can determine the direction of sound using a hearing organ much smaller than the wavelength of sound it detects. The fly's eardrums are mechanically coupled, only separated by about 1 mm, and have remarkable directional sensitivity. A micromechanical sensor based on the fly's hearing system was designed and fabricated on a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate using MEMS technology. The sensor consists of two 1 mm2 wings connected using a bridge and to the substrate using two torsional legs. The dimensions of the sensor and material stiffness determine the frequency response of the sensor. The vibration of the wings in response to incident sound at the bending resonance was measured using a laser vibrometer and found to be about 1 μm/Pa. The electronic response of the sensor to sound was measured using integrated comb finger capacitors and found to be about 25 V/Pa. The fabricated sensors showed good directional sensitivity. In this talk, the design, fabrication and characteristics of the directional sound sensor will be described. Supported by ONR and TDSI.

  5. Bio-inspired materials for electrochemical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, A.; Firmino, A.; Sentanin, F.; Sabadini, R. C.; Jimenez, D. E. Q.; Jayme, C. C.; Mindroiu, M.; Zgarian, R. G.; Tihan, G. T.; Rau, I.; Silva, M. M.; Nogueira, A. F.; Kanicki, J.; Kajzar, F.

    2015-10-01

    Natural macromolecules are very promising row materials to be used in modern technology including security and defense. They are abundant in nature, easy to extract and possess biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. These materials can be modified throughout chemical or physical processes, and can be doped with lithium and rare earth salts, ionic liquids, organic and inorganic acids. In this communication samples of DNA and modified DNA were doped with Prussian Blue (PB), poly(ethylene dioxythiophene) (PEDOT), europium and erbium triflate and organic dyes such as Nile Blue (NB), Disperse Red 1 (DR1) and Disperse Orange 3 (DO3). The colored or colorless membranes were characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopic measurements, and they were applied in electrochromic devices (ECDs) and dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). ECDs change the color under applied potential, so they can modulate the intensity of transmitted light of 15 to 35%. As the electrochromic materials, WO3 or Prussian blue (PB), are usually blue colored, the color change is from transparent to blue. DNA, and the complexes: DNA-CTMA, DNA-DODA and DNAPEDOT: PSS were also investigated as either hole carrier material (HTM) or polymer electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The DNA-based samples as HTM in small DSSCs revealed a solar energy conversion efficiency of 0.56%. Polymer electrolytes of DNA-CTMA and DNA-DODA, both with 10 wt% of LiI/I2, applied in small DSSC, exhibited the efficiencies of 0.18 and 0.66%, respectively. The obtained results show that natural macromolecules-based membranes are not only environmentally friendly but are also promising materials to be investigated for several electrochemical devices. However, to obtain better performances more research is still needed.

  6. Slow Movements of Bio-Inspired Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikian, Sarine; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.; Kanso, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Slow and accurate finger and limb movements are essential to daily activities, but the underlying mechanics is relatively unexplored. Here, we develop a mathematical framework to examine slow movements of tendon-driven limbs that are produced by modulating the tendons' stiffness parameters. Slow limb movements are driftless in the sense that movement stops when actuations stop. We demonstrate, in the context of a planar tendon-driven system representing a finger, that the control of stiffness suffices to produce stable and accurate limb postures and quasi-static (slow) transitions among them. We prove, however, that stable postures are achievable only when tendons are pretensioned, i.e., they cannot become slack. Our results further indicate that a non-smoothness in slow movements arises because the precision with which individual stiffnesses need to be altered changes substantially throughout the limb's motion.

  7. Bio-inspired impact-resistant composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunenfelder, L K; Suksangpanya, N; Salinas, C; Milliron, G; Yaraghi, N; Herrera, S; Evans-Lutterodt, K; Nutt, S R; Zavattieri, P; Kisailus, D

    2014-09-01

    Through evolutionary processes, biological composites have been optimized to fulfil specific functions. This optimization is exemplified in the mineralized dactyl club of the smashing predator stomatopod (specifically, Odontodactylus scyllarus). This crustacean's club has been designed to withstand the thousands of high-velocity blows that it delivers to its prey. The endocuticle of this multiregional structure is characterized by a helicoidal arrangement of mineralized fiber layers, an architecture which results in impact resistance and energy absorbance. Here, we apply the helicoidal design strategy observed in the stomatopod club to the fabrication of high-performance carbon fiber-epoxy composites. Through experimental and computational methods, a helicoidal architecture is shown to reduce through-thickness damage propagation in a composite panel during an impact event and result in an increase in toughness. These findings have implications in the design of composite parts for aerospace, automotive and armor applications.

  8. Bio-inspired Hybrid Carbon Nanotube Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyeob; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Lee, Changsun; An, Jieun; Phuong, Tam Thi Thanh; Park, Sun Hwa; Lima, Márcio D.; Baughman, Ray H.; Kang, Tong Mook; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2016-05-01

    There has been continuous progress in the development for biomedical engineering systems of hybrid muscle generated by combining skeletal muscle and artificial structure. The main factor affecting the actuation performance of hybrid muscle relies on the compatibility between living cells and their muscle scaffolds during cell culture. Here, we developed a hybrid muscle powered by C2C12 skeletal muscle cells based on the functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) sheets coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to achieve biomimetic actuation. This hydrophilic hybrid muscle is physically durable in solution and responds to electric field stimulation with flexible movement. Furthermore, the biomimetic actuation when controlled by electric field stimulation results in movement similar to that of the hornworm by patterned cell culture method. The contraction and relaxation behavior of the PEDOT/MWCNT-based hybrid muscle is similar to that of the single myotube movement, but has faster relaxation kinetics because of the shape-maintenance properties of the freestanding PEDOT/MWCNT sheets in solution. Our development provides the potential possibility for substantial innovation in the next generation of cell-based biohybrid microsystems.

  9. Bio-Inspired Ceramic/Carbon Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    reduction /formation   of   metallic   catalyst  particles  and  chemical   vapour  deposition.  A  1.1  M...were   grown   inside  a   freeze  casted  alumina  scaffold   by   first   infiltrating   a   catalyst   precursor...solution  of   iron   (III)   nitrate   in   isopropanol   was   infiltrated   in   the   scaffolds  

  10. Bio-inspired organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia-Vladu, Mihai; Troshin, Pavel A.; Schwabegger, Günther; Bodea, Marius; Schwödiauer, Reinhard; Fergus, Jeffrey W.; Razumov, Vladimir; Bauer, Siegfried; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2010-08-01

    Two major concerns in the world nowadays are the plastic consumption and waste. Because to the economic growth and the incessant demand of plastics in developing countries, plastics consumption is projected to increase by a factor of two to three during the actual decade1. As an intuitive example, the amount of municipal solid waste (estimated per person per year) averages ~440 kg for China, ~550 kg for the European Union and ~790 kg for the United States, with almost 50% of the waste being electronic products and plastics1,2. Green technology based on biodegradable/compostable materials is perceived as an ultimate goal for solving waste problems. Currently there are numerous efforts for producing compostable plastic materials for applications in daily life products, such as plastic bags and disposable dishware. When such low-end products are fabricated with compostable materials, electronics included in such goods should be also based on materials that are easily compostable.

  11. Dynamically reconfigurable bio-inspired hardware

    OpenAIRE

    Upegui Posada, Andres Emilio

    2006-01-01

    During the last several years, reconfigurable computing devices have experienced an impressive development in their resource availability, speed, and configurability. Currently, commercial FPGAs offer the possibility of self-reconfiguring by partially modifying their configuration bitstream, providing high architectural flexibility, while guaranteeing high performance. These configurability features have received special interest from computer architects: one can find several reconfigurable c...

  12. Bio-inspired speed detection and discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Mauricio; Terissi, Lucas; Girau, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    International audience; In the field of computer vision, a crucial task is the detection of motion (also called optical flow extraction). This operation allows analysis such as 3D reconstruction, feature tracking, time-to-collision and novelty detection among others. Most of the optical flow extraction techniques work within a finite range of speeds. Usually, the range of detection is extended towards higher speeds by combining some multiscale information in a serial architecture. This serial...

  13. Bio-Inspired Polymer Membrane Surface Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Schulze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To generate polyethersulfone membranes with a biocatalytically active surface, pancreatin was covalently immobilized. Pancreatin is a mixture of digestive enzymes such as protease, lipase, and amylase. The resulting membranes exhibit self-cleaning properties after “switching on” the respective enzyme by adjusting pH and temperature. Thus, the membrane surface can actively degrade a fouling layer on its surface and regain initial permeability. Fouling tests with solutions of protein, oil, and mixtures of both, were performed, and the membrane’s ability to self-clean the fouled surface was characterized. Membrane characterization was conducted by investigation of the immobilized enzyme concentration, enzyme activity, water permeation flux, fouling tests, porosimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Una propuesta para el diagnóstico de fallos en sistemas industriales mediante el uso de estrategias bioinspiradas A proposal to fault diagnosis in industrial systems using bio-inspired strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídice Camps Echevarría

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study on the application of bio-inspired strategies for optimization to Fault Diagnosis in industrial systems is presented. The principal aim is to establish a basis for the development of new and viable model-based Fault Diagnosis Methods which improve some difficulties that the current methods cannot avoid. These difficulties are related mainly with fault sensitivity and robustness to external disturbances. In this study, there have been considered the Differential Evolution and the Ant Colony Optimization algorithms. This application is illustrated using simulated data of the Two tanks system benchmark. In order to analyze the advantages of these algorithms to obtain a diagnosis which needs to be sensitive to faults and robust to external disturbances, some experiments with incipient faults and noisy data have been simulated. The results indicate that the proposed approach, basically the combination of the two algorithms, characterizes a promising methodology for Fault Diagnosis.En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio sobre la aplicación de estrategias bioinspiradas para la optimización al diagnóstico de fallos en sistemas industriales. El objetivo principal es establecer una base para el desarrollo de nuevos y viables métodos de diagnóstico de fallos basados en modelos que permitan mejorar las dificultades de los métodos actuales. Estas dificultades están relacionadas, fundamentalmente, con la sensibilidad ante la presencia de fallos y la robustez ante perturbaciones externas. En el estudio se consideraron los algoritmos Evolución Diferencial y Optimización por Colonia de Hormigas. La efectividad de la propuesta es analizada mediante experimentos con el conocido problema de prueba de los dos tanques. Los experimentos consideraron presencia de ruido en la información y fallos incipientes de manera que fuera posible analizar las ventajas de la propuesta en cuanto a diagnóstico robusto y sensible. Los resultados

  15. 一种仿生的面向可重构多细胞阵列的分布式定序方法%Bio-inspired Distributed Ranking Approach for Reconfigurable Multicellular Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕启; 徐佳庆; 窦勇; 冯雪

    2011-01-01

    提出一种仿生的面向多细胞阵列的分布式定序方法.该方法是基于生物学上的图式形成理论,通过催化剂-抑制剂模型在多细胞阵列中建立浓度梯度,并在此基础上进行定序.该方法具有如下的特点:跟现有的多细胞阵列维序方法相比,它采用主动的维序方式;跟传统的分布式定序方法相比,它不需要初始特征值就能实现定序和维序.故障注入实验表明,该定序方法较现有的方法具有更强的鲁棒性,在细胞出错的情况下能够重新建立浓度梯度和重新定序.此外,我们在Xilinx公司的型号为Virtex-6 XC6VLX760的FPGA芯片上实现了5x5多细胞阵列,对浓度梯度建立和重建时间及硬件资源开销进行了评估.%A bio-inspired distributed ranking approach for reconfigurable multicellular array architecture is presented in this paper. It is based on the pattern formation theory in biology. We first set up the morphogen gradient through the activator-inhibitor model, and then propose the distributed ranking method based on this. Our method has two characteristics: first, it's an active cell ranking and sequence number maintaining method compared to existing passive cell sequence number maintaining methods in multicellular array architectures; second, it doesn't need initial value to rank and maintain cell sequence numbers, which is different from ordinary distributed ranking methods. The results of fault-injection experiments show our method has better robustness than existing methods, that is, when cells die, concentration gradient is re-established and a new ranking process is started. We also implemented the 5x5 cellular array with a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX760 FPGA, and has evaluated the gradient establish or re-establish time, as well as the hardware cost.

  16. Inspirational Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Artists from across Europe and Asia ventured into the remote Chinese countryside to seek inspiration from the Miao Ethnic group "I’ve never been to Asia before and everything is strange and wonderful:supermarkets and shopping mails,even the air- port seemed exotic!"wrote Ula Sickle,a choreographer from Poland on her blog under the name"chopstick diaries."Ula was one of the 18 foreign and domestic artists participating in a cultural exchange project called the Pointe to Point: Asia-Europe Dance Forum.It aims to empower aspiring young artists from Asia and Europe to reflect upon their views of

  17. Optical properties of quantum energies in GaAs quantum nanodisks produced using a bio-nanotemplate and a neutral beam etching technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohori, Daisuke; Fukuyama, Atsuhiko; Thomas, Cedric; Higo, Akio; Samukawa, Seiji; Ikari, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrated that the lattice-matched GaAs quantum nanodisks (QNDs) embedded in an AlGaAs matrix were fabricated by our original top-down nanoprocess. Lattice-matched GaAs QNDs are very attractive in quantum cryptography because the spin relaxation time of QNDs might be longer than that of strained quantum dots. Quantum levels of QNDs were investigated by the photoluminescence (PL) technique. The minimum diameter and thickness of QNDs were 7 and 8 nm, respectively. PL peaks of QNDs at 1.64 and 1.66 eV were observed to be higher than that of multiple quantum wells (MQWs) observed at 1.57 eV. It is suggested that these peaks are due to the diameter distribution of QNDs. The calculated quantum levels were in good agreement with the present experimental results. The observation of the PL peaks from QNDs demonstrates that the quantum level is strongly confined not only in the perpendicular direction but also in the lateral direction.

  18. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies.

  19. Underwater Robotic Propulsors Inspired by Jetting Jellyfish

    OpenAIRE

    Marut, Kenneth Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Underwater surveillance missions both for defense and civilian applications are continually demanding the need for unmanned underwater vehicles or UUVs. Unmanned vehicles are needed to meet the logistical requirements for operation over long distances, greater depths, long duration, and harsh conditions. In order to design UUVs that not only satisfy these needs but are also adaptive and efficient, there has been increasing interest in taking inspiration from nature. These biomimetic/bio-insp...

  20. Design of underwater superoleophobic TiO{sub 2} coatings with additional photo-induced self-cleaning properties by one-step route bio-inspired from fish scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Guo, Zhiguang, E-mail: zguo@licp.cas.cn [Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials and Hubei Collaborative Innovation Centre for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-05-05

    Self-cleaning properties inspired by the structures and functions of some creatures are of great interest since the late 20th century. In this paper, TiO{sub 2} coatings with hierarchical rutile TiO{sub 2} flowers on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrate are fabricated through a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The flower-like coatings exhibit superhydrophilicity in air and superoleophobicity underwater with a contact angle as high as 157°, presenting good underwater self-cleaning performance. In addition, when contaminated by oleic acid, the as-prepared TiO{sub 2} coatings also exhibit excellent photocatalytic capability under ultraviolet irradiation, which demonstrated self-cleaning properties in a different way. This self-cleaning film provides a good strategy for some industrial and ocean applications.

  1. Insect Bio-inspired Neural Network Provides New Evidence on How Simple Feature Detectors Can Enable Complex Visual Generalization and Stimulus Location Invariance in the Miniature Brain of Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    2017-01-01

    The ability to generalize over naturally occurring variation in cues indicating food or predation risk is highly useful for efficient decision-making in many animals. Honeybees have remarkable visual cognitive abilities, allowing them to classify visual patterns by common features despite having a relatively miniature brain. Here we ask the question whether generalization requires complex visual recognition or whether it can also be achieved with relatively simple neuronal mechanisms. We produced several simple models inspired by the known anatomical structures and neuronal responses within the bee brain and subsequently compared their ability to generalize achromatic patterns to the observed behavioural performance of honeybees on these cues. Neural networks with just eight large-field orientation-sensitive input neurons from the optic ganglia and a single layer of simple neuronal connectivity within the mushroom bodies (learning centres) show performances remarkably similar to a large proportion of the empirical results without requiring any form of learning, or fine-tuning of neuronal parameters to replicate these results. Indeed, a model simply combining sensory input from both eyes onto single mushroom body neurons returned correct discriminations even with partial occlusion of the patterns and an impressive invariance to the location of the test patterns on the eyes. This model also replicated surprising failures of bees to discriminate certain seemingly highly different patterns, providing novel and useful insights into the inner workings facilitating and limiting the utilisation of visual cues in honeybees. Our results reveal that reliable generalization of visual information can be achieved through simple neuronal circuitry that is biologically plausible and can easily be accommodated in a tiny insect brain. PMID:28158189

  2. Insect Bio-inspired Neural Network Provides New Evidence on How Simple Feature Detectors Can Enable Complex Visual Generalization and Stimulus Location Invariance in the Miniature Brain of Honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Mark; Fernando, Chrisantha; Chittka, Lars

    2017-02-01

    The ability to generalize over naturally occurring variation in cues indicating food or predation risk is highly useful for efficient decision-making in many animals. Honeybees have remarkable visual cognitive abilities, allowing them to classify visual patterns by common features despite having a relatively miniature brain. Here we ask the question whether generalization requires complex visual recognition or whether it can also be achieved with relatively simple neuronal mechanisms. We produced several simple models inspired by the known anatomical structures and neuronal responses within the bee brain and subsequently compared their ability to generalize achromatic patterns to the observed behavioural performance of honeybees on these cues. Neural networks with just eight large-field orientation-sensitive input neurons from the optic ganglia and a single layer of simple neuronal connectivity within the mushroom bodies (learning centres) show performances remarkably similar to a large proportion of the empirical results without requiring any form of learning, or fine-tuning of neuronal parameters to replicate these results. Indeed, a model simply combining sensory input from both eyes onto single mushroom body neurons returned correct discriminations even with partial occlusion of the patterns and an impressive invariance to the location of the test patterns on the eyes. This model also replicated surprising failures of bees to discriminate certain seemingly highly different patterns, providing novel and useful insights into the inner workings facilitating and limiting the utilisation of visual cues in honeybees. Our results reveal that reliable generalization of visual information can be achieved through simple neuronal circuitry that is biologically plausible and can easily be accommodated in a tiny insect brain.

  3. Clay Bells: Edo Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The ceremonial copper and iron bells at the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art were the author's inspiration for an interdisciplinary unit with a focus on the contributions various cultures make toward the richness of a community. The author of this article describes an Edo bell-inspired ceramic project incorporating slab-building…

  4. Biological Inspiration in Human Centred Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Huo-sheng; LIU Jin-dong; Calderon Carlos A

    2004-01-01

    Human centred robotics (HCR) concerns with the development of various kinds of intelligent systems and robots that will be used in environments coexisting with humans. These systems and robots will be interactive and useful assistants/companions for people in different ages, situations, activities and environments in order to improve the quality of life. This paper presents the autors' current research work toward the development of advanced theory and technologies for HCR applications, based on inspiration from biological systems. More specifically, both bio-mimetic system modelling and robot learning by imitation are discussed respectively, and some preliminary results are demonstrated.

  5. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  6. Self-organization, embodiment, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Rolf; Lungarella, Max; Iida, Fumiya

    2007-11-16

    Robotics researchers increasingly agree that ideas from biology and self-organization can strongly benefit the design of autonomous robots. Biological organisms have evolved to perform and survive in a world characterized by rapid changes, high uncertainty, indefinite richness, and limited availability of information. Industrial robots, in contrast, operate in highly controlled environments with no or very little uncertainty. Although many challenges remain, concepts from biologically inspired (bio-inspired) robotics will eventually enable researchers to engineer machines for the real world that possess at least some of the desirable properties of biological organisms, such as adaptivity, robustness, versatility, and agility.

  7. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  8. Semiconductor Devices Inspired By and Integrated With Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, John [University of Illinois

    2012-04-25

    Biology is curved, soft and elastic; silicon wafers are not. Semiconductor technologies that can bridge this gap in form and mechanics will create new opportunities in devices that adopt biologically inspired designs or require intimate integration with the human body. This talk describes the development of ideas for electronics that offer the performance of state-of-the-art, wafer- based systems but with the mechanical properties of a rubber band. We explain the underlying materials science and mechanics of these approaches, and illustrate their use in (1) bio- integrated, ‘tissue-like’ electronics with unique capabilities for mapping cardiac and neural electrophysiology, and (2) bio-inspired, ‘eyeball’ cameras with exceptional imaging properties enabled by curvilinear, Petzval designs.

  9. Bio-inspired MEMS flow and inertial sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogendijk, Harmen

    2014-01-01

    In biology, mechanosensors, equipped with differing hair-like structures for signal pick-up, are sensitive to a variety of physical quantities like: acceleration, flow, rotational rate, balancing and IR-light. As an example, crickets use filiform hairs for sensing of low-frequency flows to obtain in

  10. Tribology of bio-inspired nanowrinkled films on ultrasoft substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Juergen M; Waldhauser, Wolfgang; Major, Lukasz; Teichert, Christian; Hartmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum) with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis). The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue): Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high and the initial friction coefficient of the film against the sliding counterpart low, e.g. found for DLC.

  11. Behavior of an adaptive bio-inspired spider web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyue; Behrooz, Majid; Huie, Andrew; Hartman, Alex; Gordaninejad, Faramarz

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of an artificial adaptive spider web with comparable behavior to a real spider web. First, the natural frequency and energy absorption ability of a passive web is studied. Next, a control system that consists of stepper motors, load cells and an Arduino, is constructed to mimic a spider's ability to control the tension of radial strings in the web. The energy related characteristics in the artificial spider web is examined while the pre-tension of the radial strings are varied. Various mechanical properties of a damaged spider web are adjusted to study their effect on the behavior of the web. It is demonstrated that the pre-tension and stiffness of the web's radial strings can significantly affect the natural frequency and the total energy of the full and damaged webs.

  12. (YIP 10) - Bio-Inspired Interfaces for Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Robotics, IEEE Transactions on, 2008. 24(2): p. 341-347. 43. Hu, D.L., et al., Water - walking devices. Experiments in Fluids, 2007. 43(5): p. 769-778...is one of the most effective adhesion systems found in nature, giving gecko lizards the ability to efficiently climb on both smooth and rough...investigations are discussed below and in more details in the following sections: Bioinspired surfaces: The foot of many of insects and lizards is covered by

  13. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structur...

  14. Towards Bio-inspired and Functionalized Peptide Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Peptide-based materials constitute a class of molecules that play an important role in many biological processes and are utilized by many organisms to interact with their environment. One of the most well-known examples is spider silk, a material produced by web-spinning spiders composed of repeatin

  15. Bio-inspired nanocomposite assemblies as smart skin components.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Gabriel A.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Allen, Amy; Brozik, Susan Marie; Edwards, Thayne L.; Frischknecht, Amalie Lucile; Wheeler, David Roger

    2011-09-01

    There is national interest in the development of sophisticated materials that can automatically detect and respond to chemical and biological threats without the need for human intervention. In living systems, cell membranes perform such functions on a routine basis, detecting threats, communicating with the cell, and triggering automatic responses such as the opening and closing of ion channels. The purpose of this project was to learn how to replicate simple threat detection and response functions within artificial membrane systems. The original goals toward developing 'smart skin' assemblies included: (1) synthesizing functionalized nanoparticles to produce electrochemically responsive systems within a lipid bilayer host matrices, (2) calculating the energetics of nanoparticle-lipid interactions and pore formation, and (3) determining the mechanism of insertion of nanoparticles in lipid bilayers via imaging and electrochemistry. There are a few reports of the use of programmable materials to open and close pores in rigid hosts such as mesoporous materials using either heat or light activation. However, none of these materials can regulate themselves in response to the detection of threats. The strategies we investigated in this project involve learning how to use programmable nanomaterials to automatically eliminate open channels within a lipid bilayer host when 'threats' are detected. We generated and characterized functionalized nanoparticles that can be used to create synthetic pores through the membrane and investigated methods of eliminating the pores either through electrochemistry, change in pH, etc. We also focused on characterizing the behavior of functionalized gold NPs in different lipid membranes and lipid vesicles and coupled these results to modeling efforts designed to gain an understanding of the interaction of nanoparticles within lipid assemblies.

  16. Bio-Inspired Miniature Direction Finding Acoustic Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmott, Daniel; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-07-01

    A narrowband MEMS direction finding sensor has been developed based on the mechanically coupled ears of the Ormia Ochracea fly. The sensor consists of two wings coupled at the middle and attached to a substrate using two legs. The sensor operates at its bending resonance frequency and has cosine directional characteristics similar to that of a pressure gradient microphone. Thus, the directional response of the sensor is symmetric about the normal axis making the determination of the direction ambiguous. To overcome this shortcoming two sensors were assembled with a canted angle similar to that employed in radar bearing locators. The outputs of two sensors were processed together allowing direction finding with no requirement of knowing the incident sound pressure level. At the bending resonant frequency of the sensors (1.69 kHz) an output voltage of about 25 V/Pa was measured. The angle uncertainty of the bearing of sound ranged from less than 0.3° close to the normal axis (0°) to 3.4° at the limits of coverage (±60°) based on the 30° canted angle used. These findings indicate the great potential to use dual MEMS direction finding sensor assemblies to locate sound sources with high accuracy.

  17. Bio-inspired smart sensors for a hexapod robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    EMICAB (Embodied Motion Intelligence for Cognitive, Autonomous Robots) is an EU founded project where a consortium of 4 Universities is working together to integrate smart body mechanics and sensors with intelligent planning and motor behavior in order to make a holistic approach to artificial...

  18. Bio-inspired novel design principles for artificial molecular motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugel, Thorsten; Lumme, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Since we have learned that biological organisms like ourselves are driven by tiny biological molecular motors we try to design and produce artificial molecular motors. However, despite the huge efforts since decades, man-made artificial molecular motors are still far from biological molecular motors or macroscopic motors with regard to performance, especially with respect to energy efficiency. This review highlights recent progress towards artificial molecular motors and discusses how their design and development can be guided by the design concepts of biological molecular motors or macroscopic motors.

  19. Bio-inspired MOF-based Catalysts for Lignin Valorization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Stavila, Vitalie; Ramakrishnan, Parthasarathi; Davis, Ryan Wesley

    2014-09-01

    Lignin is a potentially plentiful source of renewable organics, with %7E50Mtons/yr produced by the pulp/paper industry and 200-300 Mtons/yr projected production by a US biofuels industry. This industry must process approximately 1 billion tons of biomass to meet the US Renewable Fuel goals. However, there are currently no efficient processes for converting lignin to value-added chemicals and drop-in fuels. Lignin is therefore an opportunity for production of valuable renewable chemicals, but presents staggering technical and economic challenges due to the quantities of material involved and the strong chemical bonds comprising this polymer. Aggressive chemistries and high temperatures are required to degrade lignin without catalysts. Moreover, chemical non-uniformity among lignins leads to complex product mixtures that tend to repolymerize. Conventional petrochemical approaches (pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, gasification) are energy intensive (400-800 degC), require complicated separations, and remove valuable chemical functionality. Low-temperature (25-200 degC) alternatives are clearly desirable, but enzymes are thermally fragile and incompatible with liquid organic compounds, making them impractical for large-scale biorefining. Alternatively, homogeneous catalysts, such as recently developed vanadium complexes, must be separated from product mixtures, while many heterogenous catalysts involve costly noble metals. The objective of this project is to demonstrate proof of concept that an entirely new class of biomimetic, efficient, and industrially robust synthetic catalysts based on nanoporous Metal- Organic Frameworks (MOFs) can be developed. Although catalytic MOFs are known, catalysis of bond cleavage reactions needed for lignin degradation is completely unexplored. Thus, fundamental research is required that industry and most sponsoring agencies are currently unwilling to undertake. We introduce MOFs infiltrated with titanium and nickel species as catalysts for the C-O bond hydrogenolysis in model compounds, which mimic the b-O-4, a-O-4, and 4-O-5 linkages of natural lignin. The versatile IRMOF-74(n) series is proposed as a platform for creating efficient hydrogenolysis catalysts as it not only displays tunable pore sizes, but also has the required thermal and chemical stability. The catalytic C-O bond cleavage occurs at 10 bar hydrogen pressure and temperatures as low as 120 degC. The conversion efficiency of the aromatic ether substrates into the corresponding hydrocarbons and phenols varies as PhCH 2 CH 2 OPh > PhCH 2 OPh > PhOPh (Ph = phenyl), while the catalytic activity generally follows the following trend Ni@IRMOF-74>Ti@IRMOF-74>IRMOF-74. Conversions as high as 80%, coupled with good selectivity for hydrogenolysis vs. hydrogenation, highlight the potential of MOF-based catalysts for the selective cleavage of recalcitrant aryl-ether bonds found in lignin and other biopolymers. This project supports the DOE Integrated Biorefinery Program goals, the objective of which is to convert biomass to fuels and high-value chemicals, by addressing an important technology gap: the lack of low-temperature catalysts suitable for industrial lignin degradation. Biomass, which is %7E30 wt% lignin, constitutes a potentially major source of platform chemicals that could improve overall profitability and productivity of all energy-related products, thereby benefiting consumers and reducing national dependence on imported oil. Additionally, DoD has a strong interest in low-cost drop-in fuels (Navy Biofuel Initiative) and has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with DOE and USDA to develop a sustainable biofuels industry.

  20. Bio-Inspired Human-Level Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-25

    of Defense, Executive Services, Directorate (0704-0188).   Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person ...ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 20 19a.  NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Lt Col Brian Lutz 19b.  TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) +81-42-511...main challenges in artificial intelligence is to develop human-like machine learning technology that is fast, flexible, and reliable to adapt to a

  1. Adaptive bio-inspired navigation for planetary exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Exploration of planetary environments with current robotic technologies relies on human control and power-hungry active sensors to perform even the most elementary...

  2. TRIBOLOGY OF BIO-INSPIRED NANOWRINKLED FILMS ON ULTRASOFT SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen M. Lackner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomimetic design of new materials uses nature as antetype, learning from billions of years of evolution. This work emphasizes the mechanical and tribological properties of skin, combining both hardness and wear resistance of its surface (the stratum corneum with high elasticity of the bulk (epidermis, dermis, hypodermis. The key for combination of such opposite properties is wrinkling, being consequence of intrinsic stresses in the bulk (soft tissue: Tribological contact to counterparts below the stress threshold for tissue trauma occurs on the thick hard stratum corneum layer pads, while tensile loads smooth out wrinkles in between these pads. Similar mechanism offers high tribological resistance to hard films on soft, flexible polymers, which is shown for diamond-like carbon (DLC and titanium nitride thin films on ultrasoft polyurethane and harder polycarbonate substrates. The choice of these two compared substrate materials will show that ultra-soft substrate materials are decisive for the distinct tribological material. Hierarchical wrinkled structures of films on these substrates are due to high intrinsic compressive stress, which evolves during high energetic film growth. Incremental relaxation of these stresses occurs by compound deformation of film and elastic substrate surface, appearing in hierarchical nano-wrinkles. Nano-wrinkled topographies enable high elastic deformability of thin hard films, while overstressing results in zigzag film fracture along larger hierarchical wrinkle structures. Tribologically, these fracture mechanisms are highly important for ploughing and sliding of sharp and flat counterparts on hard-coated ultra-soft substrates like polyurethane. Concentration of polyurethane deformation under the applied normal loads occurs below these zigzag cracks. Unloading closes these cracks again. Even cyclic testing do not lead to film delamination and retain low friction behavior, if the adhesion to the substrate is high and the initial friction coefficient of the film against the sliding counterpart low, e.g. found for DLC.

  3. Vorticella: A Protozoan for Bio-Inspired Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjin Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for microscale engineering systems. Vorticella has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk. The oral cilia beat periodically, generating a water flow that translates food particles toward the animal at speeds in the order of 0.1–1 mm/s. The ciliary flow of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement and theoretical modeling, and tested for flow control and mixing in microfluidic systems. The spasmoneme contracts in a few milliseconds, coiling the stalk and moving the zooid at 15–90 mm/s. Because the spasmoneme generates tension in the order of 10–100 nN, powered by calcium ion binding, it serves as a model system for biomimetic actuators in microscale engineering systems. The spasmonemal contraction of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement of its dynamics and energetics, and both live and extracted Vorticellae have been tested for moving microscale objects. We describe past work to elucidate the contraction mechanism of the spasmoneme, recognizing that past and continuing efforts will increase the possibilities of using the spasmoneme as a microscale actuator as well as leading towards bioinspired actuators mimicking the spasmoneme.

  4. Bio-Inspired Stretchable Network-Based Intelligent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    temperature sensors, strain sensors, ultrasonic actuators, ultrasonic sensors, addressing and processing capabilities. During fabrica - tion, the substrate is...opposed to the typical gold or aluminum conductors demonstrated in the past, also complicated the fabrica - tion process, specifically the plasma etch

  5. Force generation of bio-inspired hover kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenheede, R.B.R.; Bernal, L.P.; Morrison, C.L.; Humbert, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the aerodynamics of an elliptical flap plate wing in pitch-plunge motion. Several wing motion kinematics are derived from the kinematics of the Agrius Convolvuli (hawk moth) in hover. The experiments are conducted at a Reynolds number of 4,

  6. Bio-inspired signal transduction with heterogeneous networks of nanoscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Javier; Manzanares, José A.; Mafé, Salvador

    2012-02-01

    Networks of single-electron transistors mimic some of the essential properties of neuron populations, because weak electrical signals trigger network oscillations with a frequency proportional to the input signal. Input potentials representing the pixel gray level of a grayscale image can then be converted into rhythms and the image can be recovered from these rhythms. Networks of non-identical nanoscillators complete the noisy transduction more reliably than identical ones. These results are important for signal processing schemes and could support recent studies suggesting that neuronal variability enhances the processing of biological information.

  7. Novel Approaches for Bio-inspired Mechano-Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drimus, Alin; Bilberg, Arne

    2011-01-01

    the principles of PVDF piezoelectric thin lms and how can they be used for sensing. The data acquisition system to process the information from the tactile arrays is covered further. We validate the proposed approaches by a number of applications: classi- fying a number of fruits and vegetables using only...

  8. Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials: Protein Cage Nano-Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    eluted from a and stirred overnight at room temperature. The product was collected Thermoelectric Biobasic size exclusion column (250 x I (mm)) in by...rigorously, kinetic plasticity in biological function is well documented hydrolysis allows the determination of conforma- for large complexes such as the

  9. A bio-inspired total synthesis of tetrahydrofuran lignans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Anna K F; Lumb, Jean-Philip

    2015-02-01

    Lignan natural products comprise a broad spectrum of biologically active secondary metabolites. Their structural diversity belies a common biosynthesis, which involves regio- and chemoselective oxidative coupling of propenyl phenols. Attempts to replicate this oxidative coupling have revealed significant challenges for controlling selectivity, and these challenges have thus far prevented the development of a unified biomimetic route to compounds of the lignan family. A practical solution is presented that hinges on oxidative ring opening of a diarylcyclobutane to intercept a putative biosynthetic intermediate. The effectiveness of this approach is demonstrated by the first total synthesis of tanegool in 4 steps starting from ferulic acid, as well as a concise synthesis of the prototypical furanolignan pinoresinol.

  10. Bio-Inspired Microsystem for Robust Genetic Assay Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyng Lue

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact integrated system-on-chip (SoC architecture solution for robust, real-time, and on-site genetic analysis has been proposed. This microsystem solution is noise-tolerable and suitable for analyzing the weak fluorescence patterns from a PCR prepared dual-labeled DNA microchip assay. In the architecture, a preceding VLSI differential logarithm microchip is designed for effectively computing the logarithm of the normalized input fluorescence signals. A posterior VLSI artificial neural network (ANN processor chip is used for analyzing the processed signals from the differential logarithm stage. A single-channel logarithmic circuit was fabricated and characterized. A prototype ANN chip with unsupervised winner-take-all (WTA function was designed, fabricated, and tested. An ANN learning algorithm using a novel sigmoid-logarithmic transfer function based on the supervised backpropagation (BP algorithm is proposed for robustly recognizing low-intensity patterns. Our results show that the trained new ANN can recognize low-fluorescence patterns better than an ANN using the conventional sigmoid function.

  11. Bio-inspired nanostructures for implementing vertical pn-junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Saffih, Faycal

    2011-08-04

    An apparatus, system, and method having a 3D pn-junction structure are presented. One embodiment of an apparatus includes a substrate, a first doped structure, and a second doped structure. In one embodiment, the first doped structure has a first doping type. The first doped structure may be formed above the substrate and extend outwardly from an upper surface of the substrate. In one embodiment, the second doped structure has a second doping type. The second doped structure may be formed above the substrate and in contact with the first doped structure. Additionally, the second doped structure may extend outwardly from the upper surface of the substrate.

  12. Bio-inspired microstructures in collagen type I hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Yahya; Verbridge, Scott S; Agah, Masoud

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a novel technique to fabricate complex type I collagen hydrogel structures, with varying depth and width defined by a single fabrication step. This technique takes advantage of reactive ion etching lag to fabricate three-dimensional (3-D) structures in silicon. Then, a polydimethylsiloxane replica was fabricated utilizing soft lithography and used as a stamp on collagen hydrogel to transfer these patterns. Endothelial cells were seeded on the hydrogel devices to measure their interaction with these more physiologically relevant cell culture surfaces. Confocal imaging was utilized to image the hydrogel devices to demonstrate the robustness of the fabrication technique, and to study the cell-extracellular matrix interaction after cell seeding. In this study, we observed that endothelial cells remodeled the sharp scallops of collagen hydrogel structures and compressed the structures with low degree of slope. Such patterning techniques will enhance the physiological relevance of existing 3-D cell culture platforms by providing a technical bridge between the high resolution yet planar techniques of standard lithography with more complex yet low resolution 3-D printing methods.

  13. Vorticella: A Protozoan for Bio-Inspired Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Sangjin Ryu; Pepper, Rachel E.; Moeto Nagai; Danielle C. France

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we introduce Vorticella as a model biological micromachine for microscale engineering systems. Vorticella has two motile organelles: the oral cilia of the zooid and the contractile spasmoneme in the stalk. The oral cilia beat periodically, generating a water flow that translates food particles toward the animal at speeds in the order of 0.1–1 mm/s. The ciliary flow of Vorticella has been characterized by experimental measurement and theoretical modeling, and tested for flow co...

  14. Bio-inspired hierarchical polymer fiber-carbon nanotube adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Zhuxia; Zhou, Yanmin; Chen, Bingan; Robertson, John; Federle, Walter; Hofmann, Stephan; Steiner, Ullrich; Goldberg-Oppenheimer, Pola

    2014-03-01

    Hierarchical pillar arrays consisting of micrometer-sized polymer setae covered by carbon nanotubes are engineered to deliver the role of spatulae, mimicking the fibrillar adhesive surfaces of geckos. These biomimetic structures conform well and achieve better attachment to rough surfaces, providing a new platform for a variety of applications.

  15. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  16. Adaptive bio-inspired navigation for planetary exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface exploration of planetary environments with current robotic technologies relies heavily on human control and power-hungry active sensors to perform even the...

  17. Bio-inspired ion selective crown-ether polymer membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    Development of unctional membranes that are capable of selectively recognizing and transporting ions have key importance for the recovery and separation of specific icons (e.d. K+, Li+, Na+) from multicomponent mixtures. In this thesis, new membrane materials based on crown ether-metal ion host-gues

  18. Bio-inspired wooden actuators for large scale applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rüggeberg

    Full Text Available Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules.

  19. Bio-Inspired Sensing and Display of Polarization Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-17

    34] S.-S. Lin, K. M. Yemelyanov, W. Q. Luis, E. N. Pugh, Jr., and N. Engheta, " Biomimetic , adaptive, optimum polarization-opponent imaging of...perception in insects? Polarimetric measurements applied to a polarization-sensitive model retina of Papilio butterflies ," The Journal of Experimental

  20. Robot fish bio-inspired fishlike underwater robots

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zheng; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal; Alvarado, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive coverage on robot fish including design, modeling and optimization, control, autonomous control and applications. It gathers contributions by the leading researchers in the area. Readers will find the book very useful for designing and building robot fish, not only in theory but also in practice. Moreover, the book discusses various important issues for future research and development, including design methodology, control methodology, and autonomous control strategy. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the fields of robotics, ocean engineering and related areas.

  1. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  2. Bio-Inspired Neural Model for Learning Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan; Duong, Vu; Suri, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    A neural-network mathematical model that, relative to prior such models, places greater emphasis on some of the temporal aspects of real neural physical processes, has been proposed as a basis for massively parallel, distributed algorithms that learn dynamic models of possibly complex external processes by means of learning rules that are local in space and time. The algorithms could be made to perform such functions as recognition and prediction of words in speech and of objects depicted in video images. The approach embodied in this model is said to be "hardware-friendly" in the following sense: The algorithms would be amenable to execution by special-purpose computers implemented as very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits that would operate at relatively high speeds and low power demands.

  3. Bio-inspired diversity for increasing attacker workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    Much of the traffic in modern computer networks is conducted between clients and servers, rather than client-toclient. As a result, servers represent a high-value target for collection and analysis of network traffic. As they reside at a single network location (i.e. IP/MAC address) for long periods of time. Servers present a static target for surveillance, and a unique opportunity to observe the network traffic. Although servers present a heightened value for attackers, the security community as a whole has shifted more towards protecting clients in recent years leaving a gap in coverage. In addition, servers typically remain active on networks for years, potentially decades. This paper builds on previous work that demonstrated a proof of concept leveraging existing technology for increasing attacker workload. Here we present our clean slate approach to increasing attacker workload through a novel hypervisor and micro-kernel, utilizing next generation virtualization technology to create synthetic diversity of the server's presence including the hardware components.

  4. A Distributed Bio-Inspired Method for Multisite Grid Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. De Falco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational grids assemble multisite and multiowner resources and represent the most promising solutions for processing distributed computationally intensive applications, each composed by a collection of communicating tasks. The execution of an application on a grid presumes three successive steps: the localization of the available resources together with their characteristics and status; the mapping which selects the resources that, during the estimated running time, better support this execution and, at last, the scheduling of the tasks. These operations are very difficult both because the availability and workload of grid resources change dynamically and because, in many cases, multisite mapping must be adopted to exploit all the possible benefits. As the mapping problem in parallel systems, already known as NP-complete, becomes even harder in distributed heterogeneous environments as in grids, evolutionary techniques can be adopted to find near-optimal solutions. In this paper an effective and efficient multisite mapping, based on a distributed Differential Evolution algorithm, is proposed. The aim is to minimize the time required to complete the execution of the application, selecting from among all the potential ones the solution which reduces the use of the grid resources. The proposed mapper is tested on different scenarios.

  5. ENHANCED BIO-INSPIRED ALGORITHM FOR CONSTRUCTING PHYLOGENETIC TREE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jayapriya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an enhanced algorithm based on one of the swarm intelligence techniques for constructing the Phylogenetic tree (PT, which is used to study the relationship between species. The main scheme is to formulate a PT, an NP- complete problem through an evolutionary algorithm called Artificial Bee Colony (ABC. The tradeoff between the accuracy and the computational time taken for constructing the tree makes way for new variants of algorithms. A new variant of ABC algorithm is proposed to promote the convergence rate of general ABC algorithm through recommending a new formula for searching solution. In addition, a searching step has been included so that it constructs the tree faster with a nearly optimal solution. Experimental results are compared with the ABC algorithm, Genetic Algorithm and the state-of-the-art techniques like unweighted pair group method using arithmetic mean, Neighbour-joining and Relaxed Neighbor Joining. For results discussion, we used one of the standard dataset Treesilla. The results show that the Enhanced ABC (EABC algorithm converges faster than others. The claim is supported by a distance metric called the Robinson-Foulds distance that finds the dissimilarity of the PT, constructed by different algorithms.

  6. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  7. An Ark of Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project suitable for middle and high school students in which they either combine identifiable parts from different animals to create one creature or take one animal and creatively distort it. Explains that this lesson enables students to be satisfied with their animal-inspired artwork. (CMK)

  8. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  9. Inspire & innovate : Endbericht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, T.; Lugtenaar, M.; Balendonck, J.; Ruckelshausen, A.; Wit, de R.

    2008-01-01

    Met het project Inspire & Innovate helpt de EU Nederlandse en Duitse bedrijven in met name de sectoren Food en Life Sciences op weg. Het project is bedoeld voor MKB-bedrijven in de Euregio Rijn-Waal en de EUREGIO die inhoudelijke en financiële ondersteuning zoeken om hun innovatieplannen door te

  10. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  11. Artificial heartbeat: design and fabrication of a biologically inspired pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Peter; Lewis, Amy; Stinchcombe, Andrew; Stephenson, Robert; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2013-12-01

    We present a biologically inspired actuator exhibiting a novel pumping action. The design of the 'artificial heartbeat' actuator is inspired by physical principles derived from the structure and function of the human heart. The actuator employs NiTi artificial muscles and is powered by electrical energy generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We describe the design and fabrication of the actuator and report the results of tests conducted to characterize its performance. This is the first artificial muscle-driven pump to be powered by MFCs fed on human urine. Results are presented in terms of the peak pumping pressure generated by the actuator, as well as for the volume of fluid transferred, when the actuator was powered by energy stored in a capacitor bank, which was charged by 24 MFCs fed on urine. The results demonstrate the potential for the artificial heartbeat actuator to be employed as a fluid circulation pump in future generations of MFC-powered robots ('EcoBots') that extract energy from organic waste. We also envisage that the actuator could in the future form part of a bio-robotic artwork or 'bio-automaton' that could help increase public awareness of research in robotics, bio-energy and biologically inspired design.

  12. Nature-inspired computing and optimization theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Nakamatsu, Kazumi

    2017-01-01

    The book provides readers with a snapshot of the state of the art in the field of nature-inspired computing and its application in optimization. The approach is mainly practice-oriented: each bio-inspired technique or algorithm is introduced together with one of its possible applications. Applications cover a wide range of real-world optimization problems: from feature selection and image enhancement to scheduling and dynamic resource management, from wireless sensor networks and wiring network diagnosis to sports training planning and gene expression, from topology control and morphological filters to nutritional meal design and antenna array design. There are a few theoretical chapters comparing different existing techniques, exploring the advantages of nature-inspired computing over other methods, and investigating the mixing time of genetic algorithms. The book also introduces a wide range of algorithms, including the ant colony optimization, the bat algorithm, genetic algorithms, the collision-based opti...

  13. Inspiral into Gargantua

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Warburton, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact object into a more massive black hole rotating very near the theoretical maximum. We find that once the body enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to (twice) the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual "chirping" behavior and, if detected, would constitute a "smoking gun" for a near-extremal black hole in nature.

  14. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  15. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  16. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.

  17. Improved Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm for Engineering Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinn-Tsong Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm is proposed for solving mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear problems in engineering design. The proposed Latin square quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (LSQEA combines Latin squares and quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (QGA. The novel contribution of the proposed LSQEA is the use of a QGA to explore the optimal feasible region in macrospace and the use of a systematic reasoning mechanism of the Latin square to exploit the better solution in microspace. By combining the advantages of exploration and exploitation, the LSQEA provides higher computational efficiency and robustness compared to QGA and real-coded GA when solving global numerical optimization problems with continuous variables. Additionally, the proposed LSQEA approach effectively solves mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear design optimization problems in which the design variables are integers, discrete values, and continuous values. The computational experiments show that the proposed LSQEA approach obtains better results compared to existing methods reported in the literature.

  18. Contributions of Cnn to Bio-Robotics and Brain Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm of Cellular Non-linear Networks is ubiquitously applied in different research fields. In this chapter the breakthrough in bio-robotics and brain science research is focused. In particular the implementation of CNN-based CPGs is discussed proposing different implementations on bio-inspired robots: hexapods, lamprey-like structures, crab-inspired platforms and others. Furthermore the locomotion control system has been extended following a bottom-up procedure to include higher cognitive capabilities. The CNN paradigm was applied to design and implement perceptual architecture inspired by the insect world. Reaction-Diffusion CNN systems have been used to model the arousal of behavioral solution optimized to the on-going environmental conditions. An approach based on Turing patterns is illustrated including experimental results on navigation control with a roving robot. Finally, interesting works based on the olfactory system of insects, modeled with the Winner-less Competition principle, are reported and discussed.

  19. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  20. Spider web-inspired acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniaci, Marco; Krushynska, Anastasiia; Movchan, Alexander B.; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-08-01

    Spider silk is a remarkable example of bio-material with superior mechanical characteristics. Its multilevel structural organization of dragline and viscid silk leads to unusual and tunable properties, extensively studied from a quasi-static point of view. In this study, inspired by the Nephila spider orb web architecture, we propose a design for mechanical metamaterials based on its periodic repetition. We demonstrate that spider-web metamaterial structure plays an important role in the dynamic response and wave attenuation mechanisms. The capability of the resulting structure to inhibit elastic wave propagation in sub-wavelength frequency ranges is assessed, and parametric studies are performed to derive optimal configurations and constituent mechanical properties. The results show promise for the design of innovative lightweight structures for tunable vibration damping and impact protection, or the protection of large scale infrastructure such as suspended bridges.

  1. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  2. Performance Comparison of Hybrid GA-PSO Based Tuned IMMs for Maneuver Target Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Jatoth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target tracking is very important field of research as it has wider applications in defense as well as civilian applications. Kalman filter is generally used for such applications. When the process and measurements are non linear extensions of Kalman filters like Extended Kalman Filter, Unscented Kalman Filters are widely used. UKF can give estimations up to second order characteristics of random process. The target is maneuvering and switching among different models like constant velocity (CV, constant acceleration (CA or constant turn (CT, Interactive Multiple Models (IMM are employed. Implementation of IMM filters for any application is difficult because of initialization of Kalman filter i,e, tuning of filter has to be performed before applying to real time situations. It demands prior estimations of Noise covariance matrices which are left for engineering intuitions. This paper presents the nonlinear state estimation using IMM and tuning of the filter is done using bio-inspired algorithms like PSO GA and Hybrid GA-PSO.

  3. When science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  4. Mimosa-inspired design of a flexible pressure sensor with touch sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bin; Gong, Shu; Ma, Zheng; Yap, Lim Wei; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-04-24

    A bio-inspired flexible pressure sensor is generated with high sensitivity (50.17 kPa(-1)), quick responding time (sensor substrates results from the direct molding of natural mimosa leaves, presenting a simple, environment-friendly and easy scale-up fabrication process for these flexible pressure sensors.

  5. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  6. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  7. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  8. Wireless Distribution and Use of Bio-sensor Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten; Kristensen, Margit; Christensen, Erika Frischknecht

    2007-01-01

      During emergency response use of wired bio-sensors create problems for the response workers. It is difficult to transport patients and checking of data requires you to be next to the patient. We will report on work in progress regarding development of a wireless bio-monitor system that supports...... distribution and use by all involved parties of bio-sensor data during emergency response. The system is being developed in close cooperation between doctors, paramedics and IT specialists using qualitative methods including ethnographically inspired field work and simulations of future work. The system...... evaluations have already demonstrated the usefulness of being able to move patients without having to take care of wires and being able to inspect bio-sensor data without being next to the patient. However, new problems have also emerged when no wires connect a patient to a display. E.g. how do you know whose...

  9. Theosophically Inspired Movements in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybdal, René

    2016-01-01

    The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored.......The theosophical movement has had a significant influence on the esoteric milieu in Denmark during the 20th Century. In this paper the inspiration on other Groups in Denmark is explored....

  10. Bio-microfluidics: biomaterials and biomimetic designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domachuk, Peter; Tsioris, Konstantinos; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2010-01-12

    Bio-microfluidics applies biomaterials and biologically inspired structural designs (biomimetics) to microfluidic devices. Microfluidics, the techniques for constraining fluids on the micrometer and sub-micrometer scale, offer applications ranging from lab-on-a-chip to optofluidics. Despite this wealth of applications, the design of typical microfluidic devices imparts relatively simple, laminar behavior on fluids and is realized using materials and techniques from silicon planar fabrication. On the other hand, highly complex microfluidic behavior is commonplace in nature, where fluids with nonlinear rheology flow through chaotic vasculature composed from a range of biopolymers. In this Review, the current state of bio-microfluidic materials, designs and applications are examined. Biopolymers enable bio-microfluidic devices with versatile functionalization chemistries, flexibility in fabrication, and biocompatibility in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric materials such as alginate, collagen, chitosan, and silk are being explored as bulk and film materials for bio-microfluidics. Hydrogels offer options for mechanically functional devices for microfluidic systems such as self-regulating valves, microlens arrays and drug release systems, vital for integrated bio-microfluidic devices. These devices including growth factor gradients to study cell responses, blood analysis, biomimetic capillary designs, and blood vessel tissue culture systems, as some recent examples of inroads in the field that should lead the way in a new generation of microfluidic devices for bio-related needs and applications. Perhaps one of the most intriguing directions for the future will be fully implantable microfluidic devices that will also integrate with existing vasculature and slowly degrade to fully recapitulate native tissue structure and function, yet serve critical interim functions, such as tissue maintenance, drug release, mechanical support, and cell delivery.

  11. Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance%Human-inspired lighting the intention control in robot systems with of glare avoidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Shengyong; Guan Qiu; Liu Sheng; Bi Dexue

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents some human-inspired strategies for lighting control in a robot system for best scene interpretation, where the main intention is to avoid possible glares or highlights occurring in images. It firstly compares the characteristics of human eyes and robot eyes. Then some evaluation criteria are addressed to assess the lighting conditions. A bio-inspired method is adopted to avoid the visual glare which is caused by either direct illumination from large light sources or indirect illumination reflected by smooth surfaces. Appropriate methods are proposed to optimize the pose and optical parameters of the light source and the vision camera.

  12. Product and technology innovation: what can biomimicry inspire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Biomimicry (bio- meaning life in Greek, and -mimesis, meaning to copy) is a growing field that seeks to interpolate natural biological mechanisms and structures into a wide range of applications. The rise of interest in biomimicry in recent years has provided a fertile ground for innovation. This review provides an eco-system based analysis of biomimicry inspired technology and product innovation. A multi-disciplinary framework has been developed to accomplish this analysis and the findings focus on the areas that have been most strikingly affected by the application of biomimicry and also highlight the emerging trends and opportunity areas.

  13. Holography inspired stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Holography inspired stringy hadrons (HISH) is a set of models that describe hadrons: mesons, baryons and glueballs as strings in flat four dimensional space-time. The models are based on a "map" from stringy hadrons of holographic confining backgrounds. In this note we review the "derivation" of the models. We start with a brief reminder of the passage from the AdS5 ×S5 string theory to certain flavored confining holographic models. We then describe the string configurations in holographic backgrounds that correspond to a Wilson line, a meson, a baryon and a glueball. The key ingredients of the four dimensional picture of hadrons are the "string endpoint mass" and the "baryonic string vertex". We determine the classical trajectories of the HISH. We review the current understanding of the quantization of the hadronic strings. We end with a summary of the comparison of the outcome of the HISH models with the PDG data about mesons and baryons. We extract the values of the tension, masses and intercepts from best fits, write down certain predictions for higher excited hadrons and present attempts to identify glueballs.

  14. [Medicine inspired by poverty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, H

    2000-05-13

    Since his arrival in Egypt in 1994 the author joined a number of archaeological expeditions as a surveyor and part-time physician. During this latter activity he came into contact with the beliefs and practices of the local workmen and those of the Ababda Bedouin in particular. Living a harsh life in the southern part of the Egyptian Eastern Desert, their medicine seems to be inspired by poverty. Widely used for all internal disorders are 'kaya bil-naar': oval scars made with red-hot metal instruments. Another, less common, form of scarification is 'mi'ah-hed'asher', three parallel lines carved deeply into the cheek of the patient. 'Muhawy' is the bite of a snake into the earlobe of the patient, to prevent snake-bites. Another prophylactic is the 'higab', a small leather pouch containing a magical object or text. Therapies for less serious disorders include the use of herbs, spices and foodstuffs, often prepared in special ways. Externally, car fuel and axle grease are widely used. With the development of the Red Sea coast for tourism, the life of the Ababda Bedouin will change fundamentally. The above practices are likely to be replaced by Western medicine, probably a change for the better for these people.

  15. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about‐to‐be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information

  16. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  17. 集成无线传感器-执行器网络的主动结构:一种仿生控制框架%Active structures integrated with wireless sensor and actuator networks:a bio-inspired control framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-cheng YANG; Yan-bin SHEN; Yao-zhi LUO‡

    2016-01-01

    practical use of AS in civil engineering. Moreover, additive errors may be produced because of the discrepancy between analytic models and real structures. To overcome these limitations, this paper presents a compound system called WAS, which combines AS with a wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN). A bio-inspired control framework imitating the activity of the nervous systems of animals is proposed for WAS. A typical example is tested for verification. In the example, a triangular tensegrity prism that aims to maintain its original height is integrated with a WSAN that consists of a central controller, three actuators, and three sensors. The result demonstrates the feasibility of the pro-posed concept and control framework in cases of unknown loads that include different types, distributions, magnitudes, and directions. The proposed control framework can also act as a supplementary means to improve the efficiency and accuracy of control frameworks based on a common stochastic search.

  18. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratoriesThe Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  19. Bio Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Chemistry and biology laboratories The Bio Engineering Laboratory (BeL) is theonly full spectrum biotechnology capability within the Department...

  20. Exploring the Applications of Bio-Eco Architecture for Sustainable Design and Construction process

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Naguib,M; A. M Hanafi

    2013-01-01

    It has been commonly noted that the main perception of nature influenced forms isbasically aesthetic while little concern is given to the importance of inspiring from naturein the construction and structural performance of buildings as well as in the naturalecological architectural solutions, thus, this paper will focus on bio-inspired architectureapproach which embraces the eco-friendly practices of sustainable construction, the useof natural materials and the energy conservation by mimickin...

  1. Exploring the Applications of Bio-Eco Architecture for Sustainable Design and Construction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Naguib

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been commonly noted that the main perception of nature influenced forms isbasically aesthetic while little concern is given to the importance of inspiring from naturein the construction and structural performance of buildings as well as in the naturalecological architectural solutions, thus, this paper will focus on bio-inspired architectureapproach which embraces the eco-friendly practices of sustainable construction, the useof natural materials and the energy conservation by mimicking the natural life.A number of bio-inspired architectural designs will be illustrated presenting acomprehensive analysis of bio-inspired role to be played in developing the concept ofecological sustainable design and construction in contemporary architecture.Building must teach the society with new ecological moral, thus, a better understanding ofbiological morphogenesis can usefully inspire architectural design to resolve challengesthat have already been resolved by nature that will not only help in creating a healthyenvironment but will also produce positive environmental impacts.Bio-Eco Architecture harnesses and replicates the principles found in nature in order tocreate built environment which benefit people and other living creatures as well as safe-guarding the biodiversity; thus, Biomimetics in architecture will help develop a culture ofactive environmental design.

  2. Biologically Inspired Flagella-Templated Silica Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wonjin

    The desire and need for various types of nanostructures have been met with challenges of feasibility, reproducibility, and long fabrication time. To work towards improved bottom-up methods of nanofabrication, bacterial flagella are particularly attractive bio-templates for nanotubes due to their tubular structures and small inner and outer diameters. In this work, flagella isolated from Salmonella typhimurium are used as bio-templates to fabricate silica mineralized nanotubes. The process involves as well-controlled hydrolysis and condensation reaction with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), followed by the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). By controlling the concentration of TEOS and the reaction time, a simple and precise method is developed for creating silica-mineralized flagella nanotubes (SMFNs) with various thicknesses of the silica layer. In addition, the SMFNs are further modified to multifunctional nanotubes by coating metal nanoparticles (NPs) or metal oxide NPs such as gold, palladium, and iron oxide. The metallized SMFNs are achieved through reactions including reductive metallization or oxidative hydrolysis. The results from these studies provide evidence for the complete coating of SMFNs with uniform metal NP sizes and high surface area coverage. The metallized SMFNs are found to be electrically conductive along their network structures. The current-voltage characteristics show remarkably improved electrical conductivities depending on the types of metal NPs loading and SMFN networks concentration. The biologically inspired SMFNs with metal loading will allow have controlled electrical properties that can lead to the potential of creating unique and precise nanoelectronic materials. Lastly, the randomly entangled SMFNs are characterized to demonstrate their capabilities for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface applications.

  3. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  4. Communication analysis for feedback control of civil infrastructure using cochlea-inspired sensing nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckens, Courtney A.; Cook, Ireana; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2016-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as a reliable, low-cost alternative to the traditional wired sensing paradigm. While such networks have made significant progress in the field of structural monitoring, significantly less development has occurred for feedback control applications. Previous work in WSNs for feedback control has highlighted many of the challenges of using this technology including latency in the wireless communication channel and computational inundation at the individual sensing nodes. This work seeks to overcome some of those challenges by drawing inspiration from the real-time sensing and control techniques employed by the biological central nervous system and in particular the mammalian cochlea. A novel bio-inspired wireless sensor node was developed that employs analog filtering techniques to perform time-frequency decomposition of a sensor signal, thus encompassing the functionality of the cochlea. The node then utilizes asynchronous sampling of the filtered signal to compress the signal prior to communication. This bio-inspired sensing architecture is extended to a feedback control application in order to overcome the traditional challenges currently faced by wireless control. In doing this, however, the network experiences high bandwidths of low-significance information exchange between nodes, resulting in some lost data. This study considers the impact of this lost data on the control capabilities of the bio-inspired control architecture and finds that it does not significantly impact the effectiveness of control.

  5. Nanometer scale fabrication and optical response of InGaN/GaN quantum disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Chun; Higo, Akio; Kiba, Takayuki; Thomas, Cedric; Chen, Shula; Lee, Chang Yong; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Katayama, Ryuji; Shojiki, Kanako; Takayama, Junichi; Yamashita, Ichiro; Murayama, Akihiro; Chi, Gou-Chung; Yu, Peichen; Samukawa, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we demonstrate homogeneously distributed In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN quantum disks (QDs), with an average diameter below 10 nm and a high density of 2.1 × 1011 cm-2, embedded in 20 nm tall nanopillars. The scalable top-down fabrication process involves the use of self-assembled ferritin bio-templates as the etch mask, spin coated on top of a strained In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN single quantum well (SQW) structure, followed by a neutral beam etch (NBE) method. The small dimensions of the iron cores inside ferritin and nearly damage-free process enabled by the NBE jointly contribute to the observation of photoluminescence (PL) from strain-relaxed In0.3Ga0.7N/GaN QDs at 6 K. The large blueshift of the peak wavelength by over 70 nm manifests a strong reduction of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) within the QD structure, which also agrees well with the theoretical prediction using a 3D Schrödinger equation solver. The current results hence pave the way towards the realization of large-scale III-N quantum structures using the combination of bio-templates and NBE, which is vital for the development of next-generation lighting and communication devices.

  6. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  7. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-11-11

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature's glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  8. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar Kaushik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs, a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  9. Bio-energy. Innovators talking; Bio-energie. Innovators aan het woord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Qualitative studies have been conducted of the results of completed projects focused on energy innovation, spread over the seven themes of the top sector Energy: Energy saving in industry, Energy conservation in the built environment, Gas, Bio-energy, Smart grids, Offshore Wind, Solar PV. This provides insight into the follow-up activities and lessons of some EOS (Energy Research Subsidy) completed projects with the aim to inspire, connect and strengthen the TKIs (Topconsortia for Knowledge and Innovation) and individual companies and researchers working on energy innovation. This report concerns the research on bio-energy [Dutch] Er is een kwalitatief onderzoek uitgevoerd naar de resultaten van afgeronde projecten gericht op energie-innovatie, verdeeld over de zeven thema's van de topsector Energie: Energiebesparing in de industrie; Energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving; Gas; Bio-energie; Smart grids; Wind op zee; Zon-pv. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in de vervolgactiviteiten en lessen van een aantal afgesloten EOS-projecten (Energie Onderzoek Subsidie) met het oog op het inspireren, verbinden en versterken van de TKI's (Topconsortia voor Kennis en Innovatie) en individuele bedrijven en onderzoekers die werken aan energie-innovatie. Dit rapport betreft het onderzoek naar bio-energie.

  10. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-11-25

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m.

  11. Bios data analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Sugerman, A; Kovacevic, L; Kauffman, L; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Patel, M; Konecki, J

    2005-10-01

    The Bios Data Analyzer (BDA) is a set of computer programs (CD-ROM, in Sabelli et al., Bios. A Study of Creation, 2005) for new time series analyses that detects and measures creative phenomena, namely diversification, novelty, complexes, nonrandom complexity. We define a process as creative when its time series displays these properties. They are found in heartbeat interval series, the exemplar of bios .just as turbulence is the exemplar of chaos, in many other empirical series (galactic distributions, meteorological, economic and physiological series), in biotic series generated mathematically by the bipolar feedback, and in stochastic noise, but not in chaotic attractors. Differencing, consecutive recurrence and partial autocorrelation indicate nonrandom causation, thereby distinguishing chaos and bios from random and random walk. Embedding plots distinguish causal creative processes (e.g. bios) that include both simple and complex components of variation from stochastic processes (e.g. Brownian noise) that include only complex components, and from chaotic processes that decay from order to randomness as the number of dimensions is increased. Varying bin and dimensionality show that entropy measures symmetry and variety, and that complexity is associated with asymmetry. Trigonometric transformations measure coexisting opposites in time series and demonstrate bipolar, partial, and uncorrelated opposites in empirical processes and bios, supporting the hypothesis that bios is generated by bipolar feedback, a concept which is at variance with standard concepts of polar and complementary opposites.

  12. Inspiring Student Self-Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Brackett

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While normally appreciative of the invitation to join colleagues in a discussion of pedagogy and what “works” in the classroom, I have in most instances reluctantly participated in discussion of student motivation. I dip my toe into this philosophical quagmire only if permitted license to substitute the phrase student inspiration in place of student motivation. I also find it helpful to turn the rhetorical tables, as it were, and consider self-motivation on the part of students. The concept of individuals who hold some sense of self that a classroom mentor may nurture through student inspiration is one in which I place a modicum of trust. To “inspire” is literally to “breathe in,” to actively pull sustenance from a proffered external source. Active student determination based on some sense of self may couple with instructor inspiration to promote academic success.

  13. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  14. BioSentinel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — BioSentinel technology will provide critical information about how living systems, from humans down to cells, adapt, respond and survive in deep space, beyond LEO...

  15. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  16. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Thomas F

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have been contributed to, and are available from, the Registry of Standard Biological Parts. Results Here we extended the same advantages of BioBrick standard biological parts to the plasmid-based vectors that are used to provide and propagate BioBrick parts. We developed a process for engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts. We designed a new set of BioBrick parts that encode many useful vector functions. We combined the new parts to make a BioBrick base vector that facilitates BioBrick vector construction. We demonstrated the utility of the process by constructing seven new BioBrick vectors. We also successfully used the resulting vectors to assemble and propagate other BioBrick standard biological parts. Conclusion We extended the principles of part reuse and standardization to BioBrick vectors. As a result, myriad new BioBrick vectors can be readily produced from all existing and newly designed BioBrick parts. We invite the synthetic biology community to (1 use the process to make and share new BioBrick vectors; (2 expand the current collection of BioBrick vector parts; and (3 characterize and improve the available collection of BioBrick vector parts.

  17. BioArchitecture

    OpenAIRE

    Gunning, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Volume 1 has defined the scope of BioArchitecture. From the outset we have strived to ensure that BioArchitecture is not limited to the three major polymer systems of the cytoplasm. I am happy to say that a cursory glance at the contents of volume 1 makes it clear that we are interested in all aspects of bioarchitecture from molecules to polymers to cells to tissue to the organism.

  18. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

  19. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  20. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  1. Ligand "Brackets" for Ga-Ga Bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedushkin, Igor L; Skatova, Alexandra A; Dodonov, Vladimir A; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Chudakova, Valentina A; Piskunov, Alexander V; Demeshko, Serhiy; Baranov, Evgeny V

    2016-09-06

    The reactivity of digallane (dpp-Bian)Ga-Ga(dpp-Bian) (1) (dpp-Bian = 1,2-bis[(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imino]acenaphthene) toward acenaphthenequinone (AcQ), sulfur dioxide, and azobenzene was investigated. The reaction of 1 with AcQ in 1:1 molar ratio proceeds via two-electron reduction of AcQ to give (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)Ga(dpp-Bian) (2), in which diolate [AcQ](2-) acts as "bracket" for the Ga-Ga bond. The interaction of 1 with AcQ in 1:2 molar ratio proceeds with an oxidation of the both dpp-Bian ligands as well as of the Ga-Ga bond to give (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (3). At 330 K in toluene complex 2 decomposes to give compounds 3 and 1. The reaction of complex 2 with atmospheric oxygen results in oxidation of a Ga-Ga bond and affords (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-AcQ)(μ2-O)Ga(dpp-Bian) (4). The reaction of digallane 1 with SO2 produces, depending on the ratio (1:2 or 1:4), dithionites (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-O2S-SO2)Ga(dpp-Bian) (5) and (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-O2S-SO2)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (6). In compound 5 the Ga-Ga bond is preserved and supported by dithionite dianionic bracket. In compound 6 the gallium centers are bridged by two dithionite ligands. Both 5 and 6 consist of dpp-Bian radical anionic ligands. Four-electron reduction of azobenzene with 1 mol equiv of digallane 1 leads to complex (dpp-Bian)Ga(μ2-NPh)2Ga(dpp-Bian) (7). Paramagnetic compounds 2-7 were characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, and their molecular structures were established by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Magnetic behavior of compounds 2, 5, and 6 was investigated by superconducting quantum interference device technique in the range of 2-295 K.

  2. Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2014-01-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

  3. Observing binary inspiral with LIGO

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, L S

    1994-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a binary neutron star or black hole system leads to orbital decay and the eventual coalescence of the binary's components. During the last several minutes before the binary components coalesce, the radiation will enter the bandwidth of the United States Laser Inteferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and the French/Italian VIRGO gravitational radiation detector. The combination of detector sensitivity, signal strength, and source density and distribution all point to binary inspiral as the most likely candidate for observation among all the anticipated sources of gravitational radiation for LIGO/VIRGO. Here I review briefly some of the questions that are posed to theorists by the impending observation of binary inspiral.

  4. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...... strength, analyte concentration, and analyte relative orientation on nanowire surface are illustrated. Wherever possible, a comparison to experimental data available in literature is given, displaying the potential of BioFETSIM for interpreting experimental results....

  5. Engineering BioBrick vectors from BioBrick parts

    OpenAIRE

    Knight Thomas F; Endy Drew; Shetty Reshma P

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The underlying goal of synthetic biology is to make the process of engineering biological systems easier. Recent work has focused on defining and developing standard biological parts. The technical standard that has gained the most traction in the synthetic biology community is the BioBrick standard for physical composition of genetic parts. Parts that conform to the BioBrick assembly standard are BioBrick standard biological parts. To date, over 2,000 BioBrick parts have ...

  6. Kirigami artificial muscles with complex biologically inspired morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareh, Sina; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present bio-inspired smart structures which exploit the actuation of flexible ionic polymer composites and the kirigami design principle. Kirigami design is used to convert planar actuators into active 3D structures capable of large out-of-plane displacement and that replicate biological mechanisms. Here we present the burstbot, a fluid control and propulsion mechanism based on the atrioventricular cuspid valve, and the vortibot, a spiral actuator based on Vorticella campanula, a ciliate protozoa. Models derived from biological counterparts are used as a platform for design optimization and actuator performance measurement. The symmetric and asymmetric fluid interactions of the burstbot are investigated and the effectiveness in fluid transport applications is demonstrated. The vortibot actuator is geometrically optimized as a camera positioner capable of 360° scanning. Experimental results for a one-turn spiral actuator show complex actuation derived from a single degree of freedom control signal.

  7. Robotics — Inspired from Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Huosheng Hu

    2012-01-01

    It is my great pleasure to welcome you to a new open access journal, Robotics, which is dedicated to both the foundations of artificial intelligence, bio-mechanics, mechatronics and control theories, and the real-world applications of robotic perception, cognition and actions. This includes the innovative scientific trends, and discovery resulting from solving new challenges in the field of robotics. Its open access and rapid dissemination are the unique features separating this journal from ...

  8. BioMEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Explosive growth in the field of Microsystem Technology has introduced a variety of promising products in major disciplines from microelectronics to life sciences. 'Biomes' is a discipline which focuses on microsystems for living systems. This work presents the exciting field of bio-microsystems.

  9. Bio-Culturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2007-01-01

    The article argues on the basis of analyses of successful films for children that not only cultural determinants but also innate determinats are important, and that film studies should combine cultural studies with cognitive theory, evolutionary theory and neuroscience, an approach that is called...... Bio-culturalism....

  10. Bio-technologies; Biotechnologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grawitz, X. [Systems Bio Industries, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a series of transparencies which describes the measures taken by Systems Bio-Industries company to adapt its central heating plants, turbines, engines and dryers to the new French 2910 by-law about thermal efficiency and environmental impact of heating plants. The project of development of a cogeneration system in the Angouleme site is briefly described. (J.S.)

  11. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  12. Robotics — Inspired from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huosheng Hu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It is my great pleasure to welcome you to a new open access journal, Robotics, which is dedicated to both the foundations of artificial intelligence, bio-mechanics, mechatronics and control theories, and the real-world applications of robotic perception, cognition and actions. This includes the innovative scientific trends, and discovery resulting from solving new challenges in the field of robotics. Its open access and rapid dissemination are the unique features separating this journal from all existing journals dedicated to robotics. [...

  13. A Scalable Communication Mechanism in Service Emergence Based on Bio-network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-bin; DING Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    A scalable communication mechanism is proposed for service emergence based on bio-network. Service emergence is a novel model inspired by the characteristics of emergence and self-evolution in biological neuroendocrine and ininlune system,emergent conununication means a group conununication of mobile bio-entities. A series of protocol and algorithm are presented within frequently bioentities migration and failure,it includes distribution and parailelization of message propagation method,a token-ring protocol that considerably improves the performance of emergence,and failure detection mechanisms.Experiment results show the desired capability via the proposed solution.

  14. Overview of BioCreAtIvE task 1B: normalized gene lists

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschman, Lynette; Colosimo, Marc; Morgan, Alexander; Yeh, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Background Our goal in BioCreAtIve has been to assess the state of the art in text mining, with emphasis on applications that reflect real biological applications, e.g., the curation process for model organism databases. This paper summarizes the BioCreAtIvE task 1B, the "Normalized Gene List" task, which was inspired by the gene list supplied for each curated paper in a model organism database. The task was to produce the correct list of unique gene identifiers for the genes and gene product...

  15. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  16. Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

  17. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB−Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee≳8 meV, for NB−Lp,i=10−3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1≃(10–30 meV (corresponding to ∑imi≃(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin⁡δ (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  18. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  19. Learning from nature: Nature-inspired algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albeanu, Grigore; Madsen, Henrik; Popentiu-Vladicescu, Florin

    2016-01-01

    During last decade, the nature has inspired researchers to develop new algorithms. The largest collection of nature-inspired algorithms is biology-inspired: swarm intelligence (particle swarm optimization, ant colony optimization, cuckoo search, bees' algorithm, bat algorithm, firefly algorithm etc...... on collective social behaviour of organisms, researchers have developed optimization strategies taking into account not only the individuals, but also groups and environment. However, learning from nature, new classes of approaches can be identified, tested and compared against already available algorithms....... This work reviews the most effective nature-inspired algorithms and describes learning strategies based on nature oriented thinking. Examples and the benefits obtained from applying nature-inspired strategies in test generation, learners group optimization, and artificial immune systems for learning...

  20. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.

    2016-03-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  1. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  2. bioética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier León Correa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el inicio de la publicación de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, hemos podido comprobar una evolución importante en el desarrollo de esta disciplina, tanto en España como en Latinoamérica, que son los ámbitos donde muy especialmente se difunde. Trataré de señalar los aspectos que considero de mayor interés en los inicios y desarrollo de esta nueva disciplina, para poder entender mejor los retos actualesque enfrenta y cuáles son las líneas que ha seguido la revista en esta andadura inicial, y que deberá seguir para responder a los retos de los próximos años. Es un reto la realidad que vivimos en nuestros países, con la aprobación de leyes impuestas desde los poderes públicos con muy poca o ninguna discusión social que se parezca de lejos al diálogo tolerante racional que propugna la Bioética; con las reformas aceleradas e indecisas de los sistemas de salud; con el cambio del rol del médico y de la relación médico-paciente desde un paternalismo aún presente a un modelo participativo o contractual sin defi nir claramente; con importantes desigualdades en el acceso a la atención de salud dentro de cada propio país, pero a la vez con un creciente reconocimiento de los derechos de los pacientes y de su necesaria participación para mejorar la calidad de la asistencia clínica. Tiene especial importancia valorar cuáles han sido los instrumentos del éxito y de la difusión de la Bioética clínica, y cuáles pueden ser las nuevas propuestas para el desarrollo de la Bioética como una disciplina de debate ético social y político, ligada a las exigencias éticas de la justicia y el desarrollo social. Hemos de ver cuál ha sido el aporte en estos quince años de la revista Cuadernos de Bioética, con la colaboración de cientos de autores de diversos países, en que se ha mantenido fi el a la propuesta de los que la iniciamos en Santiago de Compostela en el año 1990: construir un buen aporte al debate actual de Bio

  3. Bio-forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J. (Jill)

    2004-01-01

    Bioforensics presents significant technical challenges. Determining if an outbreak is natural or not, and then providing evidence to trace an outbreak to its origin is very complex. Los Alamos scientists pioneered research and development that has generated leading edge strain identification methods based on sequence data. Molecular characterization of environmental background samples enable development of highly specific pathogen signatures. Economic impacts of not knowing the relationships at the molecular level Many different kinds of data are needed for DNA-based bio-forensics.

  4. Bioética

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cássia Regina Rodrigues [UNESP; Nunes,Amauri Porto

    2004-01-01

    A bioética é um novo campo de conhecimento e uma corrente de pensamento que vem se desenvolvendo amplamente no Brasil, principalmente a partir da década de 90. Nesse artigo buscamos contextualizar o seu surgimento, justificando a necessidade da criação desse neologismo, uma vez que a ética estava de certo modo esquecida, em relação à técnica, restringindo-se apenas à ética profissional. Hoje nos deparamos com uma ampla gama de produções nessa área que ajudam a nortear nossa ação enquanto cida...

  5. 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Haqiq, Abdelkrim; Alimi, Adel; Mezzour, Ghita; Rokbani, Nizar; Muda, Azah

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the latest research in hybrid intelligent systems. It includes 57 carefully selected papers from the 16th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2016) and the 8th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC 2016), held on November 21–23, 2016 in Marrakech, Morocco. HIS - NaBIC 2016 was jointly organized by the Machine Intelligence Research Labs (MIR Labs), USA; Hassan 1st University, Settat, Morocco and University of Sfax, Tunisia. Hybridization of intelligent systems is a promising research field in modern artificial/computational intelligence and is concerned with the development of the next generation of intelligent systems. The conference’s main aim is to inspire further exploration of the intriguing potential of hybrid intelligent systems and bio-inspired computing. As such, the book is a valuable resource for practicing engineers /scientists and researchers working in the field of computational intelligence and artificial intelligence.

  6. Bio-tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowson, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    It is now forty six years since the separate topics of friction, lubrication, wear and bearing design were integrated under the title 'Tribology' [Department of Education and Science, Lubrication (Tribology) Education and Research. A Report on the Present Position and Industry's Needs, HMSO, London, 1966]. Significant developments have been reported in many established and new aspects of tribology during this period. The subject has contributed to improved performance of much familiar equipment, such as reciprocating engines, where there have been vast improvements in engine reliability and efficiency. Nano-tribology has been central to remarkable advances in information processing and digital equipment. Shortly after widespread introduction of the term tribology, integration with biology and medicine prompted rapid and extensive interest in the fascinating sub-field now known as Bio-tribology [D. Dowson and V. Wright, Bio-tribology, in The Rheology of Lubricants, ed. T. C. Davenport, Applied Science Publishers, Barking, 1973, pp. 81-88]. An outline will be given of some of the developments in the latter field.

  7. Mussel inspired protein-mediated surface modification to electrospun fibers and their potential biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingwei; Michael, Praveesuda Lorwattanapongsa; Zhong, Shaoping; Ma, Bing; MacEwan, Matthew R; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2012-04-01

    Mussel inspired proteins have been demonstrated to serve as a versatile biologic adhesive with numerous applications. The present study illustrates the use of such Mussel inspired proteins (polydopamine) in the fabrication of functionalized bio-inspired nanomaterials capable of both improving cell response and sustained delivery of model probes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis confirmed the ability of dopamine to polymerize on the surface of plasma-treated, electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber mats to form polydopamine coating. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that self-polymerization of dopamine was induced by pH shift and that the thickness of polydopamine coating was readily modulated by adjusting the concentration of dopamine and reaction time. Polydopamine coatings were noted to affect the mechanical properties of underlying fiber mats, as mechanical testing demonstrated a decrease in elasticity and increase in stiffness of polydopamine-coated fiber mats. Polydopamine coatings were also utilized to effectively immobilize extracellular matrix proteins (i.e., fibronectin) on the surface of polydopamine-coated, electrospun fibers, resulting in enhancement of NIH3T3 cell attachment, spreading, and cytoskeletal development. Comparison of release rates of rhodamine 6G encapsulated in coated and uncoated PCL fibers also confirmed that polydopamine coatings modulate the release rate of loaded payloads. The authors further demonstrate the significant difference of rhodamine 6G adsorption kinetics in water between PCL fibers and polydopamine-coated PCL fibers. Taken together, polydopamine-mediated surface modification to electrospun fibers may be an effective means of fabricating a wide range of bio-inspired nanomaterials with unique properties for use in tissue engineering, drug delivery, and advanced biomedical applications.

  8. Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2015-09-01

    Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould.

  9. What is BioOne?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Roberta Bronson

    2005-01-01

    BioOne is a Web-based aggregation of full-text, high-impact bioscience research journals. Most of its titles are published by small societies or non-commercial publishers and have not been previously available in electronic format. This column describes the BioOne database and gives some basic information about the best ways to search its content.

  10. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald N

    2012-10-23

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  11. Bio-threat microparticle simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquar, George Roy; Leif, Roald

    2014-09-16

    A bio-threat simulant that includes a carrier and DNA encapsulated in the carrier. Also a method of making a simulant including the steps of providing a carrier and encapsulating DNA in the carrier to produce the bio-threat simulant.

  12. Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

  13. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  14. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  15. La maturità di INSPIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Salvemini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INPIRE's maturityThe INSPIRE Conference 2010 took place from 23 to 25 June 2010 in Kraków, Poland. On 22 June pre-conference workshops have been organized. The theme of this year’s edition has been "INSPIRE as a Framework for Cooperation".The INSPIRE Conference has been organised through a series of plenary sessions addressing common policy issues, and parallel sessions focusing in particular on applications and implementations of SDIs, research issues and new and evolvingtechnologies and applications and poster presentations.

  16. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  17. Nature-inspired computing for control systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book presents recent advances in nature-inspired computing, giving a special emphasis to control systems applications. It reviews different techniques used for simulating physical, chemical, biological or social phenomena at the purpose of designing robust, predictive and adaptive control strategies. The book is a collection of several contributions, covering either more general approaches in control systems, or methodologies for control tuning and adaptive controllers, as well as exciting applications of nature-inspired techniques in robotics. On one side, the book is expected to motivate readers with a background in conventional control systems to try out these powerful techniques inspired by nature. On the other side, the book provides advanced readers with a deeper understanding of the field and a broad spectrum of different methods and techniques. All in all, the book is an outstanding, practice-oriented reference guide to nature-inspired computing addressing graduate students, researchers and practi...

  18. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  19. Towards gecko-feet-inspired bandages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    A novel bandage inspired by gecko feet might one day be used during emergencies and internal surgeries. The bandage uses a combination of nanofabricated structures, biodegradable materials and adhesive surface chemistry that allows adhesion onto even wet, moving tissue.

  20. Role of Inspiration in Creating Textile Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawer Sabir Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In design-making process, Source of inspiration has a vital role, both in defining the characteristics of a new design and in informing the creation of a distinct design. This study was based on the idea to promote creative and original textile designs by using a source of inspiration. The purpose of the study was to create some original and innovative designs for textiles by using natural paintings of William Morris as an inspiration and incorporating modern elements in the design. Several designs were made and three were selected that were innovative and suitable for textile designing. This study marks the significance of a source of inspiration in textile designing.